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Sample records for adult reproductive function

  1. The effects of perinatal tebuconazole exposure on adult neurological, immunological, and reproductive function in rats.

    PubMed

    Moser, V C; Barone, S; Smialowicz, R J; Harris, M W; Davis, B J; Overstreet, D; Mauney, M; Chapin, R E

    2001-08-01

    Studies are under way to address concerns of potential persistent immunotoxic, reproductive, and neurotoxic effects of perinatal exposure to several pesticides. Tebuconazole, a triazole fungicide, was evaluated as part of this project. Sprague-Dawley dams were administered tebuconazole (0, 6, 20, or 60 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily from gestational day 14 to postnatal day (PND)7; the pups were then dosed daily at the same levels from PND7-42. Separate groups of rats were used for testing of immunological parameters, neurobehavioral testing using a screening battery of functional tests, and cognitive evaluations. Other groups of rats were evaluated for reproductive development and function, while yet others were sacrificed at the end of the dosing period for histological analyses of major organs systems, including neuropathological assessments. Pup viability and body weight were decreased in the highest dose group. There were no differences in the fertility indices in the exposed rats mated as adults. In the sheep RBC-immunized high-dose rats, spleen weights and cellularity were increased, and the ratio of cell types was altered compared to controls. There were, however, no biologically significant changes in the immune function of these rats. At necropsy on PND46 or 152, kidney, liver, and spleen weights were altered by tebuconazole treatment, but a dose-response relationship was not clear for most organs; only decreased kidney and increased liver weights were consistent in both sexes. Histological analyses were generally unremarkable outside of the brain. One month after the end of dosing, acquisition of learning the platform location in a water tank (i.e., Morris water maze) was impaired in the high-dose group; there were no differences in neuromuscular ability, motor activity, or swim speed to account for this finding. Furthermore, there was no effect on recall of the position during a free-swim trial. Neuropathological evaluations revealed pyknotic cells across

  2. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-11-09

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility.

  3. Excessive dietary calcium in the disruption of structural and functional status of adult male reproductive system in rat with possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    K Chandra, Amar; Sengupta, Pallav; Goswami, Haimanti; Sarkar, Mahitosh

    2012-05-01

    Calcium is essential for functioning of different systems including male reproduction. However, it has also been reported as chemo-castrative agent. The study has been undertaken to elucidate the effect of excessive dietary calcium on male reproductive system in animals with possible action. Adult male healthy rats fed CaCl(2) at different doses (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g%) in diet for 13 and 26 days to investigate reproductive parameters as well as the markers of oxidative stress. Significant alteration was found (P < 0.05) in testicular and accessory sex organs weight, epididymal sperm count, testicular steroidogenic enzyme (Δ(5) 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD) activities, serum testosterone, LH, FSH, LPO, activities of antioxidant enzymes, testicular histoarchitecture along with adrenal Δ(5) 3β-HSD activity with corticosterone level in dose- and time-dependent manner. Overall observations suggest that excessive dietary calcium enhances the generation of free-radicals resulting in structural and functional disruption of male reproduction.

  4. The Effects of a Single Developmentally Entrained Pulse of Testosterone in Female Neonatal Mice on Reproductive and Metabolic Functions in Adult Life.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyeran; Bhasin, Shalender; Guarneri, Tyler; Serra, Carlo; Schneider, Mary; Lee, Mi-Jeong; Guo, Wen; Fried, Susan K; Pencina, Karol; Jasuja, Ravi

    2015-10-01

    Early postnatal exposures to sex steroids have been well recognized to modulate predisposition to diseases of adulthood. There is a complex interplay between timing, duration and dose of endocrine exposures through environmental or dietary sources that may alter the sensitivity of target tissues to the exogenous stimuli. In this study, we determined the metabolic and reproductive programming effects of a single developmentally entrained pulse of testosterone (T) given to female mice in early postnatal period. CD-1 female mice pups were injected with either 5 μg of T enanthate (TE) or vehicle (control [CON] group) within 24 hours after birth and followed to adult age. A total of 66% of T-treated mice exhibited irregular cycling, anovulatory phenotype, and significantly higher ovarian weights than vehicle-treated mice. Longitudinal nuclear magnetic resonance measurements revealed that TE group had greater body weight, whole-body lean, and fat mass than the CON group. Adipose tissue cellularity analysis in TE group revealed a trend toward higher size and number than their littermate CONs. The brown adipose tissue of TE mice exhibited white fat infiltration with down-regulation of several markers, including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor, α-subunit-like effector A, bone morphogenetic protein 7 as well as brown adipose tissue differentiation-related transcription regulators. T-injected mice were also more insulin resistant than CON mice. These reproductive and metabolic reprogramming effects were not observed in animals exposed to TE at 3 and 6 weeks of age. Collectively, these data suggest that sustained reproductive and metabolic alterations may result in female mice from a transient exposure to T during a narrow postnatal developmental window.

  5. Pituitary function following treatment with reproductive toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.L.; Goldman, J.M.; Rehnberg, G.L.

    1986-12-01

    Appropriate regulation of reproductive processes are dependent upon the integrity of pituitary function. In this selected review, the authors evaluate the evidence that certain environmental compounds exert their effect on reproductive function via a direct action on the pituitary gland. They also discuss examples of changes in pituitary hormone secretion that occur in response to changes in neuronal or gonadal control of the pituitary. A limited number of studies suggest that measures of pituitary hormone secretion provide an early and sensitive measure of a compound's potential effects on the reproductive system. However, the most striking aspect of this area is the sparse and inconsistent information describing pituitary function following exposure to environmental pollutants.

  6. Notch signalling mediates reproductive constraint in the adult worker honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Hyink, Otto; Dearden, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark of eusociality is the reproductive division of labour, in which one female caste reproduces, while reproduction is constrained in the subordinate caste. In adult worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) reproductive constraint is conditional: in the absence of the queen and brood, adult worker honeybees activate their ovaries and lay haploid male eggs. Here, we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of Notch signalling can overcome the repressive effect of queen pheromone and promote ovary activity in adult worker honeybees. We show that Notch signalling acts on the earliest stages of oogenesis and that the removal of the queen corresponds with a loss of Notch protein in the germarium. We conclude that the ancient and pleiotropic Notch signalling pathway has been co-opted into constraining reproduction in worker honeybees and we provide the first molecular mechanism directly linking ovary activity in adult worker bees with the presence of the queen. PMID:27485026

  7. Endocrine remodelling of the adult intestine sustains reproduction in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Reiff, Tobias; Jacobson, Jake; Cognigni, Paola; Antonello, Zeus; Ballesta, Esther; Tan, Kah Junn; Yew, Joanne Y; Dominguez, Maria; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The production of offspring is energetically costly and relies on incompletely understood mechanisms that generate a positive energy balance. In mothers of many species, changes in key energy-associated internal organs are common yet poorly characterised functionally and mechanistically. In this study, we show that, in adult Drosophila females, the midgut is dramatically remodelled to enhance reproductive output. In contrast to extant models, organ remodelling does not occur in response to increased nutrient intake and/or offspring demands, but rather precedes them. With spatially and temporally directed manipulations, we identify juvenile hormone (JH) as an anticipatory endocrine signal released after mating. Acting through intestinal bHLH-PAS domain proteins Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and Germ cell-expressed (Gce), JH signals directly to intestinal progenitors to yield a larger organ, and adjusts gene expression and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) activity in enterocytes to support increased lipid metabolism. Our findings identify a metabolically significant paradigm of adult somatic organ remodelling linking hormonal signals, epithelial plasticity, and reproductive output. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06930.001 PMID:26216039

  8. Amodiaquine-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yan-Ru; Wei, Bing; Chen, Bi; Xu, Li-Hua; Jing, Xia; Peng, Cai-Ling; Ma, Tian-Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Amodiaquine (AQ) is routinely prescribed as an anti-malarial drug. Here, we evaluated AQ-induced toxicity in the male reproductive system. Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups that received distilled water (control) or daily doses of 5 mg/kg body weight, 10 mg/kg, or 15 mg/kg AQ for 2 weeks. Testes morphology was analyzed using hematoxylin-and-eosin staining, terminal dUTP nicked-end labeling (TUNEL), and immunostaining whereas protein expression was determined by Western blotting. AQ dose-dependently led to abnormal spermatogenesis. Disruption of the blood-testis barrier and increased germ cell apoptosis were observed in all three AQ-treated groups. Interestingly, AQ-induced damage of spermatogenesis recovered over time, based on the survival of promyelocytic leukemia zinc-finger (PLZF)-positive, undifferentiated spermatogonia. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone, as well as testicular testosterone levels, were not significantly altered in AQ-treated groups compared with controls. Collectively, our study suggests that AQ exerts substantial acute side effects on the reproductive systems of adult male rats by inducing the apoptosis of differentiating spermatogenic cells and disruption of blood-testis barrier function.

  9. Bender-Gestalt reproduction times for retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Andert, J N; Hustak, T L; Dinning, W D

    1978-10-01

    Examined the length of time required by retarded adults to complete the Bender-Gestalt test with a sample of 241 test administrations. In order to provide for normative comparisons among retarded adults, descriptive data are presented on the Bender reproduction times of adults in three AAMD ranges of retardation based on WAIS IQs and two ranges based on Stanford-Binet IQs. Negative correlations were found between the length of Bender times and the degree of retardation. The duration of Bender times was correlated positively with the number of errors in reproduction as measured by the Koppitz developmental scoring system.

  10. Association between phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of reproductive function in 1066 Chinese men of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yitao; Jing, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Yao, Qi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Hongxia; Yao, Bing; Dai, Jiayin

    2015-12-30

    Phthalates are suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals that impair male reproductive function in animal and epidemiological studies. We investigated associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and acrosin activity, along with that between insulin like-factor 3 (INSL3), a Leydig cell function marker, in Chinese adult men and assessed the association between the metabolites and male reproductive function. Serum levels of INSL3 and other hormones, semen parameters, and urinary concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites in 1066 men were measured. The unadjusted concentrations of phthalates were included as independent variables and urinary creatinine as a separate covariate. INSL3 was negatively associated with mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and %MEHP [percentage of MEHP to all di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites]. Acrosin activity was negatively associated with mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), MEHP and %MEHP. MBP and MiBP were also negatively associated with total testosterone (T), free androgen index (FAI), free testosterone (FT), luteinizing hormone (LH) and sperm morphology and positively associated with DNA fragmentation index (DFI). A negative association between %MEHP and sperm motility was observed. Several other metabolites were also associated with reproductive function. This is the first report on the inverse associations of phthalate metabolites with acrosin activity and INSL3. Phthalates may cause multiple adverse results on reproductive function at environmental levels.

  11. Pituitary function following treatment with reproductive toxins.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, R L; Goldman, J M; Rehnberg, G L

    1986-01-01

    Appropriate regulation of reproductive processes are dependent upon the integrity of pituitary function. In this selected review, we evaluate the evidence that certain environmental compounds exert their effect on reproductive function via a direct action on the pituitary gland. We also discuss examples of changes in pituitary hormone secretion that occur in response to changes in neuronal or gonadal control of the pituitary. A limited number of studies suggest that measures of pituitary hormone secretion provide an early and sensitive measure of a compound's potential effects on the reproductive system. However, the most striking aspect of this area is the sparse and inconsistent information describing pituitary function following exposure to environmental pollutants. PMID:3830104

  12. Prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Evans, Neil P; Bellingham, Michelle; Robinson, Jane E

    2016-07-01

    It is now well recognized that the gestational environment can have long-lasting effects not only on the life span and health span of an individual but also, through potential epigenetic changes, on future generations. This article reviews the "prenatal programming" of the neuroendocrine systems that regulate reproduction, with a specific focus on the lessons learned using ovine models. The review examines the critical roles played by steroids in normal reproductive development before considering the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens, the effects of maternal nutrition and stress during gestation, and the effects of exogenous chemicals such as alcohol and environment chemicals. In so doing, it becomes evident that, to maximize fitness, the regulation of reproduction has evolved to be responsive to many different internal and external cues and that the GnRH neurosecretory system expresses a degree of plasticity throughout life. During fetal life, however, the system is particularly sensitive to change and at this time, the GnRH neurosecretory system can be "shaped" both to achieve normal sexually differentiated function but also in ways that may adversely affect or even prevent "normal function". The exact mechanisms through which these programmed changes are brought about remain largely uncharacterized but are likely to differ depending on the factor, the timing of exposure to that factor, and the species. It would appear, however, that some afferent systems to the GnRH neurons such as kisspeptin, may be critical in this regard as it would appear to be sensitive to a wide variety of factors that can program reproductive function. Finally, it has been noted that the prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function can be associated with epigenetic changes, which would suggest that in addition to direct effects on the exposed offspring, prenatal programming could have transgenerational effects on

  13. The amplitude of nocturnal melatonin concentrations is not decreased by oestradiol and does not alter reproductive function in adolescent or adult female rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M E; Lackey, S; Chikazawa, K; Gordon, T P

    1993-05-01

    Nocturnal concentrations of melatonin in serum decline significantly with advancing pubertal development in both children and non-human primates and elevated levels may be associated with anovulation in adults. Three studies, using female rhesus monkeys, were performed to determine whether (1) the decline in nocturnal melatonin concentrations in adolescents was due to maturational increases in serum oestradiol, (2) the experimental elevation in nocturnal melatonin would delay the normal progression of puberty in post-menarchial monkeys, and (3) the experimental elevation in nocturnal melatonin would disrupt normal ovulatory function in adults. In experiment 1, juvenile female rhesus monkeys, housed indoors in a fixed photoperiod (12 h light:12 h darkness), were assigned randomly to one of two treatment groups: ovariectomized with no replacement therapy (control; n = 4) or ovariectomized with oestradiol replacement therapy maintaining oestradiol at approximately 90 pmol/l (treated; n = 8). Twenty-four hour as well as daytime serum samples were collected from 19 to 35 months of age. Nocturnal melatonin concentrations declined significantly in all females with advancing chronological age and this change was unaffected by oestradiol treatment. The decline in nocturnal melatonin concentrations occurred, on average, 2.0 +/- 0.2 months after the initial rise in serum LH in control females and 6.0 +/- 0.8 months in treated females. Furthermore, this decline in night-time melatonin was not related to significant developmental changes in body weight. In experiment 2, control (n = 6) and melatonin-treated (treated; n = 6) adolescent female monkeys were studied from -30 to +105 days from menarche. Beginning at 45 days following menarche, treated females received 30 days of nocturnal melatonin infusion to elevate levels to prepubertal values. Developmental changes in perineal swelling and coloration as well as serum oestradiol and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were

  14. Aging, mitochondria and male reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Sandra; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2009-12-01

    The rise in life expectancy over the last century, together with higher maternal and paternal ages and have highlighted the issue of reduced fertility with advancing age. Aging of the male reproductive system is incited by multi-factorial changes at molecular, cellular and regulatory levels, and individual characteristics are highly variable, although strongly influenced by lifestyle and environmental factors. Damage accumulated with age leads to progressive deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and of local auto/paracrine interactions, thereby inducing changes in target organs such as the testis, penis and prostate. Elderly human males produce less testosterone, have fewer motile sperm and a higher incidence of erectile dysfunction and prostate disorders, all of which contribute to lower fertility. Cellular aging can manifest itself at several levels. Aging cells progressively accumulate "waste" products, resulting in a decreased functionally. Changes to mitochondria are among the most remarkable features observed in aging cells and several theories place mitochondria at the hub of cellular events related to aging, namely in terms of the accumulation of oxidative damage to cells and tissues, a process in which these organelles may play a prominent role, although alternative theories have also emerged. Furthermore, mitochondrial energy metabolism is also crucial for male reproductive function and mitochondria may therefore constitute a common link between aging and fertility loss.

  15. An egg-adult association, gender, and reproduction in pterosaurs.

    PubMed

    Lü, Junchang; Unwin, David M; Deeming, D Charles; Jin, Xingsheng; Liu, Yongqing; Ji, Qiang

    2011-01-21

    A sexually mature individual of Darwinopterus preserved together with an egg from the Jurassic of China provides direct evidence of gender in pterosaurs and insights into the reproductive biology of these extinct fliers. This new find and several other examples of Darwinopterus demonstrate that males of this pterosaur had a relatively small pelvis and a large cranial crest, whereas females had a relatively large pelvis and no crest. The ratio of egg mass to adult mass is relatively low, as in extant reptiles, and is comparable to values for squamates. A parchment-like eggshell points to burial and significant uptake of water after oviposition. This evidence for low parental investment contradicts the widespread assumption that reproduction in pterosaurs was like that of birds and shows that it was essentially like that of reptiles.

  16. Influence of epididymitis on reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Durglishvili, G; Galdava, G

    2013-02-01

    In our study 54 patients were diagnosed epididymitis caused by STI and in 6 (11.1%) cases inflammatory process spread on seminal vesicles which negatively affected the state of male reproductive function. After having unilateral epididymitis pathospermia developed in 76% of cases and infertility - in 55.6%. In patients who had unilateral acute epididymitis, infertility caused by urethritis of chlamidial aetiology developed in 70.4% of cases, infertility caused by urethritis of mycoplasmatic (ureaplasma) genesis - in 62.9% of cases and infertility caused by gonorrheal urethritis - in 29.6% of cases. At this moment following alterations of ejaculate are revealed: volume reduction, decrease in spermatozoid number, reduction of ability to move, increase in teratomatous forms, spermagglutination, etc. The best way for prevention of pathospermia and infertility is using modern and adequate treatment methods directed to maximally effective suppression of acute inflammatory process in epididymis and then restoration of its functions.

  17. Adult Functional Competency: A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Div. of Extension.

    The Adult Performance Level (APL) project summary specifies the competencies which are functional to economic and educational success in society and describes devices developed for assessing those competencies. The APL theory of functional competency identifies adult needs in general knowledge areas (consumer economics, occupational knowledge,…

  18. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and reproductive hormones in adult sons.

    PubMed

    Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Thulstrup, A M; Olsen, J; Ernst, E; Andersen, C Y; Bonde, J P

    2008-12-01

    Smoking during pregnancy has been reported to alter levels of reproductive hormones in adult sons. From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, 347 out of 5109 sons were selected according to their exposure to tobacco smoke in foetal life. From February 2005 to January 2006, a blood sample from each young man (18-21 years) was collected and analysed for reproductive hormones. There were no apparent trends of increasing or decreasing hormonal levels with increased exposure to maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy. Only the free testosterone/free estradiol ratios increased with increased maternal smoking during pregnancy (p for trend = 0.05). No trends for increasing odds ratios for high follicle-stimulating hormone (> or =25 percentile) or low inhibin B (< or =25 percentile) in relation to maternal smoking were observed. We found no major indication of long-term effects of pre-natal exposure to tobacco smoke on the levels of reproductive hormones later in life, but the data may suggest a shift in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis towards higher androgenicity. This result was, however, of only borderline significance and could be because of chance.

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETHINYLESTRADIOL-MEDIATED CHANGES IN ENDOCRINE FUNCTION AND REPRODUCTION IMPAIRMENT IN JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many biochemical endpoints currently are used to describe endocrine function in fish; however, the sensitivity of these parameters as biomarkers of impaired reproduction or sexual development is not well understood. In the present study, adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) we...

  20. Reproductive ecology of Emperor Geese: Survival of adult females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Margaret R.

    1992-01-01

    Life history theory predicts a decrease in survival with increased reproductive effort of individuals. This relationship, however, is highly variable among and within species. I studied the nesting success and survival of adult female Emperor Geese during 1982-1986 and found no direct evidence that differential reproductive effort as measured by the number of eggs laid or hatching success had a significant negative effect on survival to the next breeding season. Incubated clutch size, hatched clutch size, number of parasitic eggs, nest initiation date, hatch date, and mass at hatch were not related to subsequent survival. Of the factors I examined, only an attempt to nest the previous season was related to survival of a female. I suggest that the higher probability of survival among non-nesting adult female Emperor Geese was primarily related to hunting pressure on the nesting area between spring and fall migration. The probability of survival was increased for females with larger clutches, suggesting a positive relationship between brood size and survival.

  1. Diabetes mellitus induced impairment of male reproductive functions: a review.

    PubMed

    Jangir, Ram Niwas; Jain, Gyan Chand

    2014-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents one of the greatest threats to human health all over the world. The incidence of DM is rising rapidly also including children and young persons of reproductive age. Diabetes has been associated with reproductive impairment in both men and women. Diabetes may affect male reproductive functions at multiple levels as a result of its effects on the endocrine control of spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, sperm maturation, impairment of penile erection and ejaculation. A large number of studies both on diabetic men and experimental diabetic animals have been published on the impact of DM on male reproductive functions during the past few years but many of them have conflicting results. The present review summarizes the research finding of a large number of research papers on the reproductive functions especially on hypothalmo-pituitary-gonadal axis, spermatogenesis, histopathology of testis, synthesis and secretion of testosterone, sperm quality, ejaculatory function and fertility both in diabetic men and experimental diabetic animals.

  2. Effects of sediment remediation on reproductive function in English sole from Eagle Harbor, WA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Sol, S.Y.; Lomax, D.P.; Myers, M.S.; Collier, T.K.

    1995-12-31

    Eagle Harbor, near Bainbridge Island in Puget Sound, WA is currently designated as an EPA Superfund site because of high levels of creosote-derived PAHs in the sediments. In 1986--88, the authors conducted a series of studies evaluating reproductive function in English sole from Eagle Harbor. These studies showed that only about 60% of adult female sole from the Eagle Harbor site entered vitellogenesis, in comparison to 80--90% of females of comparable age and size from minimally contaminated Puget Sound sites. Eagle Harbor fish also exhibited reduced spawning success and lowered egg viability in comparison to fish from unpolluted sites. Both types of reproductive function were associated with depressed plasma levels of reproductive steroids (e.g. 17-B estradiol) in Eagle Harbor fish. In September of 1993 the EPA began placement of a cap of uncontaminated sediment over the most contaminated portions of Eagle Harbor, as a means of providing clean habitat for benthic organisms and reducing risk from the contaminants contained in the sediments. Since the time of capping, the authors have been monitoring reproductive development in English sole and related benthic flatfish to determine whether this restoration will result in improved reproductive success in the resident flatfish of Eagle Harbor. Preliminary results indicate that the proportion of maturing females has increased to approximately 75%. Other reproductive parameters, including plasma steroid hormone concentration and ovarian atresia, are currently being assessed. Nonetheless, the initial data suggest that sediment remediation is associated with improved reproductive function in Eagle Harbor bottom fish.

  3. [Hormonal stimulation of reproductive function in swine].

    PubMed

    Hladkova, A I

    1993-01-01

    Industrial conditions, gynaecological disorders, ovarian deficiency being unfavourable factors for pigs reproduction, as well as the necessity in rapid sex maturation require thorough knowledge on physiology of reproduction processes. The importance belongs to the hormonal treatment in development of special biotechnological methods. Efficiency of the latter is determined by the kind of hormone used, its dose, injection time in sex cycle and the knowledge of species specificity of physiological regulation of reproductive processes in pigs of great value. The achievements in this country and abroad, devoted to the technology of oestrogens, gestagens, androgens and their combinations as well as gonadotropins (PMS, CG), gonadotropin-releasing hormone applications have been reviewed. The most often used schemes of hormonal treatment and drugs, as well as the results obtained have been described. The data presented can be used for needs of practical cattle-breeding.

  4. Adverse effects of bisphenol A on male reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Manfo, Faustin Pascal Tsagué; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Nantia, Edouard Akono; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

    2014-01-01

    BPA is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, resulting mainly from manufacturing,use or disposal of plastics of which it is a component, and the degradation of industrial plastic-related wastes. Growing evidence from research on laboratory animals, wildlife, and humans supports the view that BPA produces an endocrine disrupting effect and adversely affects male reproductive function. To better understand the adverse effects caused by exposure to BPA, we performed an up-to-date literature review on the topic, with particular emphasis on in utero exposure, and associated effects on spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, and accessory organs.BPA studies on experimental animals show that effects are generally more detrimental during in utero exposure, a critical developmental stage for the embryo. BPA has been found to produce several defects in the embryo, such as feminization of male fetuses, atrophy of the testes and epididymides, increased prostate size, shortening of AGD, disruption of BTB, and alteration of adult sperm parameters (e.g.,sperm count, motility, and density). BPA also affects embryo thyroid development.During the postnatal and pubertal periods and adulthood, BPA affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis by modulating hormone (e.g., LH and FSH,androgen and estrogen) synthesis, expression and function of respective receptors(ER, AR). These effects alter sperm parameters. BPA also induces oxidative stress in the testis and epididymis, by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes and stimulating lipid peroxidation. This suggests that employing antioxidants may be a promising strategy to relieve BPA-induced disturbances.Epidemiological studies have also provided data indicating that BPA alters male reproductive function in humans. These investigations revealed that men occupationally exposed to BPA had high blood/urinary BPA levels, and abnormal semen parameters. BPA-exposed men also showed reduced libido and erectile ejaculatory difficulties; moreover, the

  5. Fetal programming of sexual development and reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Elena; Guzmán, Carolina; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Nathanielsz, Peter W

    2014-01-25

    The recent growth of interest in developmental programming of physiological systems has generally focused on the cardiovascular system (especially hypertension) and predisposition to metabolic dysfunction (mainly obesity and diabetes). However, it is now clear that the full range of altered offspring phenotypes includes impaired reproductive function. In rats, sheep and nonhuman primates, reproductive capacity is altered by challenges experienced during critical periods of development. This review will examine available experimental evidence across commonly studied experimental species for developmental programming of female and male reproductive function throughout an individual's life-course. It is necessary to consider events that occur during fetal development, early neonatal life and prior to and during puberty, during active reproductive life and aging as reproductive performance declines.

  6. Sensivity of Adult Reproduction and Reproductive Development in Japanese Medaka Exposed to 4-Tert-octylphenol

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to legislation, the USEPA is developing assessment tools for identifying chemicals likely to cause sublethal effects on reproduction and reproductive development with ultimate adverse impacts on fish populations. While fecundity and fertility data from short-term adul...

  7. Contraception, communication and counseling for sexuality and reproductive health in adolescents and young adults with CF.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Anna; Moriarty, Carmel; Towns, Susan

    2010-06-01

    With survival now into the fourth decade and rapid growth of the adolescent and adult population of people with cystic fibrosis CF sexual and reproductive health issues are integral to the management of adolescents and adults with CF. Education and counseling for sexual health related issues must be included in the daily routine of CF care. With advances in genetic counseling, contraception, assisted reproductive technology and collaborative management adolescents and young adults with CF realizing their sexual and reproductive potentials safely and realistically can be possible .

  8. Anatomy of adult female common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) reproductive system.

    PubMed Central

    Cui, K H; Matthews, C D

    1994-01-01

    Better appreciation of the female reproductive anatomy of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) should improve the prospects for nonsurgical embryo transfer in this model. Vaginal measurements were performed in 8 female adult marmoset monkeys. Four monkeys were measured at laparotomy for gross internal anatomy, and 1 monkey was analysed at autopsy. The vagina of the marmoset monkey was found to be divided into a lower and upper vagina with a marked vaginal isthmus between them. The mean lengths of the lower and upper vagina were 17 mm (34 mm in total vagina). The mean uterine size was 8.4 (length) x 10.0 (width) x 6.4 (thickness) mm, with the ovary measuring 5.3 x 4.3 x 3.8 mm. The mean length of the fallopian tube was 10.5 mm with a width of 1.5 mm. Nonsurgical embryo transfer in this model appears to be feasible, but the proportionally long vagina and short uterine cavity needs to be recognised. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7649784

  9. Individual and combined effect of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin on reproductive system of adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Alaa-Eldin, Eman Ahmad; El-Shafei, Dalia Abdallah; Abouhashem, Nehal S

    2017-01-01

    Commercial mixtures of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin pesticides are widely used to enhance the toxic effects of cypermethrin on target insects. So, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the individual and combined toxic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and cypermethrin (CYP) on reproductive system of adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were randomized into main four groups: group I (control group) included 16 rats, subdivided into negative and positive control; group II (eight rats) received chlorpyrifos 6.75 mg/kg b.w./orally∕daily); group III (eight rats) (received cypermethrin 12.5 mg/kg b.w./orally∕daily); and group IV (eight rats) (received chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin at the same previously mentioned doses). All treatments were given by oral gavage for 12 weeks. We found that single CPF and CYP exposures significantly have adverse effects on reproductive function of adult male albino rats manifested by reduced testicular weight, decreased sperm count, motility and viability, significantly increased percent of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa, and significant increments in sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) with respect to control group. Furthermore, serum follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone levels were decreased significantly compared to control group. This was accompanied with histopathological changes in the testis of rats such as necrosis, degeneration, decreasing number of spermatogenic cells in some seminiferous tubules, edema, congested blood vessels, and exudate in interstitial tissue of the testis. Notably, all these changes were exaggerated in rats treated concomitantly with chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin rendering the mixture more toxic than the additive effects of each compound and causing greater damage on the reproductive system of male albino rats than the individual pesticides.

  10. The role of early life nutrition in programming of reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Chadio, S; Kotsampasi, B

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that the concept of programming can also be applied to reproductive development and function, representing an ever expanding research area. Recently issues such as peri- or even preconceptional nutrition, transgenerational effects and underlying mechanisms have received considerable attention. The present chapter presents the existed evidence and reviews the available data from numerous animal and human studies on the effects of early life nutritional environment on adult reproductive function. Specific outcomes depend on the severity, duration and stage of development when nutritional perturbations are imposed, while sex-specific effects are also manifested. Apart from undernutrition, effects of relative overnutrition as well as the complex interactions between pre- and postnatal nutrition is of high importance, especially in the context of our days obesity epidemic. Mechanisms underlying reproductive programming are yet unclear, but may include a role for epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic modulation of critical genes involved in the control of reproductive function and potential intergenerational effects represent an exciting area of interdisciplinary research toward the development of new nutritional approaches during pre- and postnatal periods to ensure reproductive health in later life.

  11. Salt intake and reproductive function in sheep.

    PubMed

    Digby, S N; Chadwick, M A; Blache, D

    2011-06-01

    Producers have the possibility to combat human-induced dryland salinity by planting salt-tolerant plants such as saltbush. Saltbush has the potential to be used as a source of food for livestock at a time and place where pasture is not viable. However, saltbush contains high concentrations of sodium chloride salt and some other anti-nutritional factors that have the potential to affect feed and water intake and, directly or indirectly, the reproductive capacity of sheep. High-salt diet during gestation induces a small modification of the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that has an important role in the maintenance of the salt-water balance in non-pregnant and pregnant sheep. In contrast, the main effect of salt ingestion during pregnancy is observed on the biology of the offspring, with changes in the response of the RAS to salt ingestion and altered thirst threshold in response to an oral salt ingestion. These changes, observed later in life, are the result of fetal programming following the ingestion of salt by the mother. It seems that the exposure to salt during pregnancy could provide an advantage to the offspring because of this adaptive response. The response may be particularly useful, for example, when grazing herbivores are fed halophytic forages adapted to saline soils.

  12. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lu; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Dayong; Hu, Ke; Lu, Weiqi; Wei, Chao; Liang, Geyu; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-01-01

    Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and lowered etradiol (E2) serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T) diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions. PMID:25407529

  13. Conservation of progesterone hormone function in invertebrate reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Stout, E. Paige; La Clair, James J.; Snell, Terry W.; Shearer, Tonya L.; Kubanek, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Steroids play fundamental roles regulating mammalian reproduction and development. Although sex steroids and their receptors are well characterized in vertebrates and several arthropod invertebrates, little is known about the hormones and receptors regulating reproduction in other invertebrate species. Evolutionary insights into ancient endocrine pathways can be gained by elucidating the hormones and receptors functioning in invertebrate reproduction. Using a combination of genomic analyses, receptor imaging, ligand identification, target elucidation, and exploration of function through receptor knockdown, we now show that comparable progesterone chemoreception exists in the invertebrate monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas, suggesting an ancient origin of the signal transduction systems commonly associated with the development and integration of sexual behavior in mammals. PMID:20547846

  14. Young adult donor bone marrow infusions into female mice postpone age-related reproductive failure and improve offspring survival.

    PubMed

    Selesniemi, Kaisa; Lee, Ho-Joon; Niikura, Teruko; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2008-11-14

    The female reproductive axis is the first major organ system of the body to fail with advancing age. In addition to a permanent cessation of fertile potential, the loss of cyclic ovarian function in humans heralds the onset of menopause, which in turn underlies the emergence of a diverse spectrum of health issues in aging women. Recently, it was reported that bone marrow (BM) transplantation (BMT) into adult female mice conditioned a week earlier with highly cytotoxic drugs rescues ovarian function and fertility. Herein we show in mice receiving no prior conditioning regimen that once-monthly infusions of BM-derived cells retrieved from young adult female donors bearing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgene sustain the fertile potential of aging wild-type females long past their time of normal reproductive senescence. The fertility-promoting effects of female donor BM are observed regardless whether the infusions are initiated in young adult or middle-aged females. Although the mechanism by which BM infusions benefit the reproductive performance of aging females remains to be elucidated, the absence of EGFP-expressing offspring suggests that it does not depend on development of mature eggs derived from germline-committed cells in the donor marrow. However, donor BM-derived somatic cells accumulate in the recipients, indicating efficient donor cell engraftment without prior conditioning. These findings provide a strong impetus to further explore development of adult stem cell-based technologies to safely extend function of the female reproductive axis into advanced age without the need for toxic pre-conditioning protocols routinely used in other models of stem cell delivery.

  15. Evaluation of Reproductive Function for Patients with Chronic Radiation Sickness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    on maternal and paternal side, labor traumas, developmental defects and deformities, diseases of newborns, immaturity, body weight and length, head...reproduction on which the birth of viable offspring depends implies normally functioning parental endocrine system, primarily gonadal glands, marriage...pathology among the offspring of exposed parents . Registration of genotypical manifestations of this pathology presents considerable difficulties both

  16. The SLIT-ROBO pathway: a regulator of cell function with implications for the reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Rachel E; Duncan, W Colin

    2010-04-01

    The secreted SLIT glycoproteins and their Roundabout (ROBO) receptors were originally identified as important axon guidance molecules. They function as a repulsive cue with an evolutionarily conserved role in preventing axons from migrating to inappropriate locations during the assembly of the nervous system. In addition the SLIT-ROBO interaction is involved in the regulation of cell migration, cell death and angiogenesis and, as such, has a pivotal role during the development of other tissues such as the lung, kidney, liver and breast. The cellular functions that the SLIT/ROBO pathway controls during tissue morphogenesis are processes that are dysregulated during cancer development. Therefore inactivation of certain SLITs and ROBOs is associated with advanced tumour formation and progression in disparate tissues. Recent research has indicated that the SLIT/ROBO pathway could also have important functions in the reproductive system. The fetal ovary expresses most members of the SLIT and ROBO families. The SLITs and ROBOs also appear to be regulated by steroid hormones and regulate physiological cell functions in adult reproductive tissues such as the ovary and endometrium. Furthermore several SLITs and ROBOs are aberrantly expressed during the development of ovarian, endometrial, cervical and prostate cancer. This review will examine the roles this pathway could have in the development, physiology and pathology of the reproductive system and highlight areas for future research that could further dissect the influence of the SLIT/ROBO pathway in reproduction.

  17. Seizures and reproductive function: insights from female rats with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Scharfman, Helen E.; Kim, Michelle; Hintz, Tana M.; MacLusky, Neil J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chronic seizures in women can have adverse effects on reproductive function, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), but it has been difficult to dissociate the effects of epilepsy per se from the role of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). To distinguish the effects of chronic seizures from AEDs, we used the laboratory rat, where an epileptic condition can be induced without concomitant AED treatment. METHODS Adult female rats were administered the chemoconvulsant pilocarpine to initiate status epilepticus (SE), which was decreased in severity by the anticonvulsant diazepam. These rats developed spontaneous seizures in the ensuing weeks, and are therefore termed “epileptic.” Controls were saline-treated rats, or animals that were injected with pilocarpine but did not develop SE. Ovarian cyclicity and weight gain were evaluated for 2-3 months. Serum hormone levels were assayed from trunk blood, collected at the time of death. Paraformaldehyde-fixed ovaries were evaluated quantitatively. RESULTS Rats that had pilocarpine-induced seizures had an increased incidence of acyclicity by the end of the study, even if SE did not occur. Ovarian cysts and weight gain were significantly greater in epileptic rats than controls, whether rats maintained cyclicity or not. Serum testosterone was elevated in epileptic rats, but estradiol, progesterone and prolactin were not. INTERPRETATIONS The results suggest that an epileptic condition in the rat leads to increased body weight, cystic ovaries and elevated testosterone levels. Although caution is required when comparing female rats to women, the data suggest that epilepsy per se may be sufficient to induce abnormalities in the control of the ovary. PMID:19107990

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Michelle W.M.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that male reproductive function is modulated via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. The MAPK cascade is involved in numerous male reproductive processes, including spermatogenesis, sperm maturation and activation, capacitation and acrosome reaction, before fertilization of the oocyte. In this review, we discuss the latest findings in this rapidly developing field regarding the role of MAPK in male reproduction in animal models and in human spermatozoa in vitro. This research will facilitate the design of future studies in humans, although much work is needed before this information can be used to manage male infertility and environmental toxicant-induced testicular injury in men, such as blood–testis-barrier disruption. PMID:19303360

  19. Geographic Variation in Adult Survival and Reproductive Tactics of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    LEISNHAM, P. T.; SALA, L. M.; JULIANO, S. A.

    2008-01-01

    Climate differences across latitude can result in seasonal constraints and selection on life history characters. Since Aedes albopictus (Skuse) invaded North America in the mid-1980s, it has spread across a range of ≈14° latitude and populations in the north experience complete adult mortality due to cold winter temperatures that are absent in the south. Life table experiments were conducted to test for differences in the adult survival and reproductive schedules of Ae. albopictus females from two populations from the northern (Bloomington, IN [BL] and Manassas, VA [VA]; ≈39° N) and southern (Tampa, FL and Fort Myers, FL; ≈27–28° N) extremes of the species distribution in North America. Regardless of population origin, age-specific hazard rate increased with reproductive output and decreased with number of bloodmeals. Larger females took fewer bloodmeals, and they had greater hazard rates than did smaller females. There were no consistent differences between northern versus southern populations in resource allocation between reproduction and maintenance, reproduction over time, and reproductive investment among offspring, suggesting that latitudinal variation in climate is probably not a main selective factor impinging on adult mortality and reproductive schedules. One possible effect of climate on geographic differences in life history was detected. BL had lower survivorship, lower lifetime reproductive output, and lower adult reproductive rate than did all other populations. This result may be an indirect result of lower egg survivorship due to the severity of winter in BL compared with other populations, including VA at approximately the same latitude. Such a scenario may make the BL population more prone to extinction, irregularly recolonized from more favorable sites, and thus more susceptible to founder effects, genetic drift, and inbreeding, resulting in lower mean values of fitness-related traits. PMID:18402136

  20. Macronutrient balance, reproductive function, and lifespan in aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M.; Walters, Kirsty A.; Simanainen, Ulla K.; McMahon, Aisling C.; Ruohonen, Kari; Ballard, John William O.; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    In invertebrates, reproductive output and lifespan are profoundly impacted by dietary macronutrient balance, with these traits achieving their maxima on different diet compositions, giving the appearance of a resource-based tradeoff between reproduction and longevity. For the first time in a mammal, to our knowledge, we evaluate the effects of dietary protein (P), carbohydrate (C), fat (F), and energy (E) on lifespan and reproductive function in aging male and female mice. We show that, as in invertebrates, the balance of macronutrients has marked and largely opposing effects on reproductive and longevity outcomes. Mice were provided ad libitum access to one of 25 diets differing in P, C, F, and E content, with reproductive outcomes assessed at 15 months. An optimal balance of macronutrients exists for reproductive function, which, for most measures, differs from the diets that optimize lifespan, and this response differs with sex. Maximal longevity was achieved on diets containing a P:C ratio of 1:13 in males and 1:11 for females. Diets that optimized testes mass and epididymal sperm counts (indicators of gamete production) contained a higher P:C ratio (1:1) than those that maximized lifespan. In females, uterine mass (an indicator of estrogenic activity) was also greatest on high P:C diets (1:1) whereas ovarian follicle number was greatest on P:C 3:1 associated with high-F intakes. By contrast, estrous cycling was more likely in mice on lower P:C (1:8), and the number of corpora lutea, indicative of recent ovulations, was greatest on P:C similar to those supporting greatest longevity (1:11). PMID:25733862

  1. Light pollution, reproductive function and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N

    2006-01-01

    At present, light pollution (exposure to light-at-night) both in the form of occupational exposure during night work and as a personal choice and life style, is experienced by numerous night-active members of our society. Disruption of the circadian rhythms induced by light pollution has been associated with cancer in humans. There are epidemiological evidences of increased breast and colon cancer risk in shift workers. An inhibition of the pineal gland function with exposure to the constant light (LL) regimen promoted carcinogenesis whereas the light deprivation inhibits the carcinogenesis. Treatment with pineal indole hormone melatonin inhibits carcinogenesis in pinealectomized rats or animals kept at the standard light/dark regimen (LD) or at the LL regimen. These observations might lead to use melatonin for cancer prevention in groups of humans at risk of light pollution.

  2. Effects of motor vehicle exhaust on male reproductive function and associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Rengaraj, Deivendran; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-02

    Air pollution is consistently associated with various diseases and subsequent death among children, adult, and elderly people worldwide. Motor vehicle exhaust contributes to a large proportion of the air pollution present. The motor vehicle exhaust systems emit a variety of toxic components, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, ozone, particulate matter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several epidemiological studies and laboratory studies have demonstrated that these components are potentially mutagenic, carcinogenic, and endocrine disrupting agents. However, their impact on male reproductive function and associated proteins is not very clear. Therefore, a comprehensive review on the effects of motor vehicle exhaust on male reproductive function and associated proteins is needed to better understand the risks of exhaust exposure for men. We found that motor vehicle exhaust can cause harmful effects on male reproductive functions by altering organ weights, reducing the spermatozoa qualities, and inducing oxidative stress. Remarkably, motor vehicle exhaust exposure causes significant changes in the expression patterns of proteins that are key components involved in spermatogenesis and testosterone synthesis. In conclusion, this review helps to describe the risks of vehicle exhaust exposure and its relationship to potential adverse effects on the male reproduction system.

  3. A Reading Profile of Functionally Illiterate Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Bette H.; Russell, Sheldon Noel

    In order to identify the reading behavior and instructional needs of functionally illiterate adults reading below fourth grade level, 50 adults were identified and diagnosed on the Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty test and the Slosson Intelligence Test for Children and Adults. In addition, a questionnaire was administered to Oklahoma City…

  4. Antioxidant enzyme activity and mRNA expression in reproductive tract of adult male European Bison (Bison bonasus, Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Gilun, P; Fraser, L; Koziorowski, M; Kordan, W; Stefanczyk-Krzymowska, S

    2013-02-01

    Antioxidants in the male reproductive tract are the main defence factors against oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species production, which compromises sperm function and male fertility. This study was designed to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the testicular and epididymidal tissues of adult male European bison (Bison bonasus). The reproductive tract tissues were subjected to real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis to quantify mRNA expression levels of five antioxidant enzymes: copper/zinc SOD (Cu/Zn SOD), secretory extracellular SOD (Ec-SOD), CAT, phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) and GPx5. The corpus and cauda epididymidal tissues displayed greater (p < 0.05) SOD activity compared with the testicular tissue. It was found that CAT activity was lowest (p < 0.05) in the cauda epididymidis, whereas negligible GPx activity was detected in the reproductive tract tissues. There were no detectable differences in the mRNA expression level of Cu/Zn SOD among the different reproductive tract tissues. Small amounts of Ec-SOD mRNA were found in the reproductive tract, particularly in the epididymides. The caput and cauda epididymides exhibited greater (p < 0.05) level of CAT mRNA expression, whereas PHGPx mRNA was more (p < 0.05) expressed in the testis. Furthermore, extremely large amounts of GPx5 mRNA were detected in the caput epididymidal tissue compared with other tissues of the reproductive tract. It can be suggested that the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and the relative gene expression of the enzymes confirm the presence of tissue-specific antioxidant defence systems in the bison reproductive tract, which are required for spermatogenesis, epididymal maturation and storage of spermatozoa.

  5. Adult diet affects lifespan and reproduction of the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Zwaan, Bas J; Carey, James R; Brakefield, Paul M

    2008-10-01

    Fruit-feeding butterflies are among the longest lived Lepidoptera. While the use of pollen-derived amino acids by Heliconius butterflies has been interpreted as important for the evolution of extended lifespans, very little is known about the life-history consequences of frugivory. This issue is addressed by investigating effects of four adult diets (sugar, sugar with amino acids, banana, and moistened banana) on lifespan and reproduction in the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens Aurivillius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Female butterflies were collected from Kibale National Park, Uganda, and kept individually in cages near their natural habitat and data were collected on lifespan, oviposition, and hatching of eggs. Lifespan in captivity was longer for the sugar and the amino acid cohort, than for the banana cohorts. The longitudinal pattern of oviposition was erratic, with many days without oviposition and few periods with high numbers of eggs laid. Butterflies typically did not lay eggs during their 1st week in captivity and the length of the period between capture and first reproduction was significantly shorter for butterflies fed moistened banana. The length of the reproduction period (first reproduction-last reproduction in captivity) and the reproduction rate (total number of eggs/length of the reproduction period) did not differ significantly between the diet treatments. Those fed with amino acid and moistened banana had significantly higher egg hatchability than those fed with sugar and banana. We found no evidence for a lifespan cost of reproduction. Our results show that (1) female C. fulvescens can use amino acids in their diet for laying fertile eggs, (2) more wing-wear does correlate with lower survival in captivity (indicating aging in the wild), but not with intensity of reproduction (providing no evidence for reproductive aging), and (3) fruit-feeding butterflies may be dietary restricted in the field.

  6. The effects of larval nutrition on reproductive performance in a food-limited adult environment.

    PubMed

    Dmitriew, Caitlin; Rowe, Locke

    2011-03-30

    It is often assumed that larval food stress reduces lifetime fitness regardless of the conditions subsequently faced by adults. However, according to the environment-matching hypothesis, a plastic developmental response to poor nutrition results in an adult phenotype that is better adapted to restricted food conditions than one having developed in high food conditions. Such a strategy might evolve when current conditions are a reliable predictor of future conditions. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of larval food conditions (low, improving and high food) on reproductive fitness in both low and high food adults environments. Contrary to this hypothesis, we found no evidence that food restriction in larval ladybird beetles produced adults that were better suited to continuing food stress. In fact, reproductive rate was invariably lower in females that were reared at low food, regardless of whether adults were well fed or food stressed. Juveniles that encountered improving conditions during the larval stage compensated for delayed growth by accelerating subsequent growth, and thus showed no evidence of a reduced reproductive rate. However, these same individuals lost more mass during the period of starvation in adults, which indicates that accelerated growth results in an increased risk of starvation during subsequent periods of food stress.

  7. Resveratrol improves reproductive parameters of adult rats varicocelized in peripuberty.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Talita Biude; Paccola, Camila Cicconi; de Oliveira Neves, Flávia Macedo; Simas, Joana Noguères; da Costa Vaz, André; Cabral, Regina Elisabeth L; Vendramini, Vanessa; Miraglia, Sandra Maria

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective action of resveratrol against the reproductive damage caused by left-sided experimental varicocele. There was a reduction of testicular major axis in the varicocele group when compared with the other groups; the testicular volume was reduced in varicocele group in comparison to the sham-control and resveratrol groups. The frequency of morphologically abnormal sperm was higher in varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups than in sham-control and resveratrol groups. The frequency of sperm with 100% of mitochondrial activity and normal acrosome integrity were lower in varicocele group than in varicocele treated with resveratrol, sham-control and resveratrol groups. Sperm motility was also reduced in varicocele group than in other groups. The sperm DNA fragmentation was higher in varicocele group than in other groups. Testicular levels of malondialdehyde were higher in varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups. The varicocele and varicocele treated with resveratrol groups had a significantly higher frequency of TUNEL-positive cells than sham-control and resveratrol groups; however, immunolabeling of the testes from varicocele treated with resveratrol group showed a lower number of apoptotic germ cells in comparison with the left testis of rats of the varicocele group. Reproductive alterations produced by varicocele from peripuberty were reduced by resveratrol in adulthood. Resveratrol should be better investigated as an adjuvant in the treatment of varicocele. Daily administration of resveratrol to rats with varicocele from peripuberty improves sperm quality in the adulthood.

  8. JH Biosynthesis by Reproductive Tissues and Corpora Allata in Adult Longhorned Beetles, Apriona germari

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis from long-chain intermediates by specific reproductive system tissues and the corpora allata (CA) prepared from adult longhorned beetles, Apriona germari. Testes, male accessory glands (MAGs), ovaries and CA contain the long-chain intermediates in the ...

  9. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Roberts, Beth M; Knowlton, Frederick F

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between animals and their environment are fundamental to ecological research. Field studies of coyote (Canis latrans) reproductive performance suggest mean litter size changes in response to prey abundance. However, this relationship has been assessed primarily by using carcasses collected from trappers. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutritional manipulation prior to mating affected reproduction in adult female coyotes. We examined the effects of caloric restriction during the 7 months prior to estrus on the reproductive rates of 11 captive female coyotes and the subsequent initial survival of pups through two reproductive cycles. This was a 2-year study with a cross-over design so each female was monitored for reproductive performance on each of the two diet treatments. We assessed the number of implantation scars, number of pups born, sex ratios of pups, average pup weight at birth and 2- and 6-weeks of age, and the survival rates between implantation and 2-weeks of age for two diet treatments. We found the mean number of implantation sites and pups whelped during a reproductive cycle was influenced by food-intake prior to conception. Additionally, we found evidence suggesting the effects of nutritional stress may persist for additional breeding cycles. We also provided evidence suggesting well-fed females tended to have more male pups. Understanding how environmental factors influence reproductive output may improve model predictions of coyote population dynamics.

  10. Physiologic Course of Female Reproductive Function: A Molecular Look into the Prologue of Life

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Joselyn; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Olivar, Luis Carlos; Calvo, María; Mejías, José; Rojas, Milagros; Morillo, Jessenia; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2015-01-01

    The genetic, endocrine, and metabolic mechanisms underlying female reproduction are numerous and sophisticated, displaying complex functional evolution throughout a woman's lifetime. This vital course may be systematized in three subsequent stages: prenatal development of ovaries and germ cells up until in utero arrest of follicular growth and the ensuing interim suspension of gonadal function; onset of reproductive maturity through puberty, with reinitiation of both gonadal and adrenal activity; and adult functionality of the ovarian cycle which permits ovulation, a key event in female fertility, and dictates concurrent modifications in the endometrium and other ovarian hormone-sensitive tissues. Indeed, the ultimate goal of this physiologic progression is to achieve ovulation and offer an adequate environment for the installation of gestation, the consummation of female fertility. Strict regulation of these processes is important, as disruptions at any point in this evolution may equate a myriad of endocrine-metabolic disturbances for women and adverse consequences on offspring both during pregnancy and postpartum. This review offers a summary of pivotal aspects concerning the physiologic course of female reproductive function. PMID:26697222

  11. Aging and male reproductive function: a mitochondrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Sandra; Amaral, Alexandra; Ramalho-Santos, Joao

    2013-01-01

    Researching the effects of aging in the male reproductive system is not trivial. Not only are multiple changes at molecular, cellular and endocrine levels involved, but any findings must be discussed with variable individual characteristics, as well as with lifestyle and environmental factors. Age-related changes in the reproductive system include any aspect of reproductive function, from deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and of local auto/paracrine interactions, to effects on testicular stem cells, defects in testicular architecture and spermatogenesis, or sperm with decreased functionality. Several theories place mitochondria at the hub of cellular events related to aging, namely regarding the accumulation of oxidative damage to cells and tissues, a process in which these organelles play a prominent role, although alternative theories have also emerged. However, oxidative stress is not the only process involved in mitochondrial-related aging; mitochondrial energy metabolism, changes in mitochondrial DNA or in mitochondrial-dependent testosterone production are also important. Crucially, all these issues are likely interdependent. We will review evidence that suggests that mitochondria constitute a common link between aging and fertility loss.

  12. [Intrauterine programming of reproductive function--a valid concept?].

    PubMed

    Schleussner, Ekkehard

    2009-01-01

    Early intrauterine fetal (mis)programming determines not only cardiovascular and metabolic regulation in later life, but also reproductive function. Intrauterine growth restriction may be associated with precocious maturation of gonadal function and an earlier onset of puberty and menarche. Especially prenatal androgen excess has negative effects on the development of the ovaries and female genital phenotype itself as well as on the neuroendocrine feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis followed by a polycystic ovary syndrome with hyperandrogenism and anovulation in later life. These associations, which can be clearly demonstrated in animal experiments, need further confirmation by epidemiological and clinical trials in humans.

  13. Adult diet affects lifespan and reproduction of the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens

    PubMed Central

    Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Zwaan, Bas J.; Carey, James R.; Brakefield, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Fruit-feeding butterflies are among the longest lived Lepidoptera. While the use of pollen-derived amino acids by Heliconius butterflies has been interpreted as important for the evolution of extended lifespans, very little is known about the life-history consequences of frugivory. This issue is addressed by investigating effects of four adult diets (sugar, sugar with amino acids, banana, and moistened banana) on lifespan and reproduction in the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens Aurivillius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Female butterflies were collected from Kibale National Park, Uganda, and kept individually in cages near their natural habitat and data were collected on lifespan, oviposition, and hatching of eggs. Lifespan in captivity was longer for the sugar and the amino acid cohort, than for the banana cohorts. The longitudinal pattern of oviposition was erratic, with many days without oviposition and few periods with high numbers of eggs laid. Butterflies typically did not lay eggs during their 1st week in captivity and the length of the period between capture and first reproduction was significantly shorter for butterflies fed moistened banana. The length of the reproduction period (first reproduction–last reproduction in captivity) and the reproduction rate (total number of eggs/length of the reproduction period) did not differ significantly between the diet treatments. Those fed with amino acid and moistened banana had significantly higher egg hatchability than those fed with sugar and banana. We found no evidence for a lifespan cost of reproduction. Our results show that (1) female C. fulvescens can use amino acids in their diet for laying fertile eggs, (2) more wing-wear does correlate with lower survival in captivity (indicating aging in the wild), but not with intensity of reproduction (providing no evidence for reproductive aging), and (3) fruit-feeding butterflies may be dietary restricted in the field. PMID:19774093

  14. Promoting reproductive health practices among working adolescents and young adults (industrial workers). RAS/88/P11.

    PubMed

    1999-06-01

    In Cambodia, Care (Deutschland), through the Cambodia Health Education Development (CHED) and the Reproductive Health Association of Cambodia, is working towards the promotion of reproductive health (RH) practices among working adolescents and young adults. The project seeks to reach a minimum target group of 10,000 out-of-school, single, working adolescents and young adults aged 12-29 years, and at least 50 trained RH providers and educators in selected project sites. It also aims to provide specialist RH services to at least 200 single adolescents and young adults per month and per newly operational RH facility in project areas; and to build the capacity of at least two partner nongovernmental organizations in adolescent RH services. As its two-part strategy, the project is sharing information, education, and communication (IEC) expertise and using CHED as an informal IEC clearing house. The main activities of the project are outlined.

  15. Farnesoid X receptor immunolocalization in reproductive tissues of adult female rabbits.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Hernández, Arely; Méndez-Tepepa, Maribel; Hernández-Aragón, Laura G; Pacheco, Pablo; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela

    2014-07-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been involved in lipid metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and aromatase expression, as well as in the steroid synthesis and signaling. Considering that these events occur in reproductive tissues in females, the aim of the present study was to determine the immunolocalization of FXR in the ovary, oviduct, uterus, and vagina of rabbits. Rabbits were sacrificed and their reproductive tissues were excised and histologically processed. Immunohistochemistry for FXR was done and reproductive tissues were photographed. FXR immunoreactivity was found in all types of ovarian follicles, ovarian stroma, and corpus luteum of virgin and pregnant rabbits. Also, oviductal and vaginal epithelium of virgins, as well as the oviductal smooth muscle, showed anti-FXR immunoreactivity. The uterine epithelium and musculature of virgins had scarce anti-FXR immunoreactivity. Although the role of FXR in female reproductive tissues is still not known, it is possible to consider various functions related to the reproductive tissue.

  16. Effect of different doses of Malaysian honey on reproductive parameters in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, M; Sulaiman, S A; Jaafar, H; Sirajudeen, K N S

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of Malaysian honey on male reproductive parameters in adult rats. Thirty-two healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (eight rats per group). Group 1 (control group) was given 0.5 ml of distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were given 0.2, 1.2 and 2.4 g kg(-1) body weight of honey respectively. The rats were treated orally by gavage once daily for 4 weeks. Honey did not significantly alter body and male reproductive organs weights. The rats in Group 3 which received honey at 1.2 g kg(-1) had significantly higher epididymal sperm count than those in Groups 1, 2 and 4. No significant differences were found for the percentage of abnormal sperm, elongated spermatid count, reproductive hormonal levels as well as the histology of the testis among the groups. In conclusion, Malaysian honey at a dose of 1.2 g kg(-1) daily significantly increased epididymal sperm count without affecting spermatid count and reproductive hormones. These findings might suggest that oral administration of honey at this dose for 4 weeks may enhance spermiogenesis in adult rats.

  17. Applying functional genomics research to the study of pig reproduction.

    PubMed

    Pomp, D; Caetano, A R; Bertani, G R; Gladney, C D; Johnson, R K

    2001-01-01

    Functional genomics is an experimental approach that incorporates genome-wide or system-wide experimentation, expanding the scope of biological investigation from studying single genes to studying potentially all genes at once in a systematic manner. This technology is highly appealing because of its high throughput and relatively low cost. Furthermore, analysis of gene expression using microarrays is likely to be more biologically relevant than the conventional paradigm of reductionism, because it has the potential to uncover new biological connections between genes and biochemical pathways. However, functional genomics is still in its infancy, especially with regard to the study of pig reproduction. Currently, efforts are centred on developing the necessary resources to enable high throughput evaluation and comparison of gene expression. However, it is clear that in the near future functional genomics will be applied on a large scale to study the biology and physiology of reproduction in pigs, and to understand better the complex nature of genetic control over polygenic characteristics, such as ovulation rate and litter size. We can look forward to generating a significant amount of new data on differences in gene expression between genotypes, treatments, or at various temporal and spatial coordinates within a variety of reproductively relevant systems. Along with this capability will be the challenge of collating, analysing and interpreting datasets that are orders of magnitude more extensive and complex than those currently used. Furthermore, integration of functional genomics with traditional genetic approaches and with detailed analysis of the proteome and relevant whole animal phenotypes will be required to make full use of this powerful new experimental paradigm as a beneficial research tool.

  18. Reproductive health in young male adults with chronic diseases in childhood.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Mohamed, Yassin

    2013-01-01

    The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention have defined a chronic diseases as an "illnesses that are prolonged, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely cured completely". Approximately 20% of all children have a chronic illness and 65% of them the illness is severe enough to interfere with daily activities. Failure of pubertal growth, delay or absence of sexual development, infertility and sexual dysfunction due to hypogonadism and defective spermatogenesis are well recognized disturbances among adolescents and young male adult patients with chronic diseases. The causes are multifactorial and can be due to disease itself, associated complications or drugs. Haemoglobinopathies, endocrine disorders, gastrointestinal and renal diseases are some examples that frequently cause some degree of disability. Infertility affects the future quality of life of these patients and is a predictor of stress in current and future relationships. Health care providers often neglect the reproductive health of chronically ill adolescents and young adults, although many studies indicate that they are sexually active and interested in knowing about their future fertility. This review article provides an overview of the literature concerning the impact of some chronic diseases in adolescents and young adults on reproductive health but will not address patients with cancer because it has been tackled adequately in the literature.MEDLINE database search of English-language medical journal articles published between 1975 and 2012 for papers related to reproductive health in adolescents and young adults with chronic diseases since childhood was done. Several Authors, recommend that all young adult patients with severe/prolonged chronic disease in childhood should be offered reproductive health care in a specialized center with appropriate expertise, involving a multidisciplinary team, including endocrinologists, andrologists, geneticists, psychologists, urologists and specialist

  19. Vitamin D metabolism, sex hormones, and male reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The spectrum of vitamin D (VD)-mediated effects has expanded in recent years, and VD is now recognized as a versatile signaling molecule rather than being solely a regulator of bone health and calcium homeostasis. One of the recently identified target areas of VD is male reproductive function. The VD receptor (VDR) and the VD metabolizing enzyme expression studies documented the presence of this system in the testes, mature spermatozoa, and ejaculatory tract, suggesting that both systemic and local VD metabolism may influence male reproductive function. However, it is still debated which cell is the main VD target in the testis and to what extent VD is important for sex hormone production and function of spermatozoa. This review summarizes descriptive studies on testicular VD metabolism and spatial distribution of VDR and the VD metabolizing enzymes in the mammalian testes and discusses mechanistic and association studies conducted in animals and humans. The reviewed evidence suggests some effects of VD on estrogen and testosterone biosynthesis and implicates involvement of both systemic and local VD metabolism in the regulation of male fertility potential.

  20. Aroclor 1242 and reproductive success of adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.D.; Prouty, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-four pairs of adult mallards were fed a diet containing 0 or 150 ppm of the PCB Aroclor 1242 for 12 weeks during which egg laying was induced. Laying started in both groups an average of 33 days after PCB treatment began. All hens were allowed to lay a 20-egg clutch; 15 eggs from each clutch were artificially incubated. Eleven hens from each group completed the clutch. There was no difference between the two groups in the time taken to lay the clutch, nor was there a difference in fertility, embryo mortality, or hatching success. Eggshell thickness decreased 8.9% with PCB ingestion; eggs from hens fed PCB contained an average of 105 ppm PCB wet wt. No difference in survival or weight gain to 3 weeks of age was observed between young mallards from eggs laid by PCB-treated hens and control hens.

  1. Small body size in an insect shifts development, prior to adult eclosion, towards early reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Ashley D; Pexton, John J; Dytham, Calvin; Mayhew, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Life-history theory has suggested that individual body size can strongly affect the allocation of resources to reproduction and away from other traits such as survival. In many insects, adults eclose with a proportion of their potential lifetime egg production that is already mature (the ovigeny index). We establish for the solitary parasitoid wasp Aphaereta genevensis that the ovigeny index decreases with adult body size, despite both initial egg load and potential lifetime fecundity increasing with body size. This outcome is predicted by adaptive models and is the first unequivocal intraspecific demonstration. Evidence suggests that a high ovigeny index carries a cost of reduced longevity in insects. Our results therefore contribute to the emerging evidence that small body size can favour a developmental shift in juveniles that favours early reproduction, but which has adverse late-life consequences. These findings are likely to have important implications for developmental biologists and population biologists. PMID:16600887

  2. Effect of hypospadias on sexual function and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Singh, J. Chandra; Jayanthi, Venkata Rama; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2008-01-01

    Hypospadias is a highly prevalent congenital anomaly. The impact of the defect and operative interventions on sexual and reproductive function has been addressed by few publications. It is essential to know the possible outcomes of intervention for appropriate counseling, operative planning, and follow-up. English articles indexed in Pubmed dealing with the long-term sexual and reproductive outcome following hypospadias repair from 1965 to 2007 were reviewed. To our knowledge, there was no prospective trial comparing the impact of various techniques on sexual outcome. There is considerable discordance in literature regarding the effects on sexual function. A few publications report patient and partner dissatisfaction with the appearance of genitalia. Sexual dissatisfaction is often attributed to penile size. Ejaculatory disturbances range between 6 and 37% of operated individuals. There is no convincing evidence for impaired fertility. The long-term follow-up is essential to identify problems and to address them appropriately. Literature documenting the outcome of specific operative procedures and analysis based on severity of hypospadias will be informative. The long-term follow-up of the newer techniques which are more commonly used are awaited. PMID:19468405

  3. Functional neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Praag, Henriette; Schinder, Alejandro F.; Christie, Brian R.; Toni, Nicolas; Palmer, Theo D.; Gage, Fred H.

    2002-02-01

    There is extensive evidence indicating that new neurons are generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain that is important for learning and memory. However, it is not known whether these new neurons become functional, as the methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited to fixed tissue. We use here a retroviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein that only labels dividing cells, and that can be visualized in live hippocampal slices. We report that newly generated cells in the adult mouse hippocampus have neuronal morphology and can display passive membrane properties, action potentials and functional synaptic inputs similar to those found in mature dentate granule cells. Our findings demonstrate that newly generated cells mature into functional neurons in the adult mammalian brain.

  4. Introduction: circadian rhythm and its disruption: impact on reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Casper, Robert F; Gladanac, Bojana

    2014-08-01

    Almost all forms of life have predictable daily or circadian rhythms in molecular, endocrine, and behavioral functions. In mammals, a central pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei coordinates the timing of these rhythms. Daily light exposure that affects the retina of the eye directly influences this area, which is required to align endogenous processes to the appropriate time of day. The present "Views and Reviews" articles discuss the influence of circadian rhythms, especially nightly secretion of melatonin, on reproductive function and parturition. In addition, an examination is made of problems that arise from recurrent circadian rhythm disruption associated with changes in light exposure patterns common to modern day society. Finally, a possible solution to prevent disruptions in circadian phase markers by filtering out short wavelengths from nocturnal light is reviewed.

  5. The reproductive hormone cycle of adult female American alligators from a barrier island population.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Kohno, Satomi; Mitsui-Watanabe, Naoko; Amano, Haruna; Hara, Akihiko; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-06-01

    Comparatively, little data are available detailing the geographic variation that exists in the reproductive endocrinology of adult alligators, especially those living in barrier islands. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MI) is a unique barrier island environment and home to the Kennedy Space Center (FL, USA). Seasonal patterns of sex steroids were assessed in adult female American alligators from MI monthly from 2008 to 2009, with additional samples collected at more random intervals in 2006, 2007, and 2010. Plasma 17β-estradiol and vitellogenin concentrations peaked in April, coincident with courtship and mating, and showed patterns similar to those observed in adult female alligators in other regions. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, however, showed patterns distinctly different than those reported for alligator populations in other regions and remained relatively constant throughout the year. Plasma DHEA peaked in July around the time of oviposition, decreased in August, and then remained constant for the remaining months, except for a moderate increase in October. Circulating concentrations of DHEA have not been previously assessed in a female crocodilian, and plasma concentrations coincident with reproductive activity suggest a reproductive and/or behavioral role. Interestingly, plasma testosterone concentrations peaked in May of 2008, as has been shown in female alligator populations in other regions, but showed no peak in 2009, demonstrating dramatic variability from year to year. Surveys showed 2009 to be particularly depauperate of alligator nests in MI, and it is possible that testosterone could serve as a strong indicator of breeding success.

  6. Sexual and Reproductive Health Behaviors among Teen and Young Adult Men: A Descriptive Portrait. Research Brief. Publication #2008-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Jennifer; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily

    2008-01-01

    When it comes to the reproductive health behaviors of teens and young adults, far more public attention has focused on women than on men. That's not surprising. After all, men don't actually have the babies. Yet the importance of understanding men's reproductive health behaviors should not be overlooked, given their potential implications for men…

  7. Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

  8. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) IN ADULT AND JUVENILE MALE C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) IN ADULT AND JUVENILE MALE C57BL/6 MICE.
    JC Rockett, JC Luft, JB Garges and DJ Dix. Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA.
    Sponsor: G Klinefelter
    The development of wate...

  9. [Effects of lindane upon the reproductive function in four generations running in the quail. Studies of gonads and müllerian tract in embryos, one day chicken and adults (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lutz-Ostertag, Y

    1981-01-01

    The effect of lindane commercial solution spraying on quail eggs is studied in four generations running issued from a single parental strain. Observations have been made on fourteen-day embryos, one-day chicken and also two-or eight-month adults quail. The results lead to conclude that pathogenous effects of lindane on gonads and müllerian tract are slowly annuled through successive generations when the experimental procedure consists in treating only the parental eggs. Conversely, following pesticide administration repeated at every generation, the action becomes cumulative and the ratio of aberrations increases. In ovarian and testicular tissues there are cyto-histopathological modifications. Many gonocytes are abnormal and cannot divide. Some of these cells degenerate at the meiotic prophase. Egg production and fertility in adults depend on these phenomenons.

  10. Social Functioning in Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Susan A.; Forness, Steven R.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on possible causes of social functioning deficits in adults with learning disabilities including language disorders, information processing deficits, and behavioral and/or attention problems. Discusses co-occurrence of social functioning deficits with nonverbal learning disability, and effects of educational isolation,…

  11. Reproductive state modulates testosterone-induced singing in adult female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Tyler J.; Fortune, Eric S.; Ball, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exhibit seasonal changes in singing and in the volumes of the neural substrate. Increases in song nuclei volume are mediated at least in part by increases in day length, which is also associated with increases in plasma testosterone (T), reproductive activity, and singing behavior in males. The correlations between photoperiod (i.e. daylength), T, reproductive state and singing hamper our ability to disentangle causal relationships. We investigated how photoperiodic-induced variation in reproductive state modulates the effects of T on singing behavior and song nuclei volumes in adult female starlings. Female Starlings do not naturally produce measureable levels of circulating T but nevertheless respond to exogenous T, which induces male-like singing. We manipulated photoperiod by placing birds in a photosensitive or photorefractory state and then treated them with T-filled or empty silastic implants. We recorded morning singing behavior for three weeks, after which we assessed reproductive condition and measured song nuclei volumes. We found that T-treated photosensitive birds sang significantly more than all other groups including T-treated photorefractory birds. All T-treated birds had larger song nuclei volumes than with blank-treated birds (despite photorefractory T-treated birds not increasing song-rate). There was no effect of photoperiod on the song nuclei volumes of T-treated birds. These data show that the behavioral effects of exogenous T can be modulated by reproductive state in adult female songbirds. Furthermore, these data are consistent with other observations that increases in singing rate in response to T are not necessarily due to the direct effects of T on song nuclei volume. PMID:25989596

  12. Reproduction, preweaning survival, and survival of adult sea otters at Kodiak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, Daniel H.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    1995-01-01

    Radiotelemetry methods were used to examine the demographic characteristics of sea otters inhabiting the leading edge of an expanding population on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Fifteen male and 30 female sea otters were instrumented and followed from 1986 to 1990. Twenty-one percent of females were sexually mature (had pupped) at age 2, 57% by age 3, 88% by age 4, and 100% by age 5. Fifteen females produced 26 pups, an overall reproduction rate of 94% for mature females. The reproduction rate was 17, 45, 66, and 100% for 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. Eighty-five percent of observed pups survived to weaning (120 days), and the percentage of pups weaned ranged from 34% for pups of 2-year-olds to 100% for pups of 5-year-olds. At least three of four known pup losses occurred within a month of parturition. The mean pup dependency period for weaned pups was 153 days and the mean gestation period was 218 days. No synchrony in pupping activity was observed. Mean annual survival of adults was high. Estimates of survival ranged from 89 to 96% for females and 86 to 91% for males. Human harvest was the primary source of known mortality of adults. Our estimates of reproductive rates and survival of adults are at the high end of those reported for sea otters, but preweaning survival stands out as being particularly high. Abundant food resources and the availability of protected water presumably contributed to the high reproductive success observed in this recently established sea otter population.

  13. Sex differences in the effects of juvenile and adult diet on age-dependent reproductive effort.

    PubMed

    Houslay, T M; Hunt, J; Tinsley, M C; Bussière, L F

    2015-05-01

    Sexual selection should cause sex differences in patterns of resource allocation. When current and future reproductive effort trade off, variation in resource acquisition might further cause sex differences in age-dependent investment, or in sensitivity to changes in resource availability over time. However, the nature and prevalence of sex differences in age-dependent investment remain unclear. We manipulated resource acquisition at juvenile and adult stages in decorated crickets, Gryllodes sigillatus, and assessed effects on sex-specific allocation to age-dependent reproductive effort (calling in males, fecundity in females) and longevity. We predicted that the resource and time demands of egg production would result in relatively consistent female strategies across treatments, whereas male investment should depend sharply on diet. Contrary to expectations, female age-dependent reproductive effort diverged substantially across treatments, with resource-limited females showing much lower and later investment in reproduction; the highest fecundity was associated with intermediate lifespans. In contrast, long-lived males always signalled more than short-lived males, and male age-dependent reproductive effort did not depend on diet. We found consistently positive covariance between male reproductive effort and lifespan, whereas diet altered this covariance in females, revealing sex differences in the benefits of allocation to longevity. Our results support sex-specific selection on allocation patterns, but also suggest a simpler alternative: males may use social feedback to make allocation decisions and preferentially store resources as energetic reserves in its absence. Increased calling effort with age therefore could be caused by gradual resource accumulation, heightened mortality risk over time, and a lack of feedback from available mates.

  14. Transgenerational and developmental exposure of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to ethinylestradiol results in endocrine and reproductive differences in the response to ethinylestradiol as adults.

    PubMed

    Foran, Christy M; Peterson, Bethany N; Benson, William H

    2002-08-01

    17alpha-Ethinylestradiol (EE), a synthetic estrogen found in birth control pills, has been detected in the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants in several countries. Because EE was designed to be extremely potent at the estrogen receptor (ER), environmental exposure to low concentrations has the potential to disrupt the development of normal endocrine and reproductive function when exposure occurs during critical periods in development. Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes, were used to evaluate the effect of exposure to EE during development on adult reproduction and endocrine function and the sensitivity of these animals to estrogen exposure as adults. To determine if the response to exogenous estrogen stimulation was diminished or sensitized, adults resulting from the developmental exposure groups were reexposed to EE at respectively higher concentrations. Hatchling exposure produced no changes in adult vitellogenin (VTG) content in the liver or circulating steroid concentrations, nor was reproduction affected. Reexposure of these adults inhibited reproduction, increased hepatic VTG and ER, and increased estrogen concentration measured in male plasma. Parental exposure produced permanent changes in hepatic content of ER and VTG in the adults resulting from exposure during gametogenesis and was related to a diminished response of males to subsequent estrogen exposure. The potential for this transgenerational exposure to decrease the responsiveness of males to EE is supported by comparing the concentration-response curves for hepatic VTG and ER in males exposed in ovo and as hatchlings. Our results indicate that the relationship between biomarkers and estrogen exposure will be altered by the timing and frequency of exposure.

  15. Effects of adult-derived carbohydrates, amino acids and micronutrients on female reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Fischer, Klaus

    2005-05-01

    It is generally believed that butterflies (and other holometabolous insects) rely primarily on reserves accumulated during the larval stage for reproduction, whereas the carbohydrate-rich adult diet is thought to mainly cover energy requirements. In at least some species though, realization of the full reproductive potential is extensively affected by post-eclosion nutrition. While the importance of carbohydrates is fairly well understood, the role of adult-derived amino acids and micronutrients is controversial and largely unknown, respectively. We here focus on the effects of different adult diets on female reproduction in the tropical, fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae). Carbohydrates were the most important adult-derived nutrients affecting reproduction. Adding amino acids, vitamins or minerals to sucrose-based solutions did not yield a reproductive output equivalent to that of fruit-fed females, which showed the highest performance throughout. This suggests that either not yet identified compounds of fruit substantially contribute to reproduction, or that resource congruence (the use of nutrient types in a specified ratio) rather than any specific nutrient component is of key importance. Apart from adult income, realized fecundity depended on egg size and longevity, with the former dominating when dietary quality was low, but the latter when quality was high. Thus, the egg size-number trade-off seems to be affected by female nutrition.

  16. Juvenile hormone facilitates the antagonism between adult reproduction and diapause through the methoprene-tolerant gene in the female Colaphellus bowringi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Li, Yi; Zhu, Li; Zhu, Fen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-07-01

    In insects, the process whereby juvenile hormone (JH) regulates short-day (SD)-induced reproductive diapause has been previously investigated. However, we still do not understand the mechanism by which JH regulates long-day (LD)-induced reproductive diapause. In this study, we use a cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi, which is a serious pest of cruciferous vegetables in Asia capable of entering reproductive diapause under LD conditions, as a model to test whether JH regulates female reproductive diapause similar to the mechanism of SD-induced diapause. Our results showed that the JH analog (JHA) methoprene significantly induced ovarian development but inhibited lipid accumulation of diapause-destined adults. Meanwhile, the transcripts of the vitellogenin (Vg) genes were upregulated, whereas the expression of the fat synthesis and stress tolerance genes were downregulated. RNA interference of the JH candidate receptor gene methoprene-tolerant (Met) blocked JH-induced ovarian development and Vg transcription, suggesting a positive regulatory function for JH-Met signaling in reproduction. Furthermore, under reproduction-inducing conditions, Met depletion promoted a diapause-like phenotype, including arrested ovarian development and increased lipid storage, and stimulated the expression of diapause-related genes involved in lipid synthesis and stress tolerance, suggesting JH-Met signaling plays an important role in the inhibition of diapause. Accordingly, our data indicate that JH acts through Met to facilitate development of the reproductive system by upregulating Vg expression while inhibiting diapause by suppressing lipid synthesis and stress tolerance in the cabbage beetle. Combined with previous studies in SD-induced reproductive diapause, we conclude that JH may regulate female reproductive diapause using a conserved Met-dependent pathway, regardless of the length of the photoperiod inducing diapause in insects.

  17. Impairment of male reproduction in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpalatha, T.; Ramachandra Reddy, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is one of the most effective and widely used drugs for the treatment of uterine bleeding and threatened miscarriage in women. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats in order to assess the effect of intraperitoneal exposure to supranormal levels of hydroxyprogesterone caproate on the male reproductive potential in the first generation. The cauda epididymal sperm count and motility decreased significantly in rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development, when compared with control rats. The levels of serum testosterone decreased with an increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during the embryonic stage. It was suggested that the impairment of male reproductive performance could be mediated through the inhibition of testosterone production.

  18. The effect of red wine consumption on hormonal reproductive parameters and total antioxidant status in young adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Michał; Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Stachoń, Małgorzata; Kołota, Aleksandra; Wolińska-Witort, Ewa; Malik, Agnieszka; Hallmann, Ewelina; Rusaczonek, Anna; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Very little is known about the effects of red wine consumption on male reproductive functions. Here we report the effect of regular drinking of different types of red wine on hormonal reproductive parameters and total antioxidant status in young adult male rats. Dry red wine (D-RW) exerted higher antioxidant activity and was characterized by higher concentration of phenolic compounds compared to semi-dry (SD-RW), sweet (S-RW) and semi-sweet (SS-RW) wines. No differences in total antioxidant status of rat plasma after six weeks of drinking of the wines were detected. Increased plasma follicle-stimulating hormone levels in S-RW versus control and D-RW (5.26 vs. 3.06 and 3.21 ng mL(-1)) groups were found. The plasma testosterone concentration was lower in D-RW compared to control, SD-RW, S-RW and SS-RW groups (0.25 vs. 1.12, 1.09, 1.54 and 1.25 ng mL(-1)). Higher plasma 17β-estradiol level in S-RW versus SD-RW and SS-RW (10.94 vs. 7.18 and 6.72 pg mL(-1)) group was stated. The prolactin level was higher in plasma of S-RW versus D-RW and SS-RW (17.35 vs. 9.74 and 8.59 ng mL(-1)) rats. The effects of red wine drinking on the hormonal regulation of the male reproductive system depend on the type and the dose of red wine. Chemical compounds naturally occurring in red wines (i.e. phenolics) may modulate the effects of ethyl alcohol, but also directly affect the male reproduction.

  19. [The function of ERα in male reproductive system].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu-Hang; Wei, Jin-Hua; Li, Zhen

    2014-12-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs), including two sub-types ERα and ERβ, belong to the steroid hormone superfamily of nuclear receptors. ERα distributes in the male reproductive system and plays a crucial role in the regulation of male reproduction through estrogen-dependent and -independent ways. In this article, we mainly reviewed the molecular structure, mode of action and location of ERα in the male reproductive system, and explored the mechanism of ERα in regulating the male reproductive system by analyzing different animal models of disrupted ERα.

  20. Gonadal function and reproductive health in women with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yalamanchi, Swaytha; Dobs, Adrian; Greenblatt, Ruth M

    2014-09-01

    Most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among women occur early in reproductive life, which highlights the importance of understanding the impact of HIV on reproductive functions, and also the potential implications of reproductive function and aging on the course of HIV disease. Ovarian function is a crucial component of reproductive biology in women, but standard assessment methods are of limited applicability to women with chronic diseases such as HIV. Pregnancy can now be achieved without transmission of HIV to sexual partner or newborn, but complications of pregnancy may be more common in women infected with HIV than uninfected women.

  1. Characterization of the transcriptomes and cuticular protein gene expression of alate adult, brachypterous neotenic and adultoid reproductives of Reticulitermes labralis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaohong; Liu, He; Yang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Jiaoling; Zhang, Honggui; Xing, Lianxi; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    The separation of primary reproductive and secondary reproductive roles based on the differentiation of alate adults and neotenic reproductives is the most prominent characteristic of termites. To clarify the mechanism underlying this differentiation, we sequenced the transcriptomes of alate adults (ARs), brachypterous neotenics (BNs) and adultoid reproductives (ANs) from the last instar nymphs of Reticulitermes labralis. A total of 404,152,188 clean sequencing reads was obtained and 61,953 unigenes were assembled. Of the 54 identified cuticular protein (CP) genes of the reproductives, 22 were classified into the CPR family and 7 were classified into the CPG family. qRT-PCR analyses of the 6 CP genes revealed that the CP genes involved in exocuticle sclerotization were highly expressed in the ARs and RR-1 involved in soft endocuticle was highly expressed in the ARs and ANs. These results suggest that the alate adults might increase cuticular component deposition to adapt to new or changing environments and that the development of reproductive individuals into primary or secondary reproductives is controlled by the expression of cuticular protein genes involved in the hardening of the exocuticle. In addition, the AN caste is a transitional type between the BN and AR castes in the process of evolution. PMID:27690209

  2. An embryonic atrazine exposure results in reproductive dysfunction in adult zebrafish and morphological alterations in their offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wirbisky, Sara E.; Weber, Gregory J.; Sepúlveda, Maria S.; Lin, Tsang-Long; Jannasch, Amber S.; Freeman, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine, a suspected endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), frequently contaminates potable water supplies. Studies suggest alterations in the neuroendocrine system along the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis; however, most studies address either developmental, pubertal, or adulthood exposures, with few investigations regarding a developmental origins hypothesis. In this study, zebrafish were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30 parts per billion (ppb) atrazine through embryogenesis and then allowed to mature with no additional chemical exposure. Reproductive function, histopathology, hormone levels, offspring morphology, and the ovarian transcriptome were assessed. Embryonic atrazine exposure resulted in a significant increase in progesterone levels in the 3 and 30 ppb groups. A significant decrease in spawning and a significant increase in follicular atresia in the 30 ppb group were observed. In offspring, a decrease in the head length to body ratio in the 30 ppb group, along with a significant increase in head width to body ratio in the 0.3 and 3 ppb groups occurred. Transcriptomic alterations involved genes associated with endocrine system development and function, tissue development, and behavior. This study provides evidence to support atrazine as an EDC causing reproductive dysfunction and molecular alterations in adults exposed only during embryogenesis and morphological alterations in their offspring. PMID:26891955

  3. The effect of developmental nutrition on life span and fecundity depends on the adult reproductive environment in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    May, Christina M; Doroszuk, Agnieszka; Zwaan, Bas J

    2015-01-01

    Both developmental nutrition and adult nutrition affect life-history traits; however, little is known about whether the effect of developmental nutrition depends on the adult environment experienced. We used the fruit fly to determine whether life-history traits, particularly life span and fecundity, are affected by developmental nutrition, and whether this depends on the extent to which the adult environment allows females to realize their full reproductive potential. We raised flies on three different developmental food levels containing increasing amounts of yeast and sugar: poor, control, and rich. We found that development on poor or rich larval food resulted in several life-history phenotypes indicative of suboptimal conditions, including increased developmental time, and, for poor food, decreased adult weight. However, development on poor larval food actually increased adult virgin life span. In addition, we manipulated the reproductive potential of the adult environment by adding yeast or yeast and a male. This manipulation interacted with larval food to determine adult fecundity. Specifically, under two adult conditions, flies raised on poor larval food had higher reproduction at certain ages – when singly mated this occurred early in life and when continuously mated with yeast this occurred during midlife. We show that poor larval food is not necessarily detrimental to key adult life-history traits, but does exert an adult environment-dependent effect, especially by affecting virgin life span and altering adult patterns of reproductive investment. Our findings are relevant because (1) they may explain differences between published studies on nutritional effects on life-history traits; (2) they indicate that optimal nutritional conditions are likely to be different for larvae and adults, potentially reflecting evolutionary history; and (3) they urge for the incorporation of developmental nutritional conditions into the central life-history concept of

  4. Reproduction impairment and endocrine disruption in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) after waterborne exposure to TBOEP.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinglong; Wu, Ding; Dang, Yao; Yu, Liqin; Liu, Chunsheng; Wang, Jianghua

    2017-01-01

    Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is widely used as a substitute of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). It has been frequently measured at concentrations of micrograms per liter (μg/L) in surface waters and waste water. However, limited information is available about the reproduction toxicology of TBOEP. In this study, adult zebrafish pairs were exposed to TBOEP at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, and 500μg/L for 21days. The effects on reproduction, hormone concentration, transcription of genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and gonadal development were investigated. After exposure to TBOEP, plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol were significantly increased in both sexes of fish, while increase of testosterone was observed only in male fish. Transcription of genes along the HPG axis was significantly influenced by exposure to TBOEP in both male and female fish. Moreover, TBOEP decreases the average number of eggs production, as well as hatching success and survival rates in offspring. Histological examination shows inhibition of oocyte maturation in females and retardation spermiation in males, respectively. The results demonstrate that TBOEP could disturb the sex hormone balance by altering regulatory circuits of the HPG axis, affect gonadal development, eventually leading to disruption of reproductive performance and the development of progeny.

  5. The COP1 ortholog PPS regulates the juvenile-adult and vegetative-reproductive phase changes in rice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Itoh, Hironori; Sentoku, Naoki; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Izawa, Takeshi; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nagato, Yasuo

    2011-06-01

    Because plant reproductive development occurs only in adult plants, the juvenile-to-adult phase change is an indispensable part of the plant life cycle. We identified two allelic mutants, peter pan syndrome-1 (pps-1) and pps-2, that prolong the juvenile phase in rice (Oryza sativa) and showed that rice PPS is an ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1. The pps-1 mutant exhibits delayed expression of miR156 and miR172 and the suppression of GA biosynthetic genes, reducing the GA(3) content in this mutant. In spite of its prolonged juvenile phase, the pps-1 mutant flowers early, and this is associated with derepression of RAP1B expression in pps-1 plants independently of the Hd1-Hd3a/RFT1 photoperiodic pathway. PPS is strongly expressed in the fourth and fifth leaves, suggesting that it regulates the onset of the adult phase downstream of MORI1 and upstream of miR156 and miR172. Its ability to regulate the vegetative phase change and the time of flowering suggests that rice PPS acquired novel functions during the evolution of rice/monocots.

  6. Lectin-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for reproductive improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Semen ejaculates contain heterogeneous sperm populations that can jeopardize male fertility. Recent development of nanotechnology in physiological systems may have applications in reproductive biology. Here, we used magnetic nanoparticles as a novel strategy for sperm purification to imp...

  7. Functional literacy of Young Guyanese Adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Zellyne

    2000-05-01

    Functional literacy is interpreted as the ability of the individual to apply skills in reading, writing, calculation and basic problem-solving in those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his/her own group and community. The paper describes the rationale, development and administration of the test used for measuring levels (high, moderate, low) of achievement in functional literacy in three domains (document, prose and quantitative). An assumption of the study was that a high level of functional literacy was required for the individual to function effectively in his/her own group and community. The context of the study is Guyana the most underdeveloped and impoverished country in the English-speaking Caribbean. The subjects are out of school youth in Guyana aged 14-25. Amongst the main findings are: only approximately 11% of the young people show a high level of functional literacy; females tend to have a higher level of functional literacy than males: and most of those at the low level never went beyond primary and low status secondary schools and usually end up unemployed or in semi- or unskilled jobs. Attention is drawn to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate which is reported for Guyana in international statistics. While they credit Guyana with an adult literacy rate of 97.5%, the study suggests that a more realistic figure is in the 70s. The importance of adult and continuing education is underscored in view of the need to help those who are out of school to meet the ever-changing demands of society for improved skills in literacy and numeracy.

  8. REVIEW IV: SCIENCE LINKING ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT EXPOSURES WITH FERTILITY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IMPACTS IN THE ADULT FEMALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Design: Reviewed articles indexed in PubMed from 1999-2007 addressing environment and puberty, menstrual and ovarian function, fertility, and menopause. Results: The strongest evidence of environmental contaminant exposures interfering with healthy reproductive function in adu...

  9. The formation and function of the female reproductive tract in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Brian C W; Yanofsky, Martin F

    2008-10-28

    In angiosperms, sexual reproduction requires a sperm cell, contained within a pollen tube, to fertilize the egg cell. The pollen tubes are capable of growth but have a difficult journey, as egg cells are buried within the ovary of the carpel. Several tissues, known collectively as the reproductive tract, develop within the carpel to facilitate the journey of the pollen tube. The genes involved in the formation and function of the reproductive tract have largely remained a mystery but are crucial for successful fertilization. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the genetic control of reproductive tract development.

  10. Beyond Leptin: Emerging Candidates for the Integration of Metabolic and Reproductive Function during Negative Energy Balance.

    PubMed

    True, Cadence; Grove, Kevin L; Smith, M Susan

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive status is tightly coupled to metabolic state in females, and ovarian cycling in mammals is halted when energy output exceeds energy input, a metabolic condition known as negative energy balance. This inhibition of reproductive function during negative energy balance occurs due to suppression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release in the hypothalamus. The GnRH secretagogue kisspeptin is also inhibited during negative energy balance, indicating that inhibition of reproductive neuroendocrine circuits may occur upstream of GnRH itself. Understanding the metabolic signals responsible for the inhibition of reproductive pathways has been a compelling research focus for many years. A predominant theory in the field is that the status of energy balance is conveyed to reproductive neuroendocrine circuits via the adipocyte hormone leptin. Leptin is stimulatory for GnRH release and lower levels of leptin during negative energy balance are believed to result in decreased stimulatory drive for GnRH cells. However, recent evidence found that restoring leptin to physiological levels did not restore GnRH function in three different models of negative energy balance. This suggests that although leptin may be an important permissive signal for reproductive function as indicated by many years of research, factors other than leptin must critically contribute to negative energy balance-induced reproductive inhibition. This review will focus on emerging candidates for the integration of metabolic status and reproductive function during negative energy balance.

  11. Beyond Leptin: Emerging Candidates for the Integration of Metabolic and Reproductive Function during Negative Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    True, Cadence; Grove, Kevin L.; Smith, M. Susan

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive status is tightly coupled to metabolic state in females, and ovarian cycling in mammals is halted when energy output exceeds energy input, a metabolic condition known as negative energy balance. This inhibition of reproductive function during negative energy balance occurs due to suppression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release in the hypothalamus. The GnRH secretagogue kisspeptin is also inhibited during negative energy balance, indicating that inhibition of reproductive neuroendocrine circuits may occur upstream of GnRH itself. Understanding the metabolic signals responsible for the inhibition of reproductive pathways has been a compelling research focus for many years. A predominant theory in the field is that the status of energy balance is conveyed to reproductive neuroendocrine circuits via the adipocyte hormone leptin. Leptin is stimulatory for GnRH release and lower levels of leptin during negative energy balance are believed to result in decreased stimulatory drive for GnRH cells. However, recent evidence found that restoring leptin to physiological levels did not restore GnRH function in three different models of negative energy balance. This suggests that although leptin may be an important permissive signal for reproductive function as indicated by many years of research, factors other than leptin must critically contribute to negative energy balance-induced reproductive inhibition. This review will focus on emerging candidates for the integration of metabolic status and reproductive function during negative energy balance. PMID:22645510

  12. Effects of chronic exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of brominated flame retardants on the reproductive and thyroid system in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Ernest, Sheila R; Wade, Michael G; Lalancette, Claudia; Ma, Yi-Qian; Berger, Robert G; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F

    2012-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are incorporated into a wide variety of consumer products, are readily released into home and work environments, and are present in house dust. Studies using animal models have revealed that exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may impair adult male reproductive function and thyroid hormone physiology. Such studies have generally characterized the outcome of acute or chronic exposure to a single BFR technical mixture or congener but not the impact of environmentally relevant BFR mixtures. We tested whether exposure to the BFRs found in house dust would have an adverse impact on the adult male rat reproductive system and thyroid function. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to a complex BFR mixture composed of three commercial brominated diphenyl ethers (52.1% DE-71, 0.4% DE-79, and 44.2% decaBDE-209) and hexabromocyclododecane (3.3%), formulated to mimic the relative congener levels in house dust. BFRs were delivered in the diet at target doses of 0, 0.02, 0.2, 2, or 20 mg/kg/day for 70 days. Compared with controls, males exposed to the highest dose of BFRs displayed a significant increase in the weights of the kidneys and liver, which was accompanied by induction of CYP1A and CYP2B P450 hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. BFR exposure did not affect reproductive organ weights, serum testosterone levels, testicular function, or sperm DNA integrity. The highest dose caused thyroid toxicity as indicated by decreased serum thyroxine (T4) and hypertrophy of the thyroid gland epithelium. At lower doses, the thickness of the thyroid gland epithelium was reduced, but no changes in hormone levels (T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone) were observed. Thus, exposure to BFRs affected liver and thyroid physiology but not male reproductive parameters.

  13. Diverse functions of uterine proteoglycans in human reproduction (review).

    PubMed

    Kitaya, Kotaro; Tada, Yoshihiro; Hayashi, Terumi; Taguchi, Sagiri; Funabiki, Miyako; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Yasuo, Tadahiro

    2012-06-01

    Proteoglycans (PGs) are a group of heavily glycosylated proteins that are present throughout the mammalian body and are involved in a wide variety of biological phenomena, including structural maintenance, tissue remodeling, molecular presentation, cell adhesion and signal transmission. Previous studies have revealed an increasing number of roles for PGs in human reproduction. Several PGs are currently utilized or regarded as biomarkers for the diagnosis of certain pathological uterine conditions associated with infertility and obstetrical complications. The aim of this review was to discuss the involvement of PGs in the human uterus in reproductive biology and pathophysiology.

  14. Roles for oestrogen receptor β in adult brain function.

    PubMed

    Handa, R J; Ogawa, S; Wang, J M; Herbison, A E

    2012-01-01

    Oestradiol exerts a profound influence upon multiple brain circuits. For the most part, these effects are mediated by oestrogen receptor (ER)α. We review here the roles of ERβ, the other ER isoform, in mediating rodent oestradiol-regulated anxiety, aggressive and sexual behaviours, the control of gonadotrophin secretion, and adult neurogenesis. Evidence exists for: (i) ERβ located in the paraventricular nucleus underpinning the suppressive influence of oestradiol on the stress axis and anxiety-like behaviour; (ii) ERβ expressed in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones contributing to oestrogen negative-feedback control of gonadotrophin secretion; (iii) ERβ controlling the offset of lordosis behaviour; (iv) ERβ suppressing aggressive behaviour in males; (v) ERβ modulating responses to social stimuli; and (vi) ERβ in controlling adult neurogenesis. This review highlights two major themes; first, ERβ and ERα are usually tightly inter-related in the oestradiol-dependent control of a particular brain function. For example, even though oestradiol feedback to control reproduction occurs principally through ERα-dependent mechanisms, modulatory roles for ERβ also exist. Second, the roles of ERα and ERβ within a particular neural network may be synergistic or antagonistic. Examples of the latter include the role of ERα to enhance, and ERβ to suppress, anxiety-like and aggressive behaviours. Splice variants such as ERβ2, acting as dominant negative receptors, are of further particular interest because their expression levels may reflect preceeding oestradiol exposure of relevance to oestradiol replacement therapy. Together, this review highlights the predominant modulatory, but nonetheless important, roles of ERβ in mediating the many effects of oestradiol upon adult brain function.

  15. Sexual and Reproductive Function in Spinal Cord Injury and Spinal Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Theodore H.; Grabel, Zachary; DePasse, J. Mason; Palumbo, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual and reproductive health is important quality of life outcomes, which can have a major impact on patient satisfaction. Spinal pathology arising from trauma, deformity, and degenerative disease processes may be detrimental to sexual and reproductive function. Furthermore, spine surgery may impact sexual and reproductive function due to post-surgical mechanical, neurologic, and psychological factors. The aim of this paper is to provide a concise evidence-based review on the impact that spine surgery and pathology can have on sexual and reproductive function. A review of published literature regarding sexual and reproductive function in spinal injury and spinal surgery patients was performed. We have found that sexual and reproductive dysfunction can occur due to numerous etiological factors associated with spinal pathology. Numerous treatment options are available for those patients, depending on the degree of dysfunction. Spine surgeons and non-operative healthcare providers should be aware of the issues surrounding sexual and reproductive function as related to spine pathology and spine surgery. It is important for spine surgeons to educate their patients on the operative risks that spine surgery encompasses with regard to sexual dysfunction, although current data examining these topics largely consists of level IV data. PMID:26605025

  16. A novel hormone is required for the development of reproductive phenotypes in adult female crabs.

    PubMed

    Zmora, Nilli; Chung, J Sook

    2014-01-01

    The crustacean male-specific androgenic hormone is widely accepted as a key factor in sexual differentiation and in the development of secondary sex characteristics. However, the mechanism by which the plethora of different reproductive strategies are controlled and executed in crustaceans is not known. We discovered in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, a hitherto unknown neurohormone, named crustacean female sex hormone (CFSH), in distinct neurosecretory cells in the eyestalk ganglia. CFSH is highly expressed in females but weakly in males, and its crucial role in developing adult female phenotypes has now been established. CFSH cDNA encodes a 225-amino acid (aa) novel protein composed of a 23-aa predicted signal peptide, 33-aa precursor-related peptide and 167-aa mature protein that did not match any other sequence in GenBank. CFSH RNA interference knockdown by multiple administrations of double-stranded RNA at the prepubertal stage causes abnormal development of brooding and mating systems upon puberty. These systems include a pair of gonopores and an egg attachment system for brooding, comprised of an enlarged semicircular abdomen and ovigerous setae. The ovigerous setae in CFSH knocked-down females were fewer and 50% shorter and the gonopores were either significantly smaller than those of controls, misplaced, or absent. We also identified CFSH in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, a species that shares a similar reproductive strategy with C. sapidus. Together, our data provide the first evidence for the presence of a female hormone in crustaceans and its importance in positively controlling anatomic features associated with brooding and mating systems. From an evolutionary standpoint, the endocrine control supporting a female-specific reproductive strategy, as previously described for many vertebrate species, has now been demonstrated for the first time in crustaceans.

  17. The effects of kisspeptin in human reproductive function - therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2013-03-01

    Kisspeptin is a 54-amino acid peptide which is encoded by the KiSS-1 gene and activates the G protein-coupled receptor GPR54. Evidence suggests that this system is a key regulator of mammalian and human reproduction. Animal studies have shown that GPR54-deficient mice have abnormal sexual development. Central and peripheral administration of kisspeptin stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis whilst pre-administration of a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist abolishes this effect. In humans, inactivating GPR54 mutations cause normosmic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism whilst activation of GPR54 signalling is associated with premature puberty. In healthy human volunteers, the acute intravenous administration of kisspeptin potently increases plasma luteinising hormone (LH) levels and significantly increases plasma follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone without side effects in both males and in females particularly in the preovulatatory phase of the menstrual cycle. In infertility due to hypothalamic amenorrhoea acute administration of kisspeptin results in stimulation of reproductive hormones. The kisspeptin/GPR54 system therefore appears to play an important role in the regulation of reproduction in humans. Hence kisspeptin has potential as a novel tool for the manipulation of the HPG axis and treatment of infertility in humans. This review discusses the evidence highlighting kisspeptin's key role in human reproduction.

  18. A juvenile-adult population model: climate change, cannibalism, reproductive synchrony, and strong Allee effects.

    PubMed

    Veprauskas, Amy; Cushing, J M

    2017-03-01

    We study a discrete time, structured population dynamic model that is motivated by recent field observations concerning certain life history strategies of colonial-nesting gulls, specifically the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens). The model focuses on mechanisms hypothesized to play key roles in a population's response to degraded environment resources, namely, increased cannibalism and adjustments in reproductive timing. We explore the dynamic consequences of these mechanics using a juvenile-adult structure model. Mathematically, the model is unusual in that it involves a high co-dimension bifurcation at [Formula: see text] which, in turn, leads to a dynamic dichotomy between equilibrium states and synchronized oscillatory states. We give diagnostic criteria that determine which dynamic is stable. We also explore strong Allee effects caused by positive feedback mechanisms in the model and the possible consequence that a cannibalistic population can survive when a non-cannibalistic population cannot.

  19. Challenges in current adult fish laboratory reproductive tests: suggestions for refinement using a mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) case study.

    PubMed

    Bosker, Thijs; Munkittrick, Kelly R; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2009-11-01

    Concerns about screening endocrine-active contaminants have led to the development of a number of short-term fish reproductive tests. A review conducted of 62 published adult fish reproductive papers using various fish species found low samples sizes (mean of 5.7 replicates with a median of 5 replicates) and high variance (an average coefficient of variance of 43.8%). The high variances and low sample sizes allow only relatively large differences to be detected with the current protocols; the average significant difference detected was a 68.7% reduction in egg production, while only differences above 50% were detected with confidence. This result indicates low power to detect more subtle differences and a high probability of type II errors in interpretation. The present study identifies several ways to increase the power of the adult fish reproductive test in the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). By identifying the peak timing of egg production (before and after the new moon), extending the duration of the experiment (increased from 7 to 14 d), and determining that a sample size of eight replicate tanks per treatment accurately predicts variance in the sample population (based on pre-exposure variation calculations of replicate tanks), the power of the test has been significantly increased. The present study demonstrates that weaknesses in the current adult fish reproductive tests can easily be addressed by focusing on improved understanding of the reproductive behavior of the test species and developing study designs that include calculating desired variability levels and increasing replicates.

  20. [The reproductive characteristics of adolescents and young adults in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    García-Baltazar, J; Figueroa-Perea, J G; Reyes-Zapata, H; Brindis, C; Pérez-Palacios, G

    1993-01-01

    This article presents the preliminary findings of the Survey on Teenagers and Youth Reproductive Behavior in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, which contains information on 1,010 teenagers and young adults from 10 to 25 years of age interviewed in 1987. The average age was 17 years; 51.7 per cent of those interviewed were male and 48.3 per cent were female. A total of 14.6 per cent were married, being the average age at marriage 19.2 years for males and 17.8 years for females. Menarche occurred at an average age of 12.4 years, and spermarche at 14. Of those interviewed, 32.7 per cent have had sexual intercourse at least once in their lives. The average age at which sexual activity had begun, in the case of males, was 16 years and for females, 17 years. Of this group, 33.8 per cent stated that they had used some form of contraception during the first sexual intercourse; the contraceptive methods used most often were rhythm and withdrawal. The main source of supply of other methods is the pharmacy, in 67 per cent. 18.4 per cent of women had been pregnant, and 20.4 per cent of men's partners had presented this same condition. The first pregnancy occurred at 17.8 years for women and 18.7 for men. Of those men and women with a pregnancy experience 66.1 per cent and 57.3 per cent, respectively, stated that their first pregnancy was an unplanned one. Also, first pregnancy was related to their first marriage in 48.1 per cent of women and 82.4 per cent of male. The data presented here will reinforce current knowledge and will enable us to obtain a profile of the reproductive behavior of teenagers and young adults in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

  1. Mercury Reduces Avian Reproductive Success and Imposes Selection: An Experimental Study with Adult- or Lifetime-Exposure in Zebra Finch

    PubMed Central

    Varian-Ramos, Claire W.; Swaddle, John P.; Cristol, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that biomagnifies in food webs, placing wildlife at risk of reduced reproductive fitness and survival. Songbirds are the most diverse branch of the avian evolutionary tree; many are suffering persistent and serious population declines and we know that songbirds are frequently exposed to mercury pollution. Our objective was to determine the effects of environmentally relevant doses of mercury on reproductive success of songbirds exposed throughout their lives or only as adults. The two modes of exposure simulated philopatric species versus dispersive species, and are particularly relevant because of the heightened mercury-sensitivity of developing nervous systems. We performed a dosing study with dietary methylmercury in a model songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), at doses from 0.3 – 2.4 parts per million. Birds were exposed to mercury either as adults only or throughout their lives. All doses of mercury reduced reproductive success, with the lowest dose reducing the number of independent offspring produced in one year by 16% and the highest dose, representing approximately half the lethal dose for this species, causing a 50% reduction. While mercury did not affect clutch size or survivorship, it had the most consistent effect on the proportion of chicks that fledged from the nest, regardless of mode of exposure. Among birds exposed as adults, mercury caused a steep increase in the latency to re-nest after loss of a clutch. Birds exposed for their entire lifetimes, which were necessarily the offspring of dosed parents, had up to 50% lower reproductive success than adult-exposed birds at low doses of methylmercury, but increased reproductive success at high doses, suggesting selection for mercury tolerance at the highest level of exposure. Our results indicate that mercury levels in prey items at contaminated sites pose a significant threat to populations of songbirds through reduced reproductive success. PMID

  2. Copper-induced changes in reproductive functions: in vivo and in vitro effects.

    PubMed

    Roychoudhury, S; Nath, S; Massanyi, P; Stawarz, R; Kacaniova, M; Kolesarova, A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to summarize the current knowledge on the effects of one of the essential metals, copper (Cu) on the reproductive system. The development of past four decades addressing effects of Cu on reproductive organs is reviewed. The most relevant data obtained from in vivo and in vitro experiments performed on humans and other mammals, including effects of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) on the reproductive functions are presented. Short term Cu administration has been found to exert deleterious effect on intracellular organelles of rat ovarian cells in vivo. In vitro administration in porcine ovarian granulosa cells releases insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), steroid hormone progesterone (P(4)), and induces expression of peptides related to proliferation and apoptosis. Adverse effect of Cu on male reproductive functions has been indicated by the decrease in spermatozoa parameters such as concentration, viability and motility. Copper nanoparticles are capable of generating oxidative stress in vitro thereby leading to reproductive toxicity. Toxic effect of CuNPs has been evident more in male mice than in females. Even though further investigations are necessary to arrive at a definitive conclusion, Cu notably influences the reproductive functions by interfering with both male and female reproductive systems and also hampers embryo development in dose-dependent manner.

  3. Beadex function in the motor neurons is essential for female reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kairamkonda, Subhash; Nongthomba, Upendra

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has served as an excellent model system for understanding the neuronal circuits and molecular mechanisms regulating complex behaviors. The Drosophila female reproductive circuits, in particular, are well studied and can be used as a tool to understand the role of novel genes in neuronal function in general and female reproduction in particular. In the present study, the role of Beadex, a transcription co-activator, in Drosophila female reproduction was assessed by generation of mutant and knock down studies. Null allele of Beadex was generated by transposase induced excision of P-element present within an intron of Beadex gene. The mutant showed highly compromised reproductive abilities as evaluated by reduced fecundity and fertility, abnormal oviposition and more importantly, the failure of sperm release from storage organs. However, no defect was found in the overall ovariole development. Tissue specific, targeted knock down of Beadex indicated that its function in neurons is important for efficient female reproduction, since its neuronal knock down led to compromised female reproductive abilities, similar to Beadex null females. Further, different neuronal class specific knock down studies revealed that Beadex function is required in motor neurons for normal fecundity and fertility of females. Thus, the present study attributes a novel and essential role for Beadex in female reproduction through neurons.

  4. Influence of Reproductive Aging of the Cow on Luteal Function and Period 1 mRNA Expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In rodents, disruption of the circadian clock genes results in increased incidence of anovulation, irregular estrous cycles, decreased luteal function, and accelerated reproductive ageing. In cattle, reproductive ageing is associated with decreased numbers of follicles in the ovary, decreased lutea...

  5. Perfluorooctane sulfonate effects on the reproductive axis in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    López-Doval, S; Salgado, R; Pereiro, N; Moyano, R; Lafuente, A

    2014-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a neurotoxic agent and it can disrupt the endocrine system activity. This work was undertaken to evaluate the possible effects of PFOS exposure on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (HPT) in adult male rats, and to evaluate the possible morphological alterations induced by PFOS in the endocrine tissues of this axis. Adult male rats were orally treated with 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day for 28 days. After PFOS exposure, hypothalamic noradrenaline concentration increased in the anterior hypothalamus and in the median eminence, not changing in the mediobasal hypothalamus. PFOS treated rats presented a decrease of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) gene expression, increasing the mRNA levels of the luteinizing hormone (LH) in rats treated with all doses administered except with the dose of 6 mg/kg/day. PFOS also induced a raise of the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) gene expression in the animals exposed to 0.5 and 1.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day. After PFOS exposure, hypothalamic GnRH concentration was modified, LH and testosterone release was inhibited and FSH secretion was stimulated. Moreover, PFOS induced several histopathological alterations in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and testis. The results obtained in the present study suggest in general terms that PFOS can inhibit the physiological activity of the reproductive axis in adult male rats, which could be explained, at least in part, by the structural alterations showed in the animals exposed to this chemical: very dense chromatin, condensed ribosomes and a loss of the morphology in the hypothalamus; a degeneration of the gonadotrophic cells, as well as a loss and degeneration of the spermatozoids and a very marked edema in the testis.

  6. Novel function of LHFPL2 in female and male distal reproductive tract development

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fei; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rong; Dudley, Elizabeth A.; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    Congenital reproductive tract anomalies could impair fertility. Female and male reproductive tracts are developed from Müllerian ducts and Wolffian ducts, respectively, involving initiation, elongation and differentiation. Genetic basis solely for distal reproductive tract development is largely unknown. Lhfpl2 (lipoma HMGIC fusion partner-like 2) encodes a tetra-transmembrane protein with unknown functions. It is expressed in follicle cells of ovary and epithelial cells of reproductive tracts. A spontaneous point mutation of Lhfpl2 (LHFPL2G102E) leads to infertility in 100% female mice, which have normal ovarian development, ovulation, uterine development, and uterine response to exogenous estrogen stimulation, but abnormal upper longitudinal vaginal septum and lower vaginal agenesis. Infertility is also observed in ~70% mutant males, which have normal mating behavior and sperm counts, but abnormal distal vas deferens convolution resulting in complete and incomplete blockage of reproductive tract in infertile and fertile males, respectively. On embryonic day 15.5, mutant Müllerian ducts and Wolffian ducts have elongated but their duct tips are enlarged and fail to merge with the urogenital sinus. These findings provide a novel function of LHFPL2 and a novel genetic basis for distal reproductive tract development; they also emphasize the importance of an additional merging phase for proper reproductive tract development. PMID:26964900

  7. Novel function of LHFPL2 in female and male distal reproductive tract development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rong; Dudley, Elizabeth A; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2016-03-11

    Congenital reproductive tract anomalies could impair fertility. Female and male reproductive tracts are developed from Müllerian ducts and Wolffian ducts, respectively, involving initiation, elongation and differentiation. Genetic basis solely for distal reproductive tract development is largely unknown. Lhfpl2 (lipoma HMGIC fusion partner-like 2) encodes a tetra-transmembrane protein with unknown functions. It is expressed in follicle cells of ovary and epithelial cells of reproductive tracts. A spontaneous point mutation of Lhfpl2 (LHFPL2(G102E)) leads to infertility in 100% female mice, which have normal ovarian development, ovulation, uterine development, and uterine response to exogenous estrogen stimulation, but abnormal upper longitudinal vaginal septum and lower vaginal agenesis. Infertility is also observed in ~70% mutant males, which have normal mating behavior and sperm counts, but abnormal distal vas deferens convolution resulting in complete and incomplete blockage of reproductive tract in infertile and fertile males, respectively. On embryonic day 15.5, mutant Müllerian ducts and Wolffian ducts have elongated but their duct tips are enlarged and fail to merge with the urogenital sinus. These findings provide a novel function of LHFPL2 and a novel genetic basis for distal reproductive tract development; they also emphasize the importance of an additional merging phase for proper reproductive tract development.

  8. The Effects of Pyridaben Pesticide on the Histomorphometric, Hormonal Alternations and Reproductive Functions of BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi Manas, Ghodrat; Hasanzadeh, Shapour; Parivar, Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): The adverse effects of pyridaben on reproductive system in male animals are not well established. This study was designed to elucidate how pyridaben can effects the histomorphometric, hormonal alternations and reproductive functions of BALB/c mice. Materials and Methods: For this study, 80 adult and apparently healthy male BALB/c mice were divided into three groups Viz, control, test group 1 and test group 2. Test groups 1 and 2 were received the toxin at doses of 53 mg/kg. BW, and 212 mg/kg. BW, respectively. The experiment period for both groups was 10, 25 and 45 days. Results: The levels of FSH, LH and testosterone were significantly (P<0.05) decreased on the dose and time dependant means. The levels of the ROS and NOS were significantly (P<0.05) increased in all test groups. The percent body weight gains significantly (P<0.05) reduced, whereas weights significantly (P<0.05) increased in test groups in a dose and time dependant manner. The histomorphometric and stereologic findings, including diameters of somniferous tubules, thickness of somniferous tubules epithelium, the leydig's cell distribution, TDI, SI, RI revealed that, all these parameters are also significantly (P<0.05) reduces in test groups in a dose and time dependant manner. Conclusion: Pyridaben causes histomorphometric and stereologic changes in testis, as well as hormonal and reproductive functional alternations in BALB/c mice. PMID:24379962

  9. Reproduction of Bacillus stearothermophilus as a Function of Temperature and Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Yayanos, A. Aristides; Van Boxtel, R.; Dietz, Allan S.

    1983-01-01

    The colony-forming ability and the rate of reproduction of Bacillus stearothermophilus were determined as a function of temperature and pressure. Colonies were formed between 39 and 70°C at atmospheric pressure and between 54 and 67°C at 45 MPa. Colonies did not form at 55.9 MPa. The rate of reproduction in broth cultures decreased with increasing pressure at all temperatures. The rate of reproduction diminished rapidly with pressure above 10.4 MPa. Therefore, increased hydrostatic pressure was not sufficient to enable B. stearothermophilus to function beyond the temperature limiting growth and reproduction at atmospheric pressure, and B. stearothermophilus should grow in naturally or artificially warmed regions of the deep sea, where the pressure is less than approximately 50 MPa, although growth rates would be low above 10 MPa. PMID:16346444

  10. Insulin: its role in the central control of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sliwowska, Joanna H; Fergani, Chrysanthi; Gawałek, Monika; Skowronska, Bogda; Fichna, Piotr; Lehman, Michael N

    2014-06-22

    Insulin has long been recognized as a key regulator of energy homeostasis via its actions at the level of the brain, but in addition, plays a role in regulating neural control of reproduction. In this review, we consider and compare evidence from animal models demonstrating a role for insulin for physiological control of reproduction by effects on GnRH/LH secretion. We also review the role that insulin plays in prenatal programming of adult reproduction, and consider specific candidate neurons in the adult hypothalamus by which insulin may act to regulate reproductive function. Finally, we review clinical evidence of the role that insulin may play in adult human fertility and reproductive disorders. Overall, while insulin appears to have a significant impact on reproductive neuroendocrine function, there are many unanswered questions regarding its precise sites and mechanisms of action, and their impact on developing and adult reproductive neuroendocrine function.

  11. The importance of assessing priorities of reproductive health concerns among adolescent and young adult patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Devin; Klosky, James L; Reed, Damon R; Termuhlen, Amanda M; Shannon, Susan V; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2015-08-01

    Visions for the future are a normal developmental process for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with and without cancer, and these visions often include expectations of sexual and romantic relationships. AYA cancer survivors indicate reproductive health is an issue of great importance and more attention is needed in the health care setting throughout the cancer experience, beginning at diagnosis. Various practice guidelines are predominately focused on fertility; are intended to influence survivorship care plans; and do not encompass the broad scope of reproductive health that includes romantic partnering, friendships, body image, sexuality, sexual identity, fertility, contraception, and more. Although interventions to reduce reproductive health-related sequelae from treatment are best approached as an evolving process, practitioners are not certain of the priorities of these various reproductive health content areas. Strategies incongruent with the reproductive health priorities of AYAs will likely thwart adequate follow-up care and foster feelings of isolation from the treatment team. Research is needed to identify these priorities and ensure discussions of diverse content areas. This review explored various domains of reproductive health and emphasized how understanding the priorities of the AYA cancer cohort will guide future models of care.

  12. The value of eutherian-marsupial comparisons for understanding the function of glucocorticoids in female mammal reproduction.

    PubMed

    Fanson, Kerry V; Parrott, Marissa L

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Chronic stress is known to inhibit female reproductive function. Consequently, it is often assumed that glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations should be negatively correlated with reproductive success because of the role they play in stress physiology. In contrast, a growing body of evidence indicates that GCs play an active role in promoting reproductive function. It is precisely because GCs are so integral to the entire process that disruptions to adrenal activity have negative consequences for reproduction. The goal of this paper is to draw attention to the increasing evidence showing that increases in adrenal activity are important for healthy female reproduction. Furthermore, we outline several hypotheses about the functional role(s) that GCs may play in mediating reproduction and argue that comparative studies between eutherian and marsupial mammals, which exhibit some pronounced differences in reproductive physiology, may be particularly useful for testing different hypotheses about the functional role of GCs in reproduction. Much of our current thinking about GCs and reproduction comes from research involving stress-induced levels of GCs and has led to broad assumptions about the effects of GCs on reproduction. Unfortunately, this has left a gaping hole in our knowledge about basal GC levels and how they may influence reproductive function, thereby preventing a broader understanding of adrenal physiology and obscuring potential solutions for reproductive dysfunction.

  13. The roles of melanin-concentrating hormone in energy balance and reproductive function: Are they connected?

    PubMed

    Naufahu, Jane; Cunliffe, Adam D; Murray, Joanne F

    2013-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an anabolic neuropeptide with multiple and diverse physiological functions including a key role in energy homoeostasis. Rodent studies have shown that the ablation of functional MCH results in a lean phenotype, increased energy expenditure and resistance to diet-induced obesity. These findings have generated interest among pharmaceutical companies vigilant for potential anti-obesity agents. Nutritional status affects reproductive physiology and behaviours, thereby optimising reproductive success and the ability to meet energetic demands. This complex control system entails the integration of direct or indirect peripheral stimuli with central effector systems and involves numerous mediators. A role for MCH in the reproductive axis has emerged, giving rise to the premise that MCH may serve as an integratory mediator between those discrete systems that regulate energy balance and reproductive function. Hence, this review focuses on published evidence concerning i) the role of MCH in energy homoeostasis and ii) the regulatory role of MCH in the reproductive axis. The question as to whether the MCH system mediates the integration of energy homoeostasis with the neuroendocrine reproductive axis and, if so, by what means has received limited coverage in the literature; evidence to date and current theories are summarised herein.

  14. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  15. Functional Impacts of Adult Literacy Programme on Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the functional impacts of adult literacy programme among rural women participants in Ishielu Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was made up of 115 adult instructors and 2,408 adult learners giving a total of 2,623. The sample…

  16. HORMONAL CONTROL OF OVARIAN FUNCTION FOLLOWING CHLOROTRIAZINE EXPOSURE: EFFECT ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION AND MAMMARY GLAND TUMOR DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hormonal Control of Ovarian Function Following Chlorotriazine Exposure: Effect on Reproductive Function and Mammary Gland Tumor Development.

    Ralph L. Cooper, Susan C. Laws, Michael G. Narotsky, Jerome M. Goldman, and Tammy E. Stoker

    Abstract
    The studies review...

  17. Reproductive health in the adolescent and young adult cancer patient: an innovative training program for oncology nurses.

    PubMed

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Hutchins, Nicole M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2013-03-01

    In 2008, approximately 69,200 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) were diagnosed with cancer, second only to heart disease for males in this age group. Despite recent guidelines from professional organizations and clinical research that AYA oncology patients want information about reproductive health topics and physician support for nurses to address these issues with patients, existing research finds few oncology nurses discuss this topic with patients due to barriers such as lack of training. This article describes an innovative eLearning training program, entitled Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare. The threefold purpose of this article is to: (1) highlight major reproductive health concerns relevant to cancer patients, (2) describe the current status of reproductive health and oncology communication and the target audience for the training, and (3) present a systematic approach to curriculum development, including the content analysis and design stages as well as the utilization of feedback from a panel of experts. The resulting 10-week curriculum contains a broad-based approach to reproductive health communication aimed at creating individual- and practice-level change.

  18. [Toxicology of reproduction and development. Changes in the male reproductive function caused by drugs and pollutants: potential effects on offspring].

    PubMed

    Mariani, L; Minora, T; Acerboni, F; Ventresca, G P

    1995-10-01

    Published clinical observations underline the difficulty of defining with epidemiological studies the effects that chemicals such as drugs, illicit substances environmental and workplace pollutants might have on the offspring through the male parent. The Authors highlight how defining this issue might help both guide preclinical research and evaluate correctly clinical observations which are often difficult to interpret based only on observations in the female parent. Clinical research already available shows that some chemicals are able to modify fertility by acting either at the neuroendocrine level or on the testis. However, it is more difficult to identify and quantify the potential damage to the offsprings during the different phases of pregnancy and postnatal life. Finally, the Authors discuss the parameters that should be considered to obtain an algorithm for evaluating the reproductive risk in males, along the lines of the risk for the embryo and fetus due to the use of drugs during pregnancy. Moreover, it is suggested that among the unwanted effects of drugs and pollutants, those related to the different components and phases of the male reproductive function be reported also in relation to the patient's age.

  19. Relationship Functioning Among Adult Children of Alcoholics*

    PubMed Central

    Kearns-Bodkin, Jill N.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current research was to examine the impact of both maternal and paternal alcoholism on the relationship functioning of husbands and wives over the early years of marriage. Method: Couples (N = 634) were assessed at the time of marriage, and again at their first, second, and fourth anniversaries. Husbands and wives completed separate, self-administered questionnaires at home. Results: Results of separate repeated measures analyses of covariance revealed that, for both husbands and wives, the appraisal of their marital relationship was associated with alcoholism in the opposite gender parent. That is, for husbands, alcoholism in the mother was associated with lower marital satisfaction across the 4 years of marriage. For wives, alcoholism in the father was related to lower marital intimacy. Husbands' physical aggression was influenced by mother's and father's alcoholism; high levels of physical aggression were present among men with alcoholic mothers and nonalcoholic fathers. Interestingly, wives' experience of husband's aggression was also highest among women with alcoholic mothers and nonalcoholic fathers. Wives also reported engaging in high levels of physical aggression when they had an alcoholic mother and a nonalcoholic father, but this effect was restricted to the early part of the marriage. Finally, parental alcoholism was associated with both husbands' and wives' attachment representations. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that children raised in alcoholic families may carry the problematic effects of their early family environment into their adult romantic relationships. PMID:18925353

  20. Systemic vascular function is associated with muscular power in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-associated loss of muscular strength and muscular power are critical determinants of loss of physical function and progression to disability in older adults. In this study, we examined the association of systemic vascular function and measures of muscle strength and power in older adults. Measu...

  1. Functional Outcomes in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Levine, Louise R.; Ramsey, Janet L.; Tamura, Roy; Kelsey, Douglas; Ball, Susan G.; Allen, Albert J.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in adults. The present study examined functional outcomes following 6-month double-blind treatment with either atomoxetine or placebo. Method: Patients were 410 adults (58.5% male) with "DSM-IV"--defined ADHD. They were randomly assigned to receive either atomoxetine 40 mg/day to…

  2. Functional Impairment and Occupational Outcome in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…

  3. Serum levels of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) in relation to markers of reproductive function in young males from the general Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Richthoff, Jonas; Rylander, Lars; Jönsson, Bo A G; Akesson, Heléne; Hagmar, Lars; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter; Stridsberg, Mats; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2003-04-01

    A time-related deterioration in male reproductive function caused by exposure to endocrine disrupters, including persistent organochlorines (POCs), has been hypothesized. In animal studies, POCs were found to have adverse effects on male reproductive function. However, little is known about the impact of POC exposure on reproductive parameters in men. In a study of 305 young Swedish men 18-21 years old from the general population, we correlated lipid-adjusted serum levels of 2,2',4,4',5,5' -hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153)--an index substance for POC exposure--to markers of male reproductive function: testis size assessed by ultrasound, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility assessed manually and with a computer-aided sperm analyzer (CASA), and serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, inhibin B, testosterone, sexual hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone, and estradiol. We found weak but statistically significant, negative correlations between CB-153 levels and both the testosterone:SHBG ratio (r = -0.25, p < 0.001)--a measure of the biologically active free testosterone fraction--and CASA sperm motility (r = -0.13, p = 0.02). No statistically significant association with other seminal, hormonal, or clinical markers of male reproductive function was found. In previous studies of more highly POC-exposed groups of adult men, the correlation between POC exposure, including CB-153, and free testosterone levels was not statistically significant. The present study gives some tentative support for weak negative effects of CB-153 exposure on sperm motility and free testosterone levels in young men, but further semen studies on more highly exposed groups may give more firm conclusions on the hazard for male reproductive function from dietary POC exposure.

  4. Relationship between reproduction traits and functional longevity in canadian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Sewalem, A; Miglior, F; Kistemaker, G J; Sullivan, P; Van Doormaal, B J

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to use survival analysis to assess the relationship between reproduction traits and functional longevity of Canadian dairy cattle. Data consisted of 1,702,857; 67,470; and 33,190 Holstein, Ayrshire, and Jersey cows, respectively. Functional longevity was defined as the number of days from first calving to culling, death, or censoring; adjusted for the effect of milk yield. The reproduction traits included calving traits (calving ease, calf size, and calf survival) and female fertility traits (number of services, days from calving to first service, days from first service to conception, and days open). The statistical model was a Weibull proportional hazards model and included the fixed effects of stage of lactation, season of production, the annual change in herd size, and type of milk recording supervision, age at first calving, effects of milk, fat, and protein yields calculated as within herd-year-parity deviations for each reproduction trait. Herd-year-season of calving and sire were included as random effects. Analysis was performed separately for each reproductive trait. Significant associations between reproduction traits and longevity were observed in all breeds. Increased risk of culling was observed for cows that required hard pull, calved small calves, or dead calves. Moreover, cows that require more services per conception, a longer interval between first service to conception, an interval between calving to first service greater than 90 d, and increased days open were at greater risk of being culled.

  5. Reproductive system of females of the Magdalena river endemic stingray Potamotrygon magdalenae: Anatomical and functional aspects.

    PubMed

    del Mar Pedreros-Sierra, Tania; Arrieta-Prieto, Dagoberto M; Mejía-Falla, Paola A

    2016-05-01

    We studied anatomical and functional aspects of the reproductive system of females of the Magdalena river stingray Potamotrygon magdalenae using microscopic and macroscopic analysis of each organ. Although the reproductive tract was fully functional on both side, the left organs possibly have a greater contribution to reproductive success, because left ovary and uterus were more developed and had higher number of oocytes and embryos, respectively, than the right ones. This species has histotrophic viviparity given by the presence of uterine trophonemata and by glandular character in pregnant and postpartum females. We suggest that the epigonal organ is involved in the degradation of components of atretic follicles and the embryos begin to develop surrounded by a gelatinous tertiary envelope produced by the oviducal gland. This latter organ is composed by three zones in mature females, club, papillary, and baffle zone, as described for other elasmobranchs. From the anatomical observations, a maturity scale comprising six sexual maturity stages (Immature I, Immature II, early mature, pregnant, post-partum, and regenerating) was established for female P. magdalenae, and it can be useful as basis for reproductive studies of other potamotrygonid species. Finally, we propose a continuous reproductive cycle for P. magdalenae.

  6. The role of estradiol in male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Schulster, Michael; Bernie, Aaron M; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, testosterone and estrogen have been considered to be male and female sex hormones, respectively. However, estradiol, the predominant form of estrogen, also plays a critical role in male sexual function. Estradiol in men is essential for modulating libido, erectile function, and spermatogenesis. Estrogen receptors, as well as aromatase, the enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogen, are abundant in brain, penis, and testis, organs important for sexual function. In the brain, estradiol synthesis is increased in areas related to sexual arousal. In addition, in the penis, estrogen receptors are found throughout the corpus cavernosum with high concentration around neurovascular bundles. Low testosterone and elevated estrogen increase the incidence of erectile dysfunction independently of one another. In the testes, spermatogenesis is modulated at every level by estrogen, starting with the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, followed by the Leydig, Sertoli, and germ cells, and finishing with the ductal epithelium, epididymis, and mature sperm. Regulation of testicular cells by estradiol shows both an inhibitory and a stimulatory influence, indicating an intricate symphony of dose-dependent and temporally sensitive modulation. Our goal in this review is to elucidate the overall contribution of estradiol to male sexual function by looking at the hormone's effects on erectile function, spermatogenesis, and libido. PMID:26908066

  7. The role of estradiol in male reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Schulster, Michael; Bernie, Aaron M; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, testosterone and estrogen have been considered to be male and female sex hormones, respectively. However, estradiol, the predominant form of estrogen, also plays a critical role in male sexual function. Estradiol in men is essential for modulating libido, erectile function, and spermatogenesis. Estrogen receptors, as well as aromatase, the enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogen, are abundant in brain, penis, and testis, organs important for sexual function. In the brain, estradiol synthesis is increased in areas related to sexual arousal. In addition, in the penis, estrogen receptors are found throughout the corpus cavernosum with high concentration around neurovascular bundles. Low testosterone and elevated estrogen increase the incidence of erectile dysfunction independently of one another. In the testes, spermatogenesis is modulated at every level by estrogen, starting with the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, followed by the Leydig, Sertoli, and germ cells, and finishing with the ductal epithelium, epididymis, and mature sperm. Regulation of testicular cells by estradiol shows both an inhibitory and a stimulatory influence, indicating an intricate symphony of dose-dependent and temporally sensitive modulation. Our goal in this review is to elucidate the overall contribution of estradiol to male sexual function by looking at the hormone's effects on erectile function, spermatogenesis, and libido.

  8. EFFECTS OF 3 WEEK EXPOSURES TO METAM SODIUM ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN THE FEMALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metam sodium (MS) is a soil fumigant and Category III pesticide with a relatively low toxicity in mammals. But, there is some indication that it can impair rodent reproductive function. In ovariectomized, estradiol-primed rats, a single ip injection was reported to block the lute...

  9. EFFECTS OF METAM SODIUM ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN THE FEMALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metam sodium (MS) is a soil fumigant and Category III pesticide with a relatively low toxicity in mammals. But, there is some indication that it can impair rodent reproductive function. In ovariectomized, estradiol-primed rats, a single ip injection was reported to block the lute...

  10. EFFECTS OF 3 WEEK EXPOSURES ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN THE FEMALE RAT TO METAM SODIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metam sodium (MS) is a soil fumigant and Category III pesticide with a relatively low toxicity in mammals. But, there is some indication that it can impair rodent reproductive function. In ovariectomized, estradiol-primed rats, a single ip injection was reported to block the lute...

  11. Characteristic features of reproductive hormone profiles in late adolescent and adult females with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Doehnert, Ulla; Bertelloni, Silvano; Werner, Ralf; Dati, Eleonora; Hiort, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about gonadotropins and sex steroid levels in postpubertal women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). In order to define reproductive hormone profiles in women with CAIS and intact gonads, 42 postpubertal females with proven CAIS (age range 14-50 years) with testes in situ were examined. Reproductive hormone values [testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)] were assessed by commercially available immunoassays. In women with CAIS, LH levels (median 18.5 IU/l, range 5.5-51.1 IU/l) were elevated above the usual adult reference ranges, whereas FSH values (3.5 IU/l, 0.4-16.3 IU/l) were not. Basal T (20 nmol/l, 6-52 nmol/l) and E2 values (113 pmol/l; 18-257 pmol/l) were found in the usual adult male reference ranges; SHBG levels (53 nmol/l, 15-180 nmol/l) were in the adult female reference range. Calculated free androgen indices (Tx10³/SHBG: 380, 114-863) and aromatization indices (E2/T: 0.052, 0.020-0.196) did not differ from the reference ranges for adult men given in the literature (Tx10³/SHBG: 315-936; E2/T: 0.03-0.07). Reproductive hormone profiles in women with CAIS do not follow the usual male/female pattern, suggesting a specific postpubertal hormone milieu. Albeit calculation of CAIS-specific reference ranges requires larger series and standardization of laboratory methods, these results may be a prerequisite for the identification of pathologic hormone patterns in women with CAIS and gonads in situ. The present data will also be useful to monitor hormone replacement therapy in individuals with removed gonads.

  12. Widespread Presence of Human BOULE Homologs among Animals and Conservation of Their Ancient Reproductive Function

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, Villian; Chen, Yanmei; Lee, Terrance; Angeloni, Nicholas; Wang, Yin; Xu, Eugene Yujun

    2010-01-01

    Sex-specific traits that lead to the production of dimorphic gametes, sperm in males and eggs in females, are fundamental for sexual reproduction and accordingly widespread among animals. Yet the sex-biased genes that underlie these sex-specific traits are under strong selective pressure, and as a result of adaptive evolution they often become divergent. Indeed out of hundreds of male or female fertility genes identified in diverse organisms, only a very small number of them are implicated specifically in reproduction in more than one lineage. Few genes have exhibited a sex-biased, reproductive-specific requirement beyond a given phylum, raising the question of whether any sex-specific gametogenesis factors could be conserved and whether gametogenesis might have evolved multiple times. Here we describe a metazoan origin of a conserved human reproductive protein, BOULE, and its prevalence from primitive basal metazoans to chordates. We found that BOULE homologs are present in the genomes of representative species of each of the major lineages of metazoans and exhibit reproductive-specific expression in all species examined, with a preponderance of male-biased expression. Examination of Boule evolution within insect and mammalian lineages revealed little evidence for accelerated evolution, unlike most reproductive genes. Instead, purifying selection was the major force behind Boule evolution. Furthermore, loss of function of mammalian Boule resulted in male-specific infertility and a global arrest of sperm development remarkably similar to the phenotype in an insect boule mutation. This work demonstrates the conservation of a reproductive protein throughout eumetazoa, its predominant testis-biased expression in diverse bilaterian species, and conservation of a male gametogenic requirement in mice. This shows an ancient gametogenesis requirement for Boule among Bilateria and supports a model of a common origin of spermatogenesis. PMID:20657660

  13. Subacute and Reproductive Oral Toxicity Assessment of the Hydroethanolic Extract of Jacaranda decurrens Roots in Adult Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joyce Alencar; Arruda, Aline; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Vieira, Maria do Carmo; Piccinelli, Ana Cláudia; Figueiredo de Santana Aquino, Diana; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata Farias & Proença (Bignoniaceae) is a species traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. Previous findings from our group reported scientifically that J. decurrens has anti-inflammatory efficacy. However, more toxicological studies are needed to support and ensure its safe use. The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of a prolonged treatment with hydroethanolic root extract of J. decurrens (EJD) on hematological, biochemical, and reproductive parameters in adult male rats. The animals received by oral gavage 0; 250; 500; or 1000 mg/kg body weight of EJD for 28 days. After the treatment, biochemical, hematological, histopathological, and reproductive parameters were analyzed. The EJD treatment did not cause adverse effects on body weight gain, feed and water consumption, hematological and biochemical profiles, or histopathological analysis of liver and kidney. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences in reproductive parameters, such as sperm production, number of sperm in the epididymis, and sperm morphology. These results demonstrate the absence of subacute toxicity as a result of the oral treatment with EJD for 28 days in adult male rats. However, other studies should be performed to evaluate the total safety of this plant.

  14. Hydroyeast Aquaculture® as a reproductive enhancer agent for the adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Mehrim, Ahmed I; Khalil, Fathy F; Hassan, Montaha E

    2015-04-01

    Tilapias are becoming increasingly popular culture fish because of their superior culture adaptability. In recent years, there has been a great interest in the use of probiotics in fish aquaculture. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of dietary graded levels (0, 5, 10, and 15 g/kg commercial diet, referred to treatments numbers T1, T2, T3, and T4, for males and T5, T6, T7, and T8 treatments for females) of a new probiotic Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) on hematological and biochemical parameters, serum sex hormones, and the reproductive efficiency parameters of the adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus for 8 weeks. Results revealed that high levels of probiotics diet, 15 g (T4, ♂) and 10 g (T7, ♀) probiotic/kg diet, significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced the physiological responses (hematological as well as serum biochemical parameters) together with, reproductive performances (sex hormones, testes and sperm quality parameters, absolute and relative fecundity, and ovarian measurements). Therefore, it could be conclude that Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) is useful at levels of 15 g (T4) and 10 g (T7)/kg diet in improving the reproductive efficiency of adult O. niloticus males and females, respectively. Thus, the use of Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) may be economically important for fish hatcheries.

  15. Changes in Tree Reproductive Traits Reduce Functional Diversity in a Fragmented Atlantic Forest Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Girão, Luciana Coe; Lopes, Ariadna Valentina; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Bruna, Emilio M.

    2007-01-01

    Functional diversity has been postulated to be critical for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning, but the way it can be disrupted by human-related disturbances remains poorly investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation changes the relative contribution of tree species within categories of reproductive traits (frequency of traits) and reduces the functional diversity of tree assemblages. The study was carried out in an old and severely fragmented landscape of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We used published information and field observations to obtain the frequency of tree species and individuals within 50 categories of reproductive traits (distributed in four major classes: pollination systems, floral biology, sexual systems, and reproductive systems) in 10 fragments and 10 tracts of forest interior (control plots). As hypothesized, populations in fragments and control plots differed substantially in the representation of the four major classes of reproductive traits (more than 50% of the categories investigated). The most conspicuous differences were the lack of three pollination systems in fragments-pollination by birds, flies and non-flying mammals-and that fragments had a higher frequency of both species and individuals pollinated by generalist vectors. Hermaphroditic species predominate in both habitats, although their relative abundances were higher in fragments. On the contrary, self-incompatible species were underrepresented in fragments. Moreover, fragments showed lower functional diversity (H' scores) for pollination systems (−30.3%), floral types (−23.6%), and floral sizes (−20.8%) in comparison to control plots. In contrast to the overwhelming effect of fragmentation, patch and landscape metrics such as patch size and forest cover played a minor role on the frequency of traits. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation promotes a marked shift in the relative abundance of tree reproductive traits and greatly

  16. Effect of altered reproductive function and lowered testosterone levels on bone density in male endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bennell, Kim L; Brukner, Peter D; Malcolm, Susan A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of intense physical activity on female reproductive hormones is well recognised1–3 and there is evidence that menstrual disturbances associated with hypo-oestrogenism adversely affect bone density especially at the lumbar spine.4 5 Physical activity can also have a range of effects on male reproductive function depending upon the intensity and duration of the activity and the fitness of the individual.6 In particular, endurance training may be associated with reductions in circulating testosterone levels. Since testosterone has important anabolic roles, alterations in reproductive hormone profiles may have detrimental skeletal consequences similar to those seen in females with menstrual disturbances. The aim of this brief review is to present the limited literature on the relation between bone density and testosterone levels in male endurance athletes. PMID:8889111

  17. Functional Significance of GnRH and Kisspeptin, and Their Cognate Receptors in Teleost Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Gopurappilly, Renjitha; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2012-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G-protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are eukaryotic transmembrane proteins found in all living organisms. Their versatility and roles in several physiological processes make them the single largest family of drug targets. Comparative genomic studies using various model organisms have provided useful information about target receptors. The similarity of the genetic makeup of teleosts to that of humans and other vertebrates aligns with the study of GPCRs. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) represents a critical step in the reproductive process through its cognate GnRH receptors (GnRHRs). Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and its cognate GPCR, GPR54 (=kisspeptin receptor, Kiss-R), have recently been identified as a critical signaling system in the control of reproduction. The Kiss1/Kiss-R system regulates GnRH release, which is vital to pubertal development and vertebrate reproduction. This review highlights the physiological role of kisspeptin-Kiss-R signaling in the reproductive neuroendocrine axis in teleosts through the modulation of GnRH release. Moreover, we also review the recent developments in GnRHR and Kiss-R with respect to their structural variants, signaling mechanisms, ligand interactions, and functional significance. Finally, we discuss the recent progress in identifying many teleost GnRH-GnRHR and kisspeptin-Kiss-R systems and consider their physiological significance in the control of reproduction. PMID:23482509

  18. Effects of Methylphenidate on Memory Functions of Adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-04-18

    Neuropsychological research on adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) revealed considerable impairments in memory functions related to executive control. However, only limited evidence exists supporting the effects of pharmacological treatment using methylphenidate (MPH) on memory functions. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to explore the impact of MPH on various memory functions of adults with ADHD. Thirty-one adults with ADHD treated with MPH, 36 adults with ADHD not-treated with MPH, and 36 healthy individuals were assessed on several aspects of memory, including short-term memory, working memory, retrospective memory, prospective memory, and source memory. Multivariate statistical analyses were applied to compare memory functions between groups. Nonmedicated adults with ADHD showed considerable impairments in memory functions related to executive control. Adults with ADHD treated with MPH showed improved memory functions when compared to nonmedicated patients, but were still impaired when compared to healthy controls. The present study emphasized the severity of memory impairments of adults with ADHD. A pharmacological treatment with MPH appeared to improve memory, but does not normalize functioning. Additional treatment intervention (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy) is therefore necessary.

  19. Neutrophil Functions and Cytokines Expression Profile in Buffaloes with Impending Postpartum Reproductive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Manas Kumar; Kumar, Harendra; Nandi, Sukdeb

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to correlate the periparturient immune status in terms of neutrophil functions and cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture with impending postpartum reproductive disorders in buffaloes. Forty pregnant buffaloes were observed for occurrence of postpartum reproductive disorders (PRD), i.e., metritis, endometritis and delayed uterine involution etc., during one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period. A representative number (n = 6) of buffaloes that did not develop any PRD were included in group I (healthy, control), while the animals which experienced PRD were assigned into group II (PRD, n = 8). The blood samples were collected at weekly interval from one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period considering the day of calving as ‘d 0’. Differential leucocytes counts, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production activity in isolated neutrophils and the mRNA expression profile of cytokines i.e., IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ in PBMC culture were studied in all the samples. A higher total leucocytes, neutrophil and band cells count along with impaired neutrophil functions i.e., lowered level of production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide before parturition and during early postpartum period were observed in buffaloes developing PRD. Further, a lower expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA in PBMC culture was observed at calving in buffaloes that subsequently developed PRD at later postpartum. Thus, suppression in neutrophil function and cytokine expression at prepartum to early postpartum period predisposes the buffaloes to develop postpartum reproductive disorders. Hence, monitoring of neutrophils function and cytokine expression profile would be effective to predict certain reproductive disorders at late pregnancy or immediately after parturition in buffaloes. In future, this may be a novel approach for determining suitable management and therapeutic decisions for prevention of commonly occurring

  20. Reproductive Health Issues for Adults with a Common Genomic Disorder: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chrystal; Costain, Gregory; Ogura, Lucas; Silversides, Candice K.; Chow, Eva W.C.

    2015-01-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. Survival to reproductive age and beyond is now the norm. Several manifestations of this syndrome, such as congenital cardiac disease and neuropsychiatric disorders, may increase risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in the general population. However, there are limited data on reproductive health in 22q11.2DS. We performed a retrospective chart review for 158 adults with 22q11.2DS (75 male, 83 female; mean age 34.3 years) and extracted key variables relevant to pregnancy and reproductive health. We present four illustrative cases as brief vignettes. There were 25 adults (21>age 35 years; 21 female) with a history of one or more pregnancies. Outcomes for women with 22q11.2DS, compared with expectations for the general population, showed a significantly elevated prevalence of small for gestational age liveborn offspring (p<0.001), associated mainly with infants with 22q11.2DS. Stillbirths also showed elevated prevalence (p<0.05). Not all observed adverse events appeared to be attributable to transmission of the 22q11.2 deletion. Recurring issues relevant to reproductive health in 22q11.2DS included the potential impact of maternal morbidities, inadequate social support, unsafe sexual practices, and delayed diagnosis of 22q11.2DS and/or lack of genetic counseling. These preliminary results emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and long term follow-up that could help facilitate genetic counseling for men and women with 22q11.2DS. We propose initial recommendations for pre-conception management, educational strategies, pre-natal planning, and preparation for possible high-risk pregnancy and/or delivery. PMID:25579115

  1. Executive Function Impairments in High IQ Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Reichel, Philipp C.; Quinlan, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ greater than or equal to 120 were…

  2. Rural Youth and Adults' Knowledge of Governmental Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett D.; And Others

    In l976 Dane County, Wisconsin was the site of a survey to determine the knowledge of rural youth and adults as to how their government functioned. The area was chosen because its residents were thought to be more politically active than individuals in other parts of the state. Personal or telephone interviews were conducted with 112 adults and…

  3. Cognitive Functioning and Work Success in Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leather, Carol; Hogh, Henriette; Seiss, Ellen; Everatt, John

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexic adults completed questionnaires designed to investigate relationships between cognitive functioning, especially executive aspects, and work success. The study was designed to determine whether quantitative support could be provided for the model of adult dyslexic success derived from the work of Gerber and his colleagues (Gerber,…

  4. Dissociated functional pathways for appetitive and consummatory reproductive behaviors in male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Been, Laura E; Petrulis, Aras

    2012-02-01

    In many species, including Syrian hamsters, the generation of male reproductive behavior depends critically on the perception of female odor cues from conspecifics in the environment. The behavioral response to these odors is mediated by a network of steroid-sensitive ventral forebrain nuclei including the medial amygdala (MA), posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial preoptic area (MPOA). Previous studies have demonstrated that each of these three nuclei is required for appropriate sexual behavior and that MA preferentially sends female odor information directly to BNST and MPOA. It is unknown, however, how the functional connections between MA and BNST and/or MPOA are organized to generate different aspects of reproductive behavior. Therefore, the following experiments used the asymmetrical pathway lesion technique to test the role of the functional connections between MA and BNST and/or MPOA in odor preference and copulatory behaviors. Lesions that functionally disconnected MA from MPOA eliminated copulatory behavior but did not affect odor preference. In contrast, lesions that functionally disconnected MA from BNST eliminated preference for volatile female odors but did not affect preference for directly contacted odors or copulatory behavior. These results therefore demonstrate a double dissociation in the functional connections required for attraction to volatile sexual odors and copulation and, more broadly, suggest that appetitive and consummatory reproductive behaviors are mediated by distinct neural pathways.

  5. Civic Engagement for Older Adults With Functional Limitations: Piloting an Intervention for Adult Day Health Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly; Anderson, Keith A.; Spinks, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Past research has demonstrated the importance of civic engagement for older adults, yet previous studies have not focused specifically on the potential benefits of civic engagement for older adults with functional limitations. This pilot study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote civic…

  6. Developmental bisphenol A exposure impairs sperm function and reproduction in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangfei; Saili, Katerine S; Liu, Yueqin; Li, Lelin; Zhao, Yuxin; Jia, Yinhang; Bai, Chenglian; Tanguay, Robert L; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang

    2017-02-01

    The developmental and reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) has been demonstrated in a variety of model systems. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were waterborne-exposed to BPA during three different developmental stages: embryonic period:6 h post fertilization (hpf) to 5 months post fertilization (mpf); larval period: 6 days post fertilization (dpf) to 5 mpf; and sexually mature period: 3 mpf to 5 mpf. Evaluations included F0 adult growth, reproduction parameters, and F1 offspring development. BPA exposure did not affect zebrafish growth in any of exposure groups. Testis weight was decreased only following the 6 hpf to 5 mpf 0.001 μM BPA exposure. The lowest effect level indicated by a reduction in sperm volume, density, motility, and velocity across a range of exposure durations was 0.001 μM, with all but sperm density significant for the longest exposure duration, which was also the only significant endpoint for the lowest exposure concentration in the 3-5 mpf exposure group. Nonmonotonic concentration-response curves were noted for all F0 reproductive endpoints for at least one of the two longest exposure durations. For the F1 offspring of fish exposed from 6 hpf to 5 mpf, malformations and mortality were increased following 0.001 μM BPA exposure, while egg production and fertilization were reduced in higher concentration treatment groups. Overall, BPA exposure during three different developmental periods impaired zebrafish reproductive development, with most significance changes found in the lowest concentration treatment groups. Genetic impacts on gamete development may underlie the secondary effects of reduced fertilization rate, embryonic mortality, and malformations.

  7. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant.

  8. Impact of Breast Cancer Treatments on Gonadal Function and Reproductive Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    cardiovascular disease , as well as premature osteoporosis. Further, numerous epidemiological studies support the benefits of supplemental estrogen therapy in the postmenopause as an effective means of reducing mortality from both cardiovascular disease and osteoporotic fractures. There is uncertainty about how all of these factors play out in breast cancer survivors who have experienced premenopausal disease. Therefore, the primary focus of this cross-sectional study is to examine gonadal function and reproductive health comprehensively in long-term

  9. Adult psychological functioning of individuals born with craniofacial anomalies.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, D B; Bartlett, S P; Whitaker, L A; Paige, K T; Pertschuk, M J; Wadden, T A

    1999-02-01

    This study represents an initial investigation into the adult psychological functioning of individuals born with craniofacial disfigurement. A total of 24 men and women born with a craniofacial anomaly completed paper and pencil measures of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, and experiences of discrimination. An age- and gender-matched control group of 24 non-facially disfigured adults also completed the measures. As expected, craniofacially disfigured adults reported greater dissatisfaction with their facial appearance than did the control group. Craniofacially disfigured adults also reported significantly lower levels of self-esteem and quality of life. Dissatisfaction with facial appearance, self-esteem, and quality of life were related to self-ratings of physical attractiveness. More than one-third of craniofacially disfigured adults (38 percent) reported experiences of discrimination in employment or social settings. Among disfigured adults, psychological functioning was not related to number of surgeries, although the degree of residual facial deformity was related to increased dissatisfaction with facial appearance and greater experiences of discrimination. Results suggest that adults who were born with craniofacial disfigurement, as compared with non-facially disfigured adults, experience greater dissatisfaction with facial appearance and lower self-esteem and quality of life; however, these experiences do not seem to be universal.

  10. Methoprene effects on survival and reproductive performance of adult female and male Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Brabant, Peter Joseph; Dobson, Stephen L

    2013-12-01

    Methoprene is a juvenile hormone analog commonly used for the control of mosquito larvae. It acts through interference with normal metamorphosis, resulting in mortality prior to and during adult emergence. Methoprene is not commonly used for the control of adult mosquitoes, due to an absence of acute effects. Here, we have evaluated for chronic effects caused by the exposure of adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to methoprene. We applied methoprene to adults, both through 1) topical application to the abdomen and 2) as an aerosol, examining for treatment effects on ovary development, adult longevity, and fecundity. The results demonstrate that relatively high doses are required to affect adult survivorship. In contrast, significant impacts on both fecundity and egg hatch were observed in females treated at the lower dosages. We discuss the results in relation to autocidal strategies for mosquito control in which the release of fecund females is to be avoided.

  11. Effects of prolonged exposure to perchlorate on thyroid and reproductive function in zebrafish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Patino, R.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prolonged exposure to perchlorate on (1) thyroid status and reproductive performance of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and (2) F1 embryo survival and early larval development. Using a static-renewal procedure, mixed sex populations of adult zebrafish were exposed to 0, 10, and 100 mg/l nominal concentrations of waterborne perchlorate for 10 weeks. Thyroid histology was qualitatively assessed, and females and males were separated and further exposed to their respective treatments for six additional weeks. Eight females in each tank replicate (n = 3) were paired weekly with four males from the same respective treatment, and packed-egg (spawn) volume (PEV) was measured each of the last five weeks. At least once during weeks 14-16 of exposure, other end points measured included fertilization rate, fertilized egg diameter, hatching rate, standard length, and craniofacial development of 4-day-postfertilization larvae and thyroid hormone content of 3.5-h embryos and of exposed mothers. At 10 weeks of exposure, perchlorate at both concentrations caused thyroidal hypertrophy and colloid depletion. A marked reduction in PEV was observed toward the end of the 6-week spawning period, but fertilization and embryo hatching rates were unaffected. Fertilized egg diameter and larval length were increased by parental exposure to perchlorate. Larval head depth was unaffected but the forward protrusion of the lower jaw-associated cartilage complexes, Meckel's and ceratohyal, was decreased. Exposure to both concentrations of perchlorate inhibited whole-body thyroxine content in mothers and embryos, but triiodothyronine content was unchanged. In conclusion, prolonged exposure of adult zebrafish to perchlorate not only disrupts their thyroid endocrine system but also impairs reproduction and influences early F1 development. ?? 2007 Oxford University Press.

  12. Understanding of Parents and Adults on the Down Syndrome Female Sexual Reproductive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhagan, Madhya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the understanding of reproductive health among parents and female adolescents with Down syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 22 parents and 22 female adolescents with Down syndrome in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents were required to fill up the socio-demographic information in questionnaire…

  13. Co-expression and interaction of cubilin and megalin in the adult male rat reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Van Praet, Oliver; Argraves, W Scott; Morales, Carlos R

    2003-02-01

    Cubilin is a peripheral membrane protein that cooperates with the endocytic receptor megalin to mediate endocytosis of ligands in various polarized epithelia. Megalin is expressed in the male reproductive tract where it has been implicated in the process of sperm membrane remodeling. A potential role for cubilin in the male reproductive tract has not been explored. Using RT-PCR, we found that cubilin and megalin mRNAs are expressed in the efferent ducts, corpus and cauda epididymis, and proximal and distal vas deferens. Immunohistological analysis revealed that cubilin was expressed in nonciliated cells of the efferent ducts, principal cells of the corpus and cauda epididymis and vas deferens. Immunogold EM showed cubilin in endocytic pits, endocytic vesicles, and endosomes of these cells. The expression profile of cubilin in the male reproductive tract was coincident with that of megalin except in principal cells of the caput epididymis. Double immunogold labeling showed that cubilin and megalin co-localized within the endocytic apparatus and recycling vesicles of efferent duct cells. Neither protein was found in lysosomes. Injection of RAP, an antagonist of megalin interaction with cubilin, reduced the level of intracellular cubilin in cells of the efferent ducts and vas deferens. In conclusion, cubilin and megalin are co-expressed in cells of the epididymis and vas deferens and the endocytosis of cubilin in these tissues is dependent on megalin. Together, these findings highlight the potential for a joint endocytic role for cubilin and megalin in the male reproductive tract.

  14. Female mice with loss-of-function ITCH display an altered reproductive phenotype.

    PubMed

    Stermer, Angela R; Myers, Jessica L; Murphy, Caitlin J; Di Bona, Kristin R; Matesic, Lydia; Richburg, John H

    2016-02-01

    Major progress in deciphering the role of the E3 ligase, ITCH, in animal physiology has come from the generation and identification of Itch loss-of-function mutant mice (itchy). Mutant mice display an autoimmune-like phenotype characterized by chronic dermatitis, which has been attributed to increased levels of ITCH target proteins (e.g. transcription factors JUNB and CJUN) in T cells. Autoimmune disorders also exist in humans with Itch frameshift mutations resulting in loss of functional ITCH protein. Recent phenotypic analysis of male itchy mice revealed reduced sperm production, although cross breeding experiments showed no difference in litter size when male itchy mice were bred to wild type females. However, a reduction in litter sizes did occur when itchy females were bred to wild type males. Based on these results, characterization of female reproductive function in itchy mice was performed. Developmental analysis of fetuses at gestational day 18.5, cytological evaluation of estrous cyclicity, histopathological analysis of ovaries, and protein analysis were used to investigate the itchy reproductive phenotype. Gross skeletal and soft tissue analysis of gestational day 18.5 itchy fetuses indicated no gross developmental deformities. Itchy females had reduced implantation sites, decreased corpora lutea, and increased estrous cycle length due to increased number of days in estrus compared to controls. Alterations in the expression of prototypical ITCH targets in the ovaries were not indicated, suggesting that an alteration in an as yet defined ovary-specific ITCH substrate or interaction with the altered immune system likely accounts for the disruption of female reproduction. This report indicates the importance of the E3 ligase, ITCH, in female reproduction.

  15. Neonatally induced mild diabetes: influence on development, behavior and reproductive function of female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neonatal STZ treatment induces a state of mild hyperglycemia in adult rats that disrupts metabolism and maternal/fetal interactions. The aim of this study was investigate the effect of neonatal STZ treatment on the physical development, behavior, and reproductive function of female Wistar rats from infancy to adulthood. Methods At birth, litters were assigned either to a Control (subcutaneous (s.c.) citrate buffer, n = 10) or STZ group, (streptozotocin (STZ) - 100 mg/kg-sc, n = 6). Blood glucose levels were measured on postnatal days (PND) 35, 84 and 120. In Experiment 1 body weight, length and the appearance of developmental milestones such as eye and vaginal opening were monitored. To assess the relative contribution of the initial and long term effects of STZ treatment this group was subdivided based on blood glucose levels recorded on PND 120: STZ hyperglycemic (between 120 and 300 mg/dl) and STZ normoglycemic (under 120 mg/dl). Behavioral activity was assessed in an open field on PND 21 and 75. In Experiment 2 estrous cyclicity, sexual behavior and circulating gonadotropin, ovarian steroid, and insulin levels were compared between control and STZ-hyperglycemic rats. In all measures the litter was the experimental unit. Parametric data were analyzed using one-way or, where appropriate, two-way ANOVA and significant effects were investigated using Tukey’s post hoc test. Fisher’s exact test was employed when data did not satisfy the assumption of normality e.g. presence of urine and fecal boli on the open field between groups. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 for all data. Results As expected neonatal STZ treatment caused hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in adulthood. STZ-treated pups also showed a temporary reduction in growth rate that probably reflected the early loss of circulating insulin. Hyperglycemic rats also exhibited a reduction in locomotor and exploratory behavior in the open field. Mild hyperglycemia did

  16. Exercise and fitness modulate cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chien-Heng; Chen, Ai-Guo; Hung, Tsung-Min; Wang, Chun-Chih; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute exercise on cognitive function and the modulatory role of fitness in the relationship between exercise and cognition. Forty-six healthy older adults, categorized into higher or lower fitness groups, completed the Stroop test after both 30 min of aerobic exercise and a reading control with a counterbalanced order. Our findings demonstrated that acute exercise leads to general improvements in 2 types of cognitive functions and to specific improvements in executive function. Additionally, older adults with initially higher fitness levels experienced greater beneficial effects from acute exercise.

  17. Functional Literacy in the Context of Adult Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Josef, Ed.

    In presenting the work of participants before and during the Symposium, the report begins with an introduction giving an overall view of concepts, projects, and problems of functional literacy with reference to other sections of the report. The keynote lecture deals with functional literacy in the context of adult education--results and innovative…

  18. Neuropsychological Predictors of Everyday Functioning in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, C. Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wuang, Y. P.; Lin, Y. H.; Wu, Y. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Very little is known about the neuropsychological correlates of adaptive functioning in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study examined whether specific cognitive deficits and demographic variables predicted everyday functioning in adults with ID. Method: People with ID (n = 101; ages 19-41 years; mean education = 11…

  19. A Functional-Notional Syllabus for Adult Learners of Irish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David, Comp.; And Others

    The first functional-notional syllabus for adult learners of Irish, written in Irish and English, is presented. The syllabus begins with an introductory section about functional-notional syllabi, their definitions and implications, and the characteristics of this syllabus. The second section provides the general aims and specific behavioral…

  20. Executive Functions in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Danielle I.; Saklofske, Donald H.; Schwean, Vicki L.; Montgomery, Janine M.; Thorne, Keoma J.; McCrimmon, Adam W.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized, at least in part, by executive function (EF) difficulties associated with the integrity of the frontal lobe. Given the paucity of research regarding EFs in young adults with high functioning ASD (HF-ASD), this research involves an examination of various indices of EF…

  1. The Roles of RFamide-Related Peptide-3 (RFRP-3) in Mammalian Reproductive Function and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kriegsfeld, Lance J.; Gibson, Erin M.; Williams, Wilbur P.; Zhao, Sheng; Mason, Alex O.; Bentley, George E.; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    To maximize reproductive success, organisms restrict breeding to optimal times of day or year, when internal physiology and external environmental conditions are suitable for parent and offspring survival. To appropriately coordinate reproductive activity, internal and external standing is communicated to the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis via a coordinated balance of stimulatory and inhibitory neurochemical systems. The cumulative balance of these mediators ultimately drives the pattern of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, a neurohormone that stimulates pituitary gonadotropin secretion. Until 2000, a complementary inhibitor of pituitary gonadotropin secretion had not been identified. At this time, Tsutsui and colleagues uncovered a novel, avian hypothalamic peptide capable of inhibiting gonadotropin secretion in cultured quail pituitary cells. We later examined the presence and functional role for the mammalian ortholog of GnIH, RFamide-related peptide (RFRP-3), in mammals, and confirmed a conserved role for this peptide across several rodent species. To date, a similar distribution and functional role for RFRP-3 have been observed across all mammals investigated, including humans. This overview summarizes the role that RFRP-3 plays in mammals and considers the implications and opportunities for further study by those interested in reproductive physiology and the neural control of sexual behavior and motivation. PMID:20646173

  2. Adult acclimation to combined temperature and pH stressors significantly enhances reproductive outcomes compared to short-term exposures.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Coleen C; Clark, Melody S; Richard, Joelle; Morley, Simon A; Thorne, Michael A S; Harper, Elizabeth M; Peck, Lloyd S

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of long-term culture under altered conditions on the Antarctic sea urchin, Sterechinus neumayeri. Sterechinus neumayeri was cultured under the combined environmental stressors of lowered pH (-0.3 and -0.5 pH units) and increased temperature (+2 °C) for 2 years. This time-scale covered two full reproductive cycles in this species and analyses included studies on both adult metabolism and larval development. Adults took at least 6-8 months to acclimate to the altered conditions, but beyond this, there was no detectable effect of temperature or pH. Animals were spawned after 6 and 17 months exposure to altered conditions, with markedly different outcomes. At 6 months, the percentage hatching and larval survival rates were greatest in the animals kept at 0 °C under current pH conditions, whilst those under lowered pH and +2 °C performed significantly less well. After 17 months, performance was not significantly different across treatments, including controls. However, under the altered conditions urchins produced larger eggs compared with control animals. These data show that under long-term culture adult S. neumayeri appear to acclimate their metabolic and reproductive physiology to the combined stressors of altered pH and increased temperature, with relatively little measureable effect. They also emphasize the importance of long-term studies in evaluating effects of altered pH, particularly in slow developing marine species with long gonad maturation times, as the effects of altered conditions cannot be accurately evaluated unless gonads have fully matured under the new conditions.

  3. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambery, Fiona Z.; Russell, Ailsa J.; Perry, Katie; Morris, Robin; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2006-01-01

    There is some consensus in the literature regarding the cognitive profile of people with Asperger syndrome (AS). Findings to date suggest that a proportion of people with AS have higher verbal than performance IQ, a non-verbal learning disability (NVLD) and impairments in some aspects of executive function (EF). However, there are few published…

  4. Circadian alterations of reproductive functional markers in male rats exposed to 1800 MHz radiofrequency field.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fenju; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Honglong; Guo, Weiqiang; Chen, Lili; Shen, Ouxi; Sun, Jinpeng; Yi, Cao; Li, Jianxiang; Wang, Jiajun; Tong, Jian

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we explored the circadian effects of daily radiofrequency field (RF) exposure on reproductive functional markers in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals in circadian rhythm (as indicated by melatonin measurements), were divided into several groups and exposed to 1800 MHz RF at 205 μw/cm(2) power density (specific absorption rate 0.0405 W/kg) for 2 h/day for 32 days at different zeitgeber time (ZT) points, namely, ZT0, ZT4, ZT8, ZT12, ZT16 and ZT20. Sham-exposed animals were used as controls in the study. From each rat, testicular and epididymis tissues were collected and assessed for testosterone levels, daily sperm production and sperm motility, testis marker enzymes γ-GT and ACP, cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (p450cc) mRNA expression, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA expression. Via these measurements, we confirmed the existence of circadian rhythms in sham-exposed animals. However, rats exposed to RF exhibited a disruption of circadian rhythms, decreased testosterone levels, lower daily sperm production and sperm motility, down-regulated activity of γ-GT and ACP, as well as altered mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 and StAR. All of these observations were more pronounced when rats were exposed to RF at ZT0. Thus, our findings indicate potential adverse effects of RF exposure on male reproductive functional markers, in terms of both the daily overall levels as well as the circadian rhythmicity.

  5. Positive selection neighboring functionally essential sites and disease-implicated regions of mammalian reproductive proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reproductive proteins are central to the continuation of all mammalian species. The evolution of these proteins has been greatly influenced by environmental pressures induced by pathogens, rival sperm, sexual selection and sexual conflict. Positive selection has been demonstrated in many of these proteins with particular focus on primate lineages. However, the mammalia are a diverse group in terms of mating habits, population sizes and germ line generation times. We have examined the selective pressures at work on a number of novel reproductive proteins across a wide variety of mammalia. Results We show that selective pressures on reproductive proteins are highly varied. Of the 10 genes analyzed in detail, all contain signatures of positive selection either across specific sites or in specific lineages or a combination of both. Our analysis of SP56 and Col1a1 are entirely novel and the results show positively selected sites present in each gene. Our findings for the Col1a1 gene are suggestive of a link between positive selection and severe disease type. We find evidence in our dataset to suggest that interacting proteins are evolving in symphony: most likely to maintain interacting functionality. Conclusion Our in silico analyses show positively selected sites are occurring near catalytically important regions suggesting selective pressure to maximize efficient fertilization. In those cases where a mechanism of protein function is not fully understood, the sites presented here represent ideal candidates for mutational study. This work has highlighted the widespread rate heterogeneity in mutational rates across the mammalia and specifically has shown that the evolution of reproductive proteins is highly varied depending on the species and interacting partners. We have shown that positive selection and disease are closely linked in the Col1a1 gene. PMID:20149245

  6. Anthropogenic Matrices Favor Homogenization of Tree Reproductive Functions in a Highly Fragmented Landscape

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Species homogenization or floristic differentiation are two possible consequences of the fragmentation process in plant communities. Despite the few studies, it seems clear that fragments with low forest cover inserted in anthropogenic matrices are more likely to experience floristic homogenization. However, the homogenization process has two other components, genetic and functional, which have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to verify whether there was homogenization of tree reproductive functions in a fragmented landscape and, if found, to determine how the process was influenced by landscape composition. The study was conducted in eight fragments in southwest Brazil. The study was conducted in eight fragments in southwestern Brazil. In each fragment, all individual trees were sampled that had a diameter at breast height ≥3 cm, in ten plots (0.2 ha) and, classified within 26 reproductive functional types (RFTs). The process of functional homogenization was evaluated using additive partitioning of diversity. Additionally, the effect of landscape composition on functional diversity and on the number of individuals within each RFT was evaluated using a generalized linear mixed model. appeared to be in a process of functional homogenization (dominance of RFTs, alpha diversity lower than expected by chance and and low beta diversity). More than 50% of the RFTs and the functional diversity were affected by the landscape parameters. In general, the percentage of forest cover has a positive effect on RFTs while the percentage of coffee matrix has a negative one. The process of functional homogenization has serious consequences for biodiversity conservation because some functions may disappear that, in the long term, would threaten the fragments. This study contributes to a better understanding of how landscape changes affect the functional diversity, abundance of individuals in RFTs and the process of functional homogenization, as well as how to

  7. Executive function in young Colombian adults.

    PubMed

    Pineda, David A; Merchan, Vilma

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this article was to observe the correlation between executive function (EF) variables, and to determine the factor structure of the EF in young university students, as mathematical models for supporting its multidimensional structure. Participants were both males and females, aged 16 to 21 years (N = 100) and with normal Full Scale IQ selected in a randomized and representative approach in private universities of Medellín, Colombia. They were students of verbal, visual-spatial, and mathematical careers. An executive function assessment battery was applied and which included: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B, verbal fluency test (FAS) by phonologic and semantic cues, and Stroop's conflict word/color test. The results were as follows: An orthogonal structure of five factors, which explained 74.9% of the variance, was found. Factor 1 was formed by WCST variables (organization and flexibility), and explained 25.8% of the variance. Errors from the Stroop reading and naming were assigned to factor 2, which explained 17.3% of the variance. Factor 3 was the time for executing Stroop's test, and explained 13.1% of the variance. Factor 4 was TMT A and B (10.1%). Factor 5 was verbal fluency (8.5% of the variance). In conclusion, executive function in young university students was conformed by five orthogonal cognitive dimensions.

  8. The Psychology of Antecedents to Adult Reproductive Disorders in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Sharon N.; Martinez, Pedro E; Popat, Vaishali; Nandagopal, Radha; Ryan, Mary; Nelson, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    The normal developmental tasks and roles of adolescence are altered with a diagnosis of a reproductive disorder. The crisis of impaired fertility affects both parent and child, stressing the family system. For the adolescent girl, a reproductive disorder impacts her developing sense of self, body-image and sexuality which, in turn, can affect her self-esteem and relationships with others. Because of the sexual nature of a reproductive disorder, feelings of embarrassment or protectiveness are often engendered that can make it difficult for families to discuss. Nonetheless, families do best with openness and honesty regarding the condition and should be discouraged from keeping the diagnosis a secret. Adolescence encompasses a broad spectrum of emotional maturity, which needs to be considered by parents and clinicians when communicating information. Understanding that the family is an emotional unit, a family systems approach to deal with health issues is most appropriate. In this context, parents need to first deal with their own feelings about the diagnosis, before they can help their child. Secondly, parents must be provided with tools to build an ongoing conversation with their child that will avoid stigmatizing her condition and handicapping her growth into healthy adulthood. The goal for parent and clinician is to help the adolescent girl formulate positive self-esteem and body image, despite impaired fertility. PMID:18574221

  9. Geographical variations in adult body size and reproductive life history traits in an invasive anuran, Discoglossus pictus.

    PubMed

    Oromi, Neus; Pujol-Buxó, Eudald; San Sebastián, Olatz; Llorente, Gustavo A; Hammou, Mohamed Aït; Sanuy, Delfi

    2016-06-01

    Variability in life history traits positively affects the establishment and expansive potential of invasive species. In the present study, we analysed the variation of body size in seven populations - two native and five invasive - of the painted frog (Discoglossus pictus, Anura: Discoglossidae), native to North Africa and introduced in southern France and the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula. Other life history traits (age at maturity, size at maturity, longevity, median age and potential reproductive lifespan) were analysed in a native and an invasive population. We observed geographic variations in adult body size, related mainly to mean annual precipitation. Thus, populations had greater body size as mean annual precipitation increased, resulting in bigger specimens in the invasive populations. Adult body size and growth rates also varied between sexes in all studied populations, with males significantly larger than females. Age distribution varied between native (1-5 years) and invasive populations (2-4 years) and also between sexes. Our results suggest that higher precipitation promotes faster growth rates and larger adult body size that could facilitate the successful establishment of invasive populations.

  10. Functional analysis of a reproductive organ predominant expressing promoter in cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Ren, Maozhi; Chen, Quanjia; Li, Li; Zhang, Rui; Guo, Sandui

    2005-10-01

    Transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton plants have high insect resistance in the early stage of development, but relatively low resistance in the late stage. Substituting a reproductive organ-specific promoter for the CaMV35S promoter presently being used could be an ideal solution. For the first time, the promoter sequence of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (arf1) gene was isolated from Gossypium hirsutumY18 by means of inverse PCR. The sequencing result discovered the unique structure of the arf1 promoter, including four promoter-specific elements, the initiator, TATA box, CAAT box and GC box, and also an intron in 5'-untranslation region. Four plant expression vectors were constructed for functional analysis of the promoter. Based on the pBl121 plant expression vector, four truncated arf1 promoters took the place of the CaMV35S promoter. These vectors were different only in their promoter regions. They were introduced into cotton plants via pollen tube pathway. Histochemical GUS staining and fluorescence quantitative analyses were performed to examine the expression patterns of the GUS gene driven by the 4 arf1 truncated promoters in transgenic cotton plants respectively. The results showed that the arf1 promoter was a typical reproductive organ-specific promoter. Hopefully, the arf1 promoter can be a regulatory element for designing cotton reproductive organs with desired characteristics.

  11. [Effects of RFRP-3 on reproductive function and energy balance in mammals].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wei; Lai, Ping; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Wang, Ping-Qing; Chu, Ming-Xing; Fan, Qi; Liu, Chong-Xu; Tan, Ying

    2012-08-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis integrates internal and external cues via a balance of stimulatory and inhibitory neurochemical systems to regulate reproductive function in mammals. However, RFRP-3 is a unique inhibitor of HPG axis at the hypothalamuic level in mammals to date. A large number of previous studies have confirmed that RFamide-related peptide (RFRP-3) suppresses gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, thereby affecting the reproduction. However, whether the inhibition of LH secretion by RFRP-3 occurs at the pituitary level or the hypothalamus level is not clear. It is interesting that RFRP-3 is also related to signal pathway of melatonin modulating mammal seasonal reproduction, but little is known about the effects of melatonin on the RFRP-3 neuron up to now. In addition, RFRP-3 also plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance and behavior. The regulatory mechanism of RFRP-3 in HPG axis and role of RFRP-3 in modulating mammalian energy balance, as well as behavior, are systematically elaborated and the remaining unsolved problems are also discussed in this paper.

  12. Group management influences reproductive function of the male cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Koester, Diana C; Freeman, Elizabeth W; Wildt, David E; Terrell, Kimberly A; Franklin, Ashley D; Meeks, Karen; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2015-09-21

    Although the free-ranging cheetah is generally socially solitary, as many as 60% of males live in same-sex (usually sibling) coalitions. Under ex situ conditions, the cheetah experiences low reproductive success with only ~18% of males having ever produced young. Most male cheetahs (85%) are managed in captivity in coalitions, but with no data on the influence of social grouping on reproductive parameters. We examined the influence of singleton versus coalition management on various male cheetah physiological traits, including ejaculate quality and gonadal and adrenal hormone metabolite concentrations. We also assessed behaviour within coalitions for evidence of social hierarchy through initiation of interactions with group mates and relatedness to physiological traits. Ejaculate quality (including total motile and structurally normal spermatozoa per ejaculate) and androgen concentration profiles were higher (P < 0.05) in coalition compared with singleton males. These results support the conclusion that testis function in the cheetah, specifically related to the development of normal, motile spermatozoa and androgen production, is influenced by management with same-sex conspecifics. The findings have implications for ex situ conservation breeding programs by suggesting that reproductive quality can be enhanced through group maintenance of cheetah males.

  13. Ovarian function and reproductive senescence in the rat: role of ovarian sympathetic innervation.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Gonzalo; Fernandois, Daniela; Paredes, Alfonso H

    2017-02-01

    Successful reproduction is the result of a myriad interactions in which the ovary and the ovarian follicular reserve play a fundamental role. At present, women who delay maternity until after 30 years of age have a decreased fertility rate due to various causes, including damaged follicles and a reduction in the reserve pool of follicles. Therefore, the period just prior to menopause, also known as the subfertile period, is important. The possibility of modulating the follicular pool and the health of follicles during this period to improve fertility is worth exploring. We have developed an animal model to study the ovarian ageing process during this subfertile period to understand the mechanisms responsible for reproductive senescence. In the rat model, we have shown that the sympathetic nervous system participates in regulating the follicular development during ovarian ageing. This article reviews the existing evidence on the presence and functional role of sympathetic nerve activity in regulating the follicular development during ovarian ageing, with a focus on the subfertile period.Free Spanish abstract: A Spanish translation of this abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/153/2/R61/suppl/DC1.

  14. Mutations and polymorphisms in FSH receptor: functional implications in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Desai, Swapna S; Roy, Binita Sur; Mahale, Smita D

    2013-12-01

    FSH brings about its physiological actions by activating a specific receptor located on target cells. Normal functioning of the FSH receptor (FSHR) is crucial for follicular development and estradiol production in females and for the regulation of Sertoli cell function and spermatogenesis in males. In the last two decades, the number of inactivating and activating mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and spliced variants of FSHR gene has been identified in selected infertile cases. Information on genotype-phenotype correlation and in vitro functional characterization of the mutants has helped in understanding the possible genetic cause for female infertility in affected individuals. The information is also being used to dissect various extracellular and intracellular events involved in hormone-receptor interaction by studying the differences in the properties of the mutant receptor when compared with WT receptor. Studies on polymorphisms in the FSHR gene have shown variability in clinical outcome among women treated with FSH. These observations are being explored to develop molecular markers to predict the optimum dose of FSH required for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Pharmacogenetics is an emerging field in this area that aims at designing individual treatment protocols for reproductive abnormalities based on FSHR gene polymorphisms. The present review discusses the current knowledge of various genetic alterations in FSHR and their impact on receptor function in the female reproductive system.

  15. Anchoring Ethinylestradiol Induced Gene Expression Changes with Testicular Morphology and Reproductive Function in the Medaka

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Hilary D.; Clark, Bryan W.; Hinton, David E.; Whitehead, Andrew; Martin, Stan; Kwok, Kevin W.; Kullman, Seth W.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental estrogens are ubiquitous in the environment and can cause detrimental effects on male reproduction. In fish, a multitude of effects from environmental estrogens have been observed including altered courting behavior and fertility, sex reversal, and gonadal histopathology. However, few studies in fish assess the impacts of estrogenic exposure on a physiological endpoint, such as reproduction, as well as the associated morphologic response and underlying global gene expression changes. This study assessed the implications of a 14 day sub-chronic exposure of ethinylestradiol (EE2; 1.0 or 10.0 µg/L EE2) on male medaka fertility, testicular histology and testicular gene expression. The findings demonstrate that a 14 day exposure to EE2 induced impaired male reproductive capacity and time- and dose-dependent alterations in testicular morphology and gene expression. The average fertilization rate/day following the exposure for control, 1.0 and 10.0 µg/L EE2 was 91.3% (±4.4), 62.8% (±8.3) and 28.8% (±5.8), respectively. The testicular morphologic alterations included increased germ cell apoptosis, decreased germinal epithelium and thickening of the interstitium. These changes were highly associated with testicular gene expression changes using a medaka-specific microarray. A pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes emphasized genes and pathways associated with apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferation, collagen production/extracellular matrix organization, hormone signaling, male reproduction and protein ubiquitination among others. These findings highlight the importance of anchoring global gonadal gene expression changes with morphology and ultimately with tissue/organ function. PMID:23300682

  16. A role for tachykinins in female mouse and rat reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Pintado, C Oscar; Pinto, Francisco M; Pennefather, Jocelyn N; Hidalgo, Agustin; Baamonde, Ana; Sanchez, Teresa; Candenas, M Luz

    2003-09-01

    Tachykinins may be involved in reproduction. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay was used to analyze the expression of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors in different types of reproductive cells from mice. The preprotachykinin (PPT) genes, PPT-A, PPT-B and PPT-C, that encode substance P/neurokinin A, neurokinin B, and hemokinin-1, respectively, and the genes that encode the tachykinin NK1, NK2, and NK3 receptors were all expressed, at different levels, in the uterus of superovulated, unfertilized mice. The mRNA of neprilysin (NEP), the main enzyme involved in tachykinin metabolism, was also expressed in the uterus. Isolated cumulus granulosa cells expressed PPT-A, PPT-B, PPT-C, and NEP and low levels of the tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptors. Mouse oocytes expressed PPT-A and -B mRNA transcripts. A low expression of the three tachykinin receptors was observed but PPT-C and NEP were undetectable. Two- and 8- to 16-cell mouse embryos expressed only a low-abundance transcript corresponding to the NK1 receptor. However, the mRNAs of PPT-B, PPT-C and NEP appeared in blastocyst-stage embryos. A low-abundance transcript corresponding to the NK2 receptor was the only target gene detected in mice sperm. Female mice or rats treated neonatally with capsaicin showed a reduced fertility. A reduction in litter size was observed in female rats treated in vivo with the tachykinin NK3 receptor antagonist SR 142801. These data show that tachykinins of both neuronal and nonneuronal origin are differentially expressed in various types of reproductive cells and may play a role in female reproductive function.

  17. Energy allocation during the maturation of adults in a long-lived insect: implications for dispersal and reproduction.

    PubMed

    David, G; Giffard, B; van Halder, I; Piou, D; Jactel, H

    2015-10-01

    Energy allocation strategies have been widely documented in insects and were formalized in the context of the reproduction process by the terms 'capital breeder' and 'income breeder'. We propose here the extension of this framework to dispersal ability, with the concepts of 'capital disperser' and 'income disperser', and explore the trade-off in resource allocation between dispersal and reproduction. We hypothesized that flight capacity was sex-dependent, due to a trade-off in energy allocation between dispersal and egg production in females. We used Monochamus galloprovincialis as model organism, a long-lived beetle which is the European vector of the pine wood nematode. We estimated the flight capacity with a flight mill and used the number of mature eggs as a proxy for the investment in reproduction. We used the ratio between dry weights of the thorax and the abdomen to investigate the trade-off. The probability of flying increased with the adult weight at emergence, but was not dependent on insect age or sex. Flight distance increased with age in individuals but did not differ between sexes. It was also positively associated with energy allocation to thorax reserves, which increased with age. In females, the abdomen weight and the number of eggs also increase with age with no negative effect on flight capacity, indicating a lack of trade-off. This long-lived beetle has a complex strategy of energy allocation, being a 'capital disperser' in terms of flight ability, an 'income disperser' in terms of flight performance and an 'income breeder' in terms of egg production.

  18. Early-life disease exposure and associations with adult survival, cause of death, and reproductive success in preindustrial humans

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Adam D.; Rigby, Francesca L.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-01-01

    A leading hypothesis proposes that increased human life span since 1850 has resulted from decreased exposure to childhood infections, which has reduced chronic inflammation and later-life mortality rates, particularly from cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancer. Early-life cohort mortality rate often predicts later-life survival in humans, but such associations could arise from factors other than disease exposure. Additionally, the impact of early-life disease exposure on reproduction remains unknown, and thus previous work ignores a major component of fitness through which selection acts upon life-history strategy. We collected data from seven 18th- and 19th-century Finnish populations experiencing naturally varying mortality and fertility levels. We quantified early-life disease exposure as the detrended child mortality rate from infectious diseases during an individual’s first 5 y, controlling for important social factors. We found no support for an association between early-life disease exposure and all-cause mortality risk after age 15 or 50. We also found no link between early-life disease exposure and probability of death specifically from cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer. Independent of survival, there was no evidence to support associations between early-life disease exposure and any of several aspects of reproductive performance, including lifetime reproductive success and age at first birth, in either males or females. Our results do not support the prevailing assertion that exposure to infectious diseases in early life has long-lasting associations with later-life all-cause mortality risk or mortality putatively linked to chronic inflammation. Variation in adulthood conditions could therefore be the most likely source of recent increases in adult life span. PMID:27457937

  19. Effects of adult nutrition on female reproduction in a fruit-feeding butterfly: the role of fruit decay and dietary lipids.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Fischer, Klaus; Hartstein, Steffi; Janowitz, Susann; Martin-Creuzburg, Dominik

    2007-09-01

    It was generally believed that butterflies and other holometabolous insects rely primarily on reserves accumulated during the larval stage for reproduction. Recent studies, however, highlight the often fundamental importance of adult nutrition to realize the full reproductive potential. While the importance of carbohydrates is fairly well understood, the role of most other adult-derived substances is only partially resolved. We here focus on the effects of dietary lipids (cholesterol, polyunsaturated fatty acids) and fruit decay (dietary yeast, ethanol) on female reproduction in the tropical, fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Nymphalidae). We found that banana-fed control females outperformed all other groups fed on sucrose-based diets. Lipids, yeast or ethanol added to a sugar solution did not yield a similarly high reproductive output compared to fruit-fed females. Groups fed fresh or decaying banana showed no differences in reproductive performance. As we could not identify a single pivotal substance, we conclude that resource congruence (the use of nutrient types in a specified ratio) rather than any specific nutrient component is of key importance for maximum reproductive output. Further, dietary quality may affect egg hatching success in spite of no obvious effects on egg size and number. Thus, any implications about potential fitness effects of different diets need to consider egg (and hatchling) viability in addition to fecundity.

  20. Embryonic exposure to dimethoate and/or deltamethrin impairs sexual development and programs reproductive success in adult male offspring mice.

    PubMed

    Ben Slima, A; Ben Abdallah, F; Keskes-Ammar, L; Mallek, Z; El Feki, A; Gdoura, R

    2012-05-01

    Pesticides can be toxic to desirable plants and animals, including humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive effects of low doses of pesticides on male offspring of exposed pregnant mice. Three groups of five female mice were treated daily by oral gavage with dimethoate (5 mg kg(-1) per day), deltamethrin (5 mg kg(-1) per day) and their mixture at 5 mg kg(-1) per day from day 3 to day 21 of pregnancy. Fertility, sexual behaviour and a number of reproductive endpoints, such as organ weights, sperm evaluations and testicular histology, were examined on four adult male offspring of exposed pregnant mice. When compared with control, a dose of deltamethrin 5 mg kg j(-1) causes a decrease in the absolute and relative weight of the testes of exposed mice and it affects their fertility by reducing the density, mobility and vitality of sperm and increasing the number of abnormal forms of these cells (P ≤ 0.01). The same results were obtained in mice exposed to a dose of 5 mg kg j(-1) combination of dimethoate and deltamethrin. This study demonstrated that deltamethrin and combination of dimethoate and deltamethrin caused a decrease in the absolute and relative weight of the testes, which affected the sperm parameters of male offspring of exposed mice to a low dose of these pesticides during pregnancy.

  1. The expression of several reproductive hormone receptors can be modified by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    López-Doval, S; Salgado, R; Lafuente, A

    2016-07-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of several reproductive hormone receptors on the disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis (HPT) axis activity induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The studied receptors are the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHr), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHr), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), and the androgen receptor (Ar). Adult male rats were orally treated with 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0 mg of PFOS kg(-1) d(-1) for 28 days. In general terms, PFOS can modify the relative gene and protein expressions of these receptors in several tissues of the reproductive axis. At the testicular level, apart from the expected inhibition of both gene and protein expressions of FSHr and Ar, PFOS also stimulates the GnRHr protein and the LHr gene expression. The receptors of the main hormones involved in the HPT axis may have an important role in the disruption exerted by PFOS on this axis.

  2. Gonad histology and serum 11-KT profile during the annual reproductive cycle in sterlet sturgeon adult males, Acipenser ruthenus.

    PubMed

    Golpour, A; Broquard, C; Milla, S; Dadras, H; Baloch, A R; Saito, T; Pšenička, M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess monthly testicular development in the cultured breeding stock of sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus, using histological and serum sex steroid changes. Testicular development in the adult male was examined monthly and showed four distinct phases including resting, pre-spawning, spawning and post-spawning. Also, seasonal changes of the testes were described according to its variations in gonadosomatic index (GSI) during different phases of testicular development. Using histology, we identified continuous spermatogenesis and asynchronous gonad development pattern in the testes of male sterlet, which shows that regulation of annual gonadal cycle is influenced by season. Results also showed variation in the GSI value and number of spermatogenic cells according to each season during annual cycle of gonad, as the highest value of GSI was recorded during spawning phase (spring; March-May). Hormonal profiles of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) showed peak, which indicated a seasonal pattern of gonadal development. The 11-KT concentration increased considerably during the spermatogenesis (pre-spawning phase) and remained quite high throughout the pre-spermiation period. In the final phase of testicular development (spawning phase), the 11-KT markedly dropped. This study undertook an examination of complete reproductive development in cultured sterlet sturgeon to provide a valuable guide for the future sterlet studies, and allows comparison of reproductive development between sturgeon species.

  3. Sexual reproduction is the default mode in apomictic Hieracium subgenus Pilosella, in which two dominant loci function to enable apomixis.

    PubMed

    Koltunow, Anna M G; Johnson, Susan D; Rodrigues, Julio C M; Okada, Takashi; Hu, Yingkao; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Wilson, Saira; Fletcher, Pam; Ito, Kanae; Suzuki, Go; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Fehrer, Judith; Bicknell, Ross A

    2011-06-01

    Asexual seed formation, or apomixis, in the Hieracium subgenus Pilosella is controlled by two dominant independent genetic loci, LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP). We examined apomixis mutants that had lost function in one or both loci to establish their developmental roles during seed formation. In apomicts, sexual reproduction is initiated first. Somatic aposporous initial (AI) cells differentiate near meiotic cells, and the sexual pathway is terminated as AI cells undergo mitotic embryo sac formation. Seed initiation is fertilization-independent. Using a partially penetrant cytotoxic reporter to inhibit meioisis, we showed that developmental events leading to the completion of meiotic tetrad formation are required for AI cell formation. Sexual initiation may therefore stimulate activity of the LOA locus, which was found to be required for AI cell formation and subsequent suppression of the sexual pathway. AI cells undergo nuclear division to form embryo sacs, in which LOP functions gametophytically to stimulate fertilization-independent embryo and endosperm formation. Loss of function in either locus results in partial reversion to sexual reproduction, and loss of function in both loci results in total reversion to sexual reproduction. Therefore, in these apomicts, sexual reproduction is the default reproductive mode upon which apomixis is superimposed. These loci are unlikely to encode genes essential for sexual reproduction, but may function to recruit the sexual machinery at specific time points to enable apomixis.

  4. Impact of low molecular weight phthalates in inducing reproductive malfunctions in male mice: Special emphasis on Sertoli cell functions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narender; Srivastava, Swati; Roy, Partha

    2015-05-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in a variety of products. Since they have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), effect of phthalates on human health is a major concern. In this study, we evaluated individual as well as combined mixture effects of three low molecular weight phthalates on the reproductive system of male mice, specifically on the Sertoli cell structure and function. In order to analyze the blood testes barrier (BTB) dynamics, primary culture of Sertoli cells from 3-weeks old male mice was used for mimicking typical tight junction structures. Male mice were exposed to long-term (45 days) and combined mixture of three phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and dimethyl isophthalate (DMIP) between pre-pubertal to adult stage. Our data showed significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the rates of transcription of certain prominent Sertoli cell specific genes like transferrin, testin and occludin. Moreover, we also observed significant decreases in the expression of proteins like 3β-HSD, connexin-43 and occludin in testicular lysates of treated animals (p < 0.05). The transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that the test compounds significantly altered the structural integrity of Sertoli cells. The significant changes of Sertoli cell tight junction structure by test compounds were associated with phosphorylation of ERK. Taken together, our study suggests that low molecular weight phthalates may affect male fertility by altering both structural and functional integrity of Sertoli cells in testes.

  5. Reproductive biology and functional response of Dineulophus phtorimaeae, a natural enemy of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta.

    PubMed

    Savino, Vivina; Coviella, Carlos E; Luna, María G

    2012-01-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest in South America and is at present an important invasive species in the Mediterranean Basin. The larval stadium mines leaves, stems, and fruits, and chemical control is the most used control method in both its original range and the invaded distribution regions. Since current T. absoluta control strategies seem limited, biological control is a prominent tool to be applied abroad. The naturally occurring larval ectoparasitoid in Argentina and Chile Dineulophus phtorimaeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) has been reported to have potential biocontrol efficiency. In this study, the ovigeny strategy of D. phtorimaeae was analyzed throughout the adult female lifetime, and the functional response of females offered a range of 2-15 T. absoluta larvae was measured over a 48-hour period. Mean D. phtorimaeae egg load was 4.15 eggs, and egg production resulted in extremely synovigenic behavior. Meanwhile, a decreasing number of eggs, due to resorption, was found. Proportions of attacked (host-fed and/or parasitized) and only host-fed hosts by the ectoparasitoid were density independent for the tested host range, exhibiting a type I functional response to T. absoluta, with an attack rate of 0.20 host larvae. Meanings of this reproductive strategy in evolutionary time as well as the consequences for augmentative biological control programs are discussed.

  6. The ``gunshot'' sound produced by male North Atlantic right whales and its potential function in reproductive advertisement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Susan E.; Hamilton, Philip; Kraus, Scott D.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2004-05-01

    North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) commonly use sound to mediate social interactions between individuals. Surface active groups (SAGs) are the most commonly observed social interaction on the summer feeding grounds. These groups are typically composed of an adult female with two or more males engaged in social behavior at the surface. Several distinct types of sounds have been recorded from these groups. One sound commonly recorded from these groups is a brief broadband sound, referred to as a gunshot sound because it sounds like a rifle being fired. This sound has been recorded in the Bay of Fundy, Canada from both lone whales (N=9) and social SAGs (N=49). Those lone whales producing gunshot sounds whose sex could be determined (N=9) were all mature males. In surface active groups, the rate of production of gunshot sounds was weakly correlated with the total number of males present in the group. Given the behavioral contexts of gunshot sound production by male whales, gunshots probably function in a reproductive context as an agonistic signal directed toward other males, an advertisement signal to attract females, or a combination of the two functions.

  7. Reproductive Biology and Functional Response of Dineulophus phtorimaeae, a Natural Enemy of the Tomato Moth, Tuta absoluta

    PubMed Central

    Savino, Vivina; Coviella, Carlos E.; Luna, María G.

    2012-01-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest in South America and is at present an important invasive species in the Mediterranean Basin. The larval stadium mines leaves, stems, and fruits, and chemical control is the most used control method in both its original range and the invaded distribution regions. Since current T. absoluta control strategies seem limited, biological control is a prominent tool to be applied abroad. The naturally occurring larval ectoparasitoid in Argentina and Chile Dineulophus phtorimaeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) has been reported to have potential biocontrol efficiency. In this study, the ovigeny strategy of D. phtorimaeae was analyzed throughout the adult female lifetime, and the functional response of females offered a range of 2–15 T. absoluta larvae was measured over a 48-hour period. Mean D. phtorimaeae egg load was 4.15 eggs, and egg production resulted in extremely synovigenic behavior. Meanwhile, a decreasing number of eggs, due to resorption, was found. Proportions of attacked (host-fed and/or parasitized) and only host-fed hosts by the ectoparasitoid were density independent for the tested host range, exhibiting a type I functional response to T. absoluta, with an attack rate of 0.20 host larvae. Meanings of this reproductive strategy in evolutionary time as well as the consequences for augmentative biological control programs are discussed. PMID:23464576

  8. Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  9. Challenging Stereotypes: Sexual Functioning of Single Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the sexual functioning of single adults (61 men, 68 women) with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome living in the community with and without prior relationship experience. Participants completed an on-line questionnaire assessing autism symptoms, psychological functioning, and various aspects of sexual functioning. In…

  10. [Functional morphology of recently discovered telocytes inside the female reproductive system].

    PubMed

    Božíková, S; Urban, L; Kajanová, M; Béder, I; Pohlodek, K; Varga, I

    2016-01-01

    Discovery of telocytes has become an important and key challenge in past few years. These cells are interstitial cells extending very long cytoplasmic processes named telopodes, by which they create functional networks in the interstitium of different organs. Telocytes are considered to be connective tissue elements that create contacts among each other, but they also function as intercellular structures, functionally connected with cells of the immune system, neurons and smooth muscle cells. Telocytes can be found also in the different parts of female reproductive system with functions and purpose, which is summarized in our overview. Telocytes regulate for example peristaltic movements in fallopian tubes. The decrease of their number (due to inflammatory disease or endometriosis) causes impairment in transport through fallopian tubes which may result in sterility or tubal gravidity. In uterus they regulate contraction of myometrial smooth muscle (blood expulsion in menstrual phase, childbirth) as well as they contribute in immunological care during embryo implantation. Telocytes probably control also the involution of uterus after delivery. Their function in vagina has not been yet clearly defined; they probably take part in slow muscle contraction movement during sexual intercourse. In mammary glands some scientists suppose their function in control of cell proliferation and apoptosis, that is why, they may play a role in carcinogenesis. In placenta they probably monitor and regulate flow of blood in vessels of chorionic villi and they may be responsible also for etiopathogenesis of pre-eclampsy. All these mentioned functions of telocytes are only in the level of hypothesis and have been published recently. New research and studies will try to answer the questions whether telocytes play a key role in these processes. Our review we completed with some original microphotographs of telocytes in different organs of female reproductive system.

  11. The effects of methyltestosterone on the sexual development and reproduction of adult medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Kang, Ik Joon; Yokota, Hirofumi; Oshima, Yuji; Tsuruda, Yukinari; Shimasaki, Yohei; Honjo, Tsuneo

    2008-04-08

    We examined the effects of methyltestosterone (MT) on the reproduction of medaka (Oryzias latipes). Six mating pairs of medaka were exposed for 3 weeks to MT at the measured concentrations of 22.5, 46.8, 88.1, 188, and 380 ng/L. The fecundity and fertility of paired medaka were significantly decreased in the 46.8, 88.1, 188, and 380 ng/L MT groups compared with those of controls. The gonadosomatic indices of female fish exposed to >or=46.8 ng/L were increased significantly. Gonadal histology showed degeneration of oocytes in the ovaries of fish in all MT treatment groups. Hepatic vitellogenin concentrations were significantly decreased in female fish treated with MT at 188 and 380 ng/L, and the hatchability and survival rate of the offspring were decreased in all MT treatment groups. These results clearly demonstrate that MT at >or=46.8 ng/L inhibited gonadal development and adversely affected the reproduction of medaka.

  12. Adult Age Differences in Functional Connectivity during Executive Control

    PubMed Central

    Madden, David J.; Costello, Matthew C.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Davis, Simon W.; Shepler, Anne M.; Spaniol, Julia; Bucur, Barbara; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Task switching requires executive control processes that undergo age-related decline. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified age-related differences in brain activation associated with global switching effects (dual-task blocks vs. single-task blocks), but age-related differences in activation during local switching effects (switch trials vs. repeat trials, within blocks) have not been investigated. This experiment used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to examine adult age differences in task switching across adjacent trials (i.e., local task switching). During fMRI scanning, participants performed a cued, word categorization task. From interspersed cue-only trials, switch-related processing associated with the cue was estimated separately from the target. Activation associated with task switching, within a distributed frontoparietal network, differed for cue- and target-related processing. The magnitude of event-related activation for task switching was similar for younger adults (n = 20; 18-27 years) and older adults (n = 20; 60-85 years), although activation sustained throughout the on-tasks periods exhibited some age-related decline. Critically, the functional connectivity of switch-related regions, during cue processing, was higher for younger adults than for older adults, whereas functional connectivity during target processing was comparable across the age groups. Further, individual differences in cue-related functional connectivity shared a substantial portion of the age-related variability in the efficiency of target categorization response (drift rate). This age-related difference in functional connectivity, however, was independent of white matter integrity within task-relevant regions. These findings highlight the functional connectivity of frontoparietal activation as a potential source of age-related decline in executive control. PMID:20434565

  13. How the magnitude of clinical severity and recurrence risk affects reproductive decisions in adult males with different forms of progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-01-01

    The reproductive history of 177 male patients affected with Becker (BMD) (n=69), limb-girdle (LGMD) (n=54), and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD) (n=54) muscular dystrophy (MD) was analysed according to severity of the disease (BMD>LGMD>FSHMD) and magnitude of recurrence risk (RR) (high for FSHMD, intermediate for BMD, and low for LGMD). Additionally, 62 male patients were interviewed on psychosocial issues, in order to disentangle the factors influencing reproductive decisions among patients affected with MD. Among male adults, significantly more FSHMD than LGMD or BMD patients were married and had children. Age specific reproductive outcome was 0.31-0.32 for BMD, 0.51-0.62 for LGMD, and 0.58-1.02 for FSHMD, reflecting the influence of the disease's severity. High RRs did not significantly diminish reproduction after genetic counselling or correlate with less prospective desire for children. Instead, early onset, severity of the disease, and past reproductive history were found to diminish reproductive outcome after genetic counselling, and prospective family planning was also found to be influenced by past reproductive history as well as by emotional/sexual dysfunction with the opposite sex. PMID:9541101

  14. How the magnitude of clinical severity and recurrence risk affects reproductive decisions in adult males with different forms of progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-03-01

    The reproductive history of 177 male patients affected with Becker (BMD) (n=69), limb-girdle (LGMD) (n=54), and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD) (n=54) muscular dystrophy (MD) was analysed according to severity of the disease (BMD>LGMD>FSHMD) and magnitude of recurrence risk (RR) (high for FSHMD, intermediate for BMD, and low for LGMD). Additionally, 62 male patients were interviewed on psychosocial issues, in order to disentangle the factors influencing reproductive decisions among patients affected with MD. Among male adults, significantly more FSHMD than LGMD or BMD patients were married and had children. Age specific reproductive outcome was 0.31-0.32 for BMD, 0.51-0.62 for LGMD, and 0.58-1.02 for FSHMD, reflecting the influence of the disease's severity. High RRs did not significantly diminish reproduction after genetic counselling or correlate with less prospective desire for children. Instead, early onset, severity of the disease, and past reproductive history were found to diminish reproductive outcome after genetic counselling, and prospective family planning was also found to be influenced by past reproductive history as well as by emotional/sexual dysfunction with the opposite sex.

  15. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Gary W.; Swain, James E.; King, Anthony P.; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S. Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K. Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. We investigated amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (M = 23.7 years, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (ages 9 and 13). In addition, we tested whether expected, cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socio-emotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes, respectively were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the respective amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years), however, was unrelated to subsequent, adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure. PMID:26469872

  16. Visual Function and Visual Acuity in an Urban Adult Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, J.; Tielsch, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 6,850 adults age 40 or over concerning the effects of poor vision found that difficulties with reading or other near-vision activities were the most common complaint. One-fourth reported limitations in activities because of poor vision. Factors associated with loss of visual function were general health status, educational level, and…

  17. A Selected Bibliography of Functional Literacy Materials for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Joann La Perla; Wallace, Virginia A.

    This document is a selected, annotated bibliography of materials published in the area of coping skills for adults with functional reading skills. Publications are listed alphabetically by title under the following general topics: general coping skills; newspapers; occupational information; consumer economics; pregnancy and parenting; housing;…

  18. Body composition and reproductive function exert unique influences on indices of bone health in exercising women.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, Rebecca J; Williams, Nancy I; Hill, Brenna R; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2013-09-01

    Reproductive function, metabolic hormones, and lean mass have been observed to influence bone metabolism and bone mass. It is unclear, however, if reproductive, metabolic and body composition factors play unique roles in the clinical measures of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone geometry in exercising women. This study compares lumbar spine bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and estimates of femoral neck cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and cross-sectional area (CSA) between exercising ovulatory (Ov) and amenorrheic (Amen) women. It also explores the respective roles of reproductive function, metabolic status, and body composition on aBMD, lumbar spine BMAD and femoral neck CSMI and CSA, which are surrogate measures of bone strength. Among exercising women aged 18-30 years, body composition, aBMD, and estimates of femoral neck CSMI and CSA were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Lumbar spine BMAD was calculated from bone mineral content and area. Estrone-1-glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide were measured in daily urine samples collected for one cycle or monitoring period. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of leptin and total triiodothyronine. Ov (n = 37) and Amen (n = 45) women aged 22.3 ± 0.5 years did not differ in body mass, body mass index, and lean mass; however, Ov women had significantly higher percent body fat than Amen women. Lumbar spine aBMD and BMAD were significantly lower in Amen women compared to Ov women (p < 0.001); however, femoral neck CSA and CSMI were not different between groups. E1G cycle mean and age of menarche were the strongest predictors of lumbar spine aBMD and BMAD, together explaining 25.5% and 22.7% of the variance, respectively. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of total hip and femoral neck aBMD as well as femoral neck CSMI and CSA, explaining 8.5-34.8% of the variance. Upon consideration of several potential osteogenic stimuli, reproductive function appears to play

  19. Arabidopsis CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 Functions Independently of the SOS Pathway during Reproductive Development in Saline Conditions1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Steven E.; Schumaker, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of sodium in soil (saline conditions) negatively affects plant growth and development. The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) functions to remove sodium from the cytosol during vegetative development preventing its accumulation to toxic levels. In this pathway, the SOS3 and CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 (CBL10) calcium sensors interact with the SOS2 protein kinase to activate sodium/proton exchange at the plasma membrane (SOS1) or vacuolar membrane. To determine if the same pathway functions during reproductive development in response to salt, fertility was analyzed in wild type and the SOS pathway mutants grown in saline conditions. In response to salt, CBL10 functions early in reproductive development before fertilization, while SOS1 functions mostly after fertilization when seed development begins. Neither SOS2 nor SOS3 function in reproductive development in response to salt. Loss of CBL10 function resulted in reduced anther dehiscence, shortened stamen filaments, and aborted pollen development. In addition, cbl10 mutant pistils could not sustain the growth of wild-type pollen tubes. These results suggest that CBL10 is critical for reproductive development in the presence of salt and that it functions in different pathways during vegetative and reproductive development. PMID:26979332

  20. Figuring Out Function: Children's and Adults' Use of Ownership Information in Judgments of Artifact Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Konika; Kominsky, Jonathan F.; Fernando, Madhawee; Keil, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Across 3 experiments, we found evidence that information about who owns an artifact influenced 5- to 10-year-old children's and adults' judgments about that artifact's primary function. Children's and adults' use of ownership information was underpinned by their inference that owners are typically familiar with owned artifacts and are therefore…

  1. Relationships between adult abdominal color and reproductive potential in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (citrus greening disease), exhibits three more or less distinct abdominal colors in the adult stage: gray/brown, blue/green, and orange/yellow. A previous report showed that—relative to blue/green individuals—gray/brown indi...

  2. Social Reproduction in Non-Formal Adult Education: The Case of Rural Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straubhaar, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Using fieldnotes from the non-formal adult education classes run by a non-profit international education with ground operations in rural Mozambique, this article documents how the comments made by class facilitators and class participants in those classes reflect inherent power inequalities between non-profit staff and local participants. These…

  3. Effects of geolocation archival tags on reproduction and adult body mass of sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Scott, D.; McKechnie, S.; Blackwell, G.; Shaffer, S.A.; Moller, H.

    2009-01-01

    We attached 11 g (1.4% body-mass equivalent) global location sensing (GLS) archival tag packages to tarsi of 25 breeding sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus, titi) on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island), New Zealand during the chick-rearing period in 2005. Compared with chicks reared by non-handled adults that did not carry tags, deployment of tags on one or both adult parents ultimately resulted in 35% reduction in chick body mass and significantly reduced chick skeletal size preceding fledging (19 April). However, body mass between chick groups was not significantly different after controlling for skeletal size. Effects on chicks were more pronounced in six pairs where both parents carried tags. Chick mass was negatively related to the duration that adults carried tags. In this study, none of the chicks reared by pairs where both parents were tagged, 54% of chicks reared by pairs where one parent was tagged, and 83% of chicks reared by non-handled and non-tagged parents achieved a previously determined pre-fledging mass threshold (564 g; Sagar & Horning 1998). Body mass of adults carrying tags and returning from transequatorial migration the following year were 4% lighter on average than non-tagged birds, but this difference was not statistically significant. Reduced mass among chicks reared by adults carrying tags during the chick-provisioning period indicated that adults altered "normal" provisioning behaviours to maintain their own body condition at the expense of their chicks. Population-level information derived from telemetry studies can reveal important habitat-linked behaviours, unique aspects of seabird foraging behaviours, and migration ecology. Information for some species (e.g., overlap with fisheries) can aid conservation and marine ecosystem management. We advise caution, however, when interpreting certain data related to adult provisioning behaviours (e.g., time spent foraging, provisioning rates, etc.). If effects on individuals are of concern, we suggest

  4. Development, survival, and reproduction of the psocid Liposcelis paeta (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) as a function of temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Jun; Ren, Yi; Wei, Xue-Qing; Dou, Wei

    2009-08-01

    The development, survival, and reproduction of Liposcelis paeta Pearman (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae), an important insect pest of stored products, were evaluated at nine constant temperatures (20-40 degrees C). Few insects could complete the development or reproduce at 20 or 40 degrees C. Between 22.5 and 37.5 degrees C, the developmental period from egg to adult varied from 45.4 d at 22.5 degrees C to 11.5 d at 37.5 degrees C. The lower temperature developmental thresholds were estimated at 18.1-21.9 degrees C, and the upper temperature thresholds were 40.4-42.0 degrees C. The percentage of survival from egg to adult was 52.79% at 32.5 degrees C and 18.79% at 22.5 degrees C. After emergence, the adult had a short preoviposition period that ranged from 6.3 d at 22.5 degrees C to 0.8 d at 37.5 degrees C. L. paeta produced the most eggs at 27.5 degrees C and the fewest at 37.5 degrees C. The population reared at 32.5 degrees C had the highest intrinsic rate of increase compared with the other temperatures. Based on our data, the optimal range of temperature for L. paeta population growth was 30-35 degrees C. These data give us better understanding of L. paeta population dynamics, and they can be used to develop effective management strategies for this psocid.

  5. Neurokinin B and reproductive functions: "KNDy neuron" model in mammals and the emerging story in fish.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangfu; Lin, Chengyuan; He, Mulan; Wong, Anderson O L

    2014-11-01

    In mammals, neurokinin B (NKB), the gene product of the tachykinin family member TAC3, is known to be a key regulator for episodic release of luteinizing hormone (LH). Its regulatory actions are mediated by a subpopulation of kisspeptin neurons within the arcuate nucleus with co-expression of NKB and dynorphin A (commonly called the "KNDy neurons"). By forming an "autosynaptic feedback loop" within the hypothalamus, the KNDy neurons can modulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility and subsequent LH release in the pituitary. NKB regulation of LH secretion has been recently demonstrated in zebrafish, suggesting that the reproductive functions of NKB may be conserved from fish to mammals. Interestingly, the TAC3 genes in fish not only encode the mature peptide of NKB but also a novel tachykinin-like peptide, namely NKB-related peptide (or neurokinin F). Recent studies in zebrafish also reveal that the neuroanatomy of TAC3/kisspeptin system within the fish brain is quite different from that of mammals. In this article, the current ideas of "KNDy neuron" model for GnRH regulation and steroid feedback, other reproductive functions of NKB including its local actions in the gonad and placenta, the revised model of tachykinin evolution from invertebrates to vertebrates, as well as the emerging story of the two TAC3 gene products in fish, NKB and NKB-related peptide, will be reviewed with stress on the areas with interesting questions for future investigations.

  6. Functional characterization of an apple apomixis-related MhFIE gene in reproduction development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Dong, Qing-Long; Sun, Chao; Wang, Qing-Lian; You, Chun-Xiang; Yao, Yu-Xin; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-04-01

    The products of the FIS genes play important regulatory roles in diverse developmental processes, especially in seed formation after fertilization. In this study, a FIS-class gene MhFIE was isolated from apple. It encoded a predicted protein highly similar to polycomb group (PcG) protein FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE). MhFIE functioned as an Arabidopsis FIE homologue, as indicated by functional complementation experiment using Arabidopsis fie mutant. In addition, BiFC assay showed that MhFIE protein interacted with AtCLF. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis ectopically expressing MhFIE produced less APETALA3 (AtAP3) and AGAMOUS (AtAG) transcripts than WT control, and therefore exhibited abnormal flower, seed development. These results suggested that polycomb complex including FIE and CLF proteins played an important role in reproductive development by regulating the expression of its downstream genes. In addition, it was found that MhFIE constitutively expressed in various tissues tested. Its expression levels were lower in apomictic apple species than the sexual reproductive species, suggested it was possibly involved into apomixis in apple. Furthermore, the hybrids of tea crabapple generated MhFIE transcripts at different levels. The parthenogenesis capacity was negatively correlated with MhFIE expression level in these hybrids. These results suggested that MhFIE was involved into the regulation of flower development and apomixis in apple.

  7. In vivo effects of Aspalathus linearis (rooibos) on male rat reproductive functions.

    PubMed

    Opuwari, C S; Monsees, T K

    2014-10-01

    Aspalathus linearis (rooibos tea) may improve sperm function owing to its antioxidant properties. To test this hypothesis, male rats were given 2% or 5% rooibos tea for 52 days. No significant alterations were observed in body and reproductive organs weight, serum antioxidant capacity and testosterone level. Seminiferous tubules displayed complete spermatogenesis. However, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in tubule diameter and germinal epithelial height was observed. Epithelial height of caput epididymides showed a significant increase. Unfermented rooibos significantly enhanced sperm concentration, viability and motility. Fermented rooibos also significantly improved sperm vitality (P < 0.01), but caused a significant increase in spontaneous acrosome reaction (P < 0.05), whereas unfermented did not. Creatinine was significantly enhanced in all treated rats, consistent with significant higher kidney weights. Rooibos significantly reduced alanine transaminase level, while 2% fermented rooibos significantly decreased aspartate transaminase level (P < 0.01). In conclusion, treatment with rooibos improved sperm concentration, viability and motility, which might be attributed to its high level of antioxidants. However, prolonged exposure of rooibos might result in subtle structural changes in the male reproductive system and may induce acrosome reaction, which can impair fertility. Intake of large amounts of rooibos may also harm liver and kidney function.

  8. Adverse effects of the anabolic steroid, boldenone undecylenate, on reproductive functions of male rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Samah S; El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M

    2012-01-01

    Summary This study was conducted to evaluate the adverse effects of the anabolic steroid, boldenone undecylenate (BOL) on reproductive functions of male rabbits. Thirty white New Zealand mature male rabbits were divided into three groups (10 rabbits each). Group A rabbits served as a control group. Group B rabbits received 4.4 mg/kg body weight (bwt) BOL 5% oily solution. Group C rabbits received 8.8 mg/kg bwt BOL. Rabbits were injected intramuscularly twice weekly for two months. BOL had no significant effect on the bwt and bwt gain. Testes and epididymis weights were decreased significantly in the BOL-treated groups. BOL caused significant reduction in serum testosterone level, seminal volume, sperm motility, and sperm count. No abnormalities were detected in the sperm morphology of the BOL-treated groups. Histopathological alterations in the testes and epididymis were marked in the group C rabbits. These results indicate that administration of BOL exerts a significant harmful effect on the reproductive functions of male rabbits. PMID:22583130

  9. Effect of uremia on semen quality and reproductive function in humans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Longgen; Xu, Huiming; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Junrong; Ma, Meili; Shi, Xiaomin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we sought to evaluate the effect of uremia on semen quality and reproductive function in humans. For this purpose, 53 end-stage uremic patients were randomly selected. The semen samples were produced by masturbation. Fertility index (FI) was calculated according to the following formula: sperm density (×10(6)/ml) × sperm motility (%) × normal sperm morphology rate (% per 10,000). The semen samples of uremic patients were compared with those of fertile and infertile males. The results show that three patients failed to produce semen. There were no sperm found in four semen samples. The sperm motility, survival rate, sperm density, and normal sperm morphology rate of the remaining 46 patients were found to be significantly lower than those of controls. The uremic patients had the FI of 0.68(2.08) which was obviously lower than that of fertile 7.7(13.51) and infertile 4.13(5.77) males. It was, therefore, concluded that uremia caused a significant decline in sperm quality and reproductive function which resulted in consequential infertility in humans.

  10. Optical properties of functional composite silver nanoparticles and their potential use in reproductive medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrvatka, Vasyl J.; Slyvchuk, Yurij I.; Rozgoni, Ivan I.; Gevkan, Ivan I.; Bilyy, Oleksandr I.

    2013-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles are promising product of nanotechnology with attractive physicochemical and biological properties. The main aim of the study was to investigate optical properties of functional silver nanoparticles with different composite agents: polyvinylpyrrolidone, bovine serum albumin, hyaluronan and to explore their potential using in reproductive medicine. The date obtained in the study showed that surface modification of nanoparticles leads to change of their optical, physicochemical and biological properties. The optical properties of silver nanoparticles display, that AgNPs with PVP and BSA is most stable in PBS than AgNPs with HA. However the absorption curves after 120 hours of storage show, that AgNPs-HA were the most stable in ethanol. Results show, that silver nanoparticles did not effect on sperm viability and motility, but cause a changes of some biochemical parameters of conditioned medium, particular increase the concentration of triglycerides, activity of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and decrease the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase after 3 h of in vitro cultivation at 37°C. According to our latest data AgNPs with HA have a less toxic effect on biological processes in rabbits sperm compared with AgNPs with PVP and BSA. Nevertheless all functional composites of silver nanoparticles at the concentration of 0.1 μg/mL have no toxic effect on spermatozoa and can be successfully applied in reproductive medicine at low concentrations as signal enhancers, optical sensors, and biomarkers.

  11. Immune function is related to adult carotenoid and bile pigment levels, but not to dietary carotenoid access during development, in female mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael W; McGraw, Kevin J

    2013-07-15

    Immune function can be modulated by multiple physiological factors, including nutrition and reproductive state. Because these factors can vary throughout an individual's lifetime as a result of environmental conditions (affecting nutrition) or life-history stage (e.g. entering the adult reproduction stage), we must carefully examine the degree to which developmental versus adult conditions shape performance of the immune system. We investigated how variation in dietary access to carotenoid pigments - a class of molecules with immunostimulatory properties that females deposit into egg yolks - during three different developmental time points affected adult immunological and reproductive traits in female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). In males and females of other avian species, carotenoid access during development affects carotenoid assimilation ability, adult sexual ornamentation and immune function, while carotenoid access during adulthood can increase immune response and reproductive investment (e.g. egg-laying capacity, biliverdin deposition in eggshells). We failed to detect effects of developmental carotenoid supplementation on adult immune function [phytohemagglutinin-induced cutaneous immune response, antibody production in response to the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), or oxidative burst, assessed by changes in circulating nitric oxide levels], carotenoid-pigmented beak coloration, ovarian development, circulating carotenoid levels or concentration of bile pigments in the gall bladder. However, we did uncover positive relationships between circulating carotenoid levels during adulthood and KLH-specific antibody production, and a negative relationship between biliverdin concentration in bile and KLH-specific antibody production. These results are consistent with the view that adult physiological parameters better predict current immune function than do developmental conditions, and highlight a possible, previously unstudied relationship

  12. Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins affect lifespan and reproductive performance of Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ma, Yan; Wan, Pin-Jun; Mu, Li-Li; Li, Guo-Qing

    2013-04-01

    Being delivered as sprays or expressed in plant, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline proteins (Cry toxins) display insecticidal activities against numerous Lepidopteran, Dipteran, and Coleopteran larvae. Comparative study of toxicities of Bt Cry toxins between larvae and adults may afford important new insights into the interactions of the toxins with receptor proteins in host insect, and represent intriguing targets for the control of insect pests. However, the effectiveness of Bt Cry toxins in insect adults has paid less attention. In the present article, the effectiveness of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca on lifespans and reproductive performance of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) adults were evaluated by in vivo experiments. Considering transgenic plants express modified, truncated versions of cry genes yielding active toxin fragment, we used activated Bt toxins at the concentration of 500, 100, and 20 microg/ml in a 10% sucrose aquous solution. At the highest concentration, Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca shortened 48.1 and 48.9% of H. armigera female lifespan, and 43.5 and 38.5% of S. exigua female lifespan, and they reduced 37.8 and 40.3%, and 50.5 and 47.4% of H. armigera and S. exigua male lifespans respectively. Bt toxins negatively affected copulation. Exposure to 500 microg/ml of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca greatly reduced 50.0 and 46.8%, and 58.7 and 57.3% spermatophore acceptance by H. armigera and S. exigua females, respectively. Similarly, Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca exposure decreased 40.0 and 50.3%, and 61.3 and 60.0% of spermatophore transfer by H. armigera and S. exigua males, respectively. Moreover, exposure females rather than males to 500 microg/ml of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca significantly dropped 57.5 and 57.5% of the number of eggs laid by H. armigera, and 35.4 and 45.8% of the number of egg masses deposited by S. exigua. In contrast, both Cry1Ac and Cry1Ca did not negatively influence the egg hatchability. At the middle and the lowest concentrations, however

  13. Adult Children's Education and Parents' Functional Limitations in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yahirun, Jenjira J; Sheehan, Connor M; Hayward, Mark D

    2016-04-01

    This article asks how adult children's education influences older parents' physical health in Mexico, a context where older adults often lack access to institutional resources and rely on kin, primarily children, as a main source of support. Using logistic and negative binomial regression models and data from the first wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (N = 9,661), we find that parents whose children all completed high school are less likely to report any functional limitations as well as fewer limitations compared to parents with no children who completed high school. This association remains significant even after accounting for parent and offspring-level characteristics, including parents' income that accounts for children's financial transfers to parents. Future research should aim to understand the mechanisms that explain the association between adult children's education and changes to parents' health over time.

  14. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis: From Genes to Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Aimone, James B.; Li, Yan; Lee, Star W.; Clemenson, Gregory D.; Deng, Wei; Gage, Fred H.

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. This review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. The increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders. PMID:25287858

  15. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis. From Genes to Cognition

    DOE PAGES

    Aimone, J. B.; Li, Y.; Lee, S. W.; ...

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. Our review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages ofmore » maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. Furthermore, the increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders.« less

  16. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds.

    PubMed

    Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D

    2014-10-13

    A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations.

  17. Regulation and Function of Adult Neurogenesis. From Genes to Cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Aimone, J. B.; Li, Y.; Lee, S. W.; Clemenson, G. D.; Deng, W.; Gage, F. H.

    2014-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is a notable process due not only to its uniqueness and potential impact on cognition but also to its localized vertical integration of different scales of neuroscience, ranging from molecular and cellular biology to behavior. Our review summarizes the recent research regarding the process of adult neurogenesis from these different perspectives, with particular emphasis on the differentiation and development of new neurons, the regulation of the process by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, and their ultimate function in the hippocampus circuit. Arising from a local neural stem cell population, new neurons progress through several stages of maturation, ultimately integrating into the adult dentate gyrus network. Furthermore, the increased appreciation of the full neurogenesis process, from genes and cells to behavior and cognition, makes neurogenesis both a unique case study for how scales in neuroscience can link together and suggests neurogenesis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for a number of disorders.

  18. [Effect of the long term administration of bromantan on the reproductive function in rats].

    PubMed

    Khamidova, T V; Bugaeva, L I; Morozov, I S; Spasov, A A

    2000-01-01

    Bromantan is a new psychostimulator possessing actoprotector properties. The drug was administered to rats over two months (males) and two weeks (females) at a daily dose of 30 and 200-mg/kg, and the reproduction function parameters were monitored. Then the experimental animals were coupled and the embryonal characteristics of the breed were determined. Upon termination of the drug administration, the functional state of sperm and the morphology of gonads were studied again. It was found that bromantan (30 mg/kg) unreliably decreases the absolute amount of sperm in males. In females, the drug did not affect the ovary weight coefficient and increased the gestation index. After termination of the drug administration, the ovary weight coefficient increased. Bromantan affected neither the fertilizing capacity of male and female gametes nor the embryonal characteristics of the breed.

  19. Anticancer treatment and fertility: Effect of therapeutic modalities on reproductive system and functions.

    PubMed

    Vassilakopoulou, Maria; Boostandoost, Erfaneh; Papaxoinis, George; de La Motte Rouge, Thibault; Khayat, David; Psyrri, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The significant improvement of cancer treatments entailed a longer life in cancer survivors and raised expectations for higher quality of life with minimized long-term toxicity. Infertility and gonadal dysfunction are adverse effects of anticancer therapy or may be related to specific tumors. In female cancer survivors, premature ovarian failure is common after antineoplastic treatments resulting in infertility and other morbidities related to oestrogen deficiency such as osteoporosis. In male cancer survivors, infertility and persistent a zoospermia is a more common long-term adverse effect than hypogonadism because germ cells are more sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy than leydig cells. Gonadal toxicity and compromise of reproductive functions will be more efficiently prevented and treated if addressed before treatment initiation. This review focuses on these issues in young cancer survivors of childbearing age, where methods of protecting or restoring endocrine function and fertility need to be considered.

  20. Ultrastructure and functional morphology of the female reproductive organs in Protodrilus (Polychaeta, Annelida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Nordheim, Henning

    1991-12-01

    The morphology and function of the female reproductive organs in 6 Protodrilus species are investigated by light- and transmission electron microscopy. Possible ways in which spermatozoa may enter the female coelom after leaving the spermatophore are discussed for species with and without special female reception organs. Only female P. rubropharyngeus and P. flavocapitatus have “dorsal organs” for spermatophore reception. The structure and function of these organs are described, as well as those of the oviduct found in 3 of the species investigated. The possible phylogenetic origin of gonoducts and different modes of oviposition within the genus are discussed. Finally, the high taxonomic significance of female traits such as dorsal organs, oviducts, cocoon glands and lateral ciliary rows in this genus is stressed.

  1. Semen quality and reproductive endocrine function with regard to blood cadmium in Croatian male subjects.

    PubMed

    Jurasović, Jasna; Cvitković, Petar; Pizent, Alica; Colak, Bozo; Telisman, Spomenka

    2004-12-01

    In 123 Croatian men with no occupational exposure to metals, the influence of cadmium on reproductive parameters was examined after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, and biomarkers of lead, copper, zinc, and selenium. The following variables were measured: blood cadmium (BCd), blood lead (BPb), activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum copper (SCu), serum zinc (SZn), serum selenium (SSe), activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in blood, testis size, semen quality (including sperm concentration, motility, viability, and morphology), indicators in seminal fluid (the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-C4, fructose, zinc, acid phosphatase, and citric acid), and hormones in serum (follicle-stimulating hormone--FSH, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, and estradiol). The median and range BCd values were 2.94 (0.49-11.93) microg/L in 61 smokers and 0.59 (0.20-3.71) microg/L in 62 nonsmokers (p < 0.0001). Smoking habits (cigarettes/day) highly significantly correlated with BCd (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for potential confounding variables by multiple regression, BCd was significantly associated with a decrease in testis size (p < 0.03) and an increase in serum estradiol (p < 0.005), FSH (p < 0.03), and testosterone (p < 0.04). Smoking was significantly associated with a decrease in serum prolactin (p < 0.006) and LDH-C4 in seminal fluid (p < 0.03). Several reproductive parameters were significantly associated with BPb and ALAD, biomarkers of lead, and/or with SCu, SZn, SSe, and GPx. The necessity of controlling for various metals, and other potential confounders when assessing the influence of a particular metal on reproductive function in men, is emphasized.

  2. Kinetics of Bartonella birtlesii Infection in Experimentally Infected Mice and Pathogenic Effect on Reproductive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Boulouis, Henri J.; Barrat, Francine; Bermond, Delphine; Bernex, Florence; Thibault, Danièle; Heller, Rémy; Fontaine, Jean-Jacques; Piémont, Yves; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2001-01-01

    The kinetics of infection and the pathogenic effects on the reproductive function of laboratory mice infected with Bartonella birtlesii recovered from an Apodemus species are described. B. birtlesii infection, as determined by bacteremia, occurred in BALB/c mice inoculated intravenously. Inoculation with a low-dose inoculum (1.5 × 103 CFU) induced bacteremia in only 75% of the mice compared to all of the mice inoculated with higher doses (≥1.5 × 104). Mice became bacteremic for at least 5 weeks (range, 5 to 8 weeks) with a peak ranging from 2 × 103 to 105 CFU/ml of blood. The bacteremia level was significantly higher in virgin females than in males but the duration of bacteremia was similar. In mice infected before pregnancy (n = 20), fetal loss was evaluated by enumerating resorption and fetal death on day 18 of gestation. The fetal death and resorption percentage of infected mice was 36.3% versus 14.5% for controls (P < 0.0001). Fetal suffering was evaluated by weighing viable fetuses. The weight of viable fetuses was significantly lower for infected mice than for uninfected mice (P < 0.0002). Transplacental transmission of Bartonella was demonstrated since 76% of the fetal resorptions tested was culture positive for B. birtlesii. The histopathological analysis of the placentas of infected mice showed vascular lesions in the maternal placenta, which could explain the reproductive disorders observed. BALB/c mice appeared to be a useful model for studying Bartonella infection. This study provides the first evidence of reproductive disorders in mice experimentally infected with a Bartonella strain originating from a wild rodent. PMID:11500400

  3. Single pollinator species losses reduce floral fidelity and plant reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Brosi, Berry J; Briggs, Heather M

    2013-08-06

    Understanding the functional impacts of pollinator species losses on plant populations is critical given ongoing pollinator declines. Simulation models of pollination networks suggest that plant communities will be resilient to losing many or even most of the pollinator species in an ecosystem. These predictions, however, have not been tested empirically and implicitly assume that pollination efficacy is unaffected by interactions with interspecific competitors. By contrast, ecological theory and data from a wide range of ecosystems show that interspecific competition can drive variation in ecological specialization over short timescales via behavioral or morphological plasticity, although the potential implications of such changes in specialization for ecosystem functioning remain unexplored. We conducted manipulative field experiments in which we temporarily removed single pollinator species from study plots in subalpine meadows, to test the hypothesis that interactions between pollinator species can shape individual species' functional roles via changes in foraging specialization. We show that loss of a single pollinator species reduces floral fidelity (short-term specialization) in the remaining pollinators, with significant implications for ecosystem functioning in terms of reduced plant reproduction, even when potentially effective pollinators remained in the system. Our results suggest that ongoing pollinator declines may have more serious negative implications for plant communities than is currently assumed. More broadly, we show that the individual functional contributions of species can be dynamic and shaped by the community of interspecific competitors, thereby documenting a distinct mechanism for how biodiversity can drive ecosystem functioning, with potential relevance to a wide range of taxa and systems.

  4. Measurement of functional activities in older adults in the community.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, R I; Kurosaki, T T; Harrah, C H; Chance, J M; Filos, S

    1982-05-01

    Two measures of social function designed for community studies of normal aging and mild senile dementia were evaluated in 195 older adults who underwent neurological, cognitive, and affective assessment. An examining and a reviewing neurologist and a neurologically trained nurse independently rated each on a Scale of Functional Capacity. Interrater reliability was high (examining vs. reviewing neurologist, r = .97; examining neurologist vs. nurse, tau b = .802; p less than .001 for both comparisons). Estimates correlated well with an established measure of social function and with results of cognitive tests. Alternate informants evaluated participants on the Functional Activities Questionnaire and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale. The Functional Activities Questionnaire was superior to the Instrumental Activities of Daily scores. Used alone as a diagnostic tool, the Functional Activities Questionnaire was more sensitive than distinguishing between normal and demented individuals.

  5. Gene by Neuroticism Interaction and Cognitive Function among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Robbins, John A.; Porsteinsson, Anton; Mapstone, Mark; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Both ApoE (apolipoprotein E) ε-4 allele(s) and elevated trait neuroticism, the tendency to experience distress, are associated with cognitive function among older adults. We predicted that neuroticism moderates the association between ApoE and cognitive function and also explored whether other personality dimensions (openness to experience, agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness) affect the association between ApoE status and cognitive function. Method Five-hundred and ninety-seven older adults (mean age of 78) enrolled in the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) study completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory of personality. Cognitive function was assessed via the cognitive portion of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog), and a blood sample for ApoE genotyping was drawn. Results As hypothesized, regression analysis indicated that neuroticism moderated the relationship between the presence of ApoE ε-4 and cognitive function. Individuals with high neuroticism scores had significantly lower ADAS-cog scores compared with individual with low neuroticism scores, but this was true only among carriers of ApoE ε-4 (interaction effect β = .124, p = .028). There was scant evidence that other personality dimensions moderate the association between ApoE ε-4 and cognitive function. Conclusions Cognitive function may be affected by ApoE and neuroticism acting in tandem. Research on the underlying physiological mechanisms by which neuroticism amplifies the effect of ApoE ε-4 is warranted. The study of genotype by phenotype interactions provides an important and useful direction for the study of cognitive function among older adults and for the development of novel prevention programs. PMID:23042108

  6. Reproduction Symposium: developmental programming of reproductive and metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, V; Veiga-Lopez, A

    2014-08-01

    Inappropriate programming of the reproductive system by developmental exposure to excess steroid hormones is of concern. Sheep are well suited for investigating developmental origin of reproductive and metabolic disorders. The developmental time line of female sheep (approximately 5 mo gestation and approximately 7 mo to puberty) is ideal for conducting sequential studies of the progression of metabolic and/or reproductive disruption from the developmental insult to manifestation of adult consequences. Major benefits of using sheep include knowledge of established critical periods to target adult defects, a rich understanding of reproductive neuroendocrine regulation, availability of noninvasive approaches to monitor follicular dynamics, established surgical approaches to obtain hypophyseal portal blood for measurement of hypothalamic hormones, and the ability to perform studies in natural setting thereby keeping behavioral interactions intact. Of importance is the ability to chronically instrument fetus and mother for determining early endocrine perturbations. Prenatal exposure of the female to excess testosterone (T) leads to an array of adult reproductive disorders that include LH excess, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine defects, multifollicular ovarian morphology, and corpus luteum dysfunction culminating in early reproductive failure. At the neuroendocrine level, all 3 feedback systems are compromised. At the pituitary level, gonadotrope (LH secretion) sensitivity to GnRH is increased. Multifollicular ovarian morphology stems from persistence of follicles as well as enhanced follicular recruitment. These defects culminate in progressive loss of cyclicity and reduced fecundity. Prenatal T excess also leads to fetal growth retardation, an early marker of adult reproductive and metabolic diseases, insulin resistance, hypertension, and behavioral deficits. Collectively, the reproductive and metabolic deficits of prenatal T-treated sheep provide proof of

  7. The regulation of reproductive neuroendocrine function by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Andrew; Divall, Sara; Wu, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian reproductive hormone axis regulates gonadal steroid hormone levels and gonadal function essential for reproduction. The neuroendocrine control of the axis integrates signals from a wide array of inputs. The regulatory pathways important for mediating these inputs have been the subject of numerous studies. One class of proteins that have been shown to mediate metabolic and growth signals to the CNS includes Insulin and IGF-1. These proteins are structurally related and can exert endocrine and growth factor like action via related receptor tyrosine kinases. The role that insulin and IGF-1 play in controlling the hypothalamus and pituitary and their role in regulating puberty and nutritional control of reproduction has been studied extensively. This review summarizes the in vitro and in vivo models that have been used to study these neuroendocrine structures and the influence of these growth factors on neuroendocrine control of reproduction. PMID:24929098

  8. Assigning sex and reproductive stage to adult Lake Sturgeon using ultrasonography and common morphological measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Briggs, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination of fish species is difficult to assess when sexual dimorphism and gametes are not apparent. For threatened and endangered fish species, noninvasive techniques are needed when determining sex to minimize stress and the potential for mortality. We evaluated the use of a portable ultrasound unit to determine sex of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the field. Ultrasound images were collected from 9 yellow-egg (F2, F3), 32 black-egg (F4, F5), and 107 fully developed male (M2) Lake Sturgeon. Two readers accurately assigned sex to 88–96% of fish, but accuracy varied in relation to maturity stage. Black-egg females and fully developed males were correctly identified for 89–100% of the fish sampled, while these two readers identified yellow-egg females only 33% and 67% of the time. Time spent collecting images ranged between 2 and 3 min once the user was comfortable with operating procedures. Discriminant analysis revealed the total length : girth ratio was a strong predictor of sex and maturity, correctly classifying 81% of black-egg females and 97% of the fully developed males. However, yellow-egg females were incorrectly classified on all occasions. This study shows the utility of using ultrasonography and a total length : girth ratio for sex determination of Lake Sturgeon in later reproductive stages around the spawning season.

  9. Does alcohol have any effect on male reproductive function? A review of literature.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A; Balercia, Giancarlo; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E

    2013-03-01

    Although alcohol is widely used, its impact on the male reproductive function is still controversial. Over the years, many studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and male infertility. This article reviews the main preclinical and clinical evidences. Studies conducted on the experimental animal have shown that a diet enriched with ethanol causes sperm parameter abnormalities, a number of alterations involving the reproductive tract inhibition, and reduced mouse oocyte in vitro fertilization rate. These effects were partly reversible upon discontinuation of alcohol consumption. Most of the studies evaluating the effects of alcohol in men have shown a negative impact on the sperm parameters. This has been reported to be associated with hypotestosteronemia and low-normal or elevated gonadotropin levels suggesting a combined central and testicular detrimental effect of alcohol. Nevertheless, alcohol consumption does not seem to have much effect on fertility either in in vitro fertilization programs or population-based studies. Finally, the genetic background and other concomitant, alcohol consumption-related conditions influence the degree of the testicular damage. In conclusion, alcohol consumption is associated with a deterioration of sperm parameters which may be partially reversible upon alcohol consumption discontinuation.

  10. Sperm conjugation in mammal reproductive function: Different names for the same phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Monclus, Maria Angeles; Fornes, Miguel Walter

    2016-10-01

    In many mammalian and non-mammalian species, mature sperm interact within the female reproductive tract or inside the epididymal lumen using cohesive forces. This phenomenon, known as "sperm conjugation," is sometimes confused with sperm agglutination, which is the result of the interaction of epididymal or ejaculate spermatozoa upon release into culture medium. In addition to "agglutination," the terms "association," "rouleaux," or "rosettes" are employed interchangeably to describe the conjugation phenomenon, which inevitably causes confusion due to the non-unifying nomenclature. This variety of descriptions is likely due to a poor understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in such conspicuous cell-cell interaction as well as the different morphologies that result from such interactions among species. Here, we summarize the published data regarding mammalian sperm conjugation, considering the organisms in which sperm interaction was observed; the particular terminology employed; findings regarding the components that enable sperm to adhere; sperm behavior when deposited in the female reproductive tract; and hypotheses formulated to clarify the biological function and, when known, the mechanisms for sperm interaction. We also propose a new classification system for this phenomenon that might clearly unify the criteria used to describe this behavior. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 884-896, 2016 © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Does alcohol have any effect on male reproductive function? A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A; Balercia, Giancarlo; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol is widely used, its impact on the male reproductive function is still controversial. Over the years, many studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and male infertility. This article reviews the main preclinical and clinical evidences. Studies conducted on the experimental animal have shown that a diet enriched with ethanol causes sperm parameter abnormalities, a number of alterations involving the reproductive tract inhibition, and reduced mouse oocyte in vitro fertilization rate. These effects were partly reversible upon discontinuation of alcohol consumption. Most of the studies evaluating the effects of alcohol in men have shown a negative impact on the sperm parameters. This has been reported to be associated with hypotestosteronemia and low–normal or elevated gonadotropin levels suggesting a combined central and testicular detrimental effect of alcohol. Nevertheless, alcohol consumption does not seem to have much effect on fertility either in in vitro fertilization programs or population-based studies. Finally, the genetic background and other concomitant, alcohol consumption-related conditions influence the degree of the testicular damage. In conclusion, alcohol consumption is associated with a deterioration of sperm parameters which may be partially reversible upon alcohol consumption discontinuation. PMID:23274392

  12. Doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS): Adverse effects on non-reproductive organs and functions.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Vorona, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1970s anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused at ever increasing rates in competitive athletics, in recreational sports and in bodybuilding. Exceedingly high doses are often consumed over long periods, in particular by bodybuilders, causing acute or chronic adverse side effects frequently complicated by additional polypharmacy. This review summarizes side effects on non-reproductive organs and functions; effects on male and female reproduction have been recently reviewed in a parallel paper. Among the most striking AAS side effects are increases in haematocrit and coagulation causing thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke as well as other cardiac disturbances including arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies and possibly sudden death. 17α-alkylated AAS are liver toxic leading to cholestasis, peliosis, adenomas and carcinomas. Hyperbilirubinaemia can cause cholemic nephrosis and kidney failure. AAS abuse may induce exaggerated self-confidence, reckless behavior, aggressiveness and psychotic symptoms. AAS withdrawal may be accompanied by depression and suicidal intentions. Since AAS abuse is not or only reluctantly admitted physicians should be aware of the multitude of serious side effects when confronted with unclear symptoms.

  13. Effects of immunization against LHRH and treatment with trenbolone acetate on reproductive function of beef bulls and steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the ability of trenbolone acetate (TBA) administered in tandem with LHRH immunization to suppress reproductive function in beef bulls and (2) to examine the effects of LHRH and androgen (TBA) signaling on pituitary function. In order to address thes...

  14. Triflumuron Effects on the Physiology and Reproduction of Rhodnius prolixus Adult Females

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Bianca Santos; Mello, Cícero Brasileiro; Silva, Lucas Rangel; Codogno, Thaís Franco; Oliveira, Alyne F. R.; Marinho, Lourena Pinheiro; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Feder, Denise; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Azambuja, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of the growth regulator triflumuron (TFM) in inducing mortality and disrupting both oviposition and egg hatching in Rhodnius prolixus adult females. TFM was administered via feeding, topically or by continuous contact with impregnated surfaces. Feeding resulted in mild biological effects compared with topical and impregnated surfaces. One day after treatment, the highest mortality levels were observed with topical surface and 30 days later both topical and impregnated surfaces induced higher mortalities than feeding. Oral treatment inhibited oviposition even at lower doses, and hatching of eggs deposited by treated females was similarly affected by the three delivery modes. Topical treatment of eggs deposited by nontreated females significantly reduced hatching. However, treatment per contact of eggs oviposited by untreated females did not disrupt eclosion. Additionally, oral treatment increased the number of immature oocytes per female, and topical treatment reduced the mean size of oocytes. TFM also affected carcass chitin content, diuresis, and innate immunity of treated insects. These results suggest that TFM acts as a potent growth inhibitor of R. prolixus adult females and has the potential to be used in integrated vector control programs against hematophagous triatomine species. PMID:27822479

  15. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Yokoo, Edna M; Valente, Joaquim G; Grattan, Lynn; Schmidt, Sérgio Luís; Platt, Illeane; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2003-01-01

    -dependent effect. Conclusions This study suggests that adults exposed to MeHg may be at risk for deficits in neurocognitive function. The functions disrupted in adults, namely attention, fine-motor function and verbal memory, are similar to some of those previously reported in children with prenatal exposures. PMID:12844364

  16. Masticatory ability and functional tooth units in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Ueno, M; Yanagisawa, T; Shinada, K; Ohara, S; Kawaguchi, Y

    2008-05-01

    The purposes of this study were (i) to examine the relationship between the number of natural teeth and the number of functional tooth units in Japanese adults, (ii) to evaluate how functional tooth units relate to subjective masticatory ability and (iii) to determine the minimum number of natural teeth and functional tooth units needed to maintain adequate self-assessed chewing function. A self-administered questionnaire was given and dental examination was conducted for 2164 residents aged 40 to 75 years. Counts were made on the number of functional tooth units of natural teeth (n-functional tooth units), the sum of natural teeth and artificial teeth on implant-supported and fixed prostheses (nif-functional tooth units) and the sum of natural teeth and artificial teeth on implant-supported, fixed and removable prostheses (total-functional tooth units). The average number of natural teeth, n-functional tooth units and nif-functional tooth units decreased with age, but these were often replaced by functional tooth units from artificial teeth on removable prostheses. Total-functional tooth units in 50-59 year old people were slightly lower compared with those in other age groups. Subjects who reported that they could chew every food item on an average had 23.4 total natural teeth, 12.6 posterior natural teeth, 7.6 n-functional tooth units, 8.6 nif-functional tooth units and 10.4 total-functional tooth units, and subjects without chewing difficulties had fewer functional tooth units from removable prostheses. Maintaining 20 and more natural teeth and at least eight nif-functional tooth units is important in reducing the likelihood of self-assessed chewing difficulties.

  17. Effects of hyperandrogenemia and increased adiposity on reproductive and metabolic parameters in young adult female monkeys.

    PubMed

    McGee, W K; Bishop, C V; Pohl, C R; Chang, R J; Marshall, J C; Pau, F K; Stouffer, R L; Cameron, J L

    2014-06-01

    Many patients with hyperandrogenemia are overweight or obese, which exacerbates morbidities associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). To examine the ability of testosterone (T) to generate PCOS-like symptoms, monkeys received T or cholesterol (control) implants (n = 6/group) beginning prepubertally. As previously reported, T-treated animals had increased neuroendocrine drive to the reproductive axis [increased luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency] at 5 yr, without remarkable changes in ovarian or metabolic features. To examine the combined effects of T and obesity, at 5.5 yr (human equivalent age: 17 yr), monkeys were placed on a high-calorie, high-fat diet typical of Western cultures [Western style diet (WSD)], which increased body fat from <2% (pre-WSD) to 15-19% (14 mo WSD). By 6 mo on WSD, LH pulse frequency in the controls increased to that of T-treated animals, whereas LH pulse amplitude decreased in both groups and remained low. The numbers of antral follicles present during the early follicular phase increased in both groups on the WSD, but maximal follicular size decreased by 50%. During the late follicular phase, T-treated females had greater numbers of small antral follicles than controls. T-treated monkeys also had lower progesterone during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Although fasting insulin did not vary between groups, T-treated animals had decreased insulin sensitivity after 1 yr on WSD. Thus, while WSD consumption alone led to some features characteristic of PCOS, T + WSD caused a more severe phenotype with regard to insulin insensitivity, increased numbers of antral follicles at midcycle, and decreased circulating luteal phase progesterone levels.

  18. Effect of green tea (camellia sinensis l.) leaf extract on reproductive system of adult male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shyamal Kanti; Karmakar, Soumendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    Green tea leaf extract (GTLE), used in this experiment has shown great influence on male reproductive system functionally as well as morphologically. The extract was prepared according to the method of Wei. H. et al. The extract was given to two different experimental animal groups with two different doses during 26 consecutive days. After treatment it was found that, the weight of the testis was markedly reduced instead of normal weight gain of all the animals. The sperm count and motility were reduced for the treated groups as compared with control animal group. The enzymes like SGPT and SGOT were as usual and other blood parameters like glucose and protein were also as usual comparing with controlled group. Testosterone level was reduced in the treated groups. FSH and LH levels were also altered accordingly in treated groups. Histological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis as evidenced by disintegration of seminiferous tubules of testis. Result of this study showed that GTLE has potent castrative effect on male reproductive system in dose dependent manner. PMID:27073594

  19. Effect of green tea (camellia sinensis l.) leaf extract on reproductive system of adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Shyamal Kanti; Karmakar, Soumendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    Green tea leaf extract (GTLE), used in this experiment has shown great influence on male reproductive system functionally as well as morphologically. The extract was prepared according to the method of Wei. H. et al. The extract was given to two different experimental animal groups with two different doses during 26 consecutive days. After treatment it was found that, the weight of the testis was markedly reduced instead of normal weight gain of all the animals. The sperm count and motility were reduced for the treated groups as compared with control animal group. The enzymes like SGPT and SGOT were as usual and other blood parameters like glucose and protein were also as usual comparing with controlled group. Testosterone level was reduced in the treated groups. FSH and LH levels were also altered accordingly in treated groups. Histological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis as evidenced by disintegration of seminiferous tubules of testis. Result of this study showed that GTLE has potent castrative effect on male reproductive system in dose dependent manner.

  20. Dibromochloropropane (DBCP): an 8-year reevaluation of testicular function and reproductive performance

    SciTech Connect

    Potashnik, G.; Yanai-Inbar, I.

    1987-02-01

    The current study summarizes an 8-year reassessment of testicular function and reproductive performance in 15 workers with dibromochloropropane (DBCP)-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia. Recovery of spermatogenesis was observed in four oligozoospermic and three azoospermic men whose plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration was normal during the whole period. A marked increase in FSH and luteinizing hormone concentrations above the upper limit of normal was found in the azoospermic workers who did not recover. No significant changes in FSH concentrations were detected in both recovered and nonrecovered oligozoospermic men. Testosterone levels of all patients were normal at all times. Paternal exposure to DBCP was not associated with increased risk of fetal malformations or spontaneous abortion.

  1. Successful Reproduction Requires the Function of Arabidopsis YELLOW STRIPE-LIKE1 and YELLOW STRIPE-LIKE3 Metal-Nicotianamine Transporters in Both Vegetative and Reproductive Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, H.; Chiecko, J; Punshon, T; Lanzirotti, A; Lahner, B; Salt, D; Walker, E

    2010-01-01

    Several members of the Yellow Stripe-Like (YSL) family of proteins are transporters of metals that are bound to the metal chelator nicotianamine or the related set of mugineic acid family chelators known as phytosiderophores. Here, we examine the physiological functions of three closely related Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) YSL family members, AtYSL1, AtYSL2, and AtYSL3, to elucidate their role(s) in the allocation of metals into various organs of Arabidopsis. We show that AtYSL3 and AtYSL1 are localized to the plasma membrane and function as iron transporters in yeast functional complementation assays. By using inflorescence grafting, we show that AtYSL1 and AtYSL3 have dual roles in reproduction: their activity in the leaves is required for normal fertility and normal seed development, while activity in the inflorescences themselves is required for proper loading of metals into the seeds. We further demonstrate that the AtYSL1 and AtYSL2 proteins, when expressed from the AtYSL3 promoter, can only partially rescue the phenotypes of a ysl1ysl3 double mutant, suggesting that although these three YSL transporters are closely related and have similar patterns of expression, they have distinct activities in planta. In particular, neither AtYSL1 nor AtYSL2 is able to functionally complement the reproductive defects exhibited by ysl1ysl3 double mutant plants.

  2. Control of reproductive floral organ identity specification in Arabidopsis by the C function regulator AGAMOUS.

    PubMed

    ÓMaoiléidigh, Diarmuid S; Wuest, Samuel E; Rae, Liina; Raganelli, Andrea; Ryan, Patrick T; Kwasniewska, Kamila; Das, Pradeep; Lohan, Amanda J; Loftus, Brendan; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank

    2013-07-01

    The floral organ identity factor AGAMOUS (AG) is a key regulator of Arabidopsis thaliana flower development, where it is involved in the formation of the reproductive floral organs as well as in the control of meristem determinacy. To obtain insights into how AG specifies organ fate, we determined the genes and processes acting downstream of this C function regulator during early flower development and distinguished between direct and indirect effects. To this end, we combined genome-wide localization studies, gene perturbation experiments, and computational analyses. Our results demonstrate that AG controls flower development to a large extent by controlling the expression of other genes with regulatory functions, which are involved in mediating a plethora of different developmental processes. One aspect of this function is the suppression of the leaf development program in emerging floral primordia. Using trichome initiation as an example, we demonstrate that AG inhibits an important aspect of leaf development through the direct control of key regulatory genes. A comparison of the gene expression programs controlled by AG and the B function regulators APETALA3 and PISTILLATA, respectively, showed that while they control many developmental processes in conjunction, they also have marked antagonistic, as well as independent activities.

  3. Functional disability of adults in Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Galvão, Taís Freire; Pereira, Maurício Gomes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with functional disability in adults in Brazil. METHODS We used information from the health supplement of the National Household Sample Survey in 2008. The dependent variable was the functional disability among adults of 18 to 65 years, measured by the difficulty of walking about 100 meters; independent variables were: health plan membership, region of residence, state of domicile, education level, household income, economic activity, self-perception of health, hospitalization, chronic diseases, age group, sex, and color. We calculated the gross odds ratios (OR), and their respective confidence intervals (95%), and adjusted them for variables of study by ordinal logistic regression, following hierarchical model. Sample weights were considered in all calculations. RESULTS We included 18,745 subjects, 74.0% of whom were women. More than a third of adults reported having functional disability. The disability was significantly higher among men (OR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.09;1.27), people from 35 to 49 years (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.17;1.45) and 50 to 65 years (OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.24;1.54); economically inactive individuals (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.65;2.96); adults who reported heart disease (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.03;1.24), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.16; 95%CI 1.05;1.29), arterial systemic hypertension (OR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02;1.18), and arthritis/rheumatism (OR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.15;1.34); and participants who were admitted in the last 12 months (OR = 2.35; 95%CI 1.73;3.2). CONCLUSIONS Functional disability is common among Brazilian adults. Hospitalization is the most strongly associated factor, followed by economic activity, and chronic diseases. Sex, age, education, and income are also associated. Results indicate specific targets for actions that address the main factors associated with functional disabilities and contribute to the projection of interventions for the improvement of the well-being and promotion of adults

  4. Functions of autobiographical memory in Taiwanese and American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hsiao-Wen; Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole; Cheng, Ching-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The study addresses cultural and person-level factors contributing to emerging adult's use of memory to serve adaptive functions. The focus is on three functions: self-continuity, social-bonding and directing-behaviour. Taiwanese (N = 85, 52 women) and American (N = 95, 51 women) emerging adults completed the Thinking about Life Experiences scale, and measures of trait personality, self-concept clarity and future time perspective. Findings show that individuals from both cultures use memory to serve these three functions, but Taiwanese individuals use memory more frequently than Americans to maintain self-continuity. Culture also interacted with person-level factors: in Taiwan, but not America, memory is more frequently used to create self-continuity in individuals high in conscientiousness. Across cultures, having lower self-concept clarity was related to greater use of memory to create self-continuity. Findings are discussed in terms of how memory serves functions in context and specific aspects of the Taiwanese and American cultural context that may predict the functional use of memory in emerging adulthood.

  5. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam . E-mail: subbi100@yahoo.co.uk; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-09-15

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm.

  6. Functional significance of mononuclear phagocyte populations generated through adult hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Gutknecht, Michael F.; Bouton, Amy H.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires a complete repertoire of functional macrophages in peripheral tissues. Recent evidence indicates that many resident tissue macrophages are seeded during embryonic development and persist through adulthood as a consequence of localized proliferation. Mononuclear phagocytes are also produced during adult hematopoiesis; these cells are then recruited to sites throughout the body, where they function in tissue repair and remodeling, resolution of inflammation, maintenance of homeostasis, and disease progression. The focus of this review is on mononuclear phagocytes that comprise the nonresident monocyte/macrophage populations in the body. Key features of monocyte differentiation are presented, focusing primarily on the developmental hierarchy that is established through this process, the markers used to identify discrete cell populations, and novel, functional attributes of these cells. These features are then explored in the context of the tumor microenvironment, where mononuclear phagocytes exhibit extensive plasticity in phenotype and function. PMID:25225678

  7. Predictors of Upper-Extremity Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hermanussen, Hugo H.; Menendez, Mariano E.; Chen, Neal C.; Ring, David; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of habitual participation in physical exercise and diet on upper-extremity physical function in older adults. To assess the relationship of general physical exercise and diet to upper-extremity physical function and pain intensity in older adults. Methods: A cohort of 111 patients 50 or older completed a sociodemographic survey, the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity (RAPA), an 11-point ordinal pain intensity scale, a Mediterranean diet questionnaire, and three Patient- Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) based questionnaires: Pain Interference to measure inability to engage in activities due to pain, Upper-Extremity Physical Function, and Depression. Multivariable linear regression modeling was used to characterize the association of physical activity, diet, depression, and pain interference to pain intensity and upper-extremity function. Results: Higher general physical activity was associated with higher PROMIS Upper-Extremity Physical Function and lower pain intensity in bivariate analyses. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet did not correlate with PROMIS Upper-Extremity Physical Function or pain intensity in bivariate analysis. In multivariable analyses factors associated with higher PROMIS Upper-Extremity Physical Function were male sex, non-traumatic diagnosis and PROMIS Pain Interference, with the latter accounting for most of the observed variability (37%). Factors associated with greater pain intensity in multivariable analyses included fewer years of education and higher PROMIS Pain Interference. Conclusions: General physical activity and diet do not seem to be as strongly or directly associated with upper-extremity physical function as pain interference. PMID:27847850

  8. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. Methods Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Result Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Conclusion Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility. PMID:25183143

  9. Correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nor Najwatul Akmal Ab; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Lee, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function. Research information regarding the correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and a comprehensive examination of respiratory function parameters in older adults is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function in community-dwelling older adults. Thoracolumbar curvatures (thoracic and lumbar) were measured using a motion tracker. Respiratory function parameters such as lung function, respiratory rate, respiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle thickness (diaphragm and intercostal) were measured using a spirometer, triaxial accelerometer, respiratory pressure meter and ultrasound imaging, respectively. Sixty-eight community-dwelling older males and females from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with mean (standard deviation) age of 66.63 (5.16) years participated in this cross-sectional study. The results showed that mean (standard deviation) thoracic curvature angle and lumbar curvature angles were -46.30° (14.66°) and 14.10° (10.58°), respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between thoracic curvature angle and lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: r=-0.23, P<0.05; forced vital capacity: r=-0.32, P<0.05), quiet expiration intercostal thickness (r=-0.22, P<0.05) and deep expiration diaphragm muscle thickness (r=-0.21, P<0.05). The lumbar curvature angle had a significant negative correlation with respiratory muscle strength (r=-0.29, P<0.05) and diaphragm muscle thickness at deep inspiration (r=-0.22, P<0.05). However, respiratory rate was correlated neither with thoracic nor with lumbar curvatures. The findings of this study suggest that increase in both thoracic and lumbar curvatures is correlated with decrease in respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle thickness and some parameters of lung function. Clinically, both thoracic and lumbar curvatures

  10. Correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Nor Najwatul Akmal Ab; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Lee, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function. Research information regarding the correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and a comprehensive examination of respiratory function parameters in older adults is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between thoracolumbar curvatures and respiratory function in community-dwelling older adults. Thoracolumbar curvatures (thoracic and lumbar) were measured using a motion tracker. Respiratory function parameters such as lung function, respiratory rate, respiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle thickness (diaphragm and intercostal) were measured using a spirometer, triaxial accelerometer, respiratory pressure meter and ultrasound imaging, respectively. Sixty-eight community-dwelling older males and females from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with mean (standard deviation) age of 66.63 (5.16) years participated in this cross-sectional study. The results showed that mean (standard deviation) thoracic curvature angle and lumbar curvature angles were −46.30° (14.66°) and 14.10° (10.58°), respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between thoracic curvature angle and lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: r=−0.23, P<0.05; forced vital capacity: r=−0.32, P<0.05), quiet expiration intercostal thickness (r=−0.22, P<0.05) and deep expiration diaphragm muscle thickness (r=−0.21, P<0.05). The lumbar curvature angle had a significant negative correlation with respiratory muscle strength (r=−0.29, P<0.05) and diaphragm muscle thickness at deep inspiration (r=−0.22, P<0.05). However, respiratory rate was correlated neither with thoracic nor with lumbar curvatures. The findings of this study suggest that increase in both thoracic and lumbar curvatures is correlated with decrease in respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle thickness and some parameters of lung function. Clinically, both thoracic and lumbar

  11. Changed crossmodal functional connectivity in older adults with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Thiel, Christiane M

    2017-01-01

    Previous work compellingly demonstrates a crossmodal plastic reorganization of auditory cortex in deaf individuals, leading to increased neural responses to non-auditory sensory input. Recent data indicate that crossmodal adaptive plasticity is not restricted to severe hearing impairments, but may also occur as a result of high-frequency hearing loss in older adults and affect audiovisual processing in these subjects. We here used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the effect of hearing loss in older adults on auditory cortex response patterns as well as on functional connectivity between auditory and visual cortex during audiovisual processing. Older participants with a varying degree of high frequency hearing loss performed an auditory stimulus categorization task, in which they had to categorize frequency-modulated (FM) tones presented alone or in the context of matching or non-matching visual motion. A motion only condition served as control for a visual take-over of auditory cortex. While the individual hearing status did not affect auditory cortex responses to auditory, visual, or audiovisual stimuli, we observed a significant hearing loss-related increase in functional connectivity between auditory cortex and the right motion-sensitive visual area MT+ when processing matching audiovisual input. Hearing loss also modulated resting state connectivity between right area MT+ and parts of the left auditory cortex, suggesting the existence of permanent, task-independent changes in coupling between visual and auditory sensory areas with an increasing degree of hearing loss. Our data thus indicate that hearing loss impacts on functional connectivity between sensory cortices in older adults.

  12. The European study of assisted reproduction families: a comparison of family functioning and child development between Eastern and Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Cook, R; Vatev, I; Michova, Z; Golombok, S

    1997-09-01

    Developments in reproductive technology over the past 20 years have given infertile couples new opportunities to have children. Although assisted reproduction does not appear to lead to negative consequences with respect to parent-child relationships or the socioemotional development of the child, the outcome for children and their parents may well differ according to the social and cultural environment. The aim of the present study was to compare family functioning and the social and emotional development of children in families created as a result of assisted reproductive techniques in Western Europe with assisted reproduction families in an Eastern European country (Bulgaria) where there is a history of specific pronatalist interventions. The findings indicate greater difficulties in parental adjustment and child behavior in assisted conception families in Eastern Europe. In addition, Eastern European parents were more uncertain than Western European parents about whether they would tell the child, and Eastern European parents were much more secretive with respect to telling others. Thus the outcomes of assisted reproduction for family functioning and child development appear to be independent, to some extent at least, on the social context in which these techniques are carried out.

  13. Long-term adverse effects on reproductive function in male rats exposed prenatally to the glucocorticoid betamethasone.

    PubMed

    Borges, Cibele Dos S; Dias, Ana Flávia M G; Silva, Patricia V; Rosa, Josiane Lima; Guerra, Marina T; Silva, Raquel F; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo A; Pupo, André S; Kempinas, Wilma De G

    2017-02-01

    Betamethasone is the drug of choice for antenatal treatment, promoting fetal lung maturation, decreasing the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome and neonatal mortality. Previous studies reported that prenatal treatment with this drug reduced testosterone levels, sperm quality and fertility in adult rats. We aimed to further evaluate the reproductive consequences of prenatal betamethasone exposure in male rats. Pregnant Wistar rats (n=13/group) were separated into two groups: control (vehicle) and betamethasone- treated (0.1mg/kg IM) and rats were injected on gestational days 12, 13, 18 and 19. Body weight, sexual behavior, reproductive organ weights, serum hormone levels, accessory glands contractility, sperm parameters, and fertility after in utero artificial insemination were evaluated. Our results showed that prenatal betamethasone exposure provoked a significant reduction in body weight at PND 01 and, at adulthood, decrease in FSH levels, sperm motility and production. Furthermore, seminal vesicle weight was decreased while testicular and ventral prostate weights were increased. Serum LH levels and the percentage of abnormal sperm were significantly increased. Although sexual behavior was not altered, a significant reduction in fertility in the adult rats exposed prenatally to betamethasone was noted. We concluded that prenatal betamethasone exposure leads to long-term reproductive impairment in male rats. These results may have important implications for humans, considering the use of this glucocorticoid in pregnant women.

  14. Comparative intrauterine development and placental function of ART concepti: implications for human reproductive medicine and animal breeding

    PubMed Central

    Bloise, Enrrico; Feuer, Sky K.; Rinaudo, Paolo F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The number of children conceived using assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has reached >5 million worldwide and continues to increase. Although the great majority of ART children are healthy, many reports suggest a forthcoming risk of metabolic complications, which is further supported by the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis of suboptimal embryo/fetal conditions predisposing adult cardiometabolic pathologies. Accumulating evidence suggests that fetal and placental growth kinetics are important features predicting post-natal health, but the relationship between ART and intrauterine growth has not been systematically reviewed. METHODS Relevant studies describing fetoplacental intrauterine phenotypes of concepti generated by in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in the mouse, bovine and human were comprehensively researched using PubMed and Google Scholar. Intrauterine growth plots were created from tabular formatted data available in selected reports. RESULTS ART pregnancies display minor but noticeable alterations in fetal and placental growth curves across mammalian species. In all species, there is evidence of fetal growth restriction in the earlier stages of pregnancy, followed by significant increases in placental size and accelerated fetal growth toward the end of gestation. However, there is a species-specific effect of ART on birthweights, that additionally vary in a culture condition-, strain-, and/or stage at transfer-specific manner. We discuss the potential mechanisms that underlie these changes, and how they are affected by specific components of ART procedures. CONCLUSIONS ART may promote measurable alterations to intrauterine growth trajectory and placental function. Key findings include evidence that birthweight is not a reliable marker of fetal stress, and that increases in embryo manipulation result in more deviant fetal growth curves

  15. Adults with X-linked agammaglobulinemia: impact of disease on daily lives, quality of life, educational and socioeconomic status, knowledge of inheritance, and reproductive attitudes.

    PubMed

    Winkelstein, Jerry A; Conley, Mary Ellen; James, Cynthia; Howard, Vanessa; Boyle, John

    2008-09-01

    Since many children with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) can now be expected to reach adulthood, knowledge of the status of adults with XLA would be of importance to the patients, their families, and the physicians caring for these patients. We performed the current study in adults with XLA to examine the impact of XLA on their daily lives and quality of life, their educational and socioeconomic status, their knowledge of the inheritance of their disorder, and their reproductive attitudes. Physicians who had entered adult patients with XLA in a national registry were asked to pass on a survey instrument to their patients. The patients then filled out the survey instrument and returned it directly to the investigators. Adults with XLA were hospitalized more frequently and missed more work and/or school than did the general United States population. However, their quality of life was comparable to that of the general United States population. They achieved a higher level of education and had a higher income than did the general United States population. Their knowledge of the inheritance of their disease was excellent. Sixty percent of them would not exercise any reproductive planning options as a result of their disease. The results of the current study suggest that although the disease impacts the daily lives of adults with XLA, they still become productive members of society and excel in many areas.

  16. [The influence of calcium N-(5-hydroxynicotinoyl)-L-glutamate on reproductive function, prenatal and postnatal development of rats].

    PubMed

    Kiselev, A V; Stovbun, S V; Sergienko, V I

    2012-01-01

    The safety of a new nootrope and neuroprotector--calcium N-(5-hydroxynicotinoyl)-L-glutamate (ampasse)--has been evaluated. It is shown that ampasse at a dose of 6.7 mg/kg (10 times the maximum therapeutic dose for humans) did not affect the reproductive function in experimental animals and did not produced any embryotoxic and teratogenic effects.

  17. Visual function affects prosocial behaviors in older adults.

    PubMed

    Teoli, Dac A; Smith, Merideth D; Leys, Monique J; Jain, Priyanka; Odom, J Vernon

    2016-02-01

    Eye-related pathological conditions such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration commonly lead to decreased peripheral/central field, decreased visual acuity, and increased functional disability. We sought to answer if relationships exist between measures of visual function and reported prosocial behaviors in an older adult population with eye-related diagnoses. The sample consisted of adults, aged ≥ 60 years old, at an academic hospital's eye institute. Vision ranged from normal to severe impairment. Medical charts determined the visual acuities, ocular disease, duration of disease (DD), and visual fields (VF). Measures of giving help were via validated questionnaires on giving formal support (GFS) and giving informal support; measures of help received were perceived support (PS) and informal support received (ISR). ISR had subscales: tangible support (ISR-T), emotional support (ISR-E), and composite (ISR-C). Visual acuities of the better and worse seeing eyes were converted to LogMAR values. VF information converted to a 4-point rating scale of binocular field loss severity. DD was in years. Among 96 participants (mean age 73.28; range 60-94), stepwise regression indicated a relationship of visual variables to GFS (p < 0.05; Multiple R (2) = 0.1679 with acuity-better eye, VF rating, and DD), PS (p < 0.05; Multiple R (2) = 0.2254 with acuity-better eye), ISR-C (p < 0.05; Multiple R (2) = 0.041 with acuity-better eye), and ISR-T (p < 0.05; Multiple R (2) = 0.1421 with acuity-better eye). The findings suggest eye-related conditions can impact levels and perceptions of support exchanges. Our data reinforces the importance of visual function as an influence on prosocial behavior in older adults.

  18. Effects of the antimicrobial contaminant triclocarban, and co-exposure with the androgen 17β-trenbolone, on reproductive function and ovarian transcriptome of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Daniel L; Jensen, Kathleen M; Cavallin, Jenna E; Durhan, Elizabeth J; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Kahl, Michael D; Leino, Richard L; Makynen, Elizabeth A; Wehmas, Leah C; Perkins, Edward J; Ankley, Gerald T

    2017-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC) is an antimicrobial agent routinely detected in surface waters that has been hypothesized to interact with the vertebrate endocrine system. The present study examined the effects of TCC alone and in combination with the model endocrine disruptor 17β-trenbolone (TRB) on fish reproductive function. Adult Pimephales promelas were continuously exposed to either 1 µg TCC/L or 5 µg TCC/L, to 0.5 µg TRB/L, or to a mixture (MIX) of 5 µg TCC/L and 0.5 µg TRB/L for 22 d, and a variety of reproductive and endocrine-related endpoints were examined. Cumulative fecundity was significantly reduced in fathead minnows exposed to TRB, MIX, or 5 µg TCC/L. Exposure to 1 µg TCC/L had no effect on reproduction. In general, both TRB and MIX treatments caused similar physiological effects, evoking significant reductions in female plasma vitellogenin, estradiol, and testosterone, and significant increases in male plasma estradiol. Based on analysis of the ovarian transcriptome, there were potential pathway impacts that were common to both TRB- and TCC-containing treatment groups. In most cases, however, those pathways were more plausibly linked to differences in reproductive status than to androgen-specific functions. Overall, TCC was reproductively toxic to fish at concentrations at or near those that have been measured in surface water. There was little evidence that TCC elicits reproductive toxicity through a specific mode of endocrine or reproductive action, nor that it could augment the androgenic effects of TRB. Nonetheless, the relatively small margin of safety between some measured environmental concentrations and effect concentrations suggests that concern is warranted. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:231-242. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  19. Structure and function of the tentpole in the reproductive process of Ginkgo biloba L.

    PubMed

    Jin, Biao; Wang, Di; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Li

    2012-10-01

    The tentpole is a unique structure of the female gametophyte in Ginkgo biloba; however, its exact functions in the reproductive process are unclear. In the present study, we used semi-thin sectioning and electron microscopy to study the structure and function of the tentpole during fertilization in G. biloba. The tentpole was always initiated between two or more deeply immersed archegonia. Before fertilization, the tentpole had developed into a column-like structure, protruding toward the archegonial chamber; cells at the periphery of tentpole were loosely ranged, and abundant lipid droplets and starch grains were accumulated in the tentpole cells. After fertilization, the tentpole degenerated, and some membranous debris was overlaid on its surface. In addition, there were significant decreases in the lipids and starch grains. These results suggested that the tentpole led to the degeneration of the megaspore membrane and then supported the pliable apex of the nucellar tissues. Importantly, the tentpole also contributed to supplying nutrition for fertilization and embryo development.

  20. Transgenic mouse models in the study of reproduction: insights into GATA protein function.

    PubMed

    Tevosian, Sergei G

    2014-07-01

    For the past 2 decades, transgenic technology in mice has allowed for an unprecedented insight into the transcriptional control of reproductive development and function. The key factor among the mouse genetic tools that made this rapid advance possible is a conditional transgenic approach, a particularly versatile method of creating gene deletions and substitutions in the mouse genome. A centerpiece of this strategy is an enzyme, Cre recombinase, which is expressed from defined DNA regulatory elements that are active in the tissue of choice. The regulatory DNA element (either genetically engineered or natural) assures Cre expression only in predetermined cell types, leading to the guided deletion of genetically modified (flanked by loxP or 'floxed' by loxP) gene loci. This review summarizes and compares the studies in which genes encoding GATA family transcription factors were targeted either globally or by Cre recombinases active in the somatic cells of ovaries and testes. The conditional gene loss experiments require detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal expression of Cre activity, and the challenges in interpreting the outcomes are highlighted. These studies also expose the complexity of GATA-dependent regulation of gonadal gene expression and suggest that gene function is highly context dependent.

  1. Creatine supplementation does not improve cognitive function in young adults.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Eric S; Lieberman, Harris R; Walsh, Talia M; Zuber, Sylwia M; Harhart, Jaclyn M; Matthews, Tracy C

    2008-09-03

    Creatine supplementation has been reported to improve certain aspects of cognitive and psychomotor function in older individuals and in young subjects following 24 and 36 h of sleep deprivation. However, the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive processing and psychomotor performance in non-sleep deprived young adults have not been assessed with a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive processing and psychomotor performance in young adults. Twenty-two subjects (21+/-2 yr) ingested creatine (0.03 g/kg/day) or placebo for 6 weeks in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion. Subjects completed a battery of neurocognitive tests pre- and post-supplementation, including: simple reaction time (RT), code substitution (CS), code substitution delayed (CSD), logical reasoning symbolic (LRS), mathematical processing (MP), running memory (RM), and Sternberg memory recall (MR). There were no significant effects of group, no significant effects of time, and no significant group by time interactions for RT, CS, CSD, LRS, MP, RM, and MR (all p>0.05), indicating that there were no differences between creatine and placebo supplemented groups at any time. These results suggest that six weeks of creatine supplementation (0.03/g/kg/day) does not improve cognitive processing in non-sleep deprived young adults. Potentially, creatine supplementation only improves cognitive processing and psychomotor performance in individuals who have impaired cognitive processing abilities.

  2. Functional involvement of cerebral cortex in adult sleepwalking.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, A; Della Marca, G; Tonali, P A; Pilato, F; Saturno, E; Dileone, M; Rubino, M; Di Lazzaro, V

    2007-08-01

    The pathophysiology of adult sleepwalking is still poorly understood. However, it is widely accepted that sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal. Arousal circuits widely project to the cortex, including motor cortex. We hypothesized that functional abnormality of these circuits could lead to changes in cortical excitability in sleepwalkers, even during wakefulness. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the excitability of the human motor cortex during wakefulness in a group of adult sleepwalkers. When compared with the healthy control group, short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), cortical silent period (CSP) duration, and short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) were reduced in adult sleepwalkers during wakefulness. Mean CSP duration was shorter in patients than in controls (80.9 +/- 41 ms vs. 139.4 +/- 37 ms; p = 0.0040). Mean SICI was significantly reduced in patients than in controls (73.5 +/- 38.4% vs. 36.7 +/- 13.1%; p = 0.0061). Mean SAI was also significantly reduced in patients than in controls (65.8 +/- 14.2% vs. 42.8 +/- 16.9%; p = 0.0053). This neurophysiological study suggests that there are alterations in sleepwalkers consistent with an impaired efficiency of inhibitory circuits during wakefulness. This inhibitory impairment could represent the neurophysiological correlate of brain "abnormalities" of sleepwalkers like "immaturity" of some neural circuits, synapses, or receptors.

  3. Covert spatial attention is functionally intact in amblyopic human adults

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Mariel; Cymerman, Rachel; Smith, R. Theodore; Kiorpes, Lynne; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Certain abnormalities in behavioral performance and neural signaling have been attributed to a deficit of visual attention in amblyopia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a diverse array of visual deficits following abnormal binocular childhood experience. Critically, most have inferred attention's role in their task without explicitly manipulating and measuring its effects against a baseline condition. Here, we directly investigate whether human amblyopic adults benefit from covert spatial attention—the selective processing of visual information in the absence of eye movements—to the same degree as neurotypical observers. We manipulated both involuntary (Experiment 1) and voluntary (Experiment 2) attention during an orientation discrimination task for which the effects of covert spatial attention have been well established in neurotypical and special populations. In both experiments, attention significantly improved accuracy and decreased reaction times to a similar extent (a) between the eyes of the amblyopic adults and (b) between the amblyopes and their age- and gender-matched controls. Moreover, deployment of voluntary attention away from the target location significantly impaired task performance (Experiment 2). The magnitudes of the involuntary and voluntary attention benefits did not correlate with amblyopic depth or severity. Both groups of observers showed canonical performance fields (better performance along the horizontal than vertical meridian and at the lower than upper vertical meridian) and similar effects of attention across locations. Despite their characteristic low-level vision impairments, covert spatial attention remains functionally intact in human amblyopic adults. PMID:28033433

  4. Executive functions and adaptive functioning in young adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Stavro, Gillian M; Ettenhofer, Mark L; Nigg, Joel T

    2007-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with impairments in occupational, social, and educational functioning in adults. This study examined relations of adaptive impairment to ADHD symptom domains (inattentive-disorganized and hyperactive-impulsive) and to deficits in executive functioning (EF) in 195 well-characterized adults (105 ADHD, 90 non-ADHD, between ages 18 and 37). Participants completed a battery of EF measures as well as assessments of adaptive functioning. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to validate latent factors for adaptive functioning and EF. In a measurement model, weaker EF was associated with poorer adaptive functioning (r = -.30). When multi-informant composite variables for current inattentive-disorganized and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were included in the structural model, EF no longer predicted adaptive functioning. While both symptom composites were similarly related to EF (inattentive-disorganized r = .36; hyperactive-impulsive r = .29), inattentive-disorganized symptoms accounted for more variance in adaptive functioning (67.2% vs. 3.6%). Furthermore, for retrospectively reported childhood symptoms of ADHD, only the inattentive-disorganized symptom domain was related to EF or adaptive impairment. These results suggest that, in adults with ADHD, inattentive-disorganized symptoms may be the primary contributor to key aspects of poorer adaptive function and may be the behavioral path through which EF deficits lead to adaptive impairment.

  5. Gonadal status and reproductive function following treatment for Hodgkin's disease in childhood: The Stanford experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ortin, T.T.; Shostak, C.A.; Donaldson, S.S. )

    1990-10-01

    To ascertain the impact of therapy on gonadal function and reproductive outcome among children treated for Hodgkin's disease, we reviewed the experience at Stanford University Medical Center during the years 1965-1986. There were 240 children 15 years of age or younger, 92 girls and 148 boys; with median follow-up of 9 years, maximum follow-up was 26 years. Of this cohort, data on gonadal function were available on 20 boys, 5 of whom were considered prepubescent; they had no clinical evidence of sexual maturation and were less than 13 years of age. Evaluation of the boys included testicular biopsy, semen analyses and the ability to procreate. Serum gonadotropin hormone levels (FSH, LH) were studied in 11 boys who also had semen analyses. Sexual maturation was attained in all boys without the need for androgen replacement. Among the eight boys treated with radiation alone, four were able to father a child (3 following 40-45 Gy pelvic radiation dose, 1 without pelvic radiation) from 3-19 years following treatment. Three others who received 30-44 Gy pelvic radiation were oligospermic when tested at 10 to 15 years post-treatment. Semen analyses in 10 of 12 (83%) boys who had been treated with six cycles of MOPP with or without pelvic radiation revealed absolute azoospermia with no evidence of recovery as along as 11 years of follow-up. Following prolonged azoospermia, 2 of the 12 boys (17%) had recovery of fertility, with normalization of sperm count and/or ability to procreate at 12 and 15 years following treatment. There was no correlation with serum gonadotropin levels and sterility. Data on menstrual history, pregnancy and offspring were available in 86 (92%) of the girls. Seventy-five of the 86 girls (87%) have normal menstrual function. However, none of the females who underwent pelvic radiation without prior oophoropexy has maintained ovarian function.

  6. Effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunization on reproductive function and behavior in captive female Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni).

    PubMed

    Powers, Jenny G; Baker, Dan L; Davis, Tracy L; Conner, Mary M; Lothridge, Anneke H; Nett, Terry M

    2011-12-01

    Fertility control is a potential method for managing overabundant wildlife populations; however, current technology is limited by duration of treatment efficacy and unacceptable side effects. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a single immunization with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine to suppress reproductive function in pregnant female elk and to evaluate potential behavioral and pathological side effects of treatment. Eighteen captive adult female elk were randomly allocated to one of two experimental groups. Ten females were administered a conjugated and adjuvanted GnRH vaccine intramuscularly, and eight elk received an adjuvant sham vaccine without conjugated GnRH. We compared success of existing pregnancy, neonatal survival, subsequent fertility, reproductive behavior rates, and side effects of treatment between January 2006 and January 2010. The GnRH vaccination did not affect existing pregnancy or calf survival during the year that it was applied; however, it reduced the proportion of pregnant females for 3 yr. Male precopulatory behavior rates exhibited toward GnRH-vaccinated females tended to be greater than those directed at sham-vaccinated females during the second half of the breeding season, when GnRH vaccinates continued to be proceptive. Strong immune and inflammatory responses, including robust GnRH antibody concentrations in GnRH vaccinates, and sterile pyogranulomatous injection site abscesses in both groups, were consistent with vaccination. In conclusion, this GnRH vaccine resulted in prolonged, albeit reversible, impairment of fertility, and is associated with extended reproductive behaviors and partial suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in captive female elk.

  7. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  8. Inflammation regulates functional integration of neurons born in adult brain.

    PubMed

    Jakubs, Katherine; Bonde, Sara; Iosif, Robert E; Ekdahl, Christine T; Kokaia, Zaal; Kokaia, Merab; Lindvall, Olle

    2008-11-19

    Inflammation influences several steps of adult neurogenesis, but whether it regulates the functional integration of the new neurons is unknown. Here, we explored, using confocal microscopy and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, whether a chronic inflammatory environment affects the morphological and electrophysiological properties of new dentate gyrus granule cells, labeled with a retroviral vector encoding green fluorescent protein. Rats were exposed to intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide, which gave rise to long-lasting microglia activation. Inflammation caused no changes in intrinsic membrane properties, location, dendritic arborization, or spine density and morphology of the new cells. Excitatory synaptic drive increased to the same extent in new and mature cells in the inflammatory environment, suggesting increased network activity in hippocampal neural circuitries of lipopolysaccharide-treated animals. In contrast, inhibitory synaptic drive was more enhanced by inflammation in the new cells. Also, larger clusters of the postsynaptic GABA(A) receptor scaffolding protein gephyrin were found on dendrites of new cells born in the inflammatory environment. We demonstrate for the first time that inflammation influences the functional integration of adult-born hippocampal neurons. Our data indicate a high degree of synaptic plasticity of the new neurons in the inflammatory environment, which enables them to respond to the increase in excitatory input with a compensatory upregulation of activity and efficacy at their afferent inhibitory synapses.

  9. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  10. Sexual Functioning in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zebrack, Brad J.; Foley, Sallie; Wittmann, Daniela; Leonard, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of sexuality or sexual behavior in childhood cancer survivors tend to examine relationships or achievement of developmental milestones but not physiological response to cancer or treatment. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify prevalence and risk factors for sexual dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors, and (2) examine the extent to which sexual dysfunction may be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Five hundred ninety-nine survivors age 18-39 years completed standardized measures of sexual functioning, HRQOL, psychological distress and life satisfaction. Descriptive statistics assessed prevalence of sexual symptoms. Bivariate analyses identified correlates of sexual symptoms and examined associations between symptoms and HRQOL/psychosocial outcomes. Results Most survivors appear to be doing well, although 52% of female survivors and 32% of male survivors reported at least “a little of a problem” in one or more areas of sexual functioning. Mean symptom score for females was more than twice that of males. Sexual symptoms were associated with reporting health problems. Significant associations between sexual functioning and HRQOL outcomes were observed, with gender differences in strengths of association suggesting that males find sexual symptoms more distressing than do females. Conclusions While most survivors appear to be doing well in this important life domain, some young adult survivors report sexual concerns. While female survivors may report more sexual symptoms than male survivors, males may experience more distress associated with sexual difficulties. Better specified measures of sexual function, behavior and outcomes are needed for this young adult population. PMID:19862693

  11. Executive functioning and adaptive coping in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Villegas, Ana Lilia; Salvador Cruz, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Middle-aged individuals encounter multiple environmental demands to which they must develop efficient solutions, thus making the study of executive functions and coping strategies within this age group important. This study evaluated the relationship between the planning and flexible organization of executive function with adaptive coping strategies (ACS) in adults aged 43 to 52 years old. The study included 104 participants, including 52 men and 52 women, with no history of neurological or psychiatric illnesses, diabetes, or hypertension. The participants engaged in the Tower of London(DX) (TOL(DX)) test, the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), and the Coping Strategies Inventory. A relationship was observed between the percentage of errors and conceptual-level responses (WCST) and the Problem Solving ACS. In a separate analysis performed on the men, a negative relationship was discovered between the WCST and the Emotional Expression ACS. In the female group, the dimensions of the WCST and the TOL(DX) were associated with the ACS Emotional Expression and Problem-Solving subscales and the maladaptive coping strategy Social Withdrawal subscale. The relationship between executive functioning and the ACS is multidimensional, complex, and different between men and women. This study adds a neuropsychological characterization of the relationship between executive functions and ACS with ecological validity. The study confirms a relationship between the flexible organization of executive function and the Problem-Solving ACS.

  12. Coffee consumption and cognitive function among older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Kozlow, Marilyn; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Morton, Deborah

    2002-11-01

    This study examined the association of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake with cognitive function in a community-based sample of older adults in 1988-1992. Participants were 890 women with a mean age of 72.6 years and 638 men with a mean age of 73.3 years from the Rancho Bernardo Study. Cognitive function was assessed by 12 standardized tests, and lifetime consumption and current coffee consumption were obtained by questionnaire. After adjustment for confounders, higher lifetime coffee consumption in women was associated with better (p < or = 0.05) performance on six of 12 tests, with a trend (p < or = 0.10) on two other cognitive function tests; current caffeinated coffee intake was associated with better performance on two tests (p < 0.05), with a trend (p < 0.10) on one other test. Among women aged 80 or more years, lifetime coffee intake was nonsignificantly associated with better performance on 11 of the 12 tests. No relation was found between coffee intake and cognitive function among men or between decaffeinated coffee intake and cognitive function in either sex. Lifetime and current exposure to caffeine may be associated with better cognitive performance among women, especially among those aged 80 or more years.

  13. Validation of a refined short-term adult fish reproductive test with improved power for mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) to test complex effluents.

    PubMed

    Bosker, Thijs; Hewitt, L Mark; Munkittrick, Kelly R; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2010-10-01

    Short-term adult fish reproductive tests are widely used to assess the toxicity of chemicals and waste streams. However, these tests often have low power to detect differences in egg production among treatments, due to high variance and small sample sizes, limiting their effectiveness for informing regulatory decisions. A protocol for a fish reproductive test using mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) was refined to increase statistical power. Three studies using the original protocol were compared with three studies using the refined protocol. Tank pre-selection and sample size increased the a priori power from 11.2% to 85.7%. After exposure, average power levels were 62.0%, a more than five-fold increase compared to studies that used the original protocol (power of 15.0%). There was a high level of consistency compared to the original protocol; differences >33% in female and male gonad size and egg production could be detected among treatments. This study demonstrates that a refinement process can address shortcomings in short-term adult fish reproductive protocols, creating a solid foundation for further standardization and possible regulatory use.

  14. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    PubMed

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish.

  15. Adverse effects of thiram-treated seed ingestion on the reproductive performance and the offspring immune function of the red-legged partridge.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Antia, Ana; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; García-de Blas, Esther; Camarero, Pablo R; Mougeot, Francois; Mateo, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    Pesticide research traditionally has focused on compounds with high acute toxicity or persistence, but the adverse sublethal effects of pesticides with different properties also may have important consequences on exposed wildlife. The authors studied the effects of thiram, a fungicide used for seed coating with known effects as endocrine disruptor. Red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa; n = 15 pairs per treatment group) were fed wheat treated with 0%, 20%, or 100% of the thiram application rate used in autumn (25 d) and late winter (10 d) to mimic cereal sowing periods. The authors studied the effects on reproductive performance, carotenoid-based ornamentation and cellular immune responsiveness of adult partridges, and their relationship with changes in oxidative stress biomarkers and plasma biochemistry. The authors also studied the effect of parental exposure on egg antioxidant content and on the survival, growth, and cellular immune response of offspring. Exposure to thiram-coated seeds delayed egg laying, reduced clutch size, and affected egg size and eggshell thickness. Partridges exposed to the 20% thiram dose exhibited reduced egg fertility and brood size (55% and 28% of controls, respectively). Chick survival was unaffected by parental exposure to treated seeds, but adverse effects on their growth rate and cellular immune response were apparent. These effects on reproduction and immune function may have important demographic consequences on farmland bird populations.

  16. Changes in the reproductive function and developmental phenotypes in mice following intramuscular injection of an activin betaA-expressing plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Nyeu; Park, Moon Nyeo; Jung, Hoi Kyung; Cho, Chunghee; Mayo, Kelly E; Cho, Byung-Nam

    2008-01-01

    Background The TGF-beta family protein activin has numerous reported activities with some uncertainty in the reproductive axis and development. The precise roles of activin in in vivo system were investigated using a transient gain of function model. Methods To this end, an expression plasmid, pCMV-rAct, with the activin betaA cDNA fused to the cytomegalovirus promoter, was introduced into muscle of the female adult mice by direct injection. Results Activin betaA mRNA was detected in the muscle by RT-PCR and subsequent Southern blot analysis. Activin betaA was also detected, and western blot analysis revealed a relatively high level of serum activin with correspondingly increased FSH. In the pCMV-rAct-injected female mice, estrus stage within the estrous cycle was extended. Moreover, increased numbers of corpora lutea and a thickened granulosa cell layer with a small antrum in tertiary follicles within the ovary were observed. When injected female mice were mated with males of proven fertility, a subset of embryos died in utero, and most of those that survived exhibited increased body weight. Conclusion Taken together, our data reveal that activin betaA can directly influence the estrous cycle, an integral part of the reproduction in female mice and activin betaA can also influence the embryo development as an endocrine fashion. PMID:19077325

  17. Disorders of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Anne; del Junco, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on biomarkers of reproductive health and disease that have been developed in the past 15 years. Due to the gender- and age-dependency of most of the advances in measuring reproductive health status and outcomes, these biomarkers have been categorized with respect to the unique member of the reproductive triad of interest (i.e. mother, father, conceptus). Biomarkers of female and male puberty, female reproductive function, fetal and infant development, and male reproductive function are discussed. The strengths and limitations of developing and implementing biomarkers in reproductive health studies over the past decade are explored.

  18. Reproductive characteristics and thyroidal function in relation with season in Khuzestan buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls

    PubMed Central

    Mayahi, Sadegh; Mamouei, Morteza; Tabatabaei, Saleh; Mirzadeh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    High ambient temperature is the major constraint on Buffalo productivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance and thyroid gland function in winter and summer seasons in Khuzestan buffalo bulls. Six male indigenous buffaloes of Khuzestan with nearly the same age (2-3 years old) and weight were used. Semen and blood samples through jugular vein were collected, every two weeks throughout the summer and winter seasons. The thyroid hormones and thyrotropin stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration in blood serum were measured by radioimmunoassay method. Semen quality was determined, using computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) and routine methods. The concentration of thyroxin (T4) was lower in winter than summer (p ≤ 0.05). The level of T3 uptake was higher in cold season than that of in hot season (p ≤ 0.05). The differences of tri-iodotyronine (T3) and TSH concentrations, as well as free thyroxin index were not significant between seasons. The semen volume and spermatozoa parameters including concentration, progressive motility, linear velocity, mean velocity, beat cross frequency, linear coefficient and straightness coefficient were higher in winter than summer (p ≤ 0.05). Semen pH and amplitude of lateral head displacement of spermatozoa were higher in summer than winter (p ≤ 0.05). In winter, there was positive correlation between spermatozoa concentration and T3 value of blood serum (p ≤ 0.05). There were positive correlations between values of semen volume and T4, progressive spermatozoa motility percent and TSH, as well as, total motility of spermatozoa and TSH in summer (p ≤ 0.05). In general, thyroid function and semen quality of Khuzestan buffaloes may be affected by seasons. PMID:25568719

  19. Effects of Pygidial Secretion (Zoopesticide) on Histopathological Changes in the Male Accessory Reproductive Glands of Adult Male Insect Odontopus varicornis in Relation to Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Lousia, M.; Selvisabhanayakam; Mathivanan, V.

    2010-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides for the eradication of pests causes tremendous changes to the environment and also to other nontarget organisms. To prevent such contamination of the environment and save nontarget species, zoopesticides are increasingly used as they are cost effective, eco-friendly, safe, and sustainable in the field of agriculture. The present study was undertaken to find out the effect of pygidial secretion (zoopesticide) on Odontopus varicornis. The insects were exposed to pygidial secretion for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and its sublethal concentration was found to be about 2.8% for 48 hours. When the insects were injected with sublethal concentration 2.8% for 48 hours, the study revealed certain remarkable changes in the histopathology of the male accessory reproductive glands (MARGs) such as disintegration of epithelial cell wall, swollen nucleus, vacuolization of cytoplasm, highly pycnotic and necrotic epithelium, enlargement of epithelial cells, and disorganized tissues. It is suggested that zoopesticide causes several histopathological damages in the MARGs of O. varicornis and affects the reproductive potentiality of O. varicornis. PMID:21042469

  20. From Embryos to Adults: A DOHaD Perspective on In Vitro Fertilization and Other Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Feuer, Sky; Rinaudo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Human in vitro fertilization (IVF) as a treatment for infertility is regarded as one of the most outstanding accomplishments of the 20th century, and its use has grown dramatically since the late 1970s. Although IVF is considered safe and the majority of children appear healthy, reproductive technologies have been viewed with some skepticism since the in vitro environment deviates substantially from that in vivo. This is increasingly significant because the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis has illuminated the sensitivity of an organism to its environment at critical stages during development, including how suboptimal exposures restricted specifically to gamete maturation or the preimplantation period can affect postnatal growth, glucose metabolism, fat deposition, and vascular function. Today, some of the physiological metabolic phenotypes present in animal models of IVF have begun to emerge in human IVF children, but it remains unclear whether or not in vitro embryo manipulation will have lasting health consequences in the offspring. Our expanding knowledge of the DOHaD field is fueling a paradigm shift in how disease susceptibility is viewed across the life course, with particular emphasis on the importance of collecting detailed exposure information, identifying biomarkers of health, and performing longitudinal studies for any medical treatment occurring during a developmentally vulnerable period. As IVF use continues to rise, it will be highly valuable to incorporate DOHaD concepts into the clinical arena and future approaches to public health policy. PMID:27517965

  1. Adrenal and gonadal function in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tohei, A; Akai, M; Tomabechi, T; Mamada, M; Taya, K

    1997-01-01

    The functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones was investigated using adult male rats. Hypothyroidism was produced by the administration of 4-methyl-2-thiouracil (thiouracil) in the drinking water for 2 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TSH dramatically increased, whereas plasma concentrations of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine decreased in thiouraciltreated rats as compared with euthyroid rats. Hypothyroidism increased basal levels of plasma ACTH and pituitary content of ACTH. The pituitary responsiveness to CRH for ACTH release markedly increased, whereas the adrenal responsiveness to ACTH for corticosterone release decreased. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction in adult male rats. Pituitary contents of LH and prolactin decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. In addition, hypothyroidism lowered pituitary LH responsiveness to LHRH. Testicular responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotrophin for testosterone release, however, was not different between euthyroid and hypothyroid animals. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction and results in hypersecretion of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Adrenal dysfunction may contribute to the inhibition of LHRH secretion from the hypothalamus, possibly mediated by excess CRH.

  2. Functional diversity of excitatory commissural interneurons in adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Björnfors, E Rebecka; El Manira, Abdeljabbar

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility in the bilateral coordination of muscle contraction underpins variable locomotor movements or gaits. While the locomotor rhythm is generated by ipsilateral excitatory interneurons, less is known about the commissural excitatory interneurons. Here we examined how the activity of the V0v interneurons – an important commissural neuronal class – varies with the locomotor speed in adult zebrafish. Although V0v interneurons are molecularly homogenous, their activity pattern during locomotion is not uniform. They consist of two distinct types dependent on whether they display rhythmicity or not during locomotion. The rhythmic V0v interneurons were further subdivided into three sub-classes engaged sequentially, first at slow then intermediate and finally fast locomotor speeds. Their order of recruitment is defined by scaling their synaptic current with their input resistance. Thus we uncover, in an adult vertebrate, a novel organizational principle for a key class of commissural interneurons and their recruitment pattern as a function of locomotor speed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18579.001 PMID:27559611

  3. Adolescent social defeat alters markers of adult dopaminergic function.

    PubMed

    Novick, Andrew M; Forster, Gina L; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M; Watt, Michael J

    2011-08-10

    Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [(3)H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [(3)H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult dopamine system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking.

  4. Adolescent social defeat alters markers of adult dopaminergic function

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Andrew M.; Forster, Gina L.; Tejani-Butt, Shanaz M.; Watt, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Stressful experiences during adolescence can alter the trajectory of neural development and contribute to psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We previously demonstrated that adolescent male rats exposed to repeated social defeat stress show changes in mesocorticolimbic dopamine content both at baseline and in response to amphetamine when tested in adulthood. In the present study we examined whether markers of adult dopamine function are also compromised by adolescent experience of social defeat. Given that the dopamine transporter as well as dopamine D1 receptors act as regulators of psychostimulant action, are stress sensitive and undergo changes during adolescence, quantitative autoradiography was used to measure [3H]-GBR12935 binding to the dopamine transporter and [3H]-SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors, respectively. Our results indicate that social defeat during adolescence led to higher dopamine transporter binding in the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex and higher dopamine D1 receptor binding in the caudate putamen, while other brain regions analyzed were comparable to controls. Thus it appears that social defeat during adolescence causes specific changes to the adult DA system, which may contribute to behavioral alterations and increased drug seeking. PMID:21741457

  5. Reproductive partitioning and the assumptions of reproductive skew models in the cooperatively breeding American crow

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrea K.; Clark, Anne B.; McGowan, Kevin J.; Lovette, Irby J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the benefits of cooperative breeding for group members of different social and demographic classes requires knowledge of their reproductive partitioning and genetic relatedness. From 2004-2007, we examined parentage as a function of relatedness and social interactions among members of 21 American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) family groups. Paired female breeders monopolized maternity of all offspring in their broods, whereas paired male breeders sired 82.7% of offspring, within-group auxiliary males sired 6.9% of offspring, and extragroup males sired 10.4% of offspring. Although adult females had fewer opportunities for direct reproduction as auxiliaries than males, they appeared to have earlier opportunities for independent breeding. These different opportunities for direct reproduction probably contributed to the male biased adult auxiliary sex ratio. Patterns of reproductive partitioning and conflict among males were most consistent with a synthetic reproductive skew model, in which auxiliaries struggled with breeders for a limited reproductive share, beyond which breeders could evict them. Counter to a frequent assumption of reproductive skew models, female breeders appeared to influence paternity, although their interests might have agreed with the interests of their paired males. Unusual among cooperative breeders, close inbreeding and incest occurred in this population. Incest avoidance between potential breeders did not significantly affect reproductive skew. PMID:20126287

  6. Novel concepts about normal sexual differentiation of reproductive neuroendocrine function and the developmental origins of female reproductive dysfunction: the sheep model.

    PubMed

    Foster, D L; Jackson, L M; Padmanabhan, V

    2007-01-01

    The neuroendocrine regulation of GnRH secretion plays a central role in timing gamete release in both sexes. This regulation is more complex in the female because the discontinuous release of ova is more complex than the continuous release of spermatozoa. This review provides an evolving understanding of the sex differences in reproductive neuroendocrine controls and how these differences arise. The rules for sexual differentiation of steroid feedback control of GnRH secretion conceptually parallel the well-established principles that underlie the sexual differentiation of the internal and external genitalia. In the context of the neuroendocrine regulation of the ovarian cycle, and using the sheep as a model, four steroid feedback controls for GnRH secretion are inherent (default). They require no ovarian developmental input to function appropriately during adulthood. Two steroid feedback controls regulate the preovulatory surge mode of GnRH secretion, and two regulate the pulsatile mode. If the individual is a male, three steroid feedback controls of GnRH secretion become unnecessary or irrelevant, and these are abolished or become functionally inoperative through programmed reductions in hypothalamic sensitivity. This central programming occurs through exposure of presynaptic GnRH neurons in the developing male brain to the androgenic and estrogenic actions of testicular steroids. In precocial species such as ruminants, this programming begins well before birth. Understanding how GnRH secretion normally becomes sexually differentiated is of practical importance to determining how inappropriate hormonal environments during development can variously malprogram the neuroendocrine system to produce a variety of reproductive dysfunctions relating to patterning of gonadotropin secretion.

  7. Assessing residual vestibular function in adults with congenital hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bing-Yi; Young, Yi-Ho

    2016-12-01

    This study adopted an inner ear test battery in adults with congenital hearing loss to assess residual vestibular function. Thirty patients with non-inherited non-syndromatic congenital hearing loss were assigned to two groups based on their pure tone average (PTA). Subjects in Group A (n = 10) had PTA >90 dB, and those with PTA ≤90 dB were assigned to Group B (n = 20). All patients underwent audiometry, and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), cervical VEMP (cVEMP) and caloric tests. Percentages of abnormal PTA, and cVEMP, oVEMP, and caloric test results showed a significantly sequential decline in inner ear deficits from the cochlea to the saccule, utricle, and semicircular canals. Group A had significantly higher percentages of absent oVEMP and caloric areflexia than Group B. Via receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff value of PTA was 65 dB for discriminating between present and absent oVEMP/caloric responses, with a sensitivity of 71 % and a specificity of 88 %. In conclusion, congenitally deaf patients with PTA ≥65 dB may retain less vestibular function than those with PTA <65 dB, as evidenced by higher percentages of absent oVEMP and caloric areflexia. Hence, comprehensive assessment of the residual vestibular function in congenitally deaf patients may help predict the occurrence of vertigo in the future.

  8. The function of BDNF in the adult auditory system.

    PubMed

    Singer, Wibke; Panford-Walsh, Rama; Knipper, Marlies

    2014-01-01

    The inner ear of vertebrates is specialized to perceive sound, gravity and movements. Each of the specialized sensory organs within the cochlea (sound) and vestibular system (gravity, head movements) transmits information to specific areas of the brain. During development, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) orchestrates the survival and outgrowth of afferent fibers connecting the vestibular organ and those regions in the cochlea that map information for low frequency sound to central auditory nuclei and higher-auditory centers. The role of BDNF in the mature inner ear is less understood. This is mainly due to the fact that constitutive BDNF mutant mice are postnatally lethal. Only in the last few years has the improved technology of performing conditional cell specific deletion of BDNF in vivo allowed the study of the function of BDNF in the mature developed organ. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the expression pattern and function of BDNF in the peripheral and central auditory system from just prior to the first auditory experience onwards. A special focus will be put on the differential mechanisms in which BDNF drives refinement of auditory circuitries during the onset of sensory experience and in the adult brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'BDNF Regulation of Synaptic Structure, Function, and Plasticity'.

  9. Effect of Smoking on Cognitive Functioning in Young Saudi Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Shahid; Alghamdi, Faisal; Alhussien, Ahmed; Alohali, Meshal; Alatawi, Abdullah; Almusned, Tariq; Habib, Syed Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Background Smoking is the predominant form of tobacco consumption and is growing worldwide, particularly in the younger generation in the Middle-East. We aimed to determine the effects of tobacco smoking on cognitive functions among young Saudi adults. Material/Methods We recruited a group of cigarette smokers (N=22) and a group of controls (non-smokers) (N=30) from apparently healthy male volunteers aged 18–29 years. Cognitive function was assessed by using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Battery (CANTAB). The cognitive functions outcome variables were the response time (attention-switching task [AST]), and the percentage of correct response (pattern recognition memory [PRM] task). Clinical, demographic, blood markers (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and apolipoprotein E) were assessed between groups. Results The 2 groups were matched for age and educational status. In comparison to the control group, smokers showed significant cognitive impairments in AST-Latency (p=0.001), AST-Congruent (p=0.001), and AST-Incongruent condition (p=0.001). There was not significant difference in BDNF APOE serum level between the 2 groups. Conclusions These results indicate that attention and alertness were significantly impaired in smokers compared to non-smokers. PMID:28223681

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls in adult black bass and yellow perch were not associated with their reproductive success in the upper Hudson River, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Maceina, Michael J; Sammons, Steven M

    2013-07-01

    Although production and use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ceased nearly 35 yr ago, questions still remain concerning the potential chronic effects these compounds may have on wild fish, including their reproductive success. In the upper Hudson River, New York, USA, fish were exposed to PCBs primarily from 2 manufacturing plants located approximately 320 km upstream of New York City, New York, from the 1940s to 1977. The authors collected yellow perch (Perca flavescens), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and largemouth bass (M. salmoides) using electrofishing, measured PCBs in these adults, and estimated abundance and size of their offspring at age 1 yr (age-1 fish). Fish were collected annually from 2004 to 2009 from 1 control site upstream of the PCB discharge sites and from 2 sites downstream from where PCBs were released. These sites (pools) are separated by a series of dams, locks, and canals. Muscle tissue wet weight PCB and lipid-based PCB concentrations in adults in the 2 PCB exposure pools averaged approximately 1 to 3 µg/g and 100 to 500 µg/g, respectively. Age-1 abundances were not related to adult PCB concentrations but were inversely related to river flow. Size of age-1 fish was slightly greater at the PCB-exposure sites. Levels of PCBs in yellow perch, largemouth bass, and smallmouth bass in the upper Hudson River did not impair or reduce recruitment or reproductive success.

  11. Developmental exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to bisphenol-S impairs subsequent reproduction potential and hormonal balance in adults.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Mohammad; Wong, Marian Y L; Gholami, Fatemeh

    2014-03-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing concern about the production and use of bisphenol-A substitute, namely bisphenol-S (BPS). Due to its novel nature, there have been few studies addressing the ability of BPS to disrupt the endocrine system of animals. In the present study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to and reared in various concentrations of BPS (0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg/l) for 75 days. Then adult males and females were paired in spawning tanks for 7 days in clean water and the consequent effects on fish development, reproduction, plasma vitellogenin (VTG), sex steroids and thyroid hormone levels were investigated as endpoints. After 75 days of exposure, there was a skewed sex ratio in favor of females. The results also showed that body length and weight significantly decreased in males exposed to 100 μg/l of BPS. Gonadosomatic index was significantly reduced in fish at ≥ 10 μg/l. Hepatosomatic index exhibited a significant increase in both male and female fish. At ≥ 1 μg/l of BPS, plasma 17β-estradiol levels were significantly increased in both males and females. However, plasma testosterone showed a significant reduction in males exposed to 10 and 100 μg/l of BPS. A significant induction in plasma VTG level was observed in both males and females at ≥ 10 μg/l of BPS. Plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were significantly decreased at 10 and 100 μg/l of BPS in males, and at 100 μg/l in females. Egg production and sperm count were also significantly decreased in groups received 10 and 100 μg/l of BPS. Moreover, once time to hatching and hatching rates were calculated for fertilized eggs the postponed and decreased rates of hatching were observed. Taken together, these results suggest that developmental exposure to low concentrations of BPS has adverse effects on different parts of the endocrine system in zebrafish.

  12. Functional morphology of venous structures associated with the male and female reproductive systems in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Rommel, S A; Pabst, D A; McLellan, W A

    2001-12-01

    The reproductive organs of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are surrounded by thermogenic locomotory muscles and insulating fat. Manatees are reported to maintain core body temperatures of 35.6 degrees -36.4 degrees C, temperatures known to interfere with production and maturation of viable sperm in terrestrial mammals. We describe two novel venous plexuses associated with the manatee epididymis. Each epididymis is located in a hypogastric fossa at the caudolateral extremity of the abdominal cavity. Each hypogastric fossa is lined by an inguinal venous plexus that receives cooled blood from a superficial thoracocaudal plexus. We conclude that male manatees may prevent hyperthermic insult to their reproductive tissues by feeding cooled superficial blood to venous plexuses deep within their bodies. Female manatees also possess hypogastric fossae and venous structures similar to those found in male manatees. The ovaries, uterine tubes, and distal tips of the uterine horns are located in the hypogastric fossae. We suggest that the thermovascular structures we describe also prevent hypothermic insult to female manatee reproductive tissues. The venous structures in manatees are functionally similar to structures associated with reproductive thermoregulation in cetaceans and phocid seals. Thus, these thermovascular structures appear to be convergent morphological adaptations that occur in three clades of diving mammals with independent evolutionary histories.

  13. Sex- and melanism-specific variations in the oxidative status of adult tawny owls in response to manipulated reproductive effort.

    PubMed

    Emaresi, Guillaume; Henry, Isabelle; Gonzalez, Esther; Roulin, Alexandre; Bize, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress, determined by the balance between the production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defences, is hypothesized to play an important role in shaping the cost of reproduction and life history trade-offs. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated reproductive effort in 94 breeding pairs of tawny owls (Strix aluco) to investigate the sex- and melanism-specific effects on markers of oxidative stress in red blood cells (RBCs). This colour polymorphic bird species shows sex-specific division of labour and melanism-specific history strategies. Brood sizes at hatching were experimentally enlarged or reduced to increase or decrease reproductive effort, respectively. We obtained an integrative measure of the oxidative balance by measuring ROS production by RBCs, intracellular antioxidant glutathione levels and membrane resistance to ROS. We found that light melanic males (the sex undertaking offspring food provisioning) produced more ROS than darker conspecifics, but only when rearing an enlarged brood. In both sexes, light melanic individuals had also a larger pool of intracellular antioxidant glutathione than darker owls under relaxed reproductive conditions (i.e. reduced brood), but not when investing substantial effort in current reproduction (enlarged brood). Finally, resistance to oxidative stress was differently affected by the brood size manipulation experiment in males and females independently of their plumage coloration. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that reproductive effort can alter the oxidative balance in a sex- and colour-specific way. This further emphasizes the close link between melanin-based coloration and life history strategies.

  14. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of internet addiction in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sepede, Gianna; Tavino, Margherita; Santacroce, Rita; Fiori, Federica; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To report the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies pertaining internet addiction disorder (IAD) in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on PubMed, focusing our attention on fMRI studies involving adult IAD patients, free from any comorbid psychiatric condition. The following search words were used, both alone and in combination: fMRI, internet addiction, internet dependence, functional neuroimaging. The search was conducted on April 20th, 2015 and yielded 58 records. Inclusion criteria were the following: Articles written in English, patients’ age ≥ 18 years, patients affected by IAD, studies providing fMRI results during resting state or cognitive/emotional paradigms. Structural MRI studies, functional imaging techniques other than fMRI, studies involving adolescents, patients with comorbid psychiatric, neurological or medical conditions were excluded. By reading titles and abstracts, we excluded 30 records. By reading the full texts of the 28 remaining articles, we identified 18 papers meeting our inclusion criteria and therefore included in the qualitative synthesis. RESULTS: We found 18 studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria, 17 of them conducted in Asia, and including a total number of 666 tested subjects. The included studies reported data acquired during resting state or different paradigms, such as cue-reactivity, guessing or cognitive control tasks. The enrolled patients were usually males (95.4%) and very young (21-25 years). The most represented IAD subtype, reported in more than 85% of patients, was the internet gaming disorder, or videogame addiction. In the resting state studies, the more relevant abnormalities were localized in the superior temporal gyrus, limbic, medial frontal and parietal regions. When analyzing the task related fmri studies, we found that less than half of the papers reported behavioral differences between patients and normal controls, but all of them found significant

  15. Immunization of dogs with recombinant GnRH-1 suppresses the development of reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Tian, Yuan; Zhao, Xijie; Jiang, Shudong; Li, Fubao; Zhang, Yunhai; Zhang, Xiaorong; Li, Yunsheng; Zhou, Jie; Fang, Fugui

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of active immunization using recombinant GnRH-I protein on reproductive function in dogs. Six male and six female dogs were randomly assigned to either a control group or an immunization group (n = 3 males or 3 females/group). Dogs (aged 16 weeks) were immunized against GnRH-I with a maltose-binding protein-gonadotropin-releasing hormone I hexamer generated by recombinant DNA technology. Blood samples were taken at 4-week intervals after immunization. The serum concentrations of testosterone and estradiol and anti-GnRH-I antibodies were determined by RIA and ELISA, respectively. The results showed that active immunization with recombinant GnRH-I increased the serum levels of anti-GnRH antibodies (P < 0.05) and reduced the serum concentrations of testosterone (P < 0.05) and estradiol (P < 0.05) as compared with the controls. At 28 weeks of age, testes and ovaries were taken surgically for morphologic evaluation. Histologic studies performed on testicular and ovarian tissues revealed clear signs of atrophy in the recombinant GnRH-I-immunized dogs and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the weights and sizes of paired testes and ovaries in the treated dogs. Microscopically, spermatogonia were visible, but no spermatids and spermatozoa were detected in the seminiferous tubules. Neither early antral nor antral follicles were found in the immunized group. These results demonstrate that recombinant GnRH-I is an effective immunogen in dogs.

  16. [The participation of the milk prolactin of lactating rats in the formation of the monoaminergic mechanism regulating the reproductive functions of their progeny].

    PubMed

    Ragimova, Sh A

    1991-10-01

    Puberty was found to be delayed in female rats who had not obtained necessary amount of prolactin with the mother's milk. These rats developed hyperprolactinemia in reproductive age associated with a decrease in the hypothalamus' dopaminergic tonus as well as a decrease of the sexual steroids level. These rats develop most often disorders of estrous cycle and reproductive function.

  17. New York State Adult Functional Literacy Models. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Barbara R.

    This report discusses a nationwide study of Adult Performance Level (APL) which involved sixteen projects in seven states and was conducted to (1) examine the University of Texas at Austin's APL study and describe the results and recommendations in terms of the adult needs in New York State; (2) examine several New York State Adult Basic Education…

  18. Phonological and orthographic spelling in high-functioning adult dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Nenagh; Parrila, Rauno K; Kirby, John R

    2009-05-01

    Despite a history of reading or spelling difficulties, some adults attain age-appropriate spelling skills and succeed at university. We compared the spelling of 29 such high-functioning dyslexics with that of 28 typical students, matched on general spelling ability, and controlling for vocabulary and non-verbal intelligence. Participants wrote derived real and pseudo words, whose spelling relationship to their base forms was categorized as phonologically simple (apt-aptly), orthographically simple (deceit-deceitful), phonologically complex (ash-ashen), or orthographically complex (plenty-plentiful). Dyslexic participants spelled all word and pseudoword categories more poorly than controls. Both groups spelled simple phonological words best. Dyslexics were particularly poor at spelling simple orthographic words, whose letter patterns and rules must likely be memorized. In contrast, dyslexics wrote more plausible spellings of orthographic than phonological pseudowords, but this might be an artefact of their more variable spelling attempts. These results suggest that high-functioning dyslexics make some use of phonological skills to spell familiar words, but they have difficulty in memorizing orthographic patterns, which makes it difficult to spell unfamiliar words consistently in the absence of sufficient phonological cues or orthographic rules.

  19. Predicting Cognitive Function from Clinical Measures of Physical Function and Health Status in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Kording, Konrad; Salowitz, Nicole; Davis, Jennifer C.; Hsu, Liang; Chan, Alison; Sharma, Devika; Blohm, Gunnar; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current research suggests that the neuropathology of dementia—including brain changes leading to memory impairment and cognitive decline—is evident years before the onset of this disease. Older adults with cognitive decline have reduced functional independence and quality of life, and are at greater risk for developing dementia. Therefore, identifying biomarkers that can be easily assessed within the clinical setting and predict cognitive decline is important. Early recognition of cognitive decline could promote timely implementation of preventive strategies. Methods We included 89 community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and older in our study, and collected 32 measures of physical function, health status and cognitive function at baseline. We utilized an L1–L2 regularized regression model (elastic net) to identify which of the 32 baseline measures were strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. We built three linear regression models: 1) based on baseline cognitive function, 2) based on variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop, and 3) a full model based on all the 32 variables. Each of these models was carefully tested with nested cross-validation. Results Our model with the six variables consistently selected in every cross-validation loop had a mean squared prediction error of 7.47. This number was smaller than that of the full model (115.33) and the model with baseline cognitive function (7.98). Our model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive function after one year. Discussion We built a parsimonious model based on a selected set of six physical function and health status measures strongly predictive of cognitive function after one year. In addition to reducing the complexity of the model without changing the model significantly, our model with the top variables improved the mean prediction error and R-squared. These six physical function and health status measures can be easily implemented in a

  20. Digestive Organ in the Female Reproductive Tract Borrows Genes from Multiple Organ Systems to Adopt Critical Functions

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Camille; Plakke, Melissa S.; Deutsch, Aaron B.; Small, Brandon S.; Morehouse, Nathan I.; Clark, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent adaptive challenges are often met with the evolution of novel physiological traits. Although there are specific examples of single genes providing new physiological functions, studies on the origin of complex organ functions are lacking. One such derived set of complex functions is found in the Lepidopteran bursa copulatrix, an organ within the female reproductive tract that digests nutrients from the male ejaculate or spermatophore. Here, we characterized bursa physiology and the evolutionary mechanisms by which it was equipped with digestive and absorptive functionality. By studying the transcriptome of the bursa and eight other tissues, we revealed a suite of highly expressed and secreted gene products providing the bursa with a combination of stomach-like traits for mechanical and enzymatic digestion of the male spermatophore. By subsequently placing these bursa genes in an evolutionary framework, we found that the vast majority of their novel digestive functions were co-opted by borrowing genes that continue to be expressed in nonreproductive tissues. However, a number of bursa-specific genes have also arisen, some of which represent unique gene families restricted to Lepidoptera and may provide novel bursa-specific functions. This pattern of promiscuous gene borrowing and relatively infrequent evolution of tissue-specific duplicates stands in contrast to studies of the evolution of novelty via single gene co-option. Our results suggest that the evolution of complex organ-level phenotypes may often be enabled (and subsequently constrained) by changes in tissue specificity that allow expression of existing genes in novel contexts, such as reproduction. The extent to which the selective pressures encountered in these novel roles require resolution via duplication and sub/neofunctionalization is likely to be determined by the need for specialized reproductive functionality. Thus, complex physiological phenotypes such as that found in the bursa offer

  1. Comparative reproductive function in cervids: implications for management of farm and zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Asher, G W; Monfort, S L; Wemmer, C

    1999-01-01

    The cervids represent a complex assemblage of taxa characterized by extreme diversity in morphology, physiology, ecology and geographical distribution. Farmed species (for example red deer and fallow deer) are usually the common larger-bodied, gregarious and monotocous species that express marked reproductive seasonality in their temperate environment. Their commercial importance has facilitated considerable research into reproductive physiology and the development of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). In contrast, the remaining species, including many of tropical origin, show wide diversity in reproductive patterns, have generally received little scientific scrutiny, and include a number of endangered taxa that are reliant on ex situ conservation efforts (such as captive breeding) to ensure their survival. Domestication and ex situ management programmes have been associated with widespread translocation of various cervid species around the world, often placing the animals in environments that are not compatible with their evolved reproductive patterns. For example, the summer calving/lactation pattern of red deer, attuned to northern continental climatic patterns, is frequently misaligned with seasonal changes in feed availability in the Australasian pastoral environment. Similarly, seasonal or aseasonal calving patterns of tropical species translocated to temperate regions are usually associated with increased perinatal mortality of calves born in cool seasons. Conversely, temperate species in tropical zones may exhibit aberrant reproductive patterns in the absence of biologically significant photoperiod fluctuations. ARTs, which presently include artificial insemination, embryo transfer and in vitro embryo production, have potential application to the genetic management and population growth of various cervid species. Although application to some farmed cervid species is widespread, these technologies are rarely directly transferable from farmed to

  2. The Marital and Family Functioning of Adults with ADHD and Their Spouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, L.; Minde, K.; Hechtman, L.; Ochs, E.; Krane, E.; Bouffard, R.; Greenfield, B.; Looper, K.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the family relationships of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the marital adjustment and family functioning of 33 married adults with ADHD and their spouses was compared to 26 non-ADHD control participants and their spouses. Results revealed that married adults with ADHD reported poorer…

  3. Stalking, and Social and Romantic Functioning among Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Mark; Newton, Naomi; Kaur, Archana

    2007-01-01

    We examine the nature and predictors of social and romantic functioning in adolescents and adults with ASD. Parental reports were obtained for 25 ASD adolescents and adults (13-36 years), and 38 typical adolescents and adults (13-30 years). The ASD group relied less upon peers and friends for social (OR = 52.16, p less than 0.01) and romantic…

  4. Cardiovascular risks and brain function: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of executive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yi-Fang; Eldreth, Dana; Erickson, Kirk I; Varma, Vijay; Harris, Gregory; Fried, Linda P; Rebok, George W; Tanner, Elizabeth K; Carlson, Michelle C

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are associated with cognitive impairment and risk of dementia in older adults. However, the mechanisms linking them are not clear. This study aims to investigate the association between aggregate CV risk, assessed by the Framingham general cardiovascular risk profile, and functional brain activation in a group of community-dwelling older adults. Sixty participants (mean age: 64.6 years) from the Brain Health Study, a nested study of the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging using the Flanker task. We found that participants with higher CV risk had greater task-related activation in the left inferior parietal region, and this increased activation was associated with poorer task performance. Our results provide insights into the neural systems underlying the relationship between CV risk and executive function. Increased activation of the inferior parietal region may offer a pathway through which CV risk increases risk for cognitive impairment.

  5. The Long Term Effect of Elective Colpoperineoplasty on Sexual Function in the Reproductive Aged Women in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Safieh; Abedi, Parvin; Rasekh, Athar; Mohammadjafari, Razieh

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Many women are suffering from sexual dysfunction followed by vaginal laxity in their reproductive age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effect of colpoperineoplasty on sexual function in Iranian reproductive aged women. Methods. This was a prospective observational study in which 79 women with vaginal laxity who were candidate for selective colpoperineoplasty in Jahrom, Iran, were recruited. Data on sexual function was collected via the Female Sexual Function (FSFI) questionnaire preoperatively, six months and 18 months after colpoperineoplasty. The paired t-test, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, and Repeated Measure test were utilized for statistical purposes. Results. Seventy-six women completed the study by 18 months. The mean FSFI score changed from 24.19 ± 3.09 in baseline to 26.92 ± 3.41 after six months (P < 0.001); however dyspareunia and vaginal dryness were increased significantly. After 18 months all areas of sexual function including pain and lubrication improved significantly compared to the 6th month (P < 0.001). Sexual satisfaction was increased significantly six and 18 months after surgery (P < 0.001), and the total score of sexual function increased to 32.61 ± 1.32 after 18 months (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The long term effect of colpoperineoplasty in women who suffer from vaginal laxity is promising. It seems that patient's dissatisfaction of sexual function can be a basis for colpoperineoplasty. PMID:27437508

  6. Neuropeptides linking the control of appetite with reproductive function in domestic animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of puberty and maintenance of normal reproductive cycles are regulated by secretion of gonadotropin hormones from the pituitary gland, which is dependent upon the pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. It is well established that secretion of...

  7. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ​​up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not

  8. Social support, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning among older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Brian J; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E

    2013-01-01

    Social support and functional ability are related to a number of outcomes in later life among African Americans, including cognitive performance. This study examined how providing and receiving social support was related to fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities among aging African American adults after accounting for functional limitations, age, education, sex, income, and self-reported health. Data from 602 African American adults (M = 69.08, SD = 9.74; 25% male) were analyzed using latent variable modeling. Fluid ability was a second-order factor indicated by measures that assessed verbal memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and inductive reasoning. Crystallized ability was a first-order factor indicated by three measures that assessed vocabulary (Shipley Verbal Meaning Test and parts A and B of the ETS Vocabulary Test). Results indicated that the receipt of social support was negatively related to both fluid and crystallized abilities, while the provision of support was positively related to fluid and crystallized ability. Follow-up tests found that the receipt of support was more strongly related to fluid ability than crystallized ability. There was no significant difference regarding the relationship of provision of support with fluid ability compared to crystallized ability. Results discuss the importance of considering the social context of older adults when examining cognitive ability.

  9. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  10. Semen quality and reproductive endocrine function in relation to biomarkers of lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper in men.

    PubMed Central

    Telisman, S; Cvitković, P; Jurasović, J; Pizent, A; Gavella, M; Rocić, B

    2000-01-01

    Blood lead (BPb), activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP), blood cadmium (BCd), serum zinc (SZn), seminal fluid zinc (SfZn), serum copper (SCu), and parameters of semen quality and of reproductive endocrine function were measured in 149 healthy male industrial workers 20-43 years of age. The group contained 98 subjects with slight to moderate occupational exposure to Pb and 51 reference subjects. All of the subjects lived in Zagreb, Croatia. Significant (p < 0.05) correlations of BPb, ALAD, and/or EP with reproductive parameters indicated a Pb-related decrease in sperm density, in counts of total, motile, and viable sperm, in the percentage and count of progressively motile sperm, in parameters of prostate secretory function (SfZn, acid phosphatase, and citric acid in seminal fluid), and an increase in abnormal sperm head morphology, serum testosterone, and estradiol. These associations were confirmed by results of multiple regression, which also showed significant (p < 0. 05) influence of BCd, SZn, SCu, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, or age on certain reproductive parameters. These effects were mainly of lower rank and intensity as compared to Pb-related reproductive effects, whereas BCd contributed to a decrease in sperm motility and an increase in abnormal sperm morphology and serum testosterone. No significant Pb- or Cd-related influence was found on levels of the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-C(4) and fructose in seminal fluid or on follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin in serum. The seminal fluid concentrations of Pb (SfPb) and Cd (SfCd) were measured in 118 of the 149 subjects, and a highly significant (p < 0.0001) correlation was found between BPb and SfPb levels (r = 0.571) and between BCd and SfCd levels (r = 0.490). The overall study results indicate that even moderate exposures to Pb (BPb < 400 microg/L) and Cd (BCd < 10 microg/L) can significantly reduce human

  11. Reproductive Health CHOICES for Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease or Trait: Randomized Controlled Trial Outcomes over Two Years.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Agatha M; Wilkie, Diana J; Yao, Yingwei; Molokie, Robert E; Stahl, Christiane; Hershberger, Patricia E; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Suarez, Marie L; Johnson, Bonnye; Angulo, Rigoberto; Carrasco, Jesus; Angulo, Veronica; Thompson, Alexis A

    2016-04-01

    Interventions to assist reproductive health decision-making in populations affected by sickle cell disease (SCD) or trait (SCT) lack proven efficacy over time. Our aim was to compare effects of CHOICES, a Web-based multimedia education program on implementing informed reproductive plans, and usual care education (e-Book) on reproductive knowledge, intention, and behavior over 24 months. We randomized 234 participants with SCD (n = 138) or SCT (n = 96) (age 18-35 years, 35 % male, 94 % African American) to CHOICES and e-Book groups. Participants completed a sickle cell-specific reproductive measure before and four times after the intervention (6, 12, 18 and 24 months). Compared to the e-Book group the CHOICES group had significantly more improvement in knowledge over time (p = .004) but not intention (p = .18) or behavior (p = .69). At baseline, 114 (48.7 %) participants reported having partners who would not put the couple at risk for their children inheriting SCD. Of the 116 (49.6 %) at-risk participants, a higher poroportion of those who were in the CHOICES group chose partners that reduced their risk by the last visit than the e-Book group (p = .04). Study findings provide important insights for designing a national trial of the CHOICES intervention focusing on subjects whose partner status puts them at risk for having a child with SCD.

  12. Characterization of an EPG waveform library for pre-reproductive adult Lygus lineolaris and L. hesperus feeding on cotton squares

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris and L. hesperus, are among the most important pests affecting production of cotton in the mid-southern and western United States, respectively. Previous studies have focused on feeding damage to cotton reproductive structures from destructive enzymatic saliva. ...

  13. Clinical Assessment of Functional Movement in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Christopher T.; Horvat, Michael; Williams, Michael; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2007-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments have significantly more health risks than do sighted adults because of a number of factors, including the lower mineral density of their femoral neck bones, which is indicative of reduced weight-bearing exercise; their lesser maximal strength; and their higher rates of stroke, osteoporosis, depression, hypertension,…

  14. A widely employed germ cell marker is an ancient disordered protein with reproductive functions in diverse eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Carmell, Michelle A; Dokshin, Gregoriy A; Skaletsky, Helen; Hu, Yueh-Chiang; van Wolfswinkel, Josien C; Igarashi, Kyomi J; Bellott, Daniel W; Nefedov, Michael; Reddien, Peter W; Enders, George C; Uversky, Vladimir N; Mello, Craig C; Page, David C

    2016-01-01

    The advent of sexual reproduction and the evolution of a dedicated germline in multicellular organisms are critical landmarks in eukaryotic evolution. We report an ancient family of GCNA (germ cell nuclear antigen) proteins that arose in the earliest eukaryotes, and feature a rapidly evolving intrinsically disordered region (IDR). Phylogenetic analysis reveals that GCNA proteins emerged before the major eukaryotic lineages diverged; GCNA predates the origin of a dedicated germline by a billion years. Gcna gene expression is enriched in reproductive cells across eukarya – either just prior to or during meiosis in single-celled eukaryotes, and in stem cells and germ cells of diverse multicellular animals. Studies of Gcna-mutant C. elegans and mice indicate that GCNA has functioned in reproduction for at least 600 million years. Homology to IDR-containing proteins implicated in DNA damage repair suggests that GCNA proteins may protect the genomic integrity of cells carrying a heritable genome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19993.001 PMID:27718356

  15. Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training with Three Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chezan, Laura C.; Drasgow, Erik; Martin, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a sequence of two studies on the use of discrete-trial functional analysis and functional communication training. First, we used discrete-trial functional analysis (DTFA) to identify the function of problem behavior in three adults with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. Results indicated clear patterns of problem…

  16. Always follow your nose: the functional significance of social chemosignals in human reproduction and survival.

    PubMed

    Lübke, Katrin T; Pause, Bettina M

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction" Across phyla, chemosensory communication is crucial for mediating a variety of social behaviors, which form the basis for ontogenetic and phylogenetic survival. In the present paper, evidence on chemosensory communication in humans, with special reference to reproduction and survival, will be presented. First, the impact of chemosignals on human reproduction will be reviewed. Work will be presented, showing how chemosensory signals are involved in mate choice and partnership formation by communicating attractiveness and facilitating a partner selection, which is of evolutionary advantage, and furthermore providing information about the level of sexual hormones. In addition to direct effects on phylogenetic survival, chemosignals indirectly aid reproductive success by fostering harm protection. Results will be presented, showing that chemosensory communication aids the emotional bond between mother and child, which in turn motivates parental caretaking and protection, leading to infant survival. Moreover, the likelihood of group survival can be increased through the use of stress-related chemosignals. Stress-related chemosignals induce a stress-related physiology in the perceiver, thereby priming a fight-flight-response, which is necessary for an optimum adaption to environmental harm. Finally, effects of sexual orientation on chemosensory communication will be discussed in terms of their putative role in stabilizing social groups, which might indirectly provide harm protection and foster survival. An integrative model of the presented data will be introduced. In conclusion, an outlook, focusing on the involvement of chemosensory communication in human social behavior and illustrating a novel approach to the significance of chemosensory signals in human survival, will be given.

  17. Hour-Long Nap May Boost Brain Function in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162923.html Hour-Long Nap May Boost Brain Function in Older Adults Linked to improved memory and ... during the day had any effects on their brain function. Nearly 60 percent of the people regularly napped ...

  18. A Comparative Survey of Seven Adult Functional Literacy Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Edmun B.

    A study compares the adult functional literacy campaigns and programs developed in seven African nations: the Gambia, Liberia, Mali, Burundi, Rwanda, Kenya, and Seychelles. After an introductory chapter outlining the background of African adult functional literacy efforts and some of the constraints on them, the second chapter gives an overview of…

  19. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  20. Older Adults in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A New Strategy for Enhancing Physical Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Foy, Capri Gabrielle; Brawley, Lawrence R.; Brubaker, Peter H.; Focht, Brian C.; Norris, James L., III; Smith, Marci L.

    2002-01-01

    Contrasted the effect of a group-mediated cognitive- behavioral intervention (GMCB) versus traditional cardiac rehabilitation (CRP) upon changes in objective and self-reported physical function of older adults after 3 months of exercise therapy. Both groups improved significantly. Adults with lower function at the outset of the intervention…

  1. Intraindividual variability in physical and emotional functioning: comparison of adults with traumatic brain injuries and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Burton, Catherine L; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther; Hunter, Michael A

    2002-08-01

    Recent research has shown that individuals with certain neurological conditions demonstrate greater intraindividual variability on cognitive tasks compared to healthy controls. The present study investigated intraindividual variability in the domains of physical functioning and affect/stress in three groups: adults with mild head injuries, adults with moderate/severe head injuries, and healthy adults. Participants were assessed on 10 occasions and results indicated that (a) individuals with head injuries demonstrated greater variability in dominant finger dexterity and right grip strength than the healthy controls; (b) increased variability tended to be associated with poorer performance/report both within and across tasks; and (c) increased variability on one task was associated with increased variability on other tasks. The findings suggest that increased variability in physical function, as well as cognitive function, represents an indicator of neurological compromise.

  2. Effect of Antimicrobial Peptide, Nisin, on the Reproductive Functions of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, K. V. R; Gupta, S. M.; Aranha, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that naturally occurring peptide, Nisin possess antibacterial activity and did not interfere with rabbit vaginal mucosa. In this study, the reproductive toxicity of the Nisin in male rats was evaluated. Rats were fed orally with Nisin (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day) for 13 weeks. No treatment related mortality was observed. The body weight gain, food consumption and serum biochemical parameters were at par with the control group. Histomorphology of the selected reproductive (testis, epididymis, ventral prostate, and seminal vesicle) and nonreproductive (liver and kidney) tissues was observed to be normal. There was no treatment-related increase or decrease in the expression of testis-specific genes (c-Kit, GATA-1, and HILS-1) and the activity levels of epididymal α-glucosidase, ventral prostate alkaline phosphatase (AlP), liver alanine aminotransferase (AlAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). Fructose and lactic acid levels in the seminal vesicles also remained unchanged. These studies suggest that Nisin did not affect the normal physiology of these organs. In addition, no adverse effects were observed on the reproductive performance of Nisin-treated male rats and their offspring. In conclusion, the current studies support our earlier studies, which demonstrated suitability of Nisin as a safe and effective microbicide. PMID:23738116

  3. Coenzyme Q10 restores oocyte mitochondrial function and fertility during reproductive aging

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Meir, Assaf; Burstein, Eliezer; Borrego-Alvarez, Aluet; Chong, Jasmine; Wong, Ellen; Yavorska, Tetyana; Naranian, Taline; Chi, Maggie; Wang, Ying; Bentov, Yaakov; Alexis, Jennifer; Meriano, James; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Gasser, David L; Moley, Kelle H; Hekimi, Siegfried; Casper, Robert F; Jurisicova, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Female reproductive capacity declines dramatically in the fourth decade of life as a result of an age-related decrease in oocyte quality and quantity. The primary causes of reproductive aging and the molecular factors responsible for decreased oocyte quality remain elusive. Here, we show that aging of the female germ line is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction associated with decreased oxidative phosphorylation and reduced Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) level. Diminished expression of the enzymes responsible for CoQ production, Pdss2 and Coq6, was observed in oocytes of older females in both mouse and human. The age-related decline in oocyte quality and quantity could be reversed by the administration of CoQ10. Oocyte-specific disruption of Pdss2 recapitulated many of the mitochondrial and reproductive phenotypes observed in the old females including reduced ATP production and increased meiotic spindle abnormalities, resulting in infertility. Ovarian reserve in the oocyte-specific Pdss2-deficient animals was diminished, leading to premature ovarian failure which could be prevented by maternal dietary administration of CoQ10. We conclude that impaired mitochondrial performance created by suboptimal CoQ10 availability can drive age-associated oocyte deficits causing infertility. PMID:26111777

  4. Exploring the factor on sensory motor function of upper limb associated with executive function in communitydwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Daiki; Matsuoka, Hiroka; Iwai, Midori; Nakamura, Shugo; Kubo, Ayumi; Tomiyama, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Exercise, such as cardiovascular fitness training, has been shown to have utility in improving executive function but is difficult for older adults with low mobility to perform. Accordingly, there is interest in the development of regimens other than high mobility exercises for older adults with low mobility. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between sensory motor function of the upper limb and executive function in community-dwelling older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 57 right-handed, independent, community-dwelling older adults. Sensory motor function of upper limb, including range of motion, strength, sensation, finger dexterity, and comprehensive hand function was measured in both hands. Executive function was assessed using the Delta Trail Making Test. Multiple regression analysis indicated the finger dexterity of the non-dominant hand as independently associated with executive function (β = –0.414, P < 0.001). The findings of the present study may facilitate the development of exercise regimens for improving executive function that are more suitable for older adults with limited physical fitness levels. As this was a cross-sectional study, further studies are required to validate the efficacy of non-dominant finger dexterity training for improving executive function in older adults. PMID:27578912

  5. Exploring the factor on sensory motor function of upper limb associated with executive function in communitydwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Daiki; Matsuoka, Hiroka; Iwai, Midori; Nakamura, Shugo; Kubo, Ayumi; Tomiyama, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Exercise, such as cardiovascular fitness training, has been shown to have utility in improving executive function but is difficult for older adults with low mobility to perform. Accordingly, there is interest in the development of regimens other than high mobility exercises for older adults with low mobility. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between sensory motor function of the upper limb and executive function in community-dwelling older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 57 right-handed, independent, community-dwelling older adults. Sensory motor function of upper limb, including range of motion, strength, sensation, finger dexterity, and comprehensive hand function was measured in both hands. Executive function was assessed using the Delta Trail Making Test. Multiple regression analysis indicated the finger dexterity of the non-dominant hand as independently associated with executive function (β = -0.414, P < 0.001). The findings of the present study may facilitate the development of exercise regimens for improving executive function that are more suitable for older adults with limited physical fitness levels. As this was a cross-sectional study, further studies are required to validate the efficacy of non-dominant finger dexterity training for improving executive function in older adults.

  6. Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

  7. Self-efficacy: Implications for Physical Activity, Function, and Functional Limitations in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Edward; Szabo, Amanda; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A.

    2013-01-01

    Attenuating the physical decline and increases in disability associated with the aging process is an important public health priority. Evidence suggests that regular physical activity participation improves functional performance, such as walking, standing balance, flexibility, and getting up out of a chair, and also plays an important role in the disablement process by providing a protective effect against functional limitations. Whether these effects are direct or indirect has yet to be reliably established. In this review, the authors take the perspective that such relationships are indirect and operate through self-efficacy expectations. They first provide an introduction to social cognitive theory followed by an overview of self-efficacy's reciprocal relationship with physical activity. They then consider the literature that documents the effects of physical activity on functional performance and functional limitations in older adults and the extent to which self-efficacy might mediate these relationships. Furthermore, they also present evidence that suggests that self-efficacy plays a pivotal role in a model in which the protective effects conferred by physical activity on functional limitations operate through functional performance. The article concludes with a brief section making recommendations for the development of strategies within physical activity and rehabilitative programs for maximizing the major sources of efficacy information. PMID:24353482

  8. Interhemispheric Connectivity and Executive Functioning in Adults With Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Amy; Donkervoort, Mireille; Kinsbourne, Marcel; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is relatively smaller, and the corpus callosum (CC) larger, in adults with Tourette syndrome (TS). The authors explored the possible roles of the PFC and the CC in mediating interhemispheric interference and coordination in TS adults. They measured performance on M. Kinsbourne and J. Cook's (1971) verbal–manual interference task and on the bimanual Purdue Pegboard in 38 adults with TS and 34 healthy adults. Compared with controls, TS subjects were impaired on the bimanual Purdue Pegboard. On the dual task, right-hand performance did not differ between groups, but the normally expected left-hand advantage (opposite hemisphere condition) was absent in TS subjects. In the control group only, better left-hand performance accompanied larger PFC volumes but not CC cross-sectional area. PFC dysfunction might have precluded executive control of interference in the TS group. PMID:16460223

  9. Interhemispheric connectivity and executive functioning in adults with Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Amy; Donkervoort, Mireille; Kinsbourne, Marcel; Peterson, Bradley S

    2006-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is relatively smaller, and the corpus callosum (CC) larger, in adults with Tourette syndrome (TS). The authors explored the possible roles of the PFC and the CC in mediating interhemispheric interference and coordination in TS adults. They measured performance on M. Kinsbourne and J. Cook's (1971) verbal-manual interference task and on the bimanual Purdue Pegboard in 38 adults with TS and 34 healthy adults. Compared with controls, TS subjects were impaired on the bimanual Purdue Pegboard. On the dual task, right-hand performance did not differ between groups, but the normally expected left-hand advantage (opposite hemisphere condition) was absent in TS subjects. In the control group only, better left-hand performance accompanied larger PFC volumes but not CC cross-sectional area. PFC dysfunction might have precluded executive control of interference in the TS group.

  10. Evaluation of toxic effects of CdTe quantum dots on the reproductive system in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiangrong; Yuwen, Lihui; Yang, Wenjing; Weng, Lixing; Teng, Zhaogang; Wang, Lianhui

    2016-07-01

    Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) are highly promising nanomaterials for various biological and biomedical applications because of their unique optical properties, such as robust photostability, strong photoluminescence, and size-tunable fluorescence. Several studies have reported the in vivo toxicity of QDs, but their effects on the male reproduction system have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs at a high dose of 2.0 nmol per mouse and a low dose of 0.2 nmol per mouse. Body weight measurements demonstrated there was no overt toxicity for both dose at day 90 after exposure, but the high dose CdTe affected body weight up to 15 days after exposure. CdTe QDs accumulated in the testes and damaged the tissue structure for both doses on day 90. Meanwhile, either of two CdTe QDs treatments did not significantly affect the quantity of sperm, but the high dose CdTe significantly decreased the quality of sperm on day 60. The serum levels of three major sex hormones were also perturbed by CdTe QDs treatment. However, the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those mated with untreated male mice. These results suggest that CdTe QDs can cause testes toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. The low dose of CdTe QDs is relatively safe for the reproductive system of male mice. Our preliminary result enables better understanding of the reproductive toxicity induced by cadmium-containing QDs and provides insight into the safe use of these nanoparticles in biological and environmental systems.

  11. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katyoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. The relationship between FMD and task-related brain activation in a priori regions of interest was modeled using hierarchical linear regression. Brachial FMD, was significantly related to reduced working memory-related activation in the right superior parietal lobule (β=0.338, p=0.027), independent of age, sex, systolic blood pressure, and full scale IQ (F(5,36)=2.66, p=0.038). These data provide preliminary support for the association between a preclinical marker of endothelial dysfunction and cerebral hemodynamic alterations in healthy middle-aged adults. Considering the modifiable nature of endothelial function, additional investigations on the prognostic significance of FMD on future cognitive impairment are warranted. PMID:20493622

  12. Reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  13. Interpreting the von Bertalanffy model of somatic growth in fishes: the cost of reproduction.

    PubMed Central

    Lester, N. P.; Shuter, B. J.; Abrams, P. A.

    2004-01-01

    We develop a model for somatic growth in fishes that explicitly allows for the energy demand imposed by reproduction. We show that the von Bertalanffy (VB) equation provides a good description of somatic growth after maturity, but not before. We show that the parameters of the VB equation are simple functions of age at maturity and reproductive investment. We use this model to show how the energy demands for both growth and reproduction trade off to determine optimal life-history traits. Assuming that both age at maturity and reproductive investment adapt to variations in adult mortality to maximize lifetime offspring production, our model predicts that: (i) the optimal age of maturity is inversely related to adult mortality rate; (ii) the optimal reproductive effort is approximately equal to adult mortality rate. These predictions are consistent with observed variations in the life-history traits of a large sample of iteroparous freshwater fishes. PMID:15306310

  14. Nodavirus Colonizes and Replicates in the Testis of Gilthead Seabream and European Sea Bass Modulating Its Immune and Reproductive Functions.

    PubMed

    Valero, Yulema; Arizcun, Marta; Esteban, M Ángeles; Bandín, Isabel; Olveira, José G; Patel, Sonal; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are threatening pathogens for fish aquaculture. Some of them are transmitted through gonad fluids or gametes as occurs with nervous necrosis virus (NNV). In order to be transmitted through the gonad, the virus should colonize and replicate inside some cell types of this tissue and avoid the subsequent immune response locally. However, whether NNV colonizes the gonad, the cell types that are infected, and how the immune response in the gonad is regulated has never been studied. We have demonstrated for the first time the presence and localization of NNV into the testis after an experimental infection in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a very susceptible and an asymptomatic host fish species, respectively. Thus, we localized in the testis viral RNA in both species using in situ PCR and viral proteins in gilthead seabream by immunohistochemistry, suggesting that males might also transmit the virus. In addition, we were able to isolate infective particles from the testis of both species demonstrating that NNV colonizes and replicates into the testis of both species. Blood contamination of the tissues sampled was discarded by completely fish bleeding, furthermore the in situ PCR and immunocytochemistry techniques never showed staining in blood vessels or cells. Moreover, we also determined how the immune and reproductive functions are affected comparing the effects in the testis with those found in the brain, the main target tissue of the virus. Interestingly, NNV triggered the immune response in the European sea bass but not in the gilthead seabream testis. Regarding reproductive functions, NNV infection alters 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone production and the potential sensitivity of brain and testis to these hormones, whereas there is no disruption of testicular functions according to several reproductive parameters. Moreover, we have also studied the NNV infection of the testis in vitro to

  15. Nodavirus Colonizes and Replicates in the Testis of Gilthead Seabream and European Sea Bass Modulating Its Immune and Reproductive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Yulema; Arizcun, Marta; Esteban, M. Ángeles; Bandín, Isabel; Olveira, José G.; Patel, Sonal; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are threatening pathogens for fish aquaculture. Some of them are transmitted through gonad fluids or gametes as occurs with nervous necrosis virus (NNV). In order to be transmitted through the gonad, the virus should colonize and replicate inside some cell types of this tissue and avoid the subsequent immune response locally. However, whether NNV colonizes the gonad, the cell types that are infected, and how the immune response in the gonad is regulated has never been studied. We have demonstrated for the first time the presence and localization of NNV into the testis after an experimental infection in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a very susceptible and an asymptomatic host fish species, respectively. Thus, we localized in the testis viral RNA in both species using in situ PCR and viral proteins in gilthead seabream by immunohistochemistry, suggesting that males might also transmit the virus. In addition, we were able to isolate infective particles from the testis of both species demonstrating that NNV colonizes and replicates into the testis of both species. Blood contamination of the tissues sampled was discarded by completely fish bleeding, furthermore the in situ PCR and immunocytochemistry techniques never showed staining in blood vessels or cells. Moreover, we also determined how the immune and reproductive functions are affected comparing the effects in the testis with those found in the brain, the main target tissue of the virus. Interestingly, NNV triggered the immune response in the European sea bass but not in the gilthead seabream testis. Regarding reproductive functions, NNV infection alters 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone production and the potential sensitivity of brain and testis to these hormones, whereas there is no disruption of testicular functions according to several reproductive parameters. Moreover, we have also studied the NNV infection of the testis in vitro to

  16. Sleep Patterns in Adults with a Diagnosis of High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Emma K.; Richdale, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine sleep patterns and sleep problems and their relationship with daytime functioning in adults with a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder and no comorbid intellectual disability (high-functioning autism spectrum disorder [HFASD]) compared to neurotypical (NT) adults. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Home-based study. Participants: 36 adults with HFASD and 36 age-, intelligence quotient- and sex-matched NT adults. Measurements: Participants completed an online questionnaire battery including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 14-d sleep wake diary and 14-d actigraphy data collection. Results: Adults with HFASD had significantly more general sleep disturbances and higher scores on the PSQI, longer sleep onset latencies (actigraphy), and poorer sleep efficiency (diary) and these results remained significant after accounting for the False Discovery Rate. Those adults with HFASD who did not have a comorbid diagnosis of anxiety/depression had significantly shorter total sleep time (diary and actigraphy) compared to NT adults. Compared to NT adults, the HFASD group self-reported significantly poorer refreshment scores upon waking in the morning and higher scores on the daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness subscale of the PSQI. Conclusions: These findings support the notion that problems related to sleep, in particular insomnia, continue into adulthood in individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Citation: Baker EK, Richdale AL. Sleep patterns in adults with a diagnosis of high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1765–1774. PMID:26237770

  17. Influence of royal jelly on the reproductive function of puberty male rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Anshu; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Li; Xie, Guoxiu; Chen, Hongbing; Liu, Zhiyong; Ma, Wei

    2012-06-01

    The adverse effects of royal jelly on the reproductive system of puberty male rats were investigated. Royal jelly was daily administered by gavage to Sprague-Dawley rats at doses 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 4 weeks. The body weight and organ coefficients were determined. Sperm count, spermatozoa abnormality, and testicular histopathology were examined through light microscopy. Radioimmunoassay was used to detect serum hormones. The dietary exposure to royal jelly did not affect body weight, but the organ coefficients for the pituitary and testis in the high-dose group were decreased significantly compared with the control group, and significant changes in the microstructure of the testis were observed. No significant differences in sperm count were observed among all groups, however, the sperm deformity rate in the high-dose group increased significantly. Serum hormones in the high-dose group were significantly different from the control group. After royal jelly was stopped for 14 days, the adverse changes were partially reversed and returned to levels close to those in the control group. In conclusion, high-dose royal jelly oral administration for 4 weeks adversely affected the reproductive system of pubescent male rats, but the unfavorable effects are alleviated to some extent by cessation of administration.

  18. Nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms and their functions in the female reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Rekawiecki, R; Kowalik, M K; Kotwica, J

    2011-01-01

    Progesterone (P4), which is produced by the corpus luteum (CL), creates proper conditions for the embryo implantation, its development, and ensures proper conditions for the duration of pregnancy. Besides the non-genomic activity of P4 on target cells, its main physiological effect is caused through genomic action by the progesterone nuclear receptor (PGR). This nuclear progesterone receptor occurs in two specific isoforms, PGRA and PGRB. PGRA isoform acts as an inhibitor of transcriptional action of PGRB. The inactive receptor is connected with chaperone proteins and attachment of P4 causes disconnection of chaperones and unveiling of DNA binding domain (DBD). After receptor dimerization in the cells' nucleus and interaction with hormone response element (HRE), the receptor coactivators are connected and transcription is initiated. The ratio of these isoforms changes during the estrous cycle and reflects the different levels of P4 effect on the reproductive system. Both isoforms, PGRA and PGRB, also show a different response to the P4 receptor antagonist activity. Connection of the antagonist to PGRA can block PGRB, but acting through the PGRB isoform, P4 receptor antagonist may undergo conversion to a strongly receptor agonist. A third isoform, PGRC, has also been revealed. This isoform is the shortest and does not have transcriptional activity. Alternative splicing and insertion of additional exons may lead to the formation of different PGR isoforms. This paper summarizes the available data on the progesterone receptor isoforms and its regulatory action within the female reproductive system.

  19. A Comparison of Anthropometric, Metabolic, and Reproductive Characteristics of Young Adult Women from Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twin Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Korsoff, Pirkko; Bogl, Leonie H.; Korhonen, Päivi; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Rose, Richard J.; Kaaja, Risto; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to androgens has been linked to masculinization of several traits. We aimed to determine whether putative female intra-uterine exposure to androgens influences anthropometric, metabolic, and reproductive parameters using a twin design. Methods: Two cohorts of Finnish twins born in 1975–1979 and 1983–1987 formed the basis for the longitudinal FinnTwin16 (FT16) and FinnTwin12 (FT12) studies. Self-reported anthropometric characteristics, disease status, and reproductive history were compared between 679 same-sex (SS) and 789 opposite-sex (OS) female twins (mean age ± SD: 34 ± 1.1) from the wave 5 of data collection in FT16. Serum lipid and lipoprotein subclass concentrations measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared in 226 SS and 169 OS female twins (mean age ± SD: 24 ± 2.1) from the wave 4 of data collection in FT12 and FT16. Results: Anthropometric measures, the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 did not differ significantly between females from SS and OS twin pairs at age 34. Similarly, the prevalence of infertility, age at first pregnancy and number of induced and spontaneous abortions did not differ significantly between these two groups of women. The serum lipid and lipoprotein profile did not differ between females from SS and OS twins at age 24. Conclusion: We found no evidence that androgen overexposure of the female fetus affects obesity, metabolic profile, or reproductive health in young adult females. However, these results do not exclude the possibility that prenatal androgen exposure in females could be adversely associated with these phenotypes later in life. PMID:24639667

  20. Exposure to Hypoxia at High Altitude (5380 m) for 1 Year Induces Reversible Effects on Semen Quality and Serum Reproductive Hormone Levels in Young Male Adults.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Cui, Jianhua; Wang, Rui; Gao, Liang; Gao, Xiaokang; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Qiong; Cao, Jinjun; Yu, Wuzhong

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypoxia at high altitude on the semen quality and the serum reproductive hormone levels in male adults. A total of 52 male soldiers were enrolled in this cohort study. They were exposed to hypoxia at high altitude (5380 m) for 12 months when undergoing a service. After exposure, they were followed up for 6 months. The samples of semen and peripheral blood were collected at 1 month before exposure (M0), 6 months of exposure (M6), 12 months of exposure (M12), and 6 months after exposure (M18). The semen quality was assessed with computer-assisted analysis system, and the serum levels of reproductive hormones, including prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were analyzed by ELISA. Compared with those at M0, total sperm count, sperm density, motility, survival rate, and serum levels of LH, PRL and testosterone were significantly decreased, whereas the liquefaction time was significantly prolonged and serum FSH level was significantly increased at M6 (p<0.05). At M12, total sperm count and sperm density increased, whereas sperm motility, survival rate, and the liquefaction time further decreased. Sperm velocities, progression ratios, and lateral head displacements were also decreased. Serum FSH level decreased while serum LH, PRL, and testosterone levels increased. Compared with those at M6, the changes in these detected parameters of semen and hormone at M12 were significant (p<0.05). At M18, all these detected parameters except testosterone level returned to levels comparable to those before exposure. In conclusion, hypoxia at high altitude causes adverse effects on semen quality and reproductive hormones, and these effects are reversible.

  1. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-03-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging adults with an ASD and that reported by their caring adult; (2) examining the barriers to participation reported. Preliminary results demonstrate that the AYA-ACS appears to be a reliable and valid method of identifying emerging adults' participation strengths as well as personal and environmental challenges in a variety of age-appropriate activities. The AYA-ACS could assist service providers by providing an understanding of the challenges to participation faced by this population and aid in developing client centered interventions.

  2. Gonadal function, fertility, and reproductive medicine in childhood and adolescent cancer patients: a national survey of Japanese pediatric endocrinologists

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Yorifuji, Tohru; Horikawa, Reiko; Takahashi, Ikuko; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Ito, Junko; Oba, Mari; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Fujisaki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masashi; Shimizu, Chikako; Kato, Tomoyasu; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Sago, Haruhiko; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nao; Yokoya, Susumu; Ogata, Tsutomu; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. An increasing number of pediatric cancer patients survive, and treatment-related infertility represents one of the most important issues for these patients. While official guidelines in Japan recommend long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), their gonadal function and fertility have not been clarified. To address this issue, we organized a working panel to compile evidence from long-term survivors who received treatments for cancer during childhood or adolescence. In collaboration with members of the CCS Committee of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology (JSPE), we conducted a questionnaire survey regarding reproductive function in pediatric cancer patients. A cross-sectional survey was sent to 178 JSPE-certified councilors who were asked to self-evaluate the medical examinations they had performed. A total of 151 responses were obtained, revealing that 143 endocrinologists were involved in the care of CCSs. A quarter of the respondents reported having experienced issues during gonadal or reproductive examinations. Several survivors did not remember or fully understand the explanation regarding gonadal damage, and faced physical and psychological distress when discussing the risk of becoming infertile. Pediatric endocrinologists had anxieties regarding their patients’ infertility and the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and delivery problems. Only a limited number of endocrinologists had experience with managing childbirth and fertility preservation. Many councilors mentioned the necessity for inter-disciplinary communication among healthcare providers. Both endocrinologists and oncologists should set and follow a uniform clinical guideline that includes management of fertility of CCSs. PMID:27212796

  3. Largely typical patterns of resting-state functional connectivity in high-functioning adults with autism.

    PubMed

    Tyszka, J Michael; Kennedy, Daniel P; Paul, Lynn K; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-07-01

    A leading hypothesis for the neural basis of autism postulates globally abnormal brain connectivity, yet the majority of studies report effects that are either very weak, inconsistent across studies, or explain results incompletely. Here we apply multiple analytical approaches to resting-state BOLD-fMRI data at the whole-brain level. Neurotypical and high-functioning adults with autism displayed very similar patterns and strengths of resting-state connectivity. We found only limited evidence in autism for abnormal resting-state connectivity at the regional level and no evidence for altered connectivity at the whole-brain level. Regional abnormalities in functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder were primarily in the frontal and temporal cortices. Within these regions, functional connectivity with other brain regions was almost exclusively lower in the autism group. Further examination showed that even small amounts of head motion during scanning have large effects on functional connectivity measures and must be controlled carefully. Consequently, we suggest caution in the interpretation of apparent positive findings until all possible confounding effects can be ruled out. Additionally, we do not rule out the possibility that abnormal connectivity in autism is evident at the microstructural synaptic level, which may not be reflected sensitively in hemodynamic changes measured with BOLD-fMRI.

  4. [Consequences for posterity of two generations of an irradiation pregnant from females rats Wistar in small doses during a bookmark of reproduction system of fetuses development of posterity of the second generation and it reproduction function].

    PubMed

    Palyga, G F; Chibisova, O F

    2006-01-01

    With the purpose of study of consequences for development and reproduction functions of posterity of the second generation from females rats Wistar of a total unitary gamma-irradiation in dozes 0.25; 0.5 and 1 Gy (capacity of a doze 0.03 sGy/s) on 10th day of pregnancy (the period of the onset of fetuses reproduction system development) is investigated more than 630 females, 1400 with the age of 19th days, and about 3200 young rats. The revealed deviations(rejections) in development of posterity of two generations parents, antenatal irradiated in not sterilizing dozes, in he period of a beginning of formation of reproduction system, them a variety at different dozes of radiating influence, shown as at posterity of the irradiated mothers, and fathers, testify about instability genoms in a line of generations requiring the account and acceptance of necessary measures for preservation normal genofund.

  5. Gestational Exposure to Bisphenol A Affects the Function and Proteome Profile of F1 Spermatozoa in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Karmakar, Polash Chandra; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maternal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) has been linked to offspring reproductive abnormalities. However, exactly how BPA affects offspring fertility remains poorly understood. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gestational BPA exposure on sperm function, fertility, and proteome profile of F1 spermatozoa in adult mice. Methods: Pregnant CD-1 mice (F0) were gavaged with BPA at three different doses (50 μg/kg bw/day, 5 mg/kg bw/day, and 50 mg/kg bw/day) on embryonic days 7 to 14. We investigated the function, fertility, and related processes of F1 spermatozoa at postnatal day 120. We also evaluated protein profiles of F1 spermatozoa to monitor their functional affiliation to disease. Results: BPA inhibited sperm count, motility parameters, and intracellular ATP levels in a dose-dependent manner. These effects appeared to be caused by reduced numbers of stage VIII seminiferous epithelial cells in testis and decreased protein kinase A (PKA) activity and tyrosine phosphorylation in spermatozoa. We also found that BPA compromised average litter size. Proteins differentially expressed in spermatozoa from BPA treatment groups are known to play a critical role in ATP generation, oxidative stress response, fertility, and in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Conclusions: Our study provides mechanistic support for the hypothesis that gestational exposure to BPA alters sperm function and fertility via down-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation through a PKA-dependent mechanism. In addition, we anticipate that the BPA-induced changes in the sperm proteome might be partly responsible for the observed effects in spermatozoa. Citation: Rahman MS, Kwon WS, Karmakar PC, Yoon SJ, Ryu BY, Pang MG. 2017. Gestational exposure to bisphenol-A affects the function and proteome profile of F1 spermatozoa in adult mice. Environ Health Perspect 125:238–245; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP378 PMID:27384531

  6. MODE OF ACTION: INHIBITION OF ANDROGEN RECEPTOR FUNCTION--VINCLOZOLIN-INDUCED MALFORMATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vinclozolin is a fungicide that has been shown to cause Leydig cell tumors and atrophy of the accessory sex glands in adult rodents. In addition, exposure of rats during pregnancy causes a pattern of malformations in the male urogenital tract. A wealth of standard toxicological s...

  7. The influence of latent toxoplasmosis on women's reproductive function: four cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Kankova, Sarka; Flegr, Jaroslav; Calda, Pavel

    2015-07-28

    Several studies have investigated the association between infection with Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908), pregnancy and fertility, but the results of studies focused on the fertility are rather ambiguous. Here we report results of four new cross-sectional studies. The studies were performed in the General University Hospital, Prague (study A with n = 1 165, and study C with n = 317), in private clinics of the Centre of Reproductive Medicine, Prague (study B with n = 1 016), and in a population of Czech and Slovak volunteers from the Facebook page 'Guinea Pigs' willing to participate in various basic science studies (study D with n = 524). In studies A and B, the clinical records were used to assess the fertility problems, whereas in studies C and D, the women were asked to rate their fertility problems using a six-point scale. Pregnant T. gondii-infected women were older than T. gondii-free women (study A: 33.1 vs 31.2, P < 0.001; study B: 30.6 vs 29.6, P = 0.012) and more often used assisted reproductive technology to conceive (study A: 17.2% vs 12.4%, P = 0.041; study B: 13.4% vs 9.2%, P = 0.317). Pregnant T. gondii-infected primiparous women were older than T. gondii-free primiparas (study A: 31.1 vs 29.5, P < 0.001; study B: 29.7 vs 28.9, P = 0.064) and more often used assisted reproductive technology to conceive (study A: 24.7% vs 14.4%, P = 0.010; study B: 15.9% vs 15.5%, P = 0.888). T. gondii-infected women reported to take a longer time to conceive than T. gondii-free women (P = 0.015). They also claimed to have more fertility problems than T. gondii-free women (P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that 'asymptomatic' latent toxoplasmosis could be a more serious source of fertility problems and health-associated burden than more severe but far rarer congenital toxoplasmosis.

  8. The Human Function Compunction: Teleological Explanation in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for…

  9. Updates on the relation of weight excess and reproductive function in men: sleep apnea as a new area of interest

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Ahmad O; Carrell, Douglas T; Gibson, Mark; Matthew Peterson, C; Wayne Meikle, A

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on male reproductive function. It is associated with low testosterone levels and alteration in gonadotropin secretion. Male obesity has been linked to reduced male fertility. Data regarding the relation of obesity to sperm parameters are conflicting in terms of the nature and magnitude of the effect. New areas of interest are emerging that can help explain the variation in study results, such as genetic polymorphism and sleep apnea. Sleep disorders have been linked to altered testosterone production and hypogonadism in men. It was also correlated to erectile dysfunction. The relation of sleep disorders to male fertility and sperm parameters remains to be investigated. Men with hypogonadism and infertility should be screened for sleep apnea. Treatment of obesity and sleep apnea improves testosterone levels and erectile function. PMID:22138900

  10. Assessment of ixekizumab, an interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, for potential effects on reproduction and development, including immune system function, in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Clarke, D O; Hilbish, K G; Waters, D G; Newcomb, D L; Chellman, G J

    2015-12-01

    The reproductive and developmental toxicity of ixekizumab, a selective inhibitor of interleukin-17A (IL-17A), was assessed in the following studies in cynomolgus monkeys: fertility (3-month dosing), embryo-fetal development (EFD; dosing from gestation day (GD) 20 through 139), and pre-postnatal development (PPND; dosing from GD 20 through parturition). Because IL-17A has functional roles in innate and humoral immunity, immune system modulation was evaluated in the EFD and PPND studies; immunological evaluations in infants comprised peripheral blood immunophenotyping, Natural Killer cell cytolytic activity, and T-cell-dependent antibody (IgG and IgM) primary and secondary responses to antigen challenge. Ixekizumab exposure was sustained during the dosing periods in most adult monkeys. Fetal exposure at Cesarean section (GD 140-142; EFD study) was 18-25% of maternal exposure and ixekizumab was present in infants for up to 29 weeks postpartum. There were no adverse effects attributed to ixekizumab in any study. Importantly, immune system development and maturation were unaffected.

  11. Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current…

  12. Theory of Mind and Central Coherence in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Renae; Newcombe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated theory of mind and central coherence abilities in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) using naturalistic tasks. Twenty adults with HFA/AS correctly answered significantly fewer theory of mind questions than 20 controls on a forced-choice response task. On a narrative task, there were no…

  13. Parents' Criticisms and Attributions about Their Adult Children with High Functioning Autism or Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Mundy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the criticism component of expressed emotion (EE) and attributions in parents of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (S/SA) or high functioning autism/Asperger's. Consistent with study hypotheses, parents of adults diagnosed with autism/Asperger's disorder exhibited lower levels of high…

  14. Physical activity in prefrail older adults: confidence and satisfaction related to physical function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the hypothesis that physical activity will have favorable effects on measures of self-efficacy for a 400-m walk and satisfaction with physical functioning in older adults 701 years of age who have deficits in mobility. We randomized a total of 412 adults aged 70–89 years at elevated risk...

  15. Sexual Attitudes and Knowledge of High-Functioning Adolescents and Adults with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ousley, Opal Y.; Mesibov, Gary B.

    1991-01-01

    Interviews with 21 high-functioning adults with autism and 20 mildly to moderately mentally retarded adults without autism indicated that the mentally retarded group had more sexual experiences, with no intergroup differences in sexual knowledge or interest. Intelligence quotient was positively correlated with knowledge scores and males had…

  16. Do Adults with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome Differ in Empathy and Emotion Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Charlotte B.; Allison, Carrie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Cassidy, Sarah; Langdon, Peter E.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether adults with high functioning autism (HFA) showed greater difficulties in (1) their self-reported ability to empathise with others and/or (2) their ability to read mental states in others' eyes than adults with Asperger syndrome (AS). The Empathy Quotient (EQ) and "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test…

  17. Effects of Computer versus Paper Administration of an Adult Functional Writing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jing; White, Sheida; McCloskey, Michael; Soroui, Jaleh; Chun, Young

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the comparability of paper and computer versions of a functional writing assessment administered to adults 16 and older. Three writing tasks were administered in both paper and computer modes to volunteers in the field test of an assessment of adult literacy in 2008. One set of analyses examined mode effects on scoring by…

  18. Employment Activities and Experiences of Adults with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra; Warren, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    There is limited large-scale empirical research into the working lives of adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on data from a national survey, this report describes the employment activities and experiences of 130 adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD) and high functioning autism (HFA) in…

  19. Effect of Atomoxetine on Executive Function Impairments in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James; Saylor, Keith; Adler, Lenard; Spencer, Thomas; Williams, David W.; Padival, Anoop K.; Schuh, Kory; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of atomoxetine on ADHD-related executive functions over a 6-month period using the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS) for Adults, a normed, 40-item, self-report scale in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Method: In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, adults with ADHD…

  20. Reproductive toxicity of inorganic mercury exposure in adult zebrafish: Histological damage, oxidative stress, and alterations of sex hormone and gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qun-Fang; Li, Ying-Wen; Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Qi-Liang

    2016-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a prominent environmental contaminant that causes a variety of adverse effects on aquatic organisms. However, the mechanisms underlying inorganic Hg-induced reproductive impairment in fish remains largely unknown. In this study, adult zebrafish were exposed to 0 (control), 15 and 30μg Hg/l (added as mercuric chloride, HgCl2) for 30days, and the effects on histological structure, antioxidant status and sex hormone levels in the ovary and testis, as well as the mRNA expression of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis were analyzed. Exposure to Hg caused pathological lesions in zebrafish gonads, and changed the activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) as well as the content of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In females, although ovarian 17β-estradiol (E2) content remained relatively stable, significant down-regulation of lhβ, gnrh2, gnrh3, lhr and erα were observed. In males, testosterone (T) levels in the testis significantly decreased after Hg exposure, accompanied by down-regulated expression of gnrh2, gnrh3, fshβ and lhβ in the brain as well as fshr, lhr, ar, cyp17 and cyp11b in the testis. Thus, our study indicated that waterborne inorganic Hg exposure caused histological damage and oxidative stress in the gonads of zebrafish, and altered sex hormone levels by disrupting the transcription of related HPG-axis genes, which could subsequently impair the reproduction of fish. Different response of the antioxidant defense system, sex hormone and HPG-axis genes between females and males exposed to inorganic Hg indicated the gender-specific regulatory effect by Hg. To our knowledge, this is the first time to explore the effects and mechanisms of inorganic Hg exposure on reproduction at the histological, enzymatic and molecular levels, which will greatly extend our understanding on the mechanisms underlying of reproductive

  1. Assessing Function and Endurance in Adults with Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy: Validity of the Adult Myopathy Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Love, Michael O.; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Joe, Galen; Shrader, Joseph A.; Kokkinis, Angela; La Pean Kirschner, Alison; Auh, Sungyoung; Chen, Cheunju; Li, Li; Levy, Ellen; Davenport, Todd E.; Di Prospero, Nicholas A.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The adult myopathy assessment tool (AMAT) is a performance-based battery comprised of functional and endurance subscales that can be completed in approximately 30 minutes without the use of specialized equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine the construct validity and internal consistency of the AMAT with a sample of adults with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Methods. AMAT validity was assessed in 56-male participants with genetically confirmed SBMA (mean age, 53 ± 10 years). The participants completed the AMAT and assessments for disease status, strength, and functional status. Results. Lower AMAT scores were associated with longer disease duration (r = −0.29; P < 0.03) and lower serum androgen levels (r = 0.49–0.59; P < 0.001). The AMAT was significantly correlated with strength and functional status (r = 0.82–0.88; P < 0.001). The domains of the AMAT exhibited good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.77–0.89; P < 0.001). Conclusions. The AMAT is a standardized, performance-based tool that may be used to assess functional limitations and muscle endurance. The AMAT has good internal consistency, and the construct validity of the AMAT is supported by its significant associations with hormonal, strength, and functional characteristics of adults with SBMA. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00303446. PMID:24876969

  2. Adolescent Family Factors Promoting Healthy Adult Functioning: A Longitudinal Community Study

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Angela D.; Giaconia, Rose M.; Reinherz, Helen Z.; Beardslee, William R.; Ward, Kirsten E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although long-held wisdom and current research suggests that accepting and supportive family relationships may positively influence adult psychosocial functioning, few studies have prospectively investigated these associations. This study examined whether positive family factors during adolescence are associated with healthy adult functioning. Method The 353 participants were part of a single-age cohort whose psychosocial development has been prospectively traced. Two aspects of family functioning - feeling highly valued as a family member and having a family confidant - were measured at age 15. Developmentally-relevant areas of functioning were assessed at age 30. Results Both positive family factors were predictive of adaptive adult functioning across several domains, including mental health and social/interpersonal functioning. Conclusions Findings provide evidence about the salient relationships between positive family relationships and later healthy functioning. PMID:21532965

  3. Monitoring male southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) reproductive function and seasonality in a captive population.

    PubMed

    Hogan, L A; Phillips, C J C; Horsup, A B; Keeley, T; Nicolson, V; Janssen, T; Lisle, A; Johnston, S D

    2010-04-01

    This study reports on the development and application of techniques used to assess the reproductive status of captive male southern hairy-nosed wombats (n=4) at Rockhampton Zoo. Initially, a GnRH agonist was used to establish a method for determining a reliable index of plasma and faecal testosterone secretion. Intra-muscular injection of buserelin (4 microg) resulted in an increase (P<0.05) in plasma and faecal testosterone concentration 90 min and 3 days after administration, respectively. Seasonal changes in faecal androgen, sperm production (spermatorrhoea) and testicular, prostatic and bulbourethral gland size were examined over a 18-month period, with prostate and bulbourethral gland cross-sectional areas being assessed by ultrasonography. Plasma testosterone secretion increased from early late winter and then decreased in spring (P<0.001); no seasonal variation (P=0.22) in faecal testosterone metabolite concentrations was apparent. Testicular volume showed no significant variation (P=0.29) over the sampling period. While there was no seasonal change (P=0.197, n=54) in prostate size, bulbourethral gland size increased in late-autumn, peaked in mid-winter and declined in early summer (P= or <0.001, n=55). Spermatozoa were found in the urine throughout the year. While, the captive population of SHN wombats at Rockhampton Zoo demonstrated significant changes in reproductive function, the extent of seasonality was less pronounced than that previously reported for wild populations in Southern Australia.

  4. Physiological Roles of Group X-secreted Phospholipase A2 in Reproduction, Gastrointestinal Phospholipid Digestion, and Neuronal Function*

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Isogai, Yuki; Masuda, Seiko; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Miki, Yoshimi; Kamei, Daisuke; Hara, Shuntaro; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Ishimoto, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Noriko; Yokota, Yasunori; Hanasaki, Kohji; Suzuki-Yamamoto, Toshiko; Yamamoto, Kei; Murakami, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Although the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family has been generally thought to participate in pathologic events such as inflammation and atherosclerosis, relatively high and constitutive expression of group X sPLA2 (sPLA2-X) in restricted sites such as reproductive organs, the gastrointestinal tract, and peripheral neurons raises a question as to the roles played by this enzyme in the physiology of reproduction, digestion, and the nervous system. Herein we used mice with gene disruption or transgenic overexpression of sPLA2-X to clarify the homeostatic functions of this enzyme at these locations. Our results suggest that sPLA2-X regulates 1) the fertility of spermatozoa, not oocytes, beyond the step of flagellar motility, 2) gastrointestinal phospholipid digestion, perturbation of which is eventually linked to delayed onset of a lean phenotype with reduced adiposity, decreased plasma leptin, and improved muscle insulin tolerance, and 3) neuritogenesis of dorsal root ganglia and the duration of peripheral pain nociception. Thus, besides its inflammatory action proposed previously, sPLA2-X participates in physiologic processes including male fertility, gastrointestinal phospholipid digestion linked to adiposity, and neuronal outgrowth and sensing. PMID:21266581

  5. Physiological roles of group X-secreted phospholipase A2 in reproduction, gastrointestinal phospholipid digestion, and neuronal function.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Isogai, Yuki; Masuda, Seiko; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Miki, Yoshimi; Kamei, Daisuke; Hara, Shuntaro; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Ishimoto, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Noriko; Yokota, Yasunori; Hanasaki, Kohji; Suzuki-Yamamoto, Toshiko; Yamamoto, Kei; Murakami, Makoto

    2011-04-01

    Although the secreted phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) family has been generally thought to participate in pathologic events such as inflammation and atherosclerosis, relatively high and constitutive expression of group X sPLA(2) (sPLA(2)-X) in restricted sites such as reproductive organs, the gastrointestinal tract, and peripheral neurons raises a question as to the roles played by this enzyme in the physiology of reproduction, digestion, and the nervous system. Herein we used mice with gene disruption or transgenic overexpression of sPLA(2)-X to clarify the homeostatic functions of this enzyme at these locations. Our results suggest that sPLA(2)-X regulates 1) the fertility of spermatozoa, not oocytes, beyond the step of flagellar motility, 2) gastrointestinal phospholipid digestion, perturbation of which is eventually linked to delayed onset of a lean phenotype with reduced adiposity, decreased plasma leptin, and improved muscle insulin tolerance, and 3) neuritogenesis of dorsal root ganglia and the duration of peripheral pain nociception. Thus, besides its inflammatory action proposed previously, sPLA(2)-X participates in physiologic processes including male fertility, gastrointestinal phospholipid digestion linked to adiposity, and neuronal outgrowth and sensing.

  6. Reproductive functional anatomy and oestrous cycle pattern of the female brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus, Gray 1842) from Gabon.

    PubMed

    Mayor, P; López-Béjar, M; Jori, F; Fenech, M; López-Gatius, F

    2003-07-15

    In the present study, we examined certain features of the functional anatomy of the female genital tract of the wild brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) to obtain data on the reproductive biology of this African forest rodent. Two consecutive experiments were performed. The aim of the first was to establish macroscopic and microscopic features of the genital organs, and to explore correlations between predominant ovarian structures and vaginal contents in 20 wild, mature females. In the second experiment, we inspected the external genitalia and vaginal smears of a further 10 females in captivity on a daily basis for 90 days. The uterus of the brush-tailed porcupine is bicornuate and composed of two separated uterine horns, a uterine body and cervix. The genital tract does not present a vaginal vestibule. Thus, there is no portion common to genital and urinary tracts. Females in the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle showed increased cornification of the vaginal epithelium and a high density of eosinophilic cells in vaginal smears. The vulva and vaginal opening were open, reddish and tumefacted. In luteal phase or in pregnancy, epithelial cornification and eosinophilic features were notably reduced and the vagina presented a pale, non-tumefacted vulva and a vaginal closure membrane. Females in captivity showed spontaneous cycles, a polyoestrous reproduction pattern and, based on features of the external genitalia and vaginal smears, their oestrous cycle length was 27.1+/-6.4 days (n=12).

  7. Morphology and function of the reproductive tract of the spider crab Libinia spinosa (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majoidea): pattern of sperm storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sal Moyano, M. P.; Gavio, M. A.; Cuartas, E. I.

    2010-09-01

    Morphology and function of the male reproductive tract, female spermatheca and patterns of sperm storage were assessed in the crab Libinia spinosa using histological methods. Testes are characterized by the presence of peripheral spermatogonia and different sequences of sperm maturity. Spermatophores begin to be packed in the last portion. The vas deferens consists of three sections: anterior, with undeveloped spermatophores and free sperm; median, with well-developed spermatophores; and posterior with granular secretions. Female spermathecae are of the ventral type, with a velum separating dorsal and ventral chambers. Live individuals were kept in the laboratory and arranged in pairs. An experiment was conducted toward the end of the reproductive season, in which males with the right gonopod excised were placed with receptive females. After mating, females were killed and the spermathecae dissected for histological study and observation of the pattern of sperm storage. Spermatozoa were found forming discrete sperm packages. New ejaculates can fill the entire spermatheca or be restricted to the ventral chamber; sperm are rounded, with a distinguishable acrosomal core. Old ejaculates are restricted to the dorsal chamber and are of irregular shape and larger size; an acrosomal core was not distinguishable. The secretions produced by the glandular epithelium of the dorsal chamber of the spermathecae are likely to have a role in the removal of dead sperm.

  8. Functional analysis of all AGAMOUS subfamily members in rice reveals their roles in reproductive organ identity determination and meristem determinacy.

    PubMed

    Dreni, Ludovico; Pilatone, Alessandro; Yun, Dapeng; Erreni, Stefano; Pajoro, Alice; Caporali, Elisabetta; Zhang, Dabing; Kater, Martin M

    2011-08-01

    Reproductive organ development is one of the most important steps in the life cycle of plants. Studies using core eudicot species like thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) have shown that MADS domain transcription factors belonging to the AGAMOUS (AG) subfamily regulate the identity of stamens, carpels, and ovules and that they are important for floral meristem determinacy. Here, we investigate the genetic interactions between the four rice (Oryza sativa) AG subfamily members, MADS3, MADS13, MADS21, and MADS58. Our data show that, in contrast with previous reports, MADS3 and MADS58 determine stamen and carpel identity and, together with MADS13, are important for floral meristem determinacy. In the mads3 mads58 double mutant, we observed a complete loss of reproductive organ identity and massive accumulation of lodicules in the third and fourth floral whorls. MADS21 is an AGL11 lineage gene whose expression is not restricted to ovules. Instead, its expression profile is similar to those of class C genes. However, our genetic analysis shows that MADS21 has no function in stamen, carpel, or ovule identity determination.

  9. Reproductive function of the male obese Zucker rats: alteration in sperm production and sperm DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Vendramini, V; Cedenho, A P; Miraglia, S M; Spaine, D M

    2014-02-01

    Obesity has been considered a public health issue in many countries and is of increasing concern for authorities over the past 6 years. The Zucker rat is a good experimental model for obesity and diabetes studies due to its metabolic characteristics that are similar to those developed by humans. A total of 12 obese Zucker rats and their lean littermates were killed in pubertal and young adult phases for assessing organ weights (testis and epididymis), testicular histomorphometric and stereological analyses, daily sperm production, and transit time in the epididymis. Sperm integrity was also investigated in the adult animals using the Comet assay. Alterations in organ weights, seminiferous epithelium architecture, sperm production, and transit time were noticed in the pubertal fatty rats. The volume density of the lymphatic space was decreased in both the ages. Adult animals had a significant increase in the extent of damage found in sperm DNA. Our results show for the first time that leptin receptor deficiency compromises sperm production during puberty and that genetic obese Zucker rats have increased sperm DNA fragmentation.

  10. Hox genes in the adult skeleton: Novel functions beyond embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Rux, Danielle R; Wellik, Deneen M

    2016-12-27

    Hox genes encode evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that control skeletal patterning in the developing embryo. They are expressed in regionally restricted domains and function to regulate the morphology of specific vertebral and long bone elements. Recent work has provided evidence that Hox genes continue to be regionally expressed in adult tissues. Fibroblasts cultured from adult tissues show broadly maintained Hox gene expression patterns. In the adult skeleton, Hox genes are expressed in progenitor-enriched populations of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), and genetic loss-of-function analyses have provided evidence that Hox genes function during the fracture healing process. This review will highlight our current understanding of Hox expression in the adult animal and its function in skeletal regeneration. Developmental Dynamics, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Low-dose and combined effects of oral exposure to bisphenol A and diethylstilbestrol on the male reproductive system in adult Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Hong-Qiang; Cui, Zhi-Hong; Yin, Li; Zhang, Wen-Long; Liu, Wen-Bin; Han, Fei; Ao, Lin; Cao, Jia; Liu, Jin-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Study of the joint action of xenobiotics is important to fully explore their toxicity and complete risk analysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of low-dose and combined exposure of bisphenol A (BPA) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the reproductive system in adult male rats. The results showed that the sperm motility decreased in the BPA/DES and combined groups. Sperm deformity ratios and histological lesions of the testes were significantly higher and more significant, respectively, in the combined group compared with the single treated groups. No dose-effect relationship or significant additive effect on serum hormone levels was observed after combined exposure to BPA/DES. Ultrastructural results showed lesions of the Sertoli and Leydig cells, mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in all treated groups. ER stress molecular sensor IRE1 was phosphorylated and activated after BPA and DES treatment in this study. The protein levels of ES stress molecular marker CHOP were significantly up-regulated after exposure to BPA, DES, and BPA and DES combined. These findings indicate that ER stress is important in BPA/DES-induced damage in rat testes. Low-dose and combined exposure to BPA and DES may have toxic effects on male fertility in the adult population.

  12. Effects of a mixture of pesticides on the adult female reproductive system of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Pascotto, Viviane M; Guerra, Marina T; Franci, Janete Aparecida Anselmo; de Camargo, João Lauro V; Kempinas, Wilma G; Franchi, Carla A S

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian federal government Agency for Health Surveillance detected pesticide residues in fresh food available for consumers all over the country. The current study investigated the effects of a mixture of some of those pesticides (dichlorvos, dicofol, dieldrin, endosulfan, and permethrin) on the reproductive system of Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar (WT), and Lewis (LEW) rats. Female rats from each strain were randomized into three experimental groups and were fed a control diet or diets added with pesticides mixture at their respective no-observed-effect level (NOEL)/no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) (low dose) (mg/kg/d): dichlorvos (0.23), dicofol (0.5), dieldrin (0.025), endosulfan (0.7), permethrin (5), or lowest-observed-effect level (LOEL)/lowest-effect level (LEL)/ lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) (toxically effective dose) (mg/kg/d): dichlorvos (2.3), dicofol (2.1), dieldrin (0.05), endosulfan (3.8), and permethrin (25) as reported in the literature. Euthanasia was performed between wk 10 and 12, during the estrous stage. Decreased body weights gain (SD and WT) and increased liver weights (SD, WT, and LEW) were observed in each strain fed the pesticides mixture at the higher levels. At that dose level, rat strains also varied in their responses regarding the estrous cycle, hormonal levels, and number of developing ovarian follicles. The studied mixture of pesticides was found to interfere with the female reproductive system when individual pesticides were mixed above a certain level, indicating a threshold exists for each of the strains studied.

  13. Association of cigarette smoking with reproductive hormone levels and semen quality in healthy adult men in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Chen, Yi-Ling; Kantaria, Khyati N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of cigarette smoking with semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in 192 healthy men 20-65 years old, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Exposure to cigarette smoking was classified three ways based on: 1) smoking status (yes vs. no); 2) the number of cigarettes per day (0, 1-10, > 10); and 3) pack-years (0, 1-10, 11-20, > 20). Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and total estradiol (TE) were measured. Semen quality, including concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology, were assessed. Mean levels of smoking, semen quality, and hormones were compared using the multiple linear regression, while controlling for possible confounding factors, including age, body mass index (BMI), cadmium levels in seminal plasma, and alcohol consumption. Current smokers, who smoked 10 cigarettes per day, had a lower mean percentage of normal morphology (3.2% and 5.5% in nonsmokers, P = 0.040), and a higher mean level of TT (454.7 pmol/L and 439.8 pmol/L in nonsmokers, P = 0.048), as compared with nonsmokers. Also, current smokers at > 20 pack-year had a lower percentage of normal morphology and a lower mean level of TT as compared with nonsmokers; no significant difference was observed in LH, FSH, sperm concentration, vitality, and motility between smokers and nonsmokers based on the number of cigarette per day and the pack-year. Sperm vitality statistically correlated with FSH (β = -0.36 P = 0.015) and TE (β = 0.35, P = 0.018), while motility statistically correlated with TT (β = 0.228, P = 0.045). Normal morphology did not statistically correlated with all reproductive hormones.

  14. Do Adults with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome Differ in Empathy and Emotion Recognition?

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Charlotte B; Allison, Carrie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Cassidy, Sarah; Langdon, Peter E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined whether adults with high functioning autism (HFA) showed greater difficulties in (1) their self-reported ability to empathise with others and/or (2) their ability to read mental states in others' eyes than adults with Asperger syndrome (AS). The Empathy Quotient (EQ) and 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test (Eyes Test) were compared in 43 adults with AS and 43 adults with HFA. No significant difference was observed on EQ score between groups, while adults with AS performed significantly better on the Eyes Test than those with HFA. This suggests that adults with HFA may need more support, particularly in mentalizing and complex emotion recognition, and raises questions about the existence of subgroups within autism spectrum conditions.

  15. Neuronal plasticity and seasonal reproduction in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Michael N.; Ladha, Zamin; Coolen, Lique M.; Hileman, Stanley M.; Connors, John M.; Goodman, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal reproduction represents a naturally occurring example of functional plasticity in the adult brain since it reflects changes in neuroendocrine pathways controlling GnRH secretion and, in particular, the responsiveness of GnRH neurons to estradiol negative feedback. Structural plasticity within this neural circuitry may, in part, be responsible for seasonal switches in the negative feedback control of GnRH secretion that underlies annual reproductive transitions. In this paper, we review evidence for structural changes in the circuitry responsible for seasonal inhibition of GnRH secretion in sheep. These include changes in synaptic inputs onto GnRH neurons, as well as onto dopamine neurons in the A15 cell group, a nucleus that play a key role in estradiol negative feedback. We also present preliminary data suggesting a role for neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors as an early mechanistic step in the plasticity that accompanies seasonal reproductive transitions in the sheep. Finally, we review recent evidence suggesting that kisspeptin cells of the arcuate nucleus constitute a critical intermediary in the control of seasonal reproduction. While a majority of the data for a role of neuronal plasticity in seasonal reproduction has come from the sheep model, the players and principles are likely to have relevance for reproduction in a wide variety of vertebrates, including humans, and in both health and disease. PMID:21143669

  16. Neuronal plasticity and seasonal reproduction in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Michael N; Ladha, Zamin; Coolen, Lique M; Hileman, Stanley M; Connors, John M; Goodman, Robert L

    2010-12-01

    Seasonal reproduction represents a naturally occurring example of functional plasticity in the adult brain as it reflects changes in neuroendocrine pathways controlling gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and, in particular, the responsiveness of GnRH neurons to estradiol negative feedback. Structural plasticity within this neural circuitry may, in part, be responsible for seasonal switches in the negative feedback control of GnRH secretion that underlie annual reproductive transitions. We review evidence for structural changes in the circuitry responsible for seasonal inhibition of GnRH secretion in sheep. These include changes in synaptic inputs onto GnRH neurons, as well as onto dopamine neurons in the A15 cell group, a nucleus that plays a key role in estradiol negative feedback. We also present preliminary data suggesting a role for neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors as an early mechanistic step in the plasticity that accompanies seasonal reproductive transitions in sheep. Finally, we review recent evidence suggesting that kisspeptin cells of the arcuate nucleus constitute a critical intermediary in the control of seasonal reproduction. Although a majority of the data for a role of neuronal plasticity in seasonal reproduction has come from the sheep model, the players and principles are likely to have relevance for reproduction in a wide variety of vertebrates, including humans, and in both health and disease.

  17. The relationship between cognitive reserve and functional ability is mediated by executive functioning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Puente, Antonio Nicolas; Lindbergh, Cutter A; Miller, L Stephen

    2015-01-01

    It has been noted in the literature that cognitive reserve (CR) predicts future functional ability (FA), but the association between CR and current FA is rather limited. This investigation aimed to explicate this relationship, and hypothesized it would be mediated by executive functioning (EF). To best understand the relationship between CR and FA, we recruited and tested independent community-dwelling older adults (OAs). Bivariate correlations and hierarchical regressions were completed to determine the association between CR and FA. Both individual CR measures and a composite CR score were used. Mediation analyses were completed to examine our hypothesis that EF would mediate the CR and FA relationship. All measures of CR were positively related to and predictive of FA. Although the highest zero-order correlation across the independent CR proxies was between income and FA (r = .417), education accounted for the greatest amount of variance in FA, 8.3% after controlling for age and Mini-Mental State Examination performance. Furthermore, the CR composite had a higher correlation (r = .447) and accounted for more variance than any of the independent proxies. Complete mediation was found between a CR composite and FA via an internally consistent D-KEFS composite score (Cronbach's α = .795). This suggests that as CR increases so does EF, which in turn improves FA. Thus, future investigations could determine the effect on FA in OAs by improving EF.

  18. Effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) extract on morphological and functional changes in adult male gonads of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; Choudhury, Shyamosree Roy; De, Neela; Sarkar, Mahitosh

    2011-09-01

    Green tea, prepared from the steamed and dried leaves of the shrub Camellia sinensis, is known for its antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. However, its effects on male gonadal functions have not been explored adequately and the present investigation has been undertaken to evaluate the effect of green tea extract on gonads of adult male albino rats. Results of in vivo studies showed that green tea extract (GTE) at mild (1.25 g%, identical to 5 cups of tea/day), moderate (2.5 g%, identical to 10 cups of tea/day) and high (5.0 g%, identical to 20 cups of tea/day) doses, for a period of 26 days, altered morphology and histology of testis and accessory sex organs. A significant dose-dependent decrease in the sperm counts, inhibited activities of testicular delta(5)3beta-and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (delta5-3beta3-HSD and 17beta3-HSD respectively) and decreased serum testosterone level were noticed. Significant increase in serum LH level was observed after moderate and high doses; serum FSH level also increased but not significantly. Histopathological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis evidenced by preferential loss of matured and elongated spermatids. Results of this study showed that GTE at relatively high dose may cause impairment of both the morphological and normal functional status of testis in rodents and thus its consumption at relatively high doses raises concern on male reproductive function in spite of its other beneficial effects.

  19. Thyroid function and reproductive success in rodents exposed to perchlorate via food and water.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip N; Severt, Scott A; Jackson, J W Andrew; Anderson, Todd A

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if exposure to perchlorate via food items would have effects on mammals similar to those caused by exposure through drinking water at approximately equivalent doses. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were used to assess the potential toxicity of perchlorate-contaminated food items. Voles and mice were divided randomly into three treatment groups--perchlorate-contaminated food (PCF), perchlorate-contaminated water (PCW), and control groups--such that each treatment group contained equal numbers of males and females. Rodents in PCF treatment groups were fed chow formulated with soybean plant matter that had been grown with perchlorate-contaminated irrigation water. Individuals in the control and PCF groups were provided distilled/deionized drinking water, whereas the PCW group received drinking water containing sodium perchlorate. Only slight differences among treatment groups were observed in a variety of endpoints, including reproductive success, tissue perchlorate concentrations, thyroid hormone concentrations, and thyroid histology. However, trends observed in the present study suggest that perchlorate exposure via water may result in slightly greater effects than exposure to perchlorate via food. These data and recent reports of perchlorate in a wide variety of food items indicate that exposure via food intake is an important consideration when examining cumulative risk among humans, livestock, and wildlife.

  20. Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kulakov, V.I.; Sokur, T.N.; Volobuev, A.I.

    1993-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environmental contamination so far recorded. We have concentrated on evaluating the outcomes and health risks to women, their reproductive situation, and consequences for their progeny. We have concentrated on two well-defined areas: the Chechersky district of the Gomel region in Belorussia and the Polessky district of the Kiev region in the Ukraine. A number of investigations were carried out on 688 pregnant women and their babies, and data were obtained from 7000 labor histories of the development of newborns for a period of 8 years (3 years before the accident and 5 years after it). Parameters examined included birth rate, thyroid pathology, extragenital pathology such as anemias, renal disorders, hypertension, and abnormalities in the metabolism of fats, complications of gestation, spontaneous abortions, premature deliveries, perinatal morbidity and mortality, stillbirths and early neonatal mortality, infections and inflammatory diseases, neurological symptoms and hemic disturbances in both mothers and infants, trophic anomalies, and biochemical and structural changes in the placenta. Several exogenous, complicating influences were also considered such as psycho-emotional factors, stress, lifestyle changes, and others caused directly by the hazardous situation and by its consequences such as treatment, removal from affected areas, etc. 9 figs.

  1. Effects of apelin on reproductive functions: relationship with feeding behavior and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Suat; Erden, Yavuz; Sandal, Suleyman; Etem Onalan, Ebru; Ozyalin, Fatma; Ozen, Hasan; Yilmaz, Bayram

    2017-02-01

    Apelin is an adipose tissue derived peptidergic hormone. In this study, 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used (four groups; n = 10). Apelin-13 at three different dosages (1, 5 and 50 μg/kg) was given intraperitoneally while the control group received vehicle the same route for a period of 14 days. In results, apelin-13 caused significant decreases in serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p < 0.05). Administration of apelin-13 significantly increased body weights, food intake, serum low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels (p < 0.05), but caused significant decreases in high-density lipoprotein levels (p < 0.05). Serum glucose and triglyceride levels were not significantly altered by apelin-13 administration. Significant decreases in both uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 levels in the white and brown adipose tissues and UCP-3 levels in the biceps muscle (p < 0.05) were noted. The findings of the study suggest that apelin-13 may not only lead to obesity by increasing body weight but also cause infertility by suppressing reproductive hormones.

  2. Effect of growth rate from 6 to 16 months of age on sexual development and reproductive function in beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Barth, A D; Wilde, R E; Kastelic, J P

    2012-04-15

    Sexual development and reproductive function were studied in 22 Angus × Charolais and 17 Angus bulls from 6 to 16 mo of age. Associations of average daily gain (ADG) and body weight with ages at puberty and at maturity (satisfactory semen quality), scrotal circumference, paired-testes volume and weight, testicular vascular cone diameter and fat thickness, scrotal temperature, sperm production and morphology, and testicular histology, were determined. There were no significant correlations between cumulative average daily gain and any of the end points investigated. Body weight at various ages was negatively correlated with ages at puberty and maturity in Angus × Charolais bulls, positively correlated with paired-testes weight in Angus × Charolais and Angus bulls, and positively correlated with seminiferous tubule volume in Angus bulls (P < 0.05). Semen quality improved gradually with age and the interval between puberty and maturity (mean ± SD; 309.4 ± 29.7 and 357 ± 42 days of age) was approximately 50 days. Age, weight, scrotal circumference, and paired-testes volume were all good predictors of pubertal and mature status, with moderate to high sensitivity and specificity (71.6% to 92.4%). In summary, growth rate between 6 and 16 mo of age did not affect sexual development and reproductive function in beef bulls. However, greater body weight at various ages was associated with reduced age at puberty and maturity, and with larger testes at 16 mo of age, indicating that improved nutrition might be beneficial, but only when offered before 6 mo of age. Average daily gains of approximately 1 to 1.6 kg/day did not result in excessive fat accumulation in the scrotum, increased scrotal temperature, or reduction in sperm production and semen quality, and could be considered "safe" targets for growing beef bulls.

  3. Stability and Change in Health, Functional Abilities, and Behavior Problems among Adults with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Anna J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    2008-01-01

    Changes in health, functional abilities, and behavior problems among 150 adults with Down syndrome and 240 adults with mental retardation due to other causes were examined with seven assessments over a 9-year period. Adults were primarily younger than 40, the age at which declines begin to be evident in individuals with Down syndrome. Adults with…

  4. Acute effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Keita; Hayashi, Yoichi; Sakai, Tomoaki; Yahiro, Tatsuhisa; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Nishihira, Yoshiaki

    2009-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive brain functions of older adults. Twenty-four males (12 older and 12 younger adults) performed a modified flanker task during a baseline session (no exercise) and after light and moderate cycling exercise in counterbalanced order on different days while measures of task performance and the P3 component of an event-related brain potential were collected. The results indicated that, for both age groups, reaction time following moderate exercise was shorter relative to the other sessions, and P3 latencies following both light and moderate exercise were shorter compared with the baseline session. In contrast, P3 amplitude increased only following moderate exercise in younger adults. These findings suggest that light and moderate exercises improve cognitive function across the adult lifespan, although the mechanisms underlying the effects of observed acute aerobic exercise on cognitive function may be age dependent.

  5. Strategies for Functional Validation of Genes Involved in Reproductive Stages of Orchids1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsiang-Chia; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Huei; Su, Hong-Ji; Chang, Doris Chi-Ning; Yeh, Hsin-Hung

    2007-01-01

    Plants in the largest family of angiosperms, Orchidaceae, are diverse in both specialized pollination and ecological strategies and provide a rich source for investigating evolutionary relationships and developmental biology. However, studies in orchids have been hindered by several challenges that include low transformation efficiency and long regeneration time. To overcome such obstacles, we selected a symptomless cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) isolate for constructing virus-induced gene-silencing vectors. The feasibility of the virus vectors was first assessed with use of an orchid phytoene desaturase gene. The vector was able to induce gene silencing in orchids; however, because of the slow growth of orchids, the commonly used phytoene desaturase gene was not a good visual marker in orchids. We inserted a 150-nucleotide unique region of a B-class MADS-box family gene, PeMADS6, into pCymMV-pro60. The transcription level of PeMADS6 in inoculated Phalaenopsis plants was reduced by up to 73%, but no effect was observed for other MADS-box family genes. In contrast, in Phalaenopsis plants inoculated with CymMV transcripts containing 500 nucleotides of PeMADS6, a conserved region among MADS-box genes, the transcription level of PeMADS6 and the B- and C-class MADS-box genes was reduced by up to 97.8% as compared with plants inoculated with the vector alone. Flower morphology was affected in the MADS-box family gene-silenced plants as well. This in vivo experiment demonstrates an efficient way to study genes involved in the reproductive stage of plants with a long life cycle. PMID:17189336

  6. Mollusc gonadotropin-releasing hormone directly regulates gonadal functions: a primitive endocrine system controlling reproduction.

    PubMed

    Treen, Nicholas; Itoh, Naoki; Miura, Hanae; Kikuchi, Ippei; Ueda, Takenori; Takahashi, Keisuke G; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Sharp, Peter J; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Osada, Makoto

    2012-04-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is central to the control of vertebrate reproductive cycles and since GnRH orthologs are also present in invertebrates, it is likely that the common ancestor of bilateral animals possessed a GnRH-like peptide. In order to understand the evolutionary and comparative biology of GnRH peptides we cloned the cDNA transcripts of prepro GnRH-like peptides from two species of bivalve molluscs, the Yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis and the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. We compared their deduced uncleaved and mature amino acid sequences with those from other invertebrates and vertebrates, and determined their sites of expression and biological activity. The two molluscan GnRH sequences increased the number of known protostome GnRHs to six different forms, indicating the current classification of protostome GnRHs requires further revision. In both molluscs, RT-PCR analysis showed that the genes were highly expressed in nervous tissue with lower levels present in peripheral tissues including the gonads, while immunocytochemistry, using anti-octopus GnRH-like peptide, demonstrated the presence of GnRH-like peptide in neural tissue. Putative scallop GnRH-like peptide stimulated spermatogonial cell division in cultured scallop testis, but the scallop GnRH-like peptide did not stimulate LH release from cultured quail pituitary cells. This is the first report of the cloning of bivalve GnRH-like peptide genes and of molluscan GnRH-like peptides that are biologically active in molluscs, but not in a vertebrate.

  7. The effects of intracerebroventricular infusion of apelin-13 on reproductive function in male rats.

    PubMed

    Sandal, Suleyman; Tekin, Suat; Seker, Fatma Burcu; Beytur, Ali; Vardi, Nigar; Colak, Cemil; Tapan, Tuba; Yildiz, Sedat; Yilmaz, Bayram

    2015-08-18

    Apelin is a novel bioactive peptide as the endogenous ligand for APJ. Apelin and APJ have also been identified in the testis, hypothalamic nuclei such as arcuate, supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, implicating roles in the control of reproduction. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic central infusion of apelin-13 on LH, FSH and testosterone levels and testis morphology. 21 Wistar-Albino male rats received continuous intracerebroventricular infusion via Alzet osmotic mini pumps filled artificial cerebrospinal fluid (vehicle) or apelin-13 at concentrations of 1 or 10 nmol (10 μl/h) for seven days. At the last 90 min of the infusion period, the blood samples were collected at 15 min intervals (0-90 min) for LH and FSH analyses. At the last sampling point, the blood samples were analyzed for testosterone levels. Infusion of high dose apelin-13 significantly suppressed LH release compared with the vehicle values at 30, 60 and 75 min (p<0.05). However, FSH levels did not significantly differ among the groups. Serum testosterone levels in high dose apelin-13 group were statistically lower than the control group (p<0.05). In addition, histological examination showed that infusion of high dose apelin-13 significantly decreased the number of Leydig cells compared with the control and lower dose apelin-13 groups (p<0.05, p<0.01). Our results suggest that apelin-13 may play a role in the central regulation and decreases testosterone release by suppressing LH secretion. Thus, antagonists of the apelin receptor may, therefore, be useful for pharmaceuticals in the treatment of infertility.

  8. Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 (IVCF-20): rapid recognition of frail older adults

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; do Carmo, Juliana Alves; de Moraes, Flávia Lanna; Azevedo, Raquel Souza; Machado, Carla Jorge; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the adequacy of the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20, a rapid triage instrument to test vulnerability in Brazilian older adults, for the use in primary health care. METHODS The study included convenience sample of 397 patients aged older than or equal to 60 years attended at Centro de Referência para o Idoso (Reference Center for Older Adults) and of 52 older adults the same age attended at the community. The results of the questionnaire, consisting of 20 questions, were compared with those of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, considered a reference for identifying frail older adults. Spearman’s correlation was evaluated in the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 with the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment; the validity was verified by the area under the ROC curve; reliability was estimated by the percentage of agreement among evaluators and by the kappa coefficient, both with quadratic weighted. The cut-off point was obtained based on the higher accuracy criterion. Cronbach’s alpha, a measure of internal consistency, was estimated. RESULTS The Spearman’s correlation coefficient was high and positive for both groups (0.792 for older adults attended at the Reference Center and 0.305 for older adults from the community [p < 0.001]). The area under the ROC curve for older adults attended at the Reference Center was substantial (0.903). The cut-off point obtained was six, and older adults with scores in Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 above that value had strong possibility of being frail. For older adults from the community, the quadratic weighted agreement among evaluators was 99.5%, and the global quadratic weighted kappa coefficient was 0.94. Cronbach’s alpha was high for older adults attended at the Reference Center (0.861) and those attended at the community (0.740). CONCLUSIONS The Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 questionnaire, in the sample examined, turned out to be positively

  9. Functional food awareness and perceptions in relation to information sources in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional food industry has experienced innovative and economic expansion, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods and their associated health claims is limited. Among consumers, older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related issues pertaining to food and health. The purpose of this research was to identify the need for information related to functional foods among older adults (≥60 years old) and to assess awareness and perceptions of health claims on functional food packages. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) completed a researcher administered questionnaire designed to collect information about functional foods including current consumption, motivating factors for consumption, perceived need for information, sources of information for functional foods and awareness of health claims. Results Prevalence of functional food consumption among participants was 93.0%. Increased awareness and knowledge was the most commonly reported factor that would promote functional food consumption (85.5%) and 63.5% of participants wanted more information about functional foods with preferred sources being newspapers/magazines/books (68.5%) and food labels (66.1%). Participants were predominately (93.5%) aware of health claims on functional foods and those with more education were more likely to report being aware of health claims (p = 0.045). Conclusions Although functional food consumption among older adults in this sample is high, there is a need for further information regarding functional foods. These results inform stakeholders regarding the potential for information to influence functional food acceptance among older adult consumers. PMID:24886306

  10. Perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters the functional differentiation of the adult rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Bosquiazzo, Verónica L; Vigezzi, Lucía; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H

    2013-11-01

    The exposure to endocrine disrupters and female reproductive tract disorders has not been totally clarified. The present study assessed the long-term effect of perinatal (gestation+lactation) exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the rat uterus and the effect of estrogen replacement therapy. DES (5μg/kg bw/day) was administered in the drinking water from gestational day 9 until weaning and we studied the uterus of young adult (PND90) and adult (PND360) females. To investigate whether perinatal exposure to DES modified the uterine response to a long-lasting estrogen treatment, 12-month-old rats exposed to DES were ovariectomized and treated with 17β-estradiol for 3 months (PND460). In young adult rats (PND90), the DES treatment decreased both the proliferation of glandular epithelial cells and the percentage of glandular perimeter occupied by α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. The other tissue compartments remained unchanged. Cell apoptosis was not altered in DES-exposed females. In control adult rats (PND360), there were some morphologically abnormal uterine glands. In adult rats exposed to DES, the incidence of glands with cellular anomalies increased. In response to estrogens (PND460), the incidence of cystic glands increased in the DES group. We observed glands with daughter glands and conglomerates of glands only on PND460 and in response to estrogen replacement therapy, independently of DES exposure. The p63 isoforms were expressed without changes on PND460. Estrogen receptors α and β showed no changes, while the progesterone receptor decreased in the subepithelial stroma of DES-exposed animals with estrogen treatment. The long-lasting effects of perinatal exposure to DES included the induction of abnormalities in uterine tissues of aged female rats and an altered response of the adult uterus to estradiol.

  11. Brain function differences in language processing in children and adults with autism.

    PubMed

    Williams, Diane L; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Mason, Robert A; Keller, Timothy A; Minshew, Nancy J; Just, Marcel Adam

    2013-08-01

    Comparison of brain function between children and adults with autism provides an understanding of the effects of the disorder and associated maturational differences on language processing. Functional imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) was used to examine brain activation and cortical synchronization during the processing of literal and ironic texts in 15 children with autism, 14 children with typical development, 13 adults with autism, and 12 adult controls. Both the children and adults with autism had lower functional connectivity (synchronization of brain activity among activated areas) than their age and ability comparison group in the left hemisphere language network during irony processing, and neither autism group had an increase in functional connectivity in response to increased task demands. Activation differences for the literal and irony conditions occurred in key language-processing regions (left middle temporal, left pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, left medial frontal, and right middle temporal). The children and adults with autism differed from each other in the use of some brain regions during the irony task, with the adults with autism having activation levels similar to those of the control groups. Overall, the children and adults with autism differed from the adult and child controls in (a) the degree of network coordination, (b) the distribution of the workload among member nodes, and (3) the dynamic recruitment of regions in response to text content. Moreover, the differences between the two autism age groups may be indicative of positive changes in the neural function related to language processing associated with maturation and/or educational experience.

  12. Psychometric Evaluation of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale in Adults with Functional Limitations.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment is an important construct for understanding physical activity participation, and it has not been examined in adults with functional limitations. This secondary analysis reported the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in a convenience sample of 40 adults with functional limitations. The participants completed the PACES, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) prior to beginning a 12-week feasibility dance intervention study. Results indicated reliability as Cronbach's alpha was .95 and mean inter-item correlation was .52. To further support reliability, homogeneity of the instrument was evaluated using item-to-total scale correlations. Homogeneity was supported as all items had corrected item-to-total correlations greater than .30. For validity, the PACES was significantly related to only the Physical Function component of the LLFDI (r = .38, p = .02), but not the CES-D. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 3-factor structure that accounted for 73.76% of the variance. This feasibility intervention dance study represented the first attempt to examine the psychometric properties of the PACES in adults with functional limitations. The findings demonstrate support for the scale's reliability and validity among adults with functional limitations. Results are informative as further psychometric testing of the PACES is recommended using randomized clinical trials with larger sample sizes. Enjoyment for physical activity is an important construct for understanding physical activity participation in adults with functional limitations.

  13. Executive Function Predicts Artificial Language Learning in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapa, Leah Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has established an executive function advantage among bilinguals as compared to monolingual peers. These non-linguistic cognitive advantages are largely assumed to result from the experience of managing two linguistic systems. However, the possibility remains that the relationship between bilingualism and executive function is…

  14. Function and Voice: Healing the Breach in Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darville, Richard

    1994-01-01

    There should not be a split between literacy of function (ability to deal with institutional procedures) and literacy of voice (expression of knowledge and experience). Acquiring functional literacy often involves voicing experience as well as questioning institutional power. Teachers and students should collaborate in bridging the gap. (SK)

  15. Determinants of four functional tasks among older adults: an exploratory regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Topp, R; Mikesky, A; Thompson, K

    1998-02-01

    Functional ability declines in later life. The purpose of this project was to determine if strength, postural control, and joint pain predict performance of four functional tasks among older adults. A sample of 28 older adults completed assessments of strength, postural control, joint pain, and four functional tasks. The duration to complete the functional tasks of: 1) getting out of bed, going to a chair, and then returning to bed; 2) crossing a street and getting onto a bus; 3) exiting the passenger side of a car; and 4) climbing a flight of 27 stairs was recorded. Step-wise regression equations indicated that seated row strength and dynamic postural control were significant predictors of all of the tasks and accounted for the largest proportion of the variance in each equation. These results indicate that measures of physical fitness may be more important predictors of functional tasks among older adults than chronological age.

  16. Octopamine and tyramine regulate the activity of reproductive visceral muscles in the adult female blood-feeding bug, Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Hana, Sam; Lange, Angela B

    2017-02-24

    The role of octopamine and tyramine in regulating spontaneous contractions of reproductive tissues was examined in the female Rhodnius prolixus Octopamine decreased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of the oviducts and reduced RhoprFIRFa-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner, whereas tyramine only reduced the RhoprFIRFa-induced contractions. Both octopamine and tyramine decreased the frequency of spontaneous bursal contractions and completely abolished the contractions at 5×10(-7) M and above. Phentolamine, an octopamine receptor antagonist, attenuated the inhibition induced by octopamine on the oviducts and the bursa. Octopamine also increased the levels of cAMP in the oviducts, and this effect was blocked by phentolamine. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP mimicked the effects of octopamine by reducing the frequency of bursal contractions suggesting that the octopamine receptor may act by an Octβ-receptor. The tyramine receptor antagonist yohimbine failed to block the inhibition of contractions induced by tyramine on the bursa suggesting that tyramine may be acting on the Octβ-R in the bursa.

  17. Antioxidant enzymes status and reproductive health of adult male workers exposed to brick kiln pollutants in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Falah, Samreen; Ullah, Hizb; Ullah, Asad; Rauf, Naveed

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to study the effect of brick kilns emissions on the reproductive health and biochemical status of brick kiln workers and people living in the area near brick kilns. Body mass index (BMI) was significantly reduced in brick makers, carriers, and bakers compared to the control. Red blood cells count and hematocrit (%) were significantly high in brick bakers while MCH was significantly reduced in brick makers and brick bakers. Heavy metals (lead, cadmium, and chromium) concentration in whole blood of the brick kiln workers were significantly higher as compared to the control. Antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, POD, GSH, and GR) were significantly reduced in brick kiln workers as compared to the control while TBARS level were significantly high in brick bakers as compared to the control. Plasma leutinizing hormone (LH) was significantly high in brick bakers while testosterone concentrations were significantly reduced in brick makers, carriers, and bakers. The present study shows that brick kiln workers and people living in the brick kiln vicinity are exposed to heavy metals and other pollutants that is a serious threat to their health. Alternate technology is needed to be developed and brick kilns should be replaced.

  18. Immune Influence on Adult Neural Stem Cell Regulation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Pamela A.; Palmer, Theo D.

    2009-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) lie at the heart of central nervous system development and repair, and deficiency or dysregulation of NSCs or their progeny can have significant consequences at any stage of life. Immune signaling is emerging as one of the influential variables that define resident NSC behavior. Perturbations in local immune signaling accompany virtually every injury or disease state and signaling cascades that mediate immune activation, resolution, or chronic persistence influence resident stem and progenitor cells. Some aspects of immune signaling are beneficial, promoting intrinsic plasticity and cell replacement, while others appear to inhibit the very type of regenerative response that might restore or replace neural networks lost in injury or disease. Here we review known and speculative roles that immune signaling plays in the postnatal and adult brain, focusing on how environments encountered in disease or injury may influence the activity and fate of endogenous or transplanted NSCs. PMID:19840551

  19. Who or What? Self-Replication and Function-Reproduction in the Origin of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    New, Michael H.; Stassinopoulos, Dimitris; Monaco, Regina; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this presentation, we will present results on the fundamental properties of two classes of replicating systems: autocatalytic replicators that reproduce exact copies of a template molecule, and function reproducers that maintain a set of essential functions without replicating the identities of the functional moieties. We will describe the stability and behavior in-the-large of autocatalytic replicators. Most importantly, we have found no sharp distinction between an autocatalytic and a non-autocatalytic domain. We will also present a new derivation of von Kiedrowski's square-root rate law. Function - reproducers are proposed as an important component of protocells and we will present theoretical results on a simple model system that incorporates known peptide biophysics. For a wide range of parameters, we have shown that this type of system can improve its overall performance, even in the absence of any method for information storage. This type of system improvement is defined to be non-genomic evolution.

  20. Signaling Crossroads: The function of Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein in Cancer, the Central Nervous System and Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Klysik, Jan; Theroux, Steven J.; Sedivy, John M.; Moffit, Jeffrey S.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The Raf kinase inhibitory protein 1 (RKIP-1) and its orthologs are conserved throughout evolution and widely expressed in eukaryotic organisms. In its non-phosphorylated form RKIP-1 negatively regulates the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway by interfering with the activity of Raf-1. In its phosphorylated state, RKIP-1 dissociates from Raf-1 and inhibits GRK-2, a negative regulator of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Available data indicate that the phosphorylation of RKIP-1 by PKC can stimulate both the Raf/MEK/ERK and GPCR pathways. RKIP-1 has also been implicated as a negative regulator of the NF-κB pathway. Recent studies have shown that phosphorylated RKIP-1 binds to the centrosomal and kinetochore regions of metaphase chromosomes, where it may be involved in regulating the partitioning of chromosomes and the progression through mitosis. The collective evidence indicates that RKIP-1 regulates the activity and mediates the crosstalk between several important cellular signaling pathways. A variety of ablative interventions suggest that reduced RKIP-1 function may influence metastasis, angiogenesis, resistance to apoptosis, and genome integrity. Attenuation of RKIP-1 may also affect cardiac and neurological functions, spermatogenesis, sperm decapactiation, and reproductive behavior. In this review, the role of RKIP-1 in cellular signaling, and especially its functions revealed using a mouse knockout model, are discussed. PMID:17706925

  1. Independence of Hot and Cold Executive Function Deficits in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, David L.; Ownsworth, Tamara; O'Donovan, Analise; Roberts, Jacqueline; Gullo, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) display diverse deficits in social, cognitive and behavioral functioning. To date, there has been mixed findings on the profile of executive function deficits for high-functioning adults (IQ > 70) with ASD. A conceptual distinction is commonly made between “cold” and “hot” executive functions. Cold executive functions refer to mechanistic higher-order cognitive operations (e.g., working memory), whereas hot executive functions entail cognitive abilities supported by emotional awareness and social perception (e.g., social cognition). This study aimed to determine the independence of deficits in hot and cold executive functions for high-functioning adults with ASD. Forty-two adults with ASD (64% male, aged 18–66 years) and 40 age and gender matched controls were administered The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT; emotion recognition and social inference), Letter Number Sequencing (working memory) and Hayling Sentence Completion Test (response initiation and suppression). Between-group analyses identified that the ASD group performed significantly worse than matched controls on all measures of cold and hot executive functions (d = 0.54 − 1.5). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the ASD sample performed more poorly on emotion recognition and social inference tasks than matched controls after controlling for cold executive functions and employment status. The findings also indicated that the ability to recognize emotions and make social inferences was supported by working memory and response initiation and suppression processes. Overall, this study supports the distinction between hot and cold executive function impairments for adults with ASD. Moreover, it advances understanding of higher-order impairments underlying social interaction difficulties for this population which, in turn, may assist with diagnosis and inform intervention programs. PMID:26903836

  2. Mothers' exercise during pregnancy programs vasomotor function in adult offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal behavior and known to influence lifelong atherosclerotic disease susceptibility in offspring. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that maternal exercise during pregnancy increases endothelial function in offs...

  3. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Kapella, Mary C; Berger, Barbara E; Vern, Boris A; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01). Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy.

  4. Health-Related Stigma as a Determinant of Functioning in Young Adults with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kapella, Mary C.; Berger, Barbara E.; Vern, Boris A.; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18–35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01). Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy. PMID:25898361

  5. Emergency Major Abdominal Surgical Procedures in Older Adults: A Systematic Review of Mortality and Functional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Zara; Scott, John W.; Rosenthal, Ronnie A.; Mitchell, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To systematically review the current literature on mortality and functional outcomes after emergency major abdominal surgery in older adults. DESIGN Systematic literature search and standardized data collection of primary research publications from January 1994 through December 2013 on mortality or functional outcome in adults aged 65 and older after emergency major abdominal surgery using PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane, and CINAHL. Bibliographies of relevant reports were also hand-searched to identify all potentially eligible studies. SETTING Systematic review of retrospective and cohort studies using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses, Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology, Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology, and A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews guidelines. PARTICIPANTS Older adults. MEASUREMENTS Articles were assessed using a standardized quality scoring system based on study design, measurement of exposures, measurement of outcomes, and control for confounding. RESULTS Of 1,459 articles screened, 93 underwent full-text review, and 20 were systematically reviewed. In-hospital and 30-day mortality of all older adults exceeded 15% in 14 of 16 studies, where reported. Older adults undergoing emergency major abdominal surgery consistently had higher mortality across study settings and procedure types than younger individuals undergoing emergency procedures and older adults undergoing elective procedures. In studies that stratified older adults, odds of death increased with age. None of these studies examined postoperative functional status, which precluded including functional outcomes in this review. Differences in exposures, outcomes, and data presented in the studies did not allow for quantification of association using metaanalysis. CONCLUSION Age independently predicts mortality after emergency major abdominal surgery. Data on changes in

  6. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Functioning in a Clinically Referred Population of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Gagan; Wozniak, Janet; Petty, Carter; Martelon, Mary Kate; Fried, Ronna; Bolfek, Anela; Kotte, Amelia; Stevens, Jonathan; Furtak, Stephannie L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Caruso, Janet; Caron, Ashley; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    To systematically examine the patterns of psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Psychiatrically referred adults with and without ASD were compared on measures assessing for psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial functioning. Sixty-three adults with ASD participated in the…

  7. Intellectual Functioning in Adults with ADHD: A Meta-Analytic Examination of Full Scale IQ Differences between Adults with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgett, David J.; Walker, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Although attention has been given to the intellectual functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to their non-ADHD peers, few studies have examined intellectual functioning in adults with ADHD. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine differences in intellectual ability between adults with…

  8. Dispersion of adult Cancer magister at Glacier Bay, Alaska: Variation with spatial scale, sex, and reproductive status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Clair, Charles E.; Shirley, Thomas C.; Taggart, S. James

    1996-01-01

    Patterns of micro- to mesoscale distribution of Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in nearshore habitats at five locations in and near Glacier Bay National Park were revealed using subtidal transects. Sampling was conducted in April and September 1992 and 1993 and April 1994. Divers censused crabs by sex and reproductive status (ovigerous/nonovigerous females) along belt transects (2 m x 100 m) perpendicular to shore in the depth range 0 m (mean lower low water) to 18 m. A sample estimator of Morisita's index (Î*Δ) was used to quantify crab dispersion at 10 scales of measurement ranging from 20 m2 to 200 m2 at each location during each sampling period.Values of Î*Δ in ovigerous female C. magister deviated significantly (P < 0.05) from 1.0 (random distribution) toward contagion more frequently than did Î*Δ for nonovigerous female and male crabs. Ovigerous crabs also usually had higher Î*Δ than did nonovigerous female and male crabs, especially at smaller measurement scales (20-80 m2). Morisita's index for all three groups of crabs decreased more frequently than it increased with an increase in measurement scale. We observed no relationship between t and crab density in nonovigerous female and male crabs, whereas Î*Δ was positively correlated with the density of ovigerous crabs. A total of 13 dense aggregations of ovigerous C. magister were observed nearshore (depth range 0-10 m) at the five study locations. About half of these were repeatedly observed at the same microsite over the course of this study. Ovigerous Dungeness crabs at Glacier Bay were usually aggregated, often forming dense aggregations with high site fidelity. These dense aggregations may concentrate a significant proportion of the brood stock of this species in a limited number of patches of optimal brooding habitat at Glacier Bay.

  9. Antioxidant effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts on the male reproductive function of boars and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Yun, Suk Jun; Bae, Gui-Seck; Park, Jae Hawn; Song, Tae Ho; Choi, Ahreum; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Eun Joong; Yoon, Minjung; Chang, Moon Baek

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts (cWGRE) on the sperm of boars and the reproductive system of guinea pigs. Firstly, semen collected from boars (n=10) were incubated in 38°C for 1h with xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate ROS. The cWGRE was added to the sperm culture system to test its antioxidant effect on the boar sperm. The amount of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was measured by a chemiluminescence assay using luminol. The results indicated that the addition of cWGRE to boar sperm culture inhibited xanthine and xanthine oxidase-induced ROS concentrations. Treatment with cWGRE also had a positive effect on maintaining sperm motility. Effects of cWGRE administration on vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs were further investigated. Hartley guinea pigs (n=25) at 8 weeks of age were randomly divided into five groups. With the exception of the positive control group, each group was fed vitamin C-deficient feed for 21days (d). Respective groups were also orally administered cWGRE, ginseng extract, or mixed ginsenosides for 21 days. In comparison to the control group, oral administration of cWGRE reduced (P<0.05) amount of lipid peroxidation and increased (P<0.05) both glutathione peroxidase concentrations and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. In addition, administration of cWGRE induced increases (P<0.05) in body weight, testosterone concentrations, and spermatid populations. The results of the present study support our hypothesis that cWGRE has positive effects on male reproductive functions via suppression of ROS production.

  10. Hard time to be parents? Sea urchin fishery shifts potential reproductive contribution of population onto the shoulders of the young adults

    PubMed Central

    Guala, Ivan; Pires da Silva, Rodrigo; Brundu, Gianni; Baroli, Maura; Farina, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Background In Sardinia, as in other regions of the Mediterranean Sea, sustainable fisheries of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus have become a necessity. At harvesting sites, the systematic removal of large individuals (diameter ≥ 50 mm) seriously compromises the biological and ecological functions of sea urchin populations. Specifically, in this study, we compared the reproductive potential of the populations from Mediterranean coastal areas which have different levels of sea urchin fishing pressure. The areas were located at Su Pallosu Bay, where pressure is high and Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo, a marine protected area where sea urchin harvesting is low. Methods Reproductive potential was estimated by calculating the gonadosomatic index (GSI) from June 2013 to May 2014 both for individuals of commercial size (diameter without spines, TD ≥ 50 mm) and the undersized ones with gonads (30 ≤ TD < 40 mm and 40 ≤ TD < 50 mm). Gamete output was calculated for the commercial-size class and the undersized individuals with fertile gonads (40 ≤ TD < 50 mm) in relation to their natural density (gamete output per m2). Results The reproductive potential of populations was slightly different at the beginning of the sampling period but it progressed at different rates with an early spring spawning event in the high-pressure zone and two gamete depositions in early and late spring in the low-pressure zone. For each fertile size class, GSI values changed significantly during the year of our study and between the two zones. Although the multiple spawning events determined a two-fold higher total gamete output of population (popTGO) in the low-pressure zone, the population mean gamete output (popMGO) was similar in the two zones. In the high-pressure zone, the commercial-sized individuals represented approximatively 5% of the population, with almost all the individuals smaller than 60 mm producing an amount of gametes nearly three times lower than the undersized ones

  11. Thyroid function and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-10-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction is recognized as a risk factor for neuropsychological deficits in aging populations, yet evidence for how changes in levels of circulatory thyroid hormones impact specific neuropsychological domains is limited. Here we report cross-sectional associations between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and several neuropsychological function domains among men and women aged 55-74years. We administered neuropsychological tests to assess memory, learning, executive function, measures of attention, visuospatial function, affective state, and motor function. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking. Effects were reported as differences in test scores per one interquartile range (IQR) increase in hormone concentration. Higher total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were associated with improved visuospatial function, as measured by Block Design Subtest total scores; associated increments per IQR differences in T4 and fT4 were 15% and 19%, respectively (false discovery rate q-values <0.05). We also detected statistical interactions between age and fT4 for effects in tasks of memory and learning. Concurrent increases in age and fT4 were associated with deficits in memory and learning as measured by California Verbal Learning Test subtests (10% and 16% deficits in t-score and short delay free recall score, respectively). Our findings suggest that changes in thyroid hormones may have important implications for neuropsychological function in aging populations. Further large-scale studies with comprehensive thyroid function and neuropsychological outcome assessments are warranted to confirm these results.

  12. Performance-intensity functions for normal-hearing adults and children using CASPA

    PubMed Central

    McCreery, Ryan; Ito, Rindy; Spratford, Merry; Lewis, Dawna; Hoover, Brenda; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The Computer Aided Speech Perception Assessment (CASPA) is a clinical measure of speech recognition that uses ten-item, isophonemic word lists to derive performance-intensity (PI) functions for adult listeners. Because CASPA was developed for adults, the ability to obtain PI functions in children has not been directly evaluated. The current study sought to evaluate PI functions for adults and four age groups of children with normal hearing to compare speech recognition as a function of age using CASPA. Comparisons between age groups for scoring by words and phonemes correct were made to determine the relative benefits of available scoring methods in CASPA. Design Speech recognition using CASPA was completed with twelve adults and four age groups of children (5-6, 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12 year-olds), each with twelve participants. Results were scored by the percentage of words, phonemes, consonants and vowels correct. All participants had normal hearing and age-appropriate speech production skills. Results Adults had higher mean speech recognition scores than children in the 5-6 year-old and 7-8 year-old age groups when responses were scored by the percentage of words correct. However, only differences between the 5-6 year-olds and adults were statistically significant when responses were scored by the percentage of phonemes correct. Speech recognition scores decreased as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for both children and adults. However, the magnitude of degradation at poorer SNRs did not vary between adults and children, suggesting that mean differences could not be explained by interference from noise. Conclusions Obtaining PI functions in noise using CASPA is feasible with children as young as 5 years-old. Statistically significant differences in speech recognition were observed between adults and the two youngest age groups of children when scored by the percentage of words correct. When results were scored by the percentage of phonemes

  13. Obesity and diabetes as accelerators of functional decline: can lifestyle interventions maintain functional status in high risk older adults?

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Karabetian, Christy; Naugle, Kelly; Buford, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for the development of physical disability among older adults. With the number of seniors with these conditions rising worldwide, the prevention and treatment of physical disability in these persons have become a major public health challenge. Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, has been identified as a common pathway associated with the initial onset and progression of physical disability among older adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity and diabetes accelerates the progression of sarcopenia, and subsequently functional decline in older adults. The focus of this brief review is on the contributions of obesity and diabetes in accelerating sarcopenia and functional decline among older adults. We also briefly discuss the underexplored interaction between obesity and diabetes that may further accelerate sarcopenia and place obese older adults with diabetes at particularly high risk of disability. Finally, we review findings from studies that have specifically tested the efficacy of lifestyle-based interventions in maintaining the functional status of older persons with obesity and/or diabetes.

  14. Frontal-posterior coherence and cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Jessica I; Kuti, Julia; Brown, Jessica; Mahon, Jessica R; Gayda-Chelder, Christine

    2016-12-01

    The reliable measurement of brain health and cognitive function is essential in mitigating the negative effects associated with cognitive decline through early and accurate diagnosis of change. The present research explored the relationship between EEG coherence for electrodes within frontal and posterior regions, as well as coherence between frontal and posterior electrodes and performance on standard neuropsychological measures of memory and executive function. EEG coherence for eyes-closed resting-state EEG activity was calculated for delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. Participants (N=66; mean age=67.15years) had their resting-state EEGs recorded and completed a neuropsychological battery that assessed memory and executive function, two cognitive domains that are significantly affected during aging. A positive relationship was observed between coherence within the frontal region and performance on measures of memory and executive function for delta and beta frequency bands. In addition, an inverse relationship was observed for coherence between frontal and posterior electrode pairs, particularly within the theta frequency band, and performance on Digit Span Sequencing, a measure of working memory. The present research supports a more substantial link between EEG coherence, rather than spectral power, and cognitive function. Continued study in this area may enable EEG to be applied broadly as a diagnostic measure of cognitive ability.

  15. HIV/sexual and reproductive health program for HIV prevention: the youth-adult partnership with schools approach.

    PubMed

    Fongkaew, Warunee; Fongkaew, Kangwan; Muecke, Marjorie

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the development and evaluation of a program designed to prevent HIV/AIDS. A participatory action research (PAR) approach was used in collaboration with ten schools in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, to develop a youth- adult partnership with schools (YAPS) model. The YAPS model included curricula using participatory learning experiences, edutainment approaches, and skills building strategies for enhancing youth leaders'capacities. Results showed that the YAPS model was effective in leadership role preparation and in empowering youth leaders to undertake activities on their own, initiate creativity and share knowledge on sexuality education and HIV prevention messages with students in schools. The use of partnerships and the participatory process mobilized parents, teachers, and school administrators to play a proactive role in sexuality education and HIV prevention for early adolescents in schools, resulting in the integration of the program into the school system.

  16. Human affection exchange: VI. Further tests of reproductive probability as a predictor of men's affection with their adult sons.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Kory; Sargent, Jack E; Di Corcia, Mark

    2004-04-01

    The authors examined the communication of affection in men's relationships with their fathers. Drawing from Affection Exchange Theory, the authors advanced four predictions: (a) heterosexual men receive more affection from their own fathers than do homosexual or bisexual men, (b) fathers communicate affection to their sons more through supportive activities than through direct verbal statements or nonverbal gestures, (c) affectionate communication between fathers and sons is linearly related to closeness and interpersonal involvement between them, and (d) fathers' awareness of their sons' sexual orientation is associated with the amount of affection that the fathers communicate to them. Participants were 170 adult men who completed questionnaires regarding affectionate communication in their relationships with their fathers. Half of the men were self-identified as exclusively heterosexual, and the other half were self-identified as exclusively homosexual or bisexual. The results supported all predictions substantially.

  17. Adult neurogenesis and its role in neuropsychiatric disease, brain repair and normal brain function.

    PubMed

    Braun, S M G; Jessberger, S

    2014-02-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the mammalian brain retain the ability to generate new neurones throughout life in discrete brain regions, through a process called adult neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis, a dramatic form of adult brain circuitry plasticity, has been implicated in physiological brain function and appears to be of pivotal importance for certain forms of learning and memory. In addition, failing or altered neurogenesis has been associated with a variety of brain diseases such as major depression, epilepsy and age-related cognitive decline. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the basic biology underlying the neurogenic process in the adult brain, focusing on mechanisms that regulate quiescence, proliferation and differentiation of NSPCs. In addition, we discuss how neurogenesis influences normal brain function, and in particular its role in memory formation, as well as its contribution to neuropsychiatric diseases. Finally, we evaluate the potential of targeting endogenous NSPCs for brain repair.

  18. Functions for adult neurogenesis in memory: an introduction to the neurocomputational approach and to its contribution.

    PubMed

    Noguès, X; Corsini, M M; Marighetto, A; Abrous, D N

    2012-02-14

    Until recently, it was believed that the introduction of new neurons in neuronal networks was incompatible with memory function. Since the rediscovery of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, behavioral data demonstrate that adult neurogenesis is required for memory processing. We examine neurocomputational studies to identify which basic mechanisms involved in memory might be mediated by adult neurogenesis. Mainly, adult neurogenesis might be involved in the reduction of catastrophic interference and in a time-related pattern separation function. Artificial neuronal networks suggest that the selective recruitment of new-born or old neurons is not stochastic, but depends on environmental requirements. This leads us to propose the novel concept of "soft-supervision". Soft-supervision would be a biologically plausible process, by which the environment is able to influence activation and learning rules of neurons differentially.

  19. The Form and Function of Attachment Behavior in the Daily Lives of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campa, Mary I.; Hazan, Cindy; Wolfe, Jared E.

    2009-01-01

    Central to attachment theory is the postulation of an inborn system to regulate attachment behavior. This system has been well studied in infancy and childhood, but much less is known about its functioning at later ages. The goal of this study was to explore the form and function of attachment behavior in the daily lives of young adults. Twenty…

  20. The Influence of Family Factors on the Executive Functioning of Adult Children of Alcoholics in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined executive functioning in college aged adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; n = 84) and non-ACOAs (188). We examined whether characteristics of the family environment and family responsibility in one's family of origin were associated with executive functioning above the contribution of ACOA status. ACOAs reported more…

  1. Flexibility training and functional ability in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stathokostas, Liza; Little, Robert M D; Vandervoort, A A; Paterson, Donald H

    2012-01-01

    Background. As indicated in a recent systematic review relating to Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Older Adults, exercise interventions in older adults can maintain or improve functional abilities. Less is known about the role of flexibility in the maintenance or improvement of functional abilities, and there currently does not exist a synthesis of the literature supporting a consensus on flexibility training prescription. Purpose. To systematically review the effects of flexibility-specific training interventions on measures of functional outcomes in healthy older adults over the age of 65 years. Methods. Five electronic databases were searched for intervention studies involving concepts related to aging, flexibility, functional outcomes, and training interventions. After evaluating the articles for relevance, 22 studies were considered. Results. The results suggested that while flexibility-specific interventions may have effects on range of motion (ROM) outcomes, there is conflicting information regarding both the relationship between flexibility interventions and functional outcomes or daily functioning. Conclusions. Due to the wide range of intervention protocols, body parts studied, and functional measurements, conclusive recommendations regarding flexibility training for older adults or the validity of flexibility training interventions as supplements to other forms of exercise, or as significant positive influences on functional ability, require further investigation.

  2. Atypical Cerebral Lateralisation in Adults with Compensated Developmental Dyslexia Demonstrated Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Sarah; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) is a relatively new and non-invasive technique that assesses cerebral lateralisation through measurements of blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries. In this study fTCD was used to compare functional asymmetry during a word generation task between a group of 30 dyslexic adults and a…

  3. Perception of Dialect Variation by Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Rohrbeck, Kristin L.; Wagner, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The linguistic profile of people with Autism spectrum disorders typically involves intact perceptual processing, accompanied by deficits in the social functions of language. In a series of three experiments, the impact of this profile on the perception of regional dialect was examined. Young adults with High-Functioning Autism exhibited similar…

  4. Executive and Visuo-Motor Function in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachse, Michael; Schlitt, Sabine; Hainz, Daniela; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Schirman, Shella; Walter, Henrik; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Freitag, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    This study broadly examines executive (EF) and visuo-motor function in 30 adolescent and adult individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to 28 controls matched for age, gender, and IQ. ASD individuals showed impaired spatial working memory, whereas planning, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition were spared.…

  5. Functional Changes in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakovsky, Gina; Huth, Myra Martz; Lin, Li; Levin, Ron S.

    2007-01-01

    Children with multiple handicaps, including cerebral palsy (CP), often lose or regress in their functional ability through adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine functional and psychosocial changes in children, adolescents, and young adults with CP. A retrospective chart review and a prospective telephone…

  6. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraddi, Shrinivas; Gandedkar, Narayan H.; Belludi, Anup; Patil, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a “noncompliant corrector” and use of Class II elastics can be avoided. PMID:27041908

  7. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach.

    PubMed

    Basavaraddi, Shrinivas; Gandedkar, Narayan H; Belludi, Anup; Patil, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a "noncompliant corrector" and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  8. Ileal function in patients with untreated adult coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Silk, D B; Kumar, P J; Webb, J P; Lane, A E; Clark, M L; Dawson, A M

    1975-01-01

    A double-lumen perfusion technique has been used to investigate jejunal and ileal absorption of glucose, water, and electrolytes in a group of patients with untreated adult coeliac disease. Correct positioning of the tube was confirmed by measuring the differential jejunal and ileal handling of bicarbonate. Eight control subjects and eight patients with coeliac disease were perfused with an isotonic electrolyte solution containing 50 mM glucose and 25 mM bicarbonate. The group of coeliac patients had impaired jejunal absorption of glucose (P less than 0.001), water (P less than 0.01), sodium (P less than 0.02), and chloride (P greater than 0.05) compared with the control group. In contrast the group of coeliac patients had normal ileal glucose and water absorption and increased ileal sodium (P greater than 0.01) and chloride (P greater than 0.05) absorption compared with the controls. Evidence for ileal adaptation was found in three individual patients who had absorptive values outside 2SD of the normal mean. The results indicate that the distal small intestine in coeliac disease has the ability to adopt to the damage and loss of absorptive capacity in the proximal small intestine. PMID:1132801

  9. EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANE DIMETHANESULFONATE (EDS), BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) AND MOLINATE ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN CD-1 MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANE DIMETHANESULFONATE (EDS), BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) AND MOLINATE ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN CD-1 MALE MICE. D.K. Tarka1,2 , G.R. Klinefelter2, J.C. Rockett2, J.D. Suarez2, N.L. Roberts2 and J.M. Rogers1,2. 1 University of North Carol...

  10. THE EFFECT OF PLAUSIBILITY ON SENTENCE COMPREHENSION AMONG OLDER ADULTS AND ITS RELATION TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jungmee; Campanelli, Luca; Goral, Mira; Marton, Klara; Eichorn, Naomi; Obler, Loraine K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Study Context Older adults show age-related decline in complex-sentence comprehension. This has been attributed to a decrease in cognitive abilities that may support language processing, such as working memory (e.g., Caplan, DeDe, Waters, & Michaud, 2011,Psychology and Aging, 26, 439–450). The authors examined whether older adults have difficulty comprehending semantically implausible sentences and whether specific executive functions contribute to their comprehension performance. Methods Forty-two younger adults (aged 18–35) and 42 older adults (aged 55–75) were tested on two experimental tasks: a multiple negative comprehension task and an information processing battery. Results Both groups, older and younger adults, showed poorer performance for implausible sentences than for plausible sentences; however, no interaction was found between plausibility and age group. A regression analysis revealed that inhibition efficiency, as measured by a task that required resistance to proactive interference, predicted comprehension of implausible sentences in older adults only. Consistent with the compensation hypothesis, the older adults with better inhibition skills showed better comprehension than those with poor inhibition skills. Conclusion The findings suggest that semantic implausibility, along with syntactic complexity, increases linguistic and cognitive processing loads on auditory sentence comprehension. Moreover, the contribution of inhibitory control to the processing of semantic plausibility, particularly among older adults, suggests that the relationship between cognitive ability and language comprehension is strongly influenced by age. PMID:25978447

  11. The Functional Profile of Young Adults with Suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal-Saban, Miri; Zarka, Salman; Grotto, Itamar; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the non-academic and academic functioning of young adults with DCD, and investigated the emotional influences and the role of strategy use within this population. A random sample of 2379 adolescents and young adults aged 19-25 (1081 males [45.4%]; mean age = 20.68, SD = 3.42) was used to develop the instruments. From this sample, three…

  12. Experimentally decoupling reproductive investment from energy storage to test the functional basis of a life-history trade-off.

    PubMed

    Cox, Robert M; Lovern, Matthew B; Calsbeek, Ryan

    2014-07-01

    The ubiquitous life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival has long been hypothesized to reflect underlying energy-allocation trade-offs between reproductive investment and processes related to self-maintenance. Although recent work has questioned whether energy-allocation models provide sufficient explanations for the survival cost of reproduction, direct tests of this hypothesis are rare, especially in wild populations. This hypothesis was tested in a wild population of brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) using a two-step experiment. First, stepwise variation in reproductive investment was created using unilateral and bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) along with intact (SHAM) control. Next, this manipulation was decoupled from its downstream effects on energy storage by surgically ablating the abdominal fat stores from half of the females in each reproductive treatment. As predicted, unilateral OVX (intermediate reproductive investment) induced levels of growth, body condition, fat storage and breeding-season survival that were intermediate between the high levels of bilateral OVX (no reproductive investment) and the low levels of SHAM (full reproductive investment). Ablation of abdominal fat bodies had a strong and persistent effect on energy stores, but it did not influence post-breeding survival in any of the three reproductive treatments. This suggests that the energetic savings of reduced reproductive investment do not directly enhance post-breeding survival, with the caveat that only one aspect of energy storage was manipulated and OVX itself had no overall effect on post-breeding survival. This study supports the emerging view that simple energy-allocation models may often be insufficient as explanations for the life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival.

  13. Loss of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Nicole; de Roon, Margot; van Campen, Jos P C M; Kremer, Stefanie; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status was assessed using the mini nutritional assessment-short form. The Sniffin' Sticks was used to measure olfactory function. Eleven percentage of the vital older adults were at risk of malnutrition, whereas 60% of the geriatric participants were malnourished or at risk. Only 2% of the vital older adults were anosmic, compared with 46% of the geriatric participants. Linear regression demonstrated a significant association (P = 0.015) between olfactory function and nutritional status in the geriatric subjects. However, this association became insignificant after adjustment for confounders. Both crude and adjusted analysis in the vital older adults did not show a significant association. The results indicate that, in both groups of elderly, there is no direct relation between olfactory function and nutritional status. We suggest that a decline in olfactory function may still be considered as one of the risk-factors for malnutrition in geriatric patients-once co-occurring with other mental and/or physical problems that are more likely to occur in those patients experience.

  14. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...

  15. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...

  16. Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry and Neural Recovery Function: a Comparative Study between Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Bettina; Hamerschmidt, Rogerio; Wiemes, Gislaine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Neural response telemetry (NRT) is a method of capturing the action potential of the distal portion of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users, using the CI itself to elicit and record the answers. In addition, it can also measure the recovery function of the auditory nerve (REC), that is, the refractory properties of the nerve. It is not clear in the literature whether the responses from adults are the same as those from children. Objective To compare the results of NRT and REC between adults and children undergoing CI surgery. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and retrospective study of the results of NRT and REC for patients undergoing IC at our service. The NRT is assessed by the level of amplitude (microvolts) and REC as a function of three parameters: A (saturation level, in microvolts), t0 (absolute refractory period, in seconds), and tau (curve of the model function), measured in three electrodes (apical, medial, and basal). Results Fifty-two patients were evaluated with intraoperative NRT (26 adults and 26 children), and 24 with REC (12 adults and 12 children). No statistically significant difference was found between intraoperative responses of adults and children for NRT or for REC's three parameters, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. Conclusion The results of intraoperative NRT and REC were not different between adults and children, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. PMID:25992145

  17. Diabetes and the impairment of reproductive function: possible role of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Sandra; Oliveira, Paulo J; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2008-02-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM), a state of chronic hyperglycemia, is a major cause of serious micro and macrovascular diseases, affecting, therefore, nearly every system in the body. Growing evidence indicates that oxidative stress is increased in diabetes due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased efficiency of antioxidant defences, a process that starts very early and worsens over the course of the disease. During the development of diabetes, oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA increase with time. Mitochondrial DNA mutations have also been reported in diabetic tissues, suggesting oxidative stress-related mitochondrial damage. Diabetes-related oxidative stress may also be the trigger for many alterations on sexual function, which can also include decreased testicular mitochondrial function. Although sexual disorders have been extensively studied in diabetic men, possible changes in the sexual function of diabetic women have only recently received attention. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in diabetic men approaches 50%, whereas in diabetic women it seems to be slightly lower. Testicular dysfunction, impotence, decreased fertility potential and retrograde ejaculations are conditions that have been described in diabetic males. Diabetes is also the most common cause of erectile dysfunction in men. Poor semen quality has also been reported in diabetic men, including decreased sperm motility and concentration, abnormal morphology and increased seminal plasma abnormalities. In addition, diabetic men may have decreased serum testosterone due to impaired Leydig cell function. Among diabetic women neuropathy, vascular impairment and psychological complaints have been implicated in the pathogenesis of decreased libido, low arousability, decreased vaginal lubrication, orgasmic dysfunction, and dyspareunia. An association between the production of excess radical oxygen species and disturbed embryogenesis in diabetic pregnancies has also been suggested

  18. Limited Health Literacy and Decline in Executive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Shwetha S.; Eggermont, Laura H. P.; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Bickmore, Timothy W.; Henault, Lori E.; Winter, Michael R.; Nelson, Kerrie; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Limited health literacy is associated with worse executive function, but the association between limited health literacy and decline in executive function has not been established because of a lack of longitudinal studies. The authors aimed to examine this association by studying a prospective cohort in the setting of a randomized controlled trial to promote walking in older adults. Participants were community-dwelling older adults (65 years of age or older) who scored 2 or more on the Mini-Cog, without depression (score of less than 15 on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire), and who completed baseline and 12-month evaluations (n = 226). Health literacy was measured using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Executive function measured at baseline and 12 months using the Trail Making Test (TMT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Category Fluency. The associations between health literacy and 12-month decline in each test of executive function were modeled using multivariate linear regression. Health literacy was found to be limited in 37% of participants. Limited health literacy was associated with reduced performance on all 3 executive function tests. In fully adjusted models, limited health literacy was associated with greater 12-month decline in performance on the TMT than higher health literacy (p = .01). In conclusion, older adults with limited health literacy are at risk for more rapid decline in scores on the TMT, a measure of executive function. PMID:24093352

  19. Do stimulants improve functioning in adults with ADHD? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Surman, Craig B H; Hammerness, Paul G; Pion, Katie; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-06-01

    ADHD is prevalent in adulthood and stimulant pharmacotherapy is the primary treatment for uncomplicated presentations. ADHD is associated with significant functional impairment in major life roles. Measurement of the efficacy of stimulant treatment for adult ADHD therefore should include assessment of improvement in role function. A literature search was conducted to identify studies that measured change in function with stimulant treatment in adult ADHD using measures other than global clinical impression or global assessment of function ratings. Five studies were identified that met our search criteria. Evidence of functional improvement with stimulant treatment was found with the following validated self-report measures of functional wellbeing employed across these studies: the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey; ADHD Impact Module for Adults; Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction scale-Short Form; Sheehan Disability Scale, and Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report. We conclude that investigations using self-report scales provide evidence that stimulant treatment translates into measurable improvement in daily function for adults with ADHD. Further investigation could better characterize the mediators and moderators of individual improvement, an important step towards the personalization of treatment for ADHD in adulthood.

  20. Complementary Critical Functions of Zfy1 and Zfy2 in Mouse Spermatogenesis and Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Nakasuji, Takashi; Ogonuki, Narumi; Chiba, Tomoki; Kato, Tomomi; Shiozawa, Kumiko; Yamatoya, Kenji; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Tadashi; Miyado, Kenji; Miyasaka, Naoyuki; Kubota, Toshiro; Ogura, Atsuo

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian Y chromosome plays a critical role in spermatogenesis. However, the exact functions of each gene in the Y chromosome have not been completely elucidated, partly owing to difficulties in gene targeting analysis of the Y chromosome. Zfy was first proposed to be a sex determination factor, but its function in spermatogenesis has been recently elucidated. Nevertheless, Zfy gene targeting analysis has not been performed thus far. Here, we adopted the highly efficient CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate individual Zfy1 or Zfy2 knockout (KO) mice and Zfy1 and Zfy2 double knockout (Zfy1/2-DKO) mice. While individual Zfy1 or Zfy2-KO mice did not show any significant phenotypic alterations in fertility, Zfy1/2-DKO mice were infertile and displayed abnormal sperm morphology, fertilization failure, and early embryonic development failure. Mass spectrometric screening, followed by confirmation with western blot analysis, showed that PLCZ1, PLCD4, PRSS21, and HTT protein expression were significantly deceased in spermatozoa of Zfy1/2-DKO mice compared with those of wild-type mice. These results are consistent with the phenotypic changes seen in the double-mutant mice. Collectively, our strategy and findings revealed that Zfy1 and Zfy2 have redundant functions in spermatogenesis, facilitating a better understanding of fertilization failure and early embryonic development failure. PMID:28114340

  1. Reproductive state, but not testosterone, reduces immune function in male house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Greenman, Chris G; Martin, Lynn B; Hau, Michaela

    2005-01-01

    The immune system requires energetic and nutritional resources to optimally defend organisms against pathogens and parasites. Because resources are typically limited, immune function may require a trade-off with other physiologically demanding activities. Here, we examined whether photoperiodically induced seasonal states (breeding, molting, or nonbreeding) affected the cutaneous immune response of captive male house sparrows (Passer domesticus). To assess immune function in these birds, we injected the mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) into the patagium and measured the resulting wing web swelling. Molting and nonbreeding birds had similar immune responses to PHA injection. However, males in a breeding state showed lower immune responses than both molting and nonbreeding birds even though they did not actually breed. We tested whether this decrease in the PHA swelling response in birds in a breeding state was due to elevated plasma concentrations of testosterone (T) by administering T to birds in a nonbreeding state. Contrary to some evidence in the literature, T did not suppress the response to PHA in house sparrows. Our data show that passerine birds show seasonal modulation in immune function, even in benign environmental conditions. However, even though T is often cited as a strong immunosuppressant, it is not fully responsible for this seasonal modulation.

  2. Effects of the anti-microbial, triclocarban, on the reproductive function and ovarian transcriptome of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclocarban (TCC) is a widely used antimicrobial agent that is routinely detected in surface waters. The present study was designed to examine TCC’s efficacy and mode of action as a reproductive toxicant in fish. Reproductively mature Pimephales promelas were continuously ...

  3. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults123

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Falcon, Luis M; Wilde, Parke E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-01-01

    Background: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 45–75 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Design: Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was −0.90 (95% CI: −1.6, −0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Conclusions: Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association. PMID:19225117

  4. Synchronized reproduction promotes species coexistence through reproductive facilitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yun; Hsu, Sze-Bi

    2011-04-07

    Theories for species coexistence often emphasize niche differentiation and temporal segregation of recruitment to avoid competition. Recent work on mutualism suggested that plant species sharing pollinators provide mutual facilitation when exhibit synchronized reproduction. The facilitation on reproduction may enhance species persistence and coexistence. Theoretical ecologists paid little attention to such indirect mutualistic systems by far. We propose a new model for a two-species system using difference equations. The model focuses on adult plants and assumes no resource competition between these well-established individuals. Our formulas include demographic parameters, such as mortality and recruitment rates, and functions of reproductive facilitation. Both recruitment and facilitation effects reach saturation levels when flower production is at high levels. We conduct mathematical analyses to assess conditions of coexistence. We establish demographical conditions permitting species coexistence. Our analyses suggest a "rescue" effect from a "superior" species to a "weaker" species under strong recruitment enhancement effect when the later is not self-sustainable. The facilitation on rare species may help to overcome Allee effect.

  5. Novel functions of GABA signaling in adult neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    PONTES, Adalto; ZHANG, Yonggang; HU, Wenhui

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutiric acid (GABA) through ionotropic GABAA and metabotropic GABAB receptors plays key roles in modulating the development, plasticity and function of neuronal networks. GABA is inhibitory in mature neurons but excitatory in immature neurons, neuroblasts and neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). The switch from excitatory to inhibitory occurs following the development of glutamatergic synaptic input and results from the dynamic changes in the expression of Na+/K+/2Cl− co-transporter NKCC1 driving Cl− influx and neuron-specific K+/Cl− co-transporter KCC2 driving Cl− efflux. The developmental transition of KCC2 expression is regulated by Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. The excitatory GABA signaling during early neurogenesis is important to the activity/experience-induced regulation of NSC quiescence, NPC proliferation, neuroblast migration and newborn neuronal maturation/functional integration. The inhibitory GABA signaling allows for the sparse and static functional networking essential for learning/memory development and maintenance. PMID:24285940

  6. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as lead and mercury Chemicals such as pesticides Cigarettes Some viruses Alcohol For men, a reproductive hazard can affect the sperm. For a woman, a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. ...

  7. Follicular fluid levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and early corpus luteum function during assisted reproductive technology cycles

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, F; Ferrari, B; Barusi, L; Caccavari, V; Salvarani, MC; Piantelli, G

    2005-01-01

    Background The relation between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and early luteal function has rarely been proven in humans. The purpose of this study was to define the relation between follicular fluid concentrations of VEGF (FF VEGF) and early luteal function at the preimplantation stage during assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Methods 71 women were divided into two groups, based on reproductive outcome: women who became pregnant after embryo transfer (ET) (n = 18, Group A) and non-pregnant women (n = 53, Group B). Serum progesterone (Se P) and inhibin A on ET day, and FF VEGF levels were measured in all women. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Statistical analysis was performed using Excel Office 98 for Student's t-test, linear regression test and chi-square test. A p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The groups were comparable for age, ovarian reserve, number and quality of the oocytes retrieved and of the embryos obtained and transferred. FF VEGF levels were increased (4235 ± 1433 vs 3432 ± 1231 pg/ml), while Se P and inhibin A levels were significantly reduced (83.1 ± 34.1 vs 112.0 ± 58.8 ng/ml and 397.4 ± 223 vs 533.5 ± 283 pg/ml, respectively) in the non-pregnant group and were negatively correlated with FF VEGF (r = -0.482, p < 0.05; r = -0.468, p < 0.05) only in pregnant women. Conclusion Much has to be learned about the regulation and role of VEGF during the early luteal phase. We advance the hypothesis that the existence of a negative correlation between FF VEGF/Se P and FF VEGF/inhibin A in pregnant women might indicate the existence of a normal VEGF-mediated paracrine response when Se P and inhibin A levels are decreased. Excess production of FF VEGF and the absence of a correlation between FF VEGF/Se P and FF VEGF/inhibin A in non-pregnant women may be a paracrine reaction to immature luteal vasculature, resulting in luteal dysfunction. PMID:16197554

  8. Relationships between intrauterine infusion of N-acetylcysteine, equine endometrial pathology, neutrophil function, post-breeding therapy, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Gores-Lindholm, Alicia R; LeBlanc, Michelle M; Causey, Robert; Hitchborn, Anna; Fayrer-Hosken, Richard A; Kruger, Marius; Vandenplas, Michel L; Flores, Paty; Ahlschwede, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Persistent endometritis in the mare is associated with hypersecretion of mucus by endometrial epithelium and migration of neutrophils into the uterine lumen. This study examines the relationships between N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a mucolytic agent with anti-inflammatory properties, and endometrial architecture, serum neutrophil function, post-breeding therapy, and reproductive performance of NAC-treated mares in a clinical setting. In study 1, endometrial biopsies from mares receiving intrauterine saline (fertile-control, n = 6) or 3.3% NAC (fertile-treatment, n = 6; barren-treatment, n = 10) were evaluated by histology and image analysis. In study 2, phagocytic activity of serum-derived neutrophils was measured after adding 0.5% or 3% NAC. In study 3, pregnancy rates of repeat breeders (n = 44) receiving an intrauterine infusion of 3.3% NAC 24-36 hours before mating (group 1) was recorded, as was first cycle of the season pregnancy rates of reproductively normal mares (group 2, n = 85), and mares treated for bacterial endometritis the cycle before mating (group 3, n = 25). Intrauterine NAC did not adversely affect endometrial histology. Extracellular mucus thickness and staining intensity were reduced in fertile-treatment mares (P < 0.03). Neutrophil function was inhibited by 3% NAC solution, but not by 0.5% NAC (P < 0.05). In study 3, for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, the first-cycle pregnancy rates were 77%, 74%, and 56%, and early embryonic death rates were 15%, 13%, and 7%. In group 2 mares treated with uterine lavage and oxytocin post-mating, the pregnancy rate was 89% (39/44), whereas in mares treated with uterine lavage and 1 g ceftiofur, it was 60% (24/40). Of the oxytocin-treated mares, 18% (8/44) had ≥ 1 cm of intrauterine fluid or marked uterine edema, whereas 80% (32/40) of the antibiotic-treated mares did. In conclusion, intrauterine infusion of a 3.3% solution of NAC was not irritating and inhibited the oxidative burst of neutrophils. Repeat

  9. Local vs. Global Approaches to Reproducing the Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure By Children, Adolescents, and Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    PubMed Central

    Kuschner, Emily S.; Bodner, Kimberly E.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with autism have an atypical pattern of visual processing. Various studies have provided evidence that individuals with autism perceive the details of stimuli before the gestalt, the reverse of the typical pattern of visual processing. This study used the Rey Osterreith Complex Figure (ROCF) task and an objective scoring system to examine local/global processing approaches to its reproduction in 37 individuals diagnosed with high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to 49 age-, IQ-, and gender-matched typically developing controls (TD). The sample was divided into children (aged 8–14 years) and adolescents/adults (aged 15–47 years) to assess age effects. Results showed no difference in overall performance on the ROCF between HFA and TD children. TD participants displayed improved organizational and planning skills with age and a shift to global processing approaches, but there were no differences in erformance between children and adolescents/adults with HFA. There was no evidence of enhanced local processing in ither HFA group. These findings suggest that HFA individuals with average IQ scores do not have the clinically emonstrable evidence of the enhanced local processing thought to reflect increased local brain connectivity in more severely autistic individuals. The deficient global processing of the HFA adults reflects dependence of performance on impaired strategic problem-solving abilities, which has been demonstrated to result from under development of neural connectivity between visuo-spatial and frontal brain regions in HFA adults. PMID:19950303

  10. Birth weight and cognitive function in young adult life: historical cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, H. T.; Sabroe, S.; Olsen, J.; Rothman, K. J.; Gillman, M. W.; Fischer, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function in young adult life. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study based on birth registry data and cognitive function measured during evaluation for military service. SUBJECTS: 4300 Danish conscripts born between 1973 and 1975. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean score in the Boerge Prien test of cognitive function; score is the number of correct answers to 78 questions and correlates with full scale intelligence quotient (IQ). RESULTS: Mean score in the Boerge Prien test increased from 39.9 at a birth weight of < or = 2500 g to 44.6 at a birth weight of 4200 g even after adjustment for gestational age and length at birth, maternal age and parity, and other variables. Above a birth weight of 4200 g the test score decreased slightly. CONCLUSION: Birth weight is associated with cognitive performance in young adult life. Interference with fetal growth may influence adult cognitive performance. PMID:9277604

  11. Prevalence of secondary impairments of adults with cerebral palsy according to gross motor function classification system

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of secondary impairments in adults with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 52 adults with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for physical disabilities in South Korea. [Results] The univariate analysis showed that the Gross Motor Functional Classification System level was a significant predictor of spondylopathies, general pain, arthropathies, and motor ability loss. The prevalence of these impairments at Gross Motor Functional Classification System level I and II was low compared with the prevalence found at Gross Motor Functional Classification System level III–V. The prevalence of secondary impairments among adults with cerebral palsy at Gross Motor Functional Classification System level III–V was high: loss of motor ability, 42.3%; spondylopathies, 38.4%; general pain, 32.7%; and arthropathies, 28.8%. [Conclusion] In this study, adults with severe cerebral palsy showed a high prevalence of motor ability loss, spondylopathies, arthropathies, and pain. It is necessary to develop intervention programs to prevent secondary impairments in adults with cerebral palsy. PMID:28265154

  12. The Cognitive Functions in Adults with Chronic Pain: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jasem, Zainab; Manee, Fahad S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several studies have reported an association between chronic pain and reduction of cognitive abilities of adults living in Western cultures. No literature could be found on the relationship between chronic pain and cognition among Middle Eastern adults. Objective. To compare four of the most commonly reported cognitive domains [memory, attention, processing speed, and executive functioning] among Middle Eastern adults with and without chronic pain. Methods. This matched group comparative study included 69 community residing and functionally independent Middle Eastern adults. Forty participants had chronic pain and 29 were pain-free. We administered five standardized cognitive assessments that are independent of culture and language to measure variable tasks of memory, attention, processing speed, and executive functioning. The study was conducted in a rehabilitation research setting with a controlled environment. Results. Evidence of decreased cognitive processing was found in patients with chronic pain. The chronic pain participants performed significantly worse than the pain-free participants on the cognitive measures of long-term memory, selective attention, processing speed, and executive functioning. Conclusion. The effect of Middle Eastern culture on the cognitive abilities of patients with chronic pain was negligible. Despite the wide variations between Eastern and Western cultures, the performance of our Middle Eastern participants in this study was consistent with performance of Western adults reported in previous studies. PMID:28127233

  13. Effectiveness of Exercise on Functional Mobility in Adults with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Hillary; Hills, Sara; Kline, Nicole; Weems, Kyra; Doty, Antonette

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We identified evidence evaluating the effect of exercise on functional mobility in adults (aged 18 y or older) with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: An exhaustive search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the earliest available evidence (1975) to the present (January 2016) for studies whose participants were ambulatory adults with CP receiving conservative treatment to address functional mobility limitations. Two independent reviewers agreed on the eligibility, inclusion, and level of evidence of each study. The Maastricht-Amsterdam List (MAL) was used to assess evidence quality. Results: Five of the six studies included were randomized controlled trials, and one was a pre-post case series. Interventions included whole-body vibration, treadmill training without body-weight support, rhythmic auditory stimulation, dynamic balance and gait activities, progressive resistance training, and interactive serious gaming for balance. All studies were considered high quality, as indicated by their MAL scores. Four studies showed no statistical difference and trivial effect sizes between the intervention and the control group. Rhythmic auditory stimulation and interactive serious gaming were found to be statistically significant in benefiting adults with CP. Conclusions: Evidence of the effect of exercise on functional mobility for ambulatory adults with CP is lacking. A need exists for quality research to determine the best interventions for adults with CP to maximize functional mobility.

  14. Effectiveness of Exercise on Functional Mobility in Adults with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Hillary; Hills, Sara; Kline, Nicole; Weems, Kyra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We identified evidence evaluating the effect of exercise on functional mobility in adults (aged 18 y or older) with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: An exhaustive search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the earliest available evidence (1975) to the present (January 2016) for studies whose participants were ambulatory adults with CP receiving conservative treatment to address functional mobility limitations. Two independent reviewers agreed on the eligibility, inclusion, and level of evidence of each study. The Maastricht-Amsterdam List (MAL) was used to assess evidence quality. Results: Five of the six studies included were randomized controlled trials, and one was a pre–post case series. Interventions included whole-body vibration, treadmill training without body-weight support, rhythmic auditory stimulation, dynamic balance and gait activities, progressive resistance training, and interactive serious gaming for balance. All studies were considered high quality, as indicated by their MAL scores. Four studies showed no statistical difference and trivial effect sizes between the intervention and the control group. Rhythmic auditory stimulation and interactive serious gaming were found to be statistically significant in benefiting adults with CP. Conclusions: Evidence of the effect of exercise on functional mobility for ambulatory adults with CP is lacking. A need exists for quality research to determine the best interventions for adults with CP to maximize functional mobility. PMID:27904240

  15. Prevalence of secondary impairments of adults with cerebral palsy according to gross motor function classification system.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of secondary impairments in adults with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] The study sample included 52 adults with cerebral palsy who attended a convalescent or rehabilitation center for disabled individuals or a special school for physical disabilities in South Korea. [Results] The univariate analysis showed that the Gross Motor Functional Classification System level was a significant predictor of spondylopathies, general pain, arthropathies, and motor ability loss. The prevalence of these impairments at Gross Motor Functional Classification System level I and II was low compared with the prevalence found at Gross Motor Functional Classification System level III-V. The prevalence of secondary impairments among adults with cerebral palsy at Gross Motor Functional Classification System level III-V was high: loss of motor ability, 42.3%; spondylopathies, 38.4%; general pain, 32.7%; and arthropathies, 28.8%. [Conclusion] In this study, adults with severe cerebral palsy showed a high prevalence of motor ability loss, spondylopathies, arthropathies, and pain. It is necessary to develop intervention programs to prevent secondary impairments in adults with cerebral palsy.

  16. Experiences of Habitual Physical Activity in Maintaining Roles and Functioning among Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Svantesson, Ulla; Willén, Carin

    2016-01-01

    Physically active older adults have reduced risk of functional restrictions and role limitations. Several aspects may interrelate and influence habitual physical activity (PA). However, older adults' own perspectives towards their PA need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of habitual physical activity in maintaining roles and functioning among older adult Palestinians ≥60 years. Data were collected through in-depth interviews based on a narrative approach. Seventeen participants were recruited (aged 64–84 years). Data were analyzed using a narrative interpretative method. Findings. Three central narratives were identified, “keep moving, stay healthy,” “social connectedness, a motive to stay active,” and “adapting strategies to age-related changes.” Conclusion. Habitual physical activity was perceived as an important factor to maintain functioning and to preserve active roles in older adults. Walking was the most prominent pattern of physical activity and it was viewed as a vital tool to maintain functioning among the older adults. Social connectedness was considered as a contributing factor to the status of staying active. To adapt the process of age-related changes in a context to stay active, the participants have used different adapting strategies, including protective strategy, awareness of own capabilities, and modifying or adopting new roles. PMID:28078141

  17. Stability and change in health, functional abilities, and behavior problems among adults with and without Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esbensen, Anna J; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    2008-07-01

    Changes in health, functional abilities, and behavior problems among 150 adults with Down syndrome and 240 adults with mental retardation due to other causes were examined with seven assessments over a 9-year period. Adults were primarily younger than 40, the age at which declines begin to be evident in individuals with Down syndrome. Adults with Down syndrome were advantaged in their functional abilities and lack of behavior problems, comparable in health, and exhibited comparable rates of change on these measures as adults with mental retardation due to other causes. Placement out of the parental home and parental death were predictors of change in health, functional abilities, and behavior problems.

  18. Melanocortins Mimic the Effects of Leptin to Restore Reproductive Function in Lean Hypogonadotropic Ewes

    PubMed Central

    Backholer, Kathryn; Bowden, Marissa; Gamber, Kevin; Bjørbæk, Christian; Iqbal, Javed; Clarke, Iain J.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Leptin restores gonadotropic function in lean hypogonadotropic animals by an unknown mechanism. We aimed to test the hypothesis that restoration of gonadotropic function is a result of an upregulation of central acetylated melanocortin production. Methods and Results Lean ovariectomised (OVX) ewes received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusions of leptin (or vehicle) for 3 days, which upregulated proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA and restored pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. A melanocortin agonist (MTII), but not naloxone treatment, reinstated pulsatile LH secretion in lean OVX ewes. We treated (i.c.v.) lean OVX ewes with leptin (or vehicle) and measured peptide levels and post-translational modification in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Levels of β-endorphin (β-END) were lower in lean animals, with no effect of leptin treatment. Desacetyl-α-MSH was the predominant form of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in the ARC and levels were similar in all groups. In another group of lean and normal-weight OVX ewes, we measured the different forms of α-MSH in ARC, hypothalamus (ARC-removed) and the preoptic area (POA). Acetylated α-MSH levels were lower in lean animals in the terminal beds of the hypothalamus and POA but not the ARC. Conclusions Leptin corrects the hypogonadotropic state in the lean condition by upregulation of POMC gene expression, and may increase transport and acetylation of melanocortins to target cells in the brain. Melanocortin treatment restores LH secretion in lean animals. PMID:19923792

  19. Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on reproductive neuroendocrine function in the female: animal studies.

    PubMed

    Tyrey, L; Murphy, L L

    1984-01-01

    The rat experimental model has been utilized to demonstrate pronounced suppressive effects of THC on the secretion of both LH and PRL, a point of considerable interest since the tonic secretions of these two hormones are regulated in opposite fashions, that of LH requiring active stimulation, and that of PRL, continued inhibition. Moreover, both the tonic and surge modes of secretion of both hormones are inhibited or completely blocked by THC action even though these different secretory modes are presumed to be governed by different CNS regulatory mechanisms. The most direct explanation for this broad inhibitory capability of THC would be direct inhibitory action on the pituitary cells secreting LH and PRL. However, experimental evidence drawn from the rat model, consistent with that from other species, provides no support for the possibility of direct pituitary inhibition of significant consequence. Instead, the evidence strongly favors the hypothesis that THC exerts its neuroendocrine action centrally and thereby influences pituitary function through alterations in the release of hypothalamic hormones into the hypophysial portal circulation. With the evidence favoring a central neuroendocrine mechanism for THC action, the rat model becomes particularly valuable because of the enormous body of information already available regarding neuroendocrine function in that species. Initial experiments with the rat have failed to provide evidence supporting the possibility of direct THC action on the hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons terminating in the median eminence.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Function of G-Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor-1 in Reproductive System Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hongyan; Xuan, Jingxiu; Liu, Yuan; Shi, Guixiu

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1), also known as GPR30, is a novel estrogen receptor mediating estrogen receptor signaling in multiple cell types. The progress of estrogen-related cancer is promoted by GPER-1 activation through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathways. However, this promoting effect of GPER-1 is nonclassic estrogen receptor (ER) dependent manner. In addition, clinical evidences revealed that GPER-1 is associated with estrogen resistance in estrogen-related cancer patients. These give a hint that GPER-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for the estrogen-related cancers. However, preclinical studies also found that GPER-1 activation of its special agonist G-1 inhibits cancer cell proliferation. This review aims to summarize the characteristics and complex functions of GPER-1 in cancers. PMID:27314054

  1. In vitro functional screening as a means to identify new plasticizers devoid of reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Annie; Jones, Steven; Issop, Leeyah; Erythropel, Hanno C; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Culty, Martine

    2016-10-01

    Plasticizers are indispensable additives providing flexibility and malleability to plastics. Among them, several phthalates, including di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), have emerged as endocrine disruptors, leading to their restriction in consumer products and creating a need for new, safer plasticizers. The goal of this project was to use in vitro functional screening tools to select novel non-toxic plasticizers suitable for further in vivo evaluation. A panel of novel compounds with satisfactory plasticizer properties and biodegradability were tested, along with several commercial plasticizers, such as diisononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH®). MEHP, the monoester metabolite of DEHP was also included as reference compound. Because phthalates target mainly testicular function, including androgen production and spermatogenesis, we used the mouse MA-10 Leydig and C18-4 spermatogonial cell lines as surrogates to examine cell survival, proliferation, steroidogenesis and mitochondrial integrity. The most promising compounds were further assessed on organ cultures of rat fetal and neonatal testes, corresponding to sensitive developmental windows. Dose-response studies revealed the toxicity of most maleates and fumarates, while identifying several dibenzoate and succinate plasticizers as innocuous on Leydig and germ cells. Interestingly, DINCH®, a plasticizer marketed as a safe alternative to phthalates, exerted a biphasic effect on steroid production in MA-10 and fetal Leydig cells. MEHP was the only plasticizer inducing the formation of multinucleated germ cells (MNG) in organ culture. Overall, organ cultures corroborated the cell line data, identifying one dibenzoate and one succinate as the most promising candidates. The adoption of such collaborative approaches for developing new chemicals should help prevent the development of compounds potentially harmful to human health.

  2. Long-Term Moderate Oxidative Stress Decreased Ovarian Reproductive Function by Reducing Follicle Quality and Progesterone Production

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Zhiwen; Tian, Yong; Fang, Li; Wu, Meng; Xiong, Jiaqiang; Qin, Xian; Luo, Aiyue; Wang, Shixuan

    2016-01-01

    decreased female reproductive function caused by long-term moderate oxidative damage may be due to a decrease in follicle quality and progesterone production. PMID:27676390

  3. The relationship between executive function and fine motor control in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Corti, Emily J; Johnson, Andrew R; Riddle, Hayley; Gasson, Natalie; Kane, Robert; Loftus, Andrea M

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between executive function (EF) and fine motor control in young and older healthy adults. Participants completed 3 measures of executive function; a spatial working memory (SWM) task, the Stockings of Cambridge task (planning), and the Intra-Dimensional Extra-Dimensional Set-Shift task (set-shifting). Fine motor control was assessed using 3 subtests of the Purdue Pegboard (unimanual, bimanual, sequencing). For the younger adults, there were no significant correlations between measures of EF and fine motor control. For the older adults, all EFs significantly correlated with all measures of fine motor control. Three separate regressions examined whether planning, SWM and set-shifting independently predicted unimanual, bimanual, and sequencing scores for the older adults. Planning was the primary predictor of performance on all three Purdue subtests. A multiple-groups mediation model examined whether planning predicted fine motor control scores independent of participants' age, suggesting that preservation of planning ability may support fine motor control in older adults. Planning remained a significant predictor of unimanual performance in the older age group, but not bimanual or sequencing performance. The findings are discussed in terms of compensation theory, whereby planning is a key compensatory resource for fine motor control in older adults.

  4. Functional Zonation of the Adult Mammalian Adrenal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Gavin P.

    2016-01-01

    The standard model of adrenocortical zonation holds that the three main zones, glomerulosa, fasciculata, and reticularis each have a distinct function, producing mineralocorticoids (in fact just aldosterone), glucocorticoids, and androgens respectively. Moreover, each zone has its specific mechanism of regulation, though ACTH has actions throughout. Finally, the cells of the cortex originate from a stem cell population in the outer cortex or capsule, and migrate centripetally, changing their phenotype as they progress through the zones. Recent progress in understanding the development of the gland and the distribution of steroidogenic enzymes, trophic hormone receptors, and other factors suggests that this model needs refinement. Firstly, proliferation can take place throughout the gland, and although the stem cells are certainly located in the periphery, zonal replenishment can take place within zones. Perhaps more importantly, neither the distribution of enzymes nor receptors suggest that the individual zones are necessarily autonomous in their production of steroid. This is particularly true of the glomerulosa, which does not seem to have the full suite of enzymes required for aldosterone biosynthesis. Nor, in the rat anyway, does it express MC2R to account for the response of aldosterone to ACTH. It is known that in development, recruitment of stem cells is stimulated by signals from within the glomerulosa. Furthermore, throughout the cortex local regulatory factors, including cytokines, catecholamines and the tissue renin-angiotensin system, modify and refine the effects of the systemic trophic factors. In these and other ways it more and more appears that the functions of the gland should be viewed as an integrated whole, greater than the sum of its component parts. PMID:27378832

  5. TOXIC RESPONSES OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish reproduction is arguably one of the most sensitive indicators of exposure to environmental chemicals. Reproductive toxicity can simply be referred to as an alteration in reproductive success. It can occur at several developmental stages (larval, juvenile, and adult) with le...

  6. Virtual reality social cognition training for young adults with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Kandalaft, Michelle R; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Allen, Tandra T; Chapman, Sandra B

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition, and social functioning. Eight young adults diagnosed with high-functioning autism completed 10 sessions across 5 weeks. Significant increases on social cognitive measures of theory of mind and emotion recognition, as well as in real life social and occupational functioning were found post-training. These findings suggest that the virtual reality platform is a promising tool for improving social skills, cognition, and functioning in autism.

  7. Menstrual cycle influence on cognitive function and emotion processing—from a reproductive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Gingnell, Malin

    2014-01-01

    The menstrual cycle has attracted research interest ever since the 1930s. For many researchers the menstrual cycle is an excellent model of ovarian steroid influence on emotion, behavior, and cognition. Over the past years methodological improvements in menstrual cycle studies have been noted, and this review summarizes the findings of methodologically sound menstrual cycle studies in healthy women. Whereas the predominant hypotheses of the cognitive field state that sexually dimorphic cognitive skills that favor men are improved during menstrual cycle phases with low estrogen and that cognitive skills that favor women are improved during cycle phases with increased estrogen and/or progesterone, this review has not found sufficient evidence to support any of these hypotheses. Mental rotation has gained specific interest in this aspect, but a meta-analysis yielded a standardized mean difference in error rate of 1.61 (95% CI −0.35 to 3.57), suggesting, at present, no favor of an early follicular phase improvement in mental rotation performance. Besides the sexually dimorphic cognitive skills, studies exploring menstrual cycle effects on tasks that probe prefrontal cortex function, for instance verbal or spatial working memory, have also been reviewed. While studies thus far are few, results at hand suggest improved performance at times of high estradiol levels. Menstrual cycle studies on emotional processing, on the other hand, tap into the emotional disorders of the luteal phase, and may be of relevance for women with premenstrual disorders. Although evidence at present is limited, it is suggested that emotion recognition, consolidation of emotional memories, and fear extinction is modulated by the menstrual cycle in women. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, several studies report changes in brain reactivity across the menstrual cycle, most notably increased amygdala reactivity in the luteal phase. Thus, to the extent that behavioral changes

  8. Enrichment Effects on Adult Cognitive Development: Can the Functional Capacity of Older Adults Be Preserved and Enhanced?

    PubMed

    Hertzog, Christopher; Kramer, Arthur F; Wilson, Robert S; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2008-10-01

    In this monograph, we ask whether various kinds of intellectual, physical, and social activities produce cognitive enrichment effects-that is, whether they improve cognitive performance at different points of the adult life span, with a particular emphasis on old age. We begin with a theoretical framework that emphasizes the potential of behavior to influence levels of cognitive functioning. According to this framework, the undeniable presence of age-related decline in cognition does not invalidate the view that behavior can enhance cognitive functioning. Instead, the course of normal aging shapes a zone of possible functioning, which reflects person-specific endowments and age-related constraints. Individuals influence whether they function in the higher or lower ranges of this zone by engaging in or refraining from beneficial intellectual, physical, and social activities. From this point of view, the potential for positive change, or plasticity, is maintained in adult cognition. It is an argument that is supported by newer research in neuroscience showing neural plasticity in various aspects of central nervous system functioning, neurochemistry, and architecture. This view of human potential contrasts with static conceptions of cognition in old age, according to which decline in abilities is fixed and individuals cannot slow its course. Furthermore, any understanding of cognition as it occurs in everyday life must make a distinction between basic cognitive mechanisms and skills (such as working-memory capacity) and the functional use of cognition to achieve goals in specific situations. In practice, knowledge and expertise are critical for effective functioning, and the available evidence suggests that older adults effectively employ specific knowledge and expertise and can gain new knowledge when it is required. We conclude that, on balance, the available evidence favors the hypothesis that maintaining an intellectually engaged and physically active lifestyle

  9. Relative Importance of the Arcuate and Anteroventral Periventricular Kisspeptin Neurons in Control of Puberty and Reproductive Function in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hu, M. H.; Li, X. F.; McCausland, B.; Li, S. Y.; Gresham, R.; Kinsey-Jones, J. S.; Gardiner, J. V.; Sam, A. H.; Bloom, S. R.; Poston, L.; Lightman, S. L.; Murphy, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    Kisspeptin plays a critical role in pubertal timing and reproductive function. In rodents, kisspeptin perikarya within the hypothalamic arcuate (ARC) and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nuclei are thought to be involved in LH pulse and surge generation, respectively. Using bilateral microinjections of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding kisspeptin antisense into the ARC or AVPV of female rats at postnatal day 10, we investigated the relative importance of these two kisspeptin populations in the control of pubertal timing, estrous cyclicity, and LH surge and pulse generation. A 37% knockdown of kisspeptin in the AVPV resulted in a significant delay in vaginal opening and first vaginal estrous, abnormal estrous cyclicity, and reduction in the occurrence of spontaneous LH surges, although these retained normal amplitude. This AVPV knockdown had no effect on LH pulse frequency, measured after ovariectomy. A 32% reduction of kisspeptin in the ARC had no effect on the onset of puberty but resulted in abnormal estrous cyclicity and decreased LH pulse frequency. Additionally, the knockdown of kisspeptin in the ARC decreased the amplitude but not the incidence of LH surges. These results might suggest that the role of AVPV kisspeptin in the control of pubertal timing is particularly sensitive to perturbation. In accordance with our previous studies, ARC kisspeptin signaling was critical for normal pulsatile LH secretion in female rats. Despite the widely reported role of AVPV kisspeptin neurons in LH surge generation, this study suggests that both AVPV and ARC populations are essential for normal LH surges and estrous cyclicity. PMID:25875299

  10. Specific LED-based red light photo-stimulation procedures improve overall sperm function and reproductive performance of boar ejaculates

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Codony, Francesc; Estrada, Efrén; Lleonart, Miquel; Balasch, Sam; Peña, Alejandro; Bonet, Sergi; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exposing liquid-stored boar semen to different red light L