Science.gov

Sample records for adult return rates

  1. Angler harvest, hatchery return, and tributary stray rates of recycled adult summer steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Gleizes, Chris; Dammers, Wolf; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2016-01-01

    Hatchery ‘recycling’ programs have been used to increase angling opportunities by re-releasing fish into a river after they returned to a hatchery or fish trap. Recycling is intended to increase opportunities for fishermen, but this strategy could affect wild fish populations if some recycled fish remain in the river and interact with wild fish populations. To quantify hatchery return and angler harvest rates of recycled steelhead, we conducted a 2-year study on the Cowlitz River, Washington. A total of 1051 steelhead were recycled, including 218 fish that were radio-tagged. Fates of recycled steelhead were similar between years: 48.4% returned to the hatchery, 19.2% were reported captured by anglers, and 32.4% remained in the river. A multistate model quantified the effects of covariates on hatchery return and angler harvest rates, which were positively affected by river discharge and negatively affected by time since release. However, hatchery return rates increased and angler harvest rates decreased during periods of increasing discharge. A total of 21.1% (46 fish) of the radio-tagged steelhead failed to return to the hatchery or be reported by anglers, but nearly half of those fish (20 fish) appeared to be harvested and not reported. The remaining tagged fish (11.9% of the radio-tagged population) were monitored into the spawning period, but only five fish (2.3% of the radio-tagged population) entered tributaries where wild steelhead spawning occurs. Future research focused on straying behaviour, and spawning success of recycled steelhead may further advance the understanding of the effects of recycling as a management strategy.

  2. Heterogeneity in Schooling Rates of Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Daniel J.; Polachek, Solomon W.; Wang, Le

    2011-01-01

    This paper relaxes the assumption of homogeneous rates of return to schooling by employing nonparametric kernel regression. This approach allows us to examine the differences in rates of return to education both across and within groups. Similar to previous studies we find that on average blacks have higher returns to education than whites,…

  3. Multivariate Models of Adult Pacific Salmon Returns

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

  4. 47 CFR 65.600 - Rate of return reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate of return reports. 65.600 Section 65.600 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate of Return Reports § 65.600 Rate of...

  5. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  6. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.22 Adjusted internal rate of return. The adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... yearly net savings in energy or water and non-fuel or non-water operation and maintenance...

  7. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... attributable to the proposed energy or water conservation measure. The denominator of the ratio is the present... proposed energy or water conservation measure....

  8. 10 CFR 436.22 - Adjusted internal rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... adjusted internal rate of return is the overall rate of return on an energy or water conservation measure... attributable to the proposed energy or water conservation measure. The denominator of the ratio is the present... proposed energy or water conservation measure....

  9. Public Rates of Return on Higher Education Investments, by State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtright, Stephen H.; Fry, Cary G.

    2007-01-01

    Public rates of return on higher education expenditures are calculated by state. Benefits accruing to states from their investments in higher education are measured by differential tax revenues collected from college-educated citizens versus high-school-educated citizens. For most states we find an adequate rate of return on such investments.…

  10. Perceived Rates of Return to Higher Education in Cyprus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    1997-01-01

    Estimates perceived rates of return to higher education in Cyprus, and uses them in logistic regression analysis to study effect of economic considerations on secondary students' decision to pursue higher education. The mean rate of return to higher education estimated by college candidates is considerably higher than that perceived by labor…

  11. Evaluation of the return rate of volunteer blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Lourençon, Adriana de Fátima; Almeida, Rodrigo Guimarães dos Santos; Ferreira, Oranice; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi

    2011-01-01

    Background To convert first-time blood donors into regular volunteer donors is a challenge to transfusion services. Objectives This study aims to estimate the return rate of first time donors of the Ribeirão Preto Blood Center and of other blood centers in its coverage region. Methods The histories of 115,553 volunteer donors between 1996 and 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was based on a parametric long-term survival model that allows an estimation of the proportion of donors who never return for further donations. Results Only 40% of individuals return within one year after the first donation and 53% return within two years. It is estimated that 30% never return to donate. Higher return rates were observed among Black donors. No significant difference was found in non-return rates regarding gender, blood type, Rh blood group and blood collection unit. Conclusions The low percentage of first-time donors who return for further blood donation reinforces the need for marketing actions and strategies aimed at increasing the return rates. PMID:23049294

  12. PEPA-1* genotype affects return rate for hatchery steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Hayes, M.C.; Rubin, S.P.; Wetzel, L.A.; Baker, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Allozymes continue to be useful as genetic markers in a variety of studies; however, their utility often hinges on the selective neutrality of the allelic variation. Our study tested for neutrality between the two most common alleles (*100 and *110) at the cytosol nonspecific dipeptidase locus (PEPA-1*) in steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery in Idaho. We tested for differential growth and survival among fish with the * 100/100, *100/ 110, and *110/110 genotypes rearing in a hatchery or a natural stream. We repeated the study for two year-classes, using heterozygous (*100/110) adults to make the experimental crosses. This design avoided differences in family contribution among genotypes because each cross produced all three genotypes. We divided the progeny from each family into two groups. One group was reared in a hatchery for 1 year and then released for migration to the sea and subsequent return to the hatchery as adults. The other group was released into a natural stream and monitored for 3 years. We found no significant differences in size or survival among PEPA-1* genotypes for either the naturally reared fish or the hatchery-reared fish immediately prior to release as smolts. For females, survival to returning adult also was similar among genotypes; however, hatchery-reared males with the *110/110 genotype returned at a higher rate than did males with the *100/ 100 genotype; heterozygous males were intermediate. These results indicate that selection occurs at the PEPA-1* locus or at one or more loci tightly linked to it. The finding of nearly equal frequencies for these two alleles in the source population suggests that selection differentials among genotypes reverse or vary from year to year; otherwise, steady directional selection would drive the *100 allele to low frequencies or extinction. Locus PEPA-1* seems inappropriate for genetic marks in studies of steelhead that span the full life cycle and probably should be avoided

  13. Absconding: reducing failure to return in adult mental health wards

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jill; Page, Bethan; Ndimande, Nokuthula; Connell, Julie; Vincent, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Failing to return from leave from acute psychiatric wards can have a range of negative consequences for patients, relatives and staff. This study used quality improvement methodology to improve the processes around patient leave and time away from the ward. The aim of this study was to improve rates of on-time return from leave by detained and informal patients by 50%. Following a baseline period, four interventions were implemented and refined using PDSA cycles. The main outcome measure was the proportion of periods of leave where the patient returned on time. Late return was defined as failure to return to the ward within 10 minutes of the agreed time. At baseline, the rate for on-time return was 56.0%; this increased to 87.1% post-intervention, a statistically significant increase of 55.5%. SPC charts show that the interventions were associated with improvements. The improvements have been sustained and the interventions are fully embedded into daily practice. The project was refined to local context and trialled on six additional wards: four of the six wards have successfully implemented the interventions and have on-time return rates of over 90%. This project produced a marked and sustained improvement in patients returning on-time from leave, facilitating a more open discussion between staff and patients about the purpose and value of periods away from the ward. Quality improvement approaches can be effectively applied in mental health settings. PMID:27933157

  14. Freirean Literacy and the Liberal Arts: Empowering the Returning Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivisonno, Ann

    The "problem-posing" education model of Paulo Freire takes as its departure point the life experience of the learner, rather than the teacher's knowledge. Ursuline College (Cleveland, Ohio) created several courses for returning adult students that were based on Freire's ideas. One course called "Humanities Focus on Life" is for…

  15. Study of return rate and return time of undeliverable postal letters.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Pokrzywniak, Andrea; Stang, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Postal questionnaires are widely used to collect data in health research and epidemiologic studies. One problem related to mail surveys is the availability of an up-to-date and accurate list of people in the population from which to draw the sample for the survey. For the identification of incorrect postal addresses it is important that all incorrectly addressed mails are returned as undeliverable. This study examines the proportion of unreturned postal letters that were sent to incorrect addresses. We sent 339 letters to existing addresses throughout Germany, but used fictional names name of persons. Three hundred and three letters (98.2%) were returned as undeliverable. The return rates only slightly differed by layout of the envelopes, region and deliverer.

  16. 18 CFR 2.15 - Specified reasonable rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specified reasonable rate of return. 2.15 Section 2.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of...

  17. 18 CFR 2.15 - Specified reasonable rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specified reasonable rate of return. 2.15 Section 2.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of...

  18. 18 CFR 2.15 - Specified reasonable rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specified reasonable rate of return. 2.15 Section 2.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of...

  19. Preventive letter: doubling the return rate after gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Olmos, Pablo R; Borzone, Gisella R; Berkowitz, Loni; Mertens, Nicolás; Busso, Dolores; Santos, José L; Poblete, José A; Vera, Claudio; Belmar, Cristián; Goldenberg, Denisse; Samith, Bárbara; Acosta, Ana M; Escalona, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    To measure the impact of a "Preventive Letter" designed to encourage the return of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) mothers to follow up visit after delivery, in the context of a worldwide concern about low return rates after delivery of these patients. Mothers with GDM require medical evaluation and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 6 weeks after delivery, in order to: [a] confirm remission of GDM and [b] provide advice on the prevention of type 2 diabetes. In the year 2003 we developed a "Preventive Letter", containing three aspects: [a] current treatment, [b] suggested management during labor, and [c] a stapled laboratory order for OGTT to be performed 6 weeks after delivery. The return rate after delivery was assessed in two groups of GDM mothers: [a] "Without Preventive Letter" (n = 253), and "With Preventive Letter" (n = 215). Both groups, similar with respect to age (33.0 ± 5.4 and 32.3 ± 4.9 years respectively, p = 0.166) and education time (14.9 ± 1.8 and 15.0 ± 1.8 years respectively, p = 0.494), showed a significant difference in the 1-year return rate after delivery, as assessed by the Kaplan-Meier test: 32.0 % for the group "Without Preventive Letter", and 76.0 % for the group "With Preventive Letter" (p < 0.001). The 1-year return rate after delivery of GDM mothers was 2.4 times higher in the group "With Preventive Letter" than in the group without it. We believe that this low-cost approach could be useful in other institutions caring for pregnant women with diabetes.

  20. Return to Learning, Return to Work: Helping Low-Qualified Adults Out of Unemployment. Briefing Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, the question uppermost in policymakers' minds has understandably been the explosive growth of youth unemployment. But the crisis has also severely affected low-qualified adults, who face the highest rate of unemployment across Europe. A recent Cedefop study confirms that work-based training programmes can address the particular needs…

  1. Adult Education Transition Programs: A Return to Community College Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpherys, Bryce; Acker-Hocevar, Michele

    2012-01-01

    As community colleges face increasingly tight budgets and calls for a renewed focus on improving student outcomes in the form of graduation rates, colleges must address the concept of access. How much access to higher education can they continue to provide low-skilled students in adult education and similar programs? One way to ensure access to…

  2. Transportation of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, smolts in the Columbia River and effects on adult returns

    SciTech Connect

    Ebel, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, were captured at Little Goose Dam in the Snake River during their seaward migration and transported 400 km downstream to the lower Columbia River below Bonneville Dam. Their survival was increased from 1.1 to 15 times as compared with control fish which passed by seven mainstem low-level dams and reservoirs. Variations in survival were mainly dependent on species and environmental conditions in the river during the period fish were transported. The homing ability of the adult fish was not significantly diminished; less than 0.2% of strays occurred among adult returns from groups transported. Transportation did not affect ocean age or size of returning adult steelhead, but ocean age of returning adult chinook salmon may have been affected. Steelhead returned to Little Goose Dam at a substantially higher rate (1.4 to 2.7%) than chinook salmon (0.1 to 0.8%) from groups transported. The timing of adult returns of both species to Little Goose Dam was not related to the time of capture and downstream release of smolts.

  3. Effects of subcutaneous transmitters on reproduction, incubation behavior, and annual return rates of female wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.; Folk, T.H.; Hartke, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    Radiotransmitters attached externally to breeding waterfowl can have a variety of negative effects. Implanted transmitters can reduce potential deleterious effects; abdominal implants are used most commonly in waterfowl. Methods also have been developed to implant transmitters subcutaneously, but effects of subcutaneous implants on adult ducks have not been evaluated. In this study, we subcutaneously implanted radiotransmitters in pre-laying female wood ducks (Aix sponsa, n = 62) and compared nest initiation date, incubation behavior, body mass, and annual return rates of radiomarked females to a group of females that were not radiomarked. Ninety-six percent (50 of 52) of radiomarked females that were monitored for the entire breeding season initiated nests. Nesting date of radiomarked adult females did not differ from that of adult females without radios, but radiomarked yearling females nested earlier than yearlings not receiving transmitters. We found no differences in early- and late-incubation body mass, incubation constancy, recess frequency, and incubation period between radiomarked females and those without radios. Annual return rates of females that initiated nests did not differ between radiomarked females and those not receiving radios. Data suggest that implanting radiotransmitters subcutaneously in pre-laying female wood ducks did not negatively impact subsequent reproduction, incubation behavior, and survival.

  4. Internal Rates of Return to College Education in the United States by Sex and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Elchanan; Cooper, Samuel T.

    1997-01-01

    Provides IRORs (internal rates of return) to investment in higher education by race and sex, using data from the 1985 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Black males obtain a rate of return somewhat below other subgroups. Females tend to have a larger return to an investment in education than their male counterparts. (63 references) (MLH)

  5. The Rate of Return to the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James J.; Moon, Seong Hyeok; Pinto, Rodrigo; Savelyev, Peter A.; Yavitz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the rate of return to the High/Scope Perry Preschool Program, an early intervention program targeted toward disadvantaged African-American youth. Estimates of the rate of return to the Perry program are widely cited to support the claim of substantial economic benefits from preschool education programs. Previous studies of the rate of return to this program ignore the compromises that occurred in the randomization protocol. They do not report standard errors. The rates of return estimated in this paper account for these factors. We conduct an extensive analysis of sensitivity to alternative plausible assumptions. Estimated annual social rates of return generally fall between 7–10 percent, with most estimates substantially lower than those previously reported in the literature. However, returns are generally statistically significantly different from zero for both males and females and are above the historical return on equity. Estimated benefit-to-cost ratios support this conclusion. PMID:21804653

  6. A Study of the Education Rate of Return for Rural Residents in Northwest Minority Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baicai, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Studying the rate of return for rural residents in minority areas can give a good explanation for the problems of children enrolling in school and dropping out. On the whole, the education rate of return for rural residents in northwest minority areas is low, the Mincer function estimate is 2%, and the Heckman model estimate is 2.49%. The rate of…

  7. Perceived Rates of Return to Higher Education: Further Evidence from Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2008-01-01

    The paper provides new estimates of the perceived rates of return to higher education in Cyprus and compares them to previous estimates for the year 1994 in the same country. Both the elaborate and the short-cut methods are used in the estimation of rates of return. The estimated rates are entered as independent variables in logistic regression…

  8. 31 CFR 359.10 - What is the fixed rate of return?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... possibly be less than the fixed rate or negative in deflationary situations. In all cases, however, the... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the fixed rate of return? 359... BONDS, SERIES I General Information § 359.10 What is the fixed rate of return? The Secretary, or...

  9. Beyond the Mincer Equation: The Internal Rate of Return to Higher Education in Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Suaza, Andrés Felipe; Guataquí, Juan Carlos; Guerra, José Alberto; Maldonado, Darío

    2014-01-01

    In order to present an estimation of the internal rate of return (IRR) to higher education in Colombia, we take advantage of recent updates on the methodological approach towards earnings equations. In order to overcome the criticism that surrounds interpretations of the education coefficient of Mincer equations as being the rate of return to…

  10. 47 CFR 65.104 - Page limitations for rate of return submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Page limitations for rate of return submissions. 65.104 Section 65.104 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Procedures §...

  11. 47 CFR 65.101 - Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings. 65.101 Section 65.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND...

  12. 47 CFR 65.103 - Procedures for filing rate of return submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for filing rate of return submissions. 65.103 Section 65.103 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND...

  13. 47 CFR 65.700 - Determining the maximum allowable rate of return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining the maximum allowable rate of return. 65.700 Section 65.700 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES...

  14. Rate of Return to Education: A Distributional Analysis Using the LifePaths Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boothby, Daniel; Rowe, Geoff

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports estimates of the distribution of individual private rates of return to undergraduate and community college education by field of study for Canada. It is important to know the dispersion of the private rate of return to post-secondary education, as well as its average level. There are very different implications for…

  15. Trends in the Mincerian Rates of Return to Education in Urban China: 1989-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiaohao, Ding; Suhong, Yang; Ha, Wei

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the trends in the Mincerian rates of return (MRRs) to education in urban China between 1989 and 2009 using two sources of data: the China Urban Household Survey and the China Health and Nutrition Survey, and attempts to explain the underlying causes of the trends. The authors find that while the rates of return to education had…

  16. 47 CFR 51.909 - Transition of rate-of-return carrier access charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Beginning July 1, 2017, notwithstanding any other provision of the Commission's rules: (1) Each Rate-of... methodology: (i) Each Rate-of-Return Carrier shall calculate its 2017 interstate Target Composite Terminating End Office Access Rate. The 2017 interstate Target Composite Terminating End Office Access Rate...

  17. The Not-So-Empty-Nest: The Return of the Fledgling Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Audra W.; Axelson, Leland J.

    1985-01-01

    Adult children who return home are responding to unemployment and financial need, but factors such as dependence, protection needs, and parental happiness appear to be involved in long-term stays. This paper combines survey data to identify factors for successful living arrangements, and areas of conflict and dissatisfaction. (Author/NRB)

  18. Patterns of Learning in a Sample of Adult Returners to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Anthony; Johnston, Bill; McDonald, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This article presents empirical research exploring adult returner students' patterns of learning via qualitative analysis of a series of semi-structured interviews. Interviewees' comments shed light on the relation between patterns of learning on the one hand, and study skills, epistemological issues and attitudes to peer interaction on the other.…

  19. Charting the Learning Journey of a Group of Adults Returning to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Des

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative case study method the researcher studied a group of adult returning students completing a childcare course. Methods used included focus groups, a questionnaire and observations. Using a holistic analysis approach (Yin 2003) of the case the researcher then focused on a number of key issues. From this analysis the themes of…

  20. Computer program for discounted cash flow/rate of return evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, W. D.

    1971-01-01

    Technique, incorporated into set of three computer programs, provides economic methodology for reducing all parameters to financially sound common denominator of present worth, and calculates resultant rate of return on new equipment, processes, or systems investments.

  1. Returning Home in Systems of Care: Rates, Predictors, and Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Elizabeth M. Z.; Southerland, Dannia; Mustillo, Sarah A.; Burns, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent work suggests that out-of-home placements continue to be relatively common for youth with mental health problems, even within systems of care. The current work examines rates and predictors of movement back home and stability of reunifications. During the focal period, 1,778 youths experienced out-of-home placements; 61% moved back home,…

  2. Return rates from intertidal foraging from Blombos Cave to Pinnacle Point: Understanding early human economies.

    PubMed

    De Vynck, Jan C; Anderson, Robert; Atwater, Chloe; Cowling, Richard M; Fisher, Erich C; Marean, Curtis W; Walker, Robert S; Hill, Kim

    2016-03-01

    The south coast of South Africa provides the earliest evidence for Middle Stone Age (MSA) coastal resource exploitation by early Homo sapiens. In coastal archaeology worldwide, there has been a debate over the general productivity of intertidal foraging, leading to studies that directly measure productivity in some regions, but there have been no such studies in South Africa. Here we present energetic return rate estimates for intertidal foraging along the southern coast of South Africa from Blombos Cave to Pinnacle Point. Foraging experiments were conducted with Khoi-San descendants of the region, and hourly caloric return rates for experienced foragers were measured on 41 days near low tide and through three seasons over two study years. On-site return rates varied as a function of sex, tidal level, marine habitat type and weather conditions. The overall energetic return rate from the entire sample (1492 kcal h(-1)) equals or exceeds intertidal returns reported from other hunter-gatherer studies, as well as measured return rates for activities as diverse as hunting mammals and plant collecting. Returns are projected to be exceptionally high (∼ 3400 kcal h(-1) for men, ∼ 1900 kcal h(-1) for women) under the best combination of conditions. However, because of the monthly tidal cycle, high return foraging is only possible for about 10 days per month and for only 2-3 h on those days. These experiments suggest that while intertidal resources are attractive, women and children could not have subsisted independently, nor met all their protein-lipid needs from marine resources alone, and would have required substantial additional energy and nutrients from plant gathering and/or from males contributing game.

  3. The contribution of estuary-resident life histories to the return of adult Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    PubMed

    Jones, K K; Cornwell, T J; Bottom, D L; Campbell, L A; Stein, S

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated estuarine habitat use, life-history composition, growth and survival of four successive broods of coho salmon Oncoryhnchus kisutch in Salmon River, Oregon, U.S.A. Subyearling and yearling O. kisutch used restored and natural estuarine wetlands, particularly in the spring and winter. Stream-reared yearling smolts spent an average of 2 weeks in the estuary growing rapidly before entering the ocean. Emergent fry also entered the estuary in the spring, and some resided in a tidal marsh throughout the summer, even as salinities increased to >20. A significant portion of the summer stream-resident population of juvenile O. kisutch migrated out of the catchment in the autumn and winter and used estuary wetlands and adjacent streams as alternative winter-rearing habitats until the spring when they entered the ocean as yearling smolts. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag returns and juvenile life-history reconstructions from otoliths of returning adults revealed that four juvenile life-history types contributed to the adult population. Estuarine-associated life-history strategies accounted for 20-35% of the adults returning to spawn in the four brood years, indicating that a sizable proportion of the total O. kisutch production is ignored by conventional estimates based on stream habitat capacity. Juvenile O. kisutch responses to the reconnection of previously unavailable estuarine habitats have led to greater life-history diversity in the population and reflect greater phenotypic plasticity of the species in the U.S. Pacific Northwest than previously recognized.

  4. Efficient-market perspectives on utility rate-of-return adequacy

    SciTech Connect

    Harlow, F.

    1984-03-29

    The article introduces a conceptual framework from assessing utility rate of return adequacy based upon a market-based profitability index called the ''Q-ratio.'' Reviewing the theory of financial market efficiency, the author explores potential application in a regulated industry environment. The rationale for Q-ratio analysis is presented, and the implication for investment in a ''typical'' utility are highlighted. (A second article by this author, to follow in another issue, will discuss the techniques of comparing Q-ratios and deriving target rates of return on equity.)

  5. Growth, smoltification, and smolt-to-adult return of spring chinook salmon from hatcheries on the Deschutes river, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckman, B.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Zaugg, W.S.; Sharpe, C.; Hirtzel, S.; Schrock, R.; Larsen, D.A.; Ewing, R.D.; Palmisano, A.; Schreck, C.B.; Mahnken, C.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between smoltification and smolt-to-adult return (SAR) of spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Deschutes River, Oregon, was examined for four release groups in each of three successive years. Fish were reared, marked with coded wire tags, and released from Round Butte Hatchery, Pelton Ladder rearing facility, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery. Smolt releases occurred in nearly the same place at similar times, allowing a direct comparison of SAR to several characters representing smolt quality. Return rates varied significantly among facilities, varying over an order of magnitude each year. The highest average SAR was from Pelton Ladder, the lowest was from Warm Springs. Each of the characters used as metrics of smoltification - fish size, spring growth rate (February-April), condition factor, plasma hormone concentration (thyroxine, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor-I [IGF-I]), stress challenge, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and liver glycogen concentration - varied significantly among facilities and seasonally within hatchery groups. However, only spring growth rate, gill ATPase activity, and plasma IGF-I concentration showed significant relationships to SAR. These characters and SAR itself were consistently lower for fish released from Warm Springs Hatchery than for fish from Round Butte Hatchery and Pelton Ladder. This demonstrates that differences in the quality of fish released by facilities may have profound effects on subsequent survival and suggests that manipulations of spring growth rate may be used to influence the quality of smolts released from facilities.

  6. Association of Returning to Work With Better Health in Working-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Mustard, Cameron; Rourke, Sean B.; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Raboud, Janet; Lavis, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We systematically reviewed the literature on the impact of returning to work on health among working-aged adults. Methods. We searched 6 electronic databases in 2005. We selected longitudinal studies that documented a transition from unemployment to employment and included a comparison group. Two reviewers independently appraised the retrieved literature for potential relevance and methodological quality. Results. Eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria, including 1 randomized controlled trial. Fifteen studies revealed a beneficial effect of returning to work on health, either demonstrating a significant improvement in health after reemployment or a significant decline in health attributed to continued unemployment. We also found evidence for health selection, suggesting that poor health interferes with people’s ability to go back to work. Some evidence suggested that earlier reemployment may be associated with better health. Conclusions. Beneficial health effects of returning to work have been documented in a variety of populations, times, and settings. Return-to-work programs may improve not only financial situations but also health. PMID:22390520

  7. Exploring the Processes of Self-Development Encountered by Adult Returners to Higher Education: A Lifespan Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Evidence indicates that non-traditional adult returners describe returning to education as a period of self-development and growth. However, lifespan psychology perspectives also show that successful growth and change involves periods of conflict. This paper will explore both the nature of self-development and conflicts experienced by a sample of…

  8. Literacy Skills, Occupational Assignment and the Returns to Over- and Under-Education. International Adult Literacy Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boothby, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    This study uses data from the Canadian panel of the International Adult Literacy Survey to examine the relations between schooling, literacy and occupational assignment and to determine the extent to which returns to over- and under-education are in fact returns to literacy skills. Two measures of required training time for the job are used, both…

  9. Financial modeling in medicine: cash flow, basic metrics, the time value of money, discount rates, and internal rate of return.

    PubMed

    Lexa, Frank James; Berlin, Jonathan W

    2005-03-01

    In this article, the authors cover tools for financial modeling. Commonly used time lines and cash flow diagrams are discussed. Commonly used but limited terms such as payback and breakeven are introduced. The important topics of the time value of money and discount rates are introduced to lay the foundation for their use in modeling and in more advanced metrics such as the internal rate of return. Finally, the authors broach the more sophisticated topic of net present value.

  10. 47 CFR 54.903 - Obligations of rate-of-return carriers and the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obligations of rate-of-return carriers and the Administrator. 54.903 Section 54.903 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Common Line Support Mechanism for...

  11. The Rate of Return to Educational Investment in China: A Comparative Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fengliang; Zhao, Yandong; Morgan, W. John

    2011-01-01

    This article comments on several features of the rate of return (ROR) to educational investment in China: first, the ROR to educational investment has increased with the expansion of educational provision since the 1980s. Second, the greater the educational provision, the greater the ROR. Third, the ROR in urban areas is more than that in rural…

  12. 78 FR 41129 - Market Test of Experimental Product - International Merchandise Return Service-Non-Published Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test of Experimental Product -- International Merchandise Return Service--Non-Published Rates AGENCY: U.S. Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Postal Service hereby gives notice of a market test...

  13. Mail Survey Return Rates Published in Health Education Journals: An Issue of External Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Murnan, Judy; Dake, Joseph A.; Dimmig, Jaime; Hayes, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed mail survey return rates published in seven general health education journals for the 13-year period, 1990-2002: "American Journal of Health Behavior," "American Journal of Health Education," "American Journal of Health Promotion," "Health Education & Behavior," "Health Education Research," "Journal of American College Health,"…

  14. 47 CFR 51.917 - Revenue recovery for Rate-of-Return Carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Revenue recovery for Rate-of-Return Carriers... Transitional Intrastate Access Service received by March 31, 2012; and (iii) Fiscal Year 2011 reciprocal compensation revenues received by March 31, 2012, less Fiscal Year 2011 reciprocal compensation payments...

  15. Dynamics of Rate of Returns for Postgraduate Education in Taiwan: The Impact of Higher Education Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chih-Hai; Lin, Chun-Hung A.; Lin, Chien-Ru

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of rate of returns for postgraduate education and the determinants of wage premiums for postgraduate labor, especially for the impact of higher education expansions, in terms of quantity and quality, since the late 1990s in Taiwan. Utilizing quasi-panel data over the 1990-2004 period and employing the double fixed…

  16. Investor sentiment and stock returns: Evidence from provincial TV audience rating in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Yuzhao; Shen, Dehua; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we advocate the provincial TV audience rating as the novel proxy for the provincial investor sentiment (PIS) and investigate its relation with stock returns. The empirical results firstly show that the PIS is positively related to stock returns. Secondly, we provide direct evidence on the existence of home bias in China by observing that the provincial correlation coefficient is significantly larger than the cross-provincial correlation coefficient. Finally, the PIS can explain a large proportion of provincial comovement. To sum up, all these findings support the role of the non-traditional information sources in understanding the "anomalies" in stock market.

  17. Genetic Influence on Adults' Ratings of Their Current Family Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied genetic and environmental origins of individual differences in adults' (N=386) ratings of their current family environment using Moos Family Environment Scales (FES). Found 25 percent of adults' FES scores due to genetic differences. Found environment in which they were reared had little effect on adults' ratings of their family…

  18. Modeling the effect of toe clipping on treefrog survival: Beyond the return rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, J.H.; Rice, K.G.; Mazzotti, F.J.; Percival, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Some studies have described a negative effect of toe clipping on return rates of marked anurans, but the return rate is limited in that it does not account for heterogeneity of capture probabilities. We used open population mark-recapture models to estimate both apparent survival (ϕ) and the recapture probability (p) of two treefrog species individually marked by clipping 2–4 toes. We used information-theoretic model selection to examine the effect of toe clipping on survival while accounting for variation in capture probability. The model selection results indicate strong support for an effect of toe clipping on survival of Green Treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and only limited support for an effect of toe clipping on capture probability. We estimate there was a mean absolute decrease in survival of 5.02% and 11.16% for Green Treefrogs with three and four toes removed, respectively, compared to individuals with just two toes removed. Results for Squirrel Treefrogs (Hyla squirella) indicate little support for an effect of toe clipping on survival but may indicate some support for a negative effect on capture probability. We believe that the return rate alone should not be used to examine survival of marked animals because constant capture probability must be assumed, and our examples demonstrate how capture probability may vary over time and among groups. Mark-recapture models provide a method for estimating the effect of toe clipping on anuran survival in situations where unique marks are applied.

  19. Accounting for Risk of Non-Completion in Private and Social Rates of Return to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Trivette, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional studies of the private and social rates of return to a Bachelor's degree focus on the earnings difference between Bachelor degree holders and high school graduates, and find that there are large rates of return for degree recipients. The estimates in these studies, however, do not take into account the risk of not completing a degree.…

  20. Child labour, adult literacy and employment rates in India.

    PubMed

    Raju, T N

    1989-01-01

    This study assesses the relationship between literacy and labour rates among the adults and children in 17 Indian states. Among children aged 5-14 years, 53.9% were literate and 3.74% were working for wages; these figures, however varied markedly among the states. Kerala, a state with the best overall adult literacy, also recorded the highest child literacy rate, and the lowest child employment rate. The states with high adult literacy also tended to have high child literacy (Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation, Rho 1 = 0.95, P less than 0.001), and low child labour (Rho = 0.56, P less than 0.02). Child labour rates did not correlate with adult labour rates. However, change in adult literacy and labour rates over a 7-year period correlated significantly both with the change in child literacy and labour rates: The states with a greater increase in adult literacy also observed a greater rise in child literacy, and a greater fall in child labour rates. But the states with a greater increase in adult labour had a greater rise in child labour rates; for each ten additional adults working, two more children also worked for wages, suggesting that increasing job opportunities drew both adults and children into the labour force. The findings, and their implications for pediatric care are discussed.

  1. Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. ); Wright, E.K. )

    1992-06-01

    The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

  2. Training Raters to Assess Adult ADHD: Reliability of Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V.; Reimherr, Fred W.; Kelsey, Douglas; Michelson, David; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The standardization of ADHD ratings in adults is important given their differing symptom presentation. The authors investigated the agreement and reliability of rater standardization in a large-scale trial of atomoxetine in adults with ADHD. Training of 91 raters for the investigator-administered ADHD Rating Scale (ADHDRS-IV-Inv) occurred prior to…

  3. Recurrent Die-Offs of Adult Coho Salmon Returning to Spawn in Puget Sound Lowland Urban Streams

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Myers, Mark S.; McCarthy, Sarah G.; Labenia, Jana S.; McIntyre, Jenifer K.; Ylitalo, Gina M.; Rhodes, Linda D.; Laetz, Cathy A.; Stehr, Carla M.; French, Barbara L.; McMillan, Bill; Wilson, Dean; Reed, Laura; Lynch, Katherine D.; Damm, Steve; Davis, Jay W.; Collier, Tracy K.

    2011-01-01

    Several Seattle-area streams in Puget Sound were the focus of habitat restoration projects in the 1990s. Post-project effectiveness monitoring surveys revealed anomalous behaviors among adult coho salmon returning to spawn in restored reaches. These included erratic surface swimming, gaping, fin splaying, and loss of orientation and equilibrium. Affected fish died within hours, and female carcasses generally showed high rates (>90%) of egg retention. Beginning in the fall of 2002, systematic spawner surveys were conducted to 1) assess the severity of the adult die-offs, 2) compare spawner mortality in urban vs. non-urban streams, and 3) identify water quality and spawner condition factors that might be associated with the recurrent fish kills. The forensic investigation focused on conventional water quality parameters (e.g., dissolved oxygen, temperature, ammonia), fish condition, pathogen exposure and disease status, and exposures to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and current use pesticides. Daily surveys of a representative urban stream (Longfellow Creek) from 2002–2009 revealed premature spawner mortality rates that ranged from 60–100% of each fall run. The comparable rate in a non-urban stream was <1% (Fortson Creek, surveyed in 2002). Conventional water quality, pesticide exposure, disease, and spawner condition showed no relationship to the syndrome. Coho salmon did show evidence of exposure to metals and petroleum hydrocarbons, both of which commonly originate from motor vehicles in urban landscapes. The weight of evidence suggests that freshwater-transitional coho are particularly vulnerable to an as-yet unidentified toxic contaminant (or contaminant mixture) in urban runoff. Stormwater may therefore place important constraints on efforts to conserve and recover coho populations in urban and urbanizing watersheds throughout the western United States. PMID:22194802

  4. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Engagement, and Achievement: A Test of Dweck's Model with Returning to School Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Marine, Claudette

    2005-01-01

    This study tested and extended Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation with adults who deliberately chose to face the challenge of returning to school. We examined the relationships among beliefs (implicit theories) on the nature of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement in learning, and achievement using path analyses.…

  5. Perceptions of Teaching and Learning in an Intergenerational Classroom: A Mixed Methods Study of Traditional and Returning Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Macela

    2012-01-01

    Today's colleges and universities are inundated with both traditional students and returning adult students, including baby boomers and retirees (Hardin, 2008). This study utilized a mixed methods research methodology to explore and analyze the perceptions of faculty members and students regarding the learning characteristics and learning…

  6. Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Control on Return from International Space Station (CCISS)- Heart Rate and Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughson, R. L.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Blaber, A. P.; Arbeille, Ph.; Zuj, K. A.; Greaves, D. K.

    2008-06-01

    CCISS is a project to study the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses of astronauts before, during and after long-duration (>60-day) stays on the International Space Station. The CCISS experiments consist of three phases that are designed to achieve an integrated examination of components responsible for return of blood to the heart, the pumping of blood from the heart and the distribution to the vascular territories including the brain. In this report the data are obtained from the 24-h monitoring of physical activity (Actiwatch on wrist and ankle) and of heart rate (Holter monitor). The data show clear patterns of change in physical activity from predominantly leg-based on Earth to relatively little activity of the ankles with maintained or increased activity of the wrists on ISS. Both on Earth and on ISS the largest changes in heart rate occur during the periods of leg activity. Average heart rate was changed little during the periods of minimal activity or of sleep in comparisons of Earth with in-flight recording both within the first two weeks of flight and the last two weeks. These data clearly show the importance of monitoring heart rate and physical activity simultaneously and show that attempts to derive indicators of autonomic activity from spectral analysis of heart rate variability should not be performed in the absence of knowledge of both variables.

  7. Fuzzy portfolio model with fuzzy-input return rates and fuzzy-output proportions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaur, Ruey-Chyn

    2015-02-01

    In the finance market, a short-term investment strategy is usually applied in portfolio selection in order to reduce investment risk; however, the economy is uncertain and the investment period is short. Further, an investor has incomplete information for selecting a portfolio with crisp proportions for each chosen security. In this paper we present a new method of constructing fuzzy portfolio model for the parameters of fuzzy-input return rates and fuzzy-output proportions, based on possibilistic mean-standard deviation models. Furthermore, we consider both excess or shortage of investment in different economic periods by using fuzzy constraint for the sum of the fuzzy proportions, and we also refer to risks of securities investment and vagueness of incomplete information during the period of depression economics for the portfolio selection. Finally, we present a numerical example of a portfolio selection problem to illustrate the proposed model and a sensitivity analysis is realised based on the results.

  8. Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Maki, Alan W; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams.

  9. Improving Completion Rates in Adult Education through Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled "New Roles for the Teacher--Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility," which sought to reduce nonattendance and drop-out rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving teachers' competences. This goal was…

  10. Alternating and Sequential Motion Rates in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, John E.; Cotton, Susan; Perry, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alternating motion rate (AMR) and sequential motion rate (SMR) are tests of articulatory diadochokinesis that are widely used in the evaluation of motor speech. However, there are no quality normative data available for adults aged 65 years and older. Aims: There were two aims: (1) to obtain a representative, normative dataset of…

  11. Expected Rate of Return on the Personal Investment in Education of No-Fee Preservice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    Return on personal investment is an important factor affecting the decision to invest in education. This article analyzes the personal education costs of no-fee preservice students, estimates and forecasts the return on their personal education investment, and compares the costs and benefits of for-fee preservice students and nonteaching students.…

  12. Fractal measures of spatial pattern as a heuristic for return rate in vegetative systems

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, M. A.; Jackson, E. L.; Kenyon, E. J.; Cook, K. J.; Keeling, M. J.; Bull, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of population persistence is a long-standing problem in ecology; in particular, whether it is possible to gain insights into persistence without long time-series. Fractal measurements of spatial patterns, such as the Korcak exponent or boundary dimension, have been proposed as indicators of the persistence of underlying dynamics. Here we explore under what conditions a predictive relationship between fractal measures and persistence exists. We combine theoretical arguments with an aerial snapshot and time series from a long-term study of seagrass. For this form of vegetative growth, we find that the expected relationship between the Korcak exponent and persistence is evident at survey sites where the population return rate can be measured. This highlights a limitation of the use of power-law patch-size distributions and other indicators based on spatial snapshots. Moreover, our numeric simulations show that for a single species and a range of environmental conditions that the Korcak–persistence relationship provides a link between temporal dynamics and spatial pattern; however, this relationship is specific to demographic factors, so we cannot use this methodology to compare between species. PMID:27069643

  13. Invitation to a Roundtable: A Discussion of Return-on-Investment in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, James; Spangenberg, Gail

    2014-01-01

    In September 2013, based on a national survey of state Adult Basic Education (ABE) directors or designates, Council for Advancement of Adult Literacy (CAAL) published "Stepping Up to ROI on Adult Education: A Survey of State Activity." This paper reported on the states' activity, from the perspective of the respondents, in collecting and…

  14. Peer-Interactions in the Adult Mathematics Classroom and the Flow-On Effect to the Children of Women Returning To Study Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Christine R.

    The effects that peer interactions in an adult mathematics classroom have on the children of women returning to study mathematics were explored in a case study of seven Australian mothers who had school-aged children and who had returned to study mathematics in Australia's technical and further education sector. During the 12-month study, the…

  15. 78 FR 34016 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Comment on Options To Promote Rural Broadband in Rate-Of-Return...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 54 Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Comment on Options To Promote Rural Broadband in... document, the Wireline Competition Bureau seeks comment on options to promote the availability of modern..., the Bureau seeks comment on two possible frameworks that could provide rate-of-return carriers...

  16. Using the Internal Rate of Return Method to Consider the Potential Degree Offerings of a Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, D. Adrian; Troxel, Stacy; Sumrall, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This paper considered the case of a liberal arts institution of higher learning that is hoping to improve its market competitiveness through the addition of either a graduate certificate program in human resources or the addition of a full graduate degree in human resources. An examination of internal rate of return financial value capital…

  17. An Evaluation of Four Decades of Rate of Return Analysis in Higher Education Policy Making: Weaknesses and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Maria E.

    2003-01-01

    Assesses the importance of rate-of-return (RoR) analysis for planning and policy making in higher education. Reviews methods used and discusses criticisms against RoR in relation to the screening function of education, the measurement of educational costs and benefits, and the pure effect of education on earnings. Recommends extension of RoR…

  18. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return B Appendix B to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  19. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return B Appendix B to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  20. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return B Appendix B to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  1. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return B Appendix B to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  2. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adjustments for Additions and Withdrawals in the Computation of Rate of Return B Appendix B to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Pt. 4, App....

  3. Dimensions of self-rated health in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Borim, Flávia Silva Arbex; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between negative self-rated health and indicators of health, wellbeing and sociodemographic variables in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study that used data from a population-based health survey with a probability cluster sample that was carried out in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil,, in 2008 and 2009. The participants were older adults (≥ 60 years) and the dependent variable was self-rated health, categorized as: excellent, very good, good, bad and very bad. The adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by means of Poisson multiple regression. RESULTS The highest prevalences of bad/very bad self-rated health were observed in the individuals who never attended school, in those with lower level of schooling, with monthly per capita family income lower than one minimum salary. Individuals who scored five or more in the physical health indicator also had bad self-rated health, as well as those who scored five or more in the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 and those who did not refer feeling happiness all the time. CONCLUSIONS The independent effects of material life conditions, physical and mental health and subjective wellbeing, observed in self-rated health, suggest that older adults can benefit by health policies supported by a global and integrative view of old age. PMID:25372161

  4. Second Chances: Making Meaning from Adult Literacy Students Returning to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Helene Joyce

    2012-01-01

    Sokolowski (2000) summarized the phenomenological attitude by saying, "We look at what we normally look through" (p. 50). Through interviews and document analysis, this study looked at the lives of six students and their decision to return to their education to earn a high school diploma. The purpose of this study was to illuminate how…

  5. Hospital Readmission among Older Adults Who Return Home with Unmet Need for ADL Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Glen; Xu, Huiping; Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Craig, Bruce A.; Stallard, Eric; Thomas, Joseph, III.; Sands, Laura P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study determined whether returning to the community from a recent hospitalization with unmet activities of daily living (ADL) need was associated with probability of readmission. Methods: A total of 584 respondents to the 1994, 1999, and/or 2004 National Long-Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) who were hospitalized within 90 days prior to the…

  6. Rates of Pneumococcal Disease in Adults With Chronic Medical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Kimberly M.; Edelsberg, John; Weycker, Derek; Farkouh, Raymond A.; Strutton, David R.; Pelton, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Background.  Although it is widely accepted that adults with immunocompromising conditions are at greatly increased risk of pneumococcal infection, the extent of risk among immunocompetent adults with chronic medical conditions is less certain, particularly in the current era of universal vaccination of children with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Methods.  We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from 3 healthcare claims repositories (2006–2010) to compare rates of pneumococcal disease in immunocompetent adults with chronic medical conditions (“at-risk”) and immunocompromised adults (“high-risk”), with rates in adults without these conditions (“healthy”). Risk profiles and episodes of pneumococcal disease—all-cause pneumonia, pneumococcal pneumonia, and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)—were ascertained from diagnosis, procedure, and drug codes. Results.  Rates of all-cause pneumonia among at-risk persons aged 18–49 years, 50–64 years, and ≥65 years were 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1–3.2), 3.1 (95% CI, 3.1–3.1), and 3.0 (95% CI, 3.0–3.0) times the rates in age-matched healthy counterparts, respectively. We identified rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn's disease, and neuromuscular or seizure disorders as additional at-risk conditions for pneumococcal disease. Among persons with at-risk conditions, the rate of all-cause pneumonia substantially increased with the accumulation of concurrent at-risk conditions (risk stacking): among persons 18–49 years, rate ratios increased from 2.5 (95% CI, 2.5–2.5) in those with 1 at-risk condition to 6.2 (95% CI, 6.1–6.3) in those with 2 conditions, and to 15.6 (95% CI, 15.3–16.0) in those with ≥3 conditions. Findings for pneumococcal pneumonia and IPD were similar. Conclusions.  Despite widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, rates of pneumonia and IPD remain disproportionately high in adults with at-risk conditions

  7. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the seventh season (1997-2003) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the fifth season (1999-2003) of acclimating the resultant progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2003, acclimation of

  8. To Knock Down Barriers for Returning Adult Learners, RI Tries Something New

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, Tracy; Littky, Dennis; Bush, Adam

    2015-01-01

    In a historic unanimous vote on May 20, 2015, the Rhode Island Council on Postsecondary Education welcomed College Unbound as a degree-granting postsecondary option in the state, designed to serve the more than 110,000 Rhode Island adults who began but did not complete bachelor's degrees. The college is the adult-learning initiative of Big Picture…

  9. A combined telemetry - tag return approach to estimate fishing and natural mortality rates of an estuarine fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacheler, N.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Paramore, L.M.; Pollock, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    A joint analysis of tag return and telemetry data should improve estimates of mortality rates for exploited fishes; however, the combined approach has thus far only been tested in terrestrial systems. We tagged subadult red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) with conventional tags and ultrasonic transmitters over 3 years in coastal North Carolina, USA, to test the efficacy of the combined telemetry - tag return approach. There was a strong seasonal pattern to monthly fishing mortality rate (F) estimates from both conventional and telemetry tags; highest F values occurred in fall months and lowest levels occurred during winter. Although monthly F values were similar in pattern and magnitude between conventional tagging and telemetry, information on F in the combined model came primarily from conventional tags. The estimated natural mortality rate (M) in the combined model was low (estimated annual rate ?? standard error: 0.04 ?? 0.04) and was based primarily upon the telemetry approach. Using high-reward tagging, we estimated different tag reporting rates for state agency and university tagging programs. The combined telemetry - tag return approach can be an effective approach for estimating F and M as long as several key assumptions of the model are met.

  10. Return to work rates and activity profiles: are there differences between those receiving C-ADR and ACDF?

    PubMed Central

    Traynelis, Vincent C.; Leigh, Barbara C.; Skelly, Andrea C.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Comparative effectiveness review. Study rationale: The ability of a patient to return to work and the speed with which this occurs are important outcome metrics for the assessment of patients undergoing spinal surgery. Clinical questions: In patients with degenerative disease of the cervical spine, does cervical artificial disc replacement (C-ADR) lead to better work-related outcomes than fusion? Does return to work after surgery differ based on gender, age, smoking, litigation status, workers’ compensation status, or other sociodemographic factors? Methods: A systematic search and review of the English-language literature was undertaken to identify studies published through October 2, 2011. PubMed, Cochrane, National Guideline Clearinghouse Databases, and bibliographies of key articles were searched. Two individuals independently reviewed articles based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, which were set a priori. Each article was evaluated using a predefined quality-rating scheme. Results: For follow-up periods of more than 6 months, there was no significant difference in work status between disc replacement and fusion patients; however, C-ADR patients began working sooner after surgery. Statistical significance for earlier return was not reached in all studies. Conclusions: Most patients undergoing cervical decompression and fusion or C-ADR return to work. The rates are equivalent at 6 months but patients treated with C-ADR resumed work sooner. PMID:23236313

  11. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2007 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eleventh season (1997-2007) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the ninth season (1999-2007) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2007

  12. 47 CFR 51.909 - Transition of rate-of-return carrier access charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shall: (i) Revise any of its intrastate switched access rates that would have reached parity with its interstate switched access rates in 2013 to parity with the revised interstate switched access rate levels... Rate if its intrastate terminating end office access rates would be at rate parity with its...

  13. An Investigation of Domestic Approval Plan Return Rates by Academic Subjects before and after Subject Reprofiling at a Medium-Sized Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Ida L.

    Approval plans are widely used in academic libraries to acquire current books soon after publication without time-consuming, costly title-by-title ordering. However, return rates of unselected books to the approval plan vendor are sometimes unacceptably high. Wright State University Library attempted to moderate their high approval return rates by…

  14. High rates of nonbreeding adult bald eagles in southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.J.; Hodges, J.I. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Present knowledge of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) demography is derived primarily from populations in environments that have been drastically altered by man. Most reproductive studies were done in the 1960's and 1970's when chemical toxins were inhibiting bald eagle productivity. Earlier, the removal of old-growth forests and decimation of anadromous fish runs by Euro-Americans may have greatly reduced bald eagle abundance from presettlement levels. Historical trends in this species are of interest because fundamental differences may exist between populations in pristine and man-altered environments. One difference may be breeding rate. Surpluses of nonbreeding adult bald eagles during the nesting season are rarely mentioned in the literature. Most surveys of reproductive success focus exclusively on eagles at nest sites, which assumes nearly all adults attempt to breed each year. The authors report that a majority of adults in the relatively pristine habitats of southeastern Alaska do not breed annually. This finding is important because if surpluses of non-breeding adults are a natural feature of the population, then hypotheses on density dependent population regulation and the evolution of delayed maturation are suggested. If, on the other hand, the abundance of nonbreeders is an artifact of recent environmental perturbations, serious population declines may occur in southeastern Alaska.

  15. Futuristic Metropolis or Second-Rate Port? Adult Education in Hong Kong before and after 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Describes the present adult education landscape in Hong Kong. Explores four scenarios for Hong Kong's future arising from positive and negative outcomes in the economy and human rights. Suggests that, ironically, returning Hong Kong to a Marxist state will jeopardize neo-Marxist (critical, emancipatory) approaches to adult education because of…

  16. 47 CFR 51.909 - Transition of rate-of-return carrier access charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shall: (i) Revise any of its intrastate switched access rates that would have reached parity with its interstate switched access rates in 2013 to parity with the revised interstate switched access rate...

  17. "Starting from Ground Zero:" Constraints and Experiences of Adult Women Returning to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Nancy L.; Schmertz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Women adult students face particular constraints when pursuing degrees. This paper uses focus group data to explore the educational pathways, barriers, and supports of women students. Women's educations are shaped by personal and structural gendered forces, including family, economic, and workplace issues. Women report conflict over short-term…

  18. They Returned, but Will They Stay? Exploring the Influence of College Experiences on Adult Students' Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, W. A., III.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how college experiences, as perceived by adult students, influenced their decisions on persistence. Specifically, the role students' perceptions of their college experiences played in their decisions to persist in college or voluntarily depart without completing a degree was examined. A grounded theory approach was used…

  19. Researching Returns Emanating from Participation in Adult Education Courses: A Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panitsides, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Throughout contemporary literature, participants in adult education courses have been reported to acquire knowledge and skills, develop understanding and enhance self-confidence, parameters that induce changes in their personal lives, while enabling them to play a more active role in their family, community or work. In this vein, a large-scale,…

  20. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2006 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the tenth season (1997-2006) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the eighth season (1999-2006) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2006

  1. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2004 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eighth season (1997-2004) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the sixth season (1999-2004) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progency for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2004

  2. Systematic Review of Occupational Therapy and Adult Cancer Rehabilitation: Part 2. Impact of Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation and Psychosocial, Sexuality, and Return-to-Work Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Elizabeth G; Gibson, Robert W; Arbesman, Marian; D'Amico, Mariana

    This article is the second part of a systematic review of evidence for the effectiveness of cancer rehabilitation interventions within the scope of occupational therapy that address the activity and participation needs of adult cancer survivors. This article focuses on the use of multidisciplinary rehabilitation and interventions that address psychosocial outcomes, sexuality, and return to work. Strong evidence indicates that multidisciplinary rehabilitation benefits cancer survivors and that psychosocial strategies can reduce anxiety and depression. Moderate evidence indicates that interventions can support survivors in returning to the level of sexuality desired and help with return to work. Part 1 of the review also appears in this issue.

  3. Reliability and Validity of Self- and Other-Ratings of Symptoms of ADHD in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Hardy, Kristina K.; Kollins, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Few studies have examined concordance between raters of ADHD symptoms in adults; there is less information on how well rating scales function in distinguishing adult ADHD from other disorders. This study examined these variables using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). Method: The sample included 349 adults evaluated for…

  4. Resting Heart Rate and Aortic Stiffness in Normotensive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Jeongok G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Large-artery stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is considered the gold standard measure of arterial stiffness. A resting heart rate is an easily measured vital sign that is also associated with CVD morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have reported the significant relationship of a resting heart rate with arterial stiffness as measured by cfPWV only in hypertensive subjects; their relationship in nonhypertensive subjects remains unknown. The present study, therefore, examined their relationship in normotensive subjects. Subjects and Methods In 102 healthy Korean Americans between ages 20 and 60 years, their resting heart rate was measured by an automated blood pressure measuring device after a 10 minute rest in the supine position. Arterial stiffness was measured by cfPWV using the SphygmoCor device. Results The mean resting heart rate of participants (mean age, 39.64 years; 59% women) was 61.91 bpm (standard deviation [SD], 9.62 bpm) and mean the cfPWV was 6.99 (SD, 1.14) m/s. A multiple regression analysis showed that a resting heart rate is a significant predictor of cfPWV after controlling for age, body mass index, and mean arterial pressure. For one bpm increase of resting heart rate, cfPWV increased approximately 0.02 m/s. Conclusion Our results suggest that a higher resting heart rate is independently associated with increased arterial stiffness as measured by cfPWV in normotensive adults. Arterial stiffness may explain the prognostic role of an individual's heart rate in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:27826343

  5. Topical spironolactone reduces sebum secretion rates in young adults.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, A; Ito, M

    1996-04-01

    The effects of topically applied spironolactone on the sebum secretion rates (SSR) of young adults were investigated. SSR was expressed as the ratio of wax esters/[cholesterol+cholesterol esters] (WE/[C+CE]) and the amount of sebaceous lipids (squalene, triacylglycerol and wax esters). Topical spironolactone 5% gel applied to the right cheeks of the subjects produced a significant reduction in the SSR at 12 weeks (4 weeks after termination of application), but not at 8 weeks (the end of treatment). Untreated "control" areas (the left cheeks of the subjects) showed no significant change during the study. None of the subjects experienced skin rash or signs of local irritation. This results suggests that topical spironolactone may be effective in the treatment of acne patients with high SSR.

  6. Diminishing Returns of Population Size in the Rate of RNA Virus Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Miralles, Rosario; Moya, Andrés; Elena, Santiago F.

    2000-01-01

    Whenever an asexual viral population evolves by adapting to new environmental conditions, beneficial mutations, the ultimate cause of adaptation, are randomly produced and then fixed in the population. The larger the population size and the higher the mutation rate, the more beneficial mutations can be produced per unit time. With the usually high mutation rate of RNA viruses and in a large enough population, several beneficial mutations could arise at the same time but in different genetic backgrounds, and if the virus is asexual, they will never be brought together through recombination. Thus, the best of these genotypes must outcompete each other on their way to fixation. This competition among beneficial mutations has the effect of slowing the overall rate of adaptation. This phenomenon is known as clonal interference. Clonal interference predicts a speed limit for adaptation as the population size increases. In the present report, by varying the size of evolving vesicular stomatitis virus populations, we found evidence clearly demonstrating this speed limit and thus indicating that clonal interference might be an important factor modulating the rate of adaptation to an in vitro cell system. Several evolutionary and epidemiological implications of the clonal interference model applied to RNA viruses are discussed. PMID:10729131

  7. The total rate of mass return to the interstellar medium from red giants and planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, G. R.; Rauch, K. P.; Wilcots, E. M.

    1990-01-01

    High luminosity post main sequence stars are observed to be losing mass in large amounts into the interstellar medium. The various methods used to estimate individual and total mass loss rates are summarized. Current estimates give MT 0.3 - 0.6 solar mass per year for the whole Galaxy.

  8. Estimating annual survival and movement rates of adults within a metapopulation of roseate terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hays, H.; Cormons, G.D.; Burger, J.; Safina, C.; Hines, J.E.; Gochfeld, M.

    1995-01-01

    Several multistratum capture-recapture models were used to test various hypotheses about possible geographic and temporal variation in survival, movement, and recapture/resighting probabilities of 2399 adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) color-banded from 1988 to 1992 at the sites of the four largest breeding colonies of this species in the northeastern USA. Linear-logistic ultrastructural models also were developed to investigate possible correlates of geographic variation in movement probabilities. Based on goodness-of-fit tests and comparisons of Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) values, the fully parameterized model (Model A) with time- and location-specific survival, movement, and capture probabilities, was selected as the most appropriate model for this metapopulation structure. With almost all movement accounted for, on average gt 90% of the surviving adults from each colony site returned to the same site the following year. Variations in movement probabilities were more closely associated with the identity of the destination colony site than with either the identity of the colony site of origin or the distance between colony sites. The average annual survival estimates (0.740.84) of terns from all four sites indicate a high rate of annual mortality relative to that of other species of marine birds.

  9. Ambiguities in the retrieval of rain rates from radar returns at attenuating wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Z. S.; Im, E.; Durden, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    It is well-known that there are significant deterministic ambiguities inherent in trying to determine the particular rain rate profile which produced some given sequence of air- or space-borne radar echo powers at a single attenuating frequency. We quantify these ambiguities mathematically, and examine their effect on various proposed rain-rate profile retrieval algorithms. When the given data consist of a single radiometer measurement together with a single-look-angle single-frequency set of range-compressed echo powers, we show that several substantially different rain profiles can realistically be considered solutions. On the other hand, if the data consist of a single-look-angle two-frequency set of echo powers, the inversion problem generically has a unique solution. We note that traditional 'back-of-the-envelope' arguments can be quite misleading in assessing the extent of the ambiguity, even in the simplest cases.

  10. Respiratory rate variability in sleeping adults without obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Williams, Jeffrey; Alrehaili, Ghadah A; McLean, Anna; Pirouz, Ramin; Amdur, Richard; Jain, Vivek; Ahari, Jalil; Bawa, Amandeep; Kimbro, Shawn

    2016-09-01

    Characterizing respiratory rate variability (RRV) in humans during sleep is challenging, since it requires the analysis of respiratory signals over a period of several hours. These signals are easily distorted by movement and volitional inputs. We applied the method of spectral analysis to the nasal pressure transducer signal in 38 adults with no obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index <5, who underwent all-night polysomnography (PSG). Our aim was to detect and quantitate RRV during the various sleep stages, including wakefulness. The nasal pressure transducer signal was acquired at 100 Hz and consecutive frequency spectra were generated for the length of the PSG with the Fast Fourier Transform. For each spectrum, we computed the amplitude ratio of the first harmonic peak to the zero frequency peak (H1/DC), and defined as RRV as (100 - H1/DC) %. RRV was greater during wakefulness compared to any sleep stage, including rapid-eye-movement. Furthermore, RRV correlated with the depth of sleep, being lowest during N3. Patients spent most their sleep time supine, but we found no correlation between RRV and body position. There was a correlation between respiratory rate and sleep stage, being greater in wakefulness than in any sleep stage. We conclude that RRV varies according to sleep stage. Moreover, spectral analysis of nasal pressure signal appears to provide a valid measure of RRV during sleep. It remains to be seen if the method can differentiate normal from pathological sleep patterns.

  11. The Reliability and Validity of Self- and Investigator Ratings of ADHD in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Michelson, David; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Little information is available comparing self- versus investigator ratings of symptoms in adult ADHD. The authors compared the reliability, validity, and utility in a sample of adults with ADHD and also as an index of clinical improvement during treatment of self- and investigator ratings of ADHD symptoms via the Conners Adult ADHD…

  12. RF and Optical Communications: A Comparison of High Data Rate Returns From Deep Space in the 2020 Timeframe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, W. Dan; Collins, Michael; Boroson, Don M.; Lesh, James; Biswas, Abihijit; Orr, Richard; Schuchman, Leonard; Sands, O. Scott

    2007-01-01

    As NASA proceeds with plans for increased science data return and higher data transfer capacity for science missions, both RF and optical communications are viable candidates for significantly higher-rate communications from deep space to Earth. With the inherent advantages, smaller apertures and larger bandwidths, of optical communications, it is reasonable to expect that at some point in time and combination of increasing distance and data rate, the rapidly emerging optical capabilities would become more advantageous than the more mature and evolving RF techniques. This paper presents a comparison of the burden to a spacecraft by both RF and optical communications systems for data rates of 10, 100, and 1000 Mbps and large distances. Advanced technology for RF and optical communication systems have been considered for projecting capabilities in the 2020 timeframe. For the comparisons drawn, the optical and RF ground terminals were selected to be similar in cost. The RF system selected is composed of forty-five 12-meter antennas, whereas the selected optical system is equivalent to a 10-meter optical telescope. Potential differences in availability are disregarded since the focus of this study is on spacecraft mass and power burden for high-rate mission data, under the assumption that essential communications will be provided by low-rate, high availability RF. For both the RF and optical systems, the required EIRP, for a given data rate and a given distance, was achieved by a design that realized the lowest possible communications subsystem mass (power + aperture) consistent with achieving the lowest technology risk. A key conclusion of this paper is that optical communications has great potential for high data rates and distances of 2.67 AU and beyond, but requires R&D and flight demonstrations to prove out technologies.

  13. Comparison among the efficacy of interventions for the return rate to receive the pap test report: randomized controlled clinical trial 1

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Lima, Thaís Marques; Barbosa, Denise de Fátima Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to test the effects of a behavioral, an educative and a comparative intervention on women's adherence to the return appointment to receive the pap test report. Methods: randomized controlled clinical trial at a Primary Health Care Service, involving three groups: EG (educative session and test demonstration), BG (recall ribbon) and standard intervention (card containing the return appointment - graphical reminder), called comparative group here (CG). To select the sample, the following was established: having started sexual activity and undergoing the pap smear during the study, resulting in 775 women. Results: among the 775 women, 585 (75.5%) returned to receive the test result within 65 days. The educative group presented the highest return rate (EG=82%/CG=77%/BG=66%), statistically significant only when compared to the behavioral group (p=0.000). The educative group obtained the smallest interval (p<0.05) concerning the mean number of days of return to receive the test result (EG:M=43days/BG:M=47.5days/CG:M=44.8 days). Conclusion: the educative group reached higher return rates and the women returned earlier, but the behavioral intervention showed to be the least effective. Brazilian Clinical Trial Register: RBR-93ykhs. PMID:28301035

  14. [Effects of nitrogen application rates and straw returning on nutrient balance and grain yield of late sowing wheat in rice-wheat rotation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Shi, Zu-liang; Yang, Si-jun; Gu, Ke-jun; Dai, Ting-bo; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiang; Sun, Ren-hua

    2015-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of nitrogen application rates and straw returning on grain yield, nutrient accumulation, nutrient release from straw and nutrient balance in late sowing wheat. The results showed that straw returning together with appropriate application of nitrogen fertilizer improved the grain yield. Dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulation increased significantly as the nitrogen application rate increased. At the same nitrogen application rate (270 kg N · hm(-2)), the dry matter, phosphorus and potassium accumulation of the treatment with straw returning were higher than that without straw returning, but the nitrogen accumulation was lower. Higher-rate nitrogen application promoted straw decomposition and nutrient release, and decreased the proportion of the nutrient released from straw after jointing. The dry matter, phosphorus and potassium release from straw showed a reverse 'N' type change with the wheat growing, while nitrogen release showed a 'V' type change. The nutrient surplus increased significantly with the nitrogen application rate. At the nitrogen application rate for the highest grain yield, nitrogen and potassium were surplus significantly, and phosphorus input could keep balance. It could be concluded that as to late sowing wheat with straw returning, applying nitrogen at 257 kg · hm(-2) and reducing potassium fertilizer application could improve grain yield and reduce nutrients loss.

  15. Factors influencing the return rate in a direct mail campaign to inform minority women about prevention of cervical cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Dignan, M B; Michielutte, R; Jones-Lighty, D D; Bahnson, J

    1994-01-01

    The Forsyth County Cervical Cancer Prevention Project was a 5-year community-based health education program funded by the National Cancer Institute. The program was developed to reduce cervical cancer mortality among black women in Forsyth County, and it was targeted to those ages 18 and older. The program tried to educate the target population through a combination of mass media and direct education. This paper reports on an experiment conducted to investigate sources of influence on the effectiveness of direct mail, a technique used to augment mass media health education. Direct mail has shown promise as a method for reaching target populations that are difficult to reach with other mass media approaches. Using commercially prepared mailing lists sorted by zip code and other characteristics of the resident, health-related materials can be targeted to persons at their homes. A randomized experiment involving 1,000 households was carried out to estimate the influence of type of postage and address (name versus "resident or occupant") on the response rate to direct mail. Results indicated that there was no significant advantage from use of first class over bulk rate postage, but the return was significantly greater when the envelope bore a name rather than "resident or occupant." PMID:8041850

  16. Relative rates and features of musculoskeletal complications in adult sicklers.

    PubMed

    Bahebeck, Jean; Atangana, Réné; Techa, André; Monny-Lobe, Marcel; Sosso, Maurice; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively look for the relative rates and features of musculoskeletal complications in a sample of adult homozygous SS sicklers in Yaoundé. During a 3-year period, known homozygous SS sicklers aged sixteen years or more, with suspicion or evidence of locomotor system disease, including leg ulcer, were consecutively investigated through complete medical history, clinical examination, full blood count, C-reactive protein, standard radiographs of the area of complaint, and, when necessary, CT scan and pus analysis. Those patients with no definite diagnosis were excluded. The study group comprised 84 patients aged 16 to 51 years (mean age: 22 years), with a male/female ratio of 0.75. Four of them (4.5%) were older than 40 years. Thirty five (41.6%) presented a total of 50 lesions of aseptic osteonecrosis, which were located in the hips in 25 cases (50%), in the lumbar spine in 20 cases (40%), in the humeral head in four cases (10%) and in the talar body in one case. The hip necrosis was grade I in 6 cases, grade II in four, grade III in 11 and terminal in four. Multiple sites of necrosis were observed in six patients. Nineteen (22.6%) of the sicklers came on with 36 malleolar ulcers, more frequently in males (sex ratio: 5/1) and 28 (78%) located on the medial side. Fifteen sites of osteomyelitis were noted in 14 patients (17.8%) and septic arthritis in six (7%). Less frequent complications were impingement syndrome, gout osteoarthropathy, stress fracture, subtalar fusion, knee osteoarthritis, tendonitis of the anterior tibialis, and recurrent dislocation of the patella. All patients were managed conventionally, except for advanced aseptic necrosis in which the indication for arthroplasty was delayed till the terminal stage. As suggested by another recent report from Senegal, efforts should be made to improve the life expectancy of sicklers in Sub-Saharan African countries, by acting on education, social and medical care

  17. Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 2: Examples from the Trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. E.; Collier, R.; Cowles, S.

    2004-12-01

    We will share experiences and specific examples from an ongoing Ocean Science and Math Collaborative Project between OSU faculty and Community College instructors from the Oregon system of adult education and workforce development. The participants represent such diverse instructional programs as workforce training, workplace education (cannery workers), adult basic education, adult secondary education (GED preparation), English to Speakers of Other Languages, Family Literacy, and Tribal Education (Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Indians). This collaborative project is designed to integrate ocean sciences into the science, math, and critical thinking curriculum through the professional development activities of adult educators. Our strategy is to tailor new and existing ocean science resources to the needs of adult education instructors. This project provides a wide range of opportunities in time and effort for scientist involvement. Some scientists have chosen to participate in short interviews or conversations with adult educators, which give added value through real-world connections in the context of the larger project. Other participating scientists have made larger time investments, which include presentations at workshops, hosting teacher-at-sea opportunities and leading project planning and implementation efforts. This project serves as an efficient model for scientists to address the broader impact goals of their research. It takes advantage of a variety of established educational outreach resources funded through NSF (e.g. the national COSEE network and GeoEducation grants), NOAA (e.g. SeaGrant education and Ocean Explorer) as well as State and Federal adult education programs (e.g. The National Institute for Literacy Science and Numeracy Special Collection). We recognize the value and creativity inherent in these resources, and we are developing a model to "tune" their presentation, as well as their connection to new oceanographic research, in a manner

  18. Household Rates of Return to Education in Rural Bangladesh: Accounting for Direct Costs, Child Labour, and Option Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2007-01-01

    This study estimates the returns to boys' education for rural Bangladeshi households by accounting for some conventionally neglected items: direct costs of education, foregone child labour earnings, and option value. The estimated returns are 13.5% for primary education, 7.8% for junior-secondary education, 12.9% for higher-secondary education,…

  19. Heart rate recovery after the 10-m incremental shuttle walking test in older adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2014-03-01

    Heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is an independent predictor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. To investigate the usefulness of HRR in cardiorespiratory exercise testing in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the aims of this study were (a) to assess HRR in older adults with ID after the 10-m incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT) and (b) its association with personal characteristics (gender, age, distance walked on the ISWT, level of ID, genetic syndrome causing ID, autism, behavioral problems, and peak heart rate (HRpeak)). HRR was assessed after the 10-m incremental shuttle walking test in 300 older adults (>50 years) with borderline to profound ID. HRR was defined as the change from HRpeak during the ISWT to heart rate measured after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min of passive recovery. The largest decrease in heart rate was in the first minute of recovery leveling off toward the fifth minute of recovery. An abnormal HHR (≤12 bpm) was seen in 36.1% of the participants with Down syndrome (DS) and in 30.7% of the participants with ID by other causes. After the fifth minute the heart rates of 69.4% of the participants with DS and of 61.4% of the participants with ID by other causes returned to resting levels. HRpeak and distance walked on the ISWT were positively related to all HRR measures. More severe ID was negatively related and having DS positively related to HRR after 3-5 min of recovery. The other characteristics were not significantly associated to HRR. HRR is a potentially useful outcome measure in cardiorespiratory fitness testing of older adults with ID with a direct, objective, and non-invasive measurement. Further research is needed to identify the relation between HRR and adverse health outcomes in this population.

  20. The Private Internal Rates of Return to Tertiary Education: New Estimates for 21 OECD Countries. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 591

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boarini, Romina; Strauss, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    This study provides estimates of the private Internal Rates of Return (IRR) to tertiary education for women and men in 21 OECD countries, for the years between 1991 and 2005. IRR are computed by estimating labour market premia on cross-country comparable individual-level data. Labour market premia are then adjusted for fiscal factors and education…

  1. The Effects of Different Loan Schemes for Higher Education Tuition: An Analysis of Rates of Return and Tuition Revenue in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Bruce; Lounkaew, Kiatanantha

    2009-01-01

    In recent times there has been considerable change and instability with respect to Thailand student loans policy. The contribution of what follows is to compare and contrast the consequences of disparate possible approaches to the payment of tuition in two main respects: the effect on internal rates of return for higher education investments; and…

  2. Effect of High School Completion of the Agricultural Education Program on the Rate of Return on Investment for the Commonwealth of Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevins, Phillip Scott

    2010-01-01

    This research study sought to determine the effect high school completion of the agricultural career and technical education program has on the rate of return on investment by public schools in Virginia. The research questions guiding this study included: (1) Were students able to find employment related to the agricultural career and technical…

  3. Studies in Income Distribution. Internal Rates of Return to Retired Worker-Only Beneficiaries under Social Security, 1967-70. No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiden, Alan; And Others

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the real internal rate of return to the old age insurance (OAI) portion of the old age, survivors, and disability insurance (OASDI) program for worker-only beneficiaries retiring between 1967 and 1970. Section I reviews the analytical background for this study. The issues concern alternative measures of…

  4. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. Benchmarking diagnosis using the Wender-Reimherr adult rating scale].

    PubMed

    Rösler, M; Retz, W; Retz-Junginger, P; Stieglitz, R D; Kessler, H; Reimherr, F; Wender, P H

    2008-03-01

    We report on a study comparing different systems for the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Recruited for evaluation were 168 patients referred to our ADHD outpatient unit. We used the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edn. (DSM-IV), International Classification of Diseases 10th edn. (ICD-10), and Utah criteria for diagnostic assessment and the Wender Utah rating scale, ADHD Self Report (ADHD-SR), and Wender Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Rating Scale as psychopathological assessment tools. We present basic psychometric data of the Wender-Reimherr Interview (WRI). Internal consistency was determined as 0.82 (alpha). The inter-rater reliability was 1.0 (kappa coefficient) regarding ADHD diagnoses, and the ICC was 0.98 referring to the WRI total scores. The convergent validity with the ADHD-SR was 0.65 (Spearman coefficient). In 126 of 168 patients an ADHD diagnosis was made according to at least one of the three systems. The DSM-IV diagnostic set led to 119 ADHD diagnoses. As compared with the two other systems, this is about the minimum level for an ADHD diagnosis. All of the 87 ADHD diagnoses according to ICD-10 were covered by DSM-IV. The ICD-10 had no independent psychopathological items and therefore offered no additional points for the diagnostic procedure than the DSM-IV. The situation regarding Utah criteria is different. These criteria contain seven psychopathological domains: inattention, hyperactivity, disorganisation, impulsivity, affective lability, overreactivity, and hot temper. They can be assessed by use of the WRI. Ninety-three of 168 patients were diagnosed as having ADHD according to the Utah concept, which is much lower than with the DSM-IV. The particular definition of the disorder by the Utah criteria resulted in seven patients having only a Utah diagnosis but no DSM-IV diagnosis. Thus we are in a position to say that the Utah criteria have a relatively high level for

  5. Trends in Suicide Methods and Rates among Older Adults in South Korea: A Comparison with Japan

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Go Eun; Ahn, Myung Hee; Yi, Ki Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lethality of the chosen method during a suicide attempt is a strong risk factor for completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea and Japan. Methods We analyzed annual the World Health Organization data on rates and methods of suicide from 2000 to 2011 in South Korea and Japan. Results For Korean older adults, there was a significant positive correlation between suicide rate and the rate of hanging or the rate of jumping, and a significant negative correlation between suicide rate and the rate of poisoning. Among older adults in Japan, annual changes in the suicide rate and the pattern of suicide methods were less conspicuous, and no correlation was found between them. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that the increasing use of lethal suicide methods has contributed to the rise in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea. Targeted efforts to reduce the social acceptability and accessibility of lethal suicide methods might lead to lower suicide rate among older adults in South Korea. PMID:27081378

  6. Adult-Rated Oceanography Part 1: A Project Integrating Ocean Sciences into Adult Basic Education Programs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, S.; Collier, R.; Torres, M. K.

    2004-12-01

    Busy scientists seek opportunities to implement education and outreach efforts, but often don't know where to start. One easy and tested method is to form collaborations with federally-funded adult education and adult literacy programs. These programs exist in every U.S. state and territory and serve underrepresented populations through such major initiatives as adult basic education, adult secondary education (and GED preparation), and English language acquisition. These students are workers, consumers, voters, parents, grandparents, and members of every community. They have specific needs that are often overlooked in outreach activities. This presentation will describe the steps by which the Oregon Ocean Science and Math Collaborative program was developed. It is based on a partnership between the Oregon Department of Community Colleges and Workforce Development, Oregon State University College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon Sea Grant, and the OSU Hatfield Marine Science Center. It includes professional development through instructor institutes; teachers at sea and informal education opportunities; curriculum and web site development. Through the partnership described here, instructors in adult basic education programs participate in a yearlong experience in which they develop, test, and adapt innovative instructional strategies to meet the specific needs of adult learners. This, in turn, leads to new prospects for study in the areas of ocean science and math and introduces non-academic careers in marine science to a new community. Working directly with instructors, we have identified expertise level, instructional environment, instructor background and current teaching strategies used to address science literacy and numeracy goals of the adult learners in the State of Oregon. Preliminary evaluation of our ongoing project in meeting these goals will be discussed. These efforts contribute to national goals of science literacy for all, by providing

  7. Linking Quality of Life and Standard of Living Priorities with Rates of Return in Education: Implications for Ontario's Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menna, Agostino

    2012-01-01

    This study begins to develop a way to measure the returns and benefits of education using a standard of living and quality of life approach. It sought identification of school priorities among senior level managers at postsecondary institutions in Ontario, Canada, and found that these administrators prioritized standard of living over quality of…

  8. Heart Rate Change When Standing Up Might Predict Older Adult's Death Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Change When Standing Up Might Predict Older Adult's Death Risk People with slower heart rate recovery had ... they stand up might reveal their risk of death over the next several years, a new study ...

  9. Mycobacterial infections in adult salmon and steelhead trout returning to the Columbia River Basin and other areas in 1957

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1959-01-01

    The degree of incidence of acid -fast bacillus infections in adult salmonid fishes was determined. The disease was shown to be widely distributed in the area examined. It is believed the primary source of infection is derived from the hatchery practice of feeding infected salmon products to juvenile fish. One group of marked adults that had been hatchery reared for 370 days showed a 62 percent incidence of infection. A statistical analysis indicated that length of fish is independent of infection

  10. Relation between gastric emptying rate and energy intake in children compared with adults.

    PubMed Central

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Geypens, B J; Hiele, M I; Rutgeerts, P J

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of gastric emptying rate of solids in children is difficult because the available methods are either invasive or induce a substantial radiation burden. In this study the newly developed 13C octanoic acid breath test was used to examine the gastric emptying rate of solids and milk in healthy children and to compare gastric emptying in children and adults. Fifteen healthy children and three groups of nine healthy adults were studied, using three different test meals labelled with 50 mg of 13C octanoic acid: a low caloric pancake (150 kcal), a high caloric pancake (250 kcal), and 210 ml of milk (134 kcal). Breath samples were taken before and at regular intervals after ingestion of the test meal, and analysed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The gastric emptying parameters were derived from the 13CO2 excretion curves by non-linear regression analysis. No significant difference was found between children and adults in the emptying rate of the low caloric solid test meal. In children as well as in adults, increasing the energy content of the solid meal resulted in a significantly slower emptying rate. The milk test meal, however, was emptied at a faster rate in adults and at slower rate in children compared with the low caloric solid test meal. Moreover, the emptying rate of milk in children was significantly slower than in adults. In conclusion, a similar gastric emptying rate of solids but a slower emptying of full cream milk was shown in children of school age compared with adults, using the non-radioactive 13C octanoic acid breath test. PMID:7883214

  11. College Affordability for Low-Income Adults: Improving Returns on Investment for Families and Society. Report #C412

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Barbara; Reichlin, Lindsey; Román, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This report examines how efforts to understand and improve college affordability can be informed by the experiences and circumstances of low-income adults, students of color, and students with dependent children. The report discusses how the time and financial demands associated with financial independence, parenthood, and work affect a student's…

  12. Does stress response predict return rate in a migratory bird species? A study of American redstarts and their non-breeding habitat

    PubMed Central

    Angelier, Frédéric; Holberton, Rebecca L.; Marra, Peter P.

    2009-01-01

    In vertebrates, the adrenocortical stress response activates an emergency life-history stage, which is thought to promote survival by helping individuals escape life-threatening situations. Although the adrenocortical stress response promotes many behavioural and physiological changes, it remains unclear whether this stress response actually translates into higher survival in wild vertebrates. We measured the adrenocortical stress response of non-breeding American redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla), a migratory bird that wintered in habitats of either high (mangroves) or low suitability (scrubs), and subsequently monitored their return rate during the following non-breeding seasons. The intensity of the adrenocortical stress response was consistent within individuals across the non-breeding season and was positively correlated with return rates in redstarts that wintered in scrubs, but not in redstarts that wintered in mangroves. Thus, in a context-dependent manner, the ability of an individual to physiologically react to stress determines its ability of returning to its non-breeding territory the following winters. For an individual, the ability to mount an important adrenocortical stress response probably benefits to survival. However, this beneficial effect probably depends on an individual's environment and phenotypic characteristics because these two variables are likely to affect its probability of being confronted with life-threatening stressors during its annual life cycle. PMID:19605397

  13. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  14. Speech rate effects on the processing of conversational speech across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Koch, Xaver; Janse, Esther

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of speech rate on spoken word recognition across the adult life span. Contrary to previous studies, conversational materials with a natural variation in speech rate were used rather than lab-recorded stimuli that are subsequently artificially time-compressed. It was investigated whether older adults' speech recognition is more adversely affected by increased speech rate compared to younger and middle-aged adults, and which individual listener characteristics (e.g., hearing, fluid cognitive processing ability) predict the size of the speech rate effect on recognition performance. In an eye-tracking experiment, participants indicated with a mouse-click which visually presented words they recognized in a conversational fragment. Click response times, gaze, and pupil size data were analyzed. As expected, click response times and gaze behavior were affected by speech rate, indicating that word recognition is more difficult if speech rate is faster. Contrary to earlier findings, increased speech rate affected the age groups to the same extent. Fluid cognitive processing ability predicted general recognition performance, but did not modulate the speech rate effect. These findings emphasize that earlier results of age by speech rate interactions mainly obtained with artificially speeded materials may not generalize to speech rate variation as encountered in conversational speech.

  15. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms, and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Brown, Richard S. ); Cullinan, Valerie I. ); Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A. )

    2003-10-01

    We measured oxygen consumption rates of adult spring Chinook salmon and compared these values to other species of Pacific salmon. Our results indicated that adult salmon achieve their maximum level of oxygen consumption at about their upper critical swim speed. It is also at this speed that the majority of the energy supplied to the swimming fish switches from red muscle (powered by aerobic metabolism) to white muscle (powered by anaerobic metabolism). Determining the swimming performance of adult salmon will assist managers in developing fishways and other means to safely pass fish over hydroelectric dams and other man-made structures.

  16. Effect of Various Sugary Beverages on Salivary pH, Flow Rate, and Oral Clearance Rate amongst Adults.

    PubMed

    Hans, Rinki; Thomas, Susan; Garla, Bharat; Dagli, Rushabh J; Hans, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Diet is a major aetiological factor for dental caries and enamel erosion. This study was undertaken with the aim of assessing the effect of selected locally available beverages on salivary pH, flow rate, and oral clearance rate amongst adults. Materials and Method. This clinical trial comprised 120 subjects. Test beverages undertaken were pepsi, fruit drink, coffee, and sweetened milk. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey's test were applied in the statistical tests. Results. It was found that salivary pH decreased for all the beverages immediately after consumption and the salivary flow rate increased after their consumption. The oral clearance rate of sweetened milk was found to be the least at 6.5 minutes and that of pepsi was found to be 13 minutes. However, the oral clearance rates of fruit drink and coffee were found to be equal at 15 minutes. Conclusion. Although it was found out that liquids cleared rapidly from the oral cavity, they had a significant cariogenic and erosive potential. Hence, it is always advised to minimise the consumption of beverages, especially amongst children and young adults to maintain a good oral health.

  17. Effect of Various Sugary Beverages on Salivary pH, Flow Rate, and Oral Clearance Rate amongst Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hans, Rinki; Thomas, Susan; Garla, Bharat; Dagli, Rushabh J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Diet is a major aetiological factor for dental caries and enamel erosion. This study was undertaken with the aim of assessing the effect of selected locally available beverages on salivary pH, flow rate, and oral clearance rate amongst adults. Materials and Method. This clinical trial comprised 120 subjects. Test beverages undertaken were pepsi, fruit drink, coffee, and sweetened milk. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey's test were applied in the statistical tests. Results. It was found that salivary pH decreased for all the beverages immediately after consumption and the salivary flow rate increased after their consumption. The oral clearance rate of sweetened milk was found to be the least at 6.5 minutes and that of pepsi was found to be 13 minutes. However, the oral clearance rates of fruit drink and coffee were found to be equal at 15 minutes. Conclusion. Although it was found out that liquids cleared rapidly from the oral cavity, they had a significant cariogenic and erosive potential. Hence, it is always advised to minimise the consumption of beverages, especially amongst children and young adults to maintain a good oral health. PMID:27051556

  18. Negative affect predicts adults' ratings of the current, but not childhood, impact of adverse childhood events.

    PubMed

    LaNoue, Marianna; Graeber, David A; Helitzer, Deborah L; Fawcett, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Adverse childhood events (ACE's) have been empirically related to a wide range of negative health and mental health outcomes. However, not all individuals who experience ACE's follow a trajectory of poor outcomes, and not all individuals perceive the impact of ACE's as necessarily negative. The purpose of this study was to investigate positive and negative affect as predictors of adults' ratings of both the childhood and adult impact of their childhood adversity. Self-report data on ACE experiences, including number, severity, and 'impact' were collected from 158 community members recruited on the basis of having adverse childhood experiences. Results indicated that, regardless of event severity and number of different types of adverse events experienced, high levels of negative affect were the strongest predictor of whether the adult impact of the adverse childhood events was rated as negative. All individuals rated the childhood impact of events the same. Implications are discussed.

  19. Human fear extinction and return of fear using reconsolidation update mechanisms: the contribution of on-line expectancy ratings.

    PubMed

    Warren, Victor Taylor; Anderson, Kemp M; Kwon, Cliffe; Bosshardt, Lauren; Jovanovic, Tanja; Bradley, Bekh; Norrholm, Seth Davin

    2014-09-01

    Disruption of the reconsolidation of conditioned fear memories has been suggested as a non-pharmacological means of preventing the return of learned fear in human populations. A reconsolidation update paradigm was developed in which a reconsolidation window is opened by a single isolated retrieval trial of a previously reinforced CS+ which is then followed by Extinction Training within that window. However, follow-up studies in humans using multi-methods fear conditioning indices (e.g., fear-potentiated startle, skin conductance, US-expectancy) have failed to replicate the retrieval+extinction effects. In the present study, we further investigated the retrieval+extinction reconsolidation update paradigm by directly comparing the acquisition, extinction, and return of fear-potentiated startle in the absence or presence of US-expectancy measures (using a trial-by-trial response keypad) with and without retrieval of a previously acquired CS-US association. Participants were fear conditioned to two visual cue CS+'s, one of which was presented as a single, isolated retrieval trial before Extinction Training and one that was extinguished as usual. The results show that the inclusion of US-expectancy measures strengthens the CS-US association to provide enhanced fear conditioning and maintenance of fear memories over the experimental sessions. In addition, in the groups that used on-line US-expectancy measures, the retrieval+extinction procedure reduced reinstatement of fear-potentiated startle to both previously reinforced CS+'s, as compared to the extinction as usual group.

  20. Patient-rated versus proxy-rated cognitive and functional measures in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Molly; Allan, Kevin C; Carlton, Caitlin E; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Smyth, Kathleen A; Sajatovic, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Patients with cognitive impairment may have difficulty reporting their functional and cognitive abilities, which are important clinical outcomes. Health care proxies may be able to corroborate patient self-reports. Several studies reported discrepancy between patient and proxy ratings, though the literature is sparse on changes over time of these ratings. Our goals in this 12-month study were to compare patient and proxy reports on functioning, cognition, and everyday executive function, and to further elucidate correlates of patient–proxy discrepancy. Methods This was a prospective cohort study of individuals older than 70 years who ranged from having no cognitive impairment to having moderate dementia who had a proxy available to complete instruments at baseline (N=76). Measurements included Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study–Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADLI), Neuro-QOL Executive Function, PROMIS Applied Cognition (PROMIS-Cog), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Geriatric Depression Scale. Results Patient- and proxy-rated ADCS-ADLI were correlated at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Patient and proxy ratings were discrepant on Neuro-QOL Executive Function and PROMIS-Cog. Greater patient–proxy discrepancy on PROMIS-Cog was associated with younger age and less depression, and greater patient–proxy discrepancy on Neuro-QOL Executive Function was associated with less depression and worse cognitive impairment. Patient–proxy discrepancy increased over time for everyday executive function. Changes in proxy-rated but not patient-rated ADCS-ADLI correlated with MMSE changes. Conclusion Patients and proxies generally agree in reporting on activities of daily living. Patient and proxy reports differ in their respective evaluation of cognitive functioning and everyday executive function. Ratings from both sources may be preferred for these two domains, though studies using gold standard measures are necessary. It is important

  1. Community-Level Characteristics Associated With Variation in Rates of Homelessness Among Families and Single Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fargo, Jamison D.; Munley, Ellen A.; Byrne, Thomas H.; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Culhane, Dennis P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We modeled rates of family and single-adult homelessness in the United States in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions and as a function of community-level demographic, behavioral, health, economic, and safety net characteristics. Methods. We entered community-level characteristics and US Department of Housing and Urban Development point-in-time counts for a single night in January 2009 into separate mixed-effects statistical analyses that modeled homelessness rates for 4 subpopulations: families and single adults in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan regions. Results. Community-level factors accounted for 25% to 50% of the variance in homelessness rates across models. In metropolitan regions, alcohol consumption, social support, and several economic indicators were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and drug use and homicide were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. In nonmetropolitan regions, life expectancy, religious adherence, unemployment, and rent burden were uniquely associated with family homelessness, and health care access, crime, several economic indicators, and receipt of Supplemental Security Income were uniquely associated with single-adult homelessness. Conclusions. Considering homeless families and single adults separately enabled more precise modeling of associations between homelessness rates and community-level characteristics, indicating targets for interventions to reduce homelessness among these subpopulations. PMID:24148057

  2. Long-Term High-Effort Endurance Exercise in Older Adults: Diminishing Returns for Cognitive and Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Young, Jeremy C; Dowell, Nicholas G; Watt, Peter W; Tabet, Naji; Rusted, Jennifer M

    2016-10-01

    While there is evidence that age-related changes in cognitive performance and brain structure can be offset by increased exercise, little is known about the impact long-term high-effort endurance exercise has on these functions. In a cross-sectional design with 12-month follow-up, we recruited older adults engaging in high-effort endurance exercise over at least 20 years, and compared their cognitive performance and brain structure with a nonsedentary control group similar in age, sex, education, IQ, and lifestyle factors. Our findings showed no differences on measures of speed of processing, executive function, incidental memory, episodic memory, working memory, or visual search for older adults participating in long-term high-effort endurance exercise, when compared without confounds to nonsedentary peers. On tasks that engaged significant attentional control, subtle differences emerged. On indices of brain structure, long-term exercisers displayed higher white matter axial diffusivity than their age-matched peers, but this did not correlate with indices of cognitive performance.

  3. Levels and Rates of Physical Activity in Older Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Sebastiao, Emerson; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i.e., ≥30 min/day) among young (i.e., ages 20-39 years), middle-aged (i.e., ages 40-59 years) and older adults (i.e., ages ≥60 years) with MS. The sample included 963 persons with MS who provided demographic and clinical information and wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period. The primary analysis involved a between-subjects ANOVA on accelerometer variables (i.e., accelerometer wear time; number of valid days; sedentary behavior in min/day; LPA in min/day; and MVPA in min/day). Collectively, our data indicated that older adults with MS engaged in less MVPA and more sedentary behavior than middle-aged and young adults with MS. Such results highlight the importance of developing physical activity interventions as an effective means for managing the progression and consequences of MS in older adults. PMID:27330842

  4. Substance Use and Other Mental Health Disorders Among Veterans Returning to the Inner City: Prevalence, Correlates, and Rates of Unmet Treatment Need

    PubMed Central

    Vazan, Peter; Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alex S.

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of substance use and other mental health disorders of veterans (N = 269) who returned to predominantly low-income minority New York City neighborhoods between 2009 and 2012 are presented. Although prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and depression clustered around 20%, the estimated prevalence rates of alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder, and substance use disorder were 28%, 18%, and 32%, respectively. Only about 40% of veterans with any diagnosed disorder received some form of treatment. For alcohol use disorder, the estimate of unmet treatment need was 84%, which is particularly worrisome given that excessive alcohol use was the greatest substance use problem. PMID:23869460

  5. Determinants of health insurance coverage rates for young adults: an analytical literature review.

    PubMed

    Cantiello, John; Fottler, Myron D; Oetjen, Dawn; Zhang, Ning Jackie

    2011-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the major determinants of health insurance coverage rates among young adults. Socioeconomic status, demographics, actual and perceived health status, perceived value, and perceived need are all examined in order to determine what the literature reveals regarding each variable and how each variable impacts a young adult's decision to purchase health insurance. Results indicate that socioeconomic status, demographics, perceived value, and perceived need were the most significant determinates of health insurance status of young adults. A conceptual framework is also examined and used to illustrate theoretical implications. Managerial implications for marketing health plans to young adults are also addressed. Finally, policy implications concerning the new Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act are addressed.

  6. Effect of temperature on the standard metabolic rates of juvenile and adult Exopalaemon carinicauda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chengsong; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-03-01

    Ridgetail white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda) are of significant economic importance in China where they are widely cultured. However, there is little information on the basic biology of this species. We evaluated the effect of temperature (16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34°C) on the standard metabolic rates (SMRs) of juvenile and adult E. carinicauda in the laboratory under static conditions. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ammonia-N excretion rate (AER), and atomic ratio of oxygen consumed to nitrogen consumed (O:N ratio) of juvenile and adult E. carinicauda were significantly influenced by temperature ( P < 0.05). Both the OCR and AER of juveniles increased significantly with increasing temperature from 16 to 34°C, but the maximum OCR for adults was at 31°C. Juvenile shrimp exhibited a higher OCR than the adults from 19 to 34°C. There was no significant difference between the AERs of the two life-stages from 16 to 31°C ( P >0.05). The O:N ratio in juveniles was significantly higher than that in the adults over the entire temperature range ( P <0.05). The temperature coefficient ( Q 10) of OCR and AER ranged from 5.03 to 0.86 and 6.30 to 0.85 for the adults, respectively, and from 6.09-1.03 and 3.66-1.80 for the juveniles, respectively. The optimal temperature range for growth of the juvenile and adult shrimp was from 28 to 31°C, based on Q 10 and SMR values. Results from the present study may be used to guide pond culture production of E. carinicauda.

  7. Elevational variation in adult body size and growth rate but not in metabolic rate in the tree weta Hemideina crassidens.

    PubMed

    Bulgarella, Mariana; Trewick, Steven A; Godfrey, A Jonathan R; Sinclair, Brent J; Morgan-Richards, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Populations of the same species inhabiting distinct localities experience different ecological and climatic pressures that might result in differentiation in traits, particularly those related to temperature. We compared metabolic rate (and its thermal sensitivity), growth rate, and body size among nine high- and low-elevation populations of the Wellington tree weta, Hemideina crassidens, distributed from 9 to 1171 m a.s.l across New Zealand. Our results did not indicate elevational compensation in metabolic rates (metabolic cold adaptation). Cold acclimation decreased metabolic rate compared to warm-acclimated individuals from both high- and low-elevation populations. However, we did find countergradient variation in growth rates, with individuals from high-elevation populations growing faster and to a larger final size than individuals from low-elevation populations. Females grew faster to a larger size than males, although as adults their metabolic rates did not differ significantly. The combined physiological and morphological data suggest that high-elevation individuals grow quickly and achieve larger size while maintaining metabolic rates at levels not significantly different from low-elevation individuals. Thus, morphological differentiation among tree weta populations, in concert with genetic variation, might provide the material required for adaptation to changing conditions.

  8. Mercury elimination rates for adult northern pike Esox lucius: evidence for a sex effect.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Blanchfield, Paul J; Hrenchuk, Lee E; Van Walleghem, Jillian L A

    2014-08-01

    We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day(-1), respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates.

  9. Speed discrimination predicts word but not pseudo-word reading rate in adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Main, Keith L.; Pestilli, Franco; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason; Martin, Ryan; Phipps, Stephanie; Wandell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Word familiarity may affect magnocellular processes of word recognition. To explore this idea, we measured reading rate, speed-discrimination, and contrast detection thresholds in adults and children with a wide range of reading abilities. We found that speed-discrimination thresholds are higher in children than in adults and are correlated with age. Speed discrimination thresholds are also correlated with reading rate, but only for words, not for pseudo-words. Conversely, we found no correlation between contrast sensitivity and reading rate and no correlation between speed discrimination thresholds WASI subtest scores. These findings support the position that reading rate is influenced by magnocellular circuitry attuned to the recognition of familiar word-forms. PMID:25278418

  10. Mercury elimination rates for adult northern pike Esox lucius: evidence for a sex effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Hrenchuk, Lee E.; Van Walleghem, Jillian L. A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of sex on mercury elimination in fish by monitoring isotope-enriched mercury concentrations in the muscle tissue of three adult female and three adult male northern pike Esox lucius, which had accumulated the isotope-enriched mercury via a whole-lake manipulation and were subsequently moved to a clean lake. Mercury elimination rates for female and male northern pike were estimated to be 0.00034 and 0.00073 day−1, respectively. Thus, males were capable of eliminating mercury at more than double the rate than that of females. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first documentation of mercury elimination rates varying between the sexes of fish. This sex difference in elimination rates should be taken into account when comparing mercury accumulation between the sexes of fish from the same population. Further, our findings should eventually lead to an improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for mercury elimination in vertebrates.

  11. Variability in heart rate recovery measurements over 1 year in healthy, middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Mellis, M G; Ingle, L; Carroll, S

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the longer-term (12-month) variability in post-exercise heart rate recovery following a submaximal exercise test. Longitudinal data was analysed for 97 healthy middle-aged adults (74 male, 23 female) from 2 occasions, 12 months apart. Participants were retrospectively selected if they had stable physical activity habits, submaximal treadmill fitness and anthropometric measurements between the 2 assessment visits. A submaximal Bruce treadmill test was performed to at least 85% age-predicted maximum heart rate. Absolute heart rate and Δ heart rate recovery (change from peak exercise heart rate) were recorded for 1 and 2 min post-exercise in an immediate supine position. Heart rate recovery at both time-points was shown to be reliable with intra-class correlation coefficient values ≥ 0.714. Absolute heart rate 1-min post-exercise showed the strongest agreement between repeat tests (r = 0.867, P < 0.001). Lower coefficient of variation (≤ 10.2%) and narrower limits of agreement were found for actual heart rate values rather than Δ heart rate recovery, and for 1-min rather than 2-min post-exercise recovery time points. Log-transformed values generated better variability with acceptable coefficient of variation for all measures (2.2-10%). Overall, 1 min post-exercise heart rate recovery data had least variability over the 12-month period in apparently healthy middle-aged adults.

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Adult-Rated Child Personality and Academic Performance in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poropat, Arthur E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Personality is reliably associated with academic performance, but personality measurement in primary education can be problematic. Young children find it difficult to accurately self-rate personality, and dominant models of adult personality may be inappropriate for children. Aims: This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the…

  13. Increasing Adult Learner Persistence and Completion Rates: A Guide for Student Affairs Leaders and Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Marguerite McGann, Ed.; Dungy, Gwendolyn Jordan, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    More than a third of all undergraduate students are 25 or older, and their presence on college and university campuses is growing. However, institutions of higher learning are struggling to meet the needs of, and improve persistence and completion rates for, this significant student population. "Increasing Adult Learner Persistence and…

  14. Individual Variability in Delayed Auditory Feedback Effects on Speech Fluency and Rate in Normally Fluent Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chon, HeeCheong; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Zhang, Jingfei; Loucks, Torrey; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed auditory feedback (DAF) is known to induce stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs) and cause speech rate reductions in normally fluent adults, but the reason for speech disruptions is not fully known, and individual variation has not been well characterized. Studying individual variation in susceptibility to DAF may identify factors…

  15. The Wender Utah Rating Scale: Adult ADHD Diagnostic Tool or Personality Index?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, B.D.; Pella, Russell D.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Jones, Glenn N.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) is used to retroactively assess ADHD symptoms. This study sought to determine whether the WURS actually functions as an index of dysfunctional personality traits. Method: Five hundred twenty-two adult participants completed the WURS and at least one of the following measures: Wechsler Adult…

  16. Happiness and arousal: framing happiness as arousing results in lower happiness ratings for older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bjalkebring, Par; Västfjäll, Daniel; Johansson, Boo E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a person’s rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22–92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control). In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions) and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions). Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal. PMID:26097459

  17. Metabolic Syndrome and Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yaw-Wen; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Wei-Liang; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents autonomic functioning, and reduced HRV significantly increases cardiovascular mortality. The aims of the present paper are to assess the prevalence of MetS in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the difference in short-term HRV…

  18. Dual-Dimension Naming Speed and Language-Dominance Ratings by Bilingual Hispanic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Henriette W.; Wiig, Elisabeth H.; Nielsen, Niels Peter

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of measures of naming speed, verbal fluency and self-ratings for establishing language dominance in 25 bilingual English-Spanish adults with college degrees. Naming speed was measured by total naming times (in seconds) for five "Alzheimer's Quick Test" tasks (Wiig, Nielsen, Minthon & Warkentin, 2002)…

  19. Children with Autism Detect Targets at Very Rapid Presentation Rates with Similar Accuracy as Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Wyble, Bradley; Shea, Nicole; LeBlanc, Megan; Kates, Wendy R.; Russo, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced perception may allow for visual search superiority by individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but does it occur over time? We tested high-functioning children with ASD, typically developing (TD) children, and TD adults in two tasks at three presentation rates (50, 83.3, and 116.7 ms/item) using rapid serial visual presentation.…

  20. Akathisia in Adults with Mental Retardation: Development of the Akathisia Ratings of Movement Scale (ARMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodfish, James W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Akathisia, a state of uncontrollable motor restlessness, is a side effect of neuroleptic treatment. The prevalence rate of akathisia in 94 adults with mental retardation was estimated to be 5% in neuroleptic-free subjects, 17% in neuroleptic-maintenance subjects, and 25% in neuroleptic-reduction subjects. Akathisia was also related to dyskinesia…

  1. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001). Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability. PMID:26703659

  2. Mycobacteria in adult salmonid fishes returning to national fish hatcheries in Washington, Oregon and California in 1958-59

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.

    1963-01-01

    Incidence of acid-fast bacillus infections in salmonid fishes at West Coast hatcheries was determined for 1957-59. No evidence was obtained which would indicate a definite trend towards either increased or decreased rates of infection. It is apparent that the incidence of infection is higher in hatchery-marked fish than in unmarked fish. Only one hatchery was found free of infection during the 3 years covered by the investigation. This installation had never used raw salmon products in diet.

  3. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  4. Psychopathological rating scales for diagnostic use in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Rösler, M; Retz, W; Thome, J; Schneider, M; Stieglitz, R-D; Falkai, P

    2006-09-01

    The diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is a complex procedure which should include retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms either by patient recall or third party information, diagnostic criteria according to DSM-IV, current adult ADHD psychopathology including symptom severity and pervasiveness, functional impairment, quality of life and comorbidity. In order to obtain a systematic database for the diagnosis and evaluation of the course ADHD rating scales can be very useful. This article reviews rating instruments that have found general acceptance. The Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and the Childhood Symptoms Scale by Barkley and Murphy try to make a retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms. The Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS), the Current Symptoms Scales by Barkley and Murphy (CSS), the Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS) by Adler et al. and Kessler et al. or the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Self Report Scale (ADHD-SR by Rösler et al.) are self report rating scales focusing mainly on the DSM-IV criteria. The CAARS and the CSS have other report forms too. The Brown ADD Rating Scale (Brown ADD-RS) and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder--Other Report Scale (ADHD-OR by Rösler et al.) are instruments for use by clinicians or significant others. Both self rating scales and observer report scales quantify the ADHD symptoms by use of a Likert scale mostly ranging from 0 to 3. This makes the instruments useful to follow the course of the disease quantitatively. Comprehensive diagnostic interviews not only evaluate diagnostic criteria, but also assess different psychopathological syndrome scores, functional disability measures, indices of pervasiveness and information about comorbid disorders. The most comprehensive procedures are the Brown ADD Diagnostic Form and the Adult Interview (AI) by Barkley and Murphy. An instrument of particular interest is the Wender Reimherr Interview (WRI

  5. Another Kind of Returning Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Judith B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the needs of women who are returning to school for adult basic education. Provides suggestions for meeting the needs of this group in terms of professional action, counselor education, teacher training, grants, financial support, publication, and volunteerism. (JAC)

  6. Energy Vs. Productivity: Diminishing Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Energy invested in corn production is compared with food energy returned in calculations by David Pimentel at Cornell University. The rate of return is falling off sharply in this already energy-intensive agriculture. Increased energy input, in the form of fertilizer, would yield far greater returns where agriculture is less sophisticated.…

  7. Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health Among Urban Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Method: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a de-industrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and SRH was analyzed using regression models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism, and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = .01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = .005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < .001). Discussion: More than 80% of older adults live in urban areas. By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S.

  8. Age-Specific Variation in Adult Mortality Rates in Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Yang, Y. Claire; Land, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates historical changes in both single-year-of-age adult mortality rates and variation of the single-year mortality rates around expected values within age intervals over the past two centuries in 15 developed countries. We apply an integrated Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort—Variance Function Regression Model to data from the Human Mortality Database. We find increasing variation of the single-year rates within broader age intervals over the life course for all countries, but the increasing variation slows down at age 90 and then increases again after age 100 for some countries; the variation significantly declined across cohorts born after the early 20th century; and the variation continuously declined over much of the last two centuries but has substantially increased since 1980. Our further analysis finds the recent increases in mortality variation are not due to increasing proportions of older adults in the population, trends in mortality rates, or disproportionate delays in deaths from degenerative and man-made diseases, but rather due to increasing variations in young and middle-age adults. PMID:28133402

  9. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Mitchell, Adam E.; Potticary, Ahva L.; Lloyd, P.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  10. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E; Oteyza, Juan C; Mitchell, Adam E; Potticary, Ahva L; Lloyd, Penn

    2015-03-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  11. 20 CFR 1002.236 - How is the employee's rate of pay determined when he or she returns from a period of service?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... attained with reasonable certainty, an employer may examine the returning employee's own work history, his... of time the returning employee was absent from work, the level of difficulty of the test itself, the... when he or she returns from a period of service? 1002.236 Section 1002.236 Employees' Benefits...

  12. 76 FR 43254 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  13. 78 FR 45176 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2013 Through June 30, 2014 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  14. 75 FR 41793 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2010 Through June 30, 2011 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  15. Optical communications and a comparison of optical technologies for a high data rate return link from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Rodney L.

    1993-01-01

    The important principles of direct- and heterodyne-detection optical free-space communications are reviewed. Signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and bit-error-rate (BER) expressions are derived for both the direct-detection and heterodyne-detection optical receivers. For the heterodyne system, performance degradation resulting from received-signal and local oscillator-beam misalignment and laser phase noise is analyzed. Determination of interfering background power from local and extended background sources is discussed. The BER performance of direct- and heterodyne-detection optical links in the presence of Rayleigh-distributed random pointing and tracking errors is described. Finally, several optical systems employing Nd:YAG, GaAs, and CO2 laser sources are evaluated and compared to assess their feasibility in providing high-data-rate (10- to 1000-Mbps) Mars-to-Earth communications. It is shown that the root mean square (rms) pointing and tracking accuracy is a critical factor in defining the system transmitting laser-power requirements and telescope size and that, for a given rms error, there is an optimum telescope aperture size that minimizes the required power. The results of the analysis conducted indicate that, barring the achievement of extremely small rms pointing and tracking errors (less than 0.2 microrad), the two most promising types of optical systems are those that use an Nd:YAG laser (lambda = 1.064 microns) and high-order pulse position modulator (PPM) and direct detection, and those that use a CO2 laser (lambda = 10.6 microns) and phase shifting keying homodyne modulation and coherent detection. For example, for a PPM order of M = 64 and an rms pointing accuracy of 0.4 microrad, an Nd:YAG system can be used to implement a 100-Mbps Mars link with a 40-cm transmitting telescope, a 20-W laser, and a 10-m receiving photon bucket. Under the same conditions, a CO2 system would require 3-m transmitting and receiving telescopes and a 32-W laser to implement such

  16. Statewide Implementation of Parenting with Love and Limits Among Youth with Co-Existing Internalizing and Externalizing Functional Impairments Reduces Return to Service Rates and Treatment Costs.

    PubMed

    Sterrett-Hong, Emma M; Karam, Eli; Kiaer, Lynn

    2017-01-24

    Many community mental health (CMH) systems contain inefficiencies, contributing to unmet need for services among youth. Using a quasi-experimental research design, we examined the implementation of an adapted structural-strategic family intervention, Parenting with Love and Limits, in a state CMH system to increase efficiency of services to youth with co-existing internalizing and externalizing functional impairments (PLL n = 296; Treatment-As-Usual n = 296; 54% male; 81% Caucasian). Youth receiving PLL experienced shorter treatment durations and returned to CMH services at significantly lower rates than youth receiving treatment-as-usual. They also demonstrated significant decreases in internalizing and externalizing symptoms over time. Findings lay the foundation for further examination of the role of an adapted structural-strategic family treatment in increasing the efficiency of CMH systems.

  17. The Effect of HIFA Waiver Expansions on Uninsurance Rates in Adult Populations

    PubMed Central

    Atherly, Adam; Dowd, Bryan E; Coulam, Robert F; Guy, Gery

    2012-01-01

    Research Objective To evaluate the effect of the Health Insurance Flexibility and Accountability (HIFA) demonstrations on the rate of uninsured. The policy purpose of the HIFA demonstrations is to encourage “new comprehensive state approaches” that will increase the number of insured. HIFA interventions include changes in benefit packages, eligibility rules for public programs, and state subsidization of private health insurance premiums. Some states emphasized private insurance (premium assistance), whereas others placed greater emphasis on expanded eligibility for public insurance. Data Sources/Study Setting Data were drawn from the Current Population Survey from 2000 to 2007. The target populations for the HIFA waiver demonstrations consisted of individuals who were eligible for the HIFA waiver demonstrations in demonstration states. Study Design The estimation approach was a probit model using a difference-in-differences approach. Principal Findings In states that fully implemented their HIFA waiver, HIFA increased the rate of insurance coverage by 6.4 percentage points on average in the targeted adult population, suggesting that approximately 118,848 adults gained health insurance due to HIFA. Total HIFA adult enrollment in the six states studied was 280,739. The effect size varied by state, with Maine having the largest effect and Illinois the smallest. The results were robust to different specifications of the control group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that public insurance initiatives that provide states with flexibility regarding eligibility and plan design are a viable policy approach to reducing uninsurance rates. PMID:22299673

  18. Healthier before they migrate, less healthy when they return? The health of returned migrants in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ullmann, S. Heidi; Goldman, Noreen; Massey, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Over the course of the 20th century, Mexico-U.S. migration has emerged as an important facet of both countries, with far reaching economic and social impacts. The health of Mexican immigrants in the U.S. has been well studied, but relatively less is known about the health of returned migrants to Mexico. The objectives of this paper are twofold. Relying on health data pertaining to two stages of the life course, early life health (pre-migration) and adult health (post-migration) from the Mexican Migration Project gathered between 2007 and 2009, we aim to assess disparities in adult health status between male returned migrants and male non-migrants in Mexico, accounting for their potentially different early life health profiles. While we find evidence that returned migrants had more favorable early life health, the results for adult health are more complex. Returned migrants have a higher prevalence of heart disease, emotional/psychiatric disorders, obesity, and smoking than non-migrants but no differences are found in self-rated health, diabetes, or hypertension. PMID:21729820

  19. Relationships Between Metabolic Rate, Muscle Electromyograms and Swim Performance of Adult Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2003-10-01

    In 2000 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated a two-year study to investigate the metabolic rate and swimming performance and to estimate the total energy used (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic) by adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream through a large hydropower dam on the Columbia River. The investigation involved one year of laboratory study and one year of field study at Bonneville Dam. The objectives of the laboratory study, reported here, were to (1) measure active rates of oxygen consumption of adult spring chinook salmon at three water temperatures over a range of swimming speeds; (2) estimate the Ucrit of adult spring chinook salmon; and (3) monitor EMGs of red and white muscle in the salmon over a range of swimming speeds. Future papers will report on the results of the field study. Our results indicated that the rate of oxygen consumption and red and white muscle activity in adult spring chinook salmon were strongly correlated with swimming speed over a range of fish sizes and at three different temperatures. Active oxygen consumption increased linearly with swim speed before leveling off at speeds at or above Ucrit. This pattern was similar at each water temperature and indicated that fish were approaching their maximal aerobic oxygen consumption at higher swim speeds. Modeling showed that temperature, but not size or sex, influenced the relation between V02 and swim speed, thus a V02-swim speed model based on temperature (but independent of sex and size) should be a biologically relevant way of estimating the energy use of fish in the wild.

  20. Estimating the effect of hunting on annual survival rates of adult mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.; Anderson, David R.

    1984-01-01

    Management programs for waterfowl populations include rationale for, and establishment of, hunting regulations. These programs rest partially on the results of scientific studies on the effect of harvest rates on annual survival rates. The evidence of this relationship has changed markedly since the mid-1970's, and it is not widely believed that a largely compensatory relationship exists between hunting mortality and other forms of mortality for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). This paper employs a general probabilistic model formulated to include a parameter (b) representing a continuum between complete compensation (b=0) and total additivity (b=1). Maximum likelihood estimates of this parameter were computer for 47 data sets of adult mallards banded throughout North American before hunting commenced. We found additional evidence of a highly compensatory mortality process for adult male mallards, while the evidence for adults female mallards remains inconclusive. Effective harvest, land acquisition, and land management programs depend upon additional information on the chronology and mechanisms underlying a compensatory mortality process.

  1. Estimating mortality rates of adult fish from entrainment through the propellers of river towboats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutreuter, S.; Dettmers, J.M.; Wahl, David H.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a method to estimate mortality rates of adult fish caused by entrainment through the propellers of commercial towboats operating in river channels. The method combines trawling while following towboats (to recover a fraction of the kills) and application of a hydrodynamic model of diffusion (to estimate the fraction of the total kills collected in the trawls). The sampling problem is unusual and required quantifying relatively rare events. We first examined key statistical properties of the entrainment mortality rate estimators using Monte Carlo simulation, which demonstrated that a design-based estimator and a new ad hoc estimator are both unbiased and converge to the true value as the sample size becomes large. Next, we estimated the entrainment mortality rates of adult fishes in Pool 26 of the Mississippi River and the Alton Pool of the Illinois River, where we observed kills that we attributed to entrainment. Our estimates of entrainment mortality rates were 2.52 fish/km of towboat travel (80% confidence interval, 1.00-6.09 fish/km) for gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, 0.13 fish/km (0.00-0.41) for skipjack herring Alosa chrysochloris, and 0.53 fish/km (0.00-1.33) for both shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus and smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus. Our approach applies more broadly to commercial vessels operating in confined channels, including other large rivers and intracoastal waterways.

  2. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  3. Effect of radiation dose-rate on hematopoietic cell engraftment in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Glass, Tiffany J; Hui, Susanta K; Blazar, Bruce R; Lund, Troy C

    2013-01-01

    Although exceptionally high radiation dose-rates are currently attaining clinical feasibility, there have been relatively few studies reporting the biological consequences of these dose-rates in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). In zebrafish models of HCT, preconditioning before transplant is typically achieved through radiation alone. We report the comparison of outcomes in adult zebrafish irradiated with 20 Gy at either 25 or 800 cGy/min in the context of experimental HCT. In non-transplanted irradiated fish we observed no substantial differences between dose-rate groups as assessed by fish mortality, cell death in the kidney, endogenous hematopoietic reconstitution, or gene expression levels of p53 and ddb2 (damage-specific DNA binding protein 2) in the kidney. However, following HCT, recipients conditioned with the higher dose rate showed significantly improved donor-derived engraftment at 9 days post transplant (p ≤ 0.0001), and improved engraftment persisted at 31 days post transplant. Analysis for sdf-1a expression, as well as transplant of hematopoietic cells from cxcr4b -/- zebrafish, (odysseus), cumulatively suggest that the sdf-1a/cxcr4b axis is not required of donor-derived cells for the observed dose-rate effect on engraftment. Overall, the adult zebrafish model of HCT indicates that exceptionally high radiation dose-rates can impact HCT outcome, and offers a new system for radiobiological and mechanistic interrogation of this phenomenon. Key words: Radiation dose rate, Total Marrow Irradiation (TMI), Total body irradiation (TBI), SDF-1, Zebrafish, hematopoietic cell transplant.

  4. Psychometric properties of the self-rating organization scale with adult samples.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Tsuji, Yui; Ando, Mizuho

    2016-01-01

    Organization skills are defined broadly to include both materials and temporal features. Given its symptoms and neurobiological features, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should be susceptible to impairment in organization. A valid organization scale is imperative to assess and intervene individuals with ADHD. However, there is no validated organization scale in Japan. Referring to existing scales and clinical experience, the self-rating organization scale (SOS) was developed and tested in terms of its psychometric properties with 1,017 adults and students including 47 adults with ADHD. Additionally, cutoffs for disorganization were set for clinical utility. Three factors (materials disorganization, temporal disorganization, and mess) were extracted by factor analyses. The index for reliability and validity of the SOS was acceptable. The factor "mess" could reflect the unique aspect of the Japanese environment. Further study is needed to enhance the clinical utility of the SOS.

  5. Survey on the use of health services by adult men: prevalence rates and associated factors1

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Guilherme Oliveira; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objective estimate the prevalence and identify factors associated with the use of health services by men between 20 and 59 years of age. Method population-based, cross-sectional domestic survey undertaken with 421 adult men, selected through systematic random sampling. The data were collected through a structured instrument and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with multiple logistic regression. Results the prevalence rate of health service use during the three months before the interviews was 42.8%, being higher among unemployed men with a religious creed who used private hospitals more frequently, had been hospitalized in the previous 12 months and referred some disease. Conclusion the prevalence of health service use by adult men does not differ from other studies and was considered high. It shows to be related with the need for curative care, based on the associated factors found. PMID:27027680

  6. Psychometric properties of the self-rating organization scale with adult samples

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Tsuji, Yui; Ando, Mizuho

    2016-01-01

    Organization skills are defined broadly to include both materials and temporal features. Given its symptoms and neurobiological features, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) should be susceptible to impairment in organization. A valid organization scale is imperative to assess and intervene individuals with ADHD. However, there is no validated organization scale in Japan. Referring to existing scales and clinical experience, the self-rating organization scale (SOS) was developed and tested in terms of its psychometric properties with 1,017 adults and students including 47 adults with ADHD. Additionally, cutoffs for disorganization were set for clinical utility. Three factors (materials disorganization, temporal disorganization, and mess) were extracted by factor analyses. The index for reliability and validity of the SOS was acceptable. The factor “mess” could reflect the unique aspect of the Japanese environment. Further study is needed to enhance the clinical utility of the SOS. PMID:27826192

  7. Influence of heart rate at rest for predicting the metabolic syndrome in older Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    O'Hartaigh, Bríain; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Bosch, Jos A; Zhang, Wei Sen; Cheng, Kar Keung; Lam, Tai Hing; Thomas, G Neil

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between seated resting heart rate and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among older residents of Guangzhou, South China. A total of 30,519 older participants (≥50 years) from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study were stratified into quartiles based on seated resting heart rate. The associations between each quartile and the MetS were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. A total of 6,907 (22.8 %) individuals were diagnosed as having the MetS, which was significantly associated with increasing heart rate quartiles (P < 0.001). Participants in the uppermost quartile (mean resting heart rate 91 ± 8 beats/min) of this cardiovascular proxy had an almost twofold increased adjusted risk (odds ratio (95 % CI) = 1.94 (1.79, 2.11), P < 0.001) for the MetS, as compared to those in the lowest quartile (mean resting heart rate, 63 ± 4 beats/min). Heart rate, which is an inexpensive and simple clinical measure, was independently associated with the MetS in older Chinese adults. We hope these observations will spur further studies to examine the usefulness of resting heart rate as a means of risk stratification in such populations, for which targeted interventions should be implemented.

  8. Tourism Experiences and Self-Rated Health Among Older Adults in China

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Danan; Zhu, Haiyan; Brown, Tyson; Hoenig, Helen; Zeng, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate factors associated with tourism experiences, and the association between tourism experiences and subsequent self-rated health. Method Multilevel logistic regression models and four waves of panel data from a large nationally representative survey of older adults in China were employed. Results Those who had a tourism experience tended to be younger, men, urban residents, have a higher socioeconomic status (SES), and frequently participate in leisure activities and exercise. However, controlling for SES, women were more likely than men to have a tourism experience. Notably, tourism was negatively associated with poor self-rated health and the association was robust to adjustments for a wide range of confounders. Discussion The net beneficial impact of tourism on self-rated health may operate through several mechanisms such as improvements in tourists’ cognitive functioning, healthy lifestyles, self-esteen, family and social relations, and psychological and spirtual well-being. Tourism participation is an effective way to promote healthy aging. PMID:26486781

  9. Tatanka Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes efforts of the InterTribal Bison Cooperative (Rapid City, SD) to reintroduce the buffalo for cultural purposes to American Indian reservations. Explains how the buffalo's return is contributing to community wellness. Discusses career opportunities for both Native and non-Native people in buffalo management. (LP)

  10. Declining Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Gerald H.; Perrin, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The Teachers Insurance and Annuities Association's (TIAA) College Retirement and Equity Fund is criticized for its low returns and its chief executive officer's recent salary raise. It is said to be in need of additional regulation and policyholder involvement. A TIAA vice president responds that the analysis given is inaccurate and misleading.…

  11. Provisioning rates and time budgets of adult and nestling Bald Eagles at Inland Wisconsin nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, Warnke D.; Andersen, D.E.; Dykstra, C.R.; Meyer, M.W.; Karasov, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    We used a remote video recording system and direct observation to quantify provisioning rate and adult and nestling behavior at Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests in north-central Wisconsin in 1992 (N = 5) and 1993 (N = 8). Eagles nesting in this region have a high reproductive rate (??? 1.3 young/occupied territory), and the number of occupied territories has expanded nearly three-fold since 1980. The season-long provisioning rate averaged 5.2 prey deliveries/nest/d and 3.0 prey deliveries/nestling/d, and did not vary by year or with nestling number or age. Fish (Osteichthyes) made up 97% of identified prey deliveries followed by reptiles (Reptilia) (1.5%), birds (Aves) (1.2%), and mammals (Mammalia) (0.6%). Nearly 85% of prey items were >15 cm and 90% of the day and was negatively correlated with nestling age. Time adults spent feeding nestlings was negatively correlated with nestling age. Nestlings stood or sat in the nest >30% of the day, began to feed themselves, and exhibited increased mobility in the nest at 6-8 wk. We identified three stages of the nestling period and several benchmarks that may be useful when scheduling data collection for comparison of Bald Eagle nesting behavior. Our results support the hypothesis that food was not limiting this breeding population of Bald Eagles. ?? 2002 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  12. Baseline heart rate, sensation seeking, and aggression in young adult women: a two-sample examination.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Although substantial literature discusses sensation seeking as playing a role in the relationship between baseline heart rate and aggression, few published studies have tested the relationships among these variables. Furthermore, most prior studies have focused on risk factors of aggression in men and have largely ignored this issue in women. Two samples (n = 104; n = 99) of young adult women completed measures of resting heart rate, sensation seeking, and aggression. Across the two samples of females there was no evidence for the relationships of baseline heart rate with sensation seeking or with aggression that has been consistently shown in males. Boredom susceptibility and disinhibition subscales of sensation seeking were consistently significantly correlated with aggression. The lack of significance and the small effect sizes indicate that other mechanisms are also at work in affecting aggression in young adult women. Finally, it is important to consider the type of sensation seeking in relation to aggression, as only boredom susceptibility and disinhibition were consistently replicated across samples.

  13. Effects of stimulus and noise rate variability on speech perception by younger and older adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Fitzgibbons, Peter J.

    2004-04-01

    The present experiments examine the effects of listener age and hearing sensitivity on the ability to understand temporally altered speech in quiet when the proportion of a sentence processed by time compression is varied. Additional conditions in noise investigate whether or not listeners are affected by alterations in the presentation rate of background speech babble, relative to the presentation rate of the target speech signal. Younger and older adults with normal hearing and with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing losses served as listeners. Speech stimuli included sentences, syntactic sets, and random-order words. Presentation rate was altered via time compression applied to the entire stimulus or to selected phrases within the stimulus. Older listeners performed more poorly than younger listeners in most conditions involving time compression, and their performance decreased progressively with the proportion of the stimulus that was processed with time compression. Older listeners also performed more poorly than younger listeners in all noise conditions, but both age groups demonstrated better performance in conditions incorporating a mismatch in the presentation rate between target signal and background babble compared to conditions with matched rates. The age effects in quiet are consistent with the generalized slowing hypothesis of aging. Performance patterns in noise tentatively support the notion that altered rates of speech signal and background babble may provide a cue to enhance auditory figure-ground perception by both younger and older listeners.

  14. Affective Norms for Italian Words in Older Adults: Age Differences in Ratings of Valence, Arousal and Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Fairfield, Beth; Ambrosini, Ettore; Mammarella, Nicola; Montefinese, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In line with the dimensional theory of emotional space, we developed affective norms for words rated in terms of valence, arousal and dominance in a group of older adults to complete the adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian and to aid research on aging. Here, as in the original Italian ANEW database, participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a paper-and-pencil procedure. We observed high split-half reliabilities within the older sample and high correlations with the affective ratings of previous research, especially for valence, suggesting that there is large agreement among older adults within and across-languages. More importantly, we found high correlations between younger and older adults, showing that our data are generalizable across different ages. However, despite this across-ages accord, we obtained age-related differences on three affective dimensions for a great number of words. In particular, older adults rated as more arousing and more unpleasant a number of words that younger adults rated as moderately unpleasant and arousing in our previous affective norms. Moreover, older participants rated negative stimuli as more arousing and positive stimuli as less arousing than younger participants, thus leading to a less-curved distribution of ratings in the valence by arousal space. We also found more extreme ratings for older adults for the relationship between dominance and arousal: older adults gave lower dominance and higher arousal ratings for words rated by younger adults with middle dominance and arousal values. Together, these results suggest that our affective norms are reliable and can be confidently used to select words matched for the affective dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance across younger and older participants for future research in aging. PMID:28046070

  15. Examining Variations of Resting Metabolic Rate of Adults: A Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Robert G.; Soares, Jesus; Caspersen, Carl J.; McCurdy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There has not been a recent comprehensive effort to examine existing studies on the resting metabolic rate (RMR) of adults to identify the effect of common population demographic and anthropometric characteristics. Thus, we reviewed the literature on RMR (kcal·kg−1·h−1) to determine the relationship of age, sex, and obesity status to RMR as compared with the commonly accepted value for the metabolic equivalent (MET; e.g., 1.0 kcal·kg−1·h−1). Methods Using several databases, scientific articles published from 1980 to 2011 were identified that measured RMR, and from those, others dating back to 1920 were identified. One hundred and ninety-seven studies were identified, resulting in 397 publication estimates of RMR that could represent a population subgroup. Inverse variance weighting technique was applied to compute means and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The mean value for RMR was 0.863 kcal·kg−1·h−1 (95% CI = 0.852–0.874), higher for men than women, decreasing with increasing age, and less in overweight than normal weight adults. Regardless of sex, adults with BMI ≥ 30 kg·m−2 had the lowest RMR (<0.741 kcal·kg−1·h−1). Conclusions No single value for RMR is appropriate for all adults. Adhering to the nearly universally accepted MET convention may lead to the overestimation of the RMR of approximately 10%for men and almost 15% for women and be as high as 20%–30% for some demographic and anthropometric combinations. These large errors raise questions about the longstanding adherence to the conventional MET value for RMR. Failure to recognize this discrepancy may result in important miscalculations of energy expended from interventions using physical activity for diabetes and other chronic disease prevention efforts. PMID:24300125

  16. Obtaining a male circumcision prevalence rate of 80% among adults in a short time

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Esaie; Rain-Taljaard, Reathe; Tsepe, Motlalepule; Monkwe, Cornelius; Taljaard, Dirk; Hlatswayo, Florence; Xaba, Dumazile; Molomo, Tebogo; Lissouba, Pascale; Puren, Adrian; Auvert, Bertran

    2017-01-01

    Abstract World Health Organization recommends a target for the male circumcision prevalence rate of 80%. This rate will have a substantial impact on the human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic in Eastern and Southern Africa. The objective of the study was to assess whether an innovative intervention can lead to an increased voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) uptake among adults in a short time. This prospective observational study of a demand generation intervention was conducted in the township of Orange Farm (South Africa) in August to November 2015. In this community male circumcision prevalence rate among adults was stable between 2010 and 2015 at 55% and 57%, despite regular VMMC campaigns at community level and the presence of a VMMC clinic that offered free VMMC. The intervention took place in a random sample of 981 households where 522 men aged 18 to 49 years accepted to participate in the study. Among the 226 uncircumcised men, 212 accepted to be enrolled in the intervention study. A personal male circumcision adviser trained in interpersonal communication skills was assigned to each uncircumcised participant. The male circumcision advisers were trained to explain the risks and benefits of VMMC, and to discuss 24 possible reasons given by men for not being circumcised. Participants were then followed for 9 weeks. Each participant had a maximum of 3 motivational interviews at home. Participants who decided to be circumcised received financial compensation for their time equivalent to 2.5 days of work at the minimum South African salary rate. Among the 212 uncircumcised men enrolled in the intervention, 69.8% (148/212; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 63.4%–75.7%) agreed to be circumcised, which defines the uptake of the intervention. The male circumcision prevalence rate of the sample increased from 56.7% (296/522) to 81.4% (425/522; 77.9%–84.6%), P < 0.001, corresponding to a relative increase of 43.6% (95% CI

  17. The Release Rate of Environmental DNA from Juvenile and Adult Fish

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Atsushi; Nakamura, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Kondoh, Michio; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    The environmental DNA (eDNA) technique is expected to become a powerful, non-invasive tool for estimating the distribution and biomass of organisms. This technique was recently shown to be applicable to aquatic vertebrates by collecting extraorganismal DNA floating in the water or absorbed onto suspended particles. However, basic information on eDNA release rate is lacking, despite it being essential for practical applications. In this series of experiments with bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), we examined the effect of fish developmental stage on eDNA release rate. eDNA concentration reached equilibrium 3 days after the individual fish were introduced into the separate containers, enabling calculation of the eDNA release rate (copies h−1) from individual fish on the assumption that the number of eDNA released from the fish per unit time equals total degradation in the container (copies h−1). The eDNA release rate was 3–4 times higher in the adult (body weight: 30–75 g) than in the juvenile group (0.5–2.0 g). Such positive relationship between fish size and eDNA release rate support the possibility of biomass rather than density estimation using eDNA techniques. However, the eDNA release rate per fish body weight (copies h−1 g−1) was slightly higher in the juvenile than the adult group, which is likely because of the ontogenetic reduction in metabolic activity. Therefore, quantitative eDNA data should be carefully interpreted to avoid overestimating biomass when the population is dominated by juveniles, because the age structure of the focal population is often variable and unseen in the field. eDNA degradation rates (copies l−1 h−1), calculated by curve fitting of time-dependent changes in eDNA concentrations after fish removal, were 5.1–15.9% per hour (half-life: 6.3 h). This suggests that quantitative eDNA data should be corrected using a degradation curve attained in the target field. PMID:25479160

  18. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, D.R.; Brown, R.S.; Cullinan, V.I.; Mesa, M.G.; VanderKooi, S.P.; McKinstry, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen consumption rates of adult spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha increased with swim speed and, depending on temperature and fish mass, ranged from 609 mg O2 h-1 at 30 cm s-1 (c. 0.5 BLs-1) to 3347 mg O2 h-1 at 170 cm s -1 (c. 2.3 BLs-1). Corrected for fish mass, these values ranged from 122 to 670 mg O2 kg-1 h-1, and were similar to other Oncorhynchus species. At all temperatures (8, 12.5 and 17??C), maximum oxygen consumption values levelled off and slightly declined with increasing swim speed >170 cm s-1, and a third-order polynomial regression model fitted the data best. The upper critical swim speed (Ucrit) of fish tested at two laboratories averaged 155 cm s -1 (2.1 BLs-1), but Ucrit of fish tested at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were significantly higher (mean 165 cm s-1) than those from fish tested at the Columbia River Research Laboratory (mean 140 cm s-1). Swim trials using fish that had electromyogram (EMG) transmitters implanted in them suggested that at a swim speed of c. 135 cm s-1, red muscle EMG pulse rates slowed and white muscle EMG pulse rates increased. Although there was significant variation between individual fish, this swim speed was c. 80% of the Ucrit for the fish used in the EMG trials (mean Ucrit 168.2 cm s-1). Bioenergetic modelling of the upstream migration of adult chinook salmon should consider incorporating an anaerobic fraction of the energy budget when swim speeds are ???80% of the Ucrit. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. You must have been a beautiful baby: ratings of infant facial attractiveness fail to predict ratings of adult attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Marissa A; Shortall, Jennifer C; Dispenza, Franco; Gallup, Gordon G

    2011-12-01

    Facial attractiveness has been studied extensively, but little research has examined the stability of facial attractiveness of individuals across different stages of development. We conducted a study examining the relationship between facial attractiveness in infants (age 24 months and under) and the same individuals as young adults (age 16-18 years) using infant and adult photographs from high school yearbooks. Contrary to expectations, independent raters' assessments of infant facial attractiveness did not correlate with adult facial attractiveness. These results are discussed in terms of the adaptive function of heightened attractiveness in infancy, which likely evolved to elicit and maintain parental care.

  20. The effect of elevated plasma phenylalanine levels on protein synthesis rates in adult rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, D S; Yang, X R; Lajtha, A

    1994-01-01

    Increasing the plasma phenylalanine concentration to levels as high as 0.560-0.870 mM (over ten times normal levels) had no detectable effect on the rate of brain protein synthesis in adult rats. The average rates for 7-week-old rats were: valine, 0.58 +/- 0.05%/h, phenylalanine, 0.59 +/- 0.06%/h, and tyrosine, 0.60 +/- 0.09%/h, or 0.59 +/- 0.06%/h overall. Synthesis rates calculated on the basis of the specific activity of the tRNA-bound amino acid were slightly lower (4% lower for phenylalanine) than those based on the brain free amino acid pool. Similarly, the specific activities of valine and phenylalanine in microdialysis fluid from striatum were practically the same as those in the brain free amino acid pool. Thus the specific activities of the valine and phenylalanine brain free pools are good measures of the precursor specific activity for protein synthesis. In any event, synthesis rates, whether based on the specific activities of the amino acids in the brain free pool or those bound to tRNA, were unaffected by elevated levels of plasma phenylalanine. Brain protein synthesis rates measured after the administration of quite large doses of phenylalanine (> 1.5 mumol/g) or valine (15 mumol/g) were in agreement (0.62 +/- 0.01 and 0.65 +/- 0.01%/h respectively) with the rates determined with infusions of trace amounts of amino acids. Thus the technique of stabilizing precursor-specific activity, and pushing values in the brain close to those of the plasma, by the administration of large quantities of precursor, appears to be valid. PMID:8093014

  1. Do Clinical Results and Return-to-Sport Rates After Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction Differ Based on Graft Choice and Surgical Technique?

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Brandon J.; Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Frank, Rachel M.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cohen, Mark S.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Cole, Brian J.; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure performed in overhead-throwing athletes of many athletic levels. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical outcomes and return-to-sport (RTS) rates differ among patients undergoing UCLR based on graft choice, surgical technique, athletic competition level, handedness, and treatment of the ulnar nerve. We hypothesized that no differences would exist in clinical outcomes or RTS rates between technique, graft choice, or other variables. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: All patients who underwent UCLR from January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2014 at a single institution were identified. Charts were reviewed to determine patient age, sex, date of surgery, sport played, handedness, athletic level, surgical technique, graft type, and complications. Patients were contacted via telephone to obtain the RTS rate, Conway-Jobe score, Timmerman-Andrews score, and Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) Shoulder and Elbow score. Results: Eighty-five patients (mean age at surgery, 19.3 ± 4.7 years; 92% male; 78% right hand–dominant) underwent UCLR between 2004 and 2014 and were available for follow-up. Overall, 87% were baseball pitchers, 49.4% were college athletes, and 41.2% were high school athletes. No significant difference existed between the docking and double-docking techniques, graft choice, handedness, sex, activity level, and treatment of the ulnar nerve with regard to clinical outcomes, RTS, or subsequent surgeries (all P > .05). More complications were seen in the docking technique compared with the double-docking technique (P = .036). Hamstring autograft was used more commonly with the docking technique (P = .023) while allograft was used more commonly with the double-docking technique (P = .0006). Conclusion: Both the docking and double-docking techniques produce excellent clinical outcomes in patients undergoing

  2. "Owning" the personal past: Adolescents' and adults' autobiographical narratives and ratings of memories of recent and distant events.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Hättenschwiler, Nicole; Larkina, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Adults and adolescents are characterised as having different perspectives on their personal or autobiographical memories. Adults are recognised as having vivid recollections of past events and as appreciating the meaning and significance of their autobiographical memories. In development, these qualities are noted as absent as late as adolescence. To evaluate the assumption of developmental differences, we directly compared autobiographical memories of adults and adolescents drawn from each of several periods in the past, using measures of narrative quality (coded independently) and participants' own subjective ratings of their memories. Adults' narratives of events from the previous year and for the "most significant" event of their lives were coded as more thematically coherent relative to those of adolescents'; the groups did not differ on thematic coherence of narratives of early-life events (ages 1-5 and 6-10 years). The ratings that adults and adolescents provided of their autobiographical memories were similar overall; differences were more apparent for early-life events than for more recent events and indicated stronger mnemonic experiences among adolescents than adults. The pattern of findings suggests that whereas adults have more sophisticated narrative tools for describing the significance of events and their relation to the corpus of autobiographical memories, adolescents as well as adults have vivid recollective experiences as well as personal and subjective perspective on the events of their lives and their memories thereof.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and short-term heart rate variability in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yaw-Wen; Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Wei-Liang; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular events. Heart rate variability (HRV) represents autonomic functioning, and reduced HRV significantly increases cardiovascular mortality. The aims of the present paper are to assess the prevalence of MetS in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the difference in short-term HRV between the healthy and ID population, and the association of short-term HRV with MetS. In this study, we analyzed 129 ID subjects who participated in routine health check-ups in October 2010. We measured their metabolic components and evaluated the relationships of MetS with short-term HRV indices. The study found that MetS and obesity are common in persons with ID. ID subjects have significantly lower HRV than healthy adults, and persons with ID persons with MetS have significantly lower HRV than ID subjects without MetS. The individual components of MetS are differentially associated with HRV in ID men and women. Metabolic syndrome adversely affects autonomic cardiac control, and reduced autonomic cardiac control could contribute to an increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular events in individuals who exhibit metabolic syndrome. Sex differences in vagal activity and sympathovagal balance may partly explain the greater increase in cardiovascular risk associated with MetS in ID women compared with ID men.

  4. Subvocalization and reading rate differences between stuttering and nonstuttering children and adults.

    PubMed

    Bosshardt, H G

    1990-12-01

    The hypothesis tested was that stutterers subvocalize more slowly than nonstutterers and that they need more time for the overt production of the fluent parts of their speech. We also investigated whether rate differences could only be observed for those words on which the stutterers expect to stutter. Fifty-nine school children (27 stutterers and 32 nonstutterers) and 19 adults (18 stutterers and 21 nonstutterers) performed a reading task in which a noun was presented together with its definite article. The presentation times of the reading material were controlled by the subjects. Half of the material had to be read silently, the other half orally. In oral reading, only the data from those trials without any indication of disfluencies were used. Dependent variables were presentation times, speech latency, and speech duration. The stutterers' silent presentation times were significantly longer than those of nonstutterers and this difference was significantly greater for children than for adults. In oral reading all stutterers, regardless of age, had longer presentation times, speech latencies, and article durations than the nonstutterers. Some nouns, however, were uttered significantly more rapidly by stutterers than by nonstutterers. These time differences were found to be independent of the stutterers' expectation to stutter. Our results indicate that a strictly motoric explanation of stuttering is inadequate. The data show that the stutterers and nonstutterers differ with respect to the temporal parameters not only during speech execution, but during speech planning as well.

  5. Adult Blood Lead Levels in Minnesota: Rates and Trends, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Landsteiner, Adrienne; Yendell, Stephanie; Lindgren, Paula; Olson, Larry; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure is associated with a number of adverse health events including peripheral neuropathy, anemia, renal damage and cognitive impairment. The vast majority of adult lead exposures occur in the workplace. By statute, all results from blood lead level (BLL) tests performed in Minnesota are submitted to the Minnesota Department of Health for surveillance purposes. We analyzed that data to examine lead exposure trends from 2005 through 2012. We found that an average of 548 persons 16 years of age and older had a BLL greater than 10 μg/dL each year during that period. Analysis of the prevalence rate of elevated BLLs among adults for the years 2005-2012 showed a modest, nonsignificant decline among those with BLLs greater than 1O μg/dL. Much has been done to reduce exposures and BLLs among young children. However, the policies and standards that protect workers have not been similarly adjusted, and many workers remain at risk of exposure. Although OSHA is responsible for developing and implementing policies and standards to protect workers, health care providers can play a critical role in identifying cases of lead exposure by asking patients about their occupation and industry. Those working in high-risk industries should be tested to determine whether they have been exposed and intervention is warranted.

  6. Change in heart rate variability after the adult attachment interview in dissociative patients.

    PubMed

    Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Imperatori, Claudio; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess heart rate variability (HRV) in individuals with dissociative disorders (DD) before and after the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Electrocardiograms were recorded before, during, and after the AAI in 13 individuals with DD and 13 healthy participants matched for age and gender. Significant change in HRV was observed only in the DD group. After the AAI, those with DD showed significant increases in the low frequency/high frequency ratio (pre-AAI = 1.91 ± 1.19; post-AAI = 4.03 ± 2.40; Wilcoxon test = -2.76, p = .005). Our results suggest that the retrieval of childhood attachment experiences in individuals with DD is associated with a change in HRV patterns that could reflect the emotion dysregulation of dissociative psychopathological processes.

  7. Increasing metabolic rate despite declining body weight in an adult parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Casas, Jérôme; Body, Mélanie; Gutzwiller, Florence; Giron, David; Lazzari, Claudio R; Pincebourde, Sylvain; Richard, Romain; Llandres, Ana L

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic rate is a positive function of body weight, a rule valid for most organisms and the basis of several theories of metabolic ecology. For adult insects, however, the diversity of relationships between body mass and respiration remains unexplained. The aim of this study is to relate the respiratory metabolism of a parasitoid with body weight and foraging activity. We compared the metabolic rate of groups of starving and host-fed females of the parasitoid Eupelmus vuilleti recorded with respirometry for 7days, corresponding to the mean lifetime of starving females and over half of the lifetime of foraging females. The dynamics of carbohydrate, lipid and protein in the body of foraging females were quantified with biochemical techniques. Body mass and all body nutrients declined sharply from the first day onwards. By contrast, the CO2 produced and the O2 consumed increased steadily. Starving females showed the opposite trend, identifying foraging as the reason for the respiration increase of feeding females. Two complementary physiological processes explain the unexpected relationship between increasing metabolic rate and declining body weight. First, host hemolymph is a highly unbalanced food, and the excess nutrients (protein and carbohydrate) need to be voided, partially through excretion and partially through respiration. Second, a foraging young female produces eggs at an increasing rate during the first half of its lifetime, a process that also increases respiration. We posit that the time-varying metabolic rate contributions of the feeding and reproductive processes supplements the contribution of the structural mass and lead to the observed trend. We extend our explanations to other insect groups and discuss the potential for unification using Dynamic Energy Budget theory.

  8. 76 FR 44573 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 Correction In notice document 2011... page 43255, the table labeled ``Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations of...

  9. Characterising the Profile of Everyday Executive Functioning and Relation to IQ in Adults with Williams Syndrome: Is the BRIEF Adult Version a Valid Rating Scale?

    PubMed

    Hocking, Darren R; Reeve, Jessica; Porter, Melanie A

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence of a distinct profile of executive dysfunction in Williams syndrome (WS), a rare genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder, the utility of informant reports of everyday executive function (EF) impairments and their relation to intelligence is not yet clear. Here we aimed to evaluate the functional impact of executive dysfunction in adults with WS and to establish the validity of child and adult versions of the most commonly used rating scale for EF assessment, the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). We were also interested in whether distinct components of everyday EF relate to intelligence in WS. Parent report child (BRIEF-C) and adult (BRIEF-A) ratings were collected on 20 adults with WS (aged 18.5 to 53 years), with a mean IQ of 60.95 (SD = 17.67). Neuropsychological measures of EF included: The Shape School Test (Espy, 2007); select subdomains of EF from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities, Australian Adaptation (WJ III COG); and select subdomains from the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, Second Edition-Parent Survey (Vineland-II). Results showed that the BRIEF-A, but not the BRIEF-C, was the most highly correlated with neuropsychological measures of EF, suggesting that it was a valid measure of the profile of EF impairments in adults with WS. The profile of everyday EF dysfunction revealed relative impairments in monitoring, working memory, planning and organisation in WS. In addition, both neuropsychological and rating scale measures showed an association between the shifting component of EF and intelligence. These findings indicate that the BRIEF-A is a valid measure of the multidimensional nature of real-world impairments in EF, and highlight its utility as a less labor intensive and low-cost screening tool for measuring specific EF impairments that could become the focus of targeted intervention in adults with WS.

  10. Technology Use and Frequency and Self-Rated Skills: A Survey of Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Lorraine; O'Shea, Emma; O'Caoimh, Rónán; Timmons, Suzanne

    2015-07-01

    Many older adults are using technology regularly, but the vast majority still rate their technology skills as poor or average,reflecting their low usage of less-familiar items such as tablet computers. Despite moves toward increasing the use of ICT in the care, rehabilitation, and monitoring of older adults, baseline use of such devices is low. Further study is required to investigate how people's attitudes toward and experience with ICT influence its utility in clinical practice

  11. Effect of Rotating Acoustic Stimulus on Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Bhaskar; Choudhuri, Raghabendra; Pandey, Ambarish; Bandopadhyay, Sajal; Sarangi, Sasmit; Kumar Ghatak, Sobhendu

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic stimulus can modulate the Autonomic Nervous System. However, previous reports on this topic are conflicting and inconclusive. In this study we have shown, how rotating acoustic stimulus, a novel auditory binaural stimulus, can change the autonomic balance of the cardiac system. We have used Heart rate Variability (HRV), an indicator of autonomic modulation of heart, both in time and frequency domain to analyze the effect of stimulus on 31 healthy adults. A decrease in the heart rate accompanied with an increase in SD and RMSSD indices on linear analysis was observed post-stimulation. In the Poincaré Plot, Minor Axis (SD1), Major Axis (SD2) and the ratio SD12 (SD1/SD2) increased after the stimulation. Post stimulus greater increment of SD12 with higher lag numbers of (M) beat to beat intervals, when compared to pre stimulus values, resulted in increased curvilinearity in the SD12 vs. Lag number plot. After stimulation,value of exponent alpha of Dretended Flactuation Analysis of HRV was found to be decreased. From these characteristic responses of the heart after the stimulus, it appears that rotating acoustic stimulus may be beneficial for the sympathovagal balance of the heart. PMID:23091566

  12. Affect and Self-Rated Health: A Dynamic Approach with Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Self-rated health (SRH) predicts mortality above and beyond objective health risks and as such comprises an important aspect of health. Established contributors to self-rated health include affect, age, and disease, but neither their dynamic nor their synergistic contributions to SRH have been comprehensively tested. Methods The present study employed older adults (N = 150; M age = 75 years) and a longitudinal design with 6-month waves over up to 5 years. Positive and negative affect (PA, NA), chronic disease, and SRH were assessed at each wave. Results In multilevel models with single predictors, older age, more chronic disease, and higher NA predicted worse SRH, whereas higher PA predicted better SRH. Affect predicted SRH both between and within people. In multilevel models with interactions between affect and age or disease, individual differences in NA predicted worse SRH primarily in older people. Within people, changes in NA were associated with changes in SRH, but more so in younger than in older people. Within people, changes in PA were associated with changes in SRH, but only when health was better than usual. Conclusions There were both dynamic and synergistic relationships between affect and SRH that could only emerge in a multilevel, multivariable design. In the case of NA, between-person, trait NA had the opposite relationship to SRH and age compared with within-person, state NA. Which component of this relationship predicts mortality is an important question for future research. PMID:23914813

  13. Mothers' Adult Attachment Interview ratings predict preschool children's IQ following domestic violence exposure.

    PubMed

    Busch, Amy L; Lieberman, Alicia F

    2010-11-01

    This study examined links between mothers' Adult Attachment Interview ratings (AAI; Main, Goldwyn, & Hesse, 2003) and their preschool children's IQ among 70 families who had experienced domestic violence. As predicted, children displayed significantly stronger verbal and perceptual-organizational abilities when their mothers exhibited more secure, i.e. coherent, states of mind regarding attachment. Mothers' coherence of mind on the AAI explained 18% of the variance in children's Verbal IQ and 12% of the variance in children's Performance IQ, after controlling for maternal education. Mothers' attachment security also was related to children's total IQ score, but this association was accounted for by effects on children's Verbal IQ. Children whose mothers were rated as unclassifiable on the AAI and those whose mothers were unresolved/insecure had lower IQ scores. Although mothers who appeared more secure on the AAI were more sensitively responsive toward their children, mediational analyses suggested that there was a direct link between mothers' security and children's IQ that was not explained by sensitive parenting. This suggests that clinical interventions for children exposed to domestic violence should include helping their mothers achieve coherent ways of thinking about their own childhood experiences, including past trauma.

  14. Muscle performance and physical function are associated with voluntary rate of neuromuscular activation in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participants were recruited to three experimental groups: middle-aged healthy adults (MH), older healthy adults (OH), and older adults with mobility limitations (OML). OH and OML were primarily differentiated by performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Muscle performance (accele...

  15. Into the Red and Back to the Nest? Student Debt, College Completion, and Returning to the Parental Home among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Jason N.; Warner, Cody

    2017-01-01

    Rising student debt has sparked concerns about its impact on the transition to adulthood. In this paper, we examine the claim that student debt is leading to a rise in "boomeranging," or returning home, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 Cohort and discrete time-event history models. We have four findings.…

  16. Physical activity and resting pulse rate in older adults: findings from a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Pahor, Marco; Buford, Thomas W.; Dodson, John A.; Forman, Daniel E.; Gill, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated resting pulse rate (RPR) is a well-recognized risk factor for adverse outcomes. Epidemiological evidence supports the beneficial effects of regular exercise for lowering RPR, but studies are mainly confined to persons younger than 65 years. We set out to evaluate the utility of a physical activity (PA) intervention for slowing RPR among older adults. Methods A total of 424 seniors (ages 70-89 years) were randomized to a moderate intensity PA intervention or an education-based “successful aging” (SA) health program. RPR was assessed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Longitudinal differences in RPR were evaluated between treatment groups using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, reporting unstandardized beta coefficients (β) with robust standard errors (SE). Results Increased frequency and duration of aerobic training was observed for the PA group at 6 and 12 months as compared with the SA group (P <0.001). In both groups, RPR remained unchanged over the course of the 12-month study period (P =0.67). No significant improvement was observed (β [SE] = 0.58 [0.88], P =0.51) for RPR when treatment groups were compared using the GEE method. Comparable results were found after omitting participants with a pacemaker, cardiac arrhythmia, or who were receiving beta-blockers. Conclusions Twelve months of moderate intensity aerobic training did not improve RPR among older adults. Additional studies are needed to determine whether physical activity of longer duration and/or greater intensity can slow RPR in older persons. PMID:25262271

  17. Correlation between heart rate variability and pulmonary function adjusted by confounding factors in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Bianchim, M S; Sperandio, E F; Martinhão, G S; Matheus, A C; Lauria, V T; da Silva, R P; Spadari, R C; Gagliardi, A R T; Arantes, R L; Romiti, M; Dourado, V Z

    2016-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system maintains homeostasis, which is the state of balance in the body. That balance can be determined simply and noninvasively by evaluating heart rate variability (HRV). However, independently of autonomic control of the heart, HRV can be influenced by other factors, such as respiratory parameters. Little is known about the relationship between HRV and spirometric indices. In this study, our objective was to determine whether HRV correlates with spirometric indices in adults without cardiopulmonary disease, considering the main confounders (e.g., smoking and physical inactivity). In a sample of 119 asymptomatic adults (age 20-80 years), we evaluated forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). We evaluated resting HRV indices within a 5-min window in the middle of a 10-min recording period, thereafter analyzing time and frequency domains. To evaluate daily physical activity, we instructed participants to use a triaxial accelerometer for 7 days. Physical inactivity was defined as <150 min/week of moderate to intense physical activity. We found that FVC and FEV1, respectively, correlated significantly with the following aspects of the RR interval: standard deviation of the RR intervals (r =0.31 and 0.35), low-frequency component (r =0.38 and 0.40), and Poincaré plot SD2 (r =0.34 and 0.36). Multivariate regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical inactivity, and cardiovascular risk, identified the SD2 and dyslipidemia as independent predictors of FVC and FEV1 (R2=0.125 and 0.180, respectively, for both). We conclude that pulmonary function is influenced by autonomic control of cardiovascular function, independently of the main confounders.

  18. Effects of photoperiod on food intake, activity and metabolic rate in adult neutered male cats.

    PubMed

    Kappen, K L; Garner, L M; Kerr, K R; Swanson, K S

    2014-10-01

    With the continued rise in feline obesity, novel weight management strategies are needed. To date, strategies aimed at altering physical activity, an important factor in weight maintenance, have been lacking. Photoperiod is known to cause physiological changes in seasonal mammals, including changes in body weight (BW) and reproductive status. Thus, our objective was to determine the effect of increased photoperiod (longer days) on voluntary physical activity levels, resting metabolic rate (RMR), food intake required to maintain BW, and fasting serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations in adult cats. Eleven healthy, adult, neutered, male domestic shorthair cats were used in a randomized crossover design study. During two 12-week periods, cats were exposed to either a short-day (SD) photoperiod of 8 h light: 16 h dark or a long-day (LD) photoperiod of 16 h light: 8 h dark. Cats were fed a commercial diet to maintain baseline BW. In addition to daily food intake and twice-weekly BW, RMR (via indirect calorimetry), body composition [via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)] and physical activity (via Actical activity monitors) were measured at week 0 and 12 of each period. Fasting serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations were measured at week 0, 6 and 12 of each period. Average hourly physical activity was greater (p = 0.008) in LD vs. SD cats (3770 vs. 3129 activity counts/h), which was primarily due to increased (p < 0.001) dark period activity (1188 vs. 710 activity counts/h). This corresponded to higher (p < 0.0001) daily metabolizable energy intake (mean over 12-week period: 196 vs. 187 kcal/day), and increased (p = 0.048) RMR in LD cats (9.02 vs. 8.37 kcal/h). Body composition, serum leptin and serum ghrelin were not altered by photoperiod. More research is needed to determine potential mechanisms by which these physiological changes occurred and how they may apply to weight management strategies.

  19. Male Courtship Rate Plasticity in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana Is Controlled by Temperature Experienced during the Pupal and Adult Stages

    PubMed Central

    Bear, Ashley; Monteiro, Antónia

    2013-01-01

    Environmental cues can act to initiate alternative developmental trajectories that result in different adult phenotypes, including behavioral phenotypes. The developmental period when an organism is sensitive to the cue is often described as a critical period. Here we investigated the critical period for temperature-sensitive courtship rate plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. We performed a series of temperature-shift experiments in which larvae, pupae, or adults were shifted for blocks of time from one temperature to an alternative temperature, and then we quantified the courtship rate exhibited by adult males. We discovered that the critical period begins during pupal development and extends into adulthood, but temperature experienced during larval development does not affect male courtship rate. This finding allows us to develop hypotheses that address how developmental and physiological factors may have influenced the evolution of behavioral plasticity in this species. PMID:23717531

  20. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels.

  1. Avian growth and development rates and age-specific mortality: the roles of nest predation and adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Remes, V

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that avian growth and development covary with juvenile mortality. Juveniles of birds under strong nest predation pressure grow rapidly, have short incubation and nestling periods, and leave the nest at low body mass. Life-history theory predicts that parental investment increases with adult mortality rate. Thus, developmental traits that depend on the parental effort exerted (pre- and postnatal growth rate) should scale positively with adult mortality, in contrast to those that do not have a direct relationship with parental investment (timing of developmental events, e.g. nest leaving). I tested this prediction on a sample of 84 North American songbirds. Nestling growth rate scaled positively and incubation period duration negatively with annual adult mortality rates even when controlled for nest predation and other covariates, including phylogeny. On the contrary, neither the duration of the nestling period nor body mass at fledging showed any relationship. Proximate mechanisms generating the relationship of pre- and postnatal growth rates to adult mortality may include increased feeding, nest attentiveness during incubation and/or allocation of hormones, and deserve further attention.

  2. Psychometrically Informed Approach to Integration of Multiple Informant Ratings in Adult ADHD in a Community-Recruited Sample.

    PubMed

    Martel, Michelle M; Nigg, Joel T; Schimmack, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Although Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition requires that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are apparent across settings, assessed by multiple informants, there remains no standardized approach to integration of multiple sources in adult ADHD diagnosis. The goal of the study was to evaluate informant effects on adult ADHD symptom ratings. Participants were 406 adults, ages 18 to 37, and identified second reporters, recruited from the community, and completing a comprehensive diagnostic and cognitive assessment, including a clinician-administered diagnostic interview and self- and other-report questionnaires of ADHD symptoms. Structural equation modeling indicated good fit for a trifactor model of ADHD, including general ADHD, specific inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, and self- and other-perspective factors. Yet there were a number of symptoms on the specific hyperactive-impulsive and self-factors that exhibited nonsignificant loadings. Significant differential item functioning across self-ratings and informant ratings was also noted. The external validation indices of laboratory executive function and diagnostic team-rated impairment was significantly correlated with the specific inattentive factor. While executive function was marginally significantly correlated with the other perspective factor, impairment was associated with the self-perspective factor. Overall, inattentive symptoms may be more sensitive measures of adult ADHD, and other and self-ratings may provide different information in relation to external criteria.

  3. Heart rate variability is reduced in underweight and overweight healthy adult women.

    PubMed

    Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Valenzano, Anna; Ciliberti, Michela Anna Pia; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Villani, Stefano; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni; Federici, Antonio; Babiloni, Claudio; Cibelli, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is altered in obese subjects, but whether this is true also in underweight (UW) subjects is still under debate. We investigated the HRV profile in a sample of healthy adult women and its association with adiposity. Five-minute resting state electrocardiographic activity was recorded in 69 subjects grouped according to their body mass index, [23 normal weight (NW), 23 overweight/obese (OW) and 23 UW). Body fat mass (FM) was measured by bio-impedance. Frequency- and time-domain analyses were performed. Compared to NW, UW and OW subjects showed a significant decrease in HRV indices, as revealed by spectral analysis. No differences were observed between UW and OW subjects. A second-order polynomial regression unveiled an inverted U-shaped relationship between FM extent and HRV indices. A decrease of HRV indices was associated with changes in FM extent, proving that in UW and OW subjects, the adaptive flexibility of autonomic cardiac function was reduced. These findings provide important clues to guide future studies addressed to determine how changes in adiposity and autonomic cardiac function may contribute to health risk.

  4. Heart rate and blood pressure response in adult men and women during exercise and sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Sebastian T; Kostis, John B; Casazza, Laurie; Sleeper, Lynn A; Lu, Minmin; Nezgoda, Joseph; Rosen, Raymond S

    2007-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) response of sexual activity compared with treadmill exercise in adult men and women. Nineteen men, 55 +/- 8 years, and 13 women, 51 +/- 7 years, underwent a maximal Bruce protocol treadmill stress test followed by home-monitored sexual activity using noninvasive HR and BP recording devices. The mean treadmill times were significantly shorter than the mean times of sexual activity for men and women (p <0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). For the men, average maximum HR, systolic BP, and HR-BP product during sexual activity were 72%, 80%, and 57% of respective measurements during treadmill exercise. For the women, maximum HR, systolic BP, and HR-BP product during sexual activity were 64%, 75%, and 48% of respective measurements during treadmill exercise. Age correlated inversely with duration of treadmill exercise (a 9-second decrease in duration per increasing year of age; p = 0.036), and with the duration of sexual activity (a 1-minute decrease in duration per increasing year of age; p = 0.024). Treadmill exercise duration predicted sexual activity duration (a 2.3-minute increase in sexual activity duration per each minute treadmill duration; p = 0.026). In conclusion, sexual activity provides modest physical stress comparable with stage II of the standard multistage Bruce treadmill protocol for men and stage I for women.

  5. The relationship of language acculturation (English proficiency) to current self-rated health among African immigrant adults.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Maria-Theresa C; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Picot, Sandra J; Zhan, Min

    2013-06-01

    Although over 1.5 million African immigrants live in the US, few studies have examined the relationship of language acculturation to health outcomes among African immigrant adults. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between English proficiency and current self-rated health among African immigrant adults. Using a cross-sectional design, a secondary data analysis was performed on baseline data from the African immigrant adult subsample (n = 763) of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey, a longitudinal study of lawful permanent residents. Limited English proficiency (LEP), increased duration of US residence, older age at immigration, being male, less than 12 years of education, poor pre-migration health, and chronic disease were associated with good/fair/poor current self-rated health. Findings support consideration of pre-migration health and chronic disease in future acculturation and health studies, and provision of linguistically competent interventions for LEP African immigrants at risk for poor health outcomes.

  6. Item Response Theory Analyses of Adult Self-Ratings of the ADHD Symptoms in the Current Symptoms Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2011-01-01

    The graded response model, which is based on item response theory, was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of adult self-ratings (N = 852) of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms presented in the Current Symptoms Scale. This scale has four ordered response categories. The…

  7. The Rate of Source Memory Decline across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Hernandez-Ramos, Evelia; Martinez-Galindo, Joyce Graciela; Torres-Trejo, Frine; Gomez-Fernandez, Tania; Ayala-Hernandez, Mariana; Osorio, David; Cedillo-Tinoco, Melisa; Garces-Flores, Lissete; Gomez-Melgarejo, Sandra; Beltran-Palacios, Karla; Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee; Garcia-Gutierrez, Fabiola; Cadena-Arenas, Yadira; Fernandez-Apan, Luisa; Bartschi, Andrea; Resendiz-Vera, Julieta; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Maria Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the ability to remember contextual information related to specific episodic experiences declines with advancing age; however, the exact moment in the adult life span when this deficit begins is still controversial. Source memory for spatial information was tested in a life span sample of 1,500 adults between…

  8. Being on sick leave due to heart failure: self-rated health, encounters with healthcare professionals and social insurance officers and self-estimated ability to return to work.

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Lena; Söderlund, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Younger people with heart failure often experience poor self-rated health. Furthermore, poor self-rated health is associated with long-term sick leave and disability pension. Socio-demographic factors affect the ability to return to work. However, little is known about people on sick leave due to heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between self-rated health, mood, socio-demographic factors, sick leave compensation, encounters with healthcare professionals and social insurance officers and self-estimated ability to return to work, for people on sick leave due to heart failure. This population-based investigation had a cross-sectional design. Data were collected in Sweden in 2012 from two official registries and from a postal questionnaire. In total, 590 subjects, aged 23-67, responded (response rate 45.8%). Descriptive statistics, correlation analyses (Spearman bivariate analysis) and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations. Poor self-rated health was strongly associated with full sick leave compensation (OR = 4.1, p < .001). Compared self-rated health was moderately associated with low income (OR =  .6, p =  .003). Good self-rated health was strongly associated with positive encounters with healthcare professionals (OR = 3.0, p =  .022) and to the impact of positive encounters with healthcare professionals on self-estimated ability to return to work (OR = 3.3, p < .001). People with heart failure are sicklisted for long periods of time and to a great extent receive disability pension. Not being able to work imposes reduced quality of life. Positive encounters with healthcare professionals and social insurance officers can be supportive when people with heart failure struggle to remain in working life.

  9. Impairment in Occupational Functioning and Adult ADHD: The Predictive Utility of Executive Function (EF) Ratings Versus EF Tests

    PubMed Central

    Barkley, Russell A.; Murphy, Kevin R.

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with deficits in executive functioning (EF). ADHD in adults is also associated with impairments in major life activities, particularly occupational functioning. We investigated the extent to which EF deficits assessed by both tests and self-ratings contributed to the degree of impairment in 11 measures involving self-reported occupational problems, employer reported workplace adjustment, and clinician rated occupational adjustment. Three groups of adults were recruited as a function of their severity of ADHD: ADHD diagnosis (n = 146), clinical controls self-referring for ADHD but not diagnosed with it (n = 97), and community controls (n = 109). Groups were combined and regression analyses revealed that self-ratings of EF were significantly predictive of impairments in all 11 measures of occupational adjustment. Although several tests of EF also did so, they contributed substantially less than did the EF ratings, particularly when analyzed jointly with the ratings. We conclude that EF deficits contribute to the impairments in occupational functioning that occur in conjunction with adult ADHD. Ratings of EF in daily life contribute more to such impairments than do EF tests, perhaps because, as we hypothesize, each assesses a different level in the hierarchical organization of EF as a meta-construct. PMID:20197297

  10. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous continuous rate infusions of sodium benzylpenicillin and ceftiofur sodium in adult horses.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Scott H; Khalfan, Shahid A; Jacobson, Glenn A; Pirie, Adam D; Raidal, Sharanne L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine plasma drug concentrations after IV administration of a bolus followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of sodium benzylpenicillin and ceftiofur sodium to healthy adult horses. ANIMALS 6 Thoroughbred mares (3 to 9 years old; mean ± SD body weight, 544 ± 55 kg) with no history of recent antimicrobial treatment. PROCEDURES Horses were used in 2 experiments conducted 14 days apart. For each experiment, horses were housed individually in stables, and catheters were placed bilaterally in both jugular veins for drug administration by CRI (left catheter) and for intermittent collection of blood samples (right catheter). Synovial fluid samples were obtained from carpal joints following ceftiofur administration to evaluate drug diffusion into articular spaces. RESULTS Plasma concentrations above accepted minimum inhibitory concentrations for common pathogens of horses were achieved within 1 minute after bolus administration and remained above the minimum inhibitory concentration for 48 (ceftiofur) or 12 (benzylpenicillin) hours (ie, the duration of the CRI). Mean synovial fluid ceftiofur free acid equivalent concentrations were approximately 46% (range, 25.4% to 59.8%) of plasma concentrations at the end of infusion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Compared with intermittent bolus administration, the loading dose and CRI used less drug but maintained high plasma concentrations for the duration of infusion. By use of pharmacological parameters derived in this study, a loading dose of 2.5 mg/kg and CRI of 200 μg/kg/h should achieve plasma ceftiofur concentrations of 4 μg/mL; a loading dose and CRI of 1.3 mg/kg and 2.5 μg/kg/h, respectively, should achieve plasma benzylpenicillin concentrations of 2 μg/mL.

  11. Elevated blood Hg at recommended seafood consumption rates in adult seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Fisher, Nicholas S; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2014-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure from seafood continues to be a public health concern due to health effects from elevated exposure, increasing worldwide seafood consumption, and continued Hg inputs into the environment. Elevated Hg exposure can occur in populations with specialized diets of sport-caught freshwater fish. However, we need a better understanding of Hg exposure from seafood, the most common exposure source, and from specific seafood types. We examined Hg exposure in avid seafood consumers, and the seafood items and consumption frequency that confer the largest Hg exposure. Adult, avid seafood consumers, in Long Island, NY, USA, with blood total Hg concentrations predicted to exceed the USEPA reference concentration that is considered safe (5.8 μg L(-1)), were eligible for the study; 75% of self-reported avid seafood consumers were eligible to participate. We measured blood total Hg concentrations and seafood consumption in 285 participants. We examined relationships between Hg and seafood consumption using multiple linear regression. Seafood consumption rate for our population (14.4 kg yr(-1)) was >2 times that estimated for the U.S. (6.8 kg yr(-1)), and lower than the worldwide estimate (18.4 kg yr(-1)). Mean blood Hg concentration was 4.4 times the national average, and 42% of participants had Hg concentrations exceeding 5.8 μg L(-1). Elevated Hg exposures occurred at all seafood consumption frequencies, including the recommended frequency of 2 meals per week. Blood Hg concentrations were positively associated with weekly tuna steak or sushi intake (β=6.30 change in blood Hg, μg L(-1)) and monthly (β=2.54) or weekly (β=9.47) swordfish, shark or marlin intake. Our findings show that seafood consumers in this population have elevated Hg exposures even at relatively low seafood consumption rates that are at or below current dietary recommendations. Further study should examine health risks and benefits of avid seafood consumption, and consider modifying

  12. The incremental validity of a computerised assessment added to clinical rating scales to differentiate adult ADHD from autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Groom, Madeleine J; Young, Zoe; Hall, Charlotte L; Gillott, Alinda; Hollis, Chris

    2016-09-30

    There is a clinical need for objective evidence-based measures that are sensitive and specific to ADHD when compared with other neurodevelopmental disorders. This study evaluated the incremental validity of adding an objective measure of activity and computerised cognitive assessment to clinical rating scales to differentiate adult ADHD from Autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Adults with ADHD (n=33) or ASD (n=25) performed the QbTest, comprising a Continuous Performance Test with motion-tracker to record physical activity. QbTest parameters measuring inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity were combined to provide a summary score ('QbTotal'). Binary stepwise logistic regression measured the probability of assignment to the ADHD or ASD group based on scores on the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale-subscale E (CAARS-E) and Autism Quotient (AQ10) in the first step and then QbTotal added in the second step. The model fit was significant at step 1 (CAARS-E, AQ10) with good group classification accuracy. These predictors were retained and QbTotal was added, resulting in a significant improvement in model fit and group classification accuracy. All predictors were significant. ROC curves indicated superior specificity of QbTotal. The findings present preliminary evidence that adding QbTest to clinical rating scales may improve the differentiation of ADHD and ASD in adults.

  13. Return to Work: Work-Based Learning and the Reintegration of Unemployed Adults into the Labour Market. Working Paper No 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehmel, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Low-qualified adults have experienced a greater rise in unemployment than any other group in Europe. What particular barriers are they facing in (re-)entering the labour market? How can VET be used in active labour market policies to help overcome these barriers? How can training programmes be designed to address the particular needs of this…

  14. Life histories have a history: effects of past and present conditions on adult somatic growth rates in wild Trinidadian guppies.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Lopez-Sepulcre, Andrés; Heatherly, Thomas; Kohler, Tyler J; Bassar, Ronald D; Thomas, Steven A; Reznick, David N

    2012-07-01

    1. Environmental conditions in the present, more recent past and during the juvenile stage can have significant effects on adult performance and population dynamics, but their relative importance and potential interactions remain unexplored. 2. We examined the influence of food availability at the time of sampling, 2 months prior and during the juvenile stage on adult somatic growth rates in wild Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). 3. We found that food availability during both the early and later parts of an individual's ontogeny had important consequences for adult growth strategies, but the direction of these effects differed among life stages and their magnitude, in some cases, depended on food levels experienced during other life stages. Current food levels and those 2 months prior to growth measurements had positive effects on adult growth rate; though, food levels 2 months prior had a greater effect on growth than current food levels. In contrast, the effects of food availability during the juvenile stage were higher in magnitude but opposite in direction to current food levels and those 2 months prior to growth rate measurements. Individuals recruiting under low food levels grew faster as adults than individuals recruiting during periods of high food availability. There was also a positive interaction between food levels experienced during the juvenile stage and 2 months prior such that the effects of juvenile food level diminished as the food level experienced 2 months prior increased. 4. These results suggest that the similar conditions occurring at different life stages can have different effects on short- and long-term growth strategies of individuals within a population. They also demonstrate that, while juvenile conditions can have lasting effects on adult performance, the strength of that effect can be dampened by environmental conditions experienced as an adult. 5. A simultaneous consideration of past events in both the

  15. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lutfi, Mohamed Faisal; Elhakeem, Ramaze Farouke

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown. Aims To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV) derived indices. Subjects and Methods The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln) of total power (LnTP), very low frequency (LnVLF), low frequency (LnLF) and high frequency (LnHF), low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF), normalized low frequency (LF Norm) and high frequency (HF Norm). Results FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031) and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025) and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025) and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035). LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34) ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94) n.u) compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63) ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73) n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively). LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94) n.u and 0.73 (0.53)) compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83) n.u and 0.03 (0.79), P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively). Conclusion The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which

  16. Effects of Self-Rated Health and Self-Rated Economic Situation on Depressed Mood Via Life Satisfaction Among Older Adults in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Reyes Fernández, Benjamín; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The study examined the relationship of self-rated health and self-rated economic situation with depressed mood, and life satisfaction as mediator of this relationship among older adults in Costa Rica. Method: A longitudinal study was conducted with a subsample (N = 1,618) from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (CRELES). Self-rated health, self-rated economic situation, depressed mood, and life satisfaction were measured at baseline, and depressed mood was reassessed 18 months later. Putative mechanisms for changes in depressed mood were examined by means of conditional process analysis. Results: Self-rated health was negatively associated to depressed mood. This effect took place via life satisfaction. An interaction showed that better economic situation compensated the effect of a low self-rated health on life satisfaction. Discussion: This study suggests that subjective variables such as self-rated health, economic situation, and life satisfaction should be considered when addressing the onset of depressed mood. PMID:26092651

  17. Altitudinally divergent adult phenotypes in Iberian wall lizards are not driven by egg differences or hatchling growth rates.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Jesús; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2015-02-01

    The interplay between ecological conditions and life histories has been widely acknowledged in vertebrates, particularly in lizards. Environmental conditions may exert different selective pressures and produce divergent phenotypes even in geographically and genetically close populations. The Iberian wall lizard constitutes a perfect model organism as it is considered a species complex with a complicated evolutionary history. Here, we focus on two proximate populations in which we examined adult morphology and reproductive investment of wild-caught lizards along a 500-m altitudinal gradient with contrasting environmental conditions, where adults show marked morphological differences in spite of being closely related. Also, we performed a common garden experiment to examine embryonic and hatchling growth. We focused on reproductive investment per clutch, incubation time, egg size, morphology and growth rate of hatchlings. Results showed clutch size differences between populations that were independent of the larger body size of highland females. However, there were no egg morphological differences between populations, except for egg width, and this difference disappeared after controlling for female body size. Hatchling lizards from both populations did not differ in morphology. Moreover, we did not observe differences between populations or sexes in hatchling growth. Overall, we provide evidence that the differences in adult body size and clutch size are not driven by size at hatching which is not contributed to by egg size, nor are intrinsic hatchling growth rates associated with the environmental conditions experienced in our common garden experiment, suggesting that adult phenotypes are not the result of intrinsic differences between populations.

  18. No Association Between Return to Play After Injury and Increased Rate of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Men’s Professional Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Lundblad, Matilda; Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan; Thomeé, Christoffer; Karlsson, Jón

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that previous injury, not necessarily anatomically related, is an important injury risk factor. However, it is not known whether a player runs an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury after returning to play from other injury types. Purpose: To analyze whether professional soccer players are more susceptible to ACL injury after returning to play from any previous injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 101 elite male soccer players suffering a first-time complete ACL injury between 2001 and 2014 were included and matched according to team, age, and playing position with control players who did not have a current injury (1:1 match). For each injured player, the 90-day period prior to the ACL injury was analyzed for injuries and compared with that of control players by using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. Results: The odds of a player with an ACL injury sustaining a previous injury in the 90-day period did not differ significantly from that of controls (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.66-2.17; P = .65). Testing the frequency of absence periods due to injury between the groups revealed that the odds of a player with an ACL injury having a previous period of absence due to injury did not differ compared with controls (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.64-2.01; P = .77). Conclusion: Players with ACL injury did not have a greater occurrence of absence due to injury in the 3 months preceding their ACL injury compared with matched controls. This indicates that previous injury of any type does not increase the risk of suffering an ACL injury. PMID:27830159

  19. Movie Ratings and the Content of Adult Videos: The Sex-Violence Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ni; Linz, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Quantifies sexual, violent, sexually violent, and prosocial behaviors in a sample of R-rated and X-rated videocassettes. Finds the predominant behavior in both X- and XXX-rated videos is sexual. Finds the predominant behavior in R-rated videos was violence followed by prosocial behavior. (RS)

  20. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version in Healthy Adults and Application to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Robert M.; Lance, Charles E.; Isquith, Peter K.; Fischer, Adina S.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) is a questionnaire measure designed to assess executive functioning in everyday life. Analysis of data from the BRIEF-A standardization sample yielded a two-factor solution (labeled Behavioral Regulation and Metacognition). The present investigation employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to evaluate four alternative models of the factor structure of the BRIEF-A self-report form in a sample of 524 healthy young adults. Results indicated that a three-factor model best fits the data: a Metacognition factor, a Behavioral Regulation factor consisting of the Inhibit and Self-Monitor scales, and an Emotional Regulation factor composed of the Emotional Control and Shift scales. The three factors contributed 14%, 19%, and 24% of unique variance to the model, respectively, and a second-order general factor accounted for 41% of variance overall. This three-factor solution is consistent with recent CFAs of the Parent report form of the BRIEF. Furthermore, although the Behavioral Regulation factor score in the two-factor model did not differ between adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and a matched healthy comparison group, greater impairment on the Behavioral Regulation factor but not the Emotional Regulation factor was found using the three-factor model. Together, these findings support the multidimensional nature of executive function and the clinical relevance of a three-factor model of the BRIEF-A. PMID:23676185

  1. Associations between physical activity and self-rated wellbeing in European adults: A population-based, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Peralta, Miguel; Martins, João; Catunda, Ricardo; Matos, Margarida Gaspar de; Saboga Nunes, Luís

    2016-10-01

    Although self-rated wellbeing is an indicator of health status, it has been receiving little attention; its relationship with physical activity among adults remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to analyse the relationship between physical activity and several dimensions of self-rated wellbeing in European adults. This cross-sectional study was based on data from the European Social Survey round 6, 2012, comprising 40,600 European adults (18,418 men, 22,186 women) from 27 countries, with mean age 42.1±13.3. Meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Six dimensions of the self-rated wellbeing were assessed (evaluative wellbeing, emotional wellbeing, functioning, vitality, community wellbeing, supportive wellbeing). Men and women who attained physical activity recommended levels had better evaluative wellbeing (men, p=0.009; women, p<0.001), emotional wellbeing (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), functioning (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), vitality (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), supportive relationships (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001), and wellbeing total score (men, p<0.001; women, p<0.001). Physical activity frequency was linearly associated with self-rated wellbeing in the 6 dimensions as well as the wellbeing total score (p<0.001). Attaining recommended physical activity levels is related to better self-rated wellbeing, and more frequent physical activity is linearly associated with better self-rated wellbeing in its 6 dimensions.

  2. Moving the Markers: New Perspectives on Adult Literacy Rates in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Susan B.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a project originally intended to identify demographic patterns among adults with low literacy skills in each Canadian province. The project was carried out between March 2000 and June 2001 under the auspices of Movement for Canadian Literacy (MCL). The project was based on the assumption that demographic information about…

  3. Temporal Envelope Changes of Compression and Speech Rate: Combined Effects on Recognition for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenstad, Lorienne M.; Souza, Pamela E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: When understanding speech in complex listening situations, older adults with hearing loss face the double challenge of cochlear hearing loss and deficits of the aging auditory system. Wide-dynamic range compression (WDRC) is used in hearing aids as remediation for the loss of audibility associated with hearing loss. WDRC processing has…

  4. Explosive Resistance Training Increases Rate of Force Development in Ankle Dorsiflexors and Gait Function in Adults With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Henrik; Geertsen, Svend S; Lorentzen, Jakob; Krarup, Kasper B; Bandholm, Thomas; Nielsen, Jens B

    2016-10-01

    Kirk, H, Geertsen, SS, Lorentzen, J, Krarup, KB, Bandholm, T, and Nielsen, JB. Explosive resistance training increases rate of force development in ankle dorsiflexors and gait function in adults with cerebral palsy. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2749-2760, 2016-Alterations in passive elastic properties of muscles and reduced ability to quickly generate muscle force contribute to impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). In this study, we investigated whether 12 weeks of explosive and progressive heavy-resistance training (PRT) increases rate of force development of ankle dorsiflexors (RFDdf), improves gait function, and affects passive ankle joint stiffness in adults with CP. Thirty-five adults (age: 36.5; range: 18-59 years) with CP were nonrandomly assigned to a PRT or nontraining control (CON) group in this explorative trial. The PRT group trained ankle dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, leg press, hamstring curls, abdominal curls, and back extension 3 days per week for 12 weeks, with 3 sets per exercise and progressing during the training period from 12 to 6 repetition maximums. RFDdf, 3-dimensional gait analysis, functional performance, and ankle joint passive and reflex-mediated muscle stiffness were evaluated before and after. RFDdf increased significantly after PRT compared to CON. PRT also caused a significant increase in toe lift late in swing and a significantly more dorsiflexed ankle joint at ground contact and during stance. The increased toe-lift amplitude was correlated to the increased RFDdf (r = 0.73). No other between-group differences were observed. These findings suggest that explosive PRT may increase RFDdf and facilitate larger range of movement in the ankle joint during gait. Explosive PRT should be tested in clinical practice as part of a long-term training program for adults with CP.

  5. Delayed Effects of Obese and Overweight Population Conditions on All-Cause Adult Mortality Rate in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Okunade, Albert A.; Rubin, Rose M.; Okunade, Adeyinka K.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass indices (BMIs) to the all-cause mortality rate in adults. Consequently, this paper, using annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia, estimates empirical regression models linking the US adult overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) rates to the all-cause deaths rate. The biochemistry of multi-period cumulative adiposity (saturated fatty acid) from unexpended caloric intakes (net energy storage) provides the natural theoretical foundation for tracing unhealthy BMI to all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional and panel data regression models are separately estimated for the delayed effects of obese and overweight BMIs on the all-cause mortality rate. Controlling for the independent effects of economic, socio-demographic, and other factors on the all-cause mortality rate, our findings confirm that the estimated panel data models are more appropriate. The panel data regression results reveal that the obesity-mortality link strengthens significantly after multiple years in the condition. The faster mortality response to obesity detected here is conjectured to arise from the significantly more obese. Compared with past studies postulating a static (rather than delayed) effects, the statistically significant lagged effects of adult population BMI pathology in this study are novel and insightful. And, as expected, these lagged effects are more severe in the obese than overweight population segment. Public health policy implications of this social science study findings agree with those of the clinical sciences literature advocating timely lifestyle modification interventions (e.g., smoking cessation) to slow premature mortality linked with unhealthy BMIs. PMID:27734013

  6. Timing of Expression of a Gene in the Adult Drosophila Is Regulated by Mechanisms Independent of Temperature and Metabolic Rate

    PubMed Central

    Rogina, B.; Helfand, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    The examination of β-galactosidase (β-gal) expression in the third segment of the antenna of the 2216 enhancer trap line in Drosophila melanogaster reveals two distinct spatial and temporal regulatory patterns of expression during adult life. Type I expression is characterized by a decline in the level of β-gal expression with increasing age. Starting from a maximal level of expression at the time of adult emergence, there is a decrease in the number of cells that express β-gal so that by 40-50 days of adult life few cells express β-gal. Varying the ambient temperature and using hyperactivity mutants (Hyperkinetic(1), Shaker(5)) demonstrates that the rate of this decline is independent of temperature and metabolic rate. Type II expression is distinctly different in spatial distribution and temporal regulation from the first pattern. Type II expression is restricted in the antenna to a small (<20-30) set of cells whose level of expression changes in a periodic manner with time. The regulation of this periodicity appears to be linked to ambient temperature. PMID:8844152

  7. Prevalence of poor self-rated health and associated risk factors among older adults in Cali, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Ossa, Helmer de J; Cubides-Munévar, Ángela M; Curcio, Carmen L; Villegas, Juan de D; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Self-rated health (SRH) has beeen considered an important marker of quality of life and an independent predictor of mortality in older adults. Objective: To determine the prevalence of poor SRH and identify risk factors associated with poor SRH among older adults residing in the Commune 18 of the city of Cali, Colombia, in 2009. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study with a single-stage cluster sampling design. Sample included 314 persons aged 60 and older. The dependent variable, SRH was dichotomized into good (excellent, very good, good) and poor (fair, poor). Independent variables were sociodemographic, biological, mental, functional and geriatric syndromes. Logistic regression was used for multivariate statistical modeling. Results: Overall, 40.1% reported poor SRH (women 42.9%, men 35.0%). Factors independently associated with poor SRH were diabetes mellitus, depression, fear of falling and frailty syndrome (frail and pre-frail vs. non-frail). Widowed men reported poorer health than married men while other marital status (single/separated/divorced) was associated with better self-rated health in women. Conclusion: Potential modifiable factors such as depression and frailty syndrome are important determinants for poor SRH in Colombian older adults. PMID:24892239

  8. Nasolabial appearance in adults with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate: Relation between professional and lay rating and patients' satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Mani, Maria R; Semb, Gunvor; Andlin-Sobocki, Anna

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relation between professional and lay rating and patients' satisfaction with nasolabial appearance in adults with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). A cross-sectional population study, long-term follow-up with controls matched for age and sex was performed. All patients with complete UCLP born between 1960 and 1987 (n = 109), treated at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden were invited and 83 (76%) agreed to participate. Follow-up was 20-47 years after primary lip surgery. An age- and sex-matched control group of 65 people were evaluated in the same way. Ratings from professional and lay panels of cropped photographs using a 5 point categorical scale for 4 features of the nasolabial appearance and the satisfaction with appearance questionnaire (SWA) for self-assessment were used. Professional and lay ratings correlated positively but the professionals consistently rated nasolabial appearance as better than did the lay panel (p < 0.001). Self-assessment of nasolabial appearance with the SWA (by patients and controls) did not correlate with the judgement of lay or professional panels. Judgement of nasolabial appearance in adults with repaired UCLP differs among professionals, lay people, and patients. This should be considered when deciding about secondary surgical treatment of signs of clefts.

  9. Prediction of adult Sheldon somatotypes I and II from ratings and measurements at childhood ages.

    PubMed

    Walker, R N; Tanner, J M

    1980-01-01

    The photographs of 82 boys from the Harpenden Growth Study were assigned somatotype ratings at ages 5, 8, 11, 14, and 18 years, using both Sheldon's earlier, anthroposcopic method and his revised, objective method (somatotype II). Inter-judge correlations for the anthroposcopic ratings of the 18-year-olds ranged from 0.79 to 0.93 for the three components; correlations for the somatotype II ratings ranged from 0.94 to 0.99. The three components of the somatotype II ratings showed greater independence of one another than did those of the anthroposcopic method, which tended to collapse towards two dimensions. Correlations for corresponding components between the anthroposcopic and somatotype II ratings at the same age were mostly in the low 0.80s. Mean somatotype ratings changed little with age in either method, but the somatotype II ratings were consistently higher in endomorphy and mesomorphy and lower in ectomorphy than the anthroposcopic ratings. Patterns of inter-age correlations were similar within methods: endomorphy showed lower age-to-age correlations than did mesomorphy and ectomorphy. Correlations of anthroposcopic component ratings with ratings at age 18 increased distinctly from age 5 to age 8, less sharply thereafter. Between ages 8 and 18, within observer, they were 0.72, 0.83, and 0.82, for endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy. These 8-to-18 correlations for mesomorphy and ectomorphy are similar in magnitude to those for height.

  10. A new banding technique for nesting adult purple martins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Jung, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    Mery (1966) showed an almost equal sex ratio, males returned more frequently than females, over 50% of returns paired with other returns, an adult return rate of 20%, and no pair bonds maintained for more than one season. Her study lasted 13 years. Our study has shown that the return rate of locals to parent colonies is 4.1%, sex ratios are nearly equal (combination of banding and observation), return rate of locals to nearby colonies is 0.9,one pair maintained the pair bond for two years, SY females lay fewer eggs than ASY's, SY adults occasionally do not feed frequently enough to maintain the normal growth pattern of the young, SY adults often build poorly constructed nests with little or no mud, overall nest success is lower in SY adults, adults do indeed return to the same colony (19.6%) box and/or compartment, sexes are balanced in a stable colony, males or females are sometimes in excess in a new colony, SY adults are predominate in a new colony, the limiting factor in colony size is most likely the number of boxes and/or compartments available for nesting and,finally, adults and young do indeed use the boxes for roosting after nesting and fledging is complete (even boxes not their own). All of our results are tentative and subject to change after f rther study. Much additional study will be required before we can come up with conclusive answers to many of these questions about the Purple Martin.

  11. A Prospective Analysis of Juvenile Male Sex Offenders: Characteristics and Recidivism Rates as Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandiver, Donna M.

    2006-01-01

    This research assesses the recidivism rates of a sample of 300 registered male sex offenders who were juveniles at the time of their initial arrest for a sex offense. This sample is followed for 3 to 6 years after they reached adulthood; recidivism rates are assessed during their adulthood only. The typical juvenile is a 15-year-old Caucasian male…

  12. California's Youth and Young Adult Arrest Rates Continue a Historic Decline. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) fact sheet shows that, in 2015, arrests of young people under age 25 dropped below 2014 levels and continue a decades-long trend of decline. While the causes of these declines are unknown, falling youth arrests rates coupled with decreased youth incarceration suggest that high rates of…

  13. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  14. Cultural Norms for Adult Corporal Punishment of Children and Societal Rates of Endorsement and Use of Violence.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2008-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that societal rates of corporal punishment of children predict societal levels of violence, using "culture" as the unit of analysis. DESIGN: Data were retrieved from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample of anthropological records, which includes 186 cultural groups, to represent the world's 200 provinces based on diversity of language, economy, political organization, descent, and historical time. Independent coders rated the frequency and harshness of corporal punishment of children, inculcation of aggression in children, warfare, interpersonal violence among adults, and demographic, socioeconomic, and parenting covariates. RESULTS: More frequent use of corporal punishment was related to higher rates of inculcation of aggression in children, warfare, and interpersonal violence. These relations held for inculcation of aggression in children and warfare after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and parenting confounds. CONCLUSION: More frequent use of corporal punishment is related to higher prevalence of violence and endorsement of violence at a societal level. The findings are consistent with theories that adult violence becomes more prevalent in contexts in which corporal punishment is frequent, that the use of corporal punishment increases the probability that children will engage in violent behaviors during adulthood, and that violence in one social domain tends to influence behavior in other domains. If corporal punishment leads to higher levels of societal violence, then reducing parents' use of corporal punishment should lead to reductions in societal violence manifested in other ways.

  15. Tuberculosis incidence rate and risk factors among HIV-infected adults with access to antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Enju; MAKUBI, Abel; DRAIN, Paul; SPIEGELMAN, Donna; SANDO, David; LI, Nan; CHALAMILLA, Guerino; SUDFELD, Christopher R.; HERTZMARK, Ellen; FAWZI, Wafaie W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence rate and risk factors of tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected adults accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Tanzania. Design A prospective observational study among HIV-infected adults attending 47 HIV clinics in Dar es Salaam. Methods We estimated TB incidence rates among HIV-infected patients prior to and after ART initiation. We used Cox proportional hazard regressions to determine the predictors of incident TB among HIV-infected adults enrolled in the HIV care and treatment program. Results We assessed 67,686 patients for a median follow-up period of 24 (interquartile range: 8–49) months; 7,602 patients were diagnosed with active TB. The TB incidence rate was 7.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 7.6–8.2)/100 person-years prior to ART initiation, and 4.4(95%CI, 4.2–4.4)/100 person-years for patients receiving ART. In multivariate analyses, patients on ART in the first 3 months had a 57% higher risk of TB (Hazard Ratio:1.57, 95%CI:1.47–1.68) compared to those not on ART, but the risk significantly decreased with increasing duration of ART. Risk factors for incident TB included being male, having low body mass index or middle upper arm circumference, lower CD4 cell count, and advanced WHO disease stage. There was seasonal variation for incident TB, with higher risk observed following the rainy seasons (May, June, and November). Conclusion In TB endemic regions, HIV-infected patients initiating ART, particularly males and those with poor nutritional status, should be closely monitored for active TB in the months following ART initiation. In addition to increasing the access to ART, interventions should be considered to improve nutritional status among HIV-infected patients. PMID:26091295

  16. Quality of Life and Physical Capacity of Alder Ambulatory Adults with Rate-Controlled Atrial Fibrillation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    history of angina pectoris . Only 29.8% of the AF patients have a history of either electrical or chemical cardioversion. 14.9% of the AF patients and...Mean heart rate (rate ±1.0 SD) 73 ±11 72 ±11 Maximum heart rate (rate ±1.0 SD) 130+25 112 ±16 ft Angina 12 (25.5) 14 (29.8) Arrhythmia...PCS MCS n A A Allergy 842 -0.82* 0.04 Angina 112 -3.67 0.18 Chronic lung disease 194 -3.12 -3.03" Congestive heart failure 93 -6.72 -1.36

  17. Why Do Staff Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Connie

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 211 returning staff from 25 camps and interviewed 19 returning staff to study factors that influence a counselor's decision to return to camp. Examined the following dimensions of motivation and hygiene factors: (1) stimulation or inspiration; (2) personal; (3) job-related experience; (4) living conditions and camp life; (5) camp…

  18. Effect of weight loss on the rate of muscle protein synthesis during fasted and fed conditions in obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Villareal, Dennis T; Smith, Gordon I; Shah, Krupa; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2012-09-01

    Although weight loss ameliorates many of the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity, there has been reluctance to prescribe weight loss in obese, older individuals because of the fear that it will cause debilitating loss of muscle mass and impair physical function. To gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for the weight loss-induced changes in muscle mass, we measured the rate of muscle protein synthesis (by using stable isotope labeled tracer methodology) during basal, postabsorptive conditions and during mixed meal ingestion in eight obese, older adults: (i) before weight loss therapy, (ii) ~3 months after starting the weight loss intervention (i.e., during the active weight loss phase), when subjects had lost ~7% of their initial body weight, and (iii) after they had lost ~10% of their body weight and maintained this new body weight for ~6 months (~12 months after starting the weight loss intervention). The basal muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was not affected by weight loss. Mixed meal ingestion stimulated the rate of muscle protein synthesis, and the anabolic response (i.e., increase in the protein synthesis rate above basal values) was greater (P < 0.05) during negative energy balance and active weight loss at 3 months (0.033 ± 0.012%·per hour, mean ± s.e.m.) than during weight maintenance before and at 12 months of weight loss therapy (0.003 ± 0.003 and 0.008 ± 0.012%·per hour, respectively). We conclude that during dietary calorie restriction and weight loss in older adults, the rate of muscle protein synthesis is not impaired. Thus, the loss of muscle mass must be mediated predominately by adverse effects of dietary calorie restriction on muscle proteolysis.

  19. Diabetes's 'health shock' to schooling and earnings: increased dropout rates and lower wages and employment in young adults.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Richards, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing diabetes crisis, the nonmedical implications for young adults have gone virtually unexplored. We investigated the effects of diabetes on two key outcomes for this age group-schooling and earnings-and found that it delivers an increasingly common "health shock" to both. We identified effects in several measures of educational attainment, including a high school dropout rate that was six percentage points higher than among young adults without the disease. We also found lower employment and wages: A person with diabetes can conservatively expect to lose more than $160,000 over his or her working life, compared to a peer without the disease. For young adults with diabetes, having a parent with diabetes also leads to poorer outcomes than if one more parents do not have the disease-for example, reducing the likelihood of attending college by four to six percentage points, even after the child's health status is controlled for. These results highlight the urgency of attacking this growing health problem, as well as the need for measures such as in-school screening for whether diabetes's impact on individual learning and performance begins before the classic manifestations of clinical diabetes appear.

  20. Dependent coverage provision led to uneven insurance gains and unchanged mortality rates in young adult trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Scott, John W; Sommers, Benjamin D; Tsai, Thomas C; Scott, Kirstin W; Schwartz, Aaron L; Song, Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Insurance coverage has increased among young adults as a result of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provision that allows young adults to remain covered under their parents' plans until age twenty-six. However, little is known about the provision's effects on the clinical outcomes and insurance coverage of patients with trauma--the most frequent cause of death and physical disability among young adults. Using 2007-12 data from the National Trauma Data Bank, we conducted a difference-in-differences analysis of coverage rates among trauma patients ages 19-25 (compared to patients ages 26-34, who served as the control group), and we examined trauma-relevant outcomes by patient, injury, and hospital characteristics. We found a 3.4-percentage-point decrease in uninsurance status among younger trauma patients following the policy change. The decrease was concentrated among men, non-Hispanic whites, those with relatively less severe injuries, and those who presented to nonteaching hospitals. We did not detect significant changes in the use of intensive care or in overall mortality. The heterogeneous coverage impact of the ACA dependent coverage provision on high- versus low-risk trauma patients has implications for future efforts to expand coverage.

  1. Comparison of specific absorption rate induced in brain tissues of a child and an adult using mobile phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mai; Ueno, Shoogo

    2012-04-01

    The steady increase of mobile phone usage, especially mobile phones by children, has led to a rising concern about the possible adverse health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. The objective of this work is to study whether there is a larger radio frequency energy absorption in the brain of a child compared to that of an adult. For this reason, three high-resolution models, two child head models (6 - and 11-year old) and one adult head model (34-year old) have been used in the study. A finite-difference time-domain method was employed to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the models from exposure to a generic handset at 1750 MHz. The results show that the SAR distributions in the human brain are age-dependent, and there is a deeper penetration of the absorbed SAR in the child's brain. The induced SAR can be significantly higher in subregions of the child's brain. In all of the examined cases, the SAR values in the brains of a child and an adult are well below the IEEE safety standard.

  2. Correspondence and Disparity in the Self- and Other Ratings of Current and Childhood ADHD Symptoms and Impairment in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Knouse, Laura E.; Murphy, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Experts recommend that clinicians evaluating adults for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) obtain information from others who know the patient well. The authors examined correspondence between the self- and other-ratings of ADHD symptoms and impairment using 3 groups of adults recruited on the basis of their severity of ADHD: ADHD…

  3. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  4. Neighborhood environment and self-rated health among adults in Southern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Perera, Bilesha; Østbye, Truls; Jayawardana, Chandramali

    2009-08-01

    The prevalence of different neighborhood environmental stressors and associations between the stressors and self-rated health are described in a representative sample of 2,077 individuals, aged 18-85 years, in southern Sri Lanka. Mosquito menace (69.4%), stray dog problems (26.8%), nuisance from neighbors (20.3%), and nuisance from drug users (18.7%) were found to be the most prevalent environmental stressors. None of the stressors investigated were associated with self-rated physical health, but nuisance from neighbors, nuisance from drug users, shortage of water and having poor water/sewage drainage system were associated with self-rated mental health among the respondents.

  5. Prediction of heart rate and oxygen uptake during incremental and maximal exercise in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fairbarn, M S; Blackie, S P; McElvaney, N G; Wiggs, B R; Paré, P D; Pardy, R L

    1994-05-01

    Measurement of heart rate and oxygen uptake during incremental exercise and at maximal exercise is useful in evaluating mechanisms responsible for exercise limitation in patients with cardiopulmonary disease. Presently used prediction equations are based on relatively small groups of subjects in whom there was an uneven distribution of subjects with regard to age and sex or based on equations that were from extrapolated data. Our prediction equations are based on data from 231 men and women equally divided within decades between 20 and 80 years. Patients exercised to a symptom-limited maximum on a cycle ergometer while measurements of heart rate and oxygen uptake were recorded. The relationship between heart rate and oxygen uptake throughout exercise (HR:VO2) was determined using a statistical technique that included each data point from each subject. The HR:VO2 throughout incremental exercise was best described by separate equations for women younger than 50 years and older than 50 years and for men younger than 70 years and older than 70 years. Prediction equations for maximal heart rate (HRmax) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were developed by linear regression and were selected from all possible combinations of parameters. The HRmax was most accurately predicted by age alone for both sexes. Unlike the HR:VO2 relationship, the slope of the line relating heart rate to age was not different for the older women compared with the younger women so that a single equation was derived to predict HRmax. A single equation for the men was also sufficient since the slope of heart rate to age was the same for all ages. To most accurately predict VO2max, a separate equation was required for both the women and men that included age, height, and weight.

  6. Ethnic variation in the annual rates of adult inflammatory bowel disease in hospitalized patients in Vancouver, British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Mangat, Birinder K; Evaschesen, Chad; Lee, Tim; Yoshida, Eric M; Salh, Baljinder

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is currently little available information regarding the impact of ethnicity on the clinical features of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Migrating populations and changing demographics in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) provide a unique opportunity to examine the role of ethnicity in the prevalence, expression and complications of IBD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographics of IBD and its subtypes leading to hospitalization in the adult population of BC. METHODS: A one-year retrospective study was performed for all patients who presented acutely with IBD to Vancouver General Hospital from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2006. Data regarding sex, age, ethnicity, IBD type and extent of disease, complications and management strategies were collected. Clinical data were confirmed by pathology and radiology reports. RESULTS: There were 186 cases of IBD comprising Crohn’s disease (CD) 56%, ulcerative colitis (UC) 43% and indeterminate colitis (1%) 1%. The annual rate of IBD cases warranting hospitalization in Caucasians was 12.9 per 100,000 persons (7.9 per 100,000 persons for CD and 5.0 per 100,000 persons for UC). This was in contrast to the annual rate of IBD in South Asians at 7.7 per 100,000 persons (1.0 per 100,000 persons for CD and 6.8 per 100,000 persons for UC) and in Pacific Asians at 2.1 per 100,000 persons (1.3 per 100,000 persons for CD, 0.8 per 100,000 persons for UC). The male to female ratio was higher in South Asians and Pacific Asians than in Caucasians. The extent of disease was significantly different across racial groups, as was the rate of complications. CONCLUSIONS: These early results suggest that there are ethnic disparities in the annual rates of IBD warranting hospitalization in the adult population of BC. There was a significantly higher rate of CD in the Caucasian population than in South Asian and Pacific Asian populations. The South Asian population had a higher rate of UC, with an increased rate of complications

  7. The effects of weekly exercise time on VO2max and resting metabolic rate in normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Gim, Mi-Na; Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study examined the effect of individual weekly exercise time on resting metabolic rate and VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake), which are important components of individual health indexes. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to divide the participants into groups based on average weekly walking. Resting metabolic rate was measured using a respiratory gas analyzer. Graded exercise tests were conducted using a treadmill, and the modified Bruce protocol was used as an exercise test method. [Results] VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and resting metabolic rate were significantly different among the groups. [Conclusion] Average weekly exercise time affected VO2max, resting metabolic rate, and anaerobic threshold, all of which are indicators of individual physical ability and health. These values increased as the individual amount of exercise increased. In addition, VO2max, resting metabolic rate, and anaerobic threshold were found to be closely correlated. These findings were consistent with the results of similar previous studies. PMID:27190483

  8. The effects of weekly exercise time on VO2max and resting metabolic rate in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Gim, Mi-Na; Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The present study examined the effect of individual weekly exercise time on resting metabolic rate and VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake), which are important components of individual health indexes. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to divide the participants into groups based on average weekly walking. Resting metabolic rate was measured using a respiratory gas analyzer. Graded exercise tests were conducted using a treadmill, and the modified Bruce protocol was used as an exercise test method. [Results] VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and resting metabolic rate were significantly different among the groups. [Conclusion] Average weekly exercise time affected VO2max, resting metabolic rate, and anaerobic threshold, all of which are indicators of individual physical ability and health. These values increased as the individual amount of exercise increased. In addition, VO2max, resting metabolic rate, and anaerobic threshold were found to be closely correlated. These findings were consistent with the results of similar previous studies.

  9. Relationships between QT interval and heart rate variability at rest and the covariates in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Arai, Kaori; Nakagawa, Yui; Iwata, Toyoto; Horiguchi, Hyogo; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2013-01-01

    To clarify the links between ECG QT-related parameters and heart rate variability (HRV) and the covariates possibly distorting them, the averaged RR and QT intervals in a single lead ECG were measured for 64 male and 86 female subjects aged 18-26. The QT index, defined by Rautaharju et al., in the young adults was not significantly related to any HRV parameters nor heart rate, but the Bazett's corrected QT (QTc) interval was associated negatively with the parasympathetic activity and positively with heart rate. No significant differences in the QTc interval, QT index or heart rate were seen between the men and women, but they significantly differed between both sexes after adjustment for possible covariates such as age and body mass index (BMI). Significant sex differences in parasympathetic parameters of the HRV were unchanged before and after the adjustment, but significant differences observed in the unadjusted sympathetic parameters disappeared after adjusting for covariates. Age, BMI and body fat percentage also were significant covariates affecting these ECG parameters. Consequently, QT index, unaffected by heart rate and HRV parameters, appears to be a more useful indicator than the QTc interval. Instead, the QT index and HRV parameters are recommended to be simultaneously measured in epidemiological research because they are probably complementary in assessing autonomic nervous function. Also, these parameters should be analyzed in men and women separately.

  10. Dietary fibre intakes and reduction in functional constipation rates among Canadian adults: a cost-of-illness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohammad M. H.; Gyles, Collin L.; Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Carlberg, Jared G.; Jones, Peter J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based research highlights beneficial impacts of dietary fibre on several aspects of the gut pathophysiology that are accompanied by a considerable financial burden in healthcare services. Recommended intakes of dietary fibre may thus associate with financial benefits at a population level. Objective We sought to systematically assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs that would follow the reduction in rates of functional constipation and irregularity with increased dietary fibre intakes among Canadian adults. Design A cost-of-illness analysis was developed on the basis of current and recommended levels of fibre intake in Canada, constipation reduction per 1 g fibre intake, proportion of adults who are likely to consume fibre-rich diets, and population expected to respond to fibre intake. Sensitivity analyses covering a range of assumptions were further implemented within the economic simulation. Results Our literature searches assumed a 1.8% reduction in constipation rates with each 1 g/day increase in fibre intake. With intakes corresponding to the Institute of Medicine's adequate levels of 38 g/day for men and 25 g/day for women, among 5 and 100% of the adult populations, anywhere between CAD$1.5 and CAD$31.9 million could be saved on constipation-related healthcare costs annually. Each 1 g/day increase in dietary fibre was estimated to result in total annual healthcare cost savings that ranged between CAD$0.1 and CAD$2.5 million. Conclusions The present research suggests an economic value of increasing dietary fibre intake beyond its well-known health benefits. Healthy-eating behaviours consistent with the recommended intakes of dietary fibre by the general public should hence be advocated as a practical approach for reducing costs associated with the management of constipation in Canada. PMID:26652739

  11. Exiting and Returning to the Parental Home for Boomerang Kids

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg-Thoma, Sara E.; Snyder, Anastasia R.; Jang, Bohyun Joy

    2015-01-01

    Young adults commonly exit from and return to the parental home, yet few studies have examined the motivation behind these exits and returns using a life course framework. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the authors examined associations between mental health problems and economic characteristics and exits from (n = 8,162), and returns to (n = 6,530), the parental home during the transition to adulthood. The average age of the respondents was 24 years. The authors found evidence that mental health and economic characteristics were related to home leaving and returning. Emotional distress was associated with earlier exits from, and returns to, the parental home; alcohol problems were associated with earlier returns to the parental home. The findings regarding economic resources were unexpectedly mixed. Greater economic resources were linked to delayed exits from, and earlier returns to, the parental home. The implications of these findings for young adults are discussed. PMID:26023244

  12. Stimulus generation, ratings, phoneme counts, and group classifications for 696 famous people by British adults over 40 years of age.

    PubMed

    Smith-Spark, James H; Moore, Viv; Valentine, Tim; Sherman, Susan M

    2006-11-01

    Matching stimuli across a range of influencing variables is no less important for studies of face recognition than it is for those of word processing. Whereas a number of corpora exist to allow experimenters to select a carefully controlled set of word stimuli, similar databases for famous faces do not exist. This article, therefore, provides researchers in the area of face recognition with a useful resource on which to base their stimulus selection. In the first phase of the investigation, British adults over 40 years of age were requested to generate the names of famous people (or celebrities) that they thought they would recognize and to write these down. The most frequently named celebrities were then rated by adults from the same age population for familiarity, distinctiveness, and age of acquisition. The result is a database of 696 famous people, with an indication of their relative eminence in the public consciousness and rated for these important variables. Phoneme counts are also provided for each famous person, together with family name frequency counts in the general population, where available. Materials and links may be accessed at www.psychonomic.org/archive.

  13. Self-rated health and reasons for non-vaccination against seasonal influenza in Canadian adults with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Fisman, David; Gardy, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction While seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for individuals with asthma, uptake in this population is low. We examined how self-rated health impacts reasons for not being immunized against influenza in Canadian adults with asthma, focusing on those who have never been immunized. Methods We pooled four cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (cycles 3.1(2005), 2007/08, 2009/10 and 2011/12), grouping individuals by whether their reasons for not having been vaccinated were perceptual or technical. We used a multivariable logistic regression model, adjusted for confounders, to quantify the relationship between self-rated health and their reported reasons for not vaccinating. Results Among the 9,836 respondents, 84.4% cited perceptual barriers as a reason for not being vaccinated. After adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and province of residence, we determined that reporting perceptual barriers was associated with self-rated health status, with the adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.42 (95%CI: 0.97, 2.09) to 2.64 (95%CI: 1.74, 3.99) for fair and excellent health versus poor health, respectively. Each increase in self-rated health category was associated with greater odds of citing a perceptual rather than technical barrier as a reason for non-vaccination. Discussion Self-reported health influences people’s perception of the need for influenza vaccination. Viewing the results through the lens of the precaution adoption process model suggests that personalizing communication around both the risk of influenza and the effectiveness of the vaccine may improve uptake amongst adults with asthma. PMID:28207823

  14. Trends of hospitalizations, fatality rate and costs for acute myocardial infarction among Spanish diabetic adults, 2001-2006

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the more frequent reasons diabetic patients are admitted to hospital, and there are reports that the long-term prognosis after an AMI is much worse in these patients than in non-diabetic patients. This study aims to compare hospital admissions and costs in Spanish diabetic and non-diabetic subjects due to AMI during the period 2001-2006. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 6 years of national hospitalization data associated with diabetes using the Minimum Basic Data Set. National hospitalization rates were calculated for AMI among diabetic and non-diabetic adults. Fatality rates, mean hospital stay and direct medical costs related to hospitalization were analyzed. Costs were calculated using Diagnosis-Related Groups for AMI in diabetics and non-diabetics patients. Results During the study period, a total of 307,099 patients with AMI were admitted to Spanish hospitals. Diabetic patients made up 29.6% of the total. The estimated incidence due to AMI in diabetics increased from 54.7 cases per 100,000 in 2001 to 64.1 in 2006. Diabetic patients had significantly higher mortality than nondiabetic patients after adjusting for age, gender, and year (OR 1.11 [95% CI, 1.08-1.14]). The cost among diabetic patients increased by 21.3% from 2001 to 2006. Conclusions Diabetic patients have higher rates of hospital admission and fatality rates during the hospitalization after an AMI than nondiabetic patients. Diabetic adults who have suffered an AMI have a greater than expected increase in direct hospital costs over the period 2001-2006. PMID:20205960

  15. Falling Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria Death Rate among Adults despite Rising Incidence, Sabah, Malaysia, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Rajahram, Giri S; Barber, Bridget E; William, Timothy; Grigg, Matthew J; Menon, Jayaram; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    Deaths from Plasmodium knowlesi malaria have been linked to delayed parenteral treatment. In Malaysia, early intravenous artesunate is now recommended for all severe malaria cases. We describe P. knowlesi fatalities in Sabah, Malaysia, during 2012-2014 and report species-specific fatality rates based on 2010-2014 case notifications. Sixteen malaria-associated deaths (caused by PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi [7], P. falciparum [7], and P. vivax [1] and microscopy-diagnosed "P. malariae" [1]) were reported during 2012-2014. Six patients with severe P. knowlesi malaria received intravenous artesunate at hospital admission. For persons ≥15 years of age, overall fatality rates during 2010-2014 were 3.4, 4.2, and 1.0 deaths/1,000 P. knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax notifications, respectively; P. knowlesi-associated fatality rates fell from 9.2 to 1.6 deaths/1,000 notifications. No P. knowlesi-associated deaths occurred among children, despite 373 notified cases. Although P. knowlesi malaria incidence is rising, the notification-fatality rate has decreased, likely due to improved use of intravenous artesunate.

  16. Salivary Alpha-Amylase Activity and Salivary Flow Rate in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arhakis, Aristidis; Karagiannis, Vasilis; Kalfas, Sotirios

    2013-01-01

    The secretion of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is more associated with psychoneuroendocrinological response to stress than with the flow rate and age. The aim of this cross sectional study is to build an explanatory model based on patterns of relationship between age 20-39 in resting and stimulated saliva under no stressful condition in healthy volunteers. Both resting and stimulated saliva were collected from 40 subjects. The sAA values were log-transformed, the normality assumption was verified with the Shapiro-Wilk test and the reliability of the measurements was estimated by the Pearsons’ r correlation coefficient. The estimated model was based on the theory of the Linear Mixed Models. Significant mean changes were observed in flow rate and sAA activity between resting and stimulated saliva. The final model consists of two components, the first revealed a positive correlation between age and sAA while the second one revealed a negative correlation between the interaction of age × flow rate in its condition (resting or stimulated saliva), with sAA. Both flow rate and age influence sAA activity. PMID:23524385

  17. Trauma, Socioeconomic Resources, and Self-rated Health in an Ethnically Diverse Adult Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Klest, Bridget; Freyd, Jennifer J.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Dubanoski, Joan P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate ethnic group differences in the association between trauma exposure and health status among an ethnically diverse sample originating in Hawai‘i. Design Across a ten-year period (1998–2008), participants (N = 833) completed five waves of questionnaire assessments. Trauma exposure was measured retrospectively at the most recent assessment (wave 5), socioeconomic resources (educational attainment and employment status) were measured at wave 1, and self-rated health was measured at each of the five waves. Results Results indicated that greater exposure to trauma was associated with poorer self-rated health, as were lower educational attainment and lower work status. In addition there was ethnic group variation in health ratings, as well as in how strongly trauma exposure predicted health status. Specifically, within Filipino American and Native Hawaiian ethnic groups, there was a stronger negative association between trauma exposure and self-rated health. Conclusion These results suggest complex interrelations among trauma, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and physical health. Further understanding these relations may have implications for medical and behavioral interventions in vulnerable populations. PMID:22732011

  18. Resting Metabolic Rate is Not Reduced in Obese Adults With Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernhall, Bo; Figueroa, Arturo; Collier, Scott; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Baynard, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate (RMR) of 22 individuals with Down syndrome was compared to that of 20 nondisabled control individuals of similar age (25.7 and 27.4 years, respectively). Using a ventilated hood system, we measured RMR in the early morning after an overnight fast. Peak aerobic capacity Volume of Oxygen (VO2 peak) and body composition were…

  19. Examining Associations between Self-Rated Health and Proficiency in Literacy and Numeracy among Immigrants and U.S.-Born Adults: Evidence from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC).

    PubMed

    Prins, Esther; Monnat, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) to analyze the relationship between self-reported health (SRH) and literacy and numeracy proficiency for immigrants compared to U.S.-born respondents and for Hispanic versus Asian immigrants. The research questions were: (1) Are literacy and numeracy scores associated with adults' SRH? (2) Are associations between SRH and literacy and numeracy proficiency moderated by immigrant status? (3) Among immigrants, are literacy and numeracy scores more strongly associated with SRH for Hispanics versus Asians? Immigrants had significantly lower literacy and numeracy scores, yet reported better health than U.S.-born respondents. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that literacy and numeracy were both positively related to SRH for immigrants and U.S.-born adults, and should therefore be viewed as part of the growing evidence that literacy is an independent and significant social determinant of health. Second, U.S.-born and immigrant adults accrued similarly positive health benefits from stronger literacy and numeracy skills. Third, although Hispanic immigrants were more disadvantaged than Asian immigrants on almost all socioeconomic characteristics and had significantly lower literacy and numeracy scores and worse SRH than Asian immigrants, both Hispanic and Asian immigrants experienced similar positive health returns from literacy and numeracy proficiency. These findings underscore the potential health benefits of providing adult basic education instruction, particularly for immigrants with the least formal schooling and fewest socioeconomic resources.

  20. Effects of Moxa (Folium Artemisiae argyi) Smoke Exposure on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Young Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Human Study

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yingxue; Zhao, Baixiao; Huang, Yuhai; Chen, Zhanghuang; Liu, Ping; Huang, Jian; Lao, Lixing

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effects of the moxa smoke on human heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods. Fifty-five healthy young adults were randomly divided into experimental (n = 28) and control (n = 27) groups. Experimental subjects were exposed to moxa smoke (2.5 ± 0.5 mg/m3) twice for 25 minutes in one week. ECG monitoring was performed before, during, and after exposure. Control subjects were exposed to normal indoor air in a similar environment and similarly monitored. Followup was performed the following week. Short-term (5 min) HRV parameters were analyzed with HRV analysis software. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Results. During and after the first exposure, comparison of percentage changes or changes in all parameters between groups showed no significant differences. During the second exposure, percentage decrease in HR, percentage increases in lnTP, lnHF, lnLF, and RMSSD, and increase in PNN50 were significantly greater in the experimental group than in control. Conclusion. No significant adverse HRV effects were associated with this clinically routine 25-minute exposure to moxa smoke, and the data suggests that short-term exposure to moxa smoke might have positive regulating effects on human autonomic function. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:23762143

  1. Resting-state qEEG predicts rate of second language learning in adults.

    PubMed

    Prat, Chantel S; Yamasaki, Brianna L; Kluender, Reina A; Stocco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the neurobiological basis of individual differences in second language acquisition (SLA) is important for research on bilingualism, learning, and neural plasticity. The current study used quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) to predict SLA in college-aged individuals. Baseline, eyes-closed resting-state qEEG was used to predict language learning rate during eight weeks of French exposure using an immersive, virtual scenario software. Individual qEEG indices predicted up to 60% of the variability in SLA, whereas behavioral indices of fluid intelligence, executive functioning, and working-memory capacity were not correlated with learning rate. Specifically, power in beta and low-gamma frequency ranges over right temporoparietal regions were strongly positively correlated with SLA. These results highlight the utility of resting-state EEG for studying the neurobiological basis of SLA in a relatively construct-free, paradigm-independent manner.

  2. Relationships Between Questionnaire Ratings of Sleep Quality and Polysomnography in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Anna; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle; Kecklund, Göran; Axelsson, John; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between polysomnographic sleep and subjective habitual sleep quality and restoration from sleep. Thirty-one normal sleepers completed the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire and multiple home polysomnography recordings (n = 2-5). Using linear regression, sleep quality and restoration were separately analyzed as functions of standard polysomnography parameters: sleep efficiency, total sleep time, sleep latency, stage 1 and 2 sleep, slow-wave sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, wake time after sleep onset, and awakenings (n), averaged across recordings. Stage 2 and slow-wave sleep predicted worse and better sleep quality, respectively. Also, slow-wave sleep predicted less subjective restoration, although adjustment for age attenuated this relation. Our findings lend some physiological validity to ratings of habitual sleep quality in normal sleepers. Data were less supportive of a physiological correlate of ratings of restoration from sleep.

  3. A prospective analysis of juvenile male sex offenders: characteristics and recidivism rates as adults.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Donna M

    2006-05-01

    This research assesses the recidivism rates of a sample of 300 registered male sex offenders who were juveniles at the time of their initial arrest for a sex offense. This sample is followed for 3 to 6 years after they reached adulthood; recidivism rates are assessed during their adulthood only. The typical juvenile is a 15-year-old Caucasian male who was arrested for sexual assault or indecency with a child. The majority of the victims are females with an average age of 8. Although only 13 are rearrested during the follow-up period for a sex offense, more than half of the sample is arrested at least once for a nonsexual offense. The results of a Cox regression indicate that victim age, offender age, and victim sex are significant predictors of recidivism during adulthood.

  4. Mechanisms of the Effect of Involuntary Retirement on Older Adults' Self-Rated Health and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Mor Barak, Michàlle E; Gallo, William T

    2016-01-01

    This study examined mechanisms of the effect of involuntary retirement on self-rated health and mental health among adults aged 50 or older. Using two waves of the Health and Retirement Study (2006 and 2010), we selected a sample of 1,195 individuals working for pay at baseline who responded to a lifestyle questionnaire in both waves. Regression-based path analyses were conducted to test the mediating effects of financial control, positive and negative family relationships, and social integration on the relationship between involuntary retirement and self-rated health and mental health. Results of mediation analyses indicated that transition to involuntary retirement was directly negatively associated with subsequent self-rated health and indirectly negatively associated with mental health via perception of less financial control. Voluntary retirement was indirectly positively associated with both self-rated and mental health via perception of more financial control. No significant direct or indirect effects of retirement were found when retirement was measured with an aggregate measure without specifying its voluntariness. Findings emphasize the importance of specifying the voluntariness of retirement and recognizing the heterogeneity in the mechanisms of involuntary and voluntary retirement.

  5. Influence of Hypertension on pH of Saliva and Flow Rate in Elder Adults Correlating with Oral Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Talla, Harshavardhan; Poosa, Manasa; Gopaladas, Madhulatha; Meesala, Deepika; Jayanth, L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the most prevalent systemic conditions seen in the elderly individuals is hypertension, but very sparse knowledge regarding the influence of hypertension on oral health in known. Aim Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between hypertension and salivary pH, flow rate and its effect on oral health status. Materials and Methods The study included 40 elderly individuals above 60 years of age, of which 20 individuals (control group) were normotensive without using any medication and 20 individuals (study group) were hypertensive using anti-hypertensive medication. Stimulated and unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all individuals and pH was measured using saliva pH strips, flow rate was measured using calibrated test tubes and was correlated with oral health status. Then the values were sent for statistical analysis where unpaired t-test, chi-square test were used. Results The results showed that there was no significant association of hypertension with stimulated and unstimulated flow rate, rather there was a significant association of hyper-tension with stimulated salivary pH i.e., there was a significant decrease in the pH of stimulated saliva. The study also revealed a significant association with presence of bleeding on probing and periodontal pockets in individuals who were hypertensive and using anti-hypertensive medication. Conclusion Hence, it is a necessity to monitor blood pressure for reconstruction and maintenance of oral health in older adults. More longitudinal studies are to be carried out to explore further relationship between oral health and hypertension in older adults. PMID:28050500

  6. Cognitive and Physical Demands of Activities of Daily Living In Older Adults: Validation of Expert Panel Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Tamara G.; Gleason, Lauren J.; Wong, Bonnie; Habtemariam, Daniel; Jones, Richard N.; Schmitt, Eva M.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Saczynski, Jane S.; Gross, Alden L.; Bean, Jonathan F.; Brown, Cynthia J.; Fick, Donna M.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; O’Connor, Margaret; Tabloski, Patrica A.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficulties with performance of functional activities may result from cognitive and/or physical impairments. To date, there has not been a clear delineation of the physical and cognitive demands of activities of daily living. Objectives To quantify the relative physical and cognitive demands required to complete typical functional activities in older adults. Design Expert panel survey. Setting Web-based platform. Participants Eleven experts from eight academic medical centers and 300 community dwelling elderly adults age 70 and older scheduled for elective non-cardiac surgery from two academic medical centers. Methods Sum scores of expert ratings were calculated and then validated against objective data collected from a prospective longitudinal study. Main Outcome Measurements Correlation between expert ratings and objective neuropsychological tests (memory, language, complex attention) and physical measures (gait speed and grip strength) for performance-based tasks. Results Managing money, self-administering medications, using the telephone, and preparing meals were rated as requiring significantly more cognitive demand, while walking and transferring, moderately strenuous activities, and climbing stairs were assessed as more physically demanding. Largely cognitive activities correlated with objective neuropsychological performance (r=0.13–0.23, p<.05) and largely physical activities correlated with physical performance (r=0.15–0.46, p<.05). Conclusions Quantifying the degree of cognitive and/or physical demand for completing a specific task adds an additional dimension to standard measures of functional assessment. This additional information may significantly influence decisions about rehabilitation, post-acute care needs, treatment plans, and caregiver education. PMID:25661463

  7. The correlation between preoperative erythrocyte sedimentation rate and postoperative outcome in adult cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bilehjani, Eissa; Fakhari, Solmaz; Farzin, Haleh; Yaghoubi, Alireza; Mirinazhad, Moussa; Shadvar, Kamran; Dehghani, Abbasali; Aboalaiy, Pariasadat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Over the past decades, it has been recommended that preoperative assessment mainly relies on history and physical examination rather than unnecessary laboratory tests. In Iranian hospitals, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) has been routinely measured in most of the patients awaiting major surgery, which has in turn exacted heavy costs on the health system. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the preoperative routine measurement of ESR in such patients. Materials and methods This is a retrospective study, in which we evaluated the medical files of 620 patients. Patients older than 18 years, who had undergone elective heart surgery in our hospital in 2014, were included in the study. The data associated with demography, heart disease diagnosis, type of surgery, significant preoperative tests, delay or postponing of surgery and the reason for it, type and characteristics of the subspecialty consultation, and finally, postoperative complication and mortality rate were collected and analyzed. The patients were categorized into four groups according to ESR value: normal (<15 mm/h in females or <20 mm/h in males), moderately increased (<40 mm/h), severely increased (≥40 mm/h), and not measured. Results Of the 620 patients’ files, 402 were of males and 218 were of females. Demographic values and preoperative characteristics were similar in the four groups. A total of 105 consultations were given to 79 patients preoperatively, where only in five cases, the elevation in ESR was the main reason for consultation. In no other cases did the consultations result in new diagnoses. Overall, postoperative complication and mortality rate were the same in all four groups; in severely increased ESR group, on the other hand, the need for long periods of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays was higher than that of other groups. Conclusion It is concluded that elevated preoperative ESR does not cancel or defer the surgery, nor does it help

  8. Structural brain correlates of heart rate variability in a healthy young adult population.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Tobias; Thayer, Julian F; Pohlack, Sebastian; Nees, Frauke; Grimm, Oliver; Flor, Herta

    2017-03-01

    The high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV) has reliably been shown to serve as an index of autonomic inhibitory control and is increasingly considered as a biomarker of adaptability and health. While several functional neuroimaging studies identified associations between regional cerebral blood flow and HRV, studies on structural brain correlates of HRV are scarce. We investigated whether interindividual differences in HRV are related to brain morphology in healthy humans. Thirty participants underwent HRV recording at rest subsequent to structural magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical reconstruction and subcortical volumetry were performed with the Freesurfer image analysis suite. The amount of resting HRV was positively correlated with the cortical thickness of an area within the right anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC). Consistent with existing studies implicating forebrain regions in cardiac regulation, our findings show that the thickness of the right aMCC is associated with the degree of parasympathetic regulation of heart rate. Evidence for the neural correlates of interindividual differences in HRV may complement our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association between HRV and self-regulatory capacity.

  9. Suicide rates and religious commitment in young adult males in Utah.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Sterling C; Fellingham, Gilbert W; Lyon, Joseph L

    2002-03-01

    Previous studies have used population data to demonstrate an inverse association between suicide rates and religious commitment. This report examines Utah suicide rates for young men aged 15-34 years, stratified by their membership in and commitment to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), the predominant religion in Utah. All state death records for males from 1991 to 1995 were obtained and linked to LDS church deceased membership records to obtain a measure of religious commitment that is not self-reported. Religious commitment for LDS church members was determined by age-appropriate priesthood office. Of the 27,738 male deaths reported, 15,555 (56%) linked to an LDS church record using a probabilistic linking program. Using active (high religious commitment) LDS as the reference group, the less-active (low religious commitment) LDS group had relative risks of suicide ranging from 3.28 (ages 15-19 years) to 7.64 (ages 25-29 years); nonmembers of the LDS church had relative risks ranging from 3.43 (ages 15-19 years) to 6.27 (ages 20-24 years). Although the mechanism of the association is unclear, higher levels of religiosity appear to be inversely associated with suicide.

  10. Gross Motor Function Classification System used in adults with cerebral palsy: agreement of self-reported versus professional rating.

    PubMed

    Jahnsen, Reidun; Aamodt, Geir; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2006-09-01

    The present study investigated the reliability of self-reported rating of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels compared with professional rating, and changes in gross motor function over time, in adults with cerebral palsy. Twenty-nine females and 33 males aged between 18 years 5 months and 62 years 11 months (mean age 34y 7mo [SD 10y 6mo]) participated in the study. Participants rated their current gross motor function using the GMFCS and reported their judgement of their gross motor function at age 10 to 12 years. The project leader, a physical therapist, also classified participants' current GMFCS levels and conducted a chart review on all accessible medical records of participants' gross motor function when they were 10 to 12 years old, rating the GMFCS level accordingly. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between self-reported and professional ratings showed excellent agreement (ICC=0.93-0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-0.97). More than half the participants experienced a stable gross motor function from the age of 10 to 12 years to the present. Those at GMFCS Levels II and III at the age of 10 to 12 years (according to the professional rating) had significant change for the worse in gross motor function over time, with odds ratios of 9.30 (95% CI 1.2-73.0, p=0.03) and 7.00 (95% CI 1.1-43.0, p=0.04) respectively. Interview data on circumstances regarding changes in gross motor function since childhood are also reported. Changes in GMFCS level were mostly associated with physical or social environmental factors.

  11. Returning to practice.

    PubMed

    Holland, S

    1994-03-01

    All too often health visitors seeking to return to practice following a career break are met with negative response, writes Stevie Holland. Here she recounts the words and experiences of some of the health visitors who enrolled on the HVA's open learning 'Return to practice' courses in recent years. The health visiting profession needs to encourage the enthusiasm and innovation of returners if it is to survive in today's political climate, she warns.

  12. Best practice methods to apply to measurement of resting metabolic rate in adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Compher, Charlene; Frankenfield, David; Keim, Nancy; Roth-Yousey, Lori

    2006-06-01

    Several factors may alter apparent resting metabolic rate (RMR) during measurement with indirect calorimetry. Likewise, numerous indirect calorimetry measurement protocols have been developed over the years, and the methodology employed could influence test results. As part of a larger project to determine the role of indirect calorimetry in clinical practice, a systematic review of the literature was undertaken to determine the ideal subject condition and test methodology for obtaining reliable measurement of RMR with indirect calorimetry. Food, ethanol, caffeine, and nicotine affect RMR for a variable number of hours after consumption; therefore, intake of these items must be controlled before measurement. Activities of daily living increase metabolic rate, but a short rest (< or =20 minutes) before testing is sufficient for the effect to dissipate. Moderate or vigorous physical activity has a longer carryover effect and therefore must be controlled in the hours before a measurement of RMR is attempted. Limited data were found regarding ideal ambient conditions for RMR testing. Measurement duration of 10 minutes with the first 5 minutes deleted and the remaining 5 minutes having a coefficient of variation <10% gave accurate readings of RMR. Individuals preparing for RMR measurement via indirect calorimetry should refrain from eating, consuming ethanol and nicotine, smoking, and engaging in physical activity for varying times before measurement. The test site should be physically comfortable and the individual should have 10 to 20 minutes to rest before measurement commences. A 10-minute test duration with the first 5 minutes discarded and the remaining 5 minutes having a coefficient of variation of <10% will give an accurate measure of RMR.

  13. Excessive energy intake does not modify fed-state tissue protein synthesis rates in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Adéchian, Solange; Giardina, Silvana; Rémond, Didier; Papet, Isabelle; Buonocore, Daniela; Gaudichon, Claire; Dardevet, Dominique; Marzatico, Fulvio; Mosoni, Laurent

    2009-07-01

    The impact of chronic excessive energy intake on protein metabolism is still controversial. Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum during 5 weeks with either a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HF: n = 9) containing 45% of total energy as lipids (protein 14%; carbohydrate 40% with 83.5% sucrose) or a standard diet (controls: n = 10). Energy intake and body weight were recorded. At the end of the experiment, we measured body composition, metabolic parameters (plasma amino acid, lipid, insulin, and glucose levels), inflammatory parameter (plasma alpha2-macroglobulin), oxidative stress parameters (antioxidant enzyme activities, lipoperoxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl content in liver and muscle), and in vivo fed-state fractional protein synthesis rates (FSRs) in muscle and liver. Energy intake was significantly higher in HF compared with control rats (+28%). There were significant increases in body weight (+8%), body fat (+21%), renal (+41%), and epidydimal (+28%) fat pads in HF compared with control rats. No effect was observed in other tissue weights (liver, muscle, spleen, kidneys, intestine). Liver and muscle FSRs, plasma levels of lipids, glucose, insulin and alpha2-macroglobulin, soleus and liver glutathione reductase and peroxidase activities, MnSOD activity, LPO, and protein carbonyl content were not altered by the HF diet. Only soleus muscle and liver Cu/ZnSOD activity and soleus muscle catalase activities were reduced in HF rats compared with control rats. Thus, chronic excessive energy intake and increased adiposity, in the absence of other metabolic alterations, do not stimulate fed-state tissue protein synthesis rates.

  14. Assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (Inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (Inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (Inventor); Ross, Brian P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

  15. Association of heart rate recovery after exercise with indices of obesity in healthy, non-obese adults.

    PubMed

    Dimkpa, Uchechukwu; Oji, Jude O

    2010-03-01

    We aimed at determining whether body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with heart rate recovery (HRR) and to demonstrate which of the three indices of obesity, is the strongest predictor of HRR in apparently healthy non-obese adults. Three hundred and twenty-five subjects aged 18-66 years participated in the study. Anthropometric indices were measured, and subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise at 75-85% maximum heart rate. Heart rate (HR) was measured during the last minute of exercise and in the first minute of post-exercise recovery. A partial correlation test and a multiple linear regression analysis, after adjusting for age and peak oxygen uptake indicated that the best predictors of HRR were BMI in males and WHR in females. The present data suggest that, HRR is independently related to indices of obesity-BMI, WC, and WHR and strengthen the usefulness of these anthropometric indices in predicting cardiovascular risks. In addition, the findings suggest that BMI in men and WHR in women best express the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular risks.

  16. Association of perceived neighborhood problems and census tract income with poor self-rated health in adults: a multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Höfelmann, Doroteia Aparecida; Diez Roux, Ana V; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2015-11-01

    Neighborhood problems constitute sources of chronic stress that may increase the risk of poor self-rated health. The associations of census tract level income and perceived neighborhood problems with self-rated health were examined in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil (1,720 adults). Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of poor self-rated health were estimated through multilevel models. Residents in census tracts in the lower and intermediate tertiles of income reported poorer health than those in the highest tertile. OR of reporting poorer health was 2.44 (95%CI: 2.35- 2.54) in the higher tertile of social disorder (adjusting for mental health). The chances of reporting the poorer health with neighborhood problems ranged from 1.07 (95%CI: 1.03-1.11) to 2.02 (95%CI: 1.95-2.10) for the higher tertile of social disorder (physical health) and physical problem (health-related variables). Perceived neighborhood problems were independently associated with poor health. The perception of a neighborhood among its residents should be considered by health policymakers.

  17. Methods for estimating comparable prevalence rates of food insecurity experienced by adults in 147 countries and areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nord, Mark; Cafiero, Carlo; Viviani, Sara

    2016-11-01

    Statistical methods based on item response theory are applied to experiential food insecurity survey data from 147 countries, areas, and territories to assess data quality and develop methods to estimate national prevalence rates of moderate and severe food insecurity at equal levels of severity across countries. Data were collected from nationally representative samples of 1,000 adults in each country. A Rasch-model-based scale was estimated for each country, and data were assessed for consistency with model assumptions. A global reference scale was calculated based on item parameters from all countries. Each country's scale was adjusted to the global standard, allowing for up to 3 of the 8 scale items to be considered unique in that country if their deviance from the global standard exceeded a set tolerance. With very few exceptions, data from all countries were sufficiently consistent with model assumptions to constitute reasonably reliable measures of food insecurity and were adjustable to the global standard with fair confidence. National prevalence rates of moderate-or-severe food insecurity assessed over a 12-month recall period ranged from 3 percent to 92 percent. The correlations of national prevalence rates with national income, health, and well-being indicators provide external validation of the food security measure.

  18. Fine tuning recommendations for older adults with memory complaints: using the Independent Living Scales with the Dementia Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Baird, Anne

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how functional test performance changed as global cognitive functioning dropped, as well as to examine the relationship of demographic variables and depression with functional test results. We found that level of performance on the Independent Living Scales (ILS) correlated highly with Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) scores in 83 older adults presenting for clinical neuropsychological assessment, while correlations with demographic factors and depression were nonsignificant or modest. Based on DRS scores, we divided our sample into four groups: normal cognitive status, borderline cognitive impairment, likely mild dementia, and likely moderate dementia. ILS profiles of the borderline impairment and mild dementia groups were similar and reflected particularly poor performance on subscales tapping financial management and everyday memory. Individuals with likely moderate dementia were markedly impaired on all subscales.

  19. The Relationship Between Self-Rated Health and Acculturation in Hispanic and Asian Adult Immigrants: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lommel, Lisa L; Chen, Jyu-Lin

    2016-04-01

    We systematically reviewed studies to identify the association between acculturation and self-rated health (SRH) and the impact of nativity and language use in Asian and Hispanic adult immigrants. Six electronic databases were searched. Data on nativity and limited English proficiency (LEP) was extracted and analyzed. Nine studies met review criteria. A positive association between acculturation and fair/poor SRH among Asians and Hispanics was found. For both Asians and Hispanics, six out of eight studies showed nativity and all three studies reporting LEP were associated with worse SRH compared to whites. Nativity and LEP were found to be risk factors for reporting worse SRH in Hispanics compared to Asians. The degree of association between nativity and LEP and worse SRH was found to vary by Asian and Hispanic subgroup. Further studies are needed to accurately assess the health status of these populations, which will be essential to eliminating disparities.

  20. Brain activity in adults who stutter: similarities across speaking tasks and correlations with stuttering frequency and speaking rate.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Roger J; Grafton, Scott T; Bothe, Anne K; Ingham, Janis C

    2012-07-01

    Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n=18) and matched fluent controls (CONT, n=12) is reported that used both oral reading and monologue tasks. After correcting for speech rate differences between the groups the task-activation differences were surprisingly small. For both analyses only some regions previously considered stutter-related were more activated in the PWS group than in the CONT group, and these were also activated during eyes-closed rest (ECR). In the PWS group, stuttering frequency was correlated with cortico-striatal-thalamic circuit activity in both speaking tasks. The neuroimaging findings for the PWS group, relative to the CONT group, appear consistent with neuroanatomic abnormalities being increasingly reported among PWS.

  1. Feed and feeding regime affect growth rate and gonadosomatic index of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, John M; Law, Sheran Hiu Wan

    2013-12-01

    A 5-week study was conducted to evaluate commercially available Artemia, Ziegler zebrafish diet, and Calamac diet fed in five different feeding regimes on the growth and reproductive development of 7-month-old zebrafish. Zebrafish were fed to satiation three times daily during the normal work week and twice daily during the weekend and holidays. Zebrafish in dietary groups CCC (Calamac three times daily) and CCA (Calamac twice daily, Artemia once daily) had a significantly (p<0.05) greater weight gain and specific growth rate as compared to all other dietary groups. Male zebrafish in dietary group 5 had significantly larger gonadosomatic index (GSI) values than all other groups, while female zebrafish in dietary group CCC had significantly larger GSI values than all other groups. No differences in the fatty acid content of female gonads were detected. Zebrafish fed solely Artemia had the greatest weight loss and lowest GSI values. Preliminary evidence of protein sparing in zebrafish is reported. Collectively, this study sheds more light into the effects of the use of commercially available feeds and feeding regime on the rearing of zebrafish.

  2. Tai Chi Chuan modulates heart rate variability during abdominal breathing in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gao-Xia; Li, You-Fa; Yue, Xiao-Lin; Ma, Xiao; Chang, Yu-Kai; Yi, Long-Yan; Li, Jing-Cheng; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-03-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practice is currently intentionally applied in clinical populations, especially those with cardiovascular diseases because of its potential benefits on the autonomic nervous system. The long-term effect of TCC practice on heart rate variability (HRV) remains largely unknown. In this study, we recruited 23 TCC practitioners whose experience averaged approximately 21 years and 19 controls matched by age, sex and education to examine the effect of TCC practice on the autonomic nervous system during a resting state and during an abdominal breathing state. HRV was measured by traditional electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. The results showed that the low frequency, total power frequency, and normalized low frequency components and the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio were significantly higher, whereas the normalized high frequency was significantly lower in the TCC practitioners relative to controls during the abdominal breathing state. However, we did not detect any significant difference in the HRV measures during the resting state between the two groups. Additionally, TCC experience did not correlate with HRV components either in the abdominal state or the resting state in the TCC group. Considering all of these findings, we suggest that TCC improves vagal activity and the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity during the relaxation state. This study also provides direct physiological evidence for the role of TCC practice in relaxation.

  3. Exercise effects on night-to-night fluctuations in self-rated sleep among older adults with sleep complaints.

    PubMed

    Buman, Matthew P; Hekler, Eric B; Bliwise, Donald L; King, Abby C

    2011-03-01

    Sleep interventions have rarely explored reductions in night-to-night fluctuations [i.e. intra-individual variability (IIV)] in sleep, despite the negative impacts of such fluctuations on affective states and cognitive and physical symptoms. In a community-based randomized controlled trial we evaluated whether physical exercise reduced IIV in self-rated sleep outcomes among middle-aged and older adults with sleep complaints. Under-active adults 55 years and older (n = 66, 67% women) with mild to moderate sleep complaints were randomized to 12 months of a moderate-intensity endurance exercise (n = 36) or a health education control group (n = 30). Daily sleep logs, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and in-home polysomnographic sleep recordings (PSG) were collected at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Sleep log-derived means and IIV were computed for sleep-onset latency (SOL), time in bed, feeling rested in the morning, number of nighttime awakenings, and wake after final awakening (WAFA). Using intent-to-treat methods, at 6 months no differences in IIV were observed by group. At 12 months, SOL-based IIV was reduced in the exercise group compared with the control (difference = 23.11, 95% CI: 3.04-47.18, P = 0.025, Cohen's d = 0.57). This change occurred without mean-level or IIV changes in sleep-wake schedules. For all sleep variables, except SOL and WAFA, IIV changes and mean-level changes in each variable were negatively correlated (r = -0.312 to -0.691, P < 0.05). Sleep log-derived IIV changes were modestly correlated with mean-level PSQI and PSG-based changes at 12 months. Twelve months of moderate-intensity exercise reduced night-to-night fluctuations in self-rated time to fall asleep, and this relationship was independent of mean-level time to fall asleep.

  4. Return to Play Following Hip Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Simon; Kuhn, Andrew; Draovitch, Pete; Bedi, Asheesh

    2016-10-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement may be particularly disabling to the high-demand athlete, especially those with significant cutting and pivoting requirements. If nonoperative treatment fails to adequately alleviate symptoms or sufficiently restore function in the athlete, hip arthroscopy can lead to improved pain, improved range of motion, and high rates of return to play with proper postoperative rehabilitation. The rate of return to previous level of competition is also high with accurate diagnosis and well-executed correction of deformity. A clear understanding of the etiology, diagnosis, management, and outcomes is essential for clinicians to optimally help patients to return to play.

  5. Associations of Heart Rate With Inflammatory Markers Are Modulated by Gender and Obesity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bandinelli, Stefania; Gemma, Antonella; Ferrucci, Luigi; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2015-01-01

    Background. Faster resting heart rate (HR), which is associated with inflammation and elevated cortisol levels, is a risk factor for excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, inflammation, and elevated cortisol levels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interaction of Body Mass Index (BMI) with inflammation and cortisol in modulating HR in older subjects. Methods. We analyzed data of 895 participants aged 65+ enrolled in the “InCHIANTI” study, in sinus rhythm, and not taking beta blockers or digoxin. Linear regression was performed to assess the adjusted association between HR, IL-6, and cortisol levels. The model was also analyzed stratifying for BMI tertiles. Logistic regression was adopted for evaluating the association of HR exceeding the mean value with Il-6 and serum cortisol. Results. According to multivariable linear regression, IL-6 and cortisol levels were associated with HR (B = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.43–2.42; p = .005 and B = .34, 95% CI = 0.17–.51; p < .0001, respectively). The association was significant only among women in the highest BMI tertile (B = 4.16, 95% CI = 1.40–6.91; p = .003 for IL-6 and B = .57, 95% CI = 0.14–1.01; p = .010 for cortisol). Logistic regression confirmed that IL-6 and cortisol levels were associated with HR above the mean value in the highest BMI tertile (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.15–3.97; p = .009 and OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03–1.25; p = .009, respectively). Conclusions. Faster HR is associated with proinflammatory state in elderly patients; this association seems to be limited to women with higher BMI. PMID:25429009

  6. Heart Rate Variability, Insulin Resistance, and Insulin Sensitivity in Japanese Adults: The Toon Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Isao; Hitsumoto, Shinichi; Maruyama, Koutatsu; Nishida, Wataru; Eguchi, Eri; Kato, Tadahiro; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Takata, Yasunori; Onuma, Hiroshi; Osawa, Haruhiko; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Although impaired cardiac autonomic function is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Caucasians, evidence in Asian populations with a lower body mass index is limited. Methods Between 2009–2012, the Toon Health Study recruited 1899 individuals aged 30–79 years who were not taking medication for diabetes. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was used to diagnose type 2 diabetes, and fasting and 2-h-postload glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. We assessed the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Gutt’s insulin sensitivity index (ISI). Pulse was recorded for 5 min, and time-domain heart rate variability (HRV) indices were calculated: the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and the root mean square of successive difference (RMSSD). Power spectral analysis provided frequency domain measures of HRV: high frequency (HF) power, low frequency (LF) power, and the LF:HF ratio. Results Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models showed decreased SDNN, RMSSD, and HF, and increased LF:HF ratio were associated significantly with increased HOMA-IR and decreased ISI. When stratified by overweight status, the association of RMSSD, HF, and LF:HF ratio with decreased ISI was also apparent in non-overweight individuals. The interaction between LF:HF ratio and decreased ISI in overweight individuals was significant, with the odds ratio for decreased ISI in the highest quartile of LF:HF ratio in non-overweight individuals being 2.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.41–3.10). Conclusions Reduced HRV was associated with insulin resistance and lower insulin sensitivity. Decreased ISI was linked with parasympathetic dysfunction, primarily in non-overweight individuals. PMID:26277879

  7. Validity of predictive equations for basal metabolic rate in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Rieko; Tanaka, Shigeho; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Hikihara, Yuki; Taguri, Emiko; Kayashita, Jun; Tabata, Izumi

    2011-01-01

    Many predictive equations for basal metabolic rate (BMR) based on anthropometric measurements, age, and sex have been developed, mainly for healthy Caucasians. However, it has been reported that many of these equations, used widely, overestimate BMR not only for Asians, but also for Caucasians. The present study examined the accuracy of several predictive equations for BMR in Japanese subjects. In 365 healthy Japanese male and female subjects, aged 18 to 79 y, BMR was measured in the post-absorptive state using a mask and Douglas bag. Six predictive equations were examined. Total error was used as an index of the accuracy of each equation's prediction. Predicted BMR values by Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (Japan-DRI), Adjusted Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese (Adjusted-DRI), and Ganpule equations were not significantly different from the measured BMR in either sex. On the other hand, Harris-Benedict, Schofield, and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization/United Nations University equations were significantly higher than the measured BMR in both sexes. The prediction error by Japan-DRI, Adjusted-DRI, and Harris-Benedict equations was significantly correlated with body weight in both sexes. Total error using the Ganpule equation was low in both males and females (125 and 99 kcal/d, respectively). In addition, total error using the Adjusted-DRI equation was low in females (95 kcal/d). Thus, the Ganpule equation was the most accurate in predicting BMR in our healthy Japanese subjects, because the difference between the predicted and measured BMR was relatively small, and body weight had no effect on the prediction error.

  8. Basal metabolic rate and body fatness of adult men in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Valencia, M E; Moya, S Y; McNeill, G; Haggarty, P

    1994-03-01

    To investigate the possibility that overprediction of basal metabolic rate (BMR) of tropical populations is related to differences in fatness between tropical and temperate populations, 32 Mexican men aged 18-40 years underwent measurements of BMR and body fat content. The men were divided into four body mass index (BMI) groups (< 20, 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40). The mean weight was 78 (range 52-119) kg and the mean height was 1.75 (range 1.61-1.89) m. BMR was measured in the subjects after an overnight stay in a residential unit by a Deltatrac ventilated hood indirect calorimetry system. Body fat content was determined by 2H2O dilution. The relationship between BMR and body weight was analysed by linear regression and the equations derived were compared to the values predicted using the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) equations. The FAO/WHO/UNU equations overestimated measured BMR by 9.8%, 9.6%, 7.8% and 5.5% in the four groups. The overall difference was 8.2%, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The intercepts of the two equations were significantly different (P < 0.001) by 532 kJ/day, but there was no significant difference between the slopes of the two regression equations. There was no significant difference between BMR/kg fat-free mass in the four BMI groups. The results therefore do not support the possibility that the overprediction of BMR in tropical populations by international prediction equations based on body weight is accounted for by differences in fatness between tropical and temperate populations.

  9. RISK AND CORPORATE RATE OF RETURN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Although economists have great interest in the correlation between risk and profits , few studies have attempted to quantify the relationship...Consequently, this paper considers the concept of risk differentials in corporate profit and proposes a model for measuring them. Using this model, the risk

  10. Workplace Learning: What's the Rate of Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hase, Stewart; Davis, Lester

    A 3-year research program on workplace learning was based on action research and involved the gradual implementation of "Work Activity Briefings" every 2 weeks or whenever a major task was to be undertaken at selected construction sites managed by an Australian mining and construction company. The briefings were regular meetings between…

  11. Sleep Disturbances among Older Adults in the United States, 2002–2012: Nationwide Inpatient Rates, Predictors, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Beydoun, May A.; Beydoun, Hind A.; Liang, Hailun; Salas, Rachel E.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Gamaldo, Charlene E.; Eid, Shaker M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background: We examined the rates, predictors, and outcomes [mortality risk (MR), length of stay (LOS), and total charges (TC)] of sleep disturbances in older hospitalized patients. Patients/Methods: Using the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2002–2012), older patients (≥60 years) were selected and rates of insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and other sleep disturbances (OSD) were estimated using ICD-9CM. TC, adjusted for inflation, was of primary interest, while MR and LOS were secondary outcomes. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted. Results: Of 35,258,031 older adults, 263,865 (0.75%) had insomnia, 750,851 (2.13%) OSA and 21,814 (0.06%) OSD. Insomnia rates increased significantly (0.27% in 2002 to 1.29 in 2012, P-trend < 0.001), with a similar trend observed for OSA (1.47 in 2006 to 5.01 in 2012, P-trend < 0.001). TC (2012 $) for insomnia-related hospital admission increased over time from $22,250 in 2002 to $31,527 in 2012, and increased similarly for OSA and OSD; while LOS and MR both decreased. Women with any sleep disturbance had lower MR and TC than men, while Whites had consistently higher odds of insomnia, OSA, and OSD than older Blacks and Hispanics. Co-morbidities such as depression, cardiovascular risk factors, and neurological disorders steadily increased over time in patients with sleep disturbances. Conclusion: TC increased over time in patients with sleep disturbances while LOS and MR decreased. Further, research should focus on identifying the mechanisms that explain the association between increasing sleep disturbance rates and expenditures within hospital settings and the potential hospital expenditures of unrecognized sleep disturbances in the elderly. PMID:27895576

  12. Return to sports after shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christine C; Johnson, Daniel J; Liu, Joseph N; Dines, Joshua S; Dines, David M; Gulotta, Lawrence V; Garcia, Grant H

    2016-09-18

    Many patients prioritize the ability to return to sports following shoulder replacement surgeries, including total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA), and hemiarthroplasty (HA). While activity levels after hip and knee replacements have been well-established in the literature, studies on this topic in the field of shoulder arthroplasty are relatively limited. A review of the literature regarding athletic activity after shoulder arthroplasty was performed using the PubMed database. All studies relevant to shoulder arthroplasty and return to sport were included. The majority of patients returned to their prior level of activity within six months following TSA, RTSA, and shoulder HA. Noncontact, low demand activities are permitted by most surgeons postoperatively and generally have higher return rates than contact sports or high-demand activities. In some series, patients reported an improvement in their ability to participate in sports following the arthroplasty procedure. The rates of return to sports following TSA (75%-100%) are slightly higher than those reported for HA (67%-76%) and RTSA (75%-85%). Patients undergoing TSA, RTSA, and shoulder HA should be counseled that there is a high probability that they will be able to return to their preoperative activity level within six months postoperatively. TSA has been associated with higher rates of return to sports than RTSA and HA, although this may reflect differences in patient population or surgical indication.

  13. Return to sports after shoulder arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christine C; Johnson, Daniel J; Liu, Joseph N; Dines, Joshua S; Dines, David M; Gulotta, Lawrence V; Garcia, Grant H

    2016-01-01

    Many patients prioritize the ability to return to sports following shoulder replacement surgeries, including total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA), reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA), and hemiarthroplasty (HA). While activity levels after hip and knee replacements have been well-established in the literature, studies on this topic in the field of shoulder arthroplasty are relatively limited. A review of the literature regarding athletic activity after shoulder arthroplasty was performed using the PubMed database. All studies relevant to shoulder arthroplasty and return to sport were included. The majority of patients returned to their prior level of activity within six months following TSA, RTSA, and shoulder HA. Noncontact, low demand activities are permitted by most surgeons postoperatively and generally have higher return rates than contact sports or high-demand activities. In some series, patients reported an improvement in their ability to participate in sports following the arthroplasty procedure. The rates of return to sports following TSA (75%-100%) are slightly higher than those reported for HA (67%-76%) and RTSA (75%-85%). Patients undergoing TSA, RTSA, and shoulder HA should be counseled that there is a high probability that they will be able to return to their preoperative activity level within six months postoperatively. TSA has been associated with higher rates of return to sports than RTSA and HA, although this may reflect differences in patient population or surgical indication. PMID:27672564

  14. Influence of germ cells upon Sertoli cells during continuous low-dose rate gamma-irradiation of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Pinon-Lataillade, G; Vélez de la Calle, J F; Viguier-Martinez, M C; Garnier, D H; Folliot, R; Maas, J; Jégou, B

    1988-07-01

    The effects of continuous gamma-irradiation of adult rats at two low-dose rates (7 cGy and 12 cGy/day; up to a total dose of 9.1 Gy and 10.69 Gy 60Co gamma-ray, respectively) were investigated. Over a period of 3-131 days of irradiation, groups of experimental and control animals were killed. Body weight, testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle weights, the number of germ cells and Sertoli cells, tubular ultrastructure, epididymal and testicular levels of biologically active androgen-binding protein (ABP), and the plasma concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were monitored. Irradiation had no effect on body weight, whereas testicular and epididymal weight began to decrease following 35 and 50 days of irradiation at 7 and 12 cGy, respectively. At 7 cGy the target cells of the gamma-rays were essentially A spermatogonia, whereas at 12 cGy A spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes were primarily affected. This resulted in a progressive and sequential dose-related reduction in the number of pachytene spermatocytes, round spermatids and late spermatids (LS). Under both irradiation procedures the Sertoli cell number remained unchanged whereas partial (7 cGy) or no change (12 cGy) was seen at the Leydig cell level. Whatever the irradiation protocol, from the time LS numbers decreased, vacuolisation of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm progressively occurred, followed by thickening and folding of the peritubular tissue. Moreover, in parallel to the drop in the number of these germ cell types, ABP production fell whereas FSH levels rose. A highly significant positive correlation was found between LS numbers and these Sertoli cell parameters. This study supports our previous concept of a control of certain important aspects of Sertoli cell function by late spermatids in the adult rat.

  15. A quantitative systematic review of normal values for short-term heart rate variability in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Nunan, David; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Brodie, David A

    2010-11-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a known risk factor for mortality in both healthy and patient populations. There are currently no normative data for short-term measures of HRV. A thorough review of short-term HRV data published since 1996 was therefore performed. Data from studies published after the 1996 Task Force report (i.e., between January 1997 and September 2008) and reporting short-term measures of HRV obtained in normally healthy individuals were collated and factors underlying discrepant values were identified. Forty-four studies met the pre-set inclusion criteria involving 21,438 participants. Values for short-term HRV measures from the literature were lower than Task Force norms. A degree of homogeneity for common measures of HRV in healthy adults was shown across studies. A number of studies demonstrate large interindividual variations (up to 260,000%), particularly for spectral measures. A number of methodological discrepancies underlined disparate values. These include a systematic failure within the literature (a) to recognize the importance of RR data recognition/editing procedures and (b) to question disparate HRV values observed in normally healthy individuals. A need for large-scale population studies and a review of the Task Force recommendations for short-term HRV that covers the full-age spectrum were identified. Data presented should be used to quantify reference ranges for short-term measures of HRV in healthy adult populations but should be undertaken with reference to methodological factors underlying disparate values. Recommendations for the measurement of HRV require updating to include current technologies.

  16. Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio Associated With Hearing Impairment Among Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yunji; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, June; Lee, Joo Kyung; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Nam, Ga-Eun; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Chung-Woo; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) with hearing impairment among diabetic adults in Korea. The study was based on data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2012. Participants were 1206 diabetic adults, aged over 19 years, who completed audiometric testing supervised by nationally certified clinicians. Hearing impairment was defined in three grades: no hearing impairment (pure-tone average 0–25 dB), slight hearing impairment (26–40 dB), and disabling hearing impairment (>40 dB) in the better ear at frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Using logistic regression, risk of hearing impairment was assessed after having controlled for confounding factors. Higher levels of ACR and lower levels of eGFR correlated with an increase in percentage of disabling hearing impairment both unilaterally and bilaterally (P < 0.001). Controlling for possible confounding covariates, odds ratios for hearing impairment showed tendency to increase in higher ACR groups (P for trend = 0.029). Similar pattern was examined between eGFR and hearing impairment (P for trend = 0.006). Odds ratios were 1.981 (1.146, 3.424) for ACR Q4 and 2.773 (1.286, 5.983) for eGFR < 60 mL/min. Fall in eGFR and rise in ACR correlated with severity of hearing impairment. The association existed independently of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, exercise, new onset of diabetes, education, income, mental stress, noise exposure, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:27124027

  17. Differentiation of Overweight from Normal Weight Young Adults by Postprandial Heart Rate Variability and Systolic Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Taffe, Lauren; Stancil, Kimani; Bond, Vernon; Pemminati, Sudhakar; Gorantla, Vasavi Rakesh; Kadur, Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity and cardiovascular disease are inextricably linked and the health community’s response to the current epidemic of adolescent obesity may be improved by the ability to target adolescents at highest risk for developing cardiovascular disease in the future. Overweight manifests early as autonomic dysregulation and current methods do not permit differentiation of overweight adolescents or young adults at highest risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Aim This study was designed to test the hypothesis that scaling exponents motivated by nonlinear fractal analyses of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) differentiate overweight, otherwise healthy adolescent/young adult subjects at risk for developing prehypertension, the primary forerunner of cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods The subjects were 18-20year old males with Body Mass Index (BMI) 20.1-42.5kg/m2. Electrocardiographic inter-beat (RR) intervals were measured during 3h periods of bed rest after overnight fasting and ingestion of 900Cal high-carbohydrate and high-fat test beverages on separate days. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), k-means cluster and ANOVA analyses of scaling coefficients α, α1, and α2, showed dependencies on hourly measurements of systolic blood pressure and on premeasured BMI. Results It was observed that α value increased during the caloric challenge, appears to represent metabolically-induced changes in HRV across the participants. An ancillary analysis was performed to determine the dependency on BMI without BMI as a parameter. Cluster analysis of the high-carbohydrate test beverage treatment and the high-fat treatment produced grouping with very little overlap. ANOVA on both clusters demonstrated significance at p<0.001. We were able to demonstrate increased sympathetic modulation of our study group during ingestion and metabolism of isocaloric high-carbohydrate and high-fat test beverages. Conclusion These findings demonstrate significantly different

  18. REDUCED RATE OF KNEE EXTENSOR TORQUE DEVELOPMENT IN OLDER ADULTS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS IS ASSOCIATED WITH INTRINSIC MUSCLE CONTRACTILE DEFICITS

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Damien M.; Tourville, Timothy W.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Ades, Philip A.; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer; Beynnon, Bruce D.; Toth, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of knee osteoarthritis on the rate of torque development (RTD) of the knee extensors in older adults with advanced-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA; n=15) and recreationally-active controls (n=15) of similar age, sex and health status, as well as the relationship between RTD and the size and contractility of single muscle fibers. OA participants had lower RTD when expressed in absolute terms (Nm/ms). There were sex differences in peak RTD (P<0.05), with greater RTD in men, but no group by sex interaction effects for any variables. The lower RTD in OA versus controls was not explained by variation between groups in the fiber type admixture of the muscle, and was mitigated when RTD was normalized to peak torque (PT). In knee OA volunteers, we found strong correlations between the RTD expressed relative to PT and the velocity of contraction of single myosin heavy chain (MHC) I and IIA/X muscle fibers (r=0.652 and 0.862; both P<0.05) and power output of MHC I fibers (r=0.642; P<0.05). In controls, RTD relative to PT was related to fiber cross-sectional area of MHC IIA/X fibers (r=0.707; P<0.05), but not measures of single fiber contractile performance. To our knowledge, these results represent the first demonstration that variation in whole muscle contractile kinetics in patients with advanced-stage knee osteoarthritis and healthy older adults is related, in part, to the size and function of single muscle fibers. PMID:26343257

  19. The Rate of Age-Related Olfactory Decline Among the General Population of Older U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Kern, David W.; Schumm, L. Philip; McClintock, Martha K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Age-related olfactory loss (presbyosmia) is a prevalent sensory impairment with a large public health impact. In cross-sectional analyses, we found striking health disparities in olfactory function among older U.S. adults. Here, we report a 5-year follow-up to determine the magnitude of within-person olfactory decline. Methods. The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) interviewed a probability sample of home-dwelling older U.S. adults (57–85 years) in 2005–2006 (Wave 1) and reinterviewed them in 2010–2011 (Wave 2), assessing demographics, social life, and health, including olfaction. Odor identification was measured with a 5-item version of the Sniffin’ Sticks (0–5 correct). Fourteen hundred and thirty-six respondents provided olfaction data in both waves. Multivariate linear and logistic regression were used to model the association between change in olfactory performance and demographic, health, and psychosocial factors. Results. Odor identification declined most rapidly among older individuals (0.25 additional errors per 5 years for each decade of age, p < .001) and in men (0.17 additional errors per 5 years compared to women, p = .005). Among those with perfect scores in Wave 1, African Americans declined more rapidly than Whites (p = .04). Neither socioeconomic status, health conditions, cognition, mental health, alcohol use nor smoking was associated with change in olfaction (p > .05, all). Conclusions. The rate of olfactory decline increases with age and is greater among men than women despite adjusting for differences in psychosocial and health conditions, indicating physiologic factors as drivers. African Americans are more likely to experience initial olfactory decline, consistent with an earlier onset of aging among this subgroup. PMID:26253908

  20. Absence of sex differences in systolic blood pressure and heart rate responses to exercise in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Maruf, F A; Ogochukwu, U N; Dim, P A; Alada, A Ra

    2012-06-07

    The influence of sex on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) responses associated with cardiovascular morbidity, in healthy young adults was determined in ninety healthy young adults (47 females and 43 males) exercised using Bruce protocol. SBP and HR were measured pre- and post-exercise, and during recovery. SBPresponse (peak minus pre-exercise SBP), %SBPresponse [(peak minus pre-exercise SBP)÷pre-exercise SBP]x100, SBP3 (SBP 3 minutes into recovery), SBP4 (SBP 4 minutes into recovery), SBP3:peak (SBP3÷peak SBP), %SBPd3 [(peak SBP minus SBP 3 minutes into recovery)x peak SBP]x100, %SBPd4 [(peak SBP minus SBP 4 minutes into recovery)x peak SBP]X100, HRresponse (Peak HR minus pre-exercise HR), %HRresponse [(peak HR minus pre-exercise HR)÷pre-exercise HR]x 100, HR3 (HR 3 minutes into recovery), HR4 (HR 4 minutes into recovery), %HRd3 [(peak HR minus HR 3 minutes into recovery)÷peak HR]x100, %HRd4 [(peak HR minus HR 4 minutes into recovery)÷peak HR]X100, and HR50-70 (HR between 50th and 70th seconds into recovery) were derived from SBP and HR measurements. SBPpeak, HRresponse and %HRresponse were higher in males than in females whereas, SBPresponse, %SBPresponse and HRpeak were not different. There were no significant differences in the post-exercise SBP and HR responses of males and females except for SBP3, SBP4, HR3 and HR4. After adjusting for exercise duration, body mass index (BMI), and resting SBP and HR, these variables became similar. Sex differences in some SBP and HR responses to exercise, become nonexistent after adjusting for BMI, exercise duration, and resting SBP and HR.

  1. Trophic Discrimination Factors and Incorporation Rates of Carbon- and Nitrogen-Stable Isotopes in Adult Green Frogs, Lithobates clamitans.

    PubMed

    Cloyed, Carl S; Newsome, Seth D; Eason, Perri K

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis is an increasingly useful ecological tool, but its accuracy depends on quantifying the tissue-specific trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) and isotopic incorporation rates for focal taxa. Despite the technique's ubiquity, most laboratory experiments determining TDFs and incorporation rates have focused on birds, mammals, and fish; we know little about terrestrial ectotherms, and amphibians in particular are understudied. In this study we used two controlled feeding experiments to determine carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope TDFs for skin, whole blood, and bone collagen and incorporation rates for skin and whole blood in adult green frogs, Lithobates clamitans. The mean (±SD) TDFs for δ(13)C were 0.1‰ (±0.4‰) for skin, 0.5‰ (±0.5‰) for whole blood, and 1.6‰ (0.6‰) for bone collagen. The mean (±SD) TDFs for δ(15)N were 2.3‰ (±0.5‰) for skin, 2.3‰ (±0.4‰) for whole blood, and 3.1‰ (±0.6‰) for bone collagen. A combination of different isotopic incorporation models was best supported by our data. Carbon in skin was the only tissue in which incorporation was best explained by two compartments, which had half-lives of 89 and 8 d. The half-life of carbon in whole blood was 69 d. Half-lives for nitrogen were 75 d for skin and 71 d for whole blood. Our results help fill a taxonomic gap in our knowledge of stable isotope dynamics and provide ecologists with a method to measure anuran diets.

  2. Tailored Calendar Journals to Ascertain Falls Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Stark, Susan L; Silianoff, Tara J; Kim, H Lyn; Conte, Jane W; Morris, John C

    2015-01-01

    Although falls are a serious health risk for community-dwelling older adults, their ascertainment has been complicated by issues such as recall and reporting biases. We examined a novel method, individualized tailored calendars, to accurately ascertain falls in older adults. A convenience sample of 125 cognitively normal participants enrolled in longitudinal studies of healthy aging at the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Ressearch Center was followed prospectively for 12 months. Tailored calendar journal pages were used to document falls daily and returned by mail monthly. Participants received a US$5 gift card incentive for each month returned. Participants returned 1,487 of 1,500 calendar months over the 12-month follow-up for 99.1% compliance rate. There were 154 falls reported. Tailored calendar journals and incentives may be effective in ascertaining falls among community-dwelling older adults. This tool could improve the accuracy of outcome measures for occupational therapy interventions.

  3. Learning Style Differences in Adult Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Classroom Techniques for Teaching Quantitative Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deever, Walter Thomas

    2012-01-01

    More than half of adults in the USA have quantitative literacy ratings at or below a basic level. This lack of literacy often becomes a barrier to employability. To overcome this barrier, adults are returning to college to improve their quantitative skills and complete an undergraduate education, often through an accelerated degree program. A…

  4. Lightning return stroke models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. T.; Uman, M. A.; Standler, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    We test the two most commonly used lightning return stroke models, Bruce-Golde and transmission line, against subsequent stroke electric and magnetic field wave forms measured simultaneously at near and distant stations and show that these models are inadequate to describe the experimental data. We then propose a new return stroke model that is physically plausible and that yields good approximations to the measured two-station fields. Using the new model, we derive return stroke charge and current statistics for about 100 subsequent strokes.

  5. Effects of individual pre-fledging traits and environmental conditions on return patterns in juvenile king penguins.

    PubMed

    Saraux, Claire; Viblanc, Vincent A; Hanuise, Nicolas; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of early life stages in individuals' life history and population dynamics, very few studies have focused on the constraints to which these juvenile traits are subjected. Based on 10 years of automatic monitoring of over 2500 individuals, we present the first study on the effects of environmental conditions and individual pre-fledging traits on the post-fledging return of non-banded king penguins to their natal colony. Juvenile king penguins returned exclusively within one of the three austral summers following their departure. A key finding is that return rates (range 68-87%) were much higher than previously assumed for this species, importantly meaning that juvenile survival is very close to that of adults. Such high figures suggest little juvenile dispersal, and selection occurring mostly prior to fledging in king penguins. Pre-fledging conditions had a strong quadratic impact on juvenile return rates. As expected, cohorts reared under very unfavourable years (as inferred by the breeding success of the colony) exhibited low return rates but surprisingly, so did those fledged under very favourable conditions. Juvenile sojourns away from the colony were shorter under warm conditions and subsequent return rates higher, suggesting a positive effect of climate warming. The longer the post-fledging trip (1, 2 or 3 years), the earlier in the summer birds returned to their natal colony and the longer they stayed before leaving for the winter journey. The presence of juveniles in the colony was more than twice the duration required for moulting purposes, yet none attempted breeding in the year of their first return. Juvenile presence in the colony may be important for acquiring knowledge on the social and physical colonial environment and may play an important part in the learning process of mating behaviour. Further studies are required to investigate its potential implications on other life-history traits such as recruitment age.

  6. A protocol for adult somatic cell nuclear transfer in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) with a high rate of viable clone formation.

    PubMed

    Bubenshchikova, Ekaterina; Kaftanovskaya, Elena; Adachi, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Kinoshita, Masato; Wakamatsu, Yuko

    2013-12-01

    Previously, we successfully generated fully grown, cloned medaka (the Japanese rice fish, Oryzias latipes) using donor nuclei from primary culture cells of adult caudal fin tissue and nonenucleated recipient eggs that were heat shock-treated to induce diploidization of the nuclei. However, the mechanism of clone formation using this method is unknown, and the rate of adult clone formation is not high enough for studies in basic and applied sciences. To gain insight into the mechanism and increase the success rate of this method of clone formation, we tested two distinct nuclear transfer protocols. In one protocol, the timing of transfer of donor nuclei was changed, and in the other, the size of the donor cells was changed; each protocol was based on our original methodology. Ultimately, we obtained an unexpectedly high rate of adult clone formation using the protocol that differed with respect to the timing of donor nuclei transfer. Specifically, 17% of the transplants that developed to the blastula stage ultimately developed into adult clones. The success rate with this method was 13 times higher than that obtained using the original method. Analyses focusing on the reasons for this high success rate of clone formation will help to elucidate the mechanism of clone formation that occurs with this method.

  7. Injecting alone among young adult IDUs in five U.S. cities: Evidence of low rates of injection risk behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Holly; Campbell, Jennifer V.; Thiede, Hanne; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Ouellet, Lawrence; Latka, Mary; Hudson, Sharon; Garfein, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    Illicit drug injection typically occurs in private or semi-public settings where two or more injectors are present. In a large sample of young adult injectors (aged 15–30) in five US cities, we describe those who reported consistently injecting by themselves in a recent period. Among 3,199 eligible subjects, 85% were male, median age was 24 years, and median number of years injecting was four. Fifteen percent (n=467) who reported always injecting alone in the previous three months were compared to other IDUs to understand the relationship between this practice and injection risk behavior. IDUs who reported injecting alone were substantially less likely to report injection with a syringe (AOR=0.16, 95% CI 0.1–0.2) or other drug preparation equipment (AOR=0.17, 95% CI 0.13–0.2) previously used by another injector. Markedly low rates of injection risk behavior were observed in IDUs who reported injecting alone; this practice may facilitate safe injection by granting the individual greater control over the injection setting. However, risks may include accidental overdose with severe consequences. PMID:17363193

  8. Using facebook to maximize follow-up response rates in a longitudinal study of adults who use methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Bolanos, Franklin; Herbeck, Diane; Christou, Dayna; Lovinger, Katherine; Pham, Aurora; Raihan, Adnan; Rodriguez, Luz; Sheaff, Patricia; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the process and effects of using facebook (FB) to locate and re-contact study participants targeted for follow up in a longitudinal study of adult methamphetamine users (N = 649). A follow-up interview was conducted in 2009-11 approximately 8 years after previous study participation. Our paper describes re-contact efforts involving FB, including IRB regulatory issues and the effectiveness of using FB compared to mailings and phone calls. A total of 48 of the 551 surviving non-incarcerated participants who agreed to be contacted for follow up studies were contacted via FB, of whom 11 completed the follow-up interview. Those contacted through FB were more likely to be younger, female, relocated out-of-state, and reported somewhat higher rates of anxiety and cognitive problems compared to those not located on FB. Although participants contacted through FB are likely to differ demographically from those contacted by phone or mail, FB provides a potentially effective means to expand conventional methods of correspondence for contacting hard to reach participants.

  9. Effects of Biogents Sentinel Trap Field Placement on Capture Rates of Adult Asian Tiger Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Crepeau, Taryn N.; Healy, Sean P.; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Biogents® Sentinel (BGS) trap is the standard tool to monitor adult Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), the Asian tiger mosquito. BGS traps are commonly placed in residential properties during surveillance operations, but locations within properties may have significant differences in ambient light, temperature, and humidity (e.g. between a sunlit lawn and shady underbrush). We examined the effect of BGS trap placement on Ae. albopictus capture rates in three residential properties in Monmouth County, New Jersey, USA. In each property we visually selected locations as shade, partial shade, and sun. Traps in “partial shade” locations were under vegetation and were exposed to filtered sunlight during some parts of the day while “shaded” locations were never exposed to direct sunlight. Locations defined as “sun” were exposed to direct sunlight for large parts of the day. We placed a BGS trap in each of the three location types and used small data loggers to measure temperature, relative humidity, and light exposure at each trap during a 24-hour deployment. To address temporal variability, we made seven separate measurements from 31 August to 22 September 2010. We found that “partial shade” and “full shade” locations did not differ but that “full sun” locations had significantly higher light exposure, higher temperature, and lower humidity. Importantly, Ae. albopictus catches (males, females, or both) were consistently and significantly over 3 times higher in traps located in shaded locations. To further investigate the effects of local temperature and humidity on surveillance we examined Ae. albopictus collections from 37 BGS traps fitted with data loggers and deployed weekly from August through mid October, during the 2009 season, in three urban sites in Mercer County, NJ. We confirmed that local climate influences capture rates and that Ae. albopictus surveillance projects need to monitor trap placement carefully

  10. Relations Among Home- and Community-Based Services Investment and Nursing Home Rates of Use for Working-Age and Older Adults: A State-Level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. I examined state-level rates of nursing home use for the period from 2000 to 2007. Methods. I used multivariate fixed-effects models to examine associations between state sociodemographic, economic, supply, and programmatic characteristics and rates of use. Results. Nursing home use declined among older adults (aged ≥65 years) in more than two thirds of states and the District of Columbia but increased among older working-age adults (aged 31–64 years) in all but 2 states. State characteristics associated with these trends differed by age group. Although relatively greater state investment in Medicaid home- and community-based services coupled with reduced nursing home capacity was associated with reduced rates of nursing home care for adults aged 65 years and older, neither characteristic was associated with use among older working-age adults. Their use was associated with state sociodemographic characteristics, as well as chronic disease prevalence. Conclusions. Policy efforts to expand home- and community-based services and to reduce nursing facility capacity appear warranted. To more fully extend the Supreme Court's Olmstead decision's promise to older working-age adults, additional efforts to understand factors driving their increasing use are required. PMID:21778497

  11. Prospective multicenter assessment of perioperative and minimum 2-year postoperative complication rates associated with adult spinal deformity surgery.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin S; Klineberg, Eric; Lafage, Virginie; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Renaud; Hostin, Richard; Mundis, Gregory M; Errico, Thomas J; Kim, Han Jo; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Hamilton, D Kojo; Scheer, Justin K; Soroceanu, Alex; Kelly, Michael P; Line, Breton; Gupta, Munish; Deviren, Vedat; Hart, Robert; Burton, Douglas C; Bess, Shay; Ames, Christopher P

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Although multiple reports have documented significant benefit from surgical treatment of adult spinal deformity (ASD), these procedures can have high complication rates. Previously reported complications rates associated with ASD surgery are limited by retrospective design, single-surgeon or single-center cohorts, lack of rigorous data on complications, and/or limited follow-up. Accurate definition of complications associated with ASD surgery is important and may serve as a resource for patient counseling and efforts to improve the safety of patient care. The authors conducted a study to prospectively assess the rates of complications associated with ASD surgery with a minimum 2-year follow-up based on a multicenter study design that incorporated standardized data-collection forms, on-site study coordinators, and regular auditing of data to help ensure complete and accurate reporting of complications. In addition, they report age stratification of complication rates and provide a general assessment of factors that may be associated with the occurrence of complications. METHODS As part of a prospective, multicenter ASD database, standardized forms were used to collect data on surgery-related complications. On-site coordinators and central auditing helped ensure complete capture of complication data. Inclusion criteria were age older than 18 years, ASD, and plan for operative treatment. Complications were classified as perioperative (within 6 weeks of surgery) or delayed (between 6 weeks after surgery and time of last follow-up), and as minor or major. The primary focus for analyses was on patients who reached a minimum follow-up of 2 years. RESULTS Of 346 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 291 (84%) had a minimum 2-year follow-up (mean 2.1 years); their mean age was 56.2 years. The vast majority (99%) had treatment including a posterior procedure, 25% had an anterior procedure, and 19% had a 3-column osteotomy. At least 1 revision was required in 82

  12. Impact of Pulsatility and Flow Rates on Hemodynamic Energy Transmission in an Adult Extracorporeal Life Support System.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Rachel; Strother, Ashton; Wang, Shigang; Kunselman, Allen R; Ündar, Akif

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the total hemodynamic energy (THE) and surplus hemodynamic energy transmission (SHE) of a novel adult extracorporeal life support (ECLS) system with nonpulsatile and pulsatile settings and varying pulsatility to define the most effective setting for this circuit. The circuit consisted of an i-cor diagonal pump (Xenios AG, Heilbronn, Germany), an XLung membrane oxygenator (Xenios AG), an 18 Fr Medos femoral arterial cannula (Xenios AG), a 23/25 Fr Estech RAP femoral venous cannula (San Ramon, CA, USA), 3/8 in ID × 140 cm arterial tubing, and 3/8 in ID × 160 cm venous tubing. Priming was done with lactated Ringer's solution and packed red blood cells (HCT 36%). The trials were conducted at flow rates 1-4 L/min (1 L/min increments) under nonpulsatile and pulsatile mode, with differential speed values 1000-4000 rpm (1000 rpm increments) at 36°. The pseudo patient's mean arterial pressure was kept at 100 mm Hg using a Hoffman clamp during all trials. Real-time flow and pressure data were collected using a custom-based data acquisition system. Mean pressures across the circuit increased with increasing flow rates, but increased insignificantly with increasing differential speed values. Mean pressure did not change significantly between pulsatile and nonpulsatile modes. Pulsatile flow created more THE than nonpulsatile flow at the preoxygenator site (P < 0.01). Of the different components of the circuit, the arterial cannula created the greatest THE loss. THE loss across the circuit ranged from 24.8 to 71.3%. Still, under pulsatile mode, more THE was delivered to the pseudo patient at low flow rates. No SHE was created with nonpulsatile flow, but SHE was created with pulsatile flow, and increased with increasing differential speed values. At lower flow rates (1-2 L/min), the arterial cannula contributed the most to SHE loss, but at higher flow rates the arterial tubing created the most SHE loss. The circuit

  13. Behaviour in a standardized assay, but not metabolic or growth rate, predicts behavioural variation in an adult aquatic top predator Esox lucius in the wild.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, K L; Monk, C T; Polverino, G; Alós, J; Nakayama, S; Staaks, G; Mehner, T; Arlinghaus, R

    2016-04-01

    This study tested for links among behaviour, state and life-history variables as predicted by the pace-of-life hypothesis in adult pike Esox lucius. First, a standardized open-field behavioural assay was developed to assess individual behaviour of wild-captured adult E. lucius. Behaviour within the standardized assay predicted swimming behaviour in the lake, providing an ecological validation of the assay. There was no relationship between standardized behaviour and any of the life-history and state variables, including metabolism, body condition, juvenile growth rate and adult growth rate in contrast to predictions from the pace-of-life hypothesis. This study demonstrates that it is possible to assess ecologically relevant behavioural variation in a large-bodied top predator using a standard open-field assay, but it is noteworthy that this standardized behaviour is not systematically related to standard metabolism or growth.

  14. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  15. Developing Stimulus Control of the High-Rate Social-Approach Responses of an Adult with Mental Retardation: A Multiple-Schedule Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grow, Laura L.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Carr, James E.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a multiple schedule in which the extinction (S-) components were signaled overtly by a black lanyard and the reinforcement (S+) components were not correlated with any programmed stimuli in developing stimulus control over the high-rate social-approach responses of an adult with mental retardation. Responding was consistently low in…

  16. EFFECT OF HYPOXIA ON THE RATE OF OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF NEWBORN, YOUNG, AND ADULT MICE AT VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Critical Po2 that is, Po2 below the point at which oxygen consumption is reduced - was measured in newborn, 5-day-old, and adult mice. At...thermoneutral environmental temperatures, the critical Po2 of newborn was 85 mm. Hg; that of 5-day-old mice was 100 mm. Hg; and that of adults was 70 mm. Hg

  17. Genetic variants in adult bone mineral density and fracture risk genes are associated with the rate of bone mineral density acquisition in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M.; Kemp, John P.; Tilling, Kate; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Evans, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified 63 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in adults. These SNPs are thought to reflect variants that influence bone maintenance and/or loss in adults. It is unclear whether they affect the rate of bone acquisition during adolescence. Bone measurements and genetic data were available on 6397 individuals from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children at up to five follow-up clinics. Linear mixed effects models with smoothing splines were used for longitudinal modelling of BMD and its components bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area (BA), from 9 to 17 years. Genotype data from the 63 adult BMD associated SNPs were investigated individually and as a genetic risk score in the longitudinal model. Each additional BMD lowering allele of the genetic risk score was associated with lower BMD at age 13 [per allele effect size, 0.002 g/cm2 (SE = 0.0001, P = 1.24 × 10−38)] and decreased BMD acquisition from 9 to 17 years (P = 9.17 × 10−7). This association was driven by changes in BMC rather than BA. The genetic risk score explained ∼2% of the variation in BMD at 9 and 17 years, a third of that explained in adults (6%). Genetic variants that putatively affect bone maintenance and/or loss in adults appear to have a small influence on the rate of bone acquisition through adolescence. PMID:25941325

  18. Feasibility and Quit Rates of the Tobacco Status Project: A Facebook Smoking Cessation Intervention for Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thrul, Johannes; Chavez, Kathryn; Delucchi, Kevin L; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-01-01

    Background Young adult smokers are a challenging group to engage in smoking cessation interventions. With wide reach and engagement among users, Facebook offers opportunity to engage young people in socially supportive communities for quitting smoking and sustaining abstinence. Objective We developed and tested initial efficacy, engagement, and acceptability of the Tobacco Status Project, a smoking cessation intervention for young adults delivered within Facebook. Methods The intervention was based on the US Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Transtheoretical Model and enrolled participants into study-run 3-month secret Facebook groups matched on readiness to quit smoking. Cigarette smokers (N=79) aged 18-25, who used Facebook on most days, were recruited via Facebook. All participants received the intervention and were randomized to one of three monetary incentive groups tied to engagement (commenting in groups). Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-months follow-up. Analyses examined retention, smoking outcomes over 12 months (7-day point prevalence abstinence, ≥50% reduction in cigarettes smoked, quit attempts and strategies used, readiness to quit), engagement, and satisfaction with the intervention. Results Retention was 82% (65/79) at 6 months and 72% (57/79) at 12 months. From baseline to 12-months follow-up, there was a significant increase in the proportion prepared to quit (10/79, 13%; 36/79, 46%, P<.001). Over a third (28/79, 35%) reduced their cigarette consumption by 50% or greater, and 66% (52/79) made at least one 24-hour quit attempt during the study. In an intent-to-treat analysis, 13% (10/79) self-reported 7-day abstinence (6/79, 8% verified biochemically) at 12-months follow-up. In their quit attempts, 11% (9/79) used a nicotine replacement therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration, while 18% (14/79) used an electronic nicotine delivery system to quit (eg, electronic cigarette). A majority

  19. Resting heart rate and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: a dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuejiao; Luo, Xinping; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xizhuo; Han, Chengyi; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Bingyuan; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Dongdong; Hu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Ming

    2017-03-01

    The magnitude of the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with increased resting heart rate (RHR) has been inconsistently reported in some observational studies, and whether a dose-response relationship exists between RHR and MetS is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis including dose-response analysis to quantitatively evaluate this association in adults. We searched PubMed, Web of Knowledge, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WanFang databases for articles published up to April 2, 2016. A random-effects model was used to pool relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs); restricted cubic spline function was used to assess the dose-response relationship. Seven prospective cohort studies and 10 cross-sectional studies with a total of 169,786 participants were included. The pooled RR was 2.10 (95% CI 1.80-2.46, I (2) = 79.8%, n = 13) for the highest versus reference RHR category and 1.28 (95% CI 1.23-1.34, I (2) = 87.7%, n = 15) for each 10 beats per minute (bpm) increment in RHR. We found no evidence of a nonlinear dose-response association between RHR and MetS (P nonlinearity = 0.201). The relationship was consistent in most subgroup analyses and robust on sensitivity analysis. No significant publication bias was observed. This meta-analysis suggests that risk of MetS may be increased with elevated RHR.

  20. Update on Performance in Tobacco Control: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of Tobacco Control Policy and the US Adult Smoking Rate, 2011-2013

    PubMed Central

    Lapin, Brittany; Cameron, Brianna J.; Carr, Thomas A.; Morley, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. States and municipalities have instituted a variety of tobacco control measures (TCMs) to address the significant impact tobacco use has on population health. The American Lung Association annually grades state performance of tobacco control using the State of Tobacco Control grading framework. Objective: To gain an updated understanding of how recent efforts in tobacco control have impacted tobacco use across the United States, using yearly State of Tobacco Control TCM assessments. Design: The independent TCM variables of smoke-free air score, cessation score, excise tax, and percentage of recommended funding were selected from the American Lung Association State of Tobacco Control reports. Predictors of adult smoking rates were determined by a mixed-effects model. Setting/Participants: The 50 US states and District of Columbia. Main Outcome Measure: Adult smoking rate in each state from 2011 to 2013. Results: The average adult smoking rate decreased significantly from 2011 to 2013 (21.3% [SD: 3.5] to 19.3% [SD: 3.5], P = .016). All forms of TCMs varied widely in implementation levels across states. Excise taxes (β = −.812, P = .006) and smoke-free air regulations (β = −.057, P = .008) were significant, negative predictors of adult smoking. Cessation services (β = .015, P = .46) did not have a measurable effect on adult smoking. Conclusion: Tobacco control measures with the strongest influence on adult smoking include the state excise tax and state smoke-free air regulations. The lack of robust funding for tobacco cessation services across the majority of US states highlights an important shortfall in current tobacco control policy. PMID:26618847

  1. Electrostatic Return of Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantanen, R.; Gordon, T.

    2003-01-01

    A Model has been developed capable of calculating the electrostatic return of spacecraft-emitted molecules that are ionized and attracted back to the spacecraft by the spacecraft electric potential on its surfaces. The return of ionized contaminant molecules to charged spacecraft surfaces is very important to all altitudes. It is especially important at geosynchronous and interplanetary environments, since it may be the only mechanism by which contaminants can degrade a surface. This model is applicable to all altitudes and spacecraft geometries. In addition to results of the model will be completed to cover a wide range of potential space systems.

  2. The mediating effects of lifestyle factors on the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-rated health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships between SES and self-rated health. This study further tested whether the effects of SES and lifestyle factors differ as people age. The findings indicate that higher levels of income and education as well as not being in poverty predicted better self-rated health. Meanwhile, engaging in regular exercise and being underweight significantly mediated the relationship between education and self-rated health as well as between poverty and self-rated health. Finally, poverty and regular exercise had a greater impact on self-rated health in old age than in middle age. Implications for enhancing antipoverty policies and exercise programs are discussed.

  3. Return to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  4. Sustainable Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Christie; Hancock, Sean; Laub, Joshua; Perry, Christopher; Ash, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Mars sample return mission will be completed using natural Martian resources for the majority of its operations. The system uses the following technologies: In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP), a methane-oxygen propelled Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a carbon dioxide powered hopper, and a hydrogen fueled balloon system (large balloons and small weather balloons). The ISPP system will produce the hydrogen, methane, and oxygen using a Sabatier reactor. a water electrolysis cell, water extracted from the Martian surface, and carbon dioxide extracted from the Martian atmosphere. Indigenous hydrogen will fuel the balloon systems and locally-derived methane and oxygen will fuel the MAV for the return of a 50 kg sample to Earth. The ISPP system will have a production cycle of 800 days and the estimated overall mission length is 1355 days from Earth departure to return to low Earth orbit. Combining these advanced technologies will enable the proposed sample return mission to be executed with reduced initial launch mass and thus be more cost efficient. The successful completion of this mission will serve as the next step in the advancement of Mars exploration technology.

  5. Metal-framed spectacles and implants and specific absorption rate among adults and children using mobile phones at 900/1800/2100 MHz.

    PubMed

    Joó, Ervin; Szász, András; Szendrö, Péter

    2006-01-01

    The specific absorption rate (SAR) from mobile telephones at horizontal and vertical positions is investigated in human adult and child heads wearing metal-rim spectacles and having metallic implants. The SAR values calculated by Finite Difference Time Domain (FTDT) method are compared to the actual ANSI/IEEE standards and to the 900/1800/2100 MHz electromagnetic radiation limits according to EU standards. Our calculation shows a maximum of the cellular SAR in the child head, which in the case of metallic implant could be as much as 100% higher than in the adult head. The averaging on 1 and 10 g tissue-masses shows SAR generally under the limit of 519/1999/EC standards. However, in the case of 2100 MHz with vertical position of the phone for adults and of the 900 MHz for children with metallic implants the ANSI/IEEE limits are exceeded.

  6. A BRIEF NOTE ON THE VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE RATING OF PERCEIVED EXERTION SCALE IN MONITORING EXERCISE INTENSITY AMONG CHINESE OLDER ADULTS IN HONG KONG.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pak-Kwong; Zhao, Yanan; Liu, Jing-Dong; Quach, Binh

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of the Cantonese Borg 6-20 Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale in monitoring exercise intensity among Chinese older adults. A total of 40 apparently healthy older adults (16 men, 24 women; M age=69.8 yr., SD=4.56) performed two trials of three intermittent exercise tests administered in random order using the cycle ergometer. Results revealed significant differences of RPE, HR, and VO2 between different workloads, and there were moderate to high correlations between RPE and HR and VO2, respectively. Results also found moderate consistency of RPE between Trial 1 and Trial 2. These indicated that the Cantonese 6-20 RPE scale can be used as a valid and reliable tool for monitoring exercise intensity among the Chinese older adults.

  7. Early return visits by primary care patients: a retail nurse practitioner clinic versus standard medical office care.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, James E; Angstman, Kurt B; Garrison, Gregory

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare return visits made by patients within 2 weeks after using retail nurse practitioner clinics to return visits made by similar patients after using standard medical office clinics. Retail medicine clinics have become widely available. However, their impact on return visit rates compared to standard medical office visits for similar patients has not been extensively studied. Electronic medical records of adult primary care patients seen in a large group practice in Minnesota in 2009 were analyzed for this study. Patients who were treated for sinusitis were selected. Two groups of patients were studied: those who used one of 2 retail walk-in clinics staffed by nurse practitioners and a comparison group who used one of 4 regular office clinics. The dependent variable was a return office visit to any site within 2 weeks. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for case-mix differences between groups. Unadjusted odds of return visits were lower for retail clinic patients than for standard office care patients. After adjustment for case mix, patients with more outpatient visits in the previous 6 months had higher odds of return visits within 2 weeks (2-6 prior visits: odds ratio [OR]=1.99, P=0.00; 6 or more prior visits: OR=6.80, P=0.00). The odds of a return visit within 2 weeks were not different by clinic type after adjusting for propensity to use services (OR=1.17, P=0.28). After adjusting for case mix differences, return visit rates did not differ by clinic type.

  8. Returning to work while breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Biagioli, Frances

    2003-12-01

    Mothers who work outside the home initiate breastfeeding at the same rate as mothers who stay at home. However, the breastfeeding continuance rate declines sharply in mothers who return to work. While the work environment may be less than ideal for the breastfeeding mother, obstacles can be overcome. Available breast pump types include manual pumps, battery-powered pumps, electric diaphragm pumps, electric piston pumps, and hospital-grade electric piston pumps. Electric piston pumps may be the most suitable type for mothers who work outside the home for more than 20 hours per week; however, when a mother is highly motivated, any pump type can be successful in any situation. Conservative estimates suggest that breast milk can be stored at room temperature for eight hours, refrigerated for up to eight days, and frozen for many months. A breastfeeding plan can help the working mother anticipate logistic problems and devise a practical pumping schedule. A mother's milk production usually is well established by the time her infant is four weeks old; it is best to delay a return to work until at least that time, and longer if possible.

  9. Prenatal high-salt diet in the Sprague-Dawley rat programs blood pressure and heart rate hyperresponsiveness to stress in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Porter, James P; King, Summer H; Honeycutt, April D

    2007-07-01

    Several animal models have been developed to study fetal programming of hypertension. One model involves feeding high-salt (HS) diet to rats before and during pregnancy, during lactation, and after weaning for 10 days. In the present investigation, we limited HS diet to the prenatal period in an attempt to find a narrower critical window for fetal programming. The HS diet did not result in low-birth weight offspring. In the adult offspring, radiotelemetry was used to assess blood pressure and heart rate in the conscious unstressed state. As adults, the HS offspring were not hypertensive compared with normal-salt (NS) control animals. However, the pressor and tachycardic responses to 1-h of restraint were significantly enhanced in HS female offspring, and recovery after restraint was delayed. This was accompanied by an increase in relative expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus during basal and stressed conditions. There was no augmented stress response or relative increase in CRH mRNA in adult HS male offspring. When challenged with 1 wk of 8% NaCl diet as adults, neither HS male nor female offspring exhibited salt sensitivity compared with NS groups. These data show that a high-salt diet limited to the prenatal period is not sufficient to program hypertension in adult offspring. However, this narrower critical period is sufficient to imprint a lasting hyperresponsiveness to stress, at least in adult female offspring. These data indicate that excessive maternal salt intake during pregnancy can adversely affect the cardiovascular health of adult offspring.

  10. Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To determine the effects of supplemental fish oil (FO) on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults. Methods A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD) participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO); or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson's r. Results Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03), a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04), and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08). No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg), RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal) or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05). There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11). There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02) and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001). Conclusion 6 wk of supplementation with FO significantly increased lean mass and

  11. Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphisms and Early Parent-Infant Interactions Are Related to Adult Male Heart Rate Response to Female Crying

    PubMed Central

    Truzzi, Anna; Bornstein, Marc H.; Senese, Vincenzo P.; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Setoh, Peipei; Esposito, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Adults' adaptive interactions with intimate partners enhance well-being. Here we hypothesized that adult males' physiological responses to opposite-sex conspecifics' distress result from an interaction between an environmental factor (early social interaction with caregivers) and a genetic factor (a polymorphism within the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene, 5-HTTLPR). We assessed heart rate changes in 42 non-married male adults to distress vocalizations (female, infant, and bonobo cries). Males' early interaction with parents was assessed using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Buccal mucosa cell samples were collected to assess their 5-HTTLPR genotype. A significant interaction emerged between early experience and genetic predisposition. Males with a genetic predisposition for higher sensitivity to environmental factors showed atypical physiological responses to adult female cries according to their experienced early maternal parenting. Environmental experiences and genetic characteristics are associated with adult males' physiological responses to socially meaningfully stimuli. Understanding the mechanisms that modulate responses to opposite-sex conspecifics may improve personal well-being and social adaptiveness. PMID:28293197

  12. Metropolitan Social Environments and Pre-HAART/HAART Era Changes in Mortality Rates (per 10,000 Adult Residents) among Injection Drug Users Living with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R.; West, Brooke S.; Pouget, Enrique R.; Hall, H. Irene; Cantrell, Jennifer; Tempalski, Barbara; Chatterjee, Sudip; Hu, Xiaohong; Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Galea, Sandro; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Among the largest US metropolitan areas, trends in mortality rates for injection drug users (IDUs) with AIDS vary substantially. Ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories suggest many metropolitan areas characteristics that might drive this variation. We assess metropolitan area characteristics associated with decline in mortality rates among IDUs living with AIDS (per 10,000 adult MSA residents) after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was developed. Methods This is an ecological cohort study of 86 large US metropolitan areas from 1993–2006. The proportional rate of decline in mortality among IDUs diagnosed with AIDS (as a proportion of adult residents) from 1993–1995 to 2004–2006 was the outcome of interest. This rate of decline was modeled as a function of MSA-level variables suggested by ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories. In multiple regression analyses, we used 1993–1995 mortality rates to (partially) control for pre-HAART epidemic history and study how other independent variables affected the outcomes. Results In multivariable models, pre-HAART to HAART era increases in ‘hard drug’ arrest rates and higher pre-HAART income inequality were associated with lower relative declines in mortality rates. Pre-HAART per capita health expenditure and drug abuse treatment rates, and pre- to HAART-era increases in HIV counseling and testing rates, were weakly associated with greater decline in AIDS mortality. Conclusions Mortality among IDUs living with AIDS might be decreased by reducing metropolitan income inequality, increasing public health expenditures, and perhaps increasing drug abuse treatment and HIV testing services. Given prior evidence that drug-related arrest rates are associated with higher HIV prevalence rates among IDUs and do not seem to decrease IDU population prevalence, changes in laws and policing practices to reduce such arrests while still protecting public order should be considered

  13. Return to Work and Social Communication Ability Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Jacinta M.; Bracy, Christine A.; Snow, Pamela C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Return to competitive employment presents a major challenge to adults who survive traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study was undertaken to better understand factors that shape employment outcome by comparing the communication profiles and self-awareness of communication deficits of adults who return to and maintain employment with those…

  14. Returning Women: Their Perceptions of the Social Environment of the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Carole T.

    1989-01-01

    Examined patterns in the way returning women students perceive classroom environment. Data from 284 female and 155 male returning adult students revealed that gender differences do exist in the perceptions of adult students concerning the college classroom environment. Males appeared less concerned with relational aspects of classroom setting than…

  15. Young Australian adults with NF1 have poor access to health care, high complication rates, and limited disease knowledge.

    PubMed

    Oates, Emily C; Payne, Jonathan M; Foster, Sheryl L; Clarke, Nigel F; North, Kathryn N

    2013-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multisystem disease associated with a lifelong risk of debilitating and potentially life-limiting complications, however many adults with NF1 have no regular health surveillance. We interviewed and examined 17 young adults with NF1 between the ages of 25 and 33. Most had not been assessed for NF1-related complications within the previous 8 years, including patients with known serious vascular complications, for example, renal artery stenosis. Acute and/or chronic pain, particularly back and plexiform-related pain were common symptoms, and despite a significant impact on quality of life, was untreated in most instances. Symptom and examination-directed imaging revealed serious complications in 41% of the cohort. These included severe spinal cord compression (two cases), a highly SUV avid lesion suggestive of malignancy (one case), and a Juvenile Pilocytic Astrocytoma in a patient without any previous NF1-related complications. Few study participants had a good understanding of NF1, its associated risks and complications, and many had not sought appropriate medical advice as questions or problems arose. NF1-related cognitive deficits in some participants, and the lack of a clear source of expert medical advice for adults with NF1 likely contributed to poor health surveillance and management in this population. Overall, these findings suggest that many Australian adults with NF1 are at risk of serious and life-threatening medical complications, but are not accessing and receiving adequate health care. Access to multidisciplinary adult clinics that specialize in NF1 may address many of the unmet health needs of young adults with NF1.

  16. Assured Crew Return Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, D. A.; Craig, J. W.; Drone, B.; Gerlach, R. H.; Williams, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The developmental status is discussed regarding the 'lifeboat' vehicle to enhance the safety of the crew on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). NASA's Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) is intended to provide a means for returning the SSF crew to earth at all times. The 'lifeboat' philosophy is the key to managing the development of the ACRV which further depends on matrixed support and total quality management for implementation. The risk of SSF mission scenarios are related to selected ACRV mission requirements, and the system and vehicle designs are related to these precepts. Four possible ACRV configurations are mentioned including the lifting-body, Apollo shape, Discoverer shape, and a new lift-to-drag concept. The SCRAM design concept is discussed in detail with attention to the 'lifeboat' philosophy and requirements for implementation.

  17. The Impact of Feedback on Self-Rated Driving Ability and Driving Self-Regulation among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Michelle L.; Crowe, Michael; Vance, David E.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Owsley, Cynthia; Ball, Karlene K.

    2011-01-01

    In 129 community-dwelling older adults, feedback regarding qualification for an insurance discount (based on a visual speed of processing test; Useful Field of View) was examined as a prospective predictor of change in self-reported driving ability, driving avoidance, and driving exposure over 3 months, along with physical, visual, health, and…

  18. The Role of Religious Beliefs and Practices on Emerging Adults' Perceived Competencies, Perceived Importance Ratings, and Global Self-Worth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Nelson, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    Although religious participation declines during emerging adulthood (18 years through middle 20s), most emerging adults still claim that their religious beliefs are important to them. However, little research has been conducted to examine the role that religious beliefs and practices may play in the development of self-perceptions during emerging…

  19. Brain Activity in Adults Who Stutter: Similarities across Speaking Tasks and Correlations with Stuttering Frequency and Speaking Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Roger J.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bothe, Anne K.; Ingham, Janis C.

    2012-01-01

    Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n = 18) and matched fluent…

  20. Self and Proxy Rating of Quality of Life in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results from the DISQOL Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Silke; Power, Mick; Green, Ann; Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Eser, Erhan; Dragomirecka, Eva; Fleck, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the agreement between self and proxy reports of quality of life (QoL) in people with intellectual disabilities and to examine the factors which contribute to these differences. The study was conducted across six international centres in a sample of 614 adults with intellectual disabilities as well as two…

  1. Impacting re-arrest rates among youth sentenced in adult court: an epidemiological examination of the Juvenile Sentencing Advocacy Project.

    PubMed

    Mason, Craig A; Chapman, Derek A; Chang, Shau; Simons, Julie

    2003-06-01

    Examines the impact of a program aimed at reducing re-offending among juveniles transferred to adult court in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Initiated in 1998, the Juvenile Sentencing Advocacy Project (JSAP) worked to increase the degree to which defense lawyers, prosecutors, judges, and police officers considered the developmental status of youth charged with crimes, as well as the contextual basis for their behavior and their potential for rehabilitation. Through such activities, the goal was to increase the use of juvenile sanctions, rather than traditional adult sentences. Based on previous research, it was predicted that increased use of juvenile sanctions would be associated with fewer youth re-offending. This article examines 162 youth who were transferred to and sentenced in adult court during 1999. Re-offense patterns were monitored through June 2001. Analyses using epidemiological measures of effect found that the use of juvenile sanctions significantly increased following implementation of JSAP and that youth receiving adult probation or boot camp were 1.74 to 2.29 times more likely to re-offend than were youth receiving juvenile sanctions. The increased use of juvenile sanctions following implementation of JSAP corresponded to an 11.2% to 15.3% decrease in the number of youth one would have anticipated would re-offend had previous patterns of sentencing continued.

  2. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children/adolescents and adults. Part II: Differences in obliteration rates, treatment-obliteration intervals, and prognostic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolato, Antonio . E-mail: antonio.nicolato@mail.azosp.vr.it; Lupidi, Francesco; Sandri, Marco F. Dr. Econom.; Foroni, Roberto; Zampieri, Piergiuseppe; Mazza, Carlo; Pasqualin, Alberto; Beltramello, Alberto; Gerosa, Massimo

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare obliteration rates (OBRs) and treatment-obliteration intervals (TOIs) for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery in children/adolescents and adults; and to determine factors predicting the OBR and TOI in these two populations. Methods and Materials: This study concerned 62 children/adolescents and 193 adults observed for {>=}3 years. Fisher exact two-tailed and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, multiple logistics, and Cox proportional hazard models were used for statistical analysis. Results: The overall OBR was 85.5% in children/adolescents and 87.6% in adults (p 0.671), but children/adolescents showed higher 36-month actuarial OBRs (69.35%) and shorter median TOIs (25.7 months) than adults (66.84% and 28.2 months; p 0.006 and p = 0.017, respectively). In children/adolescents, lower Spetzler-Martin grades (p = 0.043) and younger age (p = 0.019) correlated significantly with OBRs, and lower Spetzler-Martin grades (p 0.024) and noneloquent cAVM locations (p = 0.046) with TOIs. In adults, low flow through the cAVM and <6.2-cm{sup 3} volume were associated with both OBR and TOI (p 0.012 and p = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions: The differences in OBRs within 3 years and TOIs, although slight, seem to show that pediatric cAVMs behave differently from those in adults after Gamma Knife radiosurgery.

  3. Whole body synthesis rates of DHA from α-linolenic acid are greater than brain DHA accretion and uptake rates in adult rats[S

    PubMed Central

    Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Chen, Chuck T.; Trepanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P. Mark; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, however, the exact amount required for the brain is not agreed upon. While it is believed that the synthesis rate of DHA from α-linolenic acid (ALA) is low, how this synthesis rate compares with the amount of DHA required to maintain brain DHA levels is unknown. The objective of this work was to assess whether DHA synthesis from ALA is sufficient for the brain. To test this, rats consumed a diet low in n-3 PUFAs, or a diet containing ALA or DHA for 15 weeks. Over the 15 weeks, whole body and brain DHA accretion was measured, while at the end of the study, whole body DHA synthesis rates, brain gene expression, and DHA uptake rates were measured. Despite large differences in body DHA accretion, there was no difference in brain DHA accretion between rats fed ALA and DHA. In rats fed ALA, DHA synthesis and accretion was 100-fold higher than brain DHA accretion of rats fed DHA. Also, ALA-fed rats synthesized approximately 3-fold more DHA than the DHA uptake rate into the brain. This work indicates that DHA synthesis from ALA may be sufficient to supply the brain. PMID:24212299

  4. Ocular Filariasis in US Residents, Returning Travelers, and Expatriates.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    Several factors acting in concert now place US residents, returning travelers, and expatriates at risks of contracting ocular filariasis including increasing seroprevalence rates of zoonotic filariasis, international travel bringing tourists to and expatriates from filariasis-endemic regions, and warming temperatures extending distribution ranges of arthropod vectors. To describe the epidemiology and outcomes of ocular filariasis and to recommend strategies for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of ocular filariasis, internet search engines were queried with the key words in order to examine case reports and series of ocular filariasis in the US and elsewhere. Descriptive epidemiological, morphological, and molecular evidence now support increasing cases of ocular filariasis in domestic and wild animals and humans, with most cases caused by filarial worms including Dirofilaria repens and other zoonotic Dirofilaria species and Onchocerca lupi and other zoonotic Onchocerca species. Clinicians should maintain early suspicion of ocular filariasis in US residents, returning travelers, and expatriates who complain of combinations of red eye, eye pain, foreign body sensation, reduced visual acuity, and migrating ocular worms, even without significant peripheral eosinophilia or microfilaremia. Microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and O. volvulus may traverse the eye, but can usually be treated medically. Mobile adult worms trapped in the subconjunctiva or anterior chamber should be removed by ophthalmologists to permit species identification, prevent posterior uveitis and iritis, and stop worm migration into the posterior chamber which could require lens removal and vitrectomy for worm extraction causing further eye damage.

  5. Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Allen, C. C.; Britt, D. T.; Brownlee, D. E.; Cheng, A.; Chapman, C. R.; Clark, B. C.; Drake, B. G.; Franchi, I. A.; Gorevan, S.

    2001-01-01

    The rate of discovery of new Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the success of D-S 1 and NEAR-Shoemaker, suggest that sample return from NEAs is now technically feasible. Here we present a summary of a recent workshop on the topic. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults: a randomized controlled trial123

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon I; Atherton, Philip; Reeds, Dominic N; Mohammed, B Selma; Rankin, Debbie; Rennie, Michael J; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Background: Loss of muscle mass with aging is a major public health concern. Omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids stimulate protein anabolism in animals and might therefore be useful for the treatment of sarcopenia. However, the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on human protein metabolism is unknown. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults. Design: Sixteen healthy, older adults were randomly assigned to receive either omega-3 fatty acids or corn oil for 8 wk. The rate of muscle protein synthesis and the phosphorylation of key elements of the anabolic signaling pathway were evaluated before and after supplementation during basal, postabsorptive conditions and during a hyperaminoacidemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Results: Corn oil supplementation had no effect on the muscle protein synthesis rate and the extent of anabolic signaling element phosphorylation in muscle. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation had no effect on the basal rate of muscle protein synthesis (mean ± SEM: 0.051 ± 0.005%/h compared with 0.053 ± 0.008%/h before and after supplementation, respectively; P = 0.80) but augmented the hyperaminoacidemia-hyperinsulinemia–induced increase in the rate of muscle protein synthesis (from 0.009 ± 0.005%/h above basal values to 0.031 ± 0.003%/h above basal values; P < 0.01), which was accompanied by greater increases in muscle mTORSer2448 (P = 0.08) and p70s6kThr389 (P < 0.01) phosphorylation. Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acids stimulate muscle protein synthesis in older adults and may be useful for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. This trial was registered at clinical trials.gov as NCT00794079. PMID:21159787

  7. Trends in Unintentional Fall-Related Traumatic Brain Injury Death Rates in Older Adults in the United States, 1980-2010: A Joinpoint Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kuan-Chin; Liang, Fu-Wen; Cheng, Tain-Junn; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-07-15

    Unintentional fall-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) death rate is high in older adults in the United States, but little is known regarding trends of these death rates. We sought to examine unintentional fall-related TBI death rates by age and sex in older adults from 1980 through 2010 in the United States. We used multiple-cause mortality data from 1980 through 2010 (31 years of data) to identify fall-related TBI deaths. Using a joinpoint regression program, we determined the joinpoints (years at which trends change significantly) and annual percentage changes (APCs) in mortality trends. The fall-related TBI death rates (deaths per 100,000 population) in older adults ages 65-74, 75-84, and 85 years and above were 2.7, 9.2, and 21.5 for females and 8.5, 18.2, and 40.8 for males, respectively, in 1980. The rate was about the same in 1992, yet increased markedly to 5.9, 23.4, and 68.9 for females and 11.6, 41.2, and 112.4 for males, respectively, in 2010. For males all 65 years years of age and above, we found the first joinpoint in 1992, when the APC for 1980 through 1992, -0.8%, changed to 6.2% for 1992-2005. The second joinpoint occurred in 2005, when the APC decreased to 3.7% for 2005-2010. For all females 65 years of age and above, the first joinpoint was in 1993 when the APC for 1980 through 1993, -0.2%, changed to 7.6% from 1993 to 2005. The second joinpoint occurred in 2005 when the APC decreased to 3.8% for 2005-2010. This descriptive epidemiological study suggests increasing fall-related TBI death rates from 1992 to 2005 and then a slowdown of increasing trends between 2005 and 2010. Continued monitoring of fall-related TBI death rate trends is needed to determine the burden of this public health problem among older adults in the United States.

  8. Longitudinal Assessment of Global and Regional Rate of Grey Matter Atrophy in 1,172 Healthy Older Adults: Modulation by Sex and Age

    PubMed Central

    Crivello, Fabrice; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Tzourio, Christophe; Mazoyer, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the neuroanatomical changes in healthy older adults is important to differentiate pathological from normal brain structural aging. The present study investigated the annualized rate of GM atrophy in a large sample of older participants, focusing on the hippocampus, and searching for modulation by age and sex. In this 4-year longitudinal community cohort study, we used a VBM analysis to estimate the annualized rate of GM loss, at both the global and regional levels, in 1,172 healthy older adults (65–82 years) scanned at 1.5T. The global annualized rate of GM was −4.0 cm3/year (−0.83%/year). The highest rates of regional GM loss were found in the frontal and parietal cortices, middle occipital gyri, temporal cortex and hippocampus. The rate of GM atrophy was higher in women (−4.7 cm3/year, −0.91%/year) than men (−3.3 cm3/year, −0.65%/year). The global annualized rate of GM atrophy remained constant throughout the age range of the cohort, in both sexes. This pattern was replicated at the regional level, with the exception of the hippocampi, which showed a rate of GM atrophy that accelerated with age (2.8%/year per year of age) similarly for men and women. The present study reports a global and regional description of the annualized rate of grey matter loss and its evolution after the age of 65. Our results suggest greater anatomical vulnerability of women in late life and highlight a specific vulnerability of the hippocampus to the aging processes after 65 years of age. PMID:25469789

  9. Rate of change in adiposity and its relationship to concomitant changes in cardiovascular risk variables among biracial (black-white) children and young adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, S R; Myers, L; Berenson, G S

    2001-03-01

    To assess the annual rate of change in adiposity and its relationship to concomitant changes in cardiovascular risk variables during childhood and young adulthood, serial data on black and white children (n = 3,459; initial and follow-up mean age, 8.1 and 14.4 years) and young adults (n = 1,263; initial and follow-up mean age, 22.5 and 30.9 years) enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study were examined. Body mass index (BMI) and sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds were used as indicators of adiposity. In addition, measurements were made of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and fasting levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose. Annualized rate of change for each variable was estimated. The rate of increase in adiposity was significantly more pronounced during childhood versus adulthood. Race difference (blacks > whites) in the rate of increase in adiposity was seen only among females. Females, black females in particular, displayed greater rate of increase in adiposity than males. In a multivariate analysis, the rate of increase in adiposity was related independently of baseline age and baseline adiposity to adverse changes in measured cardiovascular risk variables, except glucose. Many of these associations were modulated significantly by race, sex, and age group. The impact was relatively greater for blood pressure and LDL cholesterol in adults and for triglycerides in children. The changes in blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol were greater in whites, while the rate of increase in insulin was greater in blacks. Females displayed greater changes in blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and insulin. On the other hand, the rate of increase in triglycerides was greater in males. These results indicate that increases in adiposity regardless of initial status of body fatness alter cardiovascular risk variables towards increased risk beginning in childhood, and

  10. Adult Tech Prep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaad, Donna

    For over 2 years, Blak Hawk College (Illinois) has provided high school equivalency (GED) candidates and recipients, older returning students, and underprepared high school graduates with a Tech Prep curriculum to give them the skills to make the transition from adult basic education to college or work. The Adult Tech Prep (ATP) core curriculum…

  11. Today's Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Who are the adult students in career and technical education (CTE) today? There is not one simple answer to that question. Some are young with little life experience, while others are returning to the workforce and learning new skills to reinvent themselves. Whatever the case, educating adult students is an integral part of ACTE's mission, and the…

  12. Impact of Glasgow Coma Scale score and pupil parameters on mortality rate and outcome in pediatric and adult severe traumatic brain injury: a retrospective, multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Emami, Pedram; Czorlich, Patrick; Fritzsche, Friederike S; Westphal, Manfred; Rueger, Johannes M; Lefering, Rolf; Hoffmann, Michael

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Prediction of death and functional outcome is essential for determining treatment strategies and allocation of resources for patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to evaluate, by using pupillary status and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, if patients with severe TBI who are ≤ 15 years old have a lower mortality rate and better outcome than adults with severe TBI. METHODS A retrospective cohort analysis of patients suffering from severe TBI registered in the Trauma Registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery between 2002 and 2013 was undertaken. Severe TBI was defined as an Abbreviated Injury Scale of the head (AIShead) score of ≥ 3 and an AIS score for any other part of the body that does not exceed the AIShead score. Only patients with complete data (GCS score, age, and pupil parameters) were included. To assess the impact of GCS score and pupil parameters, the authors also used the recently introduced Eppendorf-Cologne Scale and divided the study population into 2 groups: children (0-15 years old) and adults (16-55 years old). Each patient's outcome was measured at discharge from the trauma center by using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. RESULTS A total of 9959 patients fulfilled the study inclusion criteria; 888 (8.9%) patients were ≤ 15 years old (median 10 years). The overall mortality rate and the mortality rate for patients with a GCS of 3 and bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils (19.9% and 16.3%, respectively) were higher for the adults than for the pediatric patients (85% vs 80.9%, respectively), although cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates were significantly higher in the pediatric patients (5.6% vs 8.8%, respectively). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, no motor response (OR 3.490, 95% CI 2.240-5.435) and fixed pupils (OR 4.197, 95% CI 3.271-5.386) and bilateral dilated pupils (OR 2.848, 95% CI 2.282-3.556) were associated with a higher mortality rate. Patients ≤ 15 years old had a

  13. Returns to Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asadullah, Mohammad Niaz

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports labour market returns to education in Bangladesh using data from recent nationwide household survey. Returns are estimated separately for rural and urban samples, males, females and private-sector employees. Substantial heterogeneity in returns is observed; for example, estimates are higher for urban (than rural sample) and…

  14. Sample Return Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williford, K. H.; Allwood, A.; Beegle, L. W.; Bhartia, R.; Flannery, D.; Hoffmann, A.; Mora, M. F.; Orbay, J.; Petrizzo, D. A.; Tuite, M. L., Jr.; Willis, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The first clear identification of an ancient habitable environment on Mars by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission relied on a synthetic analytical approach combining orbital and surface imagery and spectroscopy with sophisticated sample acquisition and handling technology including a rotary percussive drill that provided powdered rock for bulk geochemical analysis [1]. The recent announcement of the instrument package for the proposed NASA Mars2020 rover mission, including micro x-ray fluorescence (PIXL) for elemental mapping as well as scanning ultraviolet laser fluorescence and Raman (SHERLOC) suggests a shift in emphasis of Mars surface science towards spatially resolved geochemical analysis that will support the selection and acquisition of samples for coring, caching, and possible return to Earth for further analysis. During a recent field expedition to investigate Archean and Proterozoic biosignatures in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, we deployed a dry, rotary percussive coring drill with a bit assembly analogous to that being considered for Mars2020. Six targets of varying age and lithology were sampled with the coring drill, and surrounding and adjacent rock samples were collected simultaneously. These samples were subsequently prepared and subsampled for bulk and in situ, spatially resolved analysis using conventional laboratory methods as well as the existing PIXL and SHERLOC platforms currently in development. Here we present new approaches and data from this integrated and ongoing program of "sample return science" designed to simulate, and eventually reduce risk associated with a long-term effort towards Mars sample return. [1] Grotzinger, J.P. et al. 2014. Science 343 DOI: 10.1126/science.1242777.

  15. Gender differences in the predictive role of self-rated health on short-term risk of mortality among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite the well-established association between self-rated health and mortality, research findings have been inconsistent regarding how men and women differ on this link. Using a national sample in the United States, this study compared American male and female older adults for the predictive role of baseline self-rated health on the short-term risk of mortality. Methods: This longitudinal study followed 1500 older adults (573 men (38.2%) and 927 women (61.8%)) aged 66 years or older for 3 years from 2001 to 2004. The main predictor of interest was self-rated health, which was measured using a single item in 2001. The outcome was the risk of all-cause mortality during the 3-year follow-up period. Demographic factors (race and age), socio-economic factors (education and marital status), and health behaviors (smoking and drinking) were covariates. Gender was the focal moderator. We ran logistic regression models in the pooled sample and also stratified by gender, with self-rated health treated as either nominal variables, poor compared to other levels (i.e. fair, good, or excellent) or excellent compared to other levels (i.e. good, fair, or poor), or an ordinal variable. Results: In the pooled sample, baseline self-rated health predicted mortality risk, regardless of how the variable was treated. We found a significant interaction between gender and poor self-rated health, indicating a stronger effect of poor self-rated health on mortality risk for men compared to women. Gender did not interact with excellent self-rated health on mortality. Conclusion: Perceived poor self-rated health better reflects risk of mortality over a short period of time for older men compared to older women. Clinicians may need to take poor self-rated health of older men very seriously. Future research should test whether the differential predictive validity of self-rated health based on gender is due to a different meaning of poor self-rated health for older men and women

  16. Titan Science Return Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, Charles R.; Lincoln, William

    2014-01-01

    Each proposal for a NASA mission concept includes a Science Traceability Matrix (STM), intended to show that what is being proposed would contribute to satisfying one or more of the agency's top-level science goals. But the information traditionally provided cannot be used directly to quantitatively compare anticipated science return. We added numerical elements to NASA's STM and developed a software tool to process the data. We then applied this methodology to evaluate a group of competing concepts for a proposed mission to Saturn's moon, Titan.

  17. Adult neuron addition to the zebra finch song motor pathway correlates with the rate and extent of recovery from botox-induced paralysis of the vocal muscles.

    PubMed

    Pytte, Carolyn; Yu, Yi-Lo; Wildstein, Sara; George, Shanu; Kirn, John R

    2011-11-23

    In adult songbirds, neurons are continually incorporated into the telencephalic nucleus HVC (used as a proper name), a premotor region necessary for the production of learned vocalizations. Previous studies have demonstrated that neuron addition to HVC is highest when song is most variable: in juveniles during song learning, in seasonally singing adults during peaks in plasticity that precede the production of new song components, or during seasonal reestablishment of a previously learned song. These findings suggest that neuron addition provides motor flexibility for the transition from a variable song to a target song. Here we test the association between the quality of song structure and HVC neuron addition by experimentally manipulating syringeal muscle control with Botox, which produces a transient partial paralysis. We show that the quality of song structure covaries with new neuron addition to HVC. Both the magnitude of song distortion and the rate of song recovery after syringeal Botox injections were correlated with the number of new neurons incorporated into HVC. We suggest that the quality of song structure is either a cause or consequence of the number of new neurons added to HVC. Birds with naturally high rates of neuron addition may have had the greatest success in recovering song. Alternatively, or in addition, new neuron survival in the song motor pathway may be regulated by the quality of song-generated feedback as song regains its original stereotyped structure. Present results are the first to show a relationship between peripheral muscle control and adult neuron addition to cortical premotor circuits.

  18. Return to work (RTW) after head injury.

    PubMed

    McMordie, W R; Barker, S L; Paolo, T M

    1990-01-01

    This study explored return to work (RTW) after head injury from survey data on 177 cases of head injury. Although 45% of the sample study did engage in some work-related activity only 19% were in competitive employment positions. Factors which were related to RTW after head injury were: age when injured, sex, length of loss of consciousness and Likert ratings of learning, motor and ambulation impairment. Many of those who did return to competitive employment did so in less demanding positions than held pre-injury. Limitations of the current study and suggestions for future research are ventured.

  19. Episodic ozone exposure in adult and senescent Brown Norway rats: acute and delayed effect on heart rate, core temperature and motor activity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Johnstone, A F; Aydin, C; Phillips, P M; MacPhail, R C; Kodavanti, U P; Ledbetter, A D; Jarema, K A

    2014-06-01

    Setting exposure standards for environmental pollutants may consider the aged as a susceptible population but the few published studies assessing susceptibility of the aged to air pollutants are inconsistent. Episodic ozone (O₃) is more reflective of potential exposures occurring in human populations and could be more harmful to the aged. This study used radiotelemetry to monitor heart rate (HR), core temperature (T(c)) and motor activity (MA) in adult (9-12 months) and senescent (20-24 months) male, Brown Norway rats exposed to episodic O₃ (6 h/day of 1 ppm O₃ for 2 consecutive days/week for 13 weeks). Acute O₃ initially led to marked drops in HR and T(c). As exposures progressed each week, there was diminution in the hypothermic and bradycardic effects of O₃. Senescent rats were less affected than adults. Acute responses were exacerbated on the second day of O₃ exposure with adults exhibiting greater sensitivity. During recovery following 2 d of O₃, adult and senescent rats exhibited an elevated T(c) and HR during the day but not at night, an effect that persisted for at least 48 h after O₃ exposure. MA was elevated in adults but not senescent rats during recovery from O₃. Overall, acute effects of O₃, including reductions in HR and T(c), were attenuated in senescent rats. Autonomic responses during recovery, included an elevation in T(c) with a pattern akin to that of a fever and rise in HR that were independent of age. An attenuated inflammatory response to O₃ in senescent rats may explain the relatively heightened physiological response to O₃ in younger rats.

  20. Effect of photoperiod on the rate of 3H-thymidine incorporation of epididymal principal cells in adult Syrian hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.; Bartke, A. )

    1991-04-01

    Photoperiod-induced cycles of gonadal regression and recrudescence in the Syrian hamster were used to determine if epididymal growth in adults involves mitotic activity of principal cells. In Experiment 1, the following groups of adult hamsters were examined: induced recrudescing (5L:19D (5 hr light and 19 hr dark) for 13 wk followed by 14L:10D for at least 3 wk), spontaneous recrudescing (5L:19D for 25 wk), and active gonadal state (14:10D). In Experiment 2, adult hamsters were divided into the following groups: induced recrudescing, active, and regressed (5L:19D for 16 wk). Hamsters received subcutaneous injections of 0.5 microCi 3H-thymidine/g body weight three times/wk for 3 wk. The epididymis was fixed in a glutaraldehyde followed by osmium, embedded in Epon 812, and sectioned at 1 micron. Slides were dipped in Kodak NTB-3 emulsion, exposed for 2 or 3 months, developed, and evaluated for isotopic labeling of principal and basal cell nuclei by scoring 500 to 1,000 nuclei. In Experiment 1, the percentages of labeled principal cell nuclei for the induced recrudescing, spontaneous recrudescing, and active groups were 26 {plus minus} 2%, 23 {plus minus} 5%, and 9 {plus minus} 1%, respectively. Considering the intermittent availability of 3H-thymidine during 21 days, this represents daily recruitment of 6.3%, 5.6%, and 2.2%, respectively. In Experiment 2, the percentages of labeled principal cell nuclei for induced recrudescing, active, and regressed groups were 12 {plus minus} 4%, 3 {plus minus} 1%, and 4 {plus minus} 1%, respectively. There was no effect of photoperiod on labeling pattern of basal cells (1.5 {plus minus} 0.6%, 1.2 {plus minus} 0.1%, 0.4 {plus minus} 0.1% for the three photoperiod groups, respectively).

  1. The effect of supplemental food on the growth rates of neonatal, young, and adult cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) in northeastern Kansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eifler, Maria A.; Slade, Norman A.; Doonan, Terry J.

    2003-09-01

    In food-limited populations, the presence of extra food resources can influence the way individuals allocate energy to growth and reproduction. We experimentally increased food available to cotton rats ( Sigmodon hispidus) near the northern limit of their range over a 2-year period and tested the hypothesis that seasonal growth rates would be enhanced by supplemental food during winter and spring when natural food levels are low. We also examined whether additional food resources were allocated to somatic growth or reproductive effort by pregnant and lactating females. The effect of supplemental food on growth varied with mass and season, but did not influence the growth rates of most cotton rats during spring and winter. In winter, small animals on supplemented grids had higher growth rates than small animals on control grids, but females in spring had lower growth rates under supplemented conditions. Growth rates of supplemented cotton rats were enhanced in summer. Northern cotton rat populations may use season-specific foraging strategies, maximizing energy intake during the reproductive season and minimizing time spent foraging in winter. Adult females invest extra resources in reproduction rather than in somatic growth. Pregnant females receiving supplemental food had higher growth rates than control females, and dependent pups (≤ 1 month of age) born to supplemented mothers had higher growth rates than those born to control mothers. Increased body size seems to confer an advantage during the reproductive season, but has no concomitant advantage to overwinter survival.

  2. Pit and Fissure Sealants in Young Adults: An Evaluation of Placement Time and Retention Rate Using Two Isolation Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    L AD-A139 429 PI AND FSSJR SEAANTS IN YOUNG ADULTS AN EVAUAON I7 D-AUN L OFPLACEMENT ME.U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECHWRIOHT-PATTERSON AFB OH B A MATIS...I ll l l ....1 , , .. .. . ... i TABLE XIV Sealant retention by tooth surface at twelve months ........................ 44 TABLE XV Sealant...cotton - 12- roll isolation and the placement time of an occIusal amalgam restoration using rubber dam isolation in contralater.. l teeth. Fifty-five

  3. Validation of a single-stage fixed-rate step test for the prediction of maximal oxygen uptake in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Dominique; Jacobs, Nele; Thijs, Herbert; Dendale, Paul; Claes, Neree

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare professionals with limited access to ergospirometry remain in need of valid and simple submaximal exercise tests to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ). Despite previous validation studies concerning fixed-rate step tests, accurate equations for the estimation of VO2max remain to be formulated from a large sample of healthy adults between age 18-75 years (n > 100). The aim of this study was to develop a valid equation to estimate VO2max from a fixed-rate step test in a larger sample of healthy adults. A maximal ergospirometry test, with assessment of cardiopulmonary parameters and VO2max , and a 5-min fixed-rate single-stage step test were executed in 112 healthy adults (age 18-75 years). During the step test and subsequent recovery, heart rate was monitored continuously. By linear regression analysis, an equation to predict VO2max from the step test was formulated. This equation was assessed for level of agreement by displaying Bland-Altman plots and calculation of intraclass correlations with measured VO2max . Validity further was assessed by employing a Jackknife procedure. The linear regression analysis generated the following equation to predict VO2max (l min(-1) ) from the step test: 0·054(BMI)+0·612(gender)+3·359(body height in m)+0·019(fitness index)-0·012(HRmax)-0·011(age)-3·475. This equation explained 78% of the variance in measured VO2max (F = 66·15, P<0·001). The level of agreement and intraclass correlation was high (ICC = 0·94, P<0·001) between measured and predicted VO2max . From this study, a valid fixed-rate single-stage step test equation has been developed to estimate VO2max in healthy adults. This tool could be employed by healthcare professionals with limited access to ergospirometry.

  4. Youth, Underemployment, and Property Crime: Differential Effects of Job Availability and Job Quality on Juvenile and Young Adult Arrest Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Emilie Andersen; Steffensmeier, Darrell J.

    1989-01-01

    Examination of age-specific state-level data from the 1977-1980 reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Census Bureau reveals that availability of employment produces strong effects on juvenile arrest rates. Unemployment and low quality of employment (e.g., inadequate pay and hours) is associated with high arrest rates. (Author/BJV)

  5. Return on Investment in Education: A "System-Strategy" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Stephen; Hovey, Don

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been growing interest in adapting Return-on-Investment thinking to education--sometimes called educational productivity, or academic-ROI. Education leaders do not seek a monetary return on their spending, rather greater student learning, or other outcomes like student citizenship, higher graduation rates, or increased lifetime…

  6. The amount of periosteal apposition required to maintain bone strength during aging depends on adult bone morphology and tissue-modulus degradation rate.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Karl J; Andarawis-Puri, Nelly

    2012-09-01

    Although the continued periosteal apposition that accompanies age-related bone loss is a biomechanically critical target for prophylactic treatment of bone fragility, the magnitude of periosteal expansion required to maintain strength during aging has not been established. A new model for predicting periosteal apposition rate for men and women was developed to better understand the complex, nonlinear interactions that exist among bone morphology, tissue-modulus, and aging. Periosteal apposition rate varied up to eightfold across bone sizes, and this depended on the relationship between cortical area and total area, which varies with external size and among anatomical sites. Increasing tissue-modulus degradation rate from 0% to -4%/decade resulted in 65% to 145% increases in periosteal apposition rate beyond that expected for bone loss alone. Periosteal apposition rate had to increase as much as 350% over time to maintain stiffness for slender diaphyses, whereas robust bones required less than a 32% increase over time. Small changes in the amount of bone accrued during growth (ie, adult cortical area) affected periosteal apposition rate of slender bones to a much greater extent compared to robust bones. This outcome suggested that impaired bone growth places a heavy burden on the biological activity required to maintain stiffness with aging. Finally, sex-specific differences in periosteal apposition were attributable in part to differences in bone size between the two populations. The results indicated that a substantial proportion of the variation in periosteal expansion required to maintain bone strength during aging can be attributed to the natural variation in adult bone width. Efforts to identify factors contributing to variation in periosteal expansion will benefit from developing a better understanding of how to adjust clinical data to differentiate the biological responses attributable to size-effects from other genetic and environmental factors.

  7. Space Station core resupply and return requirements estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissinger, D. B.

    1988-01-01

    A modular methodology has been developed to model both NASA Space Station onboard resupply/return requirements and Space Shuttle delivery/return capabilities. This approach divides nonpayload Space Station logistics into seven independent categories, each of which is a function of several rates multiplied by user-definable onboard usage scenarios and Shuttle resupply profiles. The categories are summed to arrive at an overall resupply or return requirement. Unused Shuttle resupply and return capacities are also evaluated. The method allows an engineer to evaluate the transportation requirements for a candidate Space Station operational scenario.

  8. Glomerular filtration rate in adults estimated from 123iodine-hippuran and 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid gamma camera renography.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, O; Nathan, E

    1988-08-01

    In a retrospective study a close relationship was found between the rate constant for renal clearance of the radioactive indicator (lambda pk) and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured by 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance. The material comprised eighteen adult subjects submitted to 123I-hippuran gamma camera renography (IHGR) and twenty-two adult subjects to 99mTc-DTPA gamma camera renography (TDGR). The rate constant was calculated from a bi-exponential decomposition of the activity-time curve recorded within a small region of interest over the left ventricle. The total cleared renal fraction (TCRF) of the cardiac output with respect to the radioactive indicator has previously been shown to be closely related to GFR. A pooled estimate of GFR (GFRp) was calculated from the stochastically independent estimates of GFR based on lambda pk and TCRF. The comparison of GFRp with measured GFR was satisfactory and yielded substantially smaller standard deviations (SD) of GFRp than estimates based on lambda pk and TCRF separately. The standard deviations of GFRp were about 7 and 12 ml/min/1.73 m2 in IHGR for GFR equal to 50 and 100 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The corresponding SD in TDGR were about 7 and 11 ml/min/1.73 m2. These standard deviations are sufficiently small for many clinical purposes and the method requires no blood samples or urine collections.

  9. New tools for surveillance of adult yellow fever mosquitoes: comparison of trap catches with human landing rates in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Krockel, Ulla; Rose, Andreas; Eiras, Alvaro E; Geier, Martin

    2006-06-01

    A novel mosquito trapping system, the BG-Sentinel trap, was evaluated as a monitoring tool for adult Aedes aegypti in field tests in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Human landing/biting collections, a gas-powered CO2 trap, and a Fay-Prince trap with only visual cues serving as references to evaluate the efficacy of the new trap. The BG-Sentinel is a simple suction trap that uses upward-directed air currents as well as visual cues to attract mosquitoes. The trap was tested with a new dispenser system (BG-Lure) that releases artificial human skin odors and needs no CO2. In comparison with the two other traps, the BG-Sentinel caught significantly more Ae. aegypti. Although human landing rates were the highest, there was no significant difference between human landing rates and the capture rates of the BG-Sentinel trap. The finding indicates that the trap can be considered as an acceptable alternative to human landing/biting collections in the surveillance of adult host-seeking dengue vectors. The addition of BG-Lure to the gas-powered CO2 trap greatly increased its efficacy. This combination, however, was not significantly more effective than the BG-Sentinel without CO2. In a 6-month comparison between the BG-Sentinel and a sticky ovitrap for gravid females, the BG-Sentinel proved to be a far more efficient and sensitive tool to measure the density of Ae. aegypti populations.

  10. Returning Samples from Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, P.; Kanik, I.; Brownlee, D.; McKay, C.; Anbar, A.; Glavin, D.; Yano, H.

    2012-12-01

    From the first half century of space exploration, we have obtained samples only from the Moon, comet Wild 2, the Solar Wind and the asteroid Itokawa. The in-depth analyses of these samples in terrestrial laboratories have yielded profound knowledge that could not have been obtained without the returned samples. While obtaining samples from Solar System bodies is crucial science, it is rarely done due to cost and complexity. Cassini's discovery of geysers on Enceladus and organic materials, indicate that there is an exceptional opportunity and science rational to do a low-cost flyby sample return mission, similar to what was done by the Stardust. The earliest low cost possible flight opportunity is the next Discovery Mission [Tsou et al 2012]. Enceladus Plume Discovery - While Voyager provided evidence for young surfaces on Enceladus, the existence of Enceladus plumes was discovered by Cassini. Enceladus and comets are the only known solar system bodies that have jets enabling sample collection without landing or surface contact. Cassini in situ Findings -Cassini's made many discoveries at Saturn, including the break up of large organics in the plumes of Enceladus. Four prime criteria for habitability are liquid water, a heat source, organics and nitrogen [McKay et al. 2008, Waite et al. 2009, Postberg et al. 2011]. Out of all the NASA designated habitability targets, Enceladus is the single body that presents evidence for all four criteria. Significant advancement in the exploration of the biological potential of Enceladus can be made on returned samples in terrestrial laboratories where the full power of state-of-the-art laboratory instrumentation and procedures can be used. Without serious limits on power, mass or even cost, terrestrial laboratories provide the ultimate in analytical capability, adaptability, reproducibility and reliability. What Questions can Samples Address? - Samples collected from the Enceladus plume will enable a thorough and replicated

  11. Return to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This video documents the preparations for Shuttle Flight STS-26 with Shuttle Discovery, NASA's return to manned space flight after the Challenger disaster. Footage and descriptions document such changes to the new Shuttle as new joints, improved insulation, and added O-rings to the solid rocket boosters; new safety hardware and procedures such as parachute and sidewire evacuations during liftoff, and new pressure suits; modified landing gear, brakes, and nose wheel steering, as well as a modified landing runway. Also profiled are the 5 member crew of all veteran Shuttle astronauts, the TDRS 3 Satellite to be released from the cargo bay in orbit, and 11 commercial and student experiments to be performed during the mission.

  12. Dealing with returned manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2009-11-01

    It is useful for authors to learn to deal with returned manuscripts with a rejection decision or a request for revision. Common reasons for rejection include contents outside the scope of the journal or inappropriate for the journal, incomplete submission, poor methodology, faulty experimental design, major flaws in the interpretation of results, extremely poor writing, and duplicated or plagiarised work. Authors should use the editor's and reviewers' comments to improve their manuscripts and resubmit elsewhere. Common reasons for revision requests include minor faults in the methodology, minor inaccuracies in data, inconsistencies among different sections of the manuscript, faulty deductions, data that do not support the conclusions, excessive data or text, poor or excessive illustrations, and poor but salvageable writing. A request for revision should be viewed positively, as it means that there is a possibility that the manuscript may still be potentially publishable, provided that all the editor's and reviewers' comments are addressed.

  13. Awaiting Halley's Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyn, Herman M.

    2004-01-01

    When Comet Halley perihelioned in early 1986, there were people still around who had witnessed its previous, 1910 apparition. )Then there is Mark Twain, who was born under the comet in 1835, wished for his demise upon its return, and died one day after it perihelioned in 1910!( I so enjoyed my 1986 view of Halley, that I decided I would like to be among those who see it again when it perihelions in 2061. The big problem with this ambition is that I would need to live to a Guinness Book of World's Records age of 131 years. Now, thanks to Randy Showstack's In Brief news note, ``Farthest, faintest detection of a comet'' (Eos, 16 September 2003), I have been handed a fallback position which, literally, I may be able to live with: a telescopic photo of Halley at aphelion.

  14. High rate of lymphoma among a UK cohort of adolescents with vertically acquired HIV-1 infection transitioning to adult care in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Eades, Chris P; Herbert, Sophie A; Edwards, Simon G; Waters, Laura J; Peake, Tabitha; Miller, Robert F; Jungmann, Eva

    2016-01-02

    Among an inner London UK cohort of 147 adolescents transitioning from paediatric into adult care between 2007 and 2015, a new diagnosis of lymphoma was made in five patients; incidence rate = 0.425/100 person-years (95% confidence interval = 0.424-0.426). Previously described risk factors, including low nadir CD4 cell count and ongoing HIV-1 viraemia, appeared to be important. These data suggest that careful surveillance and a low threshold for investigating relevant symptoms continue to be essential for such patients.

  15. Returning to freud.

    PubMed

    Chessick, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    In this article I attempt to renew interest in the importance of Freud's work for both the practice of psychoanalysis and in the training of psychoanalysts. I hope to stimulate readers to return to Freud's writings in detail, which seem to be increasingly neglected these days both in training and in the many conflicting contemporary models of psychoanalysis. I propose that the identity of psychoanalysis can still be based on Freud's work, and his approach can form a fundamental center from which there are various channels of divergence that may be useful when the patient seems to need them. But the centerpiece of our training and our orientation, I suggest, should be the basic principles spelled out in Freud's numerous volumes, in spite of the many changes and contradictions and even outright mistakes and cultural blindness he displays in some instances. I proceed to review some of these basic principles in the hope of persuading the reader to return to Freud again. I present these with some commentary from my own 50 years of clinical experience. I briefly review the clinical cornerstones of Freud's approach as developed in his early books, his controversial papers on technique, and his later emendations, which constitute the actual reality of Freud at work in psychoanalysis (that sometimes--and sometimes wisely--violates his papers on technique), and I discuss his notion of curative factors in psychoanalysis. All of this is to revive an interest in Freud's thought and to emphasize the lasting value of his work, both in its contemporary clinical relevance and as the proposed foundation stone of our identity as psychoanalysts.

  16. Self-rated health among Hispanic vs non-Hispanic white adults: the San Luis Valley Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed Central

    Shetterly, S M; Baxter, J; Mason, L D; Hamman, R F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether objective health indicators explained lower self-rated health among Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Whites. It also considered socioeconomic and cultural explanations. METHODS: Health ratings of 429 Hispanics and 583 non-Hispanic Whites aged 20 through 74 were analyzed with logistic regression. RESULTS: Illness indicators were found to be strongly correlated with self-rated health in both ethnic groups, but after such markers were controlled for, Hispanics remained 3.6 times more likely to report fair or poor health (95% confidence interval = 2.4, 5.3). Adjustment for socioeconomic factors accounted for a portion of Hispanics' lower health rating, but the strongest explanatory factor was acculturation. CONCLUSIONS: Because of cultural and economic influences on definitions of health, ethnic differences in self-assessed health may not accurately reflected patterns resulting from objective health measurements. PMID:9003141

  17. No major sex differences in muscle protein synthesis rates in the postabsorptive state and during hyperinsulinemia-hyperaminoacidemia in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gordon I; Atherton, Philip; Reeds, Dominic N; Mohammed, B Selma; Jaffery, Hadia; Rankin, Debbie; Rennie, Michael J; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2009-10-01

    Men have more muscle than women, but most studies evaluating sex differences in muscle protein metabolism have been unable to discern sexual dimorphism in basal muscle protein turnover rates in young and middle-aged adults. We hypothesized that the anabolic response to nutritional stimuli (i.e., amino acids and insulin) would be greater in young/middle-aged men than women. We therefore measured the rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in 16 healthy individuals [8 men and 8 women, matched for age (mean +/- SE: 37.7 +/- 1.5 yr) and body mass index (25.2 +/- 0.7 kg/m2)] after an overnight fast (plasma insulin approximately 5 microU/ml and plasma phenylalanine approximately 60 microM) and during a hyperinsulinemic-hyperaminoacidemic-euglycemic clamp (plasma insulin approximately 28 microU/ml; plasma phenylalanine approximately 110 microM; plasma glucose approximately 5.4 mM). The rates of MPS were not different between men and women (ANOVA main effect for sex; P = 0.49). During the clamp, the rate of MPS increased by approximately 50% (P = 0.003) with no difference in the increases from basal values between men and women (+0.019 +/- 0.004 vs. +0.018 +/- 0.010%/h, respectively; P = 0.93). There were also no differences between men and women in the basal concentrations of muscle phosphorylated Akt(Ser473), Akt(Thr308), mTOR(Ser2448), and p70s6k(Thr389) or in the hyperinsulinemia-hyperaminoacidemia-induced increases in phosphorylation of those signaling elements (P > or = 0.25). We conclude that there are no major differences in the rate of MPS and its intracellular control during basal conditions and during hyperinsulinemia-hyperaminoacidema between young and middle-aged adult men and women.

  18. No major sex differences in muscle protein synthesis rates in the postabsorptive state and during hyperinsulinemia-hyperaminoacidemia in middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon I.; Atherton, Philip; Reeds, Dominic N.; Mohammed, B. Selma; Jaffery, Hadia; Rankin, Debbie; Rennie, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Men have more muscle than women, but most studies evaluating sex differences in muscle protein metabolism have been unable to discern sexual dimorphism in basal muscle protein turnover rates in young and middle-aged adults. We hypothesized that the anabolic response to nutritional stimuli (i.e., amino acids and insulin) would be greater in young/middle-aged men than women. We therefore measured the rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in 16 healthy individuals [8 men and 8 women, matched for age (mean ± SE: 37.7 ± 1.5 yr) and body mass index (25.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2)] after an overnight fast (plasma insulin ∼5 μU/ml and plasma phenylalanine ∼60 μM) and during a hyperinsulinemic-hyperaminoacidemic-euglycemic clamp (plasma insulin ∼28 μU/ml; plasma phenylalanine ∼110 μM; plasma glucose ∼5.4 mM). The rates of MPS were not different between men and women (ANOVA main effect for sex; P = 0.49). During the clamp, the rate of MPS increased by ∼50% (P = 0.003) with no difference in the increases from basal values between men and women (+0.019 ± 0.004 vs. +0.018 ± 0.010%/h, respectively; P = 0.93). There were also no differences between men and women in the basal concentrations of muscle phosphorylated AktSer473, AktThr308, mTORSer2448, and p70s6kThr389 or in the hyperinsulinemia-hyperaminoacidemia-induced increases in phosphorylation of those signaling elements (P ≥ 0.25). We conclude that there are no major differences in the rate of MPS and its intracellular control during basal conditions and during hyperinsulinemia-hyperaminoacidema between young and middle-aged adult men and women. PMID:19644030

  19. The Acute Effects of a Single Session of Expiratory Muscle Strength Training on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Oxygen Saturation in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Laciuga, Helena; Davenport, Paul; Sapienza, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) is a rehabilitative program that has been tested for outcomes related to respiratory muscle strength, cough, swallow, and voice function in healthy young adult, elderly individuals, and in patients with progressive neurodegenerative disease. Because EMST has been used in patient care, the associated cardiovascular responses during EMST are of importance. This study investigated the changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and oxygen saturation (SpO2) during one session of EMST in healthy, young adults as a preliminary study of device safety. Thirty-one participants completed a single session of 25 trials with the EMST device. Valsalva maneuvers were performed at the beginning and at the end of the EMST trials for task comparison. The SBP, DBP, HR, and SpO2 were recorded at the baseline and after completing the following tasks: a Valsalva maneuver, 12 trials using the EMST device, 13 trials using the EMST device, and 5 min of rest following the EMST session. A mixed linear model tested for changes across the six time points. The results indicated no significant change of SBP, DBP, HR, or SpO2 during or following the EMST trials or after performing the Valsalva maneuver. The results suggest that EMST does not elicit significant fluctuations of blood pressure, HR, and SpO2 in healthy young adults even when considering the effects of covariates on the outcomes measures. PMID:22419910

  20. The impact of an unconditional tax credit for families on self-rated health in adults: further evidence from the cohort study of 6900 New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Pega, Frank; Carter, Kristie; Kawachi, Ichiro; Davis, Peter; Blakely, Tony

    2014-05-01

    It is hypothesized that unconditional (given without obligation) publicly funded financial credits more effectively improve health than conditional financial credits in high-income countries. We previously reported no discernible short-term impact of an employment-conditional tax credit for families on self-rated health (SRH) in adults in New Zealand. This study estimates the effect of an unconditional tax credit for families, called Family Tax Credit (FTC), on SRH in the same study population and setting. A balanced panel of 6900 adults in families was extracted from seven waves (2002-2009) of the Survey of Family, Income and Employment. The exposures, eligibility for and amount of FTC, were derived by applying government eligibility and entitlement criteria. The outcome, SRH, was collected annually. Fixed effects regression analyses eliminated all time-invariant confounding and adjusted for measured time-varying confounders. Becoming eligible for FTC was associated with a small and statistically insignificant change in SRH over the past year [effect estimate: 0.013; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.011 to 0.037], as was an increase in the estimated amount of FTC by $1000 (effect estimate: -0.001; 95% CI -0.006 to 0.004). The unconditional tax credit for families had no discernible short-term impact on SRH in adults in New Zealand. It did not more effectively improve health status than an employment-conditional tax credit for families.

  1. Accuracy of Self-Report, Biological Tests, Collateral Reports and Clinician Ratings in Identifying Substance Use Disorders among Adults with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Desmarais, Sarah L.; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Sellers, Brian G.; Young, M. Scott; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia presents unique challenges, but is critical to research and practice. This study examined: a) the accuracy of assessments completed using various approaches in identifying substance use disorders; b) their ability to discriminate between disorders of abuse and dependence; and c) the benefits of using multiple indicators to identify substance use disorders. Data are from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study. The sample comprised 1,460 community-based adults with schizophrenia, 15.8% (n = 230) of whom were positive for a current (past month) drug or alcohol use disorder using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID). Clinician ratings, self-report, collateral reports, and results of hair and urine tests were compared to SCID diagnoses. Congruence with SCID diagnoses was good across approaches and evidence for superiority of one approach over another was limited. No approach discriminated between abuse and dependence. There was limited benefit of using multiple indicators. Findings suggest that the decision regarding the ‘best’ approach for identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia may be made through consideration of practical issues and assessment purpose, rather than selection of the approach that yields the most accurate diagnostic assessment. PMID:23276310

  2. Workers' Compensation, Return to Work, and Lumbar Fusion for Spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis is associated with consistent outcomes in the general population. However, workers' compensation is a risk factor for worse outcomes. Few studies have evaluated prognostic factors within this clinically distinct population. The goal of this study was to identify prognostic factors for return to work among patients with workers' compensation claims after fusion for spondylolisthesis. The authors used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and Current Procedural Terminology codes to identify 686 subjects from the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation who underwent fusion for spondylolisthesis from 1993 to 2013. Positive return to work status was recorded in patients who returned to work within 2 years of fusion and remained working for longer than 6 months. The criteria for return to work were met by 29.9% (n=205) of subjects. The authors used multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify prognostic factors for return to work. Negative preoperative prognostic factors for postoperative return to work included: out of work for longer than 1 year before fusion (P<.001; odds ratio [OR], 0.16); depression (P=.007; OR<0.01); long-term opioid analgesic use (P=.006; OR, 0.41); lumbar stenosis (P=.043; OR, 0.55); and legal representation (P=.042; OR, 0.63). Return to work rates associated with these factors were 9.7%, 0.0%, 10.0%, 29.2%, and 25.0%, respectively. If these subjects were excluded, the return to work rate increased to 60.4%. The 70.1% (n=481) of subjects who did not return to work had markedly worse outcomes, shown by higher medical costs, chronic opioid dependence, and higher rates of failed back syndrome, total disability, and additional surgery. Psychiatric comorbidity increased after fusion but was much higher in those who did not return to work. Future studies are needed to identify how to better facilitate return to work among similar patients with workers' compensation claims.

  3. The Importance of Spousal Education for the Self-Rated Health of Married Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dustin C; Hummer, Robert A; Hayward, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    Education's benefits for individuals' health are well documented, but it is unclear whether health benefits also accrue from the education of others in important social relationships. We assess the extent to which individuals' own education combines with their spouse's education to influence self-rated health among married persons ages 25 and older in the United States (N = 337,846) with pooled data from the 1997-2010 National Health Interview Survey. Results from age and gender-specific models revealed that own education and spouse's education each share an inverse association with fair/poor self-rated health among married men and women. Controlling for spousal education substantially attenuated the association between individuals' own education and fair/poor self-rated health and the reduction in this association was greater for married women than married men. The results also suggest that husbands' education is more important for wives' self-rated health than vice versa. Spousal education particularly was important for married women ages 45-64. Overall, the results imply that individuals' own education and spousal education combine to influence self-rated health within marriage. The results highlight the importance of shared resources in marriage for producing health.

  4. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different.

  5. Premorbid teacher-rated social functioning predicts adult schizophrenia-spectrum disorder: a high-risk prospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Thomas; Kline, Emily; Sorensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Michelsen, Niels M; Ekstrom, Morten; Mednick, Sarnoff; Schiffman, Jason

    2013-12-01

    Social functioning deficits are a core component of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and may emerge years prior to the onset of diagnosable illness. The current study prospectively examines the relation between teacher-rated childhood social dysfunction and later mental illness among participants who were at genetic high-risk for schizophrenia and controls (n=244). The teacher-rated social functioning scale significantly predicted psychiatric outcomes (schizophrenia-spectrum vs. other psychiatric disorder vs. no mental illness). Poor premorbid social functioning appears to constitute a marker of illness vulnerability and may also function as a chronic stressor potentially exacerbating risk for illness.

  6. Obtaining a male circumcision prevalence rate of 80% among adults in a short time: An observational prospective intervention study in the Orange Farm township of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Esaie; Rain-Taljaard, Reathe; Tsepe, Motlalepule; Monkwe, Cornelius; Taljaard, Dirk; Hlatswayo, Florence; Xaba, Dumazile; Molomo, Tebogo; Lissouba, Pascale; Puren, Adrian; Auvert, Bertran

    2017-01-01

    World Health Organization recommends a target for the male circumcision prevalence rate of 80%. This rate will have a substantial impact on the human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic in Eastern and Southern Africa. The objective of the study was to assess whether an innovative intervention can lead to an increased voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) uptake among adults in a short time. This prospective observational study of a demand generation intervention was conducted in the township of Orange Farm (South Africa) in August to November 2015. In this community male circumcision prevalence rate among adults was stable between 2010 and 2015 at 55% and 57%, despite regular VMMC campaigns at community level and the presence of a VMMC clinic that offered free VMMC. The intervention took place in a random sample of 981 households where 522 men aged 18 to 49 years accepted to participate in the study. Among the 226 uncircumcised men, 212 accepted to be enrolled in the intervention study. A personal male circumcision adviser trained in interpersonal communication skills was assigned to each uncircumcised participant. The male circumcision advisers were trained to explain the risks and benefits of VMMC, and to discuss 24 possible reasons given by men for not being circumcised. Participants were then followed for 9 weeks. Each participant had a maximum of 3 motivational interviews at home. Participants who decided to be circumcised received financial compensation for their time equivalent to 2.5 days of work at the minimum South African salary rate. Among the 212 uncircumcised men enrolled in the intervention, 69.8% (148/212; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 63.4%-75.7%) agreed to be circumcised, which defines the uptake of the intervention. The male circumcision prevalence rate of the sample increased from 56.7% (296/522) to 81.4% (425/522; 77.9%-84.6%), P < 0.001, corresponding to a relative increase of 43.6% (95% CI: 35

  7. Modelling idiopathic Parkinson disease as a complex illness can inform incidence rate in healthy adults: the PR EDIGT score.

    PubMed

    Schlossmacher, Michael G; Tomlinson, Julianna J; Santos, Goncalo; Shutinoski, Bojan; Brown, Earl G; Manuel, Douglas; Mestre, Tiago

    2017-01-01

    Fifty-five years after the concept of dopamine replacement therapy was introduced, Parkinson disease (PD) remains an incurable neurological disorder. To date, no disease-modifying therapeutic has been approved. The inability to predict PD incidence risk in healthy adults is seen as a limitation in drug development, because by the time of clinical diagnosis ≥ 60% of dopamine neurons have been lost. We have designed an incidence prediction model founded on the concept that the pathogenesis of PD is similar to that of many disorders observed in ageing humans, i.e. a complex, multifactorial disease. Our model considers five factors to determine cumulative incidence rates for PD in healthy adults: (i) DNA variants that alter susceptibility (D), e.g. carrying a LRRK2 or GBA risk allele; (ii) Exposure history to select environmental factors including xenobiotics (E); (iii) Gene-environment interactions that initiate pathological tissue responses (I), e.g. a rise in ROS levels, misprocessing of amyloidogenic proteins (foremost, α-synuclein) and dysregulated inflammation; (iv) sex (or gender; G); and importantly, (v) time (T) encompassing ageing-related changes, latency of illness and propagation of disease. We propose that cumulative incidence rates for PD (PR ) can be calculated in healthy adults, using the formula: PR (%) = (E + D + I) × G × T. Here, we demonstrate six case scenarios leading to young-onset parkinsonism (n = 3) and late-onset PD (n = 3). Further development and validation of this prediction model and its scoring system promise to improve subject recruitment in future intervention trials. Such efforts will be aimed at disease prevention through targeted selection of healthy individuals with a higher prediction score for developing PD in the future and at disease modification in subjects that already manifest prodromal signs.

  8. Self-reported versus measured body height and weight in Polish adult men: the risk of underestimating obesity rates.

    PubMed

    Łopuszańska, Monika; Lipowicz, Anna; Kołodziej, Halina; Szklarska, Alicja; Bielicki, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Background: In some epidemiological studies, self-reported height and weight are often used to save time and money. Self-reported height and weight are commonly used to assess the prevalence of obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between self-reported and measured height and weight in adult men, and to determine how the accuracy of self-reported data depended on age and education. The prevalence of obesity was also calculated based both on self-reported and measured data. Material and methods: Data were collected during two population studies carried out in Wroclaw in 2010. One study included 1,194 19-year-old males who reported for the health examination mandated by the National Conscription Board (younger group). The other group included 355 men between 35 and 80 years old who reported for a ten-year follow-up (older group). Data were analyzed separately for both age groups. Results: Both younger and older subjects overestimated their height by 1.4 cm and 1.0 cm (1.4 cm, 95   %CI: 1.26, 1.51, and 1.0 cm, 95   %CI: 0.85, 1.26, respectively). On average, younger subjects overestimated their weight by 0.7 kilograms (95   %CI: 0.55, 0.92), whereas older subjects underestimated their weight by 0.9 kilograms (95   %CI: –1.15, –0.48). The lower the level of education, the more the subjects overestimated their height. Conclusions: Adult men systematically overestimate their height and underestimate their weight. The magnitude of the inaccuracy depends on level of education. When self-reported data are used, the prevalence of obesity is generally underestimated. Using self-reported data to calculate BMI can lead to a substantial underestimation of the proportion of underweight and obese individuals in a population. Finally, using self-reported values for height in studies on social inequality may lead to false conclusions.

  9. Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rate according to the Pulmonary Function of Korean Adults Aged 40 Years and Over: Analysis of the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Cha, Seung-Hyun; Paik, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ra; Yang, Huiho; Park, Seung-Guk; Jeon, Young-Jee; Yoo, Sunmi

    2016-05-01

    Influenza vaccination is an effective strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality, particularly for those who have decreased lung functions. This study was to identify the factors that affect vaccination coverage according to the results of pulmonary function tests depending on the age. In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 3,224 adults over the age of 40 who participated in the fifth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and underwent pulmonary function testing in 2012. To identify the factors that affect vaccination rate, logistic regression analysis was conducted after dividing the subjects into two groups based on the age of 65. Influenza vaccination coverage of the entire subjects was 45.2%, and 76.8% for those aged 65 and over. The group with abnormal pulmonary function had a higher vaccination rate than the normal group, but any pulmonary dysfunction or history of COPD did not affect the vaccination coverage in the multivariate analysis. The subjects who were 40-64 years-old had higher vaccination coverage when they were less educated or with restricted activity level, received health screenings, and had chronic diseases. Those aged 65 and over had significantly higher vaccination coverage only when they received regular health screenings. Any pulmonary dysfunction or having COPD showed no significant correlation with the vaccination coverage in the Korean adult population.

  10. High rates of diabetes reversal in newly diagnosed Asian Indian young adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus with intensive lifestyle therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sarathi, Vijaya; Kolly, Anish; Chaithanya, H. B.; Dwarakanath, C. S.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: There are variable reports on the reversibility of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) with higher rates among younger patients with short duration of diabetes. Hence, we studied the reversibility of diabetes among young adults with newly diagnosed type 2 DM. Methods: This prospective study included 32 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 DM. All type 2 DM patients were initially treated with intensive lifestyle therapy (ILT) (low-calorie diet [1500 kcal/day] and brisk walking for 1 h/day]). Four patients who with HbA1C <9.0% were treated with ILT alone. Except for three patients with concomitant infections who were treated with insulin, remaining 25 patients with HbA1C ≥9.0% were treated with metformin (1000–2000 g) in addition to ILT. When fasting plasma glucose was <126 mg/dl or HbA1C was <6.5% antidiabetic drug dose was reduced or stopped. The patients were followed for a minimum period of 2 years. Results: Reversal/remission rates at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years were 24 (75%), 24 (75%), and 22 (68.75%), respectively. Seventeen (53.1%) patients achieved complete reversal and seven (21.9%) patients achieved partial reversal at 3 months. Rates of complete and partial remission at 1 year were 50% and 25% and at 2 years were 46.9% and 21.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Young adults with newly diagnosed type 2 DM have high rates of diabetes reversal and should receive ILT to achieve reversal of diabetes. PMID:28250676

  11. Scales used to rate adult patients' psycho-emotional status in tooth extraction procedures a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Astramskaitė, I; Juodžbalys, G

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to review scales used to assess anxiety, stress, and pain in dental patients undergoing a tooth extraction procedure and to propose a novel psycho-emotional rating scale based on the relevant literature and our own experience. An electronic literature search was conducted of the National Library of Medicine database MEDLINE (Ovid) and EMBASE databases between January 2005 and April 2016. Sequential screening at the title/abstract and full-text levels was performed. The review included all human prospective or retrospective follow-up studies and clinical trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, and case series that demonstrated at least one scale used to measure tooth extraction anxiety, stress, or pain. The search resulted in 32 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. None of the studies were found to be suitable in evaluating patient's stress, pain, and fear at once. Also, no scales were found that included both the doctor's and the patient's rating. In a few studies, vital signs as psycho-emotional status indicators were rated. Guidelines for a suitable questionnaire that could be used for rating the psycho-emotional status of patients undergoing tooth extraction are listed in the present research. Further studies are required for verification and validation of offered scale.

  12. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with Type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined ...

  13. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT), and (2) to determine the independent and combined...

  14. Rate of Acquisition, Adult Age, and Basic Cognitive Abilities Predict Forgetting: New Views on a Classic Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna; Derwinger, Anna; Backman, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Rate of forgetting is putatively invariant across individuals, sharing few associations with individual-differences variables known to influence encoding and retrieval. This classic topic in learning and memory was revisited using a novel statistical application, multilevel modeling, to examine whether (a) slopes of forgetting varied across…

  15. The prevalence of osteoporosis and the rate of bone loss in Korean adults: the Chungju metabolic disease cohort (CMC) study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y; Jo, K; Ha, H-S; Yim, H-W; Yoon, K-H; Lee, W-C; Son, H-Y; Baek, K H; Kang, M-I

    2017-04-01

    Because the rate of bone loss is an important risk factor for fracture, we studied longitudinal changes in bone mineral density (BMD). Although the BMD of the hip decreased over time, spine BMD remained largely stable or increased. Therefore, spine BMD may not be appropriate for assessing BMD change.

  16. 11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS WERE NUCLEAR WEAPONS SHIPPED TO THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM THE NUCLEAR WEAPON STOCKPILE FOR RETIREMENT, TESTING, OR UPGRADING. FISSILE MATERIALS (PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, ETC.) AND RARE MATERIALS (BERYLLIUM) WERE RECOVERED FOR REUSE, AND THE REMAINDER WAS DISPOSED. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. Effect of Stroke on Fall Rate, Location and Predictors: A Prospective Comparison of Older Adults with and without Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Lisa A.; Miller, William C.; Eng, Janice J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The literature suggests that stroke is a major risk factor for falls, but there is a lack of prospective, controlled studies which quantify fall-risk after stroke. The purpose of this study was to compare the rates, location and predictors among individuals recently discharged home from stroke rehabilitation to age and sex matched controls. Methodology/Principal Findings A sample of 80 people with stroke and 90 controls received baseline assessments of balance, mobility and balance confidence. Falls were recorded prospectively over 13 months for both groups. Group differences in fall rates and contribution of clinical measures to falls were determined using negative binomial regression. Fall location was compared between groups using χ2 statistics. The rate of falls for individuals with stroke was 1.77 times the rate for the control group. People with stroke were more likely to fall at home. Poorer balance (Berg Balance Scale) was associated with greater falls for both stroke and control groups (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.908 and IRR: 0.877 respectively). A faster Timed Up and Go Test was associated with greater falls for the stroke group (IRR: 0.955) while better walking endurance (Six Minute Walk Test) was associated with greater falls for the controls (IRR: 1.004). Balance confidence was not an independent predictor in either group. Conclusions Individuals recently discharged home are at greater risk of falling than individuals without stroke. Attention to home environment is warranted. Balance function can predict falls for both people with stroke and age and sex matched controls. Increased mobility may increase exposure to fall opportunities. PMID:21559367

  18. Management of the Returning Traveler with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Traveler's diarrhea (TD) strikes 20—60% of travelers visiting developing countries. It occurs shortly after the return and can be distinguished into two categories: acute and persistent TD. Acute TD, mostly caused by bacterial and viral pathogens, is usually mild and self-limited, and deserves empirical symptomatic and/or antibiotic therapy in selected cases. Fluoroquinolones are progressively superseded in this indication by azithromycin, a well tolerated macrolide active against most bacteria responsible for TD, including the quinolone-resistant species of Campylobacter jejuni that are now pervasive, especially in Southeast Asia and India. Persistent TD in the returning traveler is much rarer than its acute counterpart and may be associated with three types of causes. Persistent infections, among which Giardia and possibly Entamoeba predominate, account for a significant proportion of cases. Postinfectious processes represent a second cause and comprise temporary lactose malabsorption and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, now considered a major cause of persistent TD. Finally, apparently unrelated chronic diseases causing diarrhea are occasionally unmasked by TD and represent a third type of persistent TD, among which the well established case of incident inflammatory bowel disease poses intriguing pathogenesis questions. This review discusses recent advances in the field and provides practical recommendations for the management of TD in adult, immunocompetent returning travelers. PMID:21180583

  19. Women Returning To Study Mathematics: An Epistemological Journey?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Christine R.

    The societal perception that mathematics is absolute and infallible reinforces a transmission pedagogy and is considered to be a major stumbling block for women returning to study mathematics. Children at risk in mathematics are found to rely on rules and procedures and similar findings are evident with adults. A reliance on rules is consistent…

  20. Registered Nurses Return to College: Lessons Learned from Hindsight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    The recent impetus to increase the number of baccalaureate-prepared nurses comes from within and outside the profession, prompting increased numbers of registered nurses (RN-BSN) to return to college. Yet little is known about what these adult, non-traditional students do to prepare for the challenges ahead. Therefore, the purpose of this…

  1. Return to Education for Recovering Drug Addicts: The Soilse Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barter, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This article is an account of a return to education course set up to cater to the needs of recovering heroin addicts in a Dublin rehabilitation project in the summer of 2008. It begins with a brief outline of the HSE Soilse rehabilitation and recovery programme and the rationale for seeking association with the Department of Adult and Community…

  2. Returning to School after Incarceration: Policy, Prisoners, and the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brian; Mondesir, Joserichsen; Stater, Timothy; Schwartz, Joni

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses the challenges facing men of color who return to adult education after incarceration. It frames their experience as a war from a sociopolitical and cultural context, and then explains the support men need to succeed both in and outside the classroom.

  3. Returns to Education: New Evidence for India, 1983-1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutta, Puja Vasudeva

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates the returns to education for adult male workers in regular and casual wage employment using Indian national survey data at three points in time spanning almost two decades. Both standard and augmented Mincerian wage equations are estimated using a set of human capital measures and other controls after addressing the issue of…

  4. Three-month stability of the CogState brief battery in healthy older adults, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease: results from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers, and Lifestyle-rate of change substudy (AIBL-ROCS).

    PubMed

    Lim, Yen Ying; Jaeger, Judith; Harrington, Karra; Ashwood, Tim; Ellis, Kathryn A; Stöffler, Albrecht; Szoeke, Cassandra; Lachovitzki, Rebecca; Martins, Ralph N; Villemagne, Victor L; Bush, Ashley; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Ames, David; Darby, David; Maruff, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Large prospective studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have sought to understand the pathological evolution of AD and factors that may influence the rate of disease progression. Estimates of rates of cognitive change are available for 12 or 24 months, but not for shorter time frames (e.g., 3 or 6 months). Most clinical drug trials seeking to reduce or modify AD symptoms have been conducted over 12- or 24-week periods. As such, we aimed to characterize the performance of a group of healthy older adults, adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and adults with AD on the CogState battery of tests over short test-retest intervals. This study recruited 105 healthy older adults, 48 adults with aMCI, and 42 adults with AD from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers, and Lifestyle study and administered the CogState battery monthly over 3 months. The CogState battery of tests showed high test-retest reliability and stability in all clinical groups when participants were assessed over 3 months. When considered at baseline, the CogState battery of tests was able to detect AD-related cognitive impairment. The data provide important estimates of the reliability, stability, and variability of each cognitive test in healthy older adults, adults with aMCI, and adults with AD. This may potentially be used to inform future estimates of cognitive change in clinical trials.

  5. The Point of No Return

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Bartlett (1958) described the point of no return as a point of irrevocable commitment to action, which was preceded by a period of gradually increasing commitment. As such, the point of no return reflects a fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action. I review the literature on the point of no return, taking three perspectives. First, I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the controlled act, as a locus in the architecture and anatomy of the underlying processes. I review experiments from the stop-signal paradigm that suggest that the point of no return is located late in the response system. Then I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the act of control that tries to change the controlled act before it becomes irrevocable. From this perspective, the point of no return is a point in time that provides enough “lead time” for the act of control to take effect. I review experiments that measure the response time to the stop signal as the lead time required for response inhibition in the stop-signal paradigm. Finally, I consider the point of no return in hierarchically controlled tasks, in which there may be many points of no return at different levels of the hierarchy. I review experiments on skilled typing that suggest different points of no return for the commands that determine what is typed and the countermands that inhibit typing, with increasing commitment to action the lower the level in the hierarchy. I end by considering the point of no return in perception and thought as well as action. PMID:25633089

  6. Nociceptive Flexion Reflex and Pain Rating Responses During Endogenous Opiate Blockade with Naltrexone in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    France, Christopher R.; al'Absi, Mustafa; Ring, Christopher; France, Janis L.; Harju, Angie; Wittmers, Lorentz E.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of opioid blockade on nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) activity and subjective pain ratings was examined in 151 healthy young men and women. Using a within-subjects design, NFR threshold was assessed on two days after administration of either placebo or a 50 mg dose of naltrexone. Electrocutaneous pain threshold and tolerance levels were measured after NFR threshold assessment on each day. Results indicated that administration of naltrexone was consistently associated with hypoalgesic responding. Specifically, participants exhibited lower levels of NFR activity and reported lower pain ratings for electrocutaneous stimulation delivered at pain threshold and tolerance levels following administration of naltrexone as compared to placebo. These findings indicate that opiate blockade using the current standard dose may elicit hypoalgesia. A potential moderating effect of dose of opiate blockade medication and level of endogenous opioid activation should be carefully examined in future research. PMID:17244518

  7. The relationship between facial skeletal class and expert-rated interpersonal skill: an epidemiological survey on young Italian adults

    PubMed Central

    Senna, Andrea; Abbenante, Domenico; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Campus, Guglielmo; Strohmenger, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Background The facial region plays a major role in determining physical attractiveness, so we assessed the hypothesis that the capability of successfully managing interpersonal relationships in young adults might be related to the facial skeletal class. Methods 1,014 young subjects applying to the Military Academy of Pozzuoli, Italy, were enrolled and the cephalometric evaluation was performed by calculating the angular relationships between skeletal points localized by the lateral cephalogram of the face, sorting the subjects in three groups corresponding to each major facial skeletal class. Concurrently, the subjects were evaluated by a team of psychiatrists administering the MMPI-2 test followed by a brief colloquium with each candidate, in order to identify those subjects characterized by low skills for managing interpersonal relationships. Results According to the psychiatric evaluation about 20% of the subjects were considered potentially unable to manage successfully interpersonal relationships (NS). Males displayed an about two-fold increased risk of being NS. No differences were shown in the distribution of the NS male subjects among the three different facial skeletal classes. On the other hand, NS females displayed a different distribution among the three facial skeletal classes, with a trend of about two-fold and four-fold, respectively, for those subjects belonging to classes II and III, respect to those belonging to class I. Conclusion Females may be more sensitive to physical factors determining beauty, such as the facial morphology certainly is. This finding appears to be interesting especially when thinking about possible orthodontic interventions, although further study is certainly needed to confirm these results. PMID:17032444

  8. Capital Structure and Stock Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    U.S. corporations do not issue and repurchase debt and equity to counteract the mechanistic effects of stock returns on their debt-equity ratios. Thus over one- to five-year horizons, stock returns can explain about 40 percent of debt ratio dynamics. Although corporate net issuing activity is lively and although it can explain 60 percent of debt…

  9. Test-Retest Reliability of Rating of Perceived Exertion and Agreement With 1-Repetition Maximum in Adults.

    PubMed

    Bove, Allyn M; Lynch, Andrew D; DePaul, Samantha M; Terhorst, Lauren; Irrgang, James J; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement. Background It has been suggested that rating of perceived exertion (RPE) may be a useful alternative to 1-repetition maximum (1RM) to determine proper resistance exercise dosage. However, the test-retest reliability of RPE for resistance exercise has not been determined. Additionally, prior research regarding the relationship between 1RM and RPE is conflicting. Objectives The purpose of this study was to (1) determine test-retest reliability of RPE related to resistance exercise and (2) assess agreement between percentages of 1RM and RPE during quadriceps resistance exercise. Methods A sample of participants with and without knee pathology completed a series of knee extension exercises and rated the perceived difficulty of each exercise on a 0-to-10 RPE scale, then repeated the procedure 1 to 2 weeks later for test-retest reliability. To determine agreement between RPE and 1RM, participants completed knee extension exercises at various percentages of their 1RM (10% to 130% of predicted 1RM) and rated the perceived difficulty of each exercise on a 0-to-10 RPE scale. Percent agreement was calculated between the 1RM and RPE at each resistance interval. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated excellent test-retest reliability of RPE for quadriceps resistance exercises (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.895; 95% confidence interval: 0.866, 0.918). Overall percent agreement between RPE and 1RM was 60%, but agreement was poor within the ranges that would typically be used for training (50% 1RM for muscle endurance, 70% 1RM and greater for strength). Conclusion Test-retest reliability of perceived exertion during quadriceps resistance exercise was excellent. However, agreement between the RPE and 1RM was poor, especially in common training zones for knee extensor strengthening. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):768-774. Epub 5 Aug 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6498.

  10. Dutch Young Adults Ratings of Behavior Change Techniques Applied in Mobile Phone Apps to Promote Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Belmon, Laura S; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Interventions delivered through new device technology, including mobile phone apps, appear to be an effective method to reach young adults. Previous research indicates that self-efficacy and social support for physical activity and self-regulation behavior change techniques (BCT), such as goal setting, feedback, and self-monitoring, are important for promoting physical activity; however, little is known about evaluations by the target population of BCTs applied to physical activity apps and whether these preferences are associated with individual personality characteristics. Objective This study aimed to explore young adults’ opinions regarding BCTs (including self-regulation techniques) applied in mobile phone physical activity apps, and to examine associations between personality characteristics and ratings of BCTs applied in physical activity apps. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among healthy 18 to 30-year-old adults (N=179). Data on participants’ gender, age, height, weight, current education level, living situation, mobile phone use, personality traits, exercise self-efficacy, exercise self-identity, total physical activity level, and whether participants met Dutch physical activity guidelines were collected. Items for rating BCTs applied in physical activity apps were selected from a hierarchical taxonomy for BCTs, and were clustered into three BCT categories according to factor analysis: “goal setting and goal reviewing,” “feedback and self-monitoring,” and “social support and social comparison.” Results Most participants were female (n=146), highly educated (n=169), physically active, and had high levels of self-efficacy. In general, we observed high ratings of BCTs aimed to increase “goal setting and goal reviewing” and “feedback and self-monitoring,” but not for BCTs addressing “social support and social comparison.” Only 3 (out of 16 tested) significant associations between personality

  11. Indoor mildew odour in old housing was associated with adult allergic symptoms, asthma, chronic bronchitis, vision, sleep and self-rated health: USA NHANES, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-09-01

    A recent systematic review and meta-analysis has shown the effect of indoor mildew odour on allergic rhinitis risk, but its relation to other common chronic health outcomes in adults has not been investigated. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationship of indoor mildew odour and common health outcomes in adults in a national and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2005-2006, including the available information on demographics, housing characteristics, self-reported health conditions and urinary concentrations of environmental chemicals. T test, chi-squared test and survey-weighted logistic regression modelling were performed. Of all American adults (n = 4979), 744 (15.1%) reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell in their households. People who reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell also reported poorer self-rated health, sleep complaints, chronic bronchitis, asthma attack, itchy rash, sneezing and poor vision. In addition, people who reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell also tended to reside in older housing that were built 20 years earlier. However, there were no significant statistical associations found between indoor mildew odour or musty smell and urinary concentrations of environmental chemicals, which was also found to be associated with old housing. People who lived in older housing with indoor mildew odour or musty smell tended to have chronic health problems. To protect occupants in old housing from chronic illnesses associated with indoor mildew odour, elimination of the odour sources should be explored in future research and therefore public health and housing programs. Graphical abstract Pathway from old housing to musty smell, environmental chemicals and then health outcomes.

  12. Influence of Nrf2 activators on subcellular skeletal muscle protein and DNA synthesis rates after 6 weeks of milk protein feeding in older adults.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Adam R; Laurin, Jaime L; Musci, Robert V; Wolff, Christopher A; Reid, Justin J; Biela, Laurie M; Zhang, Qian; Peelor, Fredrick F; Melby, Christopher L; Hamilton, Karyn L; Miller, Benjamin F

    2017-03-10

    In older adults, chronic oxidative and inflammatory stresses are associated with an impaired increase in skeletal muscle protein synthesis after acute anabolic stimuli. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Protandim have been shown to activate nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor for the antioxidant response element and anti-inflammatory pathways. This study tested the hypothesis that compared to a placebo control (CON), CLA and Protandim would increase skeletal muscle subcellular protein (myofibrillar, mitochondrial, cytoplasmic) and DNA synthesis in older adults after 6 weeks of milk protein feeding. CLA decreased oxidative stress and skeletal muscle oxidative damage with a trend to increase messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of a Nrf2 target, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1). However, CLA did not influence other Nrf2 targets (heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1)) or protein or DNA synthesis. Conversely, Protandim increased HO-1 protein content but not the mRNA expression of downstream Nrf2 targets, oxidative stress, or skeletal muscle oxidative damage. Rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis were maintained despite lower mitochondrial and cytoplasmic protein syntheses after Protandim versus CON. Similarly, DNA synthesis was non-significantly lower after Protandim compared to CON. After Protandim, the ratio of protein to DNA synthesis tended to be greater in the myofibrillar fraction and maintained in the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic fractions, emphasizing the importance of measuring both protein and DNA synthesis to gain insight into proteostasis. Overall, these data suggest that Protandim may enhance proteostatic mechanisms of skeletal muscle contractile proteins after 6 weeks of milk protein feeding in older adults.

  13. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Heart Rate Variability at Rest and During Acute Stress in Adults With Moderate Hypertriglyceridemia

    PubMed Central

    Sauder, Katherine A.; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Campbell, Tavis S.; Johnson, Jillian A.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; West, Sheila G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the dose-dependent effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and during standard laboratory stress tasks. We also investigated whether EPA + DHA supplementation was associated with changes in mood state. Methods This placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, three-period crossover trial (8-week treatment, 6-week washout) compared two doses of EPA + DHA supplementation (0.85 and 3.4 g/d) in 26 adults with elevated triglycerides. After each treatment period, HRV was assessed during an acute stress protocol that included a resting baseline, standard laboratory stress tasks (speech task and cold pressor), and recovery periods. In addition, mood state was assessed. Results Root mean square of successive differences in interbeat interval and total power increased 9.9% and 20.6%, respectively, after the high dose relative to placebo (Tukey p = .016 and .012, respectively). The low dose was not significantly different from the high dose or placebo dose. There was a trend for a treatment effect on high-frequency HRV (p = .058), with 21.0% greater power observed after the high dose compared with placebo (Tukey p = .052). Mood did not differ between treatments, and there was no association between mood state and HRV. Conclusions In healthy adults with elevated triglycerides, supplementation of 3.4 g/d EPA + DHA resulted in greater HRV, whereas 0.85 g/d EPA + DHA had no effect. These results indicate that EPA + DHA supplementation may improve autonomic tone in adults at increased risk for cardiovascular disease within 8 weeks. Trial Registration NCT00504309 (ClinicalTrials.gov). PMID:23592752

  14. Effect of Moderate Versus High-Intensity Interval Exercise Training on Heart Rate Variability Parameters in Inactive Latin-American Adults: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Tordecilla-Sanders, Alejandra; Téllez-T, Luis Andrés; Camelo-Prieto, Diana; Hernández-Quiñonez, Paula Andrea; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Garcia-Hermoso, Antonio; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effect of moderate versus high-intensity interval exercise training on the HRV indices in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high-intensity interval training (HIT group). The MCT group performed aerobic training at an intensity of 55-75%, which consisted of walking on a treadmill at 60-80% of the maximum heart rate (HRmax) until the expenditure of 300 kcal. The HIT group ran on a treadmill for 4 minutes at 85-95% peak HRmax and had a recovery of 4 minutes at 65% peak HRmax until the expenditure of 300 kcal. Supine resting HRV indices (time domain: SDNN, standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals; rMSSD, Root mean square successive difference of RR intervals and frequency domain: HFLn, high-frequency spectral power; LF, low-frequency spectral power and HF/LF ratio) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks thereafter. The SDNN changes were 3.4 (8.9) ms in the MCT group and 29.1 (7.6) ms in the HIT group (difference between groups 32.6 [95% CI, 24.9 to 40.4 (P = 0.01)]. The LF/HFLn ratio change 0.19 (0.03) ms in the MCT group and 0.13 (0.01) ms in the HIT group (P between groups = 0.016). No significant group differences were observed for the rMSSD, HF and LF parameters. In inactive adults, this study showed that a 12-week HIT training program could increase short-term HRV, mostly in vagally mediated indices such as SDNN and HF/LFLn ratio power.

  15. Comparative analysis on determinants of self-rated health among non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and Asian American older adults.

    PubMed

    Min, Jong Won; Rhee, Siyon; Lee, Sang E; Rhee, Jessica; Tran, Thanh

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study is (1) to compare the effects of factors on self-rated health (SRH) among older non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), Hispanic, and Asian Californians and (2) to provide estimated influence size of each factor on SRH. This study analyzed secondary data drawn from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Binary logit regressions were used to analyze data with the Jackknife replication sampling weights. Significant differences were found in SRH among the three groups. Hispanics and Asians reported poorer health than NHW. Socioeconomic status, acculturation, and health access significantly accounted for an association between ethnicity and SRH. However, the magnitudes of their effects on SRH varied across the groups and by the factors examined. This study discusses and concludes with some recommendations on the opportunities presented by the Affordable Care Act and Healthy People 2020.

  16. Ethnic differences in smoking rate, nicotine dependence, and cessation-related variables among adult smokers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Thaddeus A; Pokhrel, Pallav

    2012-12-01

    This study tests hypotheses concerning ethnic disparities in daily cigarette smoking rates, nicotine dependence, cessation motivation, and knowledge and past use of cessation methods (e.g., counseling) and products (e.g., nicotine patch) in a multiethnic sample of smokers in Hawaii. Previous research has revealed significant differences in smoking prevalence among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, Japanese, and Caucasians in Hawaii. However, no study has examined differences in dependence and cessation-related knowledge and practices among smokers representing these ethnic groups. Participants were recruited through newspaper advertisement as part of a larger smoking cessation intervention study. Participants (N = 919; M age = 45.6, SD = 12.7; 48 % women) eligible to participate provided self-report data through mail and telephone. Participants included 271 self-identified Native Hawaiians, 63 Filipinos, 316 Caucasians, 145 "East Asians" (e.g., Japanese, Chinese), and 124 "other" (e.g., Hispanic, African-American). Pair-wise comparisons of means, controlling for age, gender, income, education, and marital status, indicated that Native Hawaiian smokers reported significantly higher daily smoking rates and higher levels of nicotine dependence compared to East Asians. Native Hawaiian smokers reported significantly lower motivation to quit smoking than Caucasians. Further, Filipino and Native Hawaiian smokers reported lesser knowledge of cessation methods and products, and less frequent use of these methods and products than Caucasians. The results suggest that Native Hawaiian and Filipino smokers could be underserved with regard to receiving cessation-related advice, and may lack adequate access to smoking cessation products and services. In addition, cessation interventions tailored for Native Hawaiian smokers could benefit from a motivational enhancement component.

  17. Lifestyle Intervention Improves Heart Rate Recovery from Exercise in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Paul M.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Lang, Wei; Bahnson, Judy; Connelly, Stephanie A.; Horton, Edward S.; Jakicic, John M.; Killean, Tina; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Knowler, William C.; Stewart, Kerry J.; Research Group, Look AHEAD

    2012-01-01

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45–76 years) who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI) with (DSE) upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001) while mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). At Year 1, all exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P < 0.0001) versus DSE: heart rate (HR) at rest was lower (72.8 ± 11.4 versus 77.7 ± 11.7 b/min), HR range was greater (57.7 ± 12.1 versus 53.1 ± 12.4 b/min), HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3 ± 21.8 versus 93.0 ± 12.1 b/min), and HRR was greater (41.25 ± 22.0 versus 37.8 ± 12.5 b/min). Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR. PMID:23227314

  18. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD study.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Paul M; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Lang, Wei; Bahnson, Judy; Connelly, Stephanie A; Horton, Edward S; Jakicic, John M; Killean, Tina; Kitzman, Dalane W; Knowler, William C; Stewart, Kerry J

    2012-01-01

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45-76 years) who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI) with (DSE) upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001) while mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). At Year 1, all exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P < 0.0001) versus DSE: heart rate (HR) at rest was lower (72.8 ± 11.4 versus 77.7 ± 11.7 b/min), HR range was greater (57.7 ± 12.1 versus 53.1 ± 12.4 b/min), HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3 ± 21.8 versus 93.0 ± 12.1 b/min), and HRR was greater (41.25 ± 22.0 versus 37.8 ± 12.5 b/min). Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR.

  19. The effects of temporal modification of second speech signals on stuttering inhibition at two speech rates in adults.

    PubMed

    Guntupalli, Vijaya K; Kalinowski, Joseph; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Nanjundeswaran, Chayadevie

    2005-09-02

    The recovery of 'gestural' speech information via the engagement of mirror neurons has been suggested to be the key agent in stuttering inhibition during the presentation of exogenous second speech signals. Based on this hypothesis, we expect the amount of stuttering inhibition to depend on the ease of recovery of exogenous speech gestures. To examine this possibility, linguistically non-congruent second speech signals were temporally compressed and expanded in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 12 participants who stutter read passages aloud at normal and fast speech rates while listening to second speech signals that were 0, 40, 80% compressed, and 40 and 80% expanded. Except for the 80% compressed speech signal, all other stimuli induced significant stuttering inhibition relative to the control condition. The 80% compressed speech signal was the first exogenously presented speech signal that failed to significantly reduce stuttering frequency by 60--70% that has been the case in our research over the years. It was hypothesized that at a compression ratio of 80%, exogenous speech signals generated too many gestures per unit time to allow for adequate gestural recovery via mirror neurons. However, considering that 80% compressed signal was also highly unintelligible, a second experiment was conducted to further examine whether the effects of temporal compression on stuttering inhibition are mediated by speech intelligibility. In Experiment 2, 10 participants who stutter read passages at a normal rate while listening to linguistically non-congruent second speech signals that were compressed by 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80%. Results revealed that 0 and 20% compressed speech signals induced approximately 52% stuttering inhibition. In contrast, compression ratios of 40% and beyond induced only 27% stuttering inhibition although 40 and 60% compressed signals were perceptually intelligible. Our findings suggest that recovery of gestural information is affected by temporal

  20. Incidence, prevalence, and occurrence rate of infection among adults hospitalized after traumatic brain injury: study protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infection occurs commonly among patients hospitalized after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and has been associated with increased intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay and an elevated risk of poor neurological outcome and mortality. However, as many relevant published studies to date have varied in the type and severity of TBI among included patients as well as in their design (randomized versus non-randomized), risk of bias, and setting (hospital ward versus intensive care unit), their reported estimates of infection occurrence vary considerably. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to estimate the incidence, prevalence, and occurrence rate of infection among patients hospitalized after TBI. Methods/Design We will search electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) from their first available date as well as personal files, reference lists of included articles, and conference proceedings. Two investigators will independently screen titles and abstracts and select cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, and randomized controlled trials involving adults hospitalized after TBI that reported estimates of cumulative incidence, incidence rate, prevalence, or occurrence rate of infection for inclusion in the systematic review. These investigators will also independently extract data and assess risk of bias. We will exclude studies with fewer than ten patients; experimental groups allocated to treatment with antibiotics, glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, barbiturates, or hypothermia; and studies focused on military/combat-related TBI. Pooled estimates of cumulative incidence, incidence rate, prevalence, and occurrence rate will be calculated using random effects models. We will also calculate I2 and Cochran

  1. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Zak, Nathalia; Norbom, Linn B.; Pedersen, Per Ø.; Quraishi, Sophia H.; Bjørnerud, Atle; Malt, Ulrik F.; Groote, Inge R.; Kaufmann, Tobias; Andreassen, Ole A.; Westlye, Lars T.

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV—an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity—using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults. PMID:28151944

  2. The impacts of short-term exposure to noise and traffic-related air pollution on heart rate variability in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Deng, Furong; Wu, Shaowei; Lu, Henry; Hao, Yu; Guo, Xinbiao

    2013-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with cardiovascular diseases, and alternation of heart rate variability (HRV), which reflects cardiac autonomic function, is one of the mechanisms. However, few studies considered the impacts of noise when exploring associations between air pollution and HRV. We explored whether noise modifies associations between short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and HRV in young healthy adults. In this randomized, crossover study, 40 young healthy adults stayed for 2 h in a traffic center and, on a separate occasion, in a park. Personal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants and noise were measured and ambulatory electrocardiogram was performed. Effects were estimated using mixed-effects regression models. Traffic-related air pollution and noise were both associated with HRV, and effects of air pollutants were amplified at high noise level (>65.6 A-weighted decibels (dB[A])) compared with low noise level (≤ 65.6 dB[A]). High frequency (HF) decreased by -4.61% (95% confidence interval, -6.75% to-2.42%) per 10 μg/m(3) increment in fine particle (PM2.5) at 5-min moving average, but effects became insignificant at low noise level (P>0.05). Similar effects modification was observed for black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO). We conclude that noise is an important factor influencing the effects of air pollution on HRV.

  3. Return of Viable Cardiac Function After Sonographic Cardiac Standstill in Pediatric Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Katherine; Thompson, W Reid; Pustavoitau, Aliaksei; Su, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Sonographic cardiac standstill during adult cardiac arrest is associated with failure to get return to spontaneous circulation. This report documents 3 children whose cardiac function returned after standstill with extracorporeal membranous oxygenation. Sonographic cardiac standstill may not predict cardiac death in children.

  4. "Careers as Voyages of Self-Discovery": Why Men Return to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This article critically examines the career development of a number of male adult returners to further education and explores the factors that influenced their career decision-making. It also explores the specific reasons why these men returned to education and in so doing connects with the work of Scanlon. The paper argues that men's decision to…

  5. Adult Students in Higher Education: A Portrait of Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Carlette Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Adult students, whether new or returning to higher education, experience a unique set of transition challenges. This chapter highlights the barriers facing adult students and offers ways to overcome them. For many adult students, returning to college and fulfilling their goals is much like building a house of cards. In order to be successful, each…

  6. A longitudinal study of the relationship between personality traits and the annual rate of volume changes in regional gray matter in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Thyreau, Benjamin; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Wu, Kai; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether personality traits affect the rate of decline of gray matter volume, we analyzed the relationships between personality traits and the annual rate of changes of gray matter volume in 274 healthy community dwelling subjects with a large age range by applying a longitudinal design over 6 years, using brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) at baseline. Brain MRI data were processed using voxel-based morphometry with a custom template by applying the DARTEL diffeomorphic registration tool. For each subject, we used NEO-PI-R to evaluate the five major personality traits, including neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. The results show that the annual rate of change in regional gray matter volume in the right inferior parietal lobule was correlated significantly and negatively with a personality of openness, which is known to be related to intellect, intellectual curiosity, and creativity adjusting for age, gender, and intracranial volume. This result indicates that subjects with a personality trait of less openness have an accelerated loss of gray matter volume in the right inferior parietal lobule, compared with subjects with a personality trait of more openness. Because the right inferior parietal lobule is involved in higher cognitive function such as working memory and creativity, a personality trait of openness is thought to be important for preserving gray matter volume and cognitive function of the right inferior parietal lobule in healthy adults.

  7. Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence and Subsequent Police Reporting Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adults in Colorado: Comparing Rates of Cisgender and Transgender Victimization.

    PubMed

    Langenderfer-Magruder, Lisa; Whitfield, Darren L; Walls, N Eugene; Kattari, Shanna K; Ramos, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Research indicates that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals are at high risk of victimization by others and that transgender individuals may be at even higher risk than their cisgender LGBQ peers. In examining partner violence in particular, extant literature suggests that LGBTQ individuals are at equal or higher risk of partner violence victimization compared with their heterosexual peers. As opposed to sexual orientation, there is little research on gender identity and partner violence within the LGBTQ literature. In the current study, the authors investigated intimate partner violence (IPV) in a large sample of LGBTQ adults (N = 1,139) to determine lifetime prevalence and police reporting in both cisgender and transgender individuals. Results show that more than one fifth of all participants ever experienced partner violence, with transgender participants demonstrating significantly higher rates than their cisgender peers. Implications focus on the use of inclusive language as well as future research and practice with LGBTQ IPV victims.

  8. Sources of variation in loss rates of color bands applied to adult roseate terns (Sterna dougallii) in the western North Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Burger, J.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Hays, H.; Cormons, G.D.; Gochfeld, M.

    1994-01-01

    A model-based analysis was done to test several hypotheses concerning the rates of loss of butt-ended color bands placed on adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) in the western North Atlantic. These birds were captured and color banded from 1987-1991 at four colony sites, and recaptured from 1989-1992 as part of a study of the population dynamics of this species. Two types of color bands, Darvic and celluloid, were used, but only one band type was used for each individual bird. Each bird was given three color bands. The estimated probability that a bird with all color bands present during one breeding season still had all color bands during the next breeding season was 0.87. The analysis provided no evidence that colony site, cohort, calendar year of banding, age of color band, or whether or not the bands were heat-sealed closed, were important sources of variation in band-retention probabilities.

  9. Return to physical activity after gastrocnemius recession

    PubMed Central

    Tang Qian Ying, Camelia; Lai Wei Hong, Sean; Lee, Bing Howe; Thevendran, Gowreeson

    2016-01-01

    AIM To prospectively investigate the time taken and patients’ ability to resume preoperative level of physical activity after gastrocnemius recession. METHODS Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession (EGR) was performed on 48 feet in 46 consecutive sportspersons, with a minimum follow-up of 24 mo. The Halasi Ankle Activity Score was used to quantify the level of physical activity. Time taken to return to work and physical activity was recorded. Functional outcomes were evaluated using the short form 36 (SF-36), American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Hindfoot score and modified Olerud and Molander (O and M) scores respectively. Patient’s satisfaction and pain experienced were assessed using a modified Likert scale and visual analogue scales. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Ninety-one percent (n = 42) of all patients returned to their preoperative level of physical activity after EGR. The mean time for return to physical activity was 7.5 (2-24) mo. Ninety-eight percent (n = 45) of all patients were able to return to their preoperative employment status, with a mean time of 3.6 (1-12) mo. Ninety-six percent (n = 23) of all patients with an activity score > 2 were able to resume their preoperative level of physical activity in mean time of 8.8 mo, as compared to 86% (n = 19) of patients whose activity score was ≤ 2, with mean time of 6.1 mo. Significant improvements were noted in SF-36, AOFAS hindfoot and modified O and M scores. Ninety percent of all patients rated good or very good outcomes on the Likert scale. CONCLUSION The majority of patients were able to return to their pre-operative level of sporting activity after EGR. PMID:27900272

  10. History of frequent gum chewing is associated with higher unstimulated salivary flow rate and lower caries severity in healthy Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, X P; Zhong, B; Chen, Z K; Stewart, M E; Zhang, C; Zhang, K; Ni, J; Dodds, M W J; Hanley, A B; Miller, L E

    2012-01-01

    This was a single-center, prospective, cross-sectional study stratified by age and gender with the objective of determining the relationship between gum chewing history, salivary flow, and dental caries severity in adults. We enrolled 191 subjects aged 18-65 years who underwent assessments for gum chewing history, unstimulated salivary flow rate, salivary pH, and caries severity. Unstimulated salivary flow rate tended to decline with increasing age (p = 0.04), and significant differences in unstimulated salivary flow rate were also found for males (0.58 ± 0.32 ml/min) versus females (0.48 ± 0.30 ml/min) (p = 0.02). Weekly gum chewing frequency was greater in younger subjects (p = 0.001) while no age group differences were noted in pieces per day or chewing duration. Gum chewing habits were similar in males and females. A multivariate model demonstrated that only days per week chewing gum (p < 0.001) and gender (p = 0.007) were predictive of unstimulated salivary flow rate (R(2) = 0.40). Mean caries severity scores, assessed via ICDAS II and DMFT, increased with age. In multivariate analysis, age was positively associated with ICDAS (p = 0.001) and days per week chewing gum was negatively associated with ICDAS (p = 0.004), indicating that caries severity increased with age, and that days of chewing provided an inverse effect, with increased days of chewing being associated with decreased severity of caries. Overall, a history of frequent gum chewing is associated with higher unstimulated salivary flow rate and lower caries severity.

  11. 26 CFR 1.6013-3 - Treatment of joint return after death of either spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment of joint return after death of either... joint return after death of either spouse. For purposes of section 21 (relating to change in rates... because of death of either spouse, the joint return shall be treated as if the taxable years of both...

  12. 26 CFR 1.6013-3 - Treatment of joint return after death of either spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of joint return after death of either... joint return after death of either spouse. For purposes of section 21 (relating to change in rates... because of death of either spouse, the joint return shall be treated as if the taxable years of both...

  13. 26 CFR 1.6013-3 - Treatment of joint return after death of either spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of joint return after death of either... return after death of either spouse. For purposes of section 21 (relating to change in rates during a... death of either spouse, the joint return shall be treated as if the taxable years of both ended on...

  14. 26 CFR 1.6013-3 - Treatment of joint return after death of either spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of joint return after death of either... joint return after death of either spouse. For purposes of section 21 (relating to change in rates... because of death of either spouse, the joint return shall be treated as if the taxable years of both...

  15. 26 CFR 1.6013-3 - Treatment of joint return after death of either spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of joint return after death of either... joint return after death of either spouse. For purposes of section 21 (relating to change in rates... because of death of either spouse, the joint return shall be treated as if the taxable years of both...

  16. High rate of virological failure and low rate of switching to second-line treatment among adolescents and adults living with HIV on first-line ART in Myanmar, 2005-2015

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Anthony D.; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; Oo, Myo Minn; Kyaw, Khine Wut Yee; Win, Than; Aung, Thet Ko; Min, Aung Chan; Oo, Htun Nyunt

    2017-01-01

    Background The number of people living with HIV on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Myanmar has been increasing rapidly in recent years. This study aimed to estimate rates of virological failure on first-line ART and switching to second-line ART due to treatment failure at the Integrated HIV Care program (IHC). Methods Routinely collected data of all adolescent and adult patients living with HIV who were initiated on first-line ART at IHC between 2005 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The cumulative hazard of virological failure on first-line ART and switching to second-line ART were estimated. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios were calculated using the Cox regression model to identify risk factors associated with the two outcomes. Results Of 23,248 adults and adolescents, 7,888 (34%) were tested for HIV viral load. The incidence rate of virological failure among those tested was 3.2 per 100 person-years follow-up and the rate of switching to second-line ART among all patients was 1.4 per 100 person-years follow-up. Factors associated with virological failure included: being adolescent; being lost to follow-up at least once; having WHO stage 3 and 4 at ART initiation; and having taken first-line ART elsewhere before coming to IHC. Of the 1032 patients who met virological failure criteria, 762 (74%) switched to second-line ART. Conclusions We found high rates of virological failure among one third of patients in the cohort who were tested for viral load. Of those failing virologically on first-line ART, about one quarter were not switched to second-line ART. Routine viral load monitoring, especially for those identified as having a higher risk of treatment failure, should be considered in this setting to detect all patients failing on first-line ART. Strategies also need to be put in place to prevent treatment failure and to treat more of those patients who are actually failing. PMID:28182786

  17. α-Tocopherol disappearance rates from plasma depend on lipid concentrations: studies using deuterium-labeled collard greens in younger and older adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Traber, Maret G; Leonard, Scott W; Bobe, Gerd; Fu, Xueyan; Saltzman, Edward; Grusak, Michael A; Booth, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about α-tocopherol’s bioavailability as a constituent of food or its dependence on a subject’s age. Objective: To evaluate the α-tocopherol bioavailability from food, we used collard greens grown in deuterated water (2H collard greens) as a source of deuterium-labeled (2H) α-tocopherol consumed by younger and older adults in a post hoc analysis of a vitamin K study. Design: Younger (mean ± SD age: 32 ± 7 y; n = 12 women and 9 men) and older (aged 67 ± 8 y; n = 8 women and 12 men) adults consumed a test breakfast that included 120 g 2H collard greens (1.2 ± 0.1 mg 2H-α-tocopherol). Plasma unlabeled α-tocopherol and 2H-α-tocopherol were measured by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry from fasting (>12 h) blood samples drawn before breakfast (0 h) and at 24, 48, and 72 h and from postprandial samples collected at 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, and 16 h. Results: Times (12.6 ± 2.5 h) of maximum plasma 2H-α-tocopherol concentrations (0.82% ± 0.59% total α-tocopherol), fractional disappearance rates (0.63 ± 0.26 pools/d), half-lives (30 ± 11 h), and the minimum estimated 2H-α-tocopherol absorbed (24% ± 16%) did not vary between age groups or sexes (n = 41). Unlabeled α-tocopherol concentrations were higher in older adults (26.4 ± 8.6 μmol/L) than in younger adults (19.3 ± 4.2 μmol/L; P = 0.0019) and correlated with serum lipids (r = 0.4938, P = 0.0012). In addition, 2H-α-tocopherol half-lives were correlated with lipids (r = 0.4361, P = 0.0044). Conclusions: Paradoxically, α-tocopherol remained in circulation longer in participants with higher serum lipids, but the 2H-α-tocopherol absorbed was not dependent on the plasma lipid status. Neither variable was dependent on age. These data suggest that plasma α-tocopherol concentrations are more dependent on mechanisms that control circulating lipids rather than those related to its absorption and initial incorporation into plasma. This trial was registered at

  18. Association of ambulatory heart rate and atherosclerosis risk factors with blood pressure in young non-hypertensive adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cynthia; Daskalakis, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study objective was to assess the association between 24 h ambulatory heart rate (HR), atherosclerosis risk factors and blood pressure (BP) in young non-hypertensive patients. Methods We recruited 186 participants aged 18–45 years from a large urban academic Family Medicine outpatient practice, serving 40 000 individuals for this observational study. The main analyses were based on multiple linear regression, with mean 24 h BP (systolic BP (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP)) as the outcomes, mean 24 h HR as the main predictor of interest, and controlling for age, gender, race, insulin sensitivity/resistance and endothelial function measured by strain gauge venous occlusion plethysmography. Results HR was independently associated with mean 24 h SBP and DBP (SBP and DBP: p=0.042 and 0.001, respectively). In our analyses, associations were markedly stronger for ambulatory compared with office BP measurements. Endothelial dysfunction was associated with higher SBP (p=0.013); plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was significantly associated with both SBP and DBP (p=0.041 and 0.015, respectively), while insulin resistance was not associated with either SBP or DBP. Insulin resistance and C reactive protein were significant predictors of HR (p=0.013 and 0.007, respectively). Conclusions These findings suggest that HR may be a potential marker of elevated cardiovascular risk in young asymptomatic individuals, prior to the development of clinical hypertension or cardiovascular disease. PMID:26925242

  19. Reliability and validity of heart rate variability threshold assessment during an incremental shuttle-walk test in middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Dourado, V.Z.; Guerra, R.L.F.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the assessment of heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) during walking are scarce. We determined the reliability and validity of HRVT assessment during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) in healthy subjects. Thirty-one participants aged 57 ± 9 years (17 females) performed 3 ISWTs. During the 1st and 2nd ISWTs, instantaneous heart rate variability was calculated every 30 s and HRVT was measured. Walking velocity at HRVT in these tests (WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2) was registered. During the 3rd ISWT, physiological responses were assessed. The ventilatory equivalents were used to determine ventilatory threshold (VT) and the WV at VT (WV-VT) was recorded. The difference between WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2 was not statistically significant (median and interquartile range = 4.8; 4.8 to 5.4 vs 4.8; 4.2 to 5.4 km/h); the correlation between WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2 was significant (r = 0.84); the intraclass correlation coefficient was high (0.92; 0.82 to 0.96), and the agreement was acceptable (-0.08 km/h; -0.92 to 0.87). The difference between WV-VT and WV-HRVT2 was not statistically significant (4.8; 4.8 to 5.4 vs 4.8; 4.2 to 5.4 km/h) and the agreement was acceptable (0.04 km/h; -1.28 to 1.36). HRVT assessment during walking is a reliable measure and permits the estimation of VT in adults. We suggest the use of the ISWT for the assessment of exercise capacity in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:23369974

  20. Optimistic and pessimistic self-assessment of own diets is associated with age, self-rated health and weight status in Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Holm, Lotte; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Tetens, Inge

    2017-03-16

    The aim of this study was to analyse concordance between Danish adults' recorded diet quality and their own assessment of the healthiness and to examine socio-demographic, health and behavioural characteristics associated with an optimistic or pessimistic self-assessment. Data were derived from The Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity 2011-2013 and included a random sample of 3014 adults (18-75 y). Diet quality was evaluated on the basis of seven-day pre-coded food diaries and categorised 'unhealthy', 'somewhat healthy' and 'healthy'. Self-assessment of the healthiness of own diets was registered via personal interviews and categorised healthy enough 'to a high degree', 'to some degree' or 'not at all/only partly'. Highly and somewhat optimistic self-assessment, respectively, were defined as assessing own diets as healthy enough to a high degree or to some degree while having unhealthy diets. Highly and somewhat pessimistic self-assessment, respectively, were defined as assessing own diets as not healthy enough or healthy enough to some degree while having healthy diets. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine characteristics associated with optimistic and pessimistic self-assessments, respectively. Among individuals with unhealthy diets, 13% were highly optimistic and 42% somewhat optimistic about the healthiness of their diets. Among individuals with healthy diets, 14% were highly pessimistic and 51% somewhat pessimistic about the healthiness of their diets. Highly optimistic self-assessment was associated with increasing age, excellent self-rated health, normal weight and a moderate activity level. Highly pessimistic self-assessment was associated with decreasing age, good self-rated health and being obese. The findings indicate that people seem to use personal health characteristics as important references when assessing the healthiness of their diets.

  1. Self-rated chronic conditions and 2-week prevalence in adults in Zhongshan, China: an epidemiological survey

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chunyan; Sun, Xiaomin; Geng, Qingshan; Fu, Rong; Yang, Hongling; Jiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between behavioural factors and the risk of chronic conditions and 2-week prevalence. Design This was a cross-sectional survey. Setting The study was conducted in Zhongshan, China. Participants A multistage clustering sampling method was used to select a representative sample of residents from the household registration system between July and September 2011. The overall sample replacement rate was 9.4%, and the final sample included 43 028 individuals. Outcome measures Chronic conditions and 2-week prevalence. Results 4979 (11.6%) of the participants reported having at least one chronic condition, 1067 (2.5%) had two or more concurrent chronic conditions, and 6830 (15.9%) reported having at least one disease in a 2-week recall period. The most common chronic condition was primary hypertension, which was reported by 6.8% of participants. Logistic regression models demonstrated that the main factors for having a chronic condition and 2-week prevalence were older age (≥65 years of age; OR 44.91, 95% CI 33.05 to 61.03; and OR 12.71, 95% CI 10.44 to 15.46, respectively), obesity (OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.63 to 3.42; and OR 2.50, 95% CI 2.22 to 2.82, respectively) and being a former smoker (OR 3.02, 95% CI 2.54 to 3.58; and OR 3.24, 95% CI 2.74 to 3.82, respectively). Conclusions This study suggests that older age, obesity and unhealthy behaviours are high-risk factors for poorer health status among the residents of Zhongshan, China. The present findings highlight the importance of recognising and managing harmful behaviours in order to improve health. PMID:26560055

  2. Driving Retirement in Older Adults with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Croston, Jami; Meuser, Thomas M.; Berg-Weger, Marla; Grant, Elizabeth A.; Carr, David B.

    2010-01-01

    In order to characterize the driving and mobility status of older adults with dementia, a questionnaire was mailed to 527 informants; 119 were returned. The majority of patients were diagnosed with Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type. Only 28% were actively driving at the time of survey. Informants rated 53% of current or recently retired drivers as potentially unsafe. Few informants reported using community/educational resources. Individuals with progressive dementia retire from driving for differing reasons, many subsequent to family recognition of impaired driving performance. Opportunities for education and supportive assistance exist but are underutilized. PMID:20161565

  3. Guidance on the Use of Hand-Held Survey Meters for radiological Triage: Time-Dependent Detector Count Rates Corresponding to 50, 250, and 500 mSv Effective Dose for Adult Males and Adult Females

    SciTech Connect

    Bolch, W.E.; Hurtado, J.L.; Lee, C.; Manger, Ryan P; Hertel, Nolan; Burgett, E.; Dickerson, W.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2006, the Radiation Studies Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention held a workshop to explore rapid methods of facilitating radiological triage of large numbers of potentially contaminated individuals following detonation of a radiological dispersal device. Two options were discussed. The first was the use of traditional gamma cameras in nuclear medicine departments operated as makeshift wholebody counters. Guidance on this approach is currently available from the CDC. This approach would be feasible if a manageable number of individuals were involved, transportation to the relevant hospitals was quickly provided, and the medical staff at each facility had been previously trained in this non-traditional use of their radiopharmaceutical imaging devices. If, however, substantially larger numbers of individuals (100 s to 1,000 s) needed radiological screening, other options must be given to first responders, first receivers, and health physicists providing medical management. In this study, the second option of the workshop was investigated by the use of commercially available portable survey meters (either NaI or GM based) for assessing potential ranges of effective dose (G50, 50Y250, 250Y500, and 9500 mSv). Two hybrid computational phantoms were used to model an adult male and an adult female subject internally contaminated with 241Am, 60Cs, 137Cs, 131I, or 192Ir following an acute inhalation or ingestion intake. As a function of time following the exposure, the net count rates corresponding to committed effective doses of 50, 250, and 500 mSv were estimated via Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation for each of four different detector types, positions, and screening distances. Measured net count rates can be compared to these values, and an assignment of one of four possible effective dose ranges could be made. The method implicitly assumes that all external contamination has been removed prior to screening and that the measurements be

  4. Guidance on the Use of Hand-Held Survey Meters for Radiological Triage: Time-Dependent Detector Count Rates Corresponding to 50, 250, and 500 mSv Effective Dose for Adult Males and Adult Females

    PubMed Central

    Bolch, Wesley E.; Hurtado, Jorge L.; Lee, Choonsik; Manger, Ryan; Hertel, Nolan; Dickerson, William

    2013-01-01

    In June of 2006, the Radiation Studies Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention held a workshop to explore rapid methods of facilitating radiological triage of large numbers of potentially contaminated individuals following detonation of a radiological dispersal device. Two options were discussed. The first was the use of traditional gamma-cameras in nuclear medicine departments operated as make-shift whole-body counters. Guidance on this approach is currently available from the CDC. This approach is feasible if a manageable number of individuals were involved, transportation to the relevant hospitals was quickly provided, and the medical staff at each facility had been previously trained in this non-traditional use of their radiopharmaceutical imaging devices. If, however, substantially large numbers of individuals (100s to 1000s) needed radiological screening, other options must be given to first responders, first receivers, and health physicists providing medical management. In this study, the second option of the workshop was investigated – the use of commercially available portable survey meters (either NaI or GM based) for assessing potential ranges of effective dose (<50, 50–250, 250–500, and >500 mSv). Two hybrid computational phantoms were used to model an adult male and an adult female subject internally contaminated with either 241Am, 60Cs, 137Cs, 131I, and 192Ir following an acute inhalation or ingestion intake. As a function of time following the exposure, the net count rates corresponding to committed effective doses of 50, 250, and 500 mSv were estimated via Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation for each of four different detectors types, positions, and screening distances. Measured count rates can be compared to these values and an assignment of one of four possible effective dose ranges could be made. The method implicitly assumes that all external contamination has been removed prior to screening, and that the

  5. Guidance on the use of handheld survey meters for radiological triage: time-dependent detector count rates corresponding to 50, 250, and 500 mSV effective dose for adult males and adult females.

    PubMed

    Bolch, Wesley E; Hurtado, Jorge L; Lee, Choonsik; Manger, Ryan; Burgett, Eric; Hertel, Nolan; Dickerson, William

    2012-03-01

    In June 2006, the Radiation Studies Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention held a workshop to explore rapid methods of facilitating radiological triage of large numbers of potentially contaminated individuals following detonation of a radiological dispersal device. Two options were discussed. The first was the use of traditional gamma cameras in nuclear medicine departments operated as makeshift wholebody counters. Guidance on this approach is currently available from the CDC. This approach would be feasible if a manageable number of individuals were involved, transportation to the relevant hospitals was quickly provided, and the medical staff at each facility had been previously trained in this non-traditional use of their radiopharmaceutical imaging devices. If, however,substantially larger numbers of individuals (100’s to 1,000’s) needed radiological screening, other options must be given to first responders, first receivers, and health physicists providing medical management. In this study, the second option of the workshop was investigated--the use of commercially available portable survey meters (either NaI or GM based) for assessing potential ranges of effective dose (< 50, 50-250, 250-500,and >500 mSv). Two hybrid computational phantoms were used to model an adult male and an adult female subject internally contaminated with 241Am, 60Cs, 137Cs, 131I, or 192Ir following an acute inhalation or ingestion intake. As a function of time following the exposure, the net count rates corresponding to committed effective doses of 50, 250, and 500 mSv were estimated via Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation for each of four different detector types, positions, and screening distances.Measured net count rates can be compared to these values, and an assignment of one of four possible effective dose ranges could be made. The method implicitly assumes that all external contamination has been removed prior to screening and that the measurements be

  6. FRS Geospatial Return File Format

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Geospatial Return File Format describes format that needs to be used to submit latitude and longitude coordinates for use in Envirofacts mapping applications. These coordinates are stored in the Geospatail Reference Tables.

  7. Active Traveling and Its Associations with Self-Rated Health, BMI and Physical Activity: A Comparative Study in the Adult Swedish Population.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Erik; Lytsy, Per; Westerling, Ragnar

    2016-04-28

    Active traveling to a daily occupation means that an individual uses an active way of traveling between two destinations. Active travel to work or other daily occupations offers a convenient way to increase physical activity levels which is known to have positive effects on several health outcomes. Frequently used concepts in city planning and regional planning today are to create environments for active commuting and active living. Even then, little research has focused on traveling modes and subjective health outcomes such as self-rated health (SRH). This study aimed to explore and investigate associations between travel mode and health-related outcomes, such as self-rated health (SRH), body mass index (BMI) and overall physical activity, in an adult population in Sweden. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a randomly selected population-based sample (n = 1786, age 45-75 years); the respondents completed a questionnaire about their regular travel mode, demographics, lifestyle, BMI and SRH. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions found that inactive traveling was associated with poor SRH, a greater risk of obesity or being overweight and overall physical inactivity. In addition, lifestyle factors, such as choice of food and smoking habits, were associated with SRH, BMI and overall physical activity.

  8. A Pilot Study of Brief Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback to Reduce Craving in Young Adult Men Receiving Inpatient Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Eddie, D.; Kim, C.; Lehrer, P.; Deneke, E.; Bates, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present pilot study investigated the implementation feasibility, and efficacy for reducing alcohol and drug craving, of a brief, 3-session heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV BFB) intervention added to a traditional 28-day substance abuse disorder (SUD) inpatient treatment program. Forty-eight young adult men received either treatment as usual (TAU) plus three sessions of HRV BFB training over three weeks, or TAU only. Participants receiving HRV BFB training were instructed to practice daily using a handheld HRV BFB device. HRV BFB training was well tolerated by participants and supported by treatment staff. Men receiving TAU + HRV BFB demonstrated a greater, medium effect size reduction in alcohol and drug craving compared to those receiving TAU only, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. In addition, an interaction effect was observed in analyses that accounted for baseline craving levels, wherein heart rate variability (HRV) levels at treatment entry were predictive of changes in craving in the TAU group only. Low baseline levels of HRV were associated with increases in craving, whereas higher baseline HRV levels were associated with greater decreases in craving from start to end of treatment. In the TAU + HRV BFB group, however, there was no such association. That is, HRV BFB appeared to dissociate individual differences in baseline HRV levels from changes in craving. Given that alcohol and drug craving often precipitates relapse, HRV BFB merits further study as an adjunct treatment to ameliorate craving experienced by persons with substance use disorders. PMID:25179673

  9. Observations Illustrating the Use of Health Informatics to Link Public Health Immunization Registries and Pharmacies to Increase Adult Immunization Rates and Improve Population Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Popovich, Michael; Altstadter, Brandy; Popovich, Lara Hargraves

    2016-01-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act encourages health information exchange between clinical care and public health through Meaningful Use measures. Meaningful Use specifically identifies objectives to support a number of public health programs including immunizations, cancer registries, syndromic surveillance, and disease case reports. The objective is to improve public and population health. Stage 2 of Meaningful Use focused on compliance to sending of information to public health. The next phase focuses on bi-directional information exchange to support immunization intelligence and to empower providers, pharmacists, and the consumer. The HITECH Act Stage 2 initiative provided incentive and motivation for healthcare providers to encourage their Electronic Medical Record (EMR) vendors to implement data exchanges with public health, with the expected result being timely awareness of health risks. The empowerment nugget in the HITECH Act is not in the compliance reporting to public health. The nugget is the ability for a provider to receive relevant information on the patient or consumer currently in front of them or to those they will connect to through their outreach efforts. The ability for public health to retain current immunization records of individuals from a variety of providers supports their program goals to increase immunization rates and mitigate the risk of vaccine-preventable disease (VPD). The ability for providers to receive at the point of service more complete immunization histories integrated with decision support enhances their delivery of care, thereby reducing the risk of VPD to their patients. Indirectly payers benefit through healthcare cost savings and when the focus is expanded from a health model to a business model, there are significant return on investment (ROI) opportunities that exponentially increase the value of a bi-directional immunization data exchange. This paper will provide

  10. Observations Illustrating the Use of Health Informatics to Link Public Health Immunization Registries and Pharmacies to Increase Adult Immunization Rates and Improve Population Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Altstadter, Brandy; Popovich, Lara Hargraves

    2016-01-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act encourages health information exchange between clinical care and public health through Meaningful Use measures. Meaningful Use specifically identifies objectives to support a number of public health programs including immunizations, cancer registries, syndromic surveillance, and disease case reports. The objective is to improve public and population health. Stage 2 of Meaningful Use focused on compliance to sending of information to public health. The next phase focuses on bi-directional information exchange to support immunization intelligence and to empower providers, pharmacists, and the consumer. The HITECH Act Stage 2 initiative provided incentive and motivation for healthcare providers to encourage their Electronic Medical Record (EMR) vendors to implement data exchanges with public health, with the expected result being timely awareness of health risks. The empowerment nugget in the HITECH Act is not in the compliance reporting to public health. The nugget is the ability for a provider to receive relevant information on the patient or consumer currently in front of them or to those they will connect to through their outreach efforts. The ability for public health to retain current immunization records of individuals from a variety of providers supports their program goals to increase immunization rates and mitigate the risk of vaccine-preventable disease (VPD). The ability for providers to receive at the point of service more complete immunization histories integrated with decision support enhances their delivery of care, thereby reducing the risk of VPD to their patients. Indirectly payers benefit through healthcare cost savings and when the focus is expanded from a health model to a business model, there are significant return on investment (ROI) opportunities that exponentially increase the value of a bi-directional immunization data exchange. This paper will provide

  11. Return to Duty and Disability After Combat Related Hindfoot Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Return to Duty and Disability After Combat-Related Hindfoot Injury Andrew J. Sheean, MD,* Chad A. Krueger, MD,* and Joseph R. Hsu...MD† Objectives: To characterize the return-to-duty (RTD) rates and disability outcomes for soldiers who sustained combat-related hind- foot injuries ...Patients/Participants: All patients treated for combat-related hindfoot injuries between May 2005 and July 2011. Intervention: TTA or hindfoot

  12. Linking an Anxiety-Related Personality Trait to Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Well-Defined Healthy Adults: Harm Avoidance and Resting Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Lien-Cheng; Liu, Yu-Wen; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Kuo, Terry B. J.; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anxiety trait, anxiety and depression states have all been reported to increase risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly through altering cardiac autonomic regulation. Our aim was to investigate whether the relationship between harm avoidance (HA, an anxiety-related personality trait) and cardiac autonomic regulation is independent of anxiety and depression states in healthy adults. Methods We recruited 535 physically and mentally healthy volunteers. Participants completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Tri-dimensional Personality Questionnaire. Participants were divided into high or low HA groups as discriminated by the quartile value. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by measuring heart rate variability (HRV). We obtained the time and frequency-domain indices of HRV including variance (total HRV), the low-frequency power (LF; 0.05–0.15 Hz), which may reflect baroreflex function, the high-frequency power (HF; 0.15–0.40 Hz), which reflects cardiac parasympathetic activity, as well as the LF/HF ratio. Results The BDI and HA scores showed associations with HRV parameters. After adjustment for the BDI scores and other control variables, HA is still associated with reduced variance, LF and HF power. Compared with the participants with low HA, those with high HA displayed significant reductions in variance, LF and HF power and a significant increase in their LF/HF ratio. Conclusion This study highlights the independent role of HA in contributing to decreased autonomic cardiac regulation in healthy adults and provides a potential underlying mechanism for anxiety trait to confer increased risk for CVD. PMID:27482240

  13. Peak Expiratory Flow, Breath Rate and Blood Pressure in Adults with Changes in Particulate Matter Air Pollution during the Beijing Olympics: A Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Lina; Deng, Furong; Tian, Lili; Li, Yanli; Swanson, Mya; Ying, Jingjing; Browne, Richard W; Rittenhouse-Olson, Kate; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Bonner, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to examine whether changes in short-term exposures to particulate matter are associated with changes in lung function, breath rate, and blood pressure among healthy adults and whether smoking status modifies the association. Methods We took advantage of the artificially controlled changes in air pollution levels that occurred during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China and conducted a panel study of 201 Beijing residents. Data were collected before, during, and after the Olympics, respectively. Linear mixed-effects models and generalized estimating equation models were used to compare measurements of peak expiratory flow, breath rate, blood pressure across the three time points. Results The mean values of peak expiratory flow were 346.0 L/min, 399.3 L/min, and 364.1 L/min over the three study periods. Peak expiratory flow levels increased in 78% of the participants when comparing the during- and pre- Olympics time points, while peak expiratory flow levels decreased in 80% of participants for the post- and during-Olympic periods comparison. In subgroup analyses comparing the during -Olympic to pre-Olympic time points, we found a larger percentage change in peak expiratory flow (+17%) among female, younger and non-smoking participants than among male, elderly and smoking participants (+12%). The percentage of participants with a fast breath rate (>20/min) changed from 9.7%, to 4.9%, to 30.1% among females, and from 7.9%, to 2.6%, to 27.3% among males over the three time points respectively. The changes on blood pressure over the three study periods were not very clear, although there is an increase in diastolic pressure and a decrease in pulse pressure among males during the games. Conclusions The results suggest that exposure to different air pollution levels has significant effects on respiratory function. Smoking, age and gender appear to modify participants’ biological response to changes in air quality. PMID:24906062

  14. Rating Your Cash Manager?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, George A.; Johannisson, Eric E.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of a public cash management policy should include safety, liquidity, yield, and legality. Contains a cash management policy/procedure checklist, a test for cash managers, and a formula for calculating the rate of return. (MLF)

  15. Return to Glacier Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  16. Return to work following ileostomy.

    PubMed

    Whates, P D; Irving, M

    1984-08-01

    The experiences of 1033 members of the 51 English divisions of the Ileostomy Association of Great Britain and Ireland have been analysed in respect of their return to work after construction of an ileostomy. Although there was a fall in the number of patients returning to work after operation this was often for reasons unrelated to surgery. The majority of those returning to work resumed work with the same employer and usually in the same post. Fifty-nine (5.7 per cent) patients began work for the first time after operation, including 33 (3.2 per cent) who were previously inactive although of working age. Analysis of occupational class shows that, although a number of patients initially resumed work within a lower class, once established in employment successful career advancement was possible. Problems in the gaining or resumption of employment were reported by 56 (5.4 per cent) patients. In 22 (2.1 per cent) patients, almost all approaching or above retirement age, successful surgery resulted in a decision not to return to employment. An ileostomy is no barrier to successful return to work in nearly all occupations, and is accomplished by the majority of patients without major difficulty.

  17. Is Formal Lifelong Learning a Profitable Investment for All of Life? How Age, Education Level, and Flexibility of Provision Affect Rates of Return to Adult Education in Colombia. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3800

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohnesen, Thomas Pave; Blom, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Lifelong learning is increasingly being recognized as a primary factor for knowledge diffusion and productivity growth. However, little economic evidence exists on the economic value of lifelong learning for the individual, especially in developing countries. This paper contributes to remedy this shortfall. It investigates one aspect of lifelong…

  18. The Association of Resting Heart Rate with the Presence of Diabetes in Korean Adults: The 2010-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous epidemiologic studies have shown that elevated resting heart rate (HR) is associated with higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Although the relationship between elevated HR and CVD is well established, the association between resting HR and diabetes has been relatively understudied, particularly in non-Western populations. Objectives We confirmed the association between the presence of type 2 diabetes and resting HR in the Korean adult population using data from the 2010–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Methods Among 25,712 adults (≥ 19 years of age) who participated in the 2010–2013 KNHANES, a total of 22,512 subjects completed laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level was categorized into the following five groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90 mg/dL), NFG 2 (90–99 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100–110 mg/dL), IFG 2 (111–125 mg/dL), and diabetes (≥ 126 mg/dL). Results The unadjusted weighted resting HRs were 69.6, 69.4, 69.8, 70.1, and 72.0 beats per minute (bpm) in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P<0.001). We assessed the adjusted weighted resting HR according to the FPG level after adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, high risk alcohol drinking, daily energy intake, waist circumference, serum total cholesterol level, serum triglyceride (TG) level, serum white blood cell (WBC) count, serum hemoglobin (Hb), and the presence of hypertension. The adjusted weighted resting HR significantly increased across the FPG groups (P<0.001). The weighted prevalence rates of diabetes were 6.8% (6.2–7.5%), 7.6% (6.7–8.5%), 8.0% (7.0–9.1%), and 11.8% (10.8–12.7%) in subjects with HR ≤ 64, 65–69, 70–75, and ≥ 76 bpm, respectively (P<0.001), after adjusting for the confounding factors mentioned above. Using resting HR ≤ 64 bpm as the control, resting HR

  19. Sample Return Primer and Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, Kirk; Cheuvront, Allan; Faris, Grant; Hirst, Edward; Mainland, Nora; McGee, Michael; Szalai, Christine; Vellinga, Joseph; Wahl, Thomas; Williams, Kenneth; Lee, Gentry; Duxbury, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This three-part Sample Return Primer and Handbook provides a road map for conducting the terminal phase of a sample return mission. The main chapters describe element-by-element analyses and trade studies, as well as required operations plans, procedures, contingencies, interfaces, and corresponding documentation. Based on the experiences of the lead Stardust engineers, the topics include systems engineering (in particular range safety compliance), mission design and navigation, spacecraft hardware and entry, descent, and landing certification, flight and recovery operations, mission assurance and system safety, test and training, and the very important interactions with external support organizations (non-NASA tracking assets, landing site support, and science curation).

  20. Validation of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version (BRIEF-A) in the obese with and without binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Rouel, Melissa; Raman, Jayanthi; Hay, Phillipa; Smith, Evelyn

    2016-12-01

    Obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) are both associated with deficiencies in executive function. The Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version (BRIEF-A) is a self-report measure that assesses executive function. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the BRIEF-A in an obese population, with and without BED, and to explore the differences on the BRIEF-A in the obese, with and without BED, compared to normative sample. 98 obese participants (70 BED) completed the BRIEF-A, DASS-21 and several performance-based measures of executive function. 30 participants completed a repeat assessment two months later. There was evidence of good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, however evidence for construct and convergent validity was mixed. Additionally, it was found that obese individuals report significantly more executive function difficulties on the BRIEF-A than the normative sample. Further, obese with BED report more executive function difficulties than those without. This study shows some evidence of sound psychometric properties of the BRIEF-A in an obese sample, however more research is required to understand the nature of executive function being measured.

  1. Prenatal choline supplementation alters the timing, emotion, and memory performance (TEMP) of adult male and female rats as indexed by differential reinforcement of low-rate schedule behavior.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; MacDonald, Christopher J; Williams, Christina L; Meck, Warren H

    2008-03-01

    Choline availability in the maternal diet has a lasting effect on brain and behavior of the offspring. To further delineate the impact of early nutritional status, we examined effects of prenatal-choline supplementation on timing, emotion, and memory performance of adult male and female rats. Rats that were given sufficient choline (CON: 1.1 g/kg) or supplemental choline (SUP: 5.0 g/kg) during embryonic days (ED) 12-17 were trained with a differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL) schedule that was gradually transitioned through 5-, 10-, 18-, 36-, and 72-sec criterion times. We observed that SUP-females emitted more reinforced responses than CON-females, which were more efficient than both groups of males. In addition, SUP-males and SUP-females exhibited a reduction in burst responding (response latencies <2 sec) compared with both groups of CON rats. Furthermore, despite a reduced level of burst responding, the SUP-males made more nonreinforced responses prior to the DRL criterion as a result of maintaining the previous DRL criterion following transition to a new criterion. In summary, long-lasting effects of prenatal-choline supplementation were exhibited by reduced frustrative DRL responding in conjunction with the persistence of temporal memory in SUP-males and enhanced temporal exploration and response efficiency in SUP-females.

  2. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  3. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  4. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  5. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  6. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Returned mail. 540.24 Section 540.24... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.24 Returned mail. Staff shall open and inspect for contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to...

  7. Uncertain Educational Returns in a Developing Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Sandeep; Luckert, Martin K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the distribution of educational returns by gender for India. While previous studies focus on mean returns, the variance of educational returns has important implications for policy-making and micro-level decision making with respect to education. If the variance of educational returns is large, it can leave large sections of…

  8. Analysing Enterprise Returns on Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Janelle; McDonald, Rod

    Recent Australian and overseas studies on evaluation of enterprises' return on training investment (ROTI) were reviewed to identify key issues in encouraging increased evaluation of training benefits by enterprises and successful approaches that may inform future "enterprise-friendly" studies of ROTI. It was concluded that more…

  9. Neurocognitive Performance: Returning to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; McIntire, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Athletes who suffer from concussions under report their symptoms in order to expedite their return to competition. Athletic trainers and coaches must be aware of what is going on with athletes, even if it means requiring them to refrain from competition. Ninety percent of concussions are minor and can be difficult to diagnosis. There is a lack of…

  10. The Returns to Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agan, Amanda Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Almost half of postsecondary students are currently enrolled in community colleges. These institutions imply that even amongst students with the same degree outcome there is considerable heterogeneity in the path taken to get there. I estimate the life-cycle private and social returns to the different postsecondary paths and sequential decisions…

  11. Comet coma sample return instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  12. Comet coma sample return instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  13. Heat Pipe Blocks Return Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Metal-foil reed valve in conventional slab-wick heat pipe limits heat flow to one direction only. With sink warmer than source, reed is forced closed and fluid returns to source side through annular transfer wick. When this occurs, wick slab on sink side of valve dries out and heat pipe ceases to conduct heat.

  14. Phobos Sample Return: Next Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Martynov, Maxim; Zakharov, Alexander; Korablev, Oleg; Ivanov, Alexey; Karabadzak, George

    The Martian moons still remain a mystery after numerous studies by Mars orbiting spacecraft. Their study cover three major topics related to (1) Solar system in general (formation and evolution, origin of planetary satellites, origin and evolution of life); (2) small bodies (captured asteroid, or remnants of Mars formation, or reaccreted Mars ejecta); (3) Mars (formation and evolution of Mars; Mars ejecta at the satellites). As reviewed by Galimov [2010] most of the above questions require the sample return from the Martian moon, while some (e.g. the characterization of the organic matter) could be also answered by in situ experiments. There is the possibility to obtain the sample of Mars material by sampling Phobos: following to Chappaz et al. [2012] a 200-g sample could contain 10-7 g of Mars surface material launched during the past 1 mln years, or 5*10-5 g of Mars material launched during the past 10 mln years, or 5*1010 individual particles from Mars, quantities suitable for accurate laboratory analyses. The studies of Phobos have been of high priority in the Russian program on planetary research for many years. Phobos-88 mission consisted of two spacecraft (Phobos-1, Phobos-2) and aimed the approach to Phobos at 50 m and remote studies, and also the release of small landers (long-living stations DAS). This mission implemented the program incompletely. It was returned information about the Martian environment and atmosphere. The next profect Phobos Sample Return (Phobos-Grunt) initially planned in early 2000 has been delayed several times owing to budget difficulties; the spacecraft failed to leave NEO in 2011. The recovery of the science goals of this mission and the delivery of the samples of Phobos to Earth remain of highest priority for Russian scientific community. The next Phobos SR mission named Boomerang was postponed following the ExoMars cooperation, but is considered the next in the line of planetary exploration, suitable for launch around 2022. A

  15. Subsidies, Selectivity and the Returns to Education in Urban Papua New Guinea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, John; Fatai, Osaiasi Koliniusi

    2006-01-01

    There is debate about whether the rate of return to education in developing countries declines with the level of schooling. This paper reports evidence from urban Papua New Guinea which shows that the average private rate of return to an additional year of education rises with the level of education considered. This pattern is robust to the…

  16. Returning Veterans on Campus with War Related Injuries and the Long Road Back Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the growing numbers of returning military personnel attending higher education based on emerging national trends, including the new GI Educational Bill, amendments to the ADA, and the rising unemployment rate. The trauma of war and the high survival rate have resulted in a high percentage of veterans returning from the Global…

  17. Recent experience in health promotion at Johnson & Johnson: lower health spending, strong return on investment.

    PubMed

    Henke, Rachel M; Goetzel, Ron Z; McHugh, Janice; Isaac, Fik

    2011-03-01

    Johnson & Johnson Family of Companies introduced its worksite health promotion program in 1979. The program evolved and is still in place after more than thirty years. We evaluated the program's effect on employees' health risks and health care costs for the period 2002-08. Measured against similar large companies, Johnson & Johnson experienced average annual growth in total medical spending that was 3.7 percentage points lower. Company employees benefited from meaningful reductions in rates of obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition. Average annual per employee savings were $565 in 2009 dollars, producing a return on investment equal to a range of $1.88-$3.92 saved for every dollar spent on the program. Because the vast majority of US adults participate in the workforce, positive effects from similar programs could lead to better health and to savings for the nation as a whole.

  18. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Myatt, Julia P.; Jordan, Neil R.; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Wilson, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs. PMID:27023457

  19. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-03-29

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs.

  20. Legionnaires’ disease case-finding algorithm, attack rates, and risk factors during a residential outbreak among older adults: an environmental and cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During a Legionnaires’ disease (LD) outbreak, combined epidemiological and environmental investigations were conducted to identify prevention recommendations for facilities where elderly residents live independently but have an increased risk of legionellosis. Methods Survey responses (n = 143) were used to calculate attack rates and describe transmission routes by estimating relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Potable water collected from five apartments of LD patients and three randomly-selected apartments of residents without LD (n = 103 samples) was cultured for Legionella. Results Eight confirmed LD cases occurred among 171 residents (attack rate = 4.7%); two visitors also developed LD. One case was fatal. The average age of patients was 70 years (range: 62–77). LD risk was lower among residents who reported tub bathing instead of showering (RR = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.02–1.09, P = 0.03). Two respiratory cultures were characterized as L. pneumophila serogroup 1, monoclonal antibody type Knoxville (1,2,3), sequence type 222. An indistinguishable strain was detected in 31 (74%) of 42 potable water samples. Conclusions Managers of elderly-housing facilities and local public health officials should consider developing a Legionella prevention plan. When Legionella colonization of potable water is detected in these facilities, remediation is indicated to protect residents at higher risk. If LD occurs among residents, exposure reduction, heightened awareness, and clinical surveillance activities should be coordinated among stakeholders. For prompt diagnosis and effective treatment, clinicians should recognize the increased risk and atypical presentation of LD in older adults. PMID:23806063