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Sample records for adult risk factors

  1. Risk Factors among Adult Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathy W.; Webster, Raymond E.

    2007-01-01

    Family patterns of dysfunction that often reinforce maladaptive behaviors and cognitions of children growing up in an alcoholic home environment are often difficult to overcome. Adjustment issues associated with being an adult child of an alcoholic (ACOA) are presented along with factors that have been identified as being important in developing…

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  3. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Yawn, Barbara P

    2016-09-01

    Background.  The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods.  We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010-2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results.  We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions.  We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown. PMID:27382600

  4. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Yawn, Barbara P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010–2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results. We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P < .05). Herpes zoster was not associated with trauma, smoking, tonsillectomy, diet, or reported exposure to pesticides or herbicides (P > .1). Conclusions. We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown. PMID:27382600

  5. Phenotypes, Risk Factors, and Mechanisms of Adult-Onset Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ilmarinen, Pinja; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Genetic factors, atopy, and early respiratory tract infections are well-recognized factors predisposing to childhood-onset asthma. Adult-onset asthma is more often associated with obesity, smoking, depression, or other life-style or environmental factors, even though genetic factors and respiratory tract infections may also play a role in adult-onset disease. Adult-onset asthma is characterized by absence of atopy and is often severe requiring treatment with high dose of inhaled and/or oral steroids. Variety of risk factors and nonatopic nature of adult-onset disease suggest that variety of mechanisms is involved in the disease pathogenesis and that these mechanisms differ from the pathobiology of childhood-onset asthma with prevailing Th2 airway inflammation. Recognition of the mechanisms and mediators that drive the adult-onset disease helps to develop novel strategies for the treatment. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on the pathogenesis of adult-onset asthma and to concentrate on the mechanisms and mediators involved in establishing adult-onset asthma in response to specific risk factors. We also discuss the involvement of these mechanisms in the currently recognized phenotypes of adult-onset asthma. PMID:26538828

  6. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  7. Childhood risk factors for homelessness among homeless adults.

    PubMed Central

    Koegel, P; Melamid, E; Burnam, m A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This effort used data from the Course of Homelessness study and comparative secondary data on the general population to identify negative childhood and family background experiences that may increase risk for adult homelessness. METHODS. Frequencies of negative childhood experiences were examined among a probability sample of 1563 homeless adults. Differences in risk for such experiences were calculated by sex, age cohort, and racial/ethnicity status. Where possible, rates of negative childhood experiences among the homeless were compared with the general population. RESULTS. Substantial numbers of this sample experienced multiple problems as children across several domains: poverty, residential instability, and family problems. Women and Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of personal or family problems; non-Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of personal or family problems; non-Whites disproportionately reported experiences suggestive of poverty. Homeless adults were at increased risk of childhood out-of-home placement, tenure in public housing, and homelessness, but not at greater risk for physical abuse. Women appeared to be at greater risk for sexual abuse. CONCLUSIONS. The problems that homeless individuals experience as adults have very clear analogs in their childhoods. Vulnerability to homelessness stems from factors unevenly distributed across age, sex, and race/ethnicity groups. PMID:7503338

  8. Risk factors for fracture in adult kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Kyla L; Zou, Guangyong; Leslie, William D; Hodsman, Anthony B; Lam, Ngan N; McArthur, Eric; Fraser, Lisa-Ann; Knoll, Gregory A; Adachi, Jonathan D; Kim, S Joseph; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the general and transplant-specific risk factors for fractures in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of all adults who received a kidney-only transplant (n = 2723) in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2009. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to determine general and transplant-specific risk factors for major fractures (proximal humerus, forearm, hip, and clinical vertebral). The final model was established using the backward elimination strategy, selecting risk factors with a P-value ≤ 0.2 and forcing recipient age and sex into the model. We also assessed risk factors for other fracture locations (excluding major fractures, and fractures involving the skull, hands or feet). RESULTS: There were 132 major fractures in the follow-up (8.1 fractures per 1000 person-years). General risk factors associated with a greater risk of major fracture were older recipient age [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) per 5-year increase 1.11, 95%CI: 1.03-1.19] and female sex (aHR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.28-2.57). Transplant-specific risk factors associated with a greater risk of fracture included older donor age (5-year increase) (aHR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02-1.17) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) caused by diabetes (aHR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.09-2.72) or cystic kidney disease (aHR = 1.73, 95%CI: 1.08-2.78) (compared to glomerulonephritis as the reference cause). Risk factors across the two fracture locations were not consistent (major fracture locations vs other). Specifically, general risk factors associated with an increased risk of other fractures were diabetes and a fall with hospitalization prior to transplantation, while length of time on dialysis, and renal vascular disease and other causes of ESRD were the transplant-specific risk factors associated with a greater risk of other fractures. CONCLUSION: Both general and transplant-specific risk factors were associated with a higher risk of fractures in kidney transplant

  9. Social Support and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Black Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Daphne C.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are prevalent among Black adults. Studies have demonstrated that functional social support buffers CVD risk. The objective of this study is to assess whether specific types of functional social support or their cumulative total buffers CVD risk factors among a convenience sample of Black adults, and whether these associations differ by gender or partner status. Design Cross-sectional study using self-reported survey data. Setting Large church in Houston, TX. Participants A total of 1,381 Black adults reported their perceived social support using appraisal, belonging, and tangible subscales of the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12. A cumulative score was created based on the three subscales. Participants also reported on a number of socio-demographic characteristics. Main Outcome Measures Three self-reported CVD risk factors: diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol (yes versus no). Results A series of multivariate logistic regressions controlling for socio-demographic characteristics were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CVD risk factors. Cumulative social support, rather than any specific type of social support, was significantly related to diabetes and high blood pressure. Higher cumulative social support was associated with lower odds of experiencing diabetes (aOR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.94, 0.99) and high blood pressure (aOR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.95, 0.99). Neither gender nor partner status moderated associations. Conclusion In a high risk population for CVD, increasing all types of social support - appraisal, belonging, and tangible - might be useful in preventing or delaying the onset of CVD. PMID:25417427

  10. Risk factors for death among adults with severe asthma

    PubMed Central

    Omachi, Theodore A; Iribarren, Carlos; Sarkar, Urmimala; Tolstykh, Irina; Yelin, Edward H.; Katz, Patricia P.; Blanc, Paul D.; Eisner, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Mortality risk in adult asthma is poorly understood, especially the interplay between race, disease severity, and health-care access. Objective To examine mortality risk factors in adult asthma. Methods In a prospective cohort study of 865 adults with severe asthma in a closed-panel managed-care organization, we used structured interviews to assess baseline sociodemographics, asthma history, and health status. Subjects were followed until death or end of study, with a two-year average follow-up time. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the impact of sociodemographics, cigarette smoking, and validated measures of perceived asthma control, physical health status, and severity-of-asthma on the risk of death. Results We confirmed 123 deaths, a mortality rate of 6.7 per 100 person-years. In analysis adjusted for sociodemographics and tobacco history, higher severity-of-asthma scores (hazard ratios [HR], 1.11 per ½ standard deviation increase in severity-of-asthma score; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 - 1.23) and lower perceived asthma control scores (HR, 0.91 per ½ standard deviation increase in perceived asthma control score, 95% CI, 0.83 - 0.99) were each associated with risk of all-cause mortality. In the same adjusted analysis, African American race was not associated with an increased mortality risk relative to white race (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.35 - 1.12). Conclusions In a large managed-care organization in which access to care is unlikely to vary widely, greater severity-of-asthma scores and poorer perceived asthma control scores are each associated with increased mortality risk among adults with severe asthma, but African Americans are not at increased risk of death relative to whites. PMID:18727467

  11. Risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease among Navajo adults.

    PubMed

    Watt, James P; O'Brien, Katherine L; Benin, Andrea L; McCoy, Sandra I; Donaldson, Connie M; Reid, Raymond; Schuchat, Anne; Zell, Elizabeth R; Hochman, Michael; Santosham, Mathuram; Whitney, Cynthia G

    2007-11-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is 3-5 times more common among Navajo adults than in the general US population. The authors conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for IPD among Navajo adults. Navajos aged > or =18 years with IPD were identified through prospective, population-based active laboratory surveillance (December 1999-February 2002). Controls matched to cases on age, gender, and neighborhood were selected. Risk factors were identified through structured interviews and medical record reviews. The authors conducted a matched analysis based on 118 cases and 353 controls. Risk factors included in the final multivariable analysis were chronic renal failure (odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 7.7), congestive heart failure (OR = 5.6, 95% CI: 2.2, 14.5), self-reported alcohol use or alcoholism (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 5.4), body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) <5th (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 10.6) or >95th (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 8.0) percentile, and unemployment (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 5.5). The population attributable fractions were 10% for chronic renal failure, 18% for congestive heart failure, 30% for self-reported alcohol use or alcoholism, 6% for body mass index, and 20% for unemployment. Several modifiable risk factors for IPD in Navajos were identified. The high prevalence of renal failure, alcoholism, and unemployment among Navajo adults compared with the general US population may explain some of their increased risk of IPD. PMID:17693393

  12. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Young Adults Who Were Born Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Miettola, Satu; Hovi, Petteri; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sundvall, Jouko; Pouta, Anneli; Eriksson, Johan G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero

    2015-01-01

    Adults who were born preterm with a very low birth weight have higher blood pressure and impaired glucose regulation later in life compared with those born at term. We investigated cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults who were born at any degree of prematurity in the Preterm Birth and Early Life Programming of Adult Health and Disease (ESTER) Study, a population-based cohort study of individuals born in 1985–1989 in Northern Finland. In 2009–2011, 3 groups underwent clinical examination: 134 participants born at less than 34 gestational weeks (early preterm), 242 born at 34–36 weeks (late preterm), and 344 born at 37 weeks or later (controls). Compared with controls, adults who were born preterm had higher body fat percentages (after adjustment for sex, age, and cohort (1985–1986 or 1987–1989), for those born early preterm, difference = 6.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 13.2; for those born late preterm, difference = 8.0%, 95% CI: 2.4, 13.8), waist circumferences, blood pressure (for those born early preterm, difference = 3.0 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.9, 5.1; for those born late preterm, difference = 1.7, 95% CI: −0.1, 3.4), plasma uric acid levels (for those born early preterm, difference = 20.1%, 95% CI: 7.9, 32.3; for those born late preterm, difference = 20.2%, 95% CI: 10.7, 30.5), alanine aminotransferase levels, and aspartate transaminase levels. They were also more likely to have metabolic syndrome (for those born early preterm, odds ratio = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.6, 8.2; for those born late preterm, odds ratio = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 5.3). Elevated levels of conventional and emerging risk factors suggest a higher risk of cardiometabolic disease later in life. These risk factors are also present in the large group of adults born late preterm. PMID:25947956

  13. Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Klevens, Joanne; Roca, Juanita; Restrepo, Ofelia; Martinez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. METHODS: A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. RESULTS: Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality. PMID:12048531

  14. Relationship between hemoglobin and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Shimakawa, T; Bild, D E

    1993-11-01

    To understand mechanisms of association between hemoglobin and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the relationships between hemoglobin and CVD risk factors were examined in 5115 black and white men and women who participated in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Hemoglobin was higher in men than women, whites than blacks, and smokers than non-smokers (p < 0.001). After adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking status, and clinical center, hemoglobin correlated with diastolic blood pressure (0.11 < or = r < or = 0.22, p < 0.001) and plasma total cholesterol (0.08 < or = r < or = 0.11, p < 0.01) in all four race-sex groups and with systolic blood pressure in all but black women (0.07 < or = r < or = 0.13, p < 0.05). Among other factors possibly related to CVD risk, only serum albumin and white blood cell count showed significant correlations with hemoglobin in all groups (0.19 < or = r < or = 0.27, 0.07 < or = r < or = 0.18, respectively). These findings suggest that an association of hemoglobin with CVD risk factors may explain the association of hemoglobin with CVD. PMID:8229103

  15. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because the risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that in utero exposures, or those in early childhood, are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolescence and adulthood is also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two adult occupational exposures-fire fighting and aircraft maintenance--and one environmental exposure (to organochlorine pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, seven of the identified factors--diet, types of physical activity, military service, police work as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide--are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures--to heat, polyvinyl chloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use--require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer. PMID:22508459

  16. Different risk factors for advanced colorectal neoplasm in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Choi, Kyu Yong; Park, Dong Il

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare the risk of developing advanced colorectal neoplasm (ACRN) according to age in Koreans. METHODS: A total of 70428 Koreans from an occupational cohort who underwent a colonoscopy between 2003 and 2012 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital were retrospectively selected. We evaluated and compared odds ratios (OR) for ACRN between the young-adults (YA < 50 years) and in the older-adults (OA ≥ 50 years). ACRN was defined as an adenoma ≥ 10 mm in diameter, adenoma with any component of villous histology, high-grade dysplasia, or invasive cancer. RESULTS: In the YA group, age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.06-1.09), male sex (OR = 1.26, 95%CI: 1.02-1.55), current smoking (OR = 1.37, 95%CI: 1.15-1.63), family history of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.46, 95%CI: 1.01-2.10), diabetes mellitus related factors (OR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.06-1.54), obesity (OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.03-1.47), CEA (OR = 1.04, 95%CI: 1.01-1.09) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (OR = 1.01, 95%CI: 1.01-1.02) were related with an increased risk of ACRN. However, age (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.06-1.09), male sex (OR = 2.12, 95%CI: 1.68-2.68), current smoking (OR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.12-1.71), obesity (OR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.09-1.65) and CEA (OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 1.01-1.09) also increased the risk of ACRN in the OA group. CONCLUSION: The risks of ACRN differed based on age group. Different colonoscopic screening strategies are appropriate for particular subjects with risk factors for ACRN, even in subjects younger than 50 years. PMID:27053853

  17. Nightmares: Risk Factors Among the Finnish General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations. Design: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study. Setting: Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012. Participants: A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25–74 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and results: Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being. Citation: Sandman N, Valli K, Kronholm E, Revonsuo A, Laatikainen T, Paunio T. Nightmares: risk factors among the finnish general adult population. SLEEP 2015;38(4):507–514. PMID:25325474

  18. Adult sensory capacities as a function of birth risk factors.

    PubMed

    Harland, R E; Coren, S

    1996-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between birth risk factors and sensory capacity in 1245 young adults (mean age = 19.9 years). Nine birth risk factors were included (long labour, breech birth, breathing difficulty, instrument delivery, Caesarian delivery, multiple birth, premature birth, low birth weight, and high-risk birth order) and six sensory capacities were tested (Snellen visual acuity, stereopsis, color discrimination, pure-tone hearing, speech recognition, and sound localization). Mild birth stressors were strongly predictive of reduced visual acuity and stereoscopic discrimination, and mildly predictive for the other sensory measures. The fact that vision was more vulnerable to the effects of birth stress than audition may be due to the slower maturation of the visual system. Of the birth stressors examined, twinning was found to have the largest effect on sensory function, possibly because it often occurs conjointly with other birth stressors such as low birth weight, breech presentation, and breathing difficulty and may involve the use of birthing instruments such as forceps. PMID:8877623

  19. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  20. Risk Factors for Aspiration Pneumonia in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Toshie; Teramoto, Shinji; Tamiya, Nanako; Okochi, Jiro; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds Aspiration pneumonia is a dominant form of community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia, and a leading cause of death among ageing populations. However, the risk factors for developing aspiration pneumonia in older adults have not been fully evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to determine the risk factors for aspiration pneumonia among the elderly. Methodology and Principal Findings We conducted an observational study using data from a nationwide survey of geriatric medical and nursing center in Japan. The study subjects included 9930 patients (median age: 86 years, women: 76%) who were divided into two groups: those who had experienced an episode of aspiration pneumonia in the previous 3 months and those who had not. Data on demographics, clinical status, activities of daily living (ADL), and major illnesses were compared between subjects with and without aspiration pneumonia. Two hundred and fifty-nine subjects (2.6% of the total sample) were in the aspiration pneumonia group. In the univariate analysis, older age was not found to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia, but the following were: sputum suctioning (odds ratio [OR] = 17.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.16–22.62, p < 0.001), daily oxygen therapy (OR = 8.29, 95% CI: 4.39–15.65), feeding support dependency (OR = 8.10, 95% CI: 6.27–10.48, p < 0.001), and urinary catheterization (OR = 4.08, 95% CI: 2.81–5.91, p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk factors associated with aspiration pneumonia after propensity-adjustment (258 subjects each) were sputum suctioning (OR = 3.276, 95% CI: 1.910–5.619), deterioration of swallowing function in the past 3 months (OR = 3.584, 95% CI: 1.948–6.952), dehydration (OR = 8.019, 95% CI: 2.720–23.643), and dementia (OR = 1.618, 95% CI: 1.031–2.539). Conclusion The risk factors for aspiration pneumonia were sputum suctioning, deterioration of swallowing function, dehydration, and dementia

  1. Genetic risk factors of cisplatin induced ototoxicity in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Talach, T; Rottenberg, J; Gal, B; Kostrica, R; Jurajda, M; Kocak, I; Lakomy, R; Vogazianos, E

    2016-01-01

    Ototoxicity is an important adverse effect of using Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) (CDDP) as a form of chemotherapy. The clinical picture of CDDP induced ototoxicity includes perceptive hearing impairment (reversible or permanent) and tinnitus. Ototoxicity manifests with considerable variability between patients. The objective of this prospective study was to investigate a possible genetic background to this variability. We assessed ototoxicity induced by therapeutic doses of CDDP in adult patients with germinative testicular tumors, or other tumors treated with an identical CDDP dosage scheme. Audiological examination before, during and after the treatment has shown deterioration in hearing; first in the high-frequencies and with increased CDDP cumulative doses, impairment in other frequencies as well. Occurrence of tinnitus was not dependent on the administered dose of CDDP, or the other risk factors examined in this study. The association of CDDP induced ototoxicity with genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes was examined. Our study has demonstrated an association of early onset of CDDP induced ototoxicity with the presence of two copies of GSTT1 gene (p=0,009) and with T allele of rs9332377 polymorphism in COMT gene (p=0,001). PMID:26774148

  2. Overweight Status, Obesity, and Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, C. Michael; Robinson, Laura M.; Davidson, Philip W.; Haveman, Meindert; Janicki, Matthew P.; Albertini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have high rates of overweight status/obesity (OSO). OSO is associated with several important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). This study focused on assessing whether such risk factors are being identified in adults with ID who are receiving their healthcare in…

  3. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with

  4. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Among US Adolescents and Young Adults and Risk of Early Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Saydah, Sharon; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Geiss, Linda; Gregg, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the risk of mortality associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in a national sample of adolescents and young adults. METHODS Prospective study of participants in the third NHANES (1988–1994), aged 12 to 39 years at the time of the survey (n = 9245). Risk factors included 3 measures of adiposity, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, cholesterol levels, blood pressure, self-reported smoking status, and cotinine level. Death before age 55 (n = 298) was determined by linkage to the National Death Index through 2006. Proportional hazards models, with age as the time scale, were used to determine the risk of death before age 55 years after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, and presence of comorbid conditions. RESULTS After adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity, results of categorical analyses showed that current smokers were at 86% greater risk for early death than those classified as never smokers; that those with a waist-to-height ratio >0.65 were at 139% greater risk than those with a WHR <0.5; and that those with an HbA1c level >6.5% were at 281% greater risk than those with an HbA1c level <5.7%. Neither high-density lipoprotein nor non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol measures were associated with risk for early death. CONCLUSIONS Our finding that risk for death before age 55 among US adolescents and young adults was associated with central obesity, smoking, and hyperglycemia supports reducing the prevalence of these risk factors among younger US residents. PMID:23420920

  5. Childhood Conduct Problems and Other Early Risk Factors in Rural Adult Stimulant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.; Edlund, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Context: Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose: To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods: Adult cocaine and…

  6. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Trabert, Britton

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that exposures in utero or in early childhood are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolecence and adulthood are also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two occupational exposures—firefighting and aircraft maintenance—and one environmental exposure (to organochloride pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, six of the identified factors—diet, types of physical activity, military service as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide—are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures—to heat, polyvinylchloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use—require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer. PMID:22508459

  7. Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate ... X X X X X 1 For PCV13 vaccination of healthy children, see “Recommen- dations for Pneumococcal ...

  8. Risk factors for the development of complicated appendicitis in adults

    PubMed Central

    Naderan, Mohammad; Babaki, Amir Eslami Shahr; Shoar, Saeed; Mahmoodzadeh, Hossein; Nasiri, Shirzad; Khorgami, Zhamak

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the patient’s history and physical examination information to find out risk factors associated with complicated appendicitis. Material and Methods: Two hundred patients who were admitted with complicated appendicitis (including abscess, phlegmon, and generalized peritonitis) were retrieved from our database. Two hundred patients with non-complicated acute appendicitis were randomly selected from the same period. These two groups were compared in terms of demographic characteristics, past medical history, and presenting symptoms. We made a multivariate analysis model using binary logistic regression and backward stepwise elimination. Results: Based on multivariate analysis, risk factors for complicated appendicitis included presenting with epigastric pain (OR=3.44), diarrhea (OR=23.4) or malaise (OR=49.7), history of RLQ pain within the past 6 months (OR=4.93), older age (OR=1.04), being married (OR=2.52), lack of anorexia (OR=4.63) and longer interval between onset of symptoms and admission (OR=1.46). Conversely, higher (academic) education was associated with decreased odds for complicated appendicitis (OR=0.26). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that a surgeon’s clinical assessment is more reliable to make a judgment. “Bedside evaluation” is a useful, cheap, quick and readily available method for identifying those at risk for developing complicated acute appendicitis. PMID:26985166

  9. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among older Puerto Rican adults living in Massachusetts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There remains limited research on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Puerto Rican adults. We compared lifestyle and CVD risk factors in Puerto Rican men and women with normal fasting glucose (NFG), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or type 2 diabetes (T2D), and investigated achievement of Am...

  10. Risk Factors of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Logistic Regression Tree Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Takashi; Noe, Douglas A.; Bailer, A. John

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: A novel logistic regression tree-based method was applied to identify fall risk factors and possible interaction effects of those risk factors. Design and Methods: A nationally representative sample of American older adults aged 65 years and older (N = 9,592) in the Health and Retirement Study 2004 and 2006 modules was used.…

  11. Risk Factors for Unidirectional and Bidirectional Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Lynette M.; Whitney, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify common and unique risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adults in relationships. Guided by two models of IPV, the same set of risk factors was used to examine outcomes of unidirectional (perpetration or victimization) and bidirectional (reciprocal) IPV separately for males…

  12. Prevalence of risk factors of chronic kidney disease in adults.

    PubMed

    Kabir, M S; Dutta, P K; Islam, M N; Hasan, M J; Mondol, G

    2012-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emergent public health burden. Its prevalence varies country to country, even in different professional and social groups in the same country. In Bangladesh there is no reported nationwide survey but there are some reports of survey in disadvantageous and advantageous population. In this study 125 CKD patients (cases) and 125 age and sex matched healthy subjects (control) in Mymensingh Medical College, a tertiary hospital of Bangladesh were compared for the presence of non-modifiable [age, sex, family history of hypertension (HTN), Cardiovascular disease (CVD), family history of kidney disease and Socioeconomic condition] and modifiable [HTN, Diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking habit, and obesity] risk factors. The mean age of control was 43.5 ± 6.3 years and the mean age of CKD cases was 44.7 ± 12.7 years. Out of 125 patients of CKD, males were 96 in number (76.8%) and females were 29 in numbers (23.2%). Most of the patients (52.8%) were in poor socioeconomic status while most of controls were from middle class (68.8%). Most of the participants were in stage-3 CKD [67.2%, creatinine clearance (Ccr):36.74 ± 13.61 ml/min]. Glomerulonephritis was the dominant cause of CKD (67.2%) followed by diabetes (24%), hypertension (4.8%) and others (4%). 72.8% of CKD patients were smokers. Among CKD, 86.4% participants had hypertension and 26.4% had diabetes. The difference of hypertension, diabetes and Body mass index (BMI) between case and control group is statistically significant (p<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found with risk factor like family history of kidney diseases. This emphasizes risk factor identification in general population to early diagnose CKD. PMID:23134905

  13. Early Detection of Depression and Associated Risk Factors in Adults with Mild/Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, Jane A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presentation and risk factors for depression in adults with mild/moderate intellectual disability (ID). A sample of 151 adults (83 males and 68 females) participated in a semi-structured interview. According to results on the Beck Depression Inventory II, 39.1% of participants evinced symptoms of…

  14. Prevalence of Falls and Risk Factors in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of falls and risk factors for falls in 1,515 adults (greater than or equal to 18 years) with intellectual disability using baseline data from the Longitudinal Health and Intellectual Disability Study. Nearly 25% of adults from the study were reported to have had one or more falls in the past…

  15. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of periodontitis among adults with or without diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mihee; Kim, Hee Yeon; Seok, Hannah; Yeo, Chang Dong; Kim, Young Soo; Song, Jae Yen; Lee, Young Bok; Lee, Dong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Im; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Ahn, Hyo-Suk; Ko, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Chae, Hiun Suk; Sohn, Tae Seo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study examined prevalence and risk factors of periodontitis in representative samples of Korean adults, with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 4,477 adults (≥ 30 years old) were selected from 8,057 individuals who completed a nutrition survey, a self-reported general health behavior questionnaire, an oral examination, an oral hygiene behaviors survey, and laboratory tests. DM was defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, or self-reported diagnosed diabetes, or current use of oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin. The community periodontal index was used to assess periodontitis status and comparisons between the periodontitis and the non-periodontitis group, were performed, according to the presence of DM. Risk factors for periodontitis in adults with DM and without DM were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in adults with DM (43.7%) than in those without DM (25%, p < 0.001). In adults without DM, risk factors for periodontitis were older age, male, urban habitation, waist circumference, smoking, oral pain, and less frequent tooth brushing. Significant risk factors for periodontitis in adults with DM were the smoking, oral pain, and not-using an oral hygiene product. Conclusions: Adults with DM have an increased risk of periodontitis than those without DM. Current smoking and oral pain increase this risk. Using an oral hygiene product can reduce risk of periodontal disease in adults with DM. PMID:27604799

  17. Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Asthma in Chilean Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Corvalán, Camila; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Rona, Roberto J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and asthma symptoms, severity of asthma, atopy, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine. Methods. We studied 1232 men and women born between 1974 and 1978 in a semirural area of Chile. We assessed asthma symptoms with a standardized questionnaire, atopy with a skin-prick test to 8 allergens, and BHR to methacholine with the tidal breathing method. SES was derived from several indicators: education, occupation, completion of a welfare form, belongings, housing, number of siblings, and overcrowding. Results. Those with fewer belongings had more asthma symptoms. Those who had higher education and those who owned cars had fewer asthma symptoms and BHR. Overcrowding was negatively related to atopy, atopy with asthma symptoms, and BHR. Higher education and noncompletion of a welfare form were risk factors for atopy. Conclusion. The strength and direction of the association between asthma and SES depended on what definition of asthma was analyzed. Asthma symptoms were more common among poor people. There was some support for the hygiene hypothesis, as overcrowding was associated with less wheezing with atopy, less atopy, and less BHR. PMID:15985644

  18. Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in adults in Europe: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Antoni; Peetermans, Willy E; Viegi, Giovanni; Blasi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) causes considerable morbidity and mortality in adults, particularly in the elderly. Methods Structured searches of PubMed were conducted to identify up-to-date information on the incidence of CAP in adults in Europe, as well as data on lifestyle and medical risk factors for CAP. Results The overall annual incidence of CAP in adults ranged between 1.07 to 1.2 per 1000 person-years and 1.54 to 1.7 per 1000 population and increased with age (14 per 1000 person-years in adults aged ≥65 years). Incidence was also higher in men than in women and in patients with chronic respiratory disease or HIV infection. Lifestyle factors associated with an increased risk of CAP included smoking, alcohol abuse, being underweight, having regular contact with children and poor dental hygiene. The presence of comorbid conditions, including chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, dementia, dysphagia, HIV or chronic renal or liver disease all increased the risk of CAP by twofold to fourfold. Conclusion A range of lifestyle factors and underlying medical conditions are associated with an increased risk of CAP in European adults. Understanding of the types of individual at greatest risk of CAP can help to ensure that interventions to reduce the risk of infection and burden of disease are targeted appropriately. PMID:24130229

  19. Young Adult Exposure to Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Risk of Events Later in Life: The Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Pletcher, Mark J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Thanataveerat, Anusorn; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor exposure during early adulthood contributes to CHD risk later in life. Our objective was to analyze whether extent of early adult exposures to systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and low-and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, HDL) are independent predictors of CHD events later in life. Methods and Findings We used all available measurements of SBP, DBP, LDL, and HDL collected over 40 years in the Framingham Offspring Study to estimate risk factor trajectories, starting at age 20 years, for all participants. Average early adult (age 20–39) exposure to each risk factor was then estimated, and used to predict CHD events (myocardial infarction or CHD death) after age 40, with adjustment for risk factor exposures later in life (age 40+). 4860 participants contributed an average of 6.3 risk factor measurements from in-person examinations and 24.5 years of follow-up after age 40, and 510 had a first CHD event. Early adult exposures to high SBP, DBP, LDL or low HDL were associated with 8- to 30-fold increases in later life CHD event rates, but were also strongly correlated with risk factor levels later in life. After adjustment for later life levels and other risk factors, early adult DBP and LDL remained strongly associated with later life risk. Compared with DBP≤70 mmHg, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.8–5.7) for DBP = 71–80, 2.6 (0.9–7.2) for DBP = 81–90, and 3.6 (1.2–11) for DBP>90 (p-trend = 0.019). Compared with LDL≤100 mg/dl, adjusted HRs were 1.5 (0.9–2.6) for LDL = 101–130, 2.2 (1.2–4.0) for LDL = 131–160, and 2.4 (1.2–4.7) for LDL>160 (p-trend = 0.009). While current levels of SBP and HDL were also associated with CHD events, we did not detect an independent association with early adult exposure to either of these risk factors. Conclusions Using a mixed modeling approach to estimation of young adult exposures

  20. Diet quality is inversely related to cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the study was to determine if there was an association between diet quality and cardiovascular risk factors in adults. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2008 data were used to compare diet quality, as determined by using 2005 Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, and card...

  1. Nutritional Status and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease in Urban-Dwelling Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez, Sandra; Sheean, Patricia; Tomey, Kristin M.; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional status and biochemical risk factors for chronic disease were assessed in 48 community-dwelling adults with Down syndrome in the Chicago area. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire completed by the participant's primary caregiver; anthropometric measures included height and weight and waist circumference.…

  2. Running Away from Home: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Risk Factors and Young Adult Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the adolescent risk factors and young adult health-related outcomes associated with running away from home. We examined these correlates of running away using longitudinal data from 4,329 youth (48% female, 85% white) who were followed from Grade 9 to age 21. Nearly 14% of the sample reported running away in the past year at…

  3. Adverse childhood experiences among Hawai'i adults: Findings from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Survey.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dailin; Reyes-Salvail, Florentina

    2014-06-01

    The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among Hawai'i adults and their impact on the health of affected individuals are unknown. Aiming to provide Hawai'i State baseline information on ACEs and their associations with health conditions and risk behaviors, the 2010 Hawai'i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) included the ACE module. Using 5,928 survey respondents who completed the module, demographic attributes were estimated and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between ACEs and sixteen selected health indicators. In 2010, approximately 57.8% of Hawai'i adults reported experiencing at least one ACE. Native Hawaiians had the highest prevalence followed by Whites. Adults aged ≥ 65 years had the lowest prevalence on all ACEs. The prevalence of ACEs was inversely related to education and household income levels. Compared to those without ACEs, adults with ACEs had higher odds for a number of health conditions and risk behaviors. Moreover, as the number of ACEs increased, the odds for these health conditions and risk behaviors increased. Hawai'i adults with ACEs were more likely to report dissatisfaction with life compared to those without ACEs. Men were more likely to report having a family member in prison, while women were more likely to report experiencing sexual abuse. Recommendations include further research on the unbiased contributions of ACEs to diseases and risk behaviors, and the development of culturally-appropriate interventions to reduce the prevalence of ACEs in Hawai'i. PMID:24959392

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences Among Hawai‘i Adults: Findings from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dailin

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among Hawai‘i adults and their impact on the health of affected individuals are unknown. Aiming to provide Hawai‘i State baseline information on ACEs and their associations with health conditions and risk behaviors, the 2010 Hawai‘i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) included the ACE module. Using 5,928 survey respondents who completed the module, demographic attributes were estimated and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between ACEs and sixteen selected health indicators. In 2010, approximately 57.8% of Hawai‘i adults reported experiencing at least one ACE. Native Hawaiians had the highest prevalence followed by Whites. Adults aged ≥ 65 years had the lowest prevalence on all ACEs. The prevalence of ACEs was inversely related to education and household income levels. Compared to those without ACEs, adults with ACEs had higher odds for a number of health conditions and risk behaviors. Moreover, as the number of ACEs increased, the odds for these health conditions and risk behaviors increased. Hawai‘i adults with ACEs were more likely to report dissatisfaction with life compared to those without ACEs. Men were more likely to report having a family member in prison, while women were more likely to report experiencing sexual abuse. Recommendations include further research on the unbiased contributions of ACEs to diseases and risk behaviors, and the development of culturally-appropriate interventions to reduce the prevalence of ACEs in Hawai‘i. PMID:24959392

  5. Depression and Psychosocial Risk Factors among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Depression is the most common mental and emotional disorder that emerges in the late stages of life. It is closely associated with poor health, disability, mortality, and suicide. The study examines the risk factors of depression in late life, especially the psychosocial factors, among a sample comprising 162 community-dwelling Singaporean adults aged 65 years and above. An interview-based structured survey was conducted in multiple senior activity centers located in different parts of Singapore. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis show that 32.9% of the variance in geriatric depression can be explained by the three psychosocial factors, among which loneliness, perceived social support, and the emotional regulation component of resilience are significantly associated with depression in older adults. Large-scale studies should be conducted to confirm the findings of the present study, and to further examine the predictive effects of these psychosocial factors on depression among older adults. PMID:26428668

  6. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Duggirala Sivaram; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bhagabati Charan

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative. PMID:21976880

  7. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Their Clustering among Adults in Jilin (China)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianxing; Ma, Yonghui; Yang, Sen; Pang, Kai; Yu, Yaqin; Tao, Yuchun; Jin, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors constitutes a major public health challenge. Although a number of researchers have investigated the CVD risk factor clusters in China, little is known about the related prevalence and clustering associated with demographics in Jilin Province in China; this study aims to reveal that relationship. Methods: A cross-sectional survey based on a sample of 16,834 adults aged 18 to 79 years was conducted in Jilin in 2012. The prevalence and clustering of CVD risk factors were analysed through complex weighted computation. Quantitative variables were compared by the t test, and categorical variables were compared by the Rao-Scott-χ2 test. Finally, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the CVD risk factor clusters associated with demographics. Results: The prevalences of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight and smoking were 37.3%, 8.2%, 36.8%, 47.3%, and 31.0%, respectively, and these risk factors were associated with gender, education level, age, occupation and family income (p < 0.05). Overall, compared with females, the adjusted ORs of ≥1, ≥2 and ≥3 risk factors clusters in males were 3.70 (95%CI 3.26 to 4.20), 4.66 (95%CI 4.09 to 5.31), and 5.76 (95%CI 5.01 to 6.63), respectively. In particular, the adjusted ORs of ≥1, ≥2 and ≥3 risk factors increased with age. Conclusions: CVD risk factor clusters are common among adults in northeast China, and they constitute a major public health challenge. More effective attention and interventions should be directed toward the elderly and toward persons with lower incomes and low levels of education. PMID:26703706

  8. Risk factors for invasive fungal disease in critically ill adult patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Over 5,000 cases of invasive Candida species infections occur in the United Kingdom each year, and around 40% of these cases occur in critical care units. Invasive fungal disease (IFD) in critically ill patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality at a cost to both the individual and the National Health Service. In this paper, we report the results of a systematic review performed to identify and summarise the important risk factors derived from published multivariable analyses, risk prediction models and clinical decision rules for IFD in critically ill adult patients to inform the primary data collection for the Fungal Infection Risk Evaluation Study. Methods An internet search was performed to identify articles which investigated risk factors, risk prediction models or clinical decisions rules for IFD in critically ill adult patients. Eligible articles were identified in a staged process and were assessed by two investigators independently. The methodological quality of the reporting of the eligible articles was assessed using a set of questions addressing both general and statistical methodologies. Results Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria, of which eight articles examined risk factors, four developed a risk prediction model or clinical decision rule and one evaluated a clinical decision rule. Studies varied in terms of objectives, risk factors, definitions and outcomes. The following risk factors were found in multiple studies to be significantly associated with IFD: surgery, total parenteral nutrition, fungal colonisation, renal replacement therapy, infection and/or sepsis, mechanical ventilation, diabetes, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) or APACHE III score. Several other risk factors were also found to be statistically significant in single studies only. Risk factor selection process and modelling strategy also varied across studies, and sample sizes were inadequate for obtaining

  9. Early Life Environmental Exposures and Height, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Older Adults in India

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jessica Y.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposures like rainfall and temperature influence infectious disease exposure and nutrition, two key early life conditions linked to later life health. However, few tests of whether early life environmental exposures impact adult health have been performed, particularly in developing countries. This study examines the effects of experiencing rainfall and temperature shocks during gestation and up through the first four years after birth on measured height, hypertension, and other cardiovascular risk factors using data on adults aged 50 and above (N=1,036) from the 2007–2008 World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) and district-level meteorological data from India. Results from multivariate logistic regressions show that negative rainfall shocks during gestation and positive rainfall shocks during the post-birth period increase the risk of having adult hypertension and CVD risk factors. Exposure to negative rainfall shocks and positive temperature shocks in the post-birth period increases the likelihood of falling within the lowest height decile. Prenatal shocks may influence nutrition in utero, while postnatal shocks may increase exposure to infectious diseases and malnutrition. The results suggest that gestation and the first two years after birth are critical periods when rainfall and temperature shocks take on increased importance for adult health. PMID:26266969

  10. Risk Factors and Protective Factors in Relation to Subjective Health among Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between risk and protective factors and health outcome in a sample of adult females who had been victims of child sexual abuse. Method: Both person- and variable-oriented analyses were applied to questionnaire data from a non-clinical group of women (n=152) reporting sexual abuse during childhood.…

  11. Risk factor profiles among intravenous drug using young adults: a latent class analysis (LCA) approach.

    PubMed

    James, Sigrid; McField, Edward S; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2013-03-01

    Using data from a cross-sectional study that examined health risk behaviors among urban intravenous drug-using (IDU) adolescents and young adults, this study investigated risk profiles among a high-risk sample (n=274). Risk profiles were empirically derived through latent class analysis based on indicators of engagement in health-risking behaviors, experience of abuse and violence as well as individual and family risk factors. The best fitting model was a 3-class model. Class 1 (n=95) captured participants with the lowest risk across all indicators. Compared to Class 1, Class 2 (n=128) and Class 3 (n=51) had elevated rates of engagement in health-risking behaviors as well as individual and family risk factors; however, Class 3 had the highest rate of engagement in sexual risk behavior, and backgrounds of substantial abuse and violence as well as familial psychopathology. Class 2 was the group most socioeconomically disadvantaged, with the highest percentage of participants coming from poor backgrounds, spending the longest time homeless and working the fewest months. Identifying subgroups of IDU has the potential to guide the development of more targeted and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this high-risk population. PMID:23254231

  12. Risk Factor Profiles among Intravenous Drug Using Young Adults: A Latent Class Analysis (LCA) Approach

    PubMed Central

    James, Sigrid; McField, Edward S.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from a cross-sectional study that examined health risk behaviors among urban intravenous drug-using (IDU) adolescents and young adults, this study investigated risk profiles among a high-risk sample (n=274). Risk profiles were empirically derived through latent class analysis based on indicators of engagement in health-risking behaviors, experience of abuse and violence as well as individual and family risk factors. The best fitting model was a 3-class model. Class 1 (n=95) captured participants with the lowest risk across all indicators. Compared to Class 1, Class 2 (n=128) and Class 3 (n=51) had elevated rates of engagement in health-risking behaviors as well as individual and family risk factors; however, Class 3 had the highest rate of engagement in sexual risk behavior, and backgrounds of substantial abuse and violence as well as familial psychopathology. Class 2 was the group most socioeconomically disadvantaged, with the highest percentage of participants coming from poor backgrounds, spending the longest time homeless and working the fewest months. Identifying subgroups of IDU has the potential to guide the development of more targeted and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this high-risk population. PMID:23254231

  13. Risk factors for opioid misuse in adolescents and young adults with focus on oncology setting.

    PubMed

    Peck, Kelly R; Ehrentraut, Jennifer Harman; Anghelescu, Doralina L

    2016-01-01

    Prescription opioid use has increased in recent decades. Although opioids provide effective pain control, their use may be associated with the risk of misuse. Opioid misuse (OM) is prevalent among adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Opioids are necessary to treat cancer-related pain; however, oncology patients are not immune to medication misuse. Research examining OM among AYAs with cancer is scarce. This article examines the risk factors described in the general adult and adolescent medication abuse literature and aims to provide recommendations for practice in the AYA oncology population. The following risk factors should be examined in AYA oncology patients to determine their relevance: age, sex, behavioral and academic problems, psychological conditions, and a history of illicit drug use/abuse. To maintain the delicate balance of providing adequate pain relief while protecting patients from the risk of OM, clinicians must consider potential risk factors, motivating factors, and individual behaviors. Placing these challenges in perspective, this review provides clinical considerations, recommendations, and intervention strategies for OM prevention in AYA oncology patients. PMID:27435441

  14. Metabolic syndrome and its associated risk factors in Iranian adults: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex clustering cardiovascular risk factors such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dylipedemia. It has been a growing health problem in Iranian adults in recent decade. The objective of this article was to review the prevalence of MetS and the corresponding risk factors among Iranian adults. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to extract the published articles regarding metabolic syndrome and its risk factors among Iranian adults aged >19 years by searching in PubMed, Google Scholar, SID, Magiran and Iranmedex databases. The forty-three published articles were selected regarding MetS among Iranian adults in this review during 2005-2014. Results: From the 43 studies, the rate of MetS varied from 10% to 60% depending on sex, age and region. The highest rate reported among postmenopausal women in Shiraz was over 60%. There was almost a consistent finding that the rate of MetS was higher among women compared with men across national level except in one study. A very sharp difference (43.3% vs. 17.1%) was observed in western Iran (Kordestan province) between sexes. MetS was significantly more prevalent among older adults, postmenopausal women, less-educated people, those living in urban areas and those with low physical activity and unhealthy eating habits across national level consistently. Conclusion: An emerging high rate of MetS across national level highlights the lifestyle modification as preventive measures in Iranian population by focusing primarily on high risk profiles such as low socioeconomic background, low level of education, older age and postmenopausal women. PMID:26221500

  15. Childhood Conduct Problems and Other Early Risk Factors in Rural Adult Stimulant Users

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.; Edlund, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Context Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods Adult cocaine and methamphetamine users (N=544) in rural Arkansas and Kentucky were interviewed. Data were analyzed using both bivariate analyses and multiple logistic and log-linear regression models, with dependent variables being any substance abuse/dependence, stimulant abuse/dependence, total number of arrests since age 18 and days incarcerated since age 18. Findings One-third reported three or more conduct disorder problems prior to age 15; half reported initiation of substances (excluding alcohol) before age 15; and 60% reported family history of substance problems. All three variables were associated with adult substance abuse/dependence but only the latter two were associated with stimulant abuse/dependence. Conclusions This study highlights early risk factors for adult substance abuse/dependence among rural stimulant users. PMID:19166561

  16. Arterial Hypertension and other risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among adults1

    PubMed Central

    Radovanovic, Cremilde Aparecida Trindade; dos Santos, Lucimary Afonso; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence of arterial hypertension and its association with cardiovascular risk factors among adults. METHOD: cross-sectional, population-based, descriptive study conducted with 408 adult individuals. Data were collected through a questionnaire and measurements of weight, height and waist circumference. Person's Chi-square and multiple logistic regression were used in the data analysis. RESULTS: 23.03% of the individuals reported hypertension with a higher prevalence among women. Odds Ratio indicated that smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia were positively associated with arterial hypertension. CONCLUSION: high self-reported hypertension and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia show the need for specific nursing interventions and the implementation of protocols focused on minimizing complications arising from hypertension, as well as to prevent the emergence of other cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25296137

  17. Risk factors for development of asthma in Thai adults in Phitsanulok: a university-based study.

    PubMed

    Uthaisangsook, Suwannee

    2010-03-01

    Studies have shown that asthma in children is caused by environmental and genetic factors. In adult asthma, risk factors were less well recognized. Likewise, in Thailand, data in adult asthma is limited. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors, determine skin reactivities to allergens, and assess concomitant allergy among adult asthma in Phitsanulok, a major city in the lower northern Thailand. Five hundred and thirteen Naresuan University staff members and students completed 2 sets of questionnaires and underwent allergy skin prick tests. The first set of questionnaires was standardized Thai version of ISAAC questionnaire for identifying asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema. The second set was modified from ISAAC phase II questionnaire to identify asthma risk factors. Fifty-eight subjects (11.6%) were identified as having physician's diagnosed asthma and 89 subjects (17.7%) wheezed in the past 12 months. Among 89 subjects, 14.4% wheezed more than once a month, 45.6% had wheezes interfering with sleep. Concomitant allergic rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema among these asthma subjects were 82.5%, 67.9%, and 14.9%, respectively. Eighty seven point nine percent of asthmatic subjects had positive skin reactivities to at least one allergen. Two of the most common allergens were house dust mites and cockroaches. Maternal smoking during pregnancy, smoking among family members, and family history of allergy were statistically significant risks for developing asthma, while having a rice field around the residence represented a significant protective factor. In conclusion, high prevalence of asthma presented in Phitsanulok and many asthmatic subjects were partly controlled or uncontrolled. The environment such as a rice field could protect against asthma, however atopy and smoking exposure were significant risks for asthma development PMID:20527512

  18. Falls, Depression, and Other Hospitalization Risk Factors for Adults in Residential Care Facilities.

    PubMed

    Gimm, Gilbert W; Kitsantas, Panagiota

    2016-06-01

    Prior research has shown a relationship between falls, hospitalizations, and depression among older adults in nursing home settings, but few studies have explored these relationships for younger and older adults in residential care facilities. This study examined risk factors for hospitalizations among assisted living residents. Using the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities, the study found that 24% of residents had a hospital stay in the past year. Residents with falls were more than twice as likely to have a hospitalization. For younger residents, depression was a key risk factor (OR = 1.74, p < .01). However, older residents with dementia had a lower risk of hospitalization (OR = 0.71, p < .01). More attention is needed to prevent falls and identify residents with depression and severe mental illness, who are at greater risk of hospitalization. Reducing avoidable hospitalizations can improve well-being for older and younger adults in residential care facilities. PMID:27147680

  19. The role of biochemical risk factors in the etiology of AIS in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Kopyta, Ilona; Zimny, Mikołaj; Sarecka-Hujar, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is an abrupt onset of both focal and global neurological deficits secondary to a vascular event lasting more than 24 h and with a vascular background as its only cause. It can be triggered by a rupture of a blood vessel, aneurysm (hemorrhagic stroke, HS), thrombosis or embolisms (ischemic stroke, IS). In developed countries, it is the third most common cause of death in the adult population. Stroke in children is a rare disorder with a reported frequency of about 3 cases per 100,000 children per year. The history of acute brain ischemia is burdened with neurological complications such as motor impairment, speech impairment and intellectual delay. Moreover, in children after AIS seizures and epilepsy are also quite common. Stroke is a heterogeneous disorder; its risk factors in adults are well known, however, in pediatrics, in more than 20% cases, the cause of stroke is impossible to determine. Due to the fact that stroke usually arises as a consequence of the cerebral thrombosis, many of the mechanisms responsible for its occurrence can be considered as risk factors. We have reviewed the recent case-control studies conducted on pediatric patients regarding biochemical risk factors such as elevated levels of homocysteine, fibrinogen, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, lipoprotein(a), cholesterol and its fractions, and compared them with the results obtained from adult patients. PMID:25428197

  20. Is pessimism a risk factor for depressive mood among community-dwelling older adults?

    PubMed

    Isaacowitz, D M; Seligman, M E

    2001-03-01

    This study examined two senses in which pessimism might be a risk factor for depressive mood among older adults. The first was that a pessimistic explanatory style would predict changes toward depressive mood when combined with stressful life events. The second was that predictive pessimism, or thinking that bad events will happen in the future, would predict changes in depressive symptoms. We found an interaction between explanatory style and life stressors, but it was the optimists who were at higher risk for depressive symptoms after negative life events. We also found support for predictive pessimism, however, as a predictor of depressive symptoms over time. PMID:11227808

  1. Applying the Gender Lens to Risk Factors and Outcome after Adult Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Eifert, Sandra; Guethoff, Sonja; Kaczmarek, Ingo; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Seeland, Ute; Gulbins, Helmut; Seeburger, Jörg; Deutsch, Oliver; Jungwirth, Bettina; Katsari, Elpiniki; Dohmen, Pascal; Pfannmueller, Bettina; Hultgren, Rebecka; Schade, Ina; Kublickiene, Karolina; Mohr, Friedrich W.; Gansera, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Applying the gender lens to risk factors and outcome after adult cardiac surgery is of major clinical interest, as the inclusion of sex and gender in research design and analysis may guarantee more comprehensive cardiovascular science and may consecutively result in a more effective surgical treatment as well as cost savings in cardiac surgery. Methods We have reviewed classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking) according to a gender-based approach. Furthermore, we have examined comorbidities such as depression, renal insufficiency, and hormonal influences in regard to gender. Gender-sensitive economic aspects have been evaluated, surgical outcome has been analyzed, and cardiovascular research has been considered from a gender perspective. Results The influence of typical risk factors and outcome after cardiac surgery has been evaluated from a gender perspective, and the gender-specific distribution of these risk factors is reported on. The named comorbidities are listed. Economic aspects demonstrated a gender gap. Outcome after coronary and valvular surgeries as well as after heart transplantation are displayed in this regard. Results after postoperative use of intra-aortic balloon pump are shown. Gender-related aspects of clinical and biomedical cardiosurgical research are reported. Conclusions Female gender has become an independent risk factor of survival after the majority of cardiosurgical procedures. Severely impaired left ventricular ejection fraction independently predicts survival in men, whereas age does in females. PMID:26288584

  2. Contribution of Major Lifestyle Risk Factors for Incident Heart Failure in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Del Gobbo, Liana C.; Kalantarian, Shadi; Imamura, Fumiaki; Lemaitre, Rozenn; Siscovick, David S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to determine the relative contribution of major lifestyle factors on the development of heart failure (HF) in older adults. Background HF incurs high morbidity, mortality, and health care costs among adults ≥65 years of age, which is the most rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population. Methods We prospectively investigated separate and combined associations of lifestyle risk factors with incident HF (1,380 cases) over 21.5 years among 4,490 men and women in the Cardiovascular Health Study, which is a community-based cohort of older adults. Lifestyle factors included 4 dietary patterns (Alternative Healthy Eating Index, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, an American Heart Association 2020 dietary goals score, and a Biologic pattern, which was constructed using previous knowledge of cardiovascular disease dietary risk factors), 4 physical activity metrics (exercise intensity, walking pace, energy expended in leisure activity, and walking distance), alcohol intake, smoking, and obesity. Results No dietary pattern was associated with developing HF (p > 0.05). Walking pace and leisure activity were associated with a 26% and 22% lower risk of HF, respectively (pace >3 mph vs. <2 mph; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63 to 0.86; leisure activity ≥845 kcal/week vs. <845 kcal/week; HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.87). Modest alcohol intake, maintaining a body mass index <30 kg/m2, and not smoking were also independently associated with a lower risk of HF. Participants with ≥4 healthy lifestyle factors had a 45% (HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.74) lower risk of HF. Heterogeneity by age, sex, cardiovascular disease, hypertension medication use, and diabetes was not observed. Conclusions Among older U.S. adults, physical activity, modest alcohol intake, avoiding obesity, and not smoking, but not dietary patterns, were associated with a lower risk of HF. PMID:26160366

  3. Dysfunctional breathing phenotype in adults with asthma - incidence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormal breathing patterns may cause characteristic symptoms and impair quality of life. In a cross-sectional survey 29% of adults treated for asthma in primary care had symptoms suggestive of dysfunctional breathing (DB), more likely to be female and younger, with no differences for severity of asthma. No clear risk factors were demonstrated for DB in asthma, nor the impact of asthma medication was evaluated. The objective of this study was to describe the DB phenotype in adults with asthma treated in a specialised asthma centre. Methods Adult patients aged 17–65 with diagnosed asthma were screened for DB using the Nijmegen questionnaire (positive predictive score >23) and confirmed by progressive exercise testing. The following were evaluated as independent risk factors for DB in the multiple regression analysis: female sex; atopy, obesity, active smoker, moderate/severe rhinitis, psychopathology, GERD, arterial hypertension; severe asthma, asthma duration > 5 years, lack of asthma control, fixed airway obstruction, fast lung function decline, frequent exacerbator and brittle asthma phenotypes; lack of ICS, use of LABA or LTRA. Results 91 adults with asthma, mean age 35.04 ±1.19 years, 47(51.65%) females were evaluated. 27 (29.67%) subjects had a positive screening score on Nijmegen questionnaire and 16(17.58%) were confirmed by progressive exercise testing as having DB. Independent risk factors for DB were psychopathology (p = 0.000002), frequent exacerbator asthma phenotype (p = 0.01) and uncontrolled asthma (p < 0.000001). Conclusion Dysfunctional breathing is not infrequent in asthma patients and should be evaluated in asthma patients presenting with psychopathology, frequent severe asthma exacerbations or uncontrolled asthma. Asthma medication (ICS, LABA or LTRA) had no significant relation with dysfunctional breathing. PMID:22992302

  4. A meta-analysis of risk factors for depression in adults and children after natural disasters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of studies have shown a range of negative psychological symptoms (e.g. depression) after exposure to natural disasters. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for depression in both children and adults who have survived natural disasters. Methods Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsychInfo) were used to search for observational studies (case–control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies) about depression following natural disasters. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted independently by two authors. Thirty-one articles were included in the study, of which twenty included adult participants and eleven included child participants. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias tests were performed on the data. Results The prevalence of depression after natural disasters ranged from 5.8% to 54.0% in adults and from 7.5% to 44.8% in children. We found a number of risk factors for depression after exposure to natural disasters. For adults, the significant predictors were being female ;not married;holding religious beliefs; having poor education; prior trauma; experiencing fear, injury, or bereavement during the disaster; or losing employment or property, suffering house damage as a result of the disaster. For children, the significant predictors were prior trauma; being trapped during the disaster; experiencing injury, fear, or bereavement during the disaster; witnessing injury/death during the disaster; or having poor social support. Conclusions The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for depression in survivors of natural disasters. Further research is necessary to design interventions to improve the mental health of survivors of natural disasters. PMID:24941890

  5. Occupational and environmental risk factors of adult primary brain cancers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J; Al Zayadi, A; Guzman, A

    2011-04-01

    The incidence of brain neoplasm has been progressively increasing in recent years in the industrialized countries. One of the reasons for this increased incidence could be better access to health care and improved diagnosis in the industrialized countries. It also appears that Caucasians have a higher incidence than blacks or Hispanics or Asians. A number of risk factors have been identified and described including the genetic, ethnic and age-based factors. Certain occupational and environmental factors are also believed to influence the risk of primary adult brain tumors. Potential occupational and environmental factors include exposure to diagnostic and therapeutic radiations, electromagnetic radiation from cellular phones and other wireless devices, infectious agents, air pollution and residence near landfills and high-voltage power lines and jobs as firefighters, farmers, physician, chemists and jobs in industries such as petrochemical, power generation, synthetic rubber manufacturing, agricultural chemicals manufacturing. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine occupational and environmental risk factors of brain neoplasm. A range of occupational and environmental exposures are evaluated for significance of their relationship with adult primary brain tumors. On the basis of this review we suggest a concurrent evaluation of multiple risk factors both within and beyond occupational and environmental domains. The concurrent approach needs to consider better exposure assessment techniques, lifetime occupational exposures, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and lifestyle and dietary habits. This approach needs to be interdisciplinary with contributions from neurologists, oncologists, epidemiologists and molecular biologists. Conclusive evidence that has eluded multitude of studies with single focus and single exposure needs to multifaceted and multidisciplinary. PMID:23022824

  6. Yoga lifestyle intervention reduces blood pressure in HIV-infected adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Cade, Todd; Reeds, Dominic N.; Mondy, Kristin E.; Overton, Turner; Grassino, Joseph; Tucker, Shawn; Bopp, Coco; Laciny, Erin; Hubert, Sara; Lassa-Claxton, Sherry; Yarasheski, Kevin E.

    2009-01-01

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Safe and effective interventions for lowering CVD risk in HIV are high priorities. Objective We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study to evaluate whether a yoga lifestyle intervention improves CVD risk factors, virologic or immunologic status, or quality of life in HIV-infected adults more than in a matched control group. Methods Sixty HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk were assigned to 20 wks of supervised yoga practice or standard of care treatment. Baseline and week 20 measures were; 2hr-oral glucose tolerance test with insulin monitoring, body composition, fasting serum lipid/lipoprotein profile, resting blood pressures, CD4+ T-cell number and plasma HIV RNA, and the Medical Outcomes Study SF-36 health-related quality of life inventory. Results Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures were reduced more (p=0.04) in the yoga group (−5±2 and −3±1 mmHg) than in the standard of care group (+1±2 and +2±2 mmHg), despite no greater reduction in body weight, fat mass, proatherogenic lipids, or improvements in glucose tolerance or overall quality of life after yoga. Immune and virologic status was not adversely affected. Conclusion Among traditional lifestyle modifications, yoga is a low cost, simple to administer, non-pharmacological, popular behavioral intervention that can lower blood pressure in pre-hypertensive HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk factors. PMID:20059570

  7. Adult versus adolescent onset of smoking: how are mood disorders and other risk factors involved?

    PubMed Central

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Landolt, Karin; Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Gutzwiller, Felix; Rössler, Wulf

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the strength of association between smoking and mood disorders and the association between smoking and its traditional risk factors, comparing those who started smoking in adolescence with those who started smoking in early adulthood. Design and participants The analyses relied on prospective data from the Zurich Study. This longitudinal community study started in 1979 with a stratified sample of 591 participants aged 20/21 years, weighted towards those with mental disorders. Follow-up interviews were conducted at ages 23, 28, 30, 35 and 41. Measurements In this analysis the adult versus adolescent onset of smoking was regressed on the cumulative prevalence of mood disorders, personality characteristics measured by the Freiburg Personality Inventory, common risk factors such as parental smoking, conduct and school problems, troubles with the family and basic sociodemographic variables (sex, education). Findings In the Zurich Study cohort we found that 61.6% were former or current smokers, of whom 87% started smoking before the age of 20 and 13% after the age of 20. Adolescent onset of smoking was associated strongly with later major depression, dysthymia or bipolar disorders and, furthermore, with parental smoking, extroverted personality and discipline problems and rebelliousness in youth. However, only depression and dysthymia were associated with adult onset smoking and other risk factors associated with smoking were not so associated in this group. Conclusions Correlates of smoking onset in adolescence are mainly not applicable to the onset of smoking in young adulthood. Smoking onset beyond adolescence is an open research issue. PMID:19624327

  8. Adult Mortality Attributable to Preventable Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases and Injuries in Japan: A Comparative Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Nayu; Inoue, Manami; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ikeda, Shunya; Satoh, Toshihiko; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Imano, Hironori; Saito, Eiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Naghavi, Mohsen; Ezzati, Majid; Shibuya, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking and high blood pressure are the two major risk factors for adult mortality from non-communicable diseases and injuries in Japan. There is a large potential population health gain if multiple risk factors are jointly controlled. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:22291576

  9. Problem gambling patterns among Australian young adults: Associations with prospective risk and protective factors and adult adjustment.

    PubMed

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Toumbourou, John W; Dowling, Nicki A

    2016-04-01

    There is instability in the developmental course of problem gambling [PG] over time; however, studies that examine PG at an aggregate level obscure these variations. The current study employed data from a longitudinal study of Australian young adults to investigate: 1) PG patterns (i.e., resistance, persistence, desistence, and new incidence); 2) prospective risk and protective factors for these patterns; and 3) behavioural outcomes associated with these patterns. A sample of 2261 young adults (55.73% female) from Victoria, Australia, who were part of the International Youth Development Study completed a survey in 2010 (T1, age 21) and 2012 (T2, age 23) measuring PG (two items based on established measures), risk and protective factors, and behavioural outcomes. The majority of the sample (91.69%) were resistors (no PG at T1 and T2), 3.62% were new incidence PG cases, 2.63% were desistors (PG at T1 but not T2), and 2.07% reported persistent PG at T1 and T2. Individual civic activism was protective of new incidence PG, while affiliation with antisocial peers and frequent alcohol use increased the risk of persistence. Persistent problem gamblers also experienced the greatest number of poor behavioural outcomes at T2. New incidence was associated with internalising symptoms at T2, while desistance was not associated with any behavioural outcomes. In conclusion, each PG pattern was associated with different predictors and outcomes, highlighting the need to consider variation in the course of young adult PG in order to provide efficacious prevention and intervention approaches, and to protect against relapse. PMID:26790138

  10. Sociodemographic and Health-Related Risk Factors Associated with Tooth Loss Among Adults in Rhode Island

    PubMed Central

    Okoro, Catherine A.; Oh, Junhie; Fuller, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being. Very little Rhode Island state-level information exists on the determinants of tooth loss. The objective of this study was to systematically identify sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, health conditions and disabilities, and dental insurance coverage associated with tooth loss among noninstitutionalized adults in Rhode Island. Methods We analyzed Rhode Island’s 2008 and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data in 2011. The survey had 4 response categories for tooth loss: none, 1 to 5, 6 or more but not all, and all. We used multinomial logistic regression models to assess the relationship between 4 risk factor domains and tooth loss. Results An estimated 57.6% of Rhode Island adults had all their teeth, 28.9% had 1 to 5 missing teeth, 8.9% had 6 to 31 missing teeth, and 4.6% were edentulous. Respondents who had low income, low education, unhealthy behaviors (ie, were former or current smokers and did not engage in physical activity), chronic conditions (ie, diabetes and obesity) or disabilities, and no dental insurance coverage were more likely to have fewer teeth compared with their referent groups. However, the association of these variables with tooth loss was not uniform by age group. Conclusion Adults who report risky health behaviors or impaired health may be considered target subpopulations for prevention of tooth loss and promotion of good oral health. PMID:23537519

  11. An Investigation into the Lifestyle, Health Habits and Risk Factors of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Lyons, Mark; Dodd, Lorna J.; Al-Nuaim, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    This project examined the lifestyle, health habits and risk factors of young adults at Qatar University. It explored the clustering and differences in dietary habits, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA) amongst male and female students, both Qatari and non-Qatari. Seven hundred thirty two students aged 18–25 years completed a self-reported questionnaire and an objective measure of BMI. Males and females had a high prevalence of being overweight and obesity and low levels of PA, according to well-established international standards. Three clusters were identified based on the students’ lifestyle and dietary habits. Cluster 1 (high risk factors) included those who engaged the least in healthy dietary practices and consumed the most unhealthy foods, participated in less PA and had the highest BMI. Cluster 2 (moderate risk factors) included those with considerably more habits falling into the moderate category, engagement in the most PA, the least TV and computer viewing time and had the lowest BMI. Cluster 3 (low risk factors) included those who engaged the most with the four healthy dietary practices, the least with the four unhealthy dietary practices and participated in moderate PA per week. This project provides valuable data that could be used by policy makers to address issues concerning student’s health. PMID:25913183

  12. Clustering of Risk Factors With Smoking Habits Among Adults, Sousse, Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Harrabi, Imed; Hmad, Sonia; Belkacem, Mylene; al’Absi, Mustafa; Lando, Harry; Ghannem, Hassen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In Tunisia, few studies have assessed the association between tobacco use and other lifestyle risk factors for chronic disease (eg, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity). We studied 1,880 adults to determine the association between tobacco use and other lifestyle risk factors in Tunisia. Methods This study was part of an assessment of the prevalence of chronic disease risk factors in a community-based trial conducted in 2009 to implement a chronic disease prevention program. The study population was randomly selected from 3 districts of the region of Sousse. The questionnaires were administered by personal interview and included the assessment of tobacco use and other chronic disease risk factors such as unhealthful diet habits and physical inactivity. Results Of the 1,880 study participants, 64% were women. The mean age of the participants was 37.9 (standard deviation, 13.5 y). The prevalence of tobacco use in our population was 50.4% for men and 3.1% for women. Among men, the proportion of alcohol consumption was significantly higher among smokers (25.3% vs 5.7% [P <.001]). Smokers consumed fewer fruits and vegetables and more high-fat, high-salt, and high-sugar foods than did nonsmokers. There was no significant difference between male smokers and nonsmokers regarding physical activity (P = .36). Conclusion Physical activity and dietary characteristics may be important areas for physicians to assess during smoking-cessation interventions. PMID:24355104

  13. Risk factors for unfavorable outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis in adults in Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yung-Feng; Yen, Muh-Yong; Shih, Hsiu-Chen; Deng, Chung-Yeh

    2012-05-01

    This study was undertaken to identify factors associated with unfavorable outcomes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Taipei, Taiwan in 2007-2008. Taiwanese adults with culture-positive PTB diagnosed in Taipei during the study period were included in this retrospective cohort study. Unfavorable outcomes were classified as treatment default, death, treatment failure, or transfer. Of 1616 eligible patients, 22.6% (365) had unfavorable outcomes, mainly death. After controlling for patient sociodemographic factors, clinical findings, and underlying disease, independent risk factors for unfavorable outcomes included advanced age, unemployment, end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis, malignancy, acid-fast bacilius smear-positivity, multidrug-resistant TB, and notification from ordinary ward or intensive care unit. In contrast, patients receiving directly observed treatment, and with a high school or higher education were significantly less likely to have unfavorable outcomes. This study advanced our understanding by revealing that a high school or higher education might lower the risk of an unfavorable outcome. Our results also confirmed the risk factors for unfavorable outcomes shown in previous research. Future TB control programmes in Taiwan should target particularly high-risk patients including those who had lower educational levels. PMID:22387265

  14. An investigation into the lifestyle, health habits and risk factors of young adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Lyons, Mark; Dodd, Lorna J; Al-Nuaim, Anwar

    2015-04-01

    This project examined the lifestyle, health habits and risk factors of young adults at Qatar University. It explored the clustering and differences in dietary habits, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA) amongst male and female students, both Qatari and non-Qatari. Seven hundred thirty two students aged 18-25 years completed a self-reported questionnaire and an objective measure of BMI. Males and females had a high prevalence of being overweight and obesity and low levels of PA, according to well-established international standards. Three clusters were identified based on the students' lifestyle and dietary habits. Cluster 1 (high risk factors) included those who engaged the least in healthy dietary practices and consumed the most unhealthy foods, participated in less PA and had the highest BMI. Cluster 2 (moderate risk factors) included those with considerably more habits falling into the moderate category, engagement in the most PA, the least TV and computer viewing time and had the lowest BMI. Cluster 3 (low risk factors) included those who engaged the most with the four healthy dietary practices, the least with the four unhealthy dietary practices and participated in moderate PA per week. This project provides valuable data that could be used by policy makers to address issues concerning student's health. PMID:25913183

  15. Prevalence of isolated diastolic hypertension and associated risk factors among adults in Kanpur, India

    PubMed Central

    Midha, Tanu; Lalchandani, Arati; Nath, Bhola; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Pandey, Umeshwar

    2012-01-01

    Background Isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) is a largely unrecognized subtype of hypertension, more commonly seen in the younger age group. Aims (1) To determine the prevalence of IDH in the adult population of Kanpur district. (2) To study the associated risk factors of IDH. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 801 subjects, aged 20 years and above, using multistage stratified random sampling technique. Results The prevalence of IDH was 4.5%, which was 6.2% in men and 3.1% in women. A significant proportion of IDH was seen in the 40–49 years age group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the associated risk factors showed that gender, physical activity and BMI were significantly associated with IDH. Conclusion Isolated diastolic hypertension is an emerging problem in developing countries. IDH is more common among men, sedentary individuals and those with a higher BMI. PMID:22929820

  16. Falling and fall risk factors in adults with haemophilia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Sammels, M; Vandesande, J; Vlaeyen, E; Peerlinck, K; Milisen, K

    2014-11-01

    Falls are a particular risk in persons with haemophilia (PWH) because of damaged joints, high risk of bleeding, possible impact on the musculoskeletal system and functioning and costs associated with treatment for these fall-related injuries. In addition, fall risk increases with age and PWH are increasingly entering the over 65 age group. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of falls during the past year and to explore which fall risk factors are present in community-dwelling PWH. Dutch speaking community-dwelling adults were included from the age of 40 years with severe or moderate haemophilia A or B, independent in their mobility and registered at the University Hospitals Leuven. They were asked to come to the haemophilia centre; otherwise a telephone survey was conducted. Demographic and social variables, medical variables, fall evaluation and clinical variables were queried. From the 89 PWH, 74 (83.1%) participated in the study. Twenty-four (32.4%) fell in the past year, and 10 of them (41.7%) more than once with an average of four falls. Living conditions, physical activity, avoidance of winter sports due to fear of falling, orthopaedic status, urinary incontinence and mobility impairments are potential fall risk factors in adult PWH. This exploratory study indicates that PWH are attentive to falling since they are at higher risk for falls and because of the serious consequences it might have. Screening and fall prevention should be stimulated in the daily practice of haemophilia care. PMID:25354771

  17. Aerobic exercise improves cognition for older adults with glucose intolerance, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, Laura D; Frank, Laura L; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A; Plymate, Stephen R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Duncan, Glen E; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57-83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-β (Aβ40 and Aβ42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p=0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p=0.01). For Aβ42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p=0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline. PMID:20847403

  18. Psychological consequences and associated risk factors among adult survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008, a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Wenchuan, China. Following this disaster, several studies were conducted which assessed the degree of mental disorders in the affected population, but very few considered that several disorders may occur at the same time. This paper aims to investigate the psychological effects and risk factors among adult survivors one-year after the earthquake event. Methods 2080 adult earthquake survivors from 19 counties in the affected areas were interviewed. A stratified sampling strategy was used to collect the information. Earthquake survivors completed self-report questionnaires, which included a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist, a self-rating depression scale and a self-rating anxiety scale. Results Fifty nine percent of the participants were male. The prevalence of probable PTSD in the sample was 40.1% (based on the DSM-IV criteria). Significant differences in the demographic variables were found in the levels of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Anxiety levels were found to be positively correlated with depression (r = 0.438, p < 0.01) and PTSD (r = 0.322, p < 0.01). Risk factors for each symptom were also identified. Being female, having a low income level and having a low perceived level of social support were found to be the risk factors associated with anxiety, depression, and PTSD. There appeared to be no obvious relationship between the distance from the epicenter of the earthquake event and the severity of the psychological problems. Conclusions PTSD, anxiety, and depression were prevalent among the survivors. Most findings on the predictors were found to be consistent with current research. Positive adjustment and social support were found to be needed for the highest-risk population. PMID:24779914

  19. Risk factors for syngeneic graft-versus-host disease after adult hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kristina M; Holmberg, Leona A; Leisenring, Wendy; Fefer, Alexander; Guthrie, Katherine A; Tylee, Tracy S; McDonald, George B; Bensinger, William I; Nelson, J Lee

    2004-09-15

    Syngeneic graft-versus-host disease (sGVHD) has been described after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) but remains poorly defined. We retrospectively reviewed adult syngeneic HCTs at our center (1980-2002) for sGVHD to investigate incidence, morbidity, and risk factors with a primary focus on parity. Among 119 transplantations, there were 21 cases of biopsy-proven sGVHD. The cumulative incidence was 18%, with multiorgan involvement in 6 cases and 1 death. sGVHD was more frequent when the donor was parous (32%) than nulliparous (9%) or male (13%; P =.03) and when the recipient was parous (31%) than nulliparous (7%) or male (13%; P =.02). Other univariable risk factors included older age (P <.01), busulfan/melphalan/thiotepa conditioning (P <.01), interleukin-2 (P =.02), HLA-A26 (P =.03), and more recent transplantation year (P <.01). Overall, risk factors were similar to those described in GVHD. Although an independent effect of parity could not be completely separated from other factors, donor and recipient pregnancy history merits further investigation. PMID:15117763

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults living alone in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhong; Kim, Kyeongmo

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults who live alone. Data were obtained through face-to-face interview responses of 1,023 older adults living alone in a metropolitan area in South Korea, selected via stratified random sampling, which considered the population variables gender, age group, and district. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the prevalence of self-neglect, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant risk factors of self-neglect. At least 22.8% of the participants could be considered to have one form of elder self-neglect. Consistent with previous research, self-neglect was more prevalent in the older people living alone who had higher levels of depressive symptoms or a lack of family social support. Unexpectedly, self-neglect was more prevalent among respondents with higher levels of education and cognitive abilities, lower levels of medical comorbidities, and more children. Additionally, social networks of friends and use of social services (formal social support) did not affect the frequency of self-neglect. The findings have implications for gerontological practice and policy, especially for older people living alone in South Korea. PMID:24956921

  1. Risk factors for sleep disturbances in older adults: Evidence from prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Smagula, Stephen F; Stone, Katie L; Fabio, Anthony; Cauley, Jane A

    2016-02-01

    No systematic review of epidemiological evidence has examined risk factors for sleep disturbances among older adults. We searched the PubMed database combining search terms targeting the following domains 1) prospective, 2) sleep, and 3) aging, and identified 21 relevant population-based studies with prospective sleep outcome data. Only two studies utilized objective measures of sleep disturbance, while six used the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and thirteen used insomnia symptoms or other sleep complaints as the outcome measure. Female gender, depressed mood, and physical illness were most consistently identified as risks for future sleep disturbances. Less robust evidence implicated the following as potentially relevant predictors: lower physical activity levels, African-American race, lower economic status, previous manual occupation, widowhood, marital quality, loneliness and perceived stress, preclinical dementia, long-term benzodiazepine and sedative use, low testosterone levels, and inflammatory markers. Chronological age was not identified as a consistent, independent predictor of future sleep disturbances. In conclusion, prospective studies have identified female gender, depressed mood, and physical illness as general risk factors for future sleep disturbances in later life, although specific physiological pathways have not yet been established. Research is needed to determine the precise mechanisms through which these factors influence sleep over time. PMID:26140867

  2. The prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension in adults living in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Onal, A E; Erbil, S; Ozel, S; Aciksari, K; Tumerdem, Y

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension were determined among habitants in the European side of Istanbul who are 25 years and older. Eight administrative districts were selected with the method of simple random sampling. The participants were selected through systematic calling from address lists. Between 17 and 22 June 2002, the questionnaires were applied to the participants in a face-to-face interview; then arterial blood pressures, body weights and heights of the participants were measured. Of 423 adults participating in the study, 35.5% were hypertensive; 35.9% were obese, 27.9% were overweight and 2.1% were underweight. Risk factors for hypertension such as age, gender, educational status, social security, family history of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, medical history of diabetes and congestive heart failure, smoking and alcohol use, and body mass index in the hypertensive and non-hypertensive groups were investigated by means of logistic regression analysis. Age [odds ratio (OR): 5.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.18-12.40], body mass index (OR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.57-3.16) and smoking (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.55-0.95) were found to be correlated with hypertension. The results showed that the prevalence of hypertension was high in Istanbul, and obesity, being overweight and advanced age were the risk factors for hypertension. PMID:15083638

  3. Characteristics of and risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in young adults in a screening population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Jo, Hee Bum; Kwack, Won Gun; Jeong, Yun Jin; Yoon, Yeo-Jin; Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate prevalence and risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in adults aged < 50 years, for whom screening is not recommended. METHODS: This cross-sectional study compared prevalence and characteristics of colorectal and advanced adenomas in patients aged < 50 years who underwent colonoscopy screening with subjects aged ≥ 50 years. To evaluate risk factors for colorectal and advanced adenoma in young adults, we used multivariable logistic regression models. Colorectal neoplasm characteristics were evaluated and compared with those in older patients. RESULTS: Among 2819 patients included, prevalences of colorectal adenoma and advanced adenoma were 19.7% and 1.5%, respectively. As patient age increased, so did the prevalence of colorectal neoplasm. However, prevalence of advanced adenoma did not differ between age-groups 45-49 years and ≥ 50 years (OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.17-1.07, P = 0.070). In younger age-group (< 50 years), colorectal adenoma was significantly associated with older age, waist circumference (OR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.15-2.55, P = 0.008), and current smoking (OR = 1.60, 95%CI: 1.07-2.41, P = 0.023). Alcohol consumption was an independent risk factor for colorectal advanced adenoma (OR = 3.69, 95%CI: 1.08-12.54, P = 0.037). Multiple neoplasms and large neoplasms (≥ 1 cm) were more prevalent in subjects ≥ 50 years. CONCLUSION: Current screening strategies for colorectal cancer may need to be amended to account for patient age, especially in young subjects with abdominal obesity, current smoking and alcohol consumption. PMID:26973394

  4. Prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Wai Fong; Masyita, Mamot; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Boo, Nem Yun; Zin, Thaw; Choo, Kong Bung; Yap, Sook Fan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Obesity is a major modifiable risk factor associated with most chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity, and its associated risk factors, among apparently healthy Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the Chinese residents in Seri Kembangan New Village, Klang Valley, Selangor, Malaysia. Convenience sampling was used for the selection of participants. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were measured. Fasting venous plasma was drawn for the measurement of fasting glucose level and lipid profile. Data on sociodemographic factors, dietary habits, physical activity, perceived stress level and sleep duration were collected using interviewer-administered, pretested and validated questionnaires. RESULTS Among the 258 Chinese residents (mean age 41.4 ± 10.0 years) recruited, the prevalence of obesity was 40%. The obese participants had significantly higher mean blood pressure, and triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose levels than the non-obese participants (p < 0.05). The obese participants also had a significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than the non-obese participants. Logistic regression analysis showed that drinking soy milk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.447; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.253–0.787; p < 0.05) and the perception that a balanced diet consists mainly of vegetables (adjusted OR 0.440; 95% CI 0.215–0.900; p < 0.05) were associated with a reduced risk of obesity. The risk of obesity was higher in younger participants (adjusted OR 2.714; 95% CI 1.225–6.011; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION The prevalence of obesity was high among the apparently healthy suburban Chinese. Our findings suggest that soy milk consumption and the perception that a balanced diet consists mainly of vegetables are associated with a lower risk of developing obesity in this population. PMID:24570317

  5. Relationship between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Song, Peige; Li, Junping; Wang, Peiyu; Li, Guowei

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies focusing on identification of dietary risk factors for hyperuricemia reported controversial findings. Moreover, evidence for relationship between hyperuricemia and eating and cooking habits remained scanty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1583 participants in a Beijing community. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests were also performed. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.1 % (20.2 % for males and 7.4 % for females). Among the 1372 subjects included for analysis, 720 (52.5 %) were males and the mean age was 37.7 years. For males, statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and tea intake, breakfast and midnight snack consumption were found, with an odds ratio of 0.56 (high vs. low), 2.14 (often vs. always) and 0.52 (rarely vs. always), respectively. Smoking, fatty liver disease, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose were significantly related to increased serum uric acid (SUA), with a coefficient of 20.06, 11.52, 7.29, 18.97 and 13.37 on SUA, respectively. For females, no statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors were observed. In summary, hyperuricemia is highly prevalent among the adult participants in this Chinese community, especially for men. High tea intake and consuming midnight snack rarely are significantly related to decreased risk of hyperuricemia, while often-eating breakfast is associated with increased risk of hyperuricemia compared with always-eating breakfast in males. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the findings and to establish dietary recommendations for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia. PMID:26143162

  6. Screening and risk factors of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in critically ill adult patients receiving enteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Malnutrition is a frequent problem associated with detrimental clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. To avoid malnutrition, most studies focus on the prevention of inadequate nutrition delivery, whereas little attention is paid to the potential role of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). In this trial, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of EPI and identify its potential risk factors in critically ill adult patients without preexisting pancreatic diseases. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited 563 adult patients with critical illnesses. All details of the patients were documented, stool samples were collected three to five days following the initiation of enteral nutrition, and faecal elastase 1 (FE-1) concentrations were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Blood samples were also taken to determine serum amylase and lipase activity. Results The percentages of recruited patients with EPI (FE-1 concentration <200 μg/g) and severe EPI (FE-1 concentration <100 μg/g) were 52.2% and 18.3%, respectively. The incidences of steatorrhea were significantly different (P < 0.05) among the patients without EPI, with moderate EPI (FE-1 concentration = 100 to 200 μg/g) and severe EPI (FE-1 concentration < 100 μg/g). Both multivariate logistic regression analysis and z-tests indicated that the occurrence of EPI was closely associated with shock, sepsis, diabetes, cardiac arrest, hyperlactacidemia, invasive mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. Conclusions More than 50% of critically ill adult patients without primary pancreatic diseases had EPI, and nearly one-fifth of them had severe EPI. The risk factors for EPI included shock, sepsis, diabetes, cardiac arrest, hyperlactacidemia, invasive mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. Trial registration NCT01753024 PMID:23924602

  7. Coronary artery calcium scores and cardiovascular risk factors in 31,545 asymptomatic Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Jang, Shin Yi; Kim, Sung Mok; Sung, Jidong; Cho, Soo Jin; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the distribution of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) by age group and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and to evaluate the association between CV risk factors and CACS classification in asymptomatic adults. The study included 31,545 asymptomatic Koreans, over 20 years of age with no previous history of malignancy, proven coronary artery disease, or stroke, who underwent CACS computed tomography at the Health Promotion Center, Samsung Medical Center, between January 2005 and June 2013. Mean (±SD) age was 53.8 (±8.5) years overall, 56.1 (±8.3) in men, and 53.3 (±8.5) in women. They were classified into five groups based on their resting CACS: none (CAC = 0), minimal (0 < CAC ≤ 10), mild (10 < CAC ≤ 100), moderate (100 < CAC ≤ 400), and extensive (400 > CAC). Older age groups exhibited higher CACS values. The proportion of CACS classification in our study was 55.5 % with no CACS, 9.5 % with minimal CACS, 19.8 % with mild CACS, 10.8 % with moderate CACS, and 4.3 % with extensive CACS. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for CV risk factors to determine their association with CACS. When analyzed according to sex, in males, the adjusted OR for CACS increased with the presence of hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, chronic kidney disease, and smoking status. While, in females, the adjusted OR for CACS increased with the presence of HT, DM, and obesity. CV risk factors appear to be significantly associated with CACS in the Korean population. PMID:27119164

  8. Distribution of cardiovascular disease risk factors by socioeconomic status among Canadian adults

    PubMed Central

    Choinière, R; Lafontaine, P; Edwards, A C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to describe the distribution of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic status in adult men and women across Canada using the Canadian Heart Health Surveys Database. METHODS: The data were derived from provincial cross-sectional surveys done between 1986 and 1992. Data were obtained through a home interview and a clinic visit using a probability sample of 29,855 men and women aged 18-74 years of whom 23,129 (77%) agreed to participate. The following risk factors for cardiovascular disease were considered: elevated total plasma cholesterol (greater than 5.2 mmol/L), regular current cigarette smoking (one or more daily), elevated diastolic or systolic blood pressure (140/90 mm Hg), overweight (body mass index and lack of leisure-time physical activity [less than once a week in the last month]). Education and income adequacy were used as measures of socioeconomic status and mother tongue as a measure of cultural affiliation. RESULTS: For most of the risk factors examined, the prevalence of the risk factors was inversely related to socioeconomic status, but the relationship was stronger and more consistent for education than for income. The inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of the risk factors was particularly strong for smoking and overweight, where a gradient was observed: 46% (standard error [SE] 1.4) of men and 42% (SE 4.3) of women who had not completed secondary school were regular smokers, but only 12% (SE 1.0) of men and 13% (SE 0.9) of women with a university degree were regular smokers. Thirty-nine percent (SE 1.4) of men and 19% (SE 3.8) of women who had not completed secondary school were overweight, compared with 26% (SE 2.6) of male and 19% of female university graduates. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity and elevated cholesterol was highest in both men and women in the lowest socioeconomic category, particularly by level of education. INTERPRETATION

  9. Individual- and Structural-Level Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Transgender Adults

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Bockting, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed individual (i.e., internalized transphobia) and structural forms of stigma as risk factors for suicide attempts among transgender adults. Internalized transphobia was assessed through a 26-item scale including four dimensions: pride, passing, alienation and shame. State-level structural stigma was operationalized as a composite index, including: density of same-sex couples; proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination; and aggregated public opinion towards homosexuality. Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equation models assessed associations of interest among an online sample of transgender adults (N=1,229) representing 48 states and the District of Columbia. Lower levels of structural stigma were associated with fewer lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92–0.997), and a higher score on the internalized transphobia scale was associated with greater lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04–1.33). Addressing stigma at multiple levels is necessary to reduce the vulnerability of suicide attempts among transgender adults. PMID:26287284

  10. Individual- and Structural-Level Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts Among Transgender Adults.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Bockting, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed individual (ie, internalized transphobia) and structural forms of stigma as risk factors for suicide attempts among transgender adults. Internalized transphobia was assessed through a 26-item scale including four dimensions: pride, passing, alienation, and shame. State-level structural stigma was operationalized as a composite index, including density of same-sex couples; proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination; and aggregated public opinion toward homosexuality. Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equation models assessed associations of interest among an online sample of transgender adults (N = 1,229) representing 48 states and the District of Columbia. Lower levels of structural stigma were associated with fewer lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.997), and a higher score on the internalized transphobia scale was associated with greater lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.33). Addressing stigma at multiple levels is necessary to reduce the vulnerability of suicide attempts among transgender adults. PMID:26287284

  11. Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury in Older Adults With Critical Illness: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kane-Gill, Sandra L.; Sileanu, Florentina E.; Murugan, Raghavan; Trietley, Gregory S.; Handler, Steven M.; Kellum, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk for acute kidney injury (AKI) in older adults has not been systematically evaluated. We sought to delineate the determinants of risk for AKI in older compared to younger adults. Study Design Retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized in July 2000–September 2008. Setting & Participants We identified all adult patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) (n=45,655) in a large tertiary care university hospital system. We excluded patients receiving dialysis or kidney transplant prior to hospital admission, and patients with baseline creatinine ≥ 4 mg/dl, liver transplantation, indeterminate AKI status, or unknown age, leaving 39,938 patients. Predictor We collected data on multiple susceptibilities and exposures including age, sex, race, body mass, comorbid conditions, severity of illness, baseline kidney function, sepsis, and shock. Outcomes We defined AKI according to KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) criteria. We examined susceptibilities and exposures across age strata for impact on development of AKI. Measurements We calculated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for prediction of AKI across age groups. Results 25,230 patients (63.2%) were aged 55 years or older. Overall 25,120 patients (62.9%) developed AKI (69.2% aged 55 years or older). Examples of risk factors for AKI in the oldest age category (75 years or older) were drugs (vancomycin, aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories), history of hypertension (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02–1.25) and sepsis (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.68–2.67). Fewer variables remained predictive of AKI as age increased and the model for older patients was less predictive (p<0.001). For the age categories 18–54, 55–64, 65–74, and 75 years or older, the AUCs were 0.744 (95% CI, 0.735–0.752), 0.714 (95% CI, 0.702–0.726), 0.706 (95% CI, 0.693–0.718), and 0.673 (95% CI, 0.661–0.685), respectively. Limitations Analysis may not apply to non-ICU patients

  12. Five-year changes in adiposity and cardio-metabolic risk factors among Guatemalan young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Cria O; Martorell, Reynaldo; Narayan, KM Venkat; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapidly transitioning societies are experiencing dramatic increases in obesity and cardio-metabolic risk; however, few prospective studies from developing countries have quantified these increases or described their joint relationships. Methods We collected dietary, physical activity, demographic, anthropometric and cardio-metabolic risk factor data from 376 Guatemalan young adults in 1997–98 (aged 20–29 years) and in 2002–04 (aged 25–34 years). Results In total, 42% of men and 56% of women experienced weight gain >5kg in 5 years. Percent body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC) increased by 4·2% points and 5·5 cm among men, and 3·2% points and 3·4 cm among women, respectively. Five-year increases in both %BF and WC were associated with lower physical activity, urban residence and shorter height among men but not among women (test for heterogeneity P<0·05 for residence and physical activity). Changes in %BF and WC and concomitant changes in cardio-metabolic risk factors were similar for men and women. In standardised regression, change in %BF was associated with changes in TAG (β=0·19; 95% CI 0·08, 0·30), total:HDL cholesterol (β=0·22; 95% CI 0·12, 0·33) and systolic (β=0·22; 95% CI 0·12, 0·33) and diastolic (β=0·18; 95% CI 0·08, 0·28) blood pressure, but not with glucose; associations were similar for WC. Conclusions Over 5 years this relatively young population of Guatemalan adults experienced rapid increases in multiple measures of adiposity, which were associated with adverse changes in lipid and blood pressure levels. PMID:18702839

  13. Cardiometabolic risk factors predict cerebrovascular health in older adults: results from the Brain in Motion study.

    PubMed

    Tyndall, Amanda V; Argourd, Laurie; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Davenport, Margie H; Forbes, Scott C; Gill, Stephanie J; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Anderson, Todd J; Wilson, Ben J; Smith, Eric E; Hogan, David B; Hill, Michael D; Poulin, Marc J

    2016-04-01

    Aging and physical inactivity are associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). With the rising prevalence of MetS, it is important to determine the extent to which it affects cerebrovascular health. The primary purpose of this report is to examine the impact of MetS on cerebrovascular health (resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) peak velocity (V¯P), cerebrovascular conductance (CVC), and CBF responses to hypercapnia) in healthy older adults with normal cognition. A secondary goal was to examine the influence of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 expression on these indices. In a sample of 258 healthy men and women older than 53 years, 29.1% met criteria for MetS. MetS, sex, and age were found to be significant predictors of CVC, and V¯P, MetS, and APOE status were significant predictors of V¯P-reactivity, and CVC-reactivity was best predicted by MetS status. After controlling for these factors, participants with MetS demonstrated lower cerebrovascular measures (CVC, V¯P, CVC-reactivity, and V¯P-reactivity) compared to participants without MetS. APOE ε4 carriers had higher V¯P-reactivity than noncarriers. These results provide evidence that cardiometabolic and vascular risk factors clustered together as the MetS predict measures of cerebrovascular health indices in older adults. Higher V¯P-reactivity in APOE ε4 carriers suggests vascular compensation for deleterious effects of this known risk allele for Alzheimer's disease and stroke. PMID:27117804

  14. Decreased Functional Status as a Risk Factor for Severe Clostridium difficile Infection among Hospitalized Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Krishna; Micic, Dejan; Chenoweth, Elizabeth; Deng, Lili; Galecki, Andrzej T.; Ring, Cathrin; Young, Vincent B.; Aronoff, David M.; Malani, Preeti N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized older adults, who are among the patients at highest risk of severe infection. The role of impaired functional status as a risk factor for severe CDI remains poorly understood. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The University of Michigan Health System, a 930-bed tertiary care hospital. Participants Hospitalized patients with CDI, age ≥50 years. Measurements Included demographics; clinical characteristics; and a composite outcome, the CDI severity score: fever [T >38°C]; acute organ dysfunction; white blood cell count >15 000/mm3; lack of response to therapy; intensive care unit admission, need for colectomy, or death due to CDI. Pre-admission functional status was assessed by ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs); patients were assigned to an ADL Class (independent, some assistance, or full assistance). Secondary outcomes included length of stay; 90-day mortality and readmission; and CDI recurrence. Results We identified 90 hospitalized patients with CDI (mean age 66.6 [± SD 10.2]). Fifty-eight patients (64.4%) had severe CDI as measured by a positive severity score. At baseline, 25 (27.8%) required assistance with ADLs. On univariate analysis, an ADL Class of “full assistance” was associated with severity score (OR 7, CI 95 1.83–26.79, P = .004). In a multivariable model which included age, ADL Class, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, depression, weighted Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score, immunosuppression, prior CDI, and PPI use, an ADL Class of “full assistance” retained its association with severity score (OR 8.1, CI 95 1.24–52.95, P = .029). ADL Class was not associated with secondary outcomes. Conclusion Among this cohort of hospitalized older adults, impaired functional status was an independent risk factor for severe CDI. PMID:24083842

  15. Suicide risk factors for young adults: testing a model across ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, P M; Rodriguez, P J; Garcia, P

    2001-06-01

    A general path model based on existing suicide risk research was developed to test factors contributing to current suicidal ideation in young adults. A sample of 673 undergraduate students completed a packet of questionnaires containing the Beck Depression Inventory, Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, and Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale. They also provided information on history of suicidality and exposure to attempted and completed suicide in others. Structural equation modeling was used to test the fit of the data to the hypothesized model. Goodness-of-fit indices were adequate and supported the interactive effects of exposure, repulsion by life, depression, and history of self-harm on current ideation. Model fit for three subgroups based on race/ethnicity (i.e., White, Black, and Hispanic) determined that repulsion by life and depression function differently across groups. Implications of these findings for current methods of suicide risk assessment and future research are discussed in the context of the importance of culture. PMID:11803983

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Adult Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Metropolitan City of South India

    PubMed Central

    Dhanaraj, Baskaran; Papanna, Mohan Kumar; Adinarayanan, Srividya; Vedachalam, Chandrasekaran; Sundaram, Vijayaraj; Shanmugam, Shivakumar; Sekar, Gomathi; Menon, Pradeep Aravindan; Wares, Fraser; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study measured the community prevalence and risk factors of adult pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Chennai city, and also studied geographical distribution and the presence of different M. tuberculosis strains in the survey area. Methods A community-based cross sectional survey was carried out from July 2010 to October 2012 in Chennai city. Prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB was estimated by direct standardization method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify significant risk factors. Drug susceptibility testing and spoligotyping was performed on isolated M. tuberculosis strains. Mapping of PTB cases was done using geographic positioning systems. Results Of 59,957 eligible people, 55,617 were screened by X-ray and /or TB symptoms and the prevalence of smear, culture, and bacteriologically positive PTB was estimated to be 228 (95% CI 189–265), 259 (95% CI 217–299) and 349 (95% CI 330–428) per 100,000 population, respectively. Prevalence of smear, culture, and bacteriologically positive PTB was highest amongst men aged 55–64 years. Multivariate analysis showed that occurrence of both culture and bacteriologically positive PTB disease was significantly associated with: age >35 years, past history of TB treatment, BMI <18.5 Kgs/m2, solid cooking fuel, and being a male currently consuming alcohol. The most frequent spoligotype family was East African Indian. Spatial distribution showed that a high proportion of patients were clustered in the densely populated north eastern part of the city. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that TB is a major public health problem in this urban area of south India, and support the use of intensified case finding in high risk groups. Undernutrition, slum dwelling, indoor air pollution and alcohol intake are modifiable risk factors for TB disease. PMID:25905900

  17. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  18. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  19. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Cayea, Erin J; Austin, Melanie D; Henson, Dru A; McAnulty, Steven R; Jin, Fuxia

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures. PMID:19628108

  20. Screening for Violence Risk Factors Identifies Young Adults at Risk for Return Emergency Department Visit for Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hankin, Abigail; Wei, Stanley; Foreman, Juron; Houry, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Homicide is the second leading cause of death among youth aged 15–24. Prior cross-sectional studies, in non-healthcare settings, have reported exposure to community violence, peer behavior, and delinquency as risk factors for violent injury. However, longitudinal cohort studies have not been performed to evaluate the temporal or predictive relationship between these risk factors and emergency department (ED) visits for injuries among at-risk youth. The objective was to assess whether self-reported exposure to violence risk factors in young adults can be used to predict future ED visits for injuries over a 1-year period. Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed in the ED of a Southeastern US Level I trauma center. Eligible participants were patients aged 18–24, presenting for any chief complaint. We excluded patients if they were critically ill, incarcerated, or could not read English. Initial recruitment occurred over a 6-month period, by a research assistant in the ED for 3–5 days per week, with shifts scheduled such that they included weekends and weekdays, over the hours from 8AM-8PM. At the time of initial contact in the ED, patients were asked to complete a written questionnaire, consisting of previously validated instruments measuring the following risk factors: a) aggression, b) perceived likelihood of violence, c) recent violent behavior, d) peer behavior, e) community exposure to violence, and f) positive future outlook. At 12 months following the initial ED visit, the participants' medical records were reviewed to identify any subsequent ED visits for injury-related complaints. We analyzed data with chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results: Three hundred thirty-two patients were approached, of whom 300 patients consented. Participants' average age was 21.1 years, with 60.1% female, 86.0% African American. After controlling for participant gender, ethnicity, or injury complaint at time of first visit, return

  1. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among adults in Jaffna District.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, S; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2015-09-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among adults in Jaffna District. Multistage stratified cluster sampling technique was employed to select 544 participants. An interviewer administrated questionnaire was used. Anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measurements were recorded and biochemical parameters were analysed. Response rate was 95.3%. Of them, 224 (43.8%) were male. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 16.4% (95% CI: 13.3- 19.9); in males 19.6% (95% CI: 14.6-25.4) and in females 13.9% (95% CI: 10.1-18.5). Of the diabetics, 27.4% were previously undiagnosed. In the final multivariable model, participants with family history of diabetes were 3.5 times (p<0.001) more likely and those with high waist hip ratio were 2 times (p=0.009) more likely to develop diabetes mellitus. PMID:26520866

  3. Risk factors for low molar bite force in adult orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Malene Krogh; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to analyse which parameters in a standard orthodontic material are most important for identifying factors for low bite force. Such analyses have not previously been reported in adult orthodontic patients. The sample comprised 95 adults (67 females and 28 males) aged 18-55 years sequentially admitted for conventional orthodontic treatment. All subjects had moderate to severe malocclusions. Bite force was measured by a pressure transducer, craniofacial dimensions and head posture were measured on profile radiographs, number of teeth in contact were evaluated with a plastic strip in intercuspidal position, and symptoms and signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were evaluated by TMD screening. Associations were assessed by Spearman correlations, Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test, and multiple stepwise regression analyses. Associations were found between bite force and craniofacial dimensions as mandibular prognathia (S-N-Pg, P < 0.05; S-N-sm, P < 0.05), sagittal jaw relationship (SS-N-Pg, P < 0.05), mandibular inclination (NSL/ML, P < 0.05), and mandibular plane angle (ML/RL, P < 0.01) and between bite force and TMD symptoms (P < 0.05) and TMD signs (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that gender (P < 0.001), TMD symptoms (P < 0.01), and mandibular plane angle (P < 0.001) were the most important factors for the magnitude of the bite force in adult orthodontic patients (R (2) = 0.32). The results showed that particularly women with TMD symptoms and an increased mandibular plane angle are at risk of having low bite force. This may prove valuable in the clinic, especially in orthodontic cases with an increased need for vertical anchorage during treatment. PMID:22291432

  4. Risk factors of obesity in a cohort of 1001 Cypriot adults: An epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Andreou, E; Hajigeorgiou, PG; Kyriakou, K; Avraam, Th; Chappa, G; Kallis, P; Lazarou, Ch; Philippou, Ch; Christoforou, C; Kokkinofta, R; Dioghenous, C; Savva, SC; Kafatos, A; Zampelas, A; Papandreou, D

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: To measure the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in the Republic of Cyprus, and to evaluate and relate possible obesity risk factors of the adult Cypriot population. Methods: This is an epidemiological cross-sectional study on a stratified random sample of 1001 (48.5% males-51.5% females) subjects, aged 18-80 years old. Anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary/lifestyle characteristics included in the study. Results: The prevalence of overweight (Ow) and obesity (Ob) was 46.9% and 28.8% for males and 26% and 27% for females, respectively. Overweight and obese subjects were found to have statistically significant higher levels of Body Mass Index (p<0.001), Waist circumference (p<0.001), Total serum cholesterol (p<0.001), Low density lipoprotein (p<0.005), Glucose (p<0.007) and Triglycerides (p<0.001) compared to normal peers. In addition, Ow and Ob participants consumed significantly lower levels of fruits and vegetables (p<0.001), exercised less time/d (p<0.001) and smoke more cigarettes/d (p<0.001), compared to normal subjects, respectively. In multiple regression analysis of factors associated with overweight and obesity, Waist Circumference (beta: 1.132, p<0.001), Glucose (beta: 0.892, p<0.045), alcohol consumption (beta: 0.563, p<0.001), and exercise levels (beta: -0.444, p<0.001), were the most significant ones. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is very high in Cypriot adults. The current study also revealed a significant positive relation of Ow and Ob with waist circumference, high blood glucose levels and increased consumption of alcohol and a negative one with decreased levels of exercise. PMID:23935294

  5. Socioeconomic and clinical factors explaining the risk of unstructured antiretroviral therapy interruptions among Kenyan adult patients.

    PubMed

    Mûnene, Edwin; Ekman, Björn

    2016-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the extent of unstructured HIV treatment interruptions (TIs) and investigate the effects of socioeconomic, socio-demographic, HIV treatment-related and clinical factors on the magnitude and rate of the same among adult patients at a Kenyan regional referral center. Four hundred and twenty-one adult patients actively receiving antiretroviral therapy at Nyeri County Referral Hospital since 2003 were randomly selected to complete a health survey questionnaire. Electronic records were used to obtain their HIV treatment utilization history. The marginal effects of selected determinants on prevalence and rate of TI were assessed by fitting multiple Poisson log-linear regression models. In total, 392 patients participated in the study. HIV TI was prevalent with 64.5% having had at least one TI of 3 months or more during treatment. The risk of TI was significantly higher in those longer on treatment (prevalence ratio = 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.28). Greater risk of TI was also associated with lower income (prevalence rate ratio [PRR] = 0.9, 95% CI 0.83-1.00), low medication adherence (PRR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.13-0.72), inconsistent treatment engagement (PRR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.19-0.75) and, contrarily, fewer adverse drug reactions (PRR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.90-0.97). Unstructured HIV TIs appear to be fairly common at the study site. The results suggest that efforts to minimize HIV TI could benefit from treatment-continuity monitoring strategies that target the high-risk sub-samples identified. PMID:26846424

  6. Early community contexts, race/ethnicity and young adult CVD risk factors: the protective role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lott, Ryan E

    2012-08-01

    Using a sample of 13,500 adolescents (53% female and 47% male) who participated in all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study used multilevel regression to examine the influence of early structural community adversity (as measured by rates of community poverty, single-parent headed families, and two indicators of employment) and racial/ethnic status on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors of young adults (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure). The moderating role of youth's socioeconomic attainment was also examined. Results indicate that early community adversity and African American racial status place young adults at risk for CVD. Youth's socioeconomic attainment does not erase the persistent influences of early community adversity and African American racial status on CVD risk. However, the level of education attained can protect African American young adults and those experiencing early community adversity from CVD risk factors. PMID:22101680

  7. Clinical features & risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis in HIV infected adults in India

    PubMed Central

    Ajjampur, S.S. Rao; Asirvatham, J.R.; Muthusamy, Dheepa; Gladstone, B.P.; Abraham, O.C.; Mathai, Dilip; Ward, Honorine; Wanke, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Background & objectives Cryptosporidiosis is a leading cause of protracted, life threatening diarrhoea in HIV infected patients. Although data on prevalence are available for Indian patients, no information on risk factors for transmission exists. We therefore undertook this study to identify risk factors for transmission of cryptosporidiosis in HIV infected adults. Methods Both symptomatic (diarrhoeal) and asymptomatic HIV infected patients were screened for cryptosporidiosis. All Cryptosporidium spp. positive cases were enrolled in the study and interviewed to record socio-demographic information, water supply and animal contact. Data were analysed to study clinical features and potential association with species and genotype. Results Of the 28 cryptosporidial infections identified on screening 111 HIV positive patients with diarrhoea, 10 (35.7%) had chronic diarrhoea, 14 (50%) had associated fever and 8 (28.6%) had nausea. Symptomatic patients had a significantly higher number of co-infections with other enteric parasites (P=0.04) than 20 asymptomatics of 423 HIV positive individuals screened. Eleven of 17 (64%) patients with potentially zoonotic infections had diarrhoea. Patients with zoonotic species (64%) also tended to have fever more frequently than those infected with C. hominis (58%). Association between area of residence, rural or urban, water source and contact with animals and acquisition of cryptosporidiosis was not statistically significant. Interpretation & conclusions Cryptosporidiosis is an important cause of morbidity in HIV infected individuals in India, resulting in chronic diarrhoea. Risk factors for potentially zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis were described in this study, but larger studies need to be done for a clearer understanding of the transmission dynamics of different cryptosporidial species in developing countries. PMID:18219083

  8. Differences in Health Care Costs and Utilization among Adults with Selected Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Larry A.; Clegg, Alan G.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between lifestyle-related health risks and health care costs and utilization among young adults. Data collected at a primarily white collar worksite in over 2 years indicated that health risks, particularly obesity, stress, and general lifestyle, were significant predictors of health care costs and utilization among these…

  9. Intimate Partner Violence Among Hong Kong Young Adults: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Associated Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Wong, William C W; Ip, Patrick; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious social problem and public health issue affecting the well-being of the young adults. However, there is very little epidemiological evidence on the incidence and associated health problems in contemporary Chinese society. Using a representative community sample of 1,223 young adults aged 18 to 27 years conducted by Hong Kong Family Planning Association in 2011, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and possible health consequences of intimate partner violence among young adults in Hong Kong. It is found that the prevalence of lifetime and preceding 1-year intimate partner violence by former or current partners was 8.6% and 4.9% respectively. Male youths who were older were less likely to experience past-year intimate partner violence (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, p < .05) and those who had a university degree or were unemployed were more likely to experience past-year intimate partner violence (OR = 8.48, p < .01 and OR = 8.14, p < .05 respectively). Female youths who had a full-time job were less likely to experience the lifetime violence (OR = 0.15, p < .05) and those who were ever pregnant with current partner were more likely to experience both lifetime intimate partner violence (OR = 5.00, p < .05) and past-year violence (OR = 5.63, p < .05). Both female and male victims were more likely to be subjected to mental health problems and only female victims felt fear for the violent partner. PMID:25304670

  10. Identification of Risk Factors Affecting Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes in Adult Patients from Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yutian; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Yuhan; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Shili; Zhang, Huiping; Jiang, Lingling; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Peng; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Besides genetic factors, the occurrence of diabetes is influenced by lifestyles and environmental factors as well as trace elements in diet materials. Subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) have an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to explore risk factors affecting IFG and diabetes in patients from Northeast China. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional survey of chronic diseases and related risk factors was conducted in Jilin Province of Northeast China. All adult residents, aged 18–79, were invited to participate in this survey using the method of multistage stratified random cluster sampling. One hundred thirty-four patients with IFG or DM and 391 healthy control subjects were recruited. We compared demographic factors, body size measurements, healthy-related behaviors, and hair metallic element contents between IFG/diabetes patients and healthy individuals. Results: IFG/diabetes patients had a greater weight, waist, hip, and body mass index (BMI) than control subjects. Significant differences in the content of zinc (Zn), potassium (K), copper (Ca), and sodium (Na) as well as Cu/Zn ratios between IFG or DM patients and control subjects (p < 0.05) were also observed. Hair Cu, selenium (Se), and Na contents were positively correlated with blood glucose levels (Cu: rs = 0.135, p = 0.002; Se: rs = 0.110, p = 0.012; Na: rs = 0.091, p = 0.038). Polytomous logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, family history of diabetes and BMI, showed that subjects with high BMI were more likely to develop IFG and DM (IFG: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.02–1.29; DM: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.01–1.33). Moreover, rarely or never eating fruits was a risk factor for DM (OR = 5.46, OR 95% CI = 1.87–15.98) but not for IFG (OR = 1.70, OR 95% CI = 0.72–4.02). Subjects with abdominal obesity or DM history were more susceptible to DM (abdominal obesity: OR = 2.99, OR 95% CI = 1.07–8.37; DM history: OR = 2.69, OR 95% CI = 1

  11. Analysis of the Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Tinnitus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Jong; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; An, Soo-Youn; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Si Whan; Lee, Joong Seob; Hong, Sung Kwang; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is a common condition in adults; however, the pathophysiology of tinnitus remains unclear, and no large population-based study has assessed the associated risk factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and associated risk factors of tinnitus. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with 19,290 participants ranging in age from 20 to 98 years old, between 2009 and 2012. We investigated the prevalence of tinnitus using a questionnaire and analyzed various possible factors associated with tinnitus using simple and multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. Results The prevalence of tinnitus was 20.7%, and the rates of tinnitus associated with no discomfort, moderate annoyance, and severe annoyance were 69.2%, 27.9%, and 3.0%, respectively. The prevalence of tinnitus and the rates of annoying tinnitus increased with age. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of tinnitus was higher for females, those with a smoking history, those reporting less sleep (≤ 6 h), those with more stress, those in smaller households, those with a history of hyperlipidemia osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, thyroid disease, an abnormal tympanic membrane, unilateral hearing loss, bilateral hearing loss, noise exposure from earphones, noise exposure at the workplace, noise exposure outside the workplace, and brief noise exposure. Additionally, unemployed individuals and soldiers had higher AORs for tinnitus. The AOR of annoying tinnitus increased with age, stress, history of hyperlipidemia, unilateral hearing loss, and bilateral hearing loss. Conclusions Tinnitus is very common in the general population and is associated with gender, smoking, stress, sleep, hearing loss, hyperlipidemia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, and thyroid disease history. PMID:26020239

  12. Sociodemographic predictors of multiple non-communicable disease risk factors among older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness; Musekiwa, Alfred; Kose, Zamakayise

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are important risk factors of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to explore the sociodemographic predictors of multiple non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors experienced by elderly South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the co-existence of multiple NCD risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol, physical inactivity, fruit and vegetable intake, overweight or obesity, and hypertension) in each individual. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics, namely, age, gender, education, wealth status, population group, marital status, and residence. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the association between sociodemographic variables and multiple NCD risk factors. Results The mean number of NCD risk factors among all participants was three (95% confidence interval: 2.81–3.10). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that being female, being in the age group of 60–69 years, and being from the Coloured and Black African race were associated with a higher number of NCD risk factors. Marital status, educational level, wealth, and residence were not significantly associated with the number of NCD risk factors experienced. Conclusions The co-existence of multiple lifestyle NCD risk factors among the elderly is a public health concern. Comprehensive health-promotion interventions addressing the co-existence of multiple NCD risk factors tailored for specific sociodemographic groups are needed. PMID:24044582

  13. Skipping breakfast is associated with diet quality and metabolic syndrome risk factors of adults.

    PubMed

    Min, Chanyang; Noh, Hwayoung; Kang, Yun-Sook; Sim, Hea Jin; Baik, Hyun Wook; Song, Won O; Yoon, Jihyun; Park, Young-Hee; Joung, Hyojee

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of skipping breakfast on diet quality and metabolic disease risk factors in healthy Korean adults. Subjects included 415 employees (118 men, 297 women; 30-50 years old) of Jaesang Hospital in Korea and their acquaintances. Data collected from each subject included anthropometric measurements, 3-day dietary intake, blood pressure, and blood analyses. The subjects were classified into three groups based on the number of days they skipped breakfast: 'Regular breakfast eater', 'Often breakfast eater', or 'Rare breakfast eater'. Participants in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed less rice, potatoes, kimchi, vegetables, fish and shellfish, milk and dairy products, and sweets than did participants in the other two groups (P for trend < 0.05) and ate more cookies, cakes, and meat for dinner (P for trend < 0.05). Participants in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed less daily energy, fat, dietary fiber, calcium, and potassium than did participants in the other groups (P for trend < 0.05). The percent energy from carbohydrates was lower and fat intake was higher in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group than in the other groups (P for trend < 0.01). When diets were compared using the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for Koreans, 59.1% of subjects in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group consumed more energy from fat compared with the other two groups (P < 0.005). According to the Estimated Average Requirements for Koreans, intake of selected nutrients was lower in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group than in the other two groups (P < 0.05). The risk of elevated serum triglycerides was decreased in the 'Rare breakfast eater' group (OR, 0.3 [0.1-1.0], P for trend = 0.0232). We conclude that eating breakfast regularly enhances diet quality, but may increase the risk of elevated serum triglycerides. PMID:22125684

  14. Lifestyle risk factors for atherosclerosis in adults with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Franziska K; Maahs, David M; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Ogden, Lorraine G; Kinney, Greg L; Rewers, Marian

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the amount of self-reported physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use in a large sample of adults with type 1 diabetes and non-diabetic subjects. A second aim is to test the hypothesis that these lifestyle risk factors are associated cross-sectionally with coronary artery calcification. In 2000-2002, the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes (CACTI) study applied validated questionnaires for smoking, alcohol and physical activity to 582 type 1 diabetes subjects and 724 non-diabetic subjects. More type 1 diabetes subjects reported current smoking than non-diabetic subjects (12.3% versus 8.6%, p=0.027). Overall, reported physical activity did not differ by diabetes status (p=0.79). More type 1 diabetes subjects reported never having consumed alcohol (10% versus 4%, p<0.0001) and those who drank consumed less alcohol (p=0.0015) than non-diabetic subjects. Physical activity and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of coronary artery calcification (adjusted OR=0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-0.996, p=0.045, and OR=1.7, CI: 1.1-2.6, p=0.03, respectively). Type 1 diabetes was independently associated with increased odds of coronary artery calcification (OR=3.5, 95% CI: 2.5-5.0, p<0.0001). Differences exist in lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors in men and women with type 1 diabetes compared with non-diabetic subjects in the CACTI study. PMID:20368221

  15. Risk Factors for Hearing Impairment Among U.S. Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bainbridge, Kathleen E.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Cowie, Catherine C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine the risk factors of low/mid-frequency and high-frequency hearing impairment among a nationally representative sample of diabetic adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data came from 536 participants, aged 20–69 years, with diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes who completed audiometric testing during 1999–2004 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We defined hearing impairment as the pure-tone average >25 dB hearing level of pure-tone thresholds at low/mid-frequencies (500; 1,000; and 2,000 Hz) and high frequencies (3,000; 4,000; 6,000; and 8,000 Hz) and identified independent risk factors using logistic regression. RESULTS Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and marital status, odds ratios for associations with low/mid-frequency hearing impairment were 2.20 (95% CI 1.28–3.79) for HDL <40 mg/dL and 3.55 (1.57–8.03) for poor health. Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, sex, and income-to-poverty ratio, odds ratios for associations with high-frequency hearing impairment were 4.39 (1.26–15.26) for history of coronary heart disease and 4.42 (1.26–15.45) for peripheral neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS Low HDL, coronary heart disease, peripheral neuropathy, and having poor health are potentially preventable correlates of hearing impairment for people with diabetes. Glycemic control, years since diagnosis, and type of glycemic medication were not associated with hearing impairment. PMID:21593298

  16. Pulmonary function abnormalities in adult patients with acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis: A retrospective risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanliang; Niu, Yuqian; Tian, Guizhen; Wei, Jingan; Gao, Zhancheng

    2015-08-01

    Lung function impairments, especially airflow obstruction, are important features during acute exacerbation in patients with bronchiectasis. Recognition of the risk factors associated with airflow obstruction is important in the management of these exacerbations. The medical records of adult patients admitted to the Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China, from 2004 to 2011 with a diagnosis of bronchiectasis were reviewed retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the risk factors associated with airflow obstruction. Airflow obstruction was found in 55.6% of 156 patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis, and the risk factors associated with airflow obstruction included young age (≤14 years old) at diagnosis (odds ratio (OR) = 3.454, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.709-6.982, p = 0.001) as well as the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; OR = 14.677, 95% CI 5.696-37.819, p = 0.001), asthma (OR = 3.063, 95% CI 1.403-6.690, p = 0.005), and wheezing on auscultation (OR = 3.279, 95% CI 1.495-7.194, p = 0.003). The C-reactive protein (13.9 mg/dl vs. 6.89 mg/dl, p = 0.005), partial pressure of arterial oxygen (66.7 ± 8.57 mmHg vs. 89.56 ± 12.80 mmHg, p < 0.001), and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (40.52 ± 2.77 mmHg vs. 42.87 ± 5.39 mmHg, p = 0.02) profiles were different between patients with or without airflow obstruction. In addition, patients colonized with potential pathogenic microorganisms had a decreased diffusing capacity (56.0% vs. 64.7%, p = 0.04). Abnormal pulmonary function was common in hospitalized patients with bronchiectasis exacerbations. Airflow obstruction was correlated with the patient's age at diagnosis, as well as the presence of combined COPD and asthma, and wheezing on auscultation, which also resulted in more severe systemic inflammation and hypoxemia. PMID:25882894

  17. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Black, Lucinda J; Burrows, Sally; Lucas, Robyn M; Marshall, Carina E; Huang, Rae-Chi; Chan She Ping-Delfos, Wendy; Beilin, Lawrence J; Holt, Patrick G; Hart, Prue H; Oddy, Wendy H; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence associating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors is inconsistent and studies have largely been conducted in adult populations. We examined the prospective associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors from adolescence to young adulthood in the West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations, BMI, homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured at the 17-year (n 1015) and 20-year (n 1117) follow-ups. Hierarchical linear mixed models with maximum likelihood estimation were used to investigate associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors, accounting for potential confounders. In males and females, respectively, mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 73·6 (sd 28·2) and 75·4 (sd 25·9) nmol/l at 17 years and 70·0 (sd 24·2) and 74·3 (sd 26·2) nmol/l at 20 years. Deseasonalised serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations were inversely associated with BMI (coefficient -0·01; 95 % CI -0·03, -0·003; P=0·014). No change over time was detected in the association for males; for females, the inverse association was stronger at 20 years compared with 17 years. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with log-HOMA-IR (coefficient -0·002; 95 % CI -0·003, -0·001; P<0·001) and positively associated with log-TAG in females (coefficient 0·002; 95 % CI 0·0008, 0·004; P=0·003). These associations did not vary over time. There were no significant associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and HDL-cholesterol or SBP. Clinical trials in those with insufficient vitamin D status may be warranted to determine any beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance, while monitoring for any deleterious effect on TAG. PMID:27153206

  18. Adult Prostitution Recidivism: Risk Factors and Impact of a Diversion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique E.; Hickle, Kristine E.; Loubert, Martha Perez; Egan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors and the impact of a prostitution diversion program on prostitution recidivism. Risk factors and recidivism were explored using chi-square, t tests, and survival analysis. Participants were 448 individuals who were arrested for prostitution and attended a prostitution-focused diversion…

  19. Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Among US Adults in 6 States: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Liping; Sherry, Bettylou; Blanck, Heidi M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is linked to weight gain. Our objective was to examine state-specific SSB intake and behavioral characteristics associated with SSB intake. Methods We used data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 38,978 adults aged 18 years or older from 6 states: Delaware, Hawaii, Iowa, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Wisconsin. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for characteristics associated with SSB intake from regular soda and fruit drinks. Results Overall, 23.9% of adults drank SSBs at least once a day. Odds of drinking SSBs 1 or more times per day were significantly greater among younger adults; males; non-Hispanic blacks; adults with lower education; low-income adults or adults with missing income data; adults living in Delaware, Iowa, and Wisconsin versus those living in Minnesota; adults with fruit intake of less than 1 time a day versus 1 or more times a day; adults who were physically inactive versus highly active adults; and current smokers versus nonsmokers. Odds for drinking SSBs 1 or more times per day were significantly lower among adults with 100% fruit juice intake of less than 1 time per day versus 1 or more times per day and among adults who drank alcohol versus those who did not drink alcohol. Conclusion SSB intake varied by states and certain sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. States can use findings from this study to tailor efforts to decrease SSB intake and to encourage consumption of more healthful beverages (eg, water) among their high-risk populations. PMID:24762529

  20. Association between risk factors for coronary heart disease in schoolboys and adult mortality rates in the same localities.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, W; Weir, D C; Whitehead, J E; Rogers, D I; Sapiano, S B; Floyd, C A; Kirk, P M; Stalker, C R; Field, N J; Cayton, R M

    1990-01-01

    Risk factors for coronary heart disease were compared in fifth year boys (15-16 years old) from two schools that were chosen from localities with a fourfold difference in adult mortality from coronary heart disease. One school was in an underprivileged urban locality in the area of increased incidence of heart disease ('high risk') and the other in a semi-rural affluent locality with an incidence of heart disease similar to the national average ('low risk'). Smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity, physical fitness, and inactivity were evaluated as risk factors for coronary heart disease. Smoking, increased body fat, poor diet, and physical inactivity were found increased among pupils from the school in the high risk area compared with those in the low risk area. Lipids, maximum oxygen uptake, and hypertension were similar in both schools. The risk of coronary heart disease seems to reflect the adult mortality rates in the area. To reduce the overall incidence of coronary heart disease, health education should be directed towards prevention of smoking, improving diets, and increasing amounts of activity among school children, with special attention directed toward children in regions where there is a high mortality from coronary heart disease among adults. PMID:2301987

  1. Risk Factors, Protective Factors, Vulnerability, and Resilience: A Framework for Understanding and Supporting the Adult Transitions of Youth with High-Incidence Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    This article examines how the related concepts of risk factors, protective factors, and resilience relate to postschool outcomes for youth with disabilities, especially the adult transitions of youth with high-incidence disabilities. Issues related to research and practice are identified, including building resilience through support at the…

  2. Risk Factors for Falls in Older Adults with Lower Extremity Arthritis: A Conceptual Framework of Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Gyurcsik, Nancy C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: As the numbers of Canadians aged 65 years and over increases over the next 20 years, the prevalence of chronic conditions, including arthritis, will rise as will the number of falls. Although known fall-risk factors are associated with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA), minimal research has evaluated fall and fracture risk and/or rates in this population. Thus, the purpose was to summarize research on fall and fracture risk in older adults with hip or knee OA and to develop a conceptual framework of fall-risk screening and assessment. Method: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, clinical practice guidelines for fall-risk screening, and a selected literature review were used. Results: Gaps exist in our knowledge of fall and fracture risk for this population. Muscle performance, balance, and mobility impairments have been identified, but little is known about whether personal and environmental contextual factors impact fall and fracture risk. Physical activity may help to prevent falls, but non-adherence is a problem. Conclusion: A need exists to assess fall risk in older adults with hip and knee OA. Promoting regular physical activity by focusing on disease- and activity-specific personal contextual factors may help direct treatment planning. PMID:23729967

  3. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults: differences in risk factors and their implications.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Lee, Young Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt; however, most have failed to show differences in risk factors between suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. This study was designed to identify differences in risk factors between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among HIV-infected adults in Seoul. A face-to-face survey of 457 HIV-infected adults was conducted by the Seoul Metropolitan Government in 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Among 422 participants, 44% had suicidal ideation, and 11% had suicide attempts. The independent risk factors for suicidal ideation were young and middle age, living with someone, history of AIDS-defining opportunistic disease, history of treatment for depression, lower social support, and psychological status. Beneficiaries of National Medical Aid, economic barriers to treatment, history of treatment for depression, and lower psychological status were independently associated with suicide attempts. Patients with HIV in Korea were treated without cost in some centers. Thus, experiencing an economic barrier to treatment might be due in part to ignorance of HIV care policies. Our findings indicate that suicide attempts are associated with socioeconomic factors and information inequality regarding medical care. In conclusion, suicidal ideation closely associated with the psychosocial factors, whereas suicide attempt demonstrates a stronger association with socioeconomic factors. Suicide prevention measures should be implemented to provide information to help HIV-infected patients. PMID:26444525

  4. Socio-Ecological Risk Factors for Prime-Age Adult Death in Two Coastal Areas of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deok Ryun; Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Wierzba, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hierarchical spatial models enable the geographic and ecological analysis of health data thereby providing useful information for designing effective health interventions. In this study, we used a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model to evaluate mortality data in Vietnam. The model enabled identification of socio-ecological risk factors and generation of risk maps to better understand the causes and geographic implications of prime-age (15 to less than 45 years) adult death. Methods and Findings The study was conducted in two sites: Nha Trang and Hue in Vietnam. The study areas were split into 500×500 meter cells to define neighborhoods. We first extracted socio-demographic data from population databases of the two sites, and then aggregated the data by neighborhood. We used spatial hierarchical model that borrows strength from neighbors for evaluating risk factors and for creating spatially smoothed risk map after adjusting for neighborhood level covariates. The Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure was used to estimate the parameters. Male mortality was more than twice the female mortality. The rates also varied by age and sex. The most frequent cause of mortality was traffic accidents and drowning for men and traffic accidents and suicide for women. Lower education of household heads in the neighborhood was an important risk factor for increased mortality. The mortality was highly variable in space and the socio-ecological risk factors are sensitive to study site and sex. Conclusion Our study suggests that lower education of the household head is an important predictor for prime age adult mortality. Variability in socio-ecological risk factors and in risk areas by sex make it challenging to design appropriate intervention strategies aimed at decreasing prime-age adult deaths in Vietnam. PMID:24587031

  5. Serum Vitamin D status and its relations to body fatness and fitness and risk factors in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinkook; Gong, Jiyoung; Hong, Hyeryun; Ha, Changduk; Kang, Hyunsik

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relations of serum vitamin D levels to body fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk factors in young adults in Korea. A total of 593 young men completed a health examination, body fatness, maximal treadmill exercise test, and assessment of metabolic risk factors. Participants were classified by serum vitamin D levels as deficient (< 20 ng/mL), insufficient (20~30 ng/mL), and sufficient (> 30 ng/mL). Body fatness, CRF, and metabolic risk factors were evaluated according to serum vitamin D classification. Significant inverse trends in body fatness and metabolic risk factors were observed, as was a significant linear trend for CRF across incremental vitamin D categories in this study population. Serum vitamin D levels were negatively associated with body fatness parameters, blood pressures, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin and positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and CRF. Compared to the BMI-based lean group, the obese groups had significantly higher odds ratio for serum vitamin D insufficiency before and after adjusting for age, CRF, and physical activity. Similarly, compared to percent body fat- and waist circumference-based lean groups, the obese groups had significant higher odds ratios for serum vitamin D insufficiency. In conclusion, the current findings of the study suggest that along with vitamin D intakes, body fat loss and outdoor physical activity should be promoted as non-pharmacologic means to improve metabolic risk factors in young adults. PMID:25566425

  6. Aging: Characteristics, Exposure Factors, Epigenetics, and Assessment of Health Risks of Older Adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter is organized into three sections. The first part describes the characteristics of the older adult population and the U.S. EPA’s efforts to protect elders form environmental hazards. Section II covers available exposure factor data, activity pattern and the pot...

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Sleep Disturbance in a Large HIV-Infected Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Allavena, C; Guimard, T; Billaud, E; De la Tullaye, S; Reliquet, V; Pineau, S; Hüe, H; Supiot, C; Chennebault, J-M; Michau, C; Hitoto, H; Vatan, R; Raffi, F

    2016-02-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disturbances in French adult HIV-infected outpatients. Patients fullfilled a self-administered questionnaire on their health behavior, sleep attitudes (Pittsburgh sleep quality index, PSQI), quality of life and depression; 1354 patients were enrolled. Median sleeping time was 7 h. Poor sleep quality was observed in 47 % of the patients, and moderate to serious depressive symptoms in 19.7 %. Factors significantly associated with sleep disturbances were depression, male gender, active employment, living single, tobacco-smoking, duration of HIV infection, nevirapine or efavirenz-including regimen. Prevalence of poor sleepers is high in this HIV adult outpatient population. Associated factors seem poorly specific to HIV infection and more related to social and psychological status. Taking care of these disturbances may prove to be an effective health management strategy. PMID:26271816

  8. The relation of leptin and insulin with obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors in US adults.

    PubMed

    Reis, Jared P; Macera, Caroline A; Wingard, Deborah L; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Lindsay, Suzanne P; Marshall, Simon J

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies of leptin with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been limited by clinical samples or lack of representation of the general population. This cross-sectional study, designed to examine whether leptin or insulin may mediate the endogenous relation of obesity with metabolic, inflammatory, and thrombogenic cardiovascular risk factors, included 522 men and 514 women aged >or=40 years who completed a physical examination during the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were free of existing CVD, cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer), diabetes, or respiratory disease. In multivariable analyses adjusted for race/ethnicity and lifestyle factors, waist circumference (WC) was positively associated with blood pressure, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol:HDL ratio, apolipoprotein B, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen concentrations, and negatively associated with HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 levels. The associations of WC with the metabolic CVD risk factors were largely attenuated after adjustment for insulin levels, while the associations of WC with the inflammatory and thrombogenic factors (CRP and fibrinogen, respectively) were largely explained by adjustment for leptin concentrations. However, leptin levels were not independently associated with CRP and fibrinogen in men and CRP in women when adjusted for WC. Positive associations of leptin and insulin with fibrinogen in women, independent of WC, were noted. These results suggest that insulin may be an important mediator of the association of obesity with metabolic but not inflammatory or thrombogenic CVD risk factors, while leptin does not appear to influence cardiovascular risk through a shared association with these risk factors. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that leptin and insulin influence cardiovascular risk in women through independent effects on fibrinogen concentrations. PMID:18160070

  9. A case-control study of risk factors for rotavirus infections in adults, Denmark, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Dorleans, F; Falkenhorst, G; Böttiger, B; Howitz, M; Midgley, S; Nielsen, J; Mølbak, K; Ethelberg, S

    2016-02-01

    Rotavirus (RV) infections affect young children, but can also occur in adults. We sought to identify risk factors for RV infections in adults aged ⩾18 years in Denmark, and to describe illness and genotyping characteristics. From March 2005 to February 2009, we recruited consecutive cases of laboratory-confirmed RV infection and compared them with healthy controls matched by age, gender and municipality of residence. We collected information on illness characteristics and exposures using postal questionnaires. We calculated univariable and multivariable matched odds ratios (mOR) with conditional logistic regression. The study comprised 65 cases and 246 controls. Illness exceeded 10 days in 31% of cases; 22% were hospitalized. Cases were more likely than controls to suffer serious underlying health conditions [mOR 5·6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·7-18], and to report having had close contact with persons with gastrointestinal symptoms (mOR 9·4, 95% CI 3·6-24), in particular young children aged 18 years. Close contact with young children or adults with gastrointestinal symptoms is the main risk factor for RV infection in adults in Denmark. RV vaccination assessments should consider that RV vaccination in children may indirectly reduce the burden of disease in adults. PMID:26143648

  10. Risk Factors Associated with Aortic and Carotid Intimal-Medial Thickness in Adolescents and Young Adults: the Muscatine Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Sonka, Milan; Blecha, Mary Beth; Lin, Wenjiao; Davis, Patricia H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether cardiovascular risk factors are associated with aortic and carotid intimal-medial thickness (aIMT and cIMT) in adolescents and young adults. Background Atherosclerotic lesions begin developing in youth, first in the distal abdominal aorta and later in the carotid arteries. Knowledge of how risk factors relate to aIMT and cIMT may help in the design of early interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease. Methods Participants were 635 members of the Muscatine Offspring cohort. The mean aIMT and cIMT were measured using an automated reading program. Results The means (SDs) of aIMT and cIMT were 0.63 (0.14) mm and 0.49 (0.04) mm, respectively. In adolescents (ages 11 to 17), aIMT was associated with triglycerides, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), and waist/hip ratio, after adjusting for age, gender, and height. In young adults (ages 18 to 34), aIMT was associated with those same five risk factors, plus HDL-cholesterol and pulse pressure. In adolescents, cIMT was associated with SBP, pulse pressure, heart rate, BMI, and waist/hip ratio. In young adults, cIMT was associated total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, SBP, .DBP, BMI, waist/hip ratio, and HbA1C. In both age groups, aIMT and cIMT were significantly correlated with the PDAY coronary artery risk score. Conclusions Both aIMT and cIMT are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Using aIMT in adolescents gives information beyond that obtained from cIMT alone. Measurement of aIMT and cIMT may help identify those at risk for premature cardiovascular disease. PMID:19520251

  11. Obesity as a Risk Factor for Poor Neurocognitive Outcomes in Older Adults with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) has reached epidemic proportions and is a significant contributor to poor outcomes. HF is an established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and abnormalities on neuroimaging. Moreover, up to 80% of HF patients also exhibit milder impairments on cognitive tests assessing attention, executive function, memory, and language. The mechanisms of cognitive impairment in HF are not entirely clear and involve a combination of physiological processes that negatively impact the brain. Cerebral hypoperfusion and common comorbid conditions in HF are among the most commonly proposed contributors to poor neurocognitive outcomes in this population. Obesity is another likely risk factor for adverse brain changes and cognitive impairment in HF, as it is a known contributor to neurocognitive outcomes in healthy and patient samples. This paper reviews the literature on HF and cognitive function and introduces obesity as a significant risk factor for poor neurocognitive outcomes in this population. PMID:23743688

  12. Defining Risk Factors for Red Man Syndrome in Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Angela L.; Gaedigk, Andrea; Dai, Hongying; James, Laura P.; Jones, Bridgette L.; Neville, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Red man syndrome (RMS) is a well known adverse reaction that occurs in pediatric patients receiving vancomycin, yet reported prevalence is varied, and characteristics and risk factors, are not well understood. Our objective was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors for red man syndrome in pediatric patients receiving vancomycin, including contributing genetic factors. Methods A multi-center retrospective study of 546 subjects (0.5– 21 years) who received at least one dose of intravenous vancomycin was conducted. Demographic and symptom data were collected through chart review and parent/nurse report. Genotype analysis included ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the histamine pathway. Results RMS was observed in 77 (14%) subjects receiving vancomycin. 40% of subjects with RMS symptoms developed rash, pruritis and flushing, without hypotension. Antecedent antihistamine use was identified as a risk factor for RMS (p<0.001). Multivariate regression analysis identified age >2 years (p=0.008), previous RMS (p<0.001), VC dose (p=0.02), and VC concentration (p=0.017) as RMS risk factors, while African-American race was protective (p=0.011). We observed an apparent association between RMS and a SNP in the diamine oxidase gene (p=0.044); however, no associations were revealed by multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis. Conclusions RMS is a common adverse event in children receiving vancomycin. Identified risk factors are Caucasian ethnicity, age ≥ 2 years, previous RMS history, vancomycin dose ≥10 mg/kg, vancomycin concentration ≥5 mg/ml and antecedent antihistamine use. Known genetic variants in histamine metabolism or receptors do not appear to be substantial contributors to risk of RMS. PMID:22327873

  13. Hearing Loss Prevalence and Risk Factors Among Older Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Roland; Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Background. Hearing loss has been associated with cognitive and functional decline in older adults and may be amenable to rehabilitative interventions, but national estimates of hearing loss prevalence and hearing aid use in older adults are unavailable. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2005–2006 cycle of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, which is the first cycle to ever incorporate hearing assessment in adults aged 70 years and older. Audiometry was performed in 717 older adults, and data on hearing aid use, noise exposure, medical history, and demographics were obtained from interviews. Analyses incorporated sampling weights to account for the complex sampling design and yield results that are generalizable to the U.S. population. Results. The prevalence of hearing loss defined as a speech frequency pure tone average of more than 25 dB in the better ear was 63.1% (95% confidence interval: 57.4–68.8). Age, sex, and race were the factors most strongly associated with hearing loss after multivariate adjustment, with black race being substantially protective against hearing loss (odds ratio 0.32 compared with white participants [95% confidence interval: 0.19–0.53]). Hearing aids were used in 40.0% (95% confidence interval: 35.1–44.8) of adults with moderate hearing loss, but in only 3.4% (95% confidence interval: 0.8–6.0) of those with a mild hearing loss. Conclusion. Hearing loss is prevalent in nearly two thirds of adults aged 70 years and older in the U.S. population. Additional research is needed to determine the epidemiological and physiological basis for the protective effect of black race against hearing loss and to determine the role of hearing aids in those with a mild hearing loss. PMID:21357188

  14. Parental 'affectionless control' as an antecedent to adult depression: a risk factor refined.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, A; Henderson, A S; Andrews, G

    1993-02-01

    It has been well established that individuals with a history of depression report their parents as being less caring and more overprotective of them than do controls. 'Affectionless control' in childhood has thus been proposed as a risk factor for depression. Evidence is presented from a logistic regression analysis of data from a volunteer community sample that lack of care rather than over-protection is the primary risk factor. No evidence for an interaction effect of low care and over-protection was found. PMID:8475201

  15. Childhood Risk Factors for Young Adult Substance Dependence Outcome in Offspring from Multiplex Alcohol Dependence Families: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Shirley Y.; Steinhauer, Stuart R.; Locke-Wellman, Jeannette; Ulrich, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background Age of onset to begin drinking is a known risk factor for alcohol dependence. Factors have been identified that contribute to age of onset to begin regular drinking. These include reduced P300, increased postural sway, and personality variation. A longitudinal study spanning childhood to young adulthood provided the opportunity to determine if these same factors would predict the presence and onset of substance use disorders (SUD). Methods Multiplex families were identified through two or more alcohol-dependent brothers. Offspring from these multiplex or control families (n = 133) were followed annually during childhood. Using childhood predictors previously identified as risk factors for age of onset to begin drinking, SUD outcome by young adulthood was modeled. Results Familial risk status was a significant predictor of young adult SUD outcome as a main effect and as an interaction with P300 amplitude recorded before the age of 13. In adolescence (age 15), increased postural sway and familial risk predicted the SUD outcome by age 22. Analysis comparing the presence of one or both risk factors showed that those above the median for sway and below the median for P300 amplitude had substantially increased odds of developing SUD (odds ratio = 8.08 [confidence interval = 1.52– 42.83]). Conclusions Our findings indicate that among the factors predicting age of onset to begin regular drinking, P300 predicts SUD outcome across an 11-year span. The present findings provide the longest follow-up to date demonstrating that neurobiological factors in childhood are among the most salient predictors of young adult SUD outcome. PMID:19640504

  16. Radiological Characteristics and Anatomical Risk Factors in the Evaluation of Hallux Valgus in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hailin; Jin, Kaiji; Fu, Zhongguo; Ma, Mingtai; Liu, Zhongdi; An, Shuai; Jiang, Baoguo

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are no unified theories as to the anatomical changes that occur with hallux valgus, we investigated the radiological characteristics and anatomical risk factors for hallux valgus deformity in Chinese adults. Methods: We reviewed 141 patients with hallux valgus (206 feet; 15 males, 126 females; mean age, 58.5 years). These patients attended Peking University People's Hospital from April 2008 to March 2014. All feet had intact radiological data, obtained using the Centricity RIS/PACS system. We measured hallux valgus angle (HVA), 1–2 intermetatarsal angle (IMA), proximal articular set angle (PASA), distal articular set angle, hallux interphalangeal angle, metatarsocuneiform angle, size of the medial eminence of the distal first metatarsal, tibial sesamoid position, and joint congruity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ). Results: We found positive correlations between the HVA and IMA (r = 0.279, P < 0.01) and HVA and PASA (r = 0.358, P < 0.01), but not for IMA and PASA (P > 0.05). Feet were divided into three groups based on HVA severity. IMA (P < 0.05) and PASA (P < 0.05) in the mild group were significantly lower than that in the moderate and severe groups, with no significant difference determined for IMA or PASA between the moderate and severe groups (P > 0.05). Feet were then grouped based on the shape of the first metatarsal head. Using this grouping, HVA was significant higher in the rounded shape (19.92°) than in a flat shape (17.66°). The size of the medial eminence of the distal first metatarsal was positively correlated with HVA (r = 0.185, P < 0.01). The medial eminence in the moderate and severe groups was significantly larger than that in the mild group; moderate and severe groups were not significantly different. Conclusions: PASA enlargement is an adaptive change during early hallux valgus formation, and decompensation leads to subdislocation in the first MTPJ. A rounded first metatarsal head would thus predispose a

  17. Risk Factors for Alcohol Use among Male Adolescents and Emerging Adults in Haiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Anastasia J.; Suzuki, Chiho

    2006-01-01

    This study examined risk factors associated with alcohol use in the past 3 months among young men aged 15-24 in Haiti using data from the 2000 Enquete Mortalite, Morbidite et Utilization des Services. Findings indicate that life-time smoking, multiple sexual partnerships, witnessing inter-parental conflict in childhood, disruption of parental…

  18. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Falls among Adults with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, C. R.; Clemson, L.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Durvasula, S.; Sherrington, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Falls among people with intellectual disability (ID) occur at a younger age than the general population and are a significant cause of injury and hospitalisation. There is very limited research investigating risk factors for falls among people with ID and none with people living outside of formal care arrangements, either independently…

  19. Risk factors, aetiology and outcome of ischaemic stroke in young adults: the Swiss Young Stroke Study (SYSS).

    PubMed

    Goeggel Simonetti, Barbara; Mono, Marie-Luise; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Michel, Patrik; Odier, Celine; Sztajzel, Roman; Lyrer, Philippe; Engelter, Stefan T; Bonati, Leo; Gensicke, Henrik; Traenka, Christopher; Tettenborn, Barbara; Weder, Bruno; Fischer, Urs; Galimanis, Aekaterini; Jung, Simon; Luedi, Rudolf; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Weck, Anja; Cereda, Carlo W; Baumgartner, Ralf; Bassetti, Claudio L; Mattle, Heinrich P; Nedeltchev, Krassen; Arnold, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    Ischaemic stroke (IS) in young adults has been increasingly recognized as a serious health condition. Stroke aetiology is different in young adults than in the older population. This study aimed to investigate aetiology and risk factors, and to search for predictors of outcome and recurrence in young IS patients. We conducted a prospective multicentre study of consecutive IS patients aged 16-55 years. Baseline demographic data, risk factors, stroke aetiology including systematic genetic screening for Fabry disease and severity were assessed and related to functional neurological outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS), case fatality, employment status, place of residence, and recurrent cerebrovascular events at 3 months. In 624 IS patients (60% men), median age was 46 (IQR 39-51) years and median NIHSS on admission 3 (IQR 1-8). Modifiable vascular risk factors were found in 73%. Stroke aetiology was mostly cardioembolism (32%) and of other defined origin (24%), including cervicocerebral artery dissection (17%). Fabry disease was diagnosed in 2 patients (0.3%). Aetiology remained unknown in 20%. Outcome at 3 months was favourable (mRS 0-1) in 61% and fatal in 2.9%. Stroke severity (p < 0.001) and diabetes mellitus (p = 0.023) predicted unfavourable outcome. Stroke recurrence rate at 3 months was 2.7%. Previous stroke or TIA predicted recurrent cerebrovascular events (p = 0.012). In conclusion, most young adults with IS had modifiable vascular risk factors, emphasizing the importance of prevention strategies. Outcome was unfavourable in more than a third of patients and was associated with initial stroke severity and diabetes mellitus. Previous cerebrovascular events predicted recurrent ones. PMID:26067218

  20. Risk Factors for Thrombocytopenia in Adult Chinese Patients Receiving Linezolid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao; Guo, Dai-Hong; Cao, Xiutang; Cai, Yun; Xu, Yuanjie; Zhu, Man; Ma, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Background Linezolid (LZD), an oxazolidinone antibiotic agent, has excellent activity and bioavailability against most methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant gram-positive bacteria. Although LZD is generally well tolerated, several studies have found adverse hematologic effects, of which thrombocytopenia is of most concern. Objective To investigate the risk factors for thrombocytopenia in patients who received oral or parenteral LZD therapy between February 1 and November 30, 2010. Methods Data were extracted retrospectively from the electronic medical records in our hospital information system. Thrombocytopenia was defined as either a final platelet count of <100 × 109/L (criterion 1) or a 25% reduction from the baseline platelet count (criterion 2). Risk factors were determined using logistic regression analysis, and clinical features were predicted using receiver operating characteristic curves. Results The study included 254 patients, with mean (SD) age of 59 (17.66) years. The duration of LZD therapy was 9.43 (5.63) days. Thrombocytopenia developed in 69 patients (27.2%), as defined by criterion 1, and in 127 patients (50%), as defined by criterion 2. At univariate analysis, age, weight, creatinine clearance, serum albumin concentration, baseline platelet count, daily dosage, and concomitant use of caspofungin, levofloxacin, and meropenem were significant risk factors for thrombocytopenia. At multivariate analysis and using ROC curves, daily dose ≥18.75 mg/kg, baseline platelet count ≤181 × 109/L, duration of LZD therapy ≥10 days, and concomitant use of caspofungin and levofloxacin were independent risk factors for thrombocytopenia as defined by criterion 1, whereas creatinine clearance ≤88.39 mL/min/1.73 m2, serum albumin concentration ≤33.5 g/L, daily dose ≥18.46 mg/kg, and caspofungin were independent risk factors for thrombocytopenia as defined by criterion 2. Conclusions The incidence of LZD-related thrombocytopenia in the Chinese

  1. Analysis of older adults' domestic kitchen storage practices in the United Kingdom: identification of risk factors associated with listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2015-04-01

    Increased listeriosis incidence among older adults (≥ 60 years) has been reported internationally, with many cases reported to be sporadic and associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) food products with extended refrigerated shelf life. Given that the home kitchen is recognized as a significant location where foodborne illnesses are acquired, it is important that consumers implement safe food practices to minimize risks. This is crucial for vulnerable consumers, such as older adults. Consumer food safety recommendations in the United Kingdom to reduce the risk of listeriosis at home include (i) following "use-by" dates on unopened prepacked RTE food products, (ii) consuming RTE food products within 2 days of opening, and (iii) ensuring the safe operating temperatures of domestic refrigerators (≤ 5 °C). This study utilized observation, self-reporting, and microbiological analysis to determine actual food storage practices to identify behavioral risk factors. A domestic kitchen survey was conducted in older adult (≥ 60 years) consumers' domestic kitchens (n = 100) in South Wales, United Kingdom. Forty-one percent of foods in home refrigerators were beyond the use-by date, of which 11% were unopened RTE food products commonly associated with listeriosis. Sixty-six percent of opened RTE foods had been or were intended to be stored beyond the recommended 2 days after opening. Older adults failed to ensure safe refrigeration temperatures, with 50% of central storage and 85% of door storage areas operating at temperatures >5 °C. Older refrigerators operated at significantly (P < 0.05) higher temperatures. Given that Listeria monocytogenes was isolated in 2% of kitchens, these findings suggest that storage malpractices may have a greater effect on the potential risk of listeriosis than its presence alone. The study has determined that many older adults fail to adhere to recommendations and subject RTE foods associated with L. monocytogenes to prolonged storage at unsafe

  2. Relationship of Food Security with Type 2 Diabetes and Its Risk Factors in Tehranian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hasan-Ghomi, Majid; Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firozeh; Sarbazi, Narges; Azizi, Fereidoun; Sadeghian, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: As food insecurity has negative effects on health, the aim of this study was to determine tahe relationship between household food security and type 2 diabetes mellitus and its related risk factors. Methods: In this case-control study, 200 individuals with and 200 individuals without type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged over 40 years, were randomly selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. The questionnaire on household food security proposed by the United States Department of Agriculture was completed for them by trained personnel. Logistic regression was used to determine the variable that had the most significant relationship with food security status. Results: The average of food security score was 2.38 ± 2.0 in non-diabetic and 2.25 ± 2.0 in diabetic individuals (P = 0.6). In both groups, the risk for food insecurity in women was more than in men. In the diabetic group, being single and having education levels below high school increased the risk of food insecurity. In the non-diabetic group, the risk of food insecurity in obese individuals was 3.3 times higher than normal individuals (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.2–4.1). Conclusions: There were no significant differences in food security levels of diabetic and non-diabetic groups. However, some risk factors of type 2 diabetes including sex, marital status, educational level, and obesity were associated with food insecurity. PMID:26605019

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  4. Prevalence of Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease in a Sample of Greek Adults: The Saronikos Study

    PubMed Central

    Gikas, Aristofanis; Lambadiari, Vaia; Sotiropoulos, Alexios; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Pappas, Stavros

    2016-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive data regarding prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated factors in different geographical regions are very important to our understanding of global distribution and evolution of CHD. The aim of this study was to assess the current prevalence of self-reported risk factors and CHD in Greek adult population. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2014, during an election day, among residents of Saronikos municipality (Attica region). Data were collected from face-to-face interviews. The study sample included 2636 subjects (men, 49.5%; mean age, 50.5; range 20-95 years), with similar age and sex distribution to the target population. Results: The age-standardized prevalence rates of five major risk factors were as follows: type 2 diabetes 11.1%, hypercholesterolemia (cholesterol>240 mg/dl or using cholesterol-lowering medication) 23.8%, hypertension 27.2%, current smoking 38.9% and physical inactivity 43%. Of the participants, only 21% were free of any of these factors. Clustering of two to five risk factors was more frequent among persons aged 50 years and older as compared with younger ones (60% vs 27%, P=0.000). The age-adjusted prevalence of CHD was 6.3% (in men, 8.9%; in women, 3.8%) and that of myocardial infarction was 3.6% (in men, 5.2%; in women, 2.1%). According to multivariate analysis age, gender, education level, obesity, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and ever smoking were strongly associated with CHD. Conclusion: Classic risk factors are highly prevalent and frequently clustered, especially in adults aged 50 years and older. These findings raise concerns about future trends of already increased rates of CHD. Multifactorial and integrated population-based interventions need to be applied to reduce the burden of cardiovascular conditions. PMID:27429668

  5. Metabolic profile and cardiovascular risk factors in adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mnif, Mouna Feki; Kamoun, Mahdi; Mnif, Fatma; Charfi, Nadia; Naceur, Basma Ben; Kallel, Nozha; Rekik, Nabila; Mnif, Zainab; Sfar, Mohamed Habib; Sfar, Mohamed Tahar; Hachicha, Mongia; Abid, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Background: In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), long-term glucocorticoid treatment coupled with increased androgens may lead to undesirable metabolic effects. The aim of our report was to determine the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk factors in a population of adult patients with CAH due to 21 hydroxylase deficiency. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients (11 males and 15 females, mean age ± SD=27.4±8.2 years) were recruited. Anthropometry, body composition, metabolic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors were studied. Results: Obesity (overweight included) was noted in 16 patients (61.5%), with android distribution in all cases. Bioelectrical impedance showed increased body fat mass in 12 patients (46.1%). Lipid profile alterations and carbohydrate metabolism disorders were detected in seven (26.9%) and five (19.2%) patients respectively. Moderate hepatic cytolysis, associated with hepatic steatosis, was found in one patient. Seven patients (27%) had insulin resistance. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring showed abnormalities in six patients (23%). Increased carotid intima media thickness was found in 14 patients (53.8%). Conclusion: Adult CAH patients tend to have altered metabolic parameters and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Lifelong follow-up, lifestyle modifications, and attempts to adjust and reduce the glucocorticoid doses seem important. PMID:23226639

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adults: Impact, Comorbidity, Risk Factors, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    During the last 30 years, there has been a substantial increase in the study of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several high-profile traumatic events, such as the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the terrorist attacks of September 11 on the World Trade Center, have led to a greater public interest in the risk and protective factors for PTSD. In this In Review paper, I discuss some of the important advances in PTSD. The paper provides a concise review of the evolution of PTSD diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, impact of PTSD in the community, an overview of the established risk factors for developing PTSD, and assessment and treatment. Throughout the paper, controversies and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25565692

  7. Sex-specific differences in risk factors for sarcopenia amongst community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Tay, L; Ding, Y Y; Leung, B P; Ismail, N H; Yeo, A; Yew, S; Tay, K S; Tan, C H; Chong, M S

    2015-12-01

    With considerable variation including potential sex-specific differential rate of skeletal muscle loss, identifying modifiable factors for sarcopenia will be pivotal to guide targeted interventions. This study seeks to identify clinical and biological correlates of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults, with emphasis on the role of anabolic and catabolic stimuli, and special reference to gender specificity. In this cross-sectional study involving 200 community-dwelling and functionally independent older adults aged ≥50 years, sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Comorbidities, cognitive and functional performance, physical activity and nutritional status were routinely assessed. Biochemical parameters included haematological indices, lipid panel, vitamin D level, anabolic hormones [insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), free testosterone (males only)] and catabolic markers [inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) and myostatin]. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors for sarcopenia. Age was associated with sarcopenia in both genders. Malnutrition conferred significantly higher odds for sarcopenia in women (OR = 5.71, 95% CI 1.13-28.84.44, p = 0.035) while higher but acceptable range serum triglyceride was protective in men (OR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.52, p = 0.012). Higher serum myostatin independently associated with higher odds for sarcopenia in men (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.24, p = 0.041). Serum IGF-1 was significantly lower amongst female sarcopenic subjects, with demonstrable trend for protective effect against sarcopenia in multiple regression models, such that each 1 ng/ml increase in IGF-1 was associated with 1% decline in odds of sarcopenia in women (p = 0.095). Our findings support differential pathophysiological mechanisms for sarcopenia that, if corroborated, may have clinical utility in guiding sex-specific targeted

  8. Prevalence of 'being at risk of malnutrition' and associated factors in adult patients receiving nursing care at home in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Bart; Franck MPsych, Erik; Lopez Hartmann, Maja; Weyler, Joost; Ysebaert, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    Malnutrition is a known problem in hospitals and nursing homes. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of being at risk of malnutrition in community living adults receiving homecare nursing and to determine factors independently associated with this risk of malnutrition. Furthermore, it also aimed to describe aspects of current nutritional nursing care. Patients (n = 100) are screened with the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool to evaluate their risk of malnutrition. A patient survey was used to analyse associated factors. In this population, 29% are at risk for malnutrition. Following a multivariate logistic regression analysis, 'loss of appetite' proved the most important factor. A survey for nurses (n = 61) revealed low awareness, poor knowledge, poor communication between stakeholders and a moderate approach of malnutrition. These findings should encourage homecare nurses to use a recommended screening tool for malnutrition and to actively observe and report loss of appetite to initiate the prescription of individual tailored interventions. Belgian homecare nurses' management does not yet fully comply with international recommendations. Additional training in nutritional nursing care and screening methods for malnutrition is needed. Systematic screening should be further developed and evaluated in this at-risk population. PMID:24810494

  9. Low Life Jacket Use among Adult Recreational Boaters: A Qualitative Study of Risk Perception and Behavior Factors

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Bennett, Elizabeth; Quan, Linda; Ebel, Beth E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Life jackets may prevent one in two drowning deaths, however, 85% of recreational boating-related drowning victims in the United States in 2012 did not wear a life jacket. This study explored behavioral factors and strategies to encourage consistent life jacket use among adult recreational boaters. Methods We conducted a qualitative study among boat owners who boat regularly, and explored factors associated with life jacket use by adults and child or adolescent passengers. Sixteen boaters participated in four focus groups. Results Most boaters reported inconsistent use of life jackets, using them only when conditions were poor. Each described episodes of unpredictable boating risk which occurred despite favorable conditions. Most required younger child passengers to wear a life jacket, but reported resistance among older children. Barriers to consistent life jacket use included discomfort and the belief that life jacket use indicated inexperience or poor swimming ability. Participants stated that laws requiring life jacket use would change behavior especially for children. The only demonstrated behavior change among group members was associated with use of inflatable life jacket devices. Conclusions Boating risk is inherently unpredictable; therefore interventions should focus on strategies for increasing consistent use of life jackets. Passage and enforcement of life jacket legislation for older children and adults is likely a promising approach for behavior change. Designing more comfortable, better-fitting, more appealing life jackets will be paramount to encouraging consistent use. PMID:24211559

  10. Recent HIV Testing Prevalence, Determinants, and Disparities Among US Older Adult Respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Chandra L.; Godette, Dionne C.; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Gaines, Tommi L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although routine human immune deficiency virus (HIV) testing during health care visits is recommended for most adults, many older adults (i.e., ages 50–64 years) do not receive it. This study identified factors associated with HIV testing in the past 12 months (i.e., recent HIV testing) among US adults in the 3 categories of older adulthood (50–54, 55–59, and 60–64 years) for which routine HIV testing is recommended. Method This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from US older adult respondents to the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We calculated prevalence (proportions) of HIV testing by age category and race/ethnicity. Using multiple logistic regression, we identified predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with recent HIV testing within and across age categories, by race/ethnicity and controlling for covariates. Results HIV testing prevalence was low (<5%), varied by race/ethnicity, and decreased with age. Within and across age categories, the odds of testing were highest among blacks (odds ratio [OR], 3.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.82–4.25) and higher among Latinos (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.50–2.84) and the oldest and youngest categories of American Indians/Alaska Natives (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.11–5.55; OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.49–5.95) than among whites. Those reporting a recent doctor visit (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.92–2.74) or HIV risk behaviors (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.67–4.59) had higher odds of HIV testing. Conclusion Regardless of risk, the oldest older adults, whites, and older women may forego HIV testing. Doctor visits may facilitate HIV testing. Additional research is needed to understand why eligible older adults seen by providers may not be screened for HIV infection. PMID:26165428

  11. Dyslipidemia, obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors in the adult population in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Doupa, Dominique; Seck, Sidy Mohamed; Dia, Charles Abdou; Diallo, Fatou Agne; Kane, Modou Oumy; Kane, Adama; Gueye, Pape Madieye; Mbaye, Maimouna Ndour; Gueye, Lamine; Jobe, Modou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction According to the WHO, 50% of deaths worldwide (40.1% in developing countries) are due to chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Of these chronic NCDs, cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. The Framingham study has shown the importance of hypercholesterolemia as a primary risk factor. In Senegal, the epidemiology of dyslipidemia and obesity are still poorly understood due to the lack of comprehensive studies on their impact on the general population. This motivated this study to look into the key epidemiologic and socio-demographic determinants of these risk factors. Methods It was a cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological survey which included 1037 individuals selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire following the WHO STEPwise approach. Socio-demographic, health and biomedical variables were collected. P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The average age was 48 years with a female predominance (M: F of 0.6). The literacy rate was 65.2% and 44.7% of participants were from rural areas. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hyperLDLemia, hypoHDLemia, hypertriglyceridemia and mixed hyperlipidemia were 56%, 22.5%, 12.4%, 7.11% and 1.9% respectively. One in four was obese (BMI> 30kg/m2) and 34.8% had abdominal obesity. The main factors significantly associated with dyslipidemia were obesity, urban dwelling, physical inactivity and a family history of dyslipidemia. Conclusion The prevalence of dyslipidemia, obesity and other risk factors in the population was high needing immediate care for those affected and implementation of prevention strategies. PMID:25815102

  12. Young adult Ecstasy users and multiple sexual partners: understanding the factors underlying this HIV risk practice.

    PubMed

    Sterk, Claire E; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W

    2008-09-01

    The purposes of this study are to (1) examine the extent to which young adult Ecstasy users recently reported having had multiple sex partners and (2) identify the factors predictive of engaging in this behavior. Potential predictors included demographic characteristics, background and experiences measures, childhood maltreatment experiences, substance use variables, and measures assessing psychological/psychosocial functioning. This research is based on a sample of 283 young adult recurrent users of the drug, Ecstasy. Study participants were recruited in Atlanta, Georgia between August 2002 and August 2004 using a targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping approach. Interviews took approximately two hours to complete. Nearly one-third of the study participants had more than one sex partner during the preceding month, and sexual protection rates tended to be low. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed seven predictors associated with an increased likelihood of having multiple sex partners: (1) being nonwhite, (2) knowing someone who was HIV-positive, (3) younger age of first sexual experience, (4) using Ecstasy for its touch-enhancing qualities, (5) higher self-esteem, (6) handling disagreements more dysfunctionally, and (7) not being involved in a romantic relationship. The HIV prevention- and intervention-related implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19004415

  13. Young Adult Ecstasy Users and Multiple Sexual Partners: Understanding the Factors Underlying this HIV Risk Practice†

    PubMed Central

    Sterk, Claire E.; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to (1) examine the extent to which young adult Ecstasy users recently reported having had multiple sex partners and (2) identify the factors predictive of engaging in this behavior. Potential predictors included demographic characteristics, background and experiences measures, childhood maltreatment experiences, substance use variables, and measures assessing psychological/psychosocial functioning. This research is based on a sample of 283 young adult recurrent users of the drug, Ecstasy. Study participants were recruited in Atlanta, Georgia between August 2002 and August 2004 using a targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping approach. Interviews took approximately two hours to complete. Nearly one-third of the study participants had more than one sex partner during the preceding month, and sexual protection rates tended to be low. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed seven predictors associated with an increased likelihood of having multiple sex partners: (1) being nonwhite, (2) knowing someone who was HIV-positive, (3) younger age of first sexual experience, (4) using Ecstasy for its touch-enhancing qualities, (5) higher self-esteem, (6) handling disagreements more dysfunctionally, and (7) not being involved in a romantic relationship. The HIV prevention- and intervention-related implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19004415

  14. Tree nut consumption is associated with better adiposity measures and cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome health risk factors in U.S adults: NHANES 2005-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown inconsistencies in the association of tree nut consumption with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). To determine the association of tree nut consumption with risk factors for CVD and for MetS in adults. NHANES 2005-2010 data were u...

  15. Anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in an adult healthy population: serosurvey and risk factors in Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Elaine Cristina; Santarém, Vamilton Alvares; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Giuffrida, Rogério

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in an adult healthy population. Methods The study was performed by interviewing 253 blood donors, from 19 to 65 years of age, in a hematological centre in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, southeast Brazil. A survey was applied to blood donors in order to evaluate the possible factors associated to the presence of antibodies, including individual (gender and age), socioeconomic (scholarship, familial income and sanitary facilities) and habit information (contact with soil, geophagy, onycophagy and intake of raw/undercooked meat) as well as the presence of dogs or cats in the household. ELISA test was run for detection of the anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies. Bivariate analysis followed by logistic regression was performed to evaluate the potential risk factors associated to seropositivity. Results The overall prevalence observed in this study was 8.7% (22/253). Contact with soil was the unique risk factor associated with the presence of antibodies (P=0.017 8; OR=3.52; 95% CI=1.244-9.995). Conclusions The results of this study reinforce the necessity in promoting preventive public health measures, even for healthy adult individual, particularly those related to the deworming of pets to avoid the soil contamination, and hygiene education of the population. PMID:23620840

  16. Prevalence of risk factors for chronic kidney disease among adults in a university community in southern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Wachukwu, Chinyere Mmanwanyi; Emem-Chioma, Pedro Chimezie; Wokoma, Friday Samuel; Oko-Jaja, Richard Ishmeal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a global public health challenge particularly in developing countries, including our local environment, where subjects with the disease present late and may already be in need of renal replacement therapy. Early detection of modifiable risk factors of CKD is a plausible strategy to reduce its prevalence and burden. The 2014 World Kidney Day (WKD) exercise provided a veritable opportunity to identify CKD risk factors among adult Nigerians for early intervention. Methods Subjects were mobilized from the University community for the 2014 WKD exercise. The parameters assessed were demographics, Body mass index (BMI), blood pressures, proteinuria, glycosuria, serum creatinine and fasting plasma glucose. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) was estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results A total of 259 volunteers were studied, mean age of 28.3±9.7years (16-66years). Males comprised 135(52.1%) while 124(47.9%) were females. The frequency of risk factors of CKD observed were obesity in 31(12.2%) subjects, proteinuria and glycosuria in 32(12.4%) and 7(2.7%) subjects respectively. Hypertension and hyperglycaemia were seen in 54(20.8%) and 11(4.3%) of subjects respectively. Five subjects (1.9%) had e-GFR < 60mls/min/1.73m2. Conclusion Prevalence of CKD risk factors in this study population was high. There is need for continuous education, regular screening for early detection and early intervention by risk factor modification to prevent and/or reduce the growing burden of CKD and its sequelae in Nigeria. PMID:26327957

  17. Aerobic Exercise Improves Cognition for Older Adults with Glucose Intolerance, A Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Laura D.; Frank, Laura L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W.; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Fishel, Mark A.; Watson, G. Stennis; Duncan, Glen E.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Craft, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57–83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-β (Aβ40 and Aβ42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p = 0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p = 0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p = 0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p = 0.01). For Aβ42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p = 0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline. PMID:20847403

  18. Risk Factors for Malnutrition in Older Adults: A Systematic Review of the Literature Based on Longitudinal Data.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Nádia Cristina Fávaro; Krausch-Hofmann, Stefanie; Matthys, Christophe; Vereecken, Carine; Vanhauwaert, Erika; Declercq, Anja; Bekkering, Geertruida Elsiena; Duyck, Joke

    2016-05-01

    The present systematic review critically examines the available scientific literature on risk factors for malnutrition in the older population (aged ≥65 y). A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, reviewing reference lists from 2000 until March 2015. The 2499 papers identified were subjected to inclusion criteria that evaluated the study quality according to items from validated guidelines. Only papers that provided information on a variable's effect on the development of malnutrition, which requires longitudinal data, were included. A total of 6 longitudinal studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. These studies reported the following significant risk factors for malnutrition: age (OR: 1.038; P = 0.045), frailty in institutionalized persons (β: 0.22; P = 0.036), excessive polypharmacy (β: -0.62; P = 0.001), general health decline including physical function (OR: 1.793; P = 0.008), Parkinson disease (OR: 2.450; P = 0.047), constipation (OR: 2.490; P = 0.015), poor (OR: 3.30; P value not given) or moderate (β: -0.27; P = 0.016) self-reported health status, cognitive decline (OR: 1.844; P = 0.001), dementia (OR: 2.139; P = 0.001), eating dependencies (OR: 2.257; P = 0.001), loss of interest in life (β: -0.58; P = 0.017), poor appetite (β: -1.52; P = 0.000), basal oral dysphagia (OR: 2.72; P = 0.010), signs of impaired efficacy of swallowing (OR: 2.73; P = 0.015), and institutionalization (β: -1.89; P < 0.001). These risk factors for malnutrition in older adults may be considered by health care professionals when developing new integrated assessment instruments to identify older adults' risk of malnutrition and to support the development of preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:27184278

  19. Indoor risk factors for cough and their relation to wheeze and sensitization in Chilean young adults

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, J.F.; Rona, R.J.; Oyarzun, M.J.; Amigo, H.; Bustos, P.

    2008-04-15

    We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semi-rural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity.

  20. Bone Health and Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease - A Cross-Sectional Study in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Turanlahti, Maila; Kajosaari, Merja; Mäkitie, Outi; Saarinen-Pihkala, Ulla M.; Viljakainen, Heli

    2014-01-01

    Objective Both osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are diseases that comprise a growing medical and economic burden in ageing populations. They share many risk factors, including ageing, low phy-sical activity, and possibly overweight. We aimed to study associations between individual risk factors for CVD and bone mineral density (BMD) and turnover markers (BTMs) in apparently healthy cohort. Design A cross-sectional assessment of 155 healthy 32-year-old adults (74 males) was performed for skeletal status, CVD risk factors and lifestyle factors. Methods We analysed serum osteocalcin, procollagen I aminoterminal propeptide (P1NP), collagen I carboxy-terminal telopeptide (ICTP) and urine collagen I aminoterminal telopeptide (U-NTX), as well as serum insulin, plasma glucose, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels. BMD, fat and lean mass were asses-sed using DXA scanning. Associations were tested with partial correlations in crude and adjusted mo-dels. Bone status was compared between men with or without metabolic syndrome (defined according to the NCEP-ATPIII criteria) with multivariate analysis. Results Osteocalcin and P1NP correlated inversely with insulin (R = −0.243, P = 0.003 and R = −0.187, P = 0.021) and glucose (R = −0.213, P = 0.009 and R = −0.190, P = 0.019), but after controlling for fat mass and lifestyle factors, the associations attenuated with insulin (R = −0.162, P = 0.053 and R = −0.093, P = 0.266) and with glucose (R = −0.099, P = 0.240 and R = −0.133, P = 0.110), respectively. Whole body BMD associated in-versely only with triglycerides in fully adjusted model. In men with metabolic syndrome, whole body BMD, osteocalcin and P1NP were lower compared to healthy men, but these findings disappeared in fully adjusted model. Conclusions In young adults, inverse associations between BTM/BMD and risk factors of CVD appeared in crude models, but after adjusting for fat

  1. Candy consumption in childhood is not predictive of weight, adiposity measures or cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are limited data available on the longitudinal relationship between candy consumption by children on weight and other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in young adults. The present study investigated whether candy consumption in children was predictive of weight and CVRF in young adults. A lo...

  2. Recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study: Comparison of risk factors between living and deceased donor recipients.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Fredric D; Goldberg, David S; Goodrich, Nathan P; Lok, Anna S F; Verna, Elizabeth C; Selzner, Nazia; Stravitz, R Todd; Merion, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) recurs in 15%-25% of patients transplanted for PSC. In the United States, PSC transplant patients are more likely to receive an organ from a living donor (LD) than patients without PSC. Our aims were to (1) compare risk of PSC recurrence in LD versus deceased donor recipients and (2) identify risk factors for PSC recurrence. There were 241 living donor liver transplantations (LDLTs) and 65 deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) patients transplanted between 1998 and 2013 enrolled in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study who were evaluated. PSC recurrence risk for LDLT and DDLT recipients was compared using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank tests. Cox models were used to evaluate PSC risk factors. Overall PSC recurrence probabilities were 8.7% and 22.4% at 5 and 10 years after liver transplantation (LT), respectively. The risk of PSC recurrence was not significantly different for DDLT versus LDLT recipients (P = 0.36). For DDLT versus LDLT recipients, unadjusted 5- and 10-year PSC recurrence was 9.4% versus 9.5% and 36.9% versus 21.1%. Higher laboratory Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score at LT, onset of a biliary complication, cholangiocarcinoma, and higher donor age were associated with increased risks of PSC recurrence: for MELD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.10 per MELD point, P = 0.002); for biliary complication (HR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.28-6.25; P = 0.01); for cholangiocarcinoma (HR, 3.98; 95% CI, 1.43-11.09; P = 0.008); for donor age (per 5-years donor age; HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.35; P = 0.02). Factors not significantly associated with PSC recurrence included the following: first-degree relative donor (P = 0.11), post-LT cytomegalovirus infection (P = 0.38), and acute rejection (P = 0.22). Risk of recurrent PSC was not significantly different for DDLT and LDLT recipients. Biliary complications

  3. Risk factors related to cognitive functioning: a cross-national comparison of U.S. and Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Chae Man; Dugan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of factors related to cognitive functioning in later life in a U.S. and Korean sample. The study sample was comprised of subjects from the HRS (N = 10,175) and the KLoSA (N = 3,550). Separate multivariate regression models were employed to examine the impact of socio-demographic, health, and health behaviors on cognitive functioning among older adults. Regression results showed that age, gender, education, wealth, self-rated health, ADL, IADL, stroke, and poor eyesight were significantly associated with cognitive functioning in both countries. However, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, and drinking were significantly associated with cognition only among Americans, while marital status and poor hearing were significantly associated with cognition only among Koreans. In addition, gender-specific models suggested several socio-economic and health factors had significantly different effects by gender in both countries. Cross-national comparative research identified similar risk factors, suggesting robust associations. Unique factors related to cognitive functioning in U.S. and Korean older adults highlight the important role of societal influences on cognitive outcomes. PMID:25508851

  4. Risk factors related to cognitive functioning: a cross-national comparison of U.S. and Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Chae Man; Dugan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of factors related to cognitive functioning in later life in a U.S. and Korean sample. The study sample was comprised of subjects from the HRS (N = 10,175) and the KLoSA (N = 3,550). Separate multivariate regression models were employed to examine the impact of socio-demographic, health, and health behaviors on cognitive functioning among older adults. Regression results showed that age, gender, education, wealth, self-rated health, ADL, IADL, stroke, and poor eyesight were significantly associated with cognitive functioning in both countries. However, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, and drinking were significantly associated with cognition only among Americans, while marital status and poor hearing were significantly associated with cognition only among Koreans. In addition, gender-specific models suggested several socio-economic and health factors had significantly different effects by gender in both countries. Cross-national comparative research identified similar risk factors, suggesting robust associations. Unique factors related to cognitive functioning in U.S. and Korean older adults highlight the important role of societal influences on cognitive outcomes. PMID:25486720

  5. Noncommunicable diseases and risk factors in adult populations of several Pacific Islands: results from the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide an overview of the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors in several Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs), in accordance with global NCD targets. Methods: For six risk factors, data for adults (aged 25–64 years) from published reports of the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to NCD surveillance, or methodologically similar surveys, were collated, age standardised and compared across fifteen PICTs. Results: In the majority of PICT populations, more than half of male current drinkers drank heavily and more than 40% of men and 20% of women were current smokers. In 10 populations, about 50% or more of women were insufficiently physically active. Prevalence of hypertension and diabetes exceeded 20% and 25%, respectively, in several populations. Near or more than half of men and women in all populations were overweight; in most, more than one‐third of both sexes were obese. Conclusions: The prevalence of NCDs and risk factors varies widely between PICTs and by sex. The evidence shows the high and alarming present and future burden of NCDs in the region. Implications: Strengthened political commitment and increased investment are urgently required to tackle the NCD crisis, successfully achieve targets and ensure continuing sustainable development in the Pacific islands. PMID:26095921

  6. [Laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma in a young adult without risk factors: a case report].

    PubMed

    M'barek, Basma; Gargouri, W; Maalej, M

    2005-08-01

    Head and neck carcinomas are rare in young patients without a history of tobacco consution, tho two classical risk factors. Our report is about 20 year-old patient without a history exosure to radiations or of alcohol / tobacco consumption, who presented with repeated episodes of dysphonia that didn't improve under medical treatment. Endoscopy showed a fungating hemilaryngeal lesion with a histology of epidermoid carcinoma stage T3N0. The patient initially 3 courses of cisplatin-5 fluorouracil resulting in a 90% objective response, followed by a loco-regional radiotherapy. 36 months after the diagnosis and 24 after the end of therapy, the patient is still alive and in complete remission. PMID:16238282

  7. Budding adult hypertensives with modifiable risk factors: “Catch them young”

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Aravind S. K.; Senguttuvan, Prabha; Prakash, Vel; Vengadesan, Appasamy; Padmaraj, Rajendiran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since the data of primary hypertension (HT) in children is scanty in India, this study attempted to evaluate HT by a multidimensional investigation of the various risk factors in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A total of 3906 subjects were recruited, all of whom lived in Chennai, an urban area of Tamil Nadu. The children and adolescents aged from 10 to 17 years were selected by random sampling. The children/adolescents were randomized into one control and further divided into two groups. The National High Blood Pressure Education Program fourth report (2004) and anthropometric body mass index (BMI), food frequency questionnaire (PURE) were followed in the study. Results: Out of 3906 children, 2107 were girls and 1799 boys. On screening, we found 9.5% to be hypertensive with the prevalence rate of boys and girls 8% and 10.8%, respectively. Overall obesity was 2.7%, (boys 2%, girls 3.32%); hypertensives and normotensives were 8.4% and 2.1%, respectively. We found that overweight (odds ratio [OR]: 2.06 [1.40–3.01] 95% confidence interval [CI]), obese children (OR: 1.21 [2.72–6.48] 95% CI), and those with a family history of HT (OR: 1.66 [1.20–2.30] 95% CI) had increased risk of hypertension. Females were 1.39 times (OR: 1.39 [1.11–1.72] 95% CI) more at risk of getting HT. Multivariate analysis showed that obese children/adolescent were four times more likely to have HT than children with normal BMI (OR: 4.67 [3.00–7.26] 95% CI]. Conclusion: Family history of HT, obesity, and female gender are associated with a high risk of HT. The prevalence of HT was higher among obese adolescents than among slender subjects. This may be related to their sedentary lifestyle, faulty eating habits, high fat content in the diet and little physical activity. PMID:26929728

  8. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, Control and Risk Factors Associated with Hypertension among Adults in Southern China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Yan, Jing; Tang, Xinhua; Xu, Xiaoling; Yu, Wei; Wu, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of hypertension and their associated factors in southern China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 5 cities of urban areas and 5 counties of rural areas in Southern China in 2013, a stratified multistage random sampling method was used to select a representative sample. Recruitment included a total of 19254 participants aged 15 or older. Socio-demographic profiles, examinations were administrated on each subject. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to identify the risk factors of hypertension, awareness, treatment, and control. Overall, the prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension are 24.59% and 32.11%, respectively in southern China. Among all the hypertensive patients, 67.43% were aware of their condition, 55.76% took anti-hypertension medication recent two weeks, and 30.79% had their blood pressure controlled. Compared with male, female hypertensive patients had higher rates of hypertension awareness, treatment and control. Age, gender, marital status, living areas, education, BMI, waist circumference, visceral adipose index (VAI), high body fat percentage (BFP) and family hypertension history correlated with the prevalence of hypertension. SBP/DBP increased with VAI and BFP increasing. There is an increasing prevalence of hypertension and high pre-hypertension in the general population in southern China, but levels of awareness, treatment, and control remain relatively low, especially for young and middle-aged population. Innovative strategies including of adopting appropriate anti-hypertensive medication therapy and healthy lifestyles should be taken. PMID:26784948

  9. Knowledge, Treatment, Control, and Risk Factors for Hypertension among Adults in Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zinat Motlagh, Sayed Fazel; Chaman, Reza; Ghafari, Sayed Rashid; Parisay, Zafar; Golabi, Mohamad Reza; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Babouei, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is the first and the most common risk factor to diseases such as cardiovascular, stroke, and renal diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the factors relevant to hypertension knowledge, treatment, and control in southern Iran. In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Kohgiluye Boyer-Ahmad province, south of Iran, a total of 1836 hypertension patients were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Hypertension treatment and its control were defined during study. In addition, knowledge about hypertension was measured by hypertension knowledge level scale (HK-LS). Treatment rates were 75.5 and 37.7 percent for female and male, respectively. Habitat, education, income, family history with hypertension, smoking, and time of diagnosis to the disease were found to be related to the treatment of the disease. Control rates were 30.7 and 31.4 for males and females, respectively. Habitat, education, and time of diagnosis to the disease were related to control. Over 50 percent of patients had average knowledge on hypertension. Considering the low rate of control and knowledge on hypertension among patients, health care providers should reinforce their services to improve appropriate knowledge level among elders and, also, plan comprehensive programs to promote health in order to encourage patients change and reform their life style. PMID:26783454

  10. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, Control and Risk Factors Associated with Hypertension among Adults in Southern China, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xinhua; Xu, Xiaoling; Yu, Wei; Wu, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of hypertension and their associated factors in southern China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 5 cities of urban areas and 5 counties of rural areas in Southern China in 2013, a stratified multistage random sampling method was used to select a representative sample. Recruitment included a total of 19254 participants aged 15 or older. Socio-demographic profiles, examinations were administrated on each subject. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to identify the risk factors of hypertension, awareness, treatment, and control. Overall, the prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension are 24.59% and 32.11%, respectively in southern China. Among all the hypertensive patients, 67.43% were aware of their condition, 55.76% took anti-hypertension medication recent two weeks, and 30.79% had their blood pressure controlled. Compared with male, female hypertensive patients had higher rates of hypertension awareness, treatment and control. Age, gender, marital status, living areas, education, BMI, waist circumference, visceral adipose index (VAI), high body fat percentage (BFP) and family hypertension history correlated with the prevalence of hypertension. SBP/DBP increased with VAI and BFP increasing. There is an increasing prevalence of hypertension and high pre-hypertension in the general population in southern China, but levels of awareness, treatment, and control remain relatively low, especially for young and middle-aged population. Innovative strategies including of adopting appropriate anti-hypertensive medication therapy and healthy lifestyles should be taken. PMID:26784948

  11. Association of Nut Consumption with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the 2008/2009 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rachel C.; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R.; Chisholm, Alexandra; Smith, Claire; Fleming, Elizabeth; Parnell, Winsome

    2015-01-01

    Nut consumption has been associated with improvements in risk factors for chronic disease in populations within North America, Europe and Iran. This relationship has not been investigated in New Zealand (NZ). The associations between nut consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among New Zealanders were examined. Data from the 24-h diet recalls of 4721 participants from the NZ Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 (2008/2009 NZANS) were used to determine whole and total nut intake. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were collected, as well as blood samples analysed for total cholesterol (total-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), C-reactive protein (CRP) and folate. Participants were classified according to their five-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Both whole and total nut consumers had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and central adiposity than non-nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.044). Whole blood, serum and red blood cell folate concentrations were significantly higher among whole nut consumers compared to non-whole nut consumers (all p ≤ 0.014), with only serum folate higher in total nut consumers compared to non-total nut consumers (p = 0.023). There were no significant differences for blood pressure, total-C, HDL-C and HbA1c; however, significant negative associations between total nut consumption and CVD risk category (p < 0.001) and CRP (p = 0.045) were apparent. Nut consumption was associated with more favourable body composition and a number of risk factors, which could collectively reduce chronic disease. PMID:26371037

  12. Wheelchair Use among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa; Colantonio, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Older adults are the largest group of wheelchair users yet there are no peer-reviewed studies on the national profile of older wheelchair users in Canada. We investigated the characteristics of wheelchair users in a national sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-2). Questions on the use of…

  13. Suicidality and Associated Risk Factors among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Compared to Heterosexual Austrian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploderl, Martin; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    This is the first study in German-speaking countries to compare the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (n = 358) with matched heterosexual adults (n = 267). The former had significantly elevated incidences of current suicide ideation (28% vs. 13%) and lifetime suicide attempts defined in three ways (14% vs. 1% to 10% vs. 2%),…

  14. Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been linked to some cancers: Links between air pollution and cancer risk have been found. These include ... between lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large ...

  15. Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart disease and stroke. However, certain groups—including African Americans and older individuals—are at higher risk ... life expectancy found among minorities. As of 2007, African American men were 30% more likely to die ...

  16. Implications of Our Developing Understanding of Risk and Protective Factors in the Treatment of Adult Male Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes our developing knowledge of factors that contribute added risk of sexual recidivism (risk factors) and factors that are associated with a reduced risk of sexual recidivism (protective factors). Specific implications for the design of future treatment programs are drawn. This information is contrasted with the common foci of…

  17. Risk factors for head and neck cancer in young adults: a pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium

    PubMed Central

    Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Znaor, Ariana; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Yu, Guo-Pei; Winn, Deborah M; Wei, Qingyi; Vilensky, Marta; Vaughan, Thomas; Thomson, Peter; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Sturgis, Erich M; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M; Schantz, Stimson; Rudnai, Peter; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Ramroth, Heribert; Purdue, Mark P; Olshan, Andrew F; Eluf-Neto, José; Muscat, Joshua; Moyses, Raquel Ajub; Morgenstern, Hal; Menezes, Ana; McClean, Michael; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mates, Dana; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; Vecchia, Carlo La; Lagiou, Pagona; Koifman, Sergio; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kelsey, Karl; Holcatova, Ivana; Herrero, Rolando; Healy, Claire; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silvia; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W; Curioni, Otávio Alberto; Maso, Luigino Dal; Curado, Maria Paula; Conway, David I; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; Canova, Cristina; Cadoni, Gabriella; Brennan, Paul; Boccia, Stefania; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Agudo, Antonio; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Filho, Victor Wünsch

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) in young adults has been reported. We aimed to compare the role of major risk factors and family history of cancer in HNC in young adults and older patients. Methods: We pooled data from 25 case-control studies and conducted separate analyses for adults ≤45 years old (‘young adults’, 2010 cases and 4042 controls) and >45 years old (‘older adults’, 17 700 cases and 22 704 controls). Using logistic regression with studies treated as random effects, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The young group of cases had a higher proportion of oral tongue cancer (16.0% in women; 11.0% in men) and unspecified oral cavity / oropharynx cancer (16.2%; 11.1%) and a lower proportion of larynx cancer (12.1%; 16.6%) than older adult cases. The proportions of never smokers or never drinkers among female cases were higher than among male cases in both age groups. Positive associations with HNC and duration or pack-years of smoking and drinking were similar across age groups. However, the attributable fractions (AFs) for smoking and drinking were lower in young when compared with older adults (AFs for smoking in young women, older women, young men and older men, respectively, = 19.9% (95% CI = 9.8%, 27.9%), 48.9% (46.6%, 50.8%), 46.2% (38.5%, 52.5%), 64.3% (62.2%, 66.4%); AFs for drinking = 5.3% (−11.2%, 18.0%), 20.0% (14.5%, 25.0%), 21.5% (5.0%, 34.9%) and 50.4% (46.1%, 54.3%). A family history of early-onset cancer was associated with HNC risk in the young [OR = 2.27 (95% CI = 1.26, 4.10)], but not in the older adults [OR = 1.10 (0.91, 1.31)]. The attributable fraction for family history of early-onset cancer was 23.2% (8.60% to 31.4%) in young compared with 2.20% (−2.41%, 5.80%) in older adults. Conclusions: Differences in HNC aetiology according to age group may exist. The lower AF of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in young

  18. Adult Attachment Style and Stress as Risk Factors for Early Maternal Sensitivity and Negativity.

    PubMed

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Appleyard, Karen; Barnett, Melissa; Deng, Min; Putallaz, Martha; Cox, Martha

    2011-05-01

    The current study examined the individual and joint effects of self-reported adult attachment style, psychological distress, and parenting stress on maternal caregiving behaviors at 6 and 12 months of child age. We proposed a diathesis-stress model to examine the potential deleterious effects of stress for mothers with insecure adult attachment styles. Data from 137 mothers were gathered by the longitudinal Durham Child Health and Development Study. Mothers provided self-reports using Hazan and Shaver's (1987) Adult Attachment Style measure, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Parent Stress Inventory; observations of parenting data were made from 10-minute free play interactions. Consistently avoidant mothers were less sensitive with their infants than consistently secure mothers; however, this effect was limited to avoidant mothers who experienced elevated levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that the association between insecure adult attachment style and insensitive parenting behavior is moderated by concurrent psychosocial stress. Clinical implications for these findings are discussed. PMID:24855326

  19. Epicardial fat thickness, an emerging cardiometabolic risk factor, is increased in young adults born preterm.

    PubMed

    Bassareo, P P; Fanos, V; Puddu, M; Marras, S; Mercuro, G

    2016-08-01

    Preterm birth and epicardial fat thickness (EFT) constitute novel risk factors for the onset of future adverse cardiovascular events. In total, 30 ex-extremely low birth weight (ex-ELBW) subjects (10 males, 20 females, aged 17-28) were enrolled and compared with 30 healthy peers. EFT was significantly higher (8.7±0.7 mm v. 5.6±0.9 mm; P<0.001) in ex-ELBW than in controls and was correlated with birth weight (r=-0.47, P=0.0009), gestational age (r=-0.39, P=0.03) and cardiac left ventricular mass (r=0.51, P=0.004). When excluding the influence of body mass index, birth weight was the sole remaining determinant of EFT, irrespective of gestational age (r=-0.37, P=0.04). The same findings when excluding the possible influence of blood pressure values on the cardiac structures (r=-0.40, P=0.028). In conclusion, EFT is significantly higher in former preterm subjects and is likewise associated with an increase in left ventricular mass. In view of the acknowledged correlation between the latter and an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases, EFT appears to be an easy-to-measure tool capable of predicting the likely development of future adverse cardiovascular events in these subjects. PMID:27256709

  20. Incidence and risk factors for steatosis progression in adults coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    Woreta, Tinsay A.; Sutcliffe, Catherine G.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Brown, Todd T.; Higgins, Yvonne; Thomas, David L.; Torbenson, Michael S.; Moore, Richard D.; Sulkowski, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Hepatic steatosis is a common histological finding in patients that are co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), although little is known about its natural history. We prospectively examined the natural history of steatosis in patients co-infected with HIV and HCV that attended an urban HIV clinic. Methods The study cohort consisted of 222 co-infected patients (87% African American, 94% with HCV genotype 1 infection) who had at least 2 liver biopsies performed between 1993 and 2008. Biopsies were scored by a single pathologist; samples were classified as having trivial (< 5% of hepatocytes affected) or significant (>5%) levels of fat (steatosis). We characterized progression to significant levels of fat among patients whose first biopsy samples had no or trivial levels of fat, and regression among those with significant fat, using logistic regression. Results Initial biopsies from most patients (88%) had no or trivial amounts of fat. Among second biopsy samples, 74% had no or trivial fat and 13% had significant amounts of fat. The strongest risk factors for steatosis progression were alcohol abuse and overweight/obesity; cumulative exposure to anti-retroviral therapy between biopsies and high counts of CD4+ T cells were associated with reduced progression of steatosis. Among the 28 patients whose initial biopsy had significant fat levels, most (75%) regressed. Conclusions Antiretroviral therapy and high counts of CD4+ T cells are associated with reduced progression of steatosis in patients co-infected with HIV and HCV. Efforts to diagnose and prevent steatosis should focus on persons with high body mass index and excessive alcohol intake. PMID:21134375

  1. Specific traumatic events during childhood as risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder development in adults.

    PubMed

    Schoedl, Aline F; Costa, Mariana P; Fossaluza, Victor; Mari, Jair J; Mello, Marcelo F

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate differences in early life events (ELE) on adult victims of severe interpersonal violence among patients who developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control group. Adult victims of interpersonal violence were evaluated to diagnose the presence of PTSD and ELE. 308 subjects were included, 141 in patient's group (PTSD+) and 167 in control group (PSTD-). PTSD+ group had more severe PTSD, depressive symptoms and higher ETI scores than PTSD- group. Patients in PTSD+ group had a more frequent history of ELE. Some ELE were more significant for the development of this predisposition. PMID:23520354

  2. Childhood Risk Factors for Alcohol Abuse and Psychological Distress among Adult Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Szalacha, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Methodology: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting…

  3. Adult Attachment as a Risk Factor for Intimate Partner Violence : The "Mispairing" of Partners' Attachment Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…

  4. Types, Risk Factors, Clinical symptoms and Diagnostic Tests of Acute Adult Meningitis in Northern Iran During 2006-2012

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Babamahmoodi, Farhang

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment and otherwise associated with serious morbidity and mortality. Aim The aim of this study was to assess types, risk factors, clinical symptoms and diagnostic tests of meningitis in hospitalized patients of Mazandaran University of medical sciences hospitals during 2006-2012. Matherials and Methods This is a retrospective descriptive study. Following approval of the ethics committee of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, records of adult patients diagnosed with acute meningitis from 2006 to 2012 were extracted from Mazandaran Provincial Health Center and patients attending hospitals affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, standard deviation, and median). Results In this study, of the 137 patients with meningitis, 73 (53.9%) were viral, 61 (46%) bacterial, 1 (0.7%) fungal, and 2 (1.4%) unknown. The majority of risk factors in patients were head trauma, upper respiratory infection, and drug addiction. The most common clinical signs were headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, and stiff neck. Conclusion In this study, the incidence of meningitis was much lower than any other country. It could be due to geographic variation or incomplete recording of patient's data. It is recommended to perform a longitudinal study during the coming years on patients with meningitis. PMID:26155497

  5. Constructing the Suicide Risk Index (SRI): does it work in predicting suicidal behavior in young adults mediated by proximal factors?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Maebh; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a key concern among young adults. The aim of the study was to (1) construct a suicide risk index (SRI) based on demographic, situational, and behavioral factors known to be linked to suicidal behavior and (2) investigate whether the association between the SRI and suicidal behavior was mediated by proximal processes (personal factors, coping strategies, and emotional states). Participants consisted of 7,558 individuals aged 17-25 years (M = 20.35, SD = 1.91). Nearly 22% (n = 1,542) reported self-harm and 7% (n = 499) had attempted suicide. Mediation analysis revealed both a direct effect (ß = .299, 95% CI = [.281, .317], p < .001), and a mediated effect (ß = .204, 95% CI = [.186, .222], p < .001), between the risk index and suicidal behavior. The strongest mediators were levels of self-esteem, depression, and avoidant coping. Interventions to increase self-esteem, reduce depression, and encourage adaptive coping strategies may prevent suicidal behavior in young people. PMID:25058873

  6. Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension amongst adults in a rural community of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Maimela, Eric; Alberts, Mariannes; Choma, Solly; Dikotope, Sekgothe

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is problem already faced by urban populations of South Africa, but little is known about its prevalence and risk factors in rural areas. Aim To assess the prevalence of and risk factors associated with hypertension amongst adults in a rural community in South Africa. Setting Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out at this site where individuals aged 15 years and older were screened using a locally adapted version of the World Health Organization STEPwise questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometry and three independent blood pressure (BP) readings were taken. The average of the three BP measurements was used in analysis, and hypertension taken as systolic and diastolic BP of ≥ 140 or ≥ 90 mmHg respectively, or at least a two-week history of antihypertensive treatment. Analysis included the Chi-square test and statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results A total of 1407 individuals were interviewed, of whom 1281 had complete BP, weight and height measurements taken. The mean age of participants was 44.2 ± 20.9 years(range 15–98 years), 63% were female, 55% were single and 90% were unemployed, whilst 13% were tobacco smokers and 20% reported drinking alcohol. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 41% and this was significantly associated with age and marital status. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension was found to be high. Prevention strategies are urgently needed to address this life-threatening and important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in rural Limpopo Province. PMID:26842512

  7. State Socioeconomic Indicators and Self-Reported Hypertension Among US Adults, 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Sheryl M.; Zhang, Xingyou; Fang, Jing; Crawford, Carol G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hypertension is the leading cause of chronic disease and premature death in the United States. To date, most risk factors for hypertension have been identified at the individual (micro) level. The association of macro-level (area) socioeconomic factors and hypertension prevalence rates in the population has not been studied extensively. Methods We used the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine whether state socioeconomic status (SES) indicators predict the prevalence of self-reported hypertension. Quintiles of state median household income, unemployment rate among the population aged 16 to 64 years, and the proportion of the population under the national poverty line were used as the proxy for state SES. Hypertension status was determined by the question “Have you ever been told by a doctor, nurse, or other health professional that you have high blood pressure?” Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between state SES and hypertension with adjustment for individual covariates (demographic and socioeconomic factors and lifestyle behaviors). Results States with a median household income of $43,225 or less (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.16 [1.08–1.25]) and states with 18.7% or more of residents living below the poverty line (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.14 [1.04–1.24]) had a higher prevalence of hypertension than states with the most residents in the most advantageous quintile of the indicators. Conclusion The observed state SES–hypertension association indicates that area SES may contribute to the burden of hypertension in community-dwelling adults. PMID:25719217

  8. THE RISK FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EDENTULISM AND PROSTHETIC STATUS OF THE ADULT POPULATION IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Makhviladze, G; Tsitaishvili, L; Kalandadze, M; Margvelashvili, V

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the level of edentulism and prosthetic status of the adult population in different regions of Georgia and to assess the influencing risk- factors. Cluster- stratified method was used for sampling. Overall, 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men and four age groups I- (20-34), II-(35-44), III-(45-64), IV- (65-74) in nine regions of Georgia and the capital, Tbilisi, were examined. Statistically reliable data received showed the different extent of teeth loss in various regions of Georgia. ≤10 teeth loss were characteristic for Mtskheta (60.2%) and Samtskhe-Javakheti (50.7%),whilst ≥20 teeth lost were noticed more in Achara(2.9%), Samtskhe-Javakheti(2.6%), Shida Qartli (2,5%). Therefore, prosthetic status was mostly presented with one or more bridges or artificial crowns, removable dentures were seen less. Differences in prosthetic status is generally related to low medical education background in all regions, though lack of money was considered as essential obstacle for dental visit for Mtskheta, Imereti and Samtskhe-Javakheti population. Education and family income dictate attitudes towards prosthetic dental care and choice of crown types. On the other hand, material disparity represents the main obstacle to prosthetic procedures, especially implants. PMID:27249432

  9. Traumatic Exposure History as a Risk Factor for Chronic Pain in Adult Patients with Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Works, Teresa; Jones, Sasia; Grady, James; Andemariam, Biree

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the impact of the integration of a licensed clinical social worker (LCSW) with expertise in behavioral health on identification of risk factors for chronic pain in a cohort of adults with sickle cell disease. Authors conducted a retrospective chart review of all visits to the adult sickle cell center during the first six months of LCSW integration. Demographics, clinical history, and LCSW notes were reviewed. Overall, 71 patients were introduced to the LCSW; 55 percent of them had chronic pain. Patients with chronic pain were older, used opioids daily, took hydroxyurea, reported higher daily pain scores, and underwent more acute care visits and hospitalizations for pain with longer stays. Fifty-eight (81 percent) patients requested concrete social work services such as transportation and housing. Thirty-two patients (55 percent) expressed a desire for mental health counseling while receiving concrete services. Twenty-two (69 percent) of these patients self-disclosed at least one traumatic experience. In fact, a statistically significant relationship between chronic pain and a history of trauma was identified (p = 0.001). Results suggest that sickle cell patients should receive clinical social work services to assess for traumatic exposures that may influence chronic pain. PMID:26946885

  10. Randomised Controlled Feasibility Trial of an Evidence-Informed Behavioural Intervention for Obese Adults with Additional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sniehotta, Falko F.; Dombrowski, Stephan U.; Avenell, Alison; Johnston, Marie; McDonald, Suzanne; Murchie, Peter; Ramsay, Craig R.; Robertson, Kim; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions for dietary and physical activity changes in obese adults may be less effective for participants with additional obesity-related risk factors and co-morbidities than for otherwise healthy individuals. This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of the recruitment, allocation, measurement, retention and intervention procedures of a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve physical activity and dietary practices amongst obese adults with additional obesity related risk factors. Method Pilot single centre open-labelled outcome assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of obese (Body Mass Index (BMI)≥30 kg/m2) adults (age≥18 y) with obesity related co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension. Participants were randomly allocated to a manual-based group intervention or a leaflet control condition in accordance to a 2∶1 allocation ratio. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures, secondary outcomes included measures of body composition, physical activity, food intake and psychological process measures. Results Out of 806 potentially eligible individuals identified through list searches in two primary care general medical practices N = 81 participants (63% female; mean-age = 56.56(11.44); mean-BMI = 36.73(6.06)) with 2.35(1.47) co-morbidities were randomised. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) was the only significant predictor of providing consent to take part in the study (higher chances of consent for invitees with lower levels of deprivation). Participant flowcharts, qualitative and quantitative feedback suggested good acceptance and feasibility of intervention procedures but 34.6% of randomised participants were lost to follow-up due to overly high measurement burden and sub-optimal retention procedures. Participants in the intervention group showed positive trends for most psychological, behavioural and body

  11. Bereavement and behavioral changes as risk factors for cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Luciana Mascarenhas; de Oliveira, Melaine Cristina; de Figueiredo Ferreira Guilhoto, Laura Maria; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrao; Bottino, Cássio MC

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease often affect older adults with Down syndrome (DS) much earlier than those in the general population. There is also growing evidence of the effects of negative life events on the mental health and behavior of individuals with intellectual disability. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study investigating objective cognitive decline following bereavement in aging individuals with DS. Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive decline correlates with bereavement following the recent loss of a caregiver or with behavioral changes in a sample of adult individuals with DS who do not meet the criteria for dementia or depression, using the longitudinal assessment of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), together with the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). Methods We evaluated 18 subjects at baseline and over a follow-up period of 14–22 months, attempting to determine whether cognitive decline correlates with bereavement following the recent loss of the main caregiver or with behavioral changes (as assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory). Results The mean rate of change in CAMCOG was −1.83 (standard deviation 4.51). Behavioral changes had a significant direct influence on cognitive decline. When bereavement was accompanied by behavioral changes, the probability of cognitive decline was 87% (odds ratio 3.82). Conclusion The occurrence of behavioral changes attributed to bereavement following the loss of the primary caregiver significantly increases the probability of cognitive decline in individuals with DS. Longitudinal comparison of the CAMCOG and use of the IQCODE appear to enrich the analysis of cognitive decline in individuals with DS. Further studies involving larger samples are needed in order to corroborate and expand upon our findings, which can have implications for the clinical management of older adults with DS. PMID

  12. A prospective investigation of neurodevelopmental risk factors for adult antisocial behavior combining official arrest records and self-reports.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Angela D; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Koenen, Karestan C; Buka, Stephen L

    2015-09-01

    Neurodevelopmental deficits are postulated to play an important role in the etiology of persistent antisocial behavior (ASB). Yet it remains uncertain as to which particular deficits are most closely associated with ASB. We seek to advance this understanding using prospectively collected data from a birth cohort in which multiple indices of neurodevelopmental functioning and ASB were assessed. Participants (n = 2776) were members of the Providence, Rhode Island cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Information on demographic and neurodevelopmental variables was collected from pregnancy through age 7. When all offspring had reached 33 years of age an adult criminal record check was conducted. A subset of subjects also self-reported on their engagement in serious ASB. Bivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between each neurodevelopmental factor and adult ASB and test whether associations varied depending on how ASB was ascertained. After controlling for background and contextual characteristics, maternal smoking during pregnancy, lower childhood verbal and performance IQ, and age 7 aggressive/impulsive behavior all significantly increased the odds of adult ASB. Associations were not modified by sex and did not depend on how ASB was assessed. However, while both males and Black participants were more likely to engage in ASB than their respective female and White counterparts, relationships were significantly stronger for official records than for self-reports. Results point to a particular subset of early neurodevelopmental risks for antisocial outcomes in adulthood. Findings also suggest that prior contradictory results are not due to the use of official records versus self-reported outcomes. PMID:26050211

  13. Lack of Health Insurance Among Adults Aged 18 to 64 Years: Findings From the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guixiang; Dhingra, Satvinder S.; Xu, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of lack of health insurance among adults aged 18 to 64 years for each state and the United States and to describe populations without insurance. Methods We used 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to categorize states into 3 groups on the basis of the prevalence of lack of health insurance in each state compared with the national average (21.5%; 95% confidence interval, 21.1%–21.8%): high-insured states (states with an estimated prevalence of lack of health insurance below the national average), average-insured states (states with an estimated prevalence of lack of health insurance equivalent to the national average), and low-insured states (states with an estimated prevalence of lack of health insurance higher than the national average). We used bivariate analyses to compare the sociodemographic characteristics of these 3 groups after age adjustment to the 2000 US standard population. We examined the distribution of Medicaid expansion among the 3 groups. Results Compared with the national age-adjusted prevalence of lack of health insurance, 24 states had lower rates of uninsured residents, 12 states had equivalent rates of uninsured, and 15 states had higher rates of uninsured. Compared with adults in the high-insured and average-insured state groups, adults in the low-insured state group were more likely to be non-Hispanic black or Hispanic, to have less than a high school education, to be previously married (divorced, widowed, or separated), and to have an annual household income at or below $35,000. Seventy-one percent of high-insured states were expanding Medicaid eligibility compared with 67% of average-insured states and 40% of low-insured states. Conclusion Large variations exist among states in the estimated prevalence of health insurance. Many uninsured Americans reside in states that have opted out of Medicaid expansion. PMID:26719901

  14. Risk Factors for Nonelective Hospitalization in Frail and Older Adult, Inner-City Outpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damush, Teresa M.; Smith, David M.; Perkins, Anthony J.; Dexter, Paul R.; Smith, Faye

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: In our study, we sought to improve the accuracy of predicting the risk of hospitalization and to identify older, inner-city patients who could be targeted for preventive interventions. Design and Methods: Participants (56% were African American) in a randomized trial were from a primary care practice and included 1,041 patients living in…

  15. Treatment for Positive Urine Cultures in Hospitalized Adults: A Survey of Prevalence and Risk Factors in 3 Medical Centers.

    PubMed

    Grein, Jonathan D; Kahn, Katherine L; Eells, Samantha J; Choi, Seong K; Go-Wheeler, Marianne; Hossain, Tanzib; Riva, Maya Y; Nguyen, Megan H; Rekha Murthy, A; Miller, Loren G

    2016-03-01

    BACKGROUND Antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is prevalent but often contrary to published guidelines. OBJECTIVE To evaluate risk factors for treatment of ASB. DESIGN Retrospective observational study. SETTING A tertiary academic hospital, county hospital, and community hospital. PATIENTS Hospitalized adults with bacteriuria. METHODS Patients without documented symptoms of urinary tract infection per Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) criteria were classified as ASB. We examined ASB treatment risk factors as well as broad-spectrum antibiotic usage and quantified diagnostic concordance between IDSA and National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. RESULTS Among 300 patients with bacteriuria, ASB was present in 71% by IDSA criteria. By National Healthcare Safety Network criteria, 71% of patients had ASB; within-patient diagnostic concordance with IDSA was moderate (kappa, 0.52). After excluding those given antibiotics for nonurinary indications, antibiotics were given to 38% (62/164) with ASB. Factors significantly associated with ASB treatment were elevated urine white cell count (65 vs 24 white blood cells per high-powered field, P<.01), hospital identity (hospital C vs A, odds ratio, 0.34 [95% CI, 0.14-0.80], P =.01), presence of leukocyte esterase (5.48 [2.35-12.79], P<.01), presence of nitrites (2.45 [1.11-5.41], P=.03), and Escherichia coli on culture (2.4 [1.2-4.7], P=.01). Of patients treated for ASB, broad-spectrum antibiotics were used in 84%. CONCLUSIONS ASB treatment was prevalent across settings and contributed to broad-spectrum antibiotic use. Associating abnormal urinalysis results with the need for antibiotic treatment regardless of symptoms may drive unnecessary antibiotic use. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(3):319-326. PMID:26607408

  16. Combined early and adult life risk factor associations for mid-life obesity in a prospective birth cohort: assessing potential public health impact

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; van Veldhoven, Karin; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objective The combined effect of life-course influences on obesity development and thus their potential public health impact is unclear. We evaluated combined associations and predicted probabilities for early and adult life risk factors with central and general obesity in mid-adulthood. Setting 1958 British birth cohort. Participants 4629 males and 4670 females with data on waist circumference. Outcome measures 45 year obesity measured via waist circumference, waist–hip ratio (WHR) and BMI. Results At 45 years, approximately a third of the population were centrally obese and a quarter were generally obese. Three factors (parental overweight, maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult inactivity) were consistently associated with central and general obesity. Predicted probabilities for waist obesity increased from those with none to all three risk factors (0.15–0.33 in men; 0.19–0.39 in women (ptrend<0.001)), with a similar trend for general obesity. Additional factors (adult smoking, low fibre and heavy alcohol consumption) were associated with WHR obesity, although varying by gender. Prevalence of risk factors was higher in manual than non-manual groups: for example, in men 38% versus 25%, respectively, had ≥2 risk factors for waist and general obesity. Conclusions Early-life and adult factors that are amenable to change are highly prevalent and accumulate in association with central and general obesity in mid-adulthood. The increase in probabilities for mid-adult obesity associated with cumulative levels of risk factors suggests the potential for public health impact. PMID:27072572

  17. ADHD as risk factor for early onset and heightened adult problem severity of illicit substance use: An Accelerated Gateway Model

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Eugene M.; Hearn, Lauren E.; Rose, Jonathan; Latimer, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The primary aims of the present study were to assess ADHD history as a risk factor for earlier initiation and current use of licit and illicit substances among a sample of drug using adults. It was hypothesized that ADHD history would accelerate the Gateway Theory of drug use. Participants included 941 drug-using African American and Caucasian individuals in Baltimore, Maryland. The sample consisted of 124 (13.2%) participants who reported a history of ADHD and 817 (86.8%) who reported no history of ADHD. The accelerated gateway hypothesis was supported, as a history of self-reported ADHD was significantly associated with younger ages of initiation for alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and cocaine use. Participants with a history of ADHD were also more likely to engage in recent HIV-risk behavior, such as injection drug use and needle sharing. This study provides compelling data in support of an accelerated gateway model for substance use related to ADHD history and increased problem severity in adulthood. Targeted substance use prevention and intervention may be beneficial for those with ADHD. PMID:25123341

  18. Adding insult to injury: childhood and adolescent risk factors for psychosis predict lower fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    DeRosse, Pamela; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Peters, Bart D.; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Szeszko, Philip R.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies provide strong support for demographic and environmental risk factors in psychotic disorders, few data examine how these risk factors relate to the putative aberrant neurodevelopment associated with illness. The present study examined how the accumulation of risk factors including low IQ, low parental socioeconomic status, history of adolescent cannabis use and childhood trauma, and high levels of subclinical psychotic-like experiences contributed to aberrant neurodevelopmental outcomes in 112 otherwise healthy adults recruited from the community. Participants were studied with diffusion tensor imaging, and voxel-wise statistical analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) using tract-based spatial statistics was used to examine the relation between cumulative risk (CR) for psychosis and white matter (WM) integrity across the whole brain. Analyses revealed that higher CR was significantly associated with lower FA in a cluster in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that risk factors previously associated with psychotic disorders are associated with WM integrity even in otherwise healthy adults and may provide insight into how previously identified risk factors contribute to the structural brain abnormalities associated with psychotic illness. Prospective longitudinal studies examining the effect of risk factors on the developmental trajectory of brain WM are warranted. PMID:25277095

  19. Adding insult to injury: childhood and adolescent risk factors for psychosis predict lower fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    DeRosse, Pamela; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Peters, Bart D; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Szeszko, Philip R; Malhotra, Anil K

    2014-12-30

    Although epidemiological studies provide strong support for demographic and environmental risk factors in psychotic disorders, few data examine how these risk factors relate to the putative aberrant neurodevelopment associated with illness. The present study examined how the accumulation of risk factors including low IQ, low parental socioeconomic status (SES), history of adolescent cannabis use and childhood trauma, and high levels of subclinical psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) contributed to aberrant neurodevelopmental outcomes in 112 otherwise healthy adults recruited from the community. Participants were studied with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and voxel-wise statistical analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to examine the relation between cumulative risk (CR) for psychosis and white matter (WM) integrity across the whole brain. Analyses revealed that higher CR was significantly associated with lower FA in a cluster in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). These results suggest that risk factors previously associated with psychotic disorders are associated with WM integrity even in otherwise healthy adults and may provide insight into how previously identified risk factors contribute to the structural brain abnormalities associated with psychotic illness. Prospective longitudinal studies examining the effect of risk factors on the developmental trajectory of brain WM are warranted. PMID:25277095

  20. Impact of multiple cardiovascular risk factors on femoral artery intima-media thickness in asymptomatic young adults (the Bogalusa Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Paul, Timir K; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Chen, Wei; Li, Shengxu; Bond, M Gene; Tang, Rong; Berenson, Gerald S

    2005-02-15

    Femoral artery intima-media thickness (IMT), like carotid IMT, is a surrogate indicator of atherosclerotic coronary and peripheral vascular diseases in middle-aged and older adults. Although risk factors for coronary artery disease are also associated with increased IMT, especially as measured in carotid arteries, there is a paucity of information with respect to the femoral artery in this regard in the asymptomatic, younger adult population. This study examined the impact of multiple risk factors on the common femoral artery IMT as measured by B-mode ultrasonography in 1,080 black and white subjects aged 24 to 43 years (71% white and 43% men) enrolled in the Bogalusa Heart Study. Femoral IMT showed gender difference (men more than women, p = 0.001), but no racial difference. In a multivariate model, systolic blood pressure, age, male gender, cigarette smoking, and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios related independently, in that order, to IMT. Mean IMT increased with an increasing number of risk factors defined as values above the age-, race-, and gender-specific 75th percentile of systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and insulin along with smoking status (p for trend = 0.003), with respective mean IMT values of 0.66, 0.69, 0.73, and 0.79 mm for 0, 1 to 2, 3, and 4 to 5 risk factors. The odds ratio for patients with >/=3 risk factors versus no risk factors having IMT in the top fifth percentile was 4.7 (p = 0.01). The observed adverse trend of increasing femoral IMT with an increasing number of risk factors in free-living, asymptomatic young subjects underscores the need for multiple risk factors profiling in early life. Further, ultrasonography of the femoral artery in conjunction with multiple risk factor profiling can be helpful in risk stratification. PMID:15695130

  1. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme δ-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 μg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for work related asthma in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, R D; Bettiol, H; Barbieri, M A; Terra‐Filho, J; Garcia, C A; Vianna, E O

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence and predictors of work related asthma in young adults from the general population. Methods A total of 1922 subjects randomly selected from a birth cohort 1978/79 in Brazil, aged 23–25 years, completed a respiratory symptoms questionnaire based on the European Community Respiratory Health Survey, and underwent spirometry, bronchial challenge test with methacholine, and skin prick test. For subjects presenting with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, workplace exposure and its relationship with symptoms were assessed by a specific questionnaire and individualised job description to define cases of work related asthma. Results The prevalence of work related asthma was 4.2% (81 cases): 1.5% (29 cases) were classified as aggravated asthma and 2.7% (52 cases) as occupational asthma. Work related asthma was associated with atopy and education. Lower educational level (1–8 years of schooling) was associated with work related asthma (odds ratio 7.06, 95% CI 3.25 to 15.33). There was no association between work related asthma and smoking, gender, or symptoms of rhinitis. Conclusion The prevalence of work related asthma was high (4.2%), and was associated with low schooling, probably because of low socioeconomic level. The disease may therefore be a consequence of poverty. PMID:16728501

  3. Risk factors for recurrent colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in community-dwelling adults and children.

    PubMed

    Cluzet, Valerie C; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Nachamkin, Irving; Metlay, Joshua P; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Davis, Meghan F; Julian, Kathleen G; Linkin, Darren R; Coffin, Susan E; Margolis, David J; Hollander, Judd E; Bilker, Warren B; Han, Xiaoyan; Mistry, Rakesh D; Gavin, Laurence J; Tolomeo, Pam; Wise, Jacqueleen A; Wheeler, Mary K; Hu, Baofeng; Fishman, Neil O; Royer, David; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2015-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization. DESIGN Prospective cohort study conducted from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012. SETTING Five adult and pediatric academic medical centers. PARTICIPANTS Subjects (ie, index cases) who presented with acute community-onset MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection. METHODS Index cases and all household members performed self-sampling for MRSA colonization every 2 weeks for 6 months. Clearance of colonization was defined as 2 consecutive sampling periods with negative surveillance cultures. Recurrent colonization was defined as any positive MRSA surveillance culture after clearance. Index cases with recurrent MRSA colonization were compared with those without recurrence on the basis of antibiotic exposure, household demographic characteristics, and presence of MRSA colonization in household members. RESULTS The study cohort comprised 195 index cases; recurrent MRSA colonization occurred in 85 (43.6%). Median time to recurrence was 53 days (interquartile range, 36-84 days). Treatment with clindamycin was associated with lower risk of recurrence (odds ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29-0.93). Higher percentage of household members younger than 18 was associated with increased risk of recurrence (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02). The association between MRSA colonization in household members and recurrent colonization in index cases did not reach statistical significance in primary analyses. CONCLUSION A large proportion of patients initially presenting with MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection will have recurrent colonization after clearance. The reduced rate of recurrent colonization associated with clindamycin may indicate a unique role for this antibiotic in the treatment of such infection. PMID:25869756

  4. Medicare and Medicaid Home Health and Medicaid Waiver Services for Dually Eligible Older Adults: Risk Factors for Use and Correlates of Expenditures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortinsky, Richard H.; Fenster, Juliane R.; Judge, James O.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to, among frail dually eligible older adults, determine risk factors for the likelihood of using Medicare home health and Medicaid home health services and to, among service users, determine correlates of Medicare home health, Medicaid home health, and Medicaid waiver service expenditures. Design and Methods:…

  5. Candy consumption was not associated with body weight measures, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, or metabolic syndrome in US adults: NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is limited research examining the relationship of candy consumption by adults on diet and health. The purpose of this study was to determine total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption and their effect on energy, saturated fatty acid and added sugar intake, weight, risk factors for cardiovasc...

  6. Regular consumption of pulses for 8 weeks reduces metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Mollard, R C; Luhovyy, B L; Panahi, S; Nunez, M; Hanley, A; Anderson, G H

    2012-08-01

    Pulses are low in energy density, supporting their inclusion in the diet for the management of risk factors of the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). The aim of the present study was to describe the effects of frequent consumption (five cups/week over 8 weeks) of pulses (yellow peas, chickpeas, navy beans and lentils), compared with counselling to reduce energy intake by 2093 kJ/d (500 kcal/d), on risk factors of the MetSyn in two groups (nineteen and twenty-one subjects, respectively) of overweight or obese (mean BMI 32·8 kg/m2) adults. Body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood parameters and 24 h food intakes were measured at weeks 1, 4 and 8. Blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin were measured after a 75 g oral glucose load at weeks 1 and 8. At week 8, both groups reported reductions in energy intake, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glycosylated Hb (HbA1c) and glucose AUC and homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) following the glucose load (P < 0·05). However, HDL, fasting C-peptide and insulin AUC responses were dependent on diet (P < 0·05). HDL and C-peptide increased by 4·5 and 12·3 %, respectively, in the pulse group, but decreased by 0·8 and 7·6 %, respectively, in the energy-restricted group. Insulin AUC decreased in both females and males on the energy-restricted diet by 24·2 and 4·8 %, respectively, but on the pulse diet it decreased by 13·9 % in females and increased by 27·3 % in males (P < 0·05). In conclusion, frequent consumption of pulses in an ad libitum diet reduced risk factors of the MetSyn and these effects were equivalent, and in some instances stronger, than counselling for dietary energy reduction. PMID:22916807

  7. Poor Awareness of Risk Factors for Cancer in Irish Adults: Results of a Large Survey and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cushen, Samantha; Schellekens, Harriët; Bhuachalla, Eadaoin Ni; Burns, Lisa; Kenny, Ursula; Power, Derek G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of cancer risk factors is unknown in Ireland. An understanding of risk factors could help inform cancer prevention programs. Aims and Methods. A 48-question online survey was designed to gather data to assess levels of public knowledge about cancer risk factors. Results. There were 748 participants (648 women, 100 men). Mean age was 37 years (range: 18–74 years). For the public, 81% were concerned about developing cancer; however, 20% believed that cancer is unavoidable if a family history exists, 27% believed that >50% of cancers are inherited, and 54% believed that 10%–20% of cancers are inherited; 20% were unaware that risk increases with age. The top five risk factors listed by respondents were smoking (87%), diet (76%), genetics (47%), alcohol (42%), and obesity (33%). Only 32% of the public were aware that obesity is a risk factor, and 33% did not think the location of fat was important. Moreover, 29% and 48% believed that risk could be increased by wearing a tight bra and by a blow to the breast, respectively. In addition, 85% and 86% believed that stress and that mobile phones, respectively, “strongly” increase risk; 12% believed that luck is important in avoiding cancer; 35% thought that “detox” diets could reduce risk; and 61% believed that organic food reduces risk. The majority were aware that physical activity of 30 minutes per day can reduce risk. Conclusion. A sizable portion of the population is misinformed about cancer risk. Most participants were aware of classic risk factors (e.g., smoking, diet); however, many overestimated risk attributable to genetics, environment, and stress and underestimated age, obesity, and sunlight. One in seven participants believed that lifetime risk of cancer is not modifiable. PMID:25746344

  8. Association between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, & early life factors & adult measures of endothelial function: Results from the New Delhi Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Mark D.; Khalil, Anita; Osmond, Clive; Fall, Caroline H. D.; Tandon, Nikhil; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Ramji, Siddharth; Gera, Tarun; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Dey Biswas, S. K.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Abnormal endothelial function represents a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to evaluate associations between anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, and early life factors and adult measures of endothelial function in a young urban Indian cohort free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Absolute changes in brachial artery diameter following cuff inflation and sublingual nitroglycerin (400 µg) were recorded to evaluate endothelium-dependent and -independent measures of endothelial function in 600 participants (362 men; 238 women) from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (2006-2009). Data on anthropometry, cardiometabolic risk factors, medical history, socio-economic position, and lifestyle habits were collected. Height and weight were recorded at birth, two and 11 yr of age. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were developed to evaluate these associations. Results: The mean age of participants was 36±1 yr. Twenty two per cent men and 29 per cent women were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2). Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 131±14 and 119±13 mmHg, and diabetes prevalence was 12 and 8 per cent for men and women, respectively. Brachial artery diameter was higher for men compared with women both before (3.48±0.37 and 2.95±0.35 cm) and after hyperaemia (3.87±0.37 vs. 3.37±0.35 cm). A similar difference was seen before and after nitroglycerin. Markers of increased adiposity, smoking, SBP, and metabolic syndrome, but not early life anthropometry, were inversely associated with endothelial function after adjustment for age and sex. Interpretation & conclusions: The analysis of the current prospective data from a young urban Indian cohort showed that cardiometabolic risk factors, but not early life anthropometry, were associated with worse endothelial function. PMID:26831418

  9. Altering dietary lysine: arginine ratio has little effect on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The effect of dietary protein type on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity, with specific focus on the lysine to arginine (Lys:Arg) ratio, has been studied sporadically. Objective: Determine effect of dietary Lys:Arg ratio on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reacti...

  10. Alcohol use among adults in Uganda: findings from the countrywide non-communicable diseases risk factor cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Mutungi, Gerald; Wesonga, Ronald; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Guwatudde, David

    2016-01-01

    Background There are limited data on levels of alcohol use in most sub-Saharan African countries. Objective We analyzed data from Uganda's non-communicable diseases risk factor survey conducted in 2014, to identify alcohol use prevalence and associated factors. Design The survey used the World Health Organization STEPS tool to collect data, including the history of alcohol use. Alcohol users were categorized into low-, medium-, and high-end users. Participants were also classified as having an alcohol-use-related disorder if, over the past 12 months, they were unable to stop drinking alcohol once they had started drinking, and/or failed to do what was normally expected of them because of drinking alcohol, and/or needed an alcoholic drink first in the morning to get going after a heavy drinking session the night before. Weighted logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with medium- to high-end alcohol use. Results Of the 3,956 participants, 1,062 (26.8%) were current alcohol users, including 314 (7.9%) low-end, 246 (6.2%) medium-end, and 502 (12.7%) high-end users. A total of 386 (9.8%) were classified as having an alcohol-use-related disorder. Male participants were more likely to be medium- to high-end alcohol users compared to females; adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.34 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.88–2.91]. Compared to residents in eastern Uganda, participants in central and western Uganda were more likely to be medium- to high-end users; AOR=1.47 (95% CI=1.01–2.12) and AOR=1.89 (95% CI=1.31–2.72), respectively. Participants aged 30–49 years and those aged 50–69 years were more likely to be medium- to high-end alcohol users, compared to those aged 18–29 years, AOR=1.49 (95% CI=1.16–1.91) and AOR=2.08 (95% CI=1.52–2.84), respectively. Conclusions The level of alcohol use among adults in Uganda is high, and 9.8% of the adult population has an alcohol-use-related disorder. PMID:27491961

  11. Sociodemographic differentials of selected noncommunicable diseases risk factors among adults in Matlab, Bangladesh: findings from a WHO STEPS survey.

    PubMed

    Razzaque, Abdur; Nahar, Lutfun; Abu Haider Mohammad Golam Mustafa; Karar Zunaid Ahsan; Mohammad Shafiqul Islam; Yunus, Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    The study examined noncommunicable diseases risk factors among adults 25 to 64 years old of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System using World Health Organization STEP-wise methodology. The prevalence of smoking was found to be very high for males (53.9%) and it increased initially with age, whereas smoking was almost nil for females (0.8%). About 30% each of males and females used smokeless tobacco and its consumption increased with age. Consumption of vegetable/fruit is very low in this population (90% below recommended level), whereas one third of males and two thirds of female have low levels of physical activities. The raised blood pressure was more prevalent among females than in males (21.0% vs 12.5%, respectively) and the same was true for being overweight (13.9% vs 10.3%, respectively). Raised blood pressure increased with age but overweight did not vary by age for males, whereas it increased initially for females. Smoking (males) and use of smokeless tobacco decreased with increase in education, but both blood pressure and overweight increased. PMID:21159696

  12. Adolescent Risk Factors for Adult Alcohol Use and Abuse: Stability and Change of Predictive Value across Early and Middle Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Merline, Alicia; Jager, Justin; Schulenberg, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Aims To examine age-18 risk factors for alcohol use and heavy drinking during early (ages 22 and 26) and middle (age 35) adulthood, and for symptoms of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in middle adulthood. Design Nationally representative samples of U.S. adolescents in their senior year of secondary school (age 18) were followed into middle adulthood. Structural equation models estimated the associations between age-18 characteristics and current drinking and heavy drinking at ages 22, 26 and 35 and symptoms of AUDs at age 35. Participants The sample consisted of 21,137 respondents from 11 senior year cohorts (1976–1986) from the Monitoring the Future study. Findings Many predictor variables had stable associations with alcohol use over time, although their ability to explain variance in alcohol use declined with increasing time lags. Being White predicted alcohol use, but not symptoms of AUDs. Parental drinking, risk taking, and use of cigarettes and marijuana predicted heavy drinking through age 35. Planning to attend college predicted more heavy drinking at age 22 and less frequent heavy drinking by midlife. High school theft and property damage predicted later AUD symptoms. Most associations were invariant across gender, with variations typically taking the form of stronger associations between predictors and alcohol use for men. Invariance in findings across cohorts indicates that results reflect general developmental trends rather than specific historically bounded ones. Conclusions Many adolescent individual and contextual characteristics remain important predictors of adult alcohol use and abuse, and their predictive impact varies as a function of age and type of alcohol outcome. These associations are largely equivalent across gender and cohort, thus reflecting robust developmental linkages. PMID:18426542

  13. Risk factors for intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome among adult intensive care unit patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality among critically ill adults, it remains unknown if prevention or treatment of these conditions improves patient outcomes. We sought to identify evidence-based risk factors for IAH and ACS in order to guide identification of the source population for future IAH/ACS treatment trials and to stratify patients into risk groups based on prognosis. Methods We searched electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database from 1950 until January 21, 2013) and reference lists of included articles for observational studies reporting risk factors for IAH or ACS among adult ICU patients. Identified risk factors were summarized using formal narrative synthesis techniques alongside a random effects meta-analysis. Results Among 1,224 citations identified, 14 studies enrolling 2,500 patients were included. The 38 identified risk factors for IAH and 24 for ACS could be clustered into three themes and eight subthemes. Large volume crystalloid resuscitation, the respiratory status of the patient, and shock/hypotension were common risk factors for IAH and ACS that transcended across presenting patient populations. Risk factors with pooled evidence supporting an increased risk for IAH among mixed ICU patients included obesity (four studies; odds ratio (OR) 5.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.92 to 13.58), sepsis (two studies; OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.34 to 4.23), abdominal surgery (four studies; OR 1.93; 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.85), ileus (two studies; OR 2.05; 95% CI, 1.40 to 2.98), and large volume fluid resuscitation (two studies; OR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.63). Among trauma and surgical patients, large volume crystalloid resuscitation and markers of shock/hypotension and metabolic derangement/organ failure were risk factors for IAH and ACS while increased disease severity scores and elevated creatinine were

  14. Metabolic, Anthropometric, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Related Risk Factors in Normal and Pre-Diabetic Adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Thani, Mohamed H; Nasser, Heba S; Sayegh, Suzan; Haddad, Alexandra; Sadoun, Eman

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major global health problem. The present study examines the relationship between the metabolic, anthropometric and Finnish risk score (FINDRISC) among normal and pre-diabetic adults. Subjects (n = 1319, aged above 18 years) from the Qatari population were classified into two groups based on their hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurements (non-diabetic A1c<5.6% and pre-diabetic 5.6% ≤ A1c ≤ 6.4%) were examined for their anthropometric (height, weight and waist circumference), metabolic [fat, fat free mass (FFM), muscle mass (MM), total body water (TBW), bone mass, degree of obesity, basal metabolic rate (BMR), body mass index (BMI), metabolic age, visceral fat rating, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (Total-C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), fasting / random plasma glucose (FPG / RPG), HbA1c and vitamin D (VitD)] and FINDRISC. Means and frequencies were determined in aggregate and by subgroups for all variables and correlations between categorical variables were tested to estimate the association between the anthropometric and metabolic risk factors with the FINDRISC. A percentage of 74.8% (n = 987) of the study population aged below 45 years old and their overall BMI was 28.8±5.2kg/m2 (overweight). Pre-diabetic subgroup have shown a statistically higher FINDRISC compared to their non-diabetic counterparts (11.2±4.1 vs. 9.8±4, p<0.001). The FINDRISC was significantly and directly correlated with the BMI, HbA1c and FPG. However, HbA1c was correlated directly with BMI, SBP, DBP, FPG / RPG and indirectly with the levels of HDL. This study demonstrates an apparent relationship between the HbA1c and FINDRISC score. Pursuing further research on this association may permit using HbA1c with the FINDRISC in predicting the risk of T2DM to be a better tool rather than using the current FPG/RPG, OGTT methods. PMID:27530580

  15. Risk Factors for Increased Hospital Resource Utilization and In-Hospital Mortality in Adults With Single Ventricle Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ronnie Thomas; Doshi, Pratik; Onukwube, Jennifer; Fram, Ricki Y; Robbins, James M

    2016-08-01

    Most patients with single ventricle congenital heart disease are now expected to survive to adulthood. Co-morbid medical conditions (CMCs) are common. We sought to identify risk factors for increased hospital resource utilization and in-hospital mortality in adults with single ventricle. We analyzed data from the 2001 to 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database in patients aged ≥18 years admitted to nonteaching general hospitals (NTGHs), TGHs, and pediatric hospitals (PHs) with either hypoplastic left heart syndrome, tricuspid atresia or common ventricle. National estimates of hospitalizations were calculated. Elixhauser CMCs were identified. Length of stay (LOS), total hospital costs, and effect of CMCs were determined. Age was greater in NTGH (41.5 ± 1.3 years) than in TGH (32.8 ± 0.5) and PH (25.0 ± 0.6; p <0.0001). Adjusted LOS was shorter in NTGH (5.6 days) than in PH (9.7 days; p <0.0001). Adjusted costs were higher in PH ($56,671) than in TGH ($31,934) and NTGH ($18,255; p <0.0001). CMCs are associated with increased LOS (p <0.0001) and costs (p <0.0001). Risk factors for in-hospital mortality included increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 5.250, CI 2.825 to 9.758 for 45- to 64-year old vs 18- to 30-year old), male gender (OR 2.72, CI 1.804 to 4.103]), and the presence of CMC (OR 4.55, CI 2.193 to 9.436) for 2 vs none). No differences in mortality were found among NTGH, TGH, and PH. Cardiovascular procedures were more common in PH hospitalizations and were associated with higher costs and LOS. CMCs increase costs and mortality. In-hospital mortality is increased with age, male gender, and the presence of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. PMID:27291967

  16. Retention and risk factors for attrition among adults in antiretroviral treatment programmes in Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Koole, Olivier; Tsui, Sharon; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Menten, Joris; Mulenga, Modest; Auld, Andrew; Agolory, Simon; Mukadi, Ya Diul; Colebunders, Robert; Bangsberg, David R.; van Praag, Eric; Torpey, Kwasi; Williams, Seymour; Kaplan, Jonathan; Zee, Aaron; Denison, Julie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We assessed retention and predictors of attrition (recorded death or loss to follow-up) in antiretroviral treatment (ART) clinics in Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study among adults (≥18 years) starting ART during 2003–2010. We purposefully selected six health facilities per country and randomly selected 250 patients from each facility. Patients who visited clinics at least once during the 90 days before data abstraction were defined as retained. Data on individual and programme level risk factors for attrition were obtained through chart review and clinic manager interviews. Kaplan–Meier curves for retention across sites were created. Predictors of attrition were assessed using a multivariable Cox-proportional hazards model, adjusted for site-level clustering. RESULTS From 17 facilities, 4147 patients were included. Retention ranged from 52.0% to 96.2% at 1 year to 25.8%–90.4% at 4 years. Multivariable analysis of ART initiation characteristics found the following independent risk factors for attrition: younger age [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.30 (1.14–1.47)], WHO stage 4 ([aHR (95% CI): 1.56 (1.29–1.88)], >10% bodyweight loss [aHR (95%CI) = 1.17 (1.00–1.38)], poor functional status [ambulatory aHR (95%CI) = 1.29 (1.09–1.54); bedridden aHR1.54 (1.15–2.07)], and increasing years of clinic operation prior to ART initiation in government facilities [aHR (95%CI) = 1.17 (1.10–1.23)]. Patients with higher CD4 cell count were less likely to experience attrition [aHR (95%CI) = 0.88 (0.78–1.00)] for every log (tenfold) increase. Sites offering community ART dispensing [aHR (95% CI) = 0.55 (0.30–1.01) for women; 0.40 (0.21–0.75) for men] had significantly less attrition. CONCLUSIONS Patient retention to an individual programme worsened over time especially among males, younger persons and those with poor clinical indicators. Community ART drug dispensing

  17. Medical History, Lifestyle, Family History, and Occupational Risk Factors for Adult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Slager, Susan L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Lightfoot, Tracy; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) in adults is a rare malignancy with a poor clinical outcome, and few reported etiologic risk factors. Methods We performed an exploratory pooled study of 152 ALL cases and 23096 controls from 16 case–control studies to investigate the role of medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors and risk of ALL. Age- race/ethnicity-, sex-, and study-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Results An increased risk of ALL was found in those with a family history of a hematological malignancy (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.22 to 5.54) and in leather (OR = 3.91, 95% CI = 1.35 to 11.35) and sewing/embroidery workers (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.00 to 8.49). Consumers of alcohol had an increased risk of B-cell ALL (OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.18 to 6.95). Conclusions The small number of statistically significant risk factors identified out of the 112 variables examined could be chance findings and will require further replication to assess their role in the etiology of adult ALL. PMID:25174033

  18. Risk Factors, Health Behaviors, and Injury Among Adults Employed in the Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities Super Sector

    PubMed Central

    Helmkamp, James C.; Lincoln, Jennifer E.; Sestito, John; Wood, Eric; Birdsey, Jan; Kiefer, Max

    2015-01-01

    Background The TWU super sector is engaged in the movement of passengers and cargo, warehousing of goods, and the delivery of services. The purpose of this study is to describe employee self-reported personal risk factors, health behaviors and habits, disease and chronic conditions, and employer-reported nonfatal injury experiences of workers in the TWU super sector. Methods National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 1997–2007, grouped into six morbidity and disability categories and three age groups, were reviewed. Demographic characteristics and prevalence estimates are reported for workers in the TWU super sector and the entire U.S. workforce, and compared with national adult population data from the NHIS. Bureau of Labor Statistics employer-reported TWU injury data from 2003 to 2007 was also reviewed. Results An average of 8.3 million workers were employed annually in the TWU super sector. TWU workers 65 or older reported the highest prevalence of hypertension (49%) across all industry sectors, but the 20% prevalence is notable among middle age workers (25–64). TWU workers had the highest prevalence of obesity (28%), compared to workers in all other industry sectors. Female TWU workers experienced the highest number of lost workdays (6.5) in the past year across all TWU demographic groups. Conclusions Self-reported high proportions of chronic conditions including hypertension and heart disease combined with elevated levels of being overweight and obese, and lack of physical activity—particularly among TWUs oldest workers—can meaningfully inform wellness strategies and interventions focused on this demographic group. PMID:23255331

  19. Heart disease - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000106.htm Heart disease - risk factors To use the sharing features on this ... may help you live a longer, healthier life. Risk Factors You Cannot Change Some of your heart ...

  20. Risk Factors for Macro- and Microvascular Complications among Older Adults with Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: Findings from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Sheena M.; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Buckley, Claire M.; Canavan, Ronan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore risk factors for macro- and microvascular complications in a nationally representative sample of adults aged 50 years and over with type 2 diabetes in Ireland. Methods. Data from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) (2009–2011) was used in cross-sectional analysis. The presence of doctor diagnosis of diabetes, risk factors, and macro- and microvascular complications were determined by self-report. Gender-specific differences in risk factor prevalence were assessed with the chi-squared test. Binomial regression analysis was conducted to explore independent associations between established risk factors and diabetes-related complications. Results. Among 8175 respondents, 655 were classified as having type 2 diabetes. Older age, being male, a history of smoking, a lower level of physical activity, and a diagnosis of high cholesterol were independent predictors of macrovascular complications. Diabetes diagnosis of 10 or more years, a history of smoking, and a diagnosis of hypertension were associated with an increased risk of microvascular complications. Older age, third-level education, and a high level of physical activity were protective factors (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Early intervention to target modifiable risk factors is urgently needed to reduce diabetes-related morbidity in the older population in Ireland. PMID:27294152

  1. The Cut-Off Point and Boundary Values of Waist-to-Height Ratio as an Indicator for Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Chinese Adults from the PURE Study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Bo, Jian; Chen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    To explore a scientific boundary of WHtR to evaluate central obesity and CVD risk factors in a Chinese adult population. The data are from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) China study that was conducted from 2005–2007. The final study sample consisted of 43 841 participants (18 019 men and 25 822 women) aged 35–70 years. According to the group of CVD risk factors proposed by Joint National Committee 7 version and the clustering of risk factors, some diagnosis parameters, such as sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve least distance were calculated for hypertension, diabetes, high serum triglyceride (TG), high serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), low serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and clustering of risk factors (number≥2) to evaluate the efficacy at each value of the WHtR cut-off point. The upper boundary value for severity was fixed on the point where the specificity was above 90%. The lower boundary value, which indicated above underweight, was determined by the percentile distribution of WHtR, specifically the 5th percentile (P5) for both males and females population. Then, based on convenience and practical use, the optimal boundary values of WHtR for underweight and obvious central obesity were determined. For the whole study population, the optimal WHtR cut-off point for the CVD risk factor cluster was 0.50. The cut-off points for severe central obesity were 0.57 in the whole population. The upper boundary values of WHtR to detect the risk factor cluster with specificity above 90% were 0.55 and 0.58 for men and women, respectively. Additionally, the cut-off points of WHtR for each of four cardiovascular risk factors with specificity above 90% in males ranged from 0.55 to 0.56, whereas in females, it ranged from 0.57 to 0.58. The P5 of WHtR, which represents the lower boundary values of WHtR that indicates above underweight, was 0.40 in the whole population. WHtR 0.50 was

  2. Risk factors for perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Young Hwa; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-09-01

    To identify the factors associated with perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, we analyzed the results from a series of city-wide cross-sectional surveys of HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to unmet medical needs. Among the 775 subjects included in the study, 15.4% had perceived unmet medical needs. Significant factors included age group (35-49 years; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.06), lower monthly income (aOR, 3.75 for the <$900/mo group and 2.44 for the $900-$1800/mo group; 95% CI, 1.68-8.35 and 1.18-5.04, respectively), beneficiaries of the National Medical Aid Program (aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01-3.17), recent CD4 cell counts <500/µL (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.33). Taken together, these data reveal strong associations of middle age and low socioeconomic status with perceived unmet medical needs among HIV-infected adults. PMID:27009447

  3. Bereavement by suicide as a risk factor for suicide attempt: a cross-sectional national UK-wide study of 3432 young bereaved adults

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, David P J; Rantell, Khadija; King, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Objectives US and UK suicide prevention strategies suggest that bereavement by the suicide of a relative or friend is a risk factor for suicide. However, evidence is lacking that the risk exceeds that of any sudden bereavement, is specific to suicide, or applies to peer suicide. We conducted the first controlled UK-wide study to test the hypothesis that young adults bereaved by suicide have an increased risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt compared with young adults bereaved by other sudden deaths. Design National cross-sectional study. Setting Staff and students at 37 UK higher educational institutions in 2010. Participants 3432 eligible respondents aged 18–40 exposed to sudden bereavement of a friend or relative after the age of 10. Exposures Bereavement by suicide (n=614), by sudden unnatural causes (n=712) and by sudden natural causes (n=2106). Primary outcome measures Incident suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Findings Adults bereaved by suicide had a higher probability of attempting suicide (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.65; 95% CI 1.12 to 2.42; p=0.012) than those bereaved by sudden natural causes. There was no such increased risk in adults bereaved by sudden unnatural causes. There were no group differences in probability of suicidal ideation. The effect of suicide bereavement was similar whether bereaved participants were blood-related to the deceased or not. The significant association between bereavement by suicide and suicide attempt became non-significant when adding perceived stigma (AOR=1.11; 95% CI 0.74 to 1.67; p=0.610). When compared with adults bereaved by sudden unnatural causes, those bereaved by suicide did not show significant differences in suicide attempt (AOR=1.48; 95% CI 0.94 to 2.33; p=0.089). Conclusions Bereavement by suicide is a specific risk factor for suicide attempt among young bereaved adults, whether related to the deceased or not. Suicide risk assessment of young adults should involve screening for a history of suicide in

  4. Risk factors for acquisition and clearance of oral human papillomavirus infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults.

    PubMed

    Beachler, Daniel C; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Margolick, Joseph B; Weber, Kathleen M; Strickler, Howard D; Wiley, Dorothy J; Cranston, Ross D; Burk, Robert D; Minkoff, Howard; Reddy, Susheel; Xiao, Weihong; Guo, Yingshi; Gillison, Maura L; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes the majority of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, yet the risk factors for and natural history of oral HPV infection are largely unknown. In 2010-2011, a US-based longitudinal cohort study of 761 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and 469 at-risk HIV-uninfected participants from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women's Interagency HIV Study was initiated. Semiannually collected oral rinses were evaluated for 37 HPV genotypes using the Roche LINEAR ARRAY HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, California), and factors associated with oral HPV incidence and clearance were explored using adjusted Wei-Lin-Weissfeld modeling. Through 2013, the 2-year cumulative incidence of any type of oral HPV infection was 34% in HIV-infected persons and 19% in HIV-uninfected persons. However, many of these infections cleared. Seven percent of incident infections and 35% of prevalent infections persisted for at least 2 years. After adjustment for other risk factors, HIV infection (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 3.2), reduced current CD4 cell count, and increased numbers of oral sex and "rimming" partners increased the risk of incident oral HPV infection, whereas male sex, older age, and current smoking increased the risk of oral HPV persistence (each P < 0.05). This helps explain the consistent associations observed between these factors and prevalent oral HPV infection in previous cross-sectional studies. PMID:25480823

  5. Risk Factors for Acquisition and Clearance of Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection Among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beachler, Daniel C.; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Strickler, Howard D.; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Cranston, Ross D.; Burk, Robert D.; Minkoff, Howard; Reddy, Susheel; Xiao, Weihong; Guo, Yingshi; Gillison, Maura L.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes the majority of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, yet the risk factors for and natural history of oral HPV infection are largely unknown. In 2010–2011, a US-based longitudinal cohort study of 761 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and 469 at-risk HIV-uninfected participants from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women's Interagency HIV Study was initiated. Semiannually collected oral rinses were evaluated for 37 HPV genotypes using the Roche LINEAR ARRAY HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, California), and factors associated with oral HPV incidence and clearance were explored using adjusted Wei-Lin-Weissfeld modeling. Through 2013, the 2-year cumulative incidence of any type of oral HPV infection was 34% in HIV-infected persons and 19% in HIV-uninfected persons. However, many of these infections cleared. Seven percent of incident infections and 35% of prevalent infections persisted for at least 2 years. After adjustment for other risk factors, HIV infection (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 3.2), reduced current CD4 cell count, and increased numbers of oral sex and “rimming” partners increased the risk of incident oral HPV infection, whereas male sex, older age, and current smoking increased the risk of oral HPV persistence (each P < 0.05). This helps explain the consistent associations observed between these factors and prevalent oral HPV infection in previous cross-sectional studies. PMID:25480823

  6. A Healthy Lifestyle Score Is Associated with Cardiometabolic and Neuroendocrine Risk Factors among Puerto Rican Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Falcón, Luis M; Gao, Xiang; Tucker, Katherine L; Mattei, Josiemer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although individual healthy lifestyle behaviors may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, few studies have analyzed the combined effect of multiple lifestyle components as one all-inclusive measure on such outcomes, much less in minority populations. Objective: We aimed to develop a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that included several lifestyle recommendations and to test its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and allostatic load (AL) and their cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine factors in Puerto Ricans. Methods: In a cross-sectional study in 787 Puerto Ricans living in Boston (aged 45–75 y), we developed an HLS that ranged from 0 to 190 (higher score indicative of healthier lifestyle) and included 5 components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep). Multivariable-adjusted models were used to test associations between the HLS and biomarkers of dysregulation and odds of MetS and high AL (≥4 out of 10 components). Results: The HLS showed adequate internal consistency (ρ = 0.31–0.69) and was inversely associated with urinary cortisol (β ± SE = −0.22 ± 0.11; P = 0.042), epinephrine (−0.20 ± 0.09; P = 0.017), and norepinephrine (−0.26 ± 0.11; P = 0.016); waist circumference (−0.014 ± 0.004; P = 0.003); and serum insulin (−0.30 ± 0.13; P = 0.028) and positively associated with plasma HDL cholesterol (0.007 ± 0.003; P = 0.021) after adjustment for potential confounders. For each 20-unit increase in HLS, participants had 19% (95% CI: 2%, 33%) and 25% (11%, 36%) lower odds of MetS or AL, respectively. Healthier scores for social support and network and smoking components were associated with lower odds of high AL (P < 0.005). No significant associations were observed for other individual lifestyle components. Conclusions: Following an overall healthy lifestyle that comprises a combination of multiple behaviors may provide stronger protection against MetS and AL in Puerto

  7. The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gallstone Among Adults in South-East of Iran: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Khorram, Alireza; Miri-Bonjar, Mahmodreza; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and possible risk factors of gallstone disease in the general population. Patients and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on a total of 1522 males and females aged ≥30 years in Zahedan district, South-East of Iran. Data were collected by a validated questionnaire and gallstone diagnosis was assessed by an experienced radiologist using ultrasonography. Logistic regression model was used to identify the association between selected variables and gallstone disease. Results: The overall prevalence of gallstone in participants was 2.4%. The risk of gallstone was 2.60 times higher in people age 45 and older than those aged 30 - 44 years (Odds Ratio = 2.60, 95% CI; 1.22 - 5.55). Females were 2.73 (95% CI; 1.34 - 5.56) times more likely to have disease compared to males as well. The risk in unmarried individuals was also three times higher than married ones (OR = 2.99: 95% CI 1.02 - 9.16). Additionally, daily physical activity reduced the risk of gallstone disease by 66% (95% CI; 0.18 - 0.86). Conclusion: In conclusion, increasing age and female gender were risk factors, whereas daily physical activity and marriage identified as protective factors in aetiology of gallstone disease. PMID:26573029

  8. Incidence and risk factors of post-engraftment invasive fungal disease in adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving oral azoles prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, P; Rodríguez-Veiga, R; Boluda, B; Martínez-Cuadrón, D; Cano, I; Lancharro, A; Sanz, J; Arilla, M J; López-Chuliá, F; Navarro, I; Lorenzo, I; Salavert, M; Pemán, J; Calvillo, P; Martínez, J; Carpio, N; Jarque, I; Sanz, G F; Sanz, M A

    2015-11-01

    Studies that analyze the epidemiology and risk factors for invasive fungal disease (IFD) after engraftment in alloSCT are few in number. This single-center retrospective study included 404 alloSCT adult recipients surviving >40 days who engrafted and were discharged without prior IFD. All patients who received ⩾20 mg/day of prednisone were assigned to primary oral prophylaxis (itraconazole or low-dose voriconazole). The primary end point was the cumulative incidence (CI) of probable/proven IFD using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria. The independent prognostic factors after multivariate analyses were used to construct a post-engraftment IFD risk score. The 1-year CI of IFD was 11%. The non-relapse mortality was 40% in those developing IFD and 16% in those who did not. The intent-to-treat analysis showed that 17% of patients abandoned the assigned prophylaxis. Age >40 years, ⩾1 previous SCT, pre-engraftment neutropenia >15 days, extensive chronic GVHD and CMV reactivation were independent risk factors. The post-engraftment IFD score stratified patients into low risk (0-1 factor, CI 0.7%), intermediate risk (2 factors, CI 9.9%) and high risk (3-5 factors, CI 24.7%) (P<0.0001). The antifungal prophylaxis strategy failed to prevent post-engraftment IFD in 11% of alloSCT. Our risk score could be useful to implement risk-adapted strategies using antifungal prophylaxis after engraftment. PMID:26281032

  9. Aetiology of Bacteraemia as a Risk Factor for Septic Shock at the Onset of Febrile Neutropaenia in Adult Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Regis Goulart; Goldani, Luciano Zubaran

    2014-01-01

    Septic shock (SS) at the onset of febrile neutropaenia (FN) is an emergency situation that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The impact of the specific aetiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in the development of SS at the time of FN is not well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the aetiology of BSIs and SS at the time of FN in hospitalised adult cancer patients. This prospective cohort study was performed at a single tertiary hospital from October 2009 to August 2011. All adult cancer patients admitted consecutively to the haematology ward with FN were evaluated. A stepwise logistic regression was conducted to verify the association between the microbiological characteristics of BSIs and SS at the onset of FN. In total, 307 cases of FN in adult cancer patients were evaluated. There were 115 cases with documented BSI. A multivariate analysis showed that polymicrobial bacteraemia (P = 0.01) was associated with SS. The specific blood isolates independently associated with SS were viridans streptococci (P = 0.02) and Escherichia coli (P = 0.01). Neutropaenic cancer patients with polymicrobial bacteraemia or BSI by viridans streptococci or Escherichia coli are at increased risk for SS at the time of FN. PMID:24804223

  10. Prevalence of low back pain and associated risk factors amongst adult patients presenting to a Nigerian family practice clinic, a hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Adebusoye, Lawrence A.; Alonge, Temitope O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem with concomitant disability which has assumed a public health importance in our setting. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of LBP and associated risk factors amongst adult patients attending the General Outpatients’ Clinic of the University College Hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. Method This was a cross-sectional study of 485 respondents. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demography, lifestyle, occupation and other risk factors associated with LBP. Results There were 288 (59.4%) female and 197 (40.6%) male respondents. The point prevalence of LBP was 46.8%. Occupational activities, previous back injury and tobacco smoking were significant associated factors for the total population. For the female respondents, logistic regression analysis showed that a waist circumference of 88 cm or more, dysmenorrhea, previous back injury and being engaged in an occupation were the most significant factors associated with LBP. However, previous back injury was the most significant factor associated with LBP for the male respondents. Conclusion The prevalence of LBP amongst adult patients in our setting is high, with preventable and treatable predisposing factors. Public health efforts should be directed at educating people on occupational activities and lifestyle habits.

  11. Widespread pain and depression are key modifiable risk factors associated with reduced social participation in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Ross; Blagojevic-Bucknall, Milisa; Belcher, John; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Lacey, Rosie J.; McBeth, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In older adults, reduced social participation increases the risk of poor health-related quality of life, increased levels of inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease, and increased mortality. Older adults frequently present to primary care, which offers the potential to deliver interventions at the point of care to increase social participation. The aim of this prospective study was to identify the key modifiable exposures that were associated with reduced social participation in a primary care population of older adults. The study was a population-based prospective cohort study. Participants (n = 1991) were those aged ≥65 years who had completed questionnaires at baseline, and 3 and 6-year follow-ups. Generalized linear mixed modeling framework was used to test for associations between exposures and decreasing social participation over 6 years. At baseline, 44% of participants reported reduced social participation, increasing to 49% and 55% at 3 and 6-year follow-up. Widespread pain and depression had the strongest independent association with reduced social participation over the 6-year follow-up period. The prevalence of reduced social participation for those with widespread pain was 106% (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.72, 2.46), higher than for those with no pain. Those with depression had an increased prevalence of 82% (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.62, 2.06). These associations persisted in multivariate analysis. Population ageing will be accompanied by increasing numbers of older adults with pain and depression. Future trials should assess whether screening for widespread pain and depression, and targeting appropriate treatment in primary care, increase social participation in older people. PMID:27495019

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Carotid Plaque Among Middle-aged and Elderly Adults in Rural Tianjin, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Changqing; Shi, Min; Yang, Ying; Pang, Hongbo; Fei, Shizao; Bai, Lingling; Liu, Bin; Tu, Jun; Huo, Yong; Ning, Xianjia; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Carotid plaque (CP) is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. However, population-based studies with a large sample are rare in China, particularly those in the low-income population. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CP and the associated risk factors in the rural areas of northern China. Between April 2014 and June 2014, we recruited 3789 residents aged ≥45 years. B-mode ultrasonography was performed to measure the extent of CP. The prevalence of CP was 40.3% overall, 47.1% in men, and 35.4% in women (P < 0.001). The prevalence of CP increased with increasing age (P < 0.001). The participants with CP were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, high total cholesterol (TC) levels, and high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and be a current smoker; however, they were less likely to be obese. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, indicated that age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking, and high LDL-C levels were the independent risk factors for CP. There was a lower risk of CP with alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that managing the conventional risk factors is crucial to reduce the burden of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the low-income population in China. PMID:27029785

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Carotid Plaque Among Middle-aged and Elderly Adults in Rural Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Changqing; Shi, Min; Yang, Ying; Pang, Hongbo; Fei, Shizao; Bai, Lingling; Liu, Bin; Tu, Jun; Huo, Yong; Ning, Xianjia; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Carotid plaque (CP) is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. However, population-based studies with a large sample are rare in China, particularly those in the low-income population. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CP and the associated risk factors in the rural areas of northern China. Between April 2014 and June 2014, we recruited 3789 residents aged ≥45 years. B-mode ultrasonography was performed to measure the extent of CP. The prevalence of CP was 40.3% overall, 47.1% in men, and 35.4% in women (P < 0.001). The prevalence of CP increased with increasing age (P < 0.001). The participants with CP were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, high total cholesterol (TC) levels, and high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and be a current smoker; however, they were less likely to be obese. Multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, indicated that age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking, and high LDL-C levels were the independent risk factors for CP. There was a lower risk of CP with alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that managing the conventional risk factors is crucial to reduce the burden of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the low-income population in China. PMID:27029785

  14. Clostridium difficile infection after adult autologous stem cell transplantation: A multicenter study of epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Dufresne, Simon F.; Hanna, David B.; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Treadway, Suzanne B.; Neofytos, Dionissios; Bélanger, Sylvie; Huff, Carol Ann; Laverdière, Michel; Marr, Kieren A.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to describe the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among adult recipients of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto HSCT) within the first year after HSCT in centers with variable epidemiology of hyper-toxigenic strains. A multicenter, retrospective nested case-control study was conducted among 873 auto HSCT recipients at Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH, Baltimore, MD) and Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont (HMR, Montreal, Canada) between 1/2003-12/2008. Despite center differences in the prevalence of NAP-1 strains over the time period (21-43% JHH; 80-84% HMR), the 1-year incidence of CDI was similar (6.2% JHH; 5.7% HMR). The median time to infection was 11 days (interquartile range [IQR] 1 to 27). In case control analysis, the following were predictors for CDI: grade 2 or higher mucositis (odds ratio [OR]: 3.00, P=0.02) and receipt of a 4th generation cephalosporin (OR: 2.76, P=0.04). Mucositis was the strongest predictor of risk for CDI in multivariate analysis (adjusted OR [AOR]: 2.77; P=0.03). CDI is a common and early complication of auto HSCT. Treatment-related gastrointestinal mucosal damage, in addition to the potentially modifiable risk of antimicrobial exposure, influence risk for CDI early post-auto HSCT. PMID:23916741

  15. Association of Behavioral Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases With Physical and Mental Health in European Adults Aged 50 Years or Older, 2004–2005

    PubMed Central

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Smpokos, Emmanouil; Micheli, Katerina; Vozikaki, Maria; Philalithis, Anastas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Noncommunicable diseases are the leading cause of illness and death worldwide; behavioral risk factors (BRFs) contribute to these diseases. We assessed the presence of multiple BRFs among European adults according to their physical and mental health status. Methods We used data from 26,026 adults aged 50 years or older from 11 countries that participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (2004–2005). BRFs (overweight or obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, and risky alcohol consumption) were assessed according to physical health (ie, presence of chronic diseases, disease symptoms, or limitations in activities of daily living) and mental health (depression) through multiple regression estimations. Results Overweight or obesity in men and physical inactivity in women were the most prevalent BRFs. Compared with physically active adults, physically inactive adults had a higher mean number of chronic diseases (1.33 vs 1.26) and chronic disease symptoms (1.55 vs 1.47). Risky alcohol consumption (≥4 servings of an alcohol beverage ≥3 times a week) was associated with a higher mean depression score (2.84 vs 2.47). Compared with adults with 0 or 1 BRF, adults with 2 or more BRFs had significantly higher odds of having 1 or more chronic diseases (men: 1.52; women: 1.73) and functional limitations (men: 1.65; women: 1.79) and higher prevalence of high blood pressure (37.8% vs 28.2). Belgian adults with BRFs had the highest mean number of chronic diseases or functional limitations among those who were overweight or obese and the highest mean number of chronic diseases and disease symptoms among those who smoked and were physically inactive. Conclusion We found revealed significant positive associations between BRFs and poor health among middle-aged and older European adults. Primary health care intervention programs should focus on developing ways to reduce BRF prevalence in this population. PMID:26378895

  16. Physical Activity, Fitness, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer with a History of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Slater, Megan E; Steinberger, Julia; Ross, Julie A; Kelly, Aaron S; Chow, Eric J; Koves, Ildiko H; Hoffmeister, Paul; Sinaiko, Alan R; Petryk, Anna; Moran, Antoinette; Lee, Jill; Chow, Lisa S; Baker, K Scott

    2015-07-01

    Along with other childhood cancer survivors (CCS), hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors are at high risk of treatment-related late effects, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities may be exacerbated by inadequate physical activity (PA). Relationships between PA and cardiometabolic risk factors have not been well described in CCS with HCT. PA (self reported), mobility (timed up and go test), endurance (6-minute walk test), handgrip strength, and cardiometabolic risk factors were measured in 119 HCT survivors and 66 sibling controls ages ≥18 years. Adjusted comparisons between HCT survivors and controls and between categories of low and high PA, mobility, endurance, and strength were performed with linear regression. Among HCT survivors, the high PA group had lower waist circumference (WC) (81.9 ± 2.5 versus 88.6 ± 3.1 cm ± standard error (SE), P = .009) than the low PA group, whereas the high endurance group had lower WC (77.8 ± 2.6 versus 87.8 ± 2.5 cm ± SE, P = .0001) and percent fat mass (33.6 ± 1.8 versus 39.4 ± 1.7% ± SE, P = .0008) and greater insulin sensitivity (IS) (10.9 ± 1.0 versus 7.42 ± 1.14 mg/kg/min ± SE via euglycemic insulin clamp, P = .001) than the low endurance group. Differences were greater in HCT survivors than in controls for WC between low and high PA groups, triglycerides between low and high mobility groups, and WC, systolic blood pressure, and IS between low and high endurance groups (all Pinteraction <.05). Higher endurance was associated with a more favorable cardiometabolic profile in HCT survivors, suggesting that interventions directed to increase endurance in survivors may reduce the risk of future cardiovascular disease. PMID:25865649

  17. Appropriate LDL-C-to-HDL-C Ratio Cutoffs for Categorization of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Uygur Adults in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing-Jie; Lai, Hong-Mei; Chen, Bang-Dang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Zhai, Hui; He, Chun-Hui; Pan, Shuo; Luo, Jun-Yi; Gao, Jing; Liu, Fen; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Elevated LDL-C/HDL-C ratio has been shown to be a marker of lipid metabolism as well as a good predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is useful for detecting cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in general healthy Uygur adults in Xinjiang. A total of 4047 Uygur subjects aged ≥35 years were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study which was carried out from October 2007 to March 2010. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting glucose were measured in all participants. The prevalence, sensitivity, specificity and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were calculated. The prevalence of high LDL-C and low HDL-C cholesterol was high and positively correlated with higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio in the Uygur population. In both men and women, we detected a slight apparent trend of high prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia with higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Our study also demonstrated that the discriminatory power of the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio for CVD risk factors was slightly stronger in men than in women. Analysis of the shortest distance in the ROC curves for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or ≥two of these risk factors suggested a LDL-C/HDL-C ratio cutoff of 2.5 for both men and women. The results of this study showed that a LDL-C/HDL-C ratio cut-off of 2.5 might be used as the predictive marker to detect CVD risk factors among Uygur adults in Xinjiang. PMID:26907312

  18. [Accidents in a population of 350 adolescents and young adults: circumstances, risk factors and prediction of recurrence].

    PubMed

    Marcelli, Daniel; Ingrand, Pierre; Delamour, Magali; Ingrand, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    Accidents among adolescents and young adults are a public health issue, and present two main characteristics: a strong association with sporting activities, and frequent recurrence. Sports accidents are generally relatively benign, but they show a marked tendency to recur Young people engaging in sporting activities do not generally exhibit psychological traits different from the general population. In contrast, the other types of accident, and particularly domestic and traffic accidents, appear to have specific features: they are often more serious, but above all they are associated with psychopathologic features, including depression, anxiety, disorders due to life events, and thrill-seeking These psychopathological features are strongly associated with recurrence. The authors describe a simple self-administered questionnaire (ECARR) designed to assess the risk of accident recurrence in this population. PMID:21513131

  19. A Retrospective Study in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: Diabetic Risk Factor Response to Daily Consumption of Agaricus bisporus (White Button Mushrooms).

    PubMed

    Calvo, Mona S; Mehrotra, Anita; Beelman, Robert B; Nadkarni, Girish; Wang, Lingzhi; Cai, Weijing; Goh, Boon Cher; Kalaras, Michael D; Uribarri, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    Adults with metabolic syndrome from different race/ethnicities are often predisposed to developing type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, growing evidence suggests that healthy diets and lifestyle choices can significantly slow or prevent progression to T2D. This poorly understood relationship to healthy dietary patterns and prevention of T2D motivated us to conduct a retrospective analysis to determine the potential impact of a minor dietary lifestyle change (daily mushroom consumption) on known T2D risk factors in racially diverse adults with confirmed features of the metabolic syndrome. Retrospectively, we studied 37 subjects who had participated in a dietary intervention focused on vitamin D bioavailability from white button mushrooms (WBM). All 37 had previously completed a 16-week study where they consumed 100 g of WBM daily and were then followed-up for one month during which no mushrooms were consumed. We analyzed differences in serum risk factors from baseline to 16-week, and from baseline to one-month follow-up. Measurement of serum diabetic risk factors included inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and the antioxidant component naturally rich in mushrooms, ergothioneine. Significant beneficial health effects were observed at 16-week with the doubling of ergothioneine from baseline, increases in the antioxidant marker ORAC (oxygen radical absorption capacity) and anti-inflammatory hormone, adiponectin and significant decreases in serum oxidative stress inducing factors, carboxymethyllysine (CML) and methylglyoxal (MG), but no change in the lipid oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostane, leptin or measures of insulin resistance or glucose metabolism. We conclude that WBM contain a variety of compounds with potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant health benefits that can occur with frequent consumption over time in adults predisposed to T2D. Well-controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings and identify the specific mushroom components

  20. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among adults without obvious cardiovascular disease in a rural community in Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease worldwide is largely driven by modifiable risk factors. This study sought to identify and determine the prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors according to sex in inhabitants of a rural community in a developing country. Methods This cross-sectional study included participants aged ≥40 years in the rural community of Aaye Ekiti, Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria. All participants who met the inclusion criteria were drawn from the 161 households in the community. Data on the following were collected: arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidaemia, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and sociodemographic parameters. These were analysed with SPSS version 16.0 software. Results The 104 participants (33 male, 71 female) had a mean age (± standard deviation) of 66.77 ± 12.06 years (range, 40–88 years). The majority of the participants (56.7%) were aged 60–79 years. Hypertension was present in 66.4%, diabetes mellitus in 4.8%, abdominal obesity in 38.46%, smoking in 2.9%, physical inactivity in 29.8%, and high alcohol consumption in 1%. Dyslipidaemia, as represented by low HDL-C, occurred in 30%. There were borderline high levels of TC in 4.5%, LDL-C in 1.1%, and TG in 12.5%, but no subject had a high level. Abdominal obesity, alcohol consumption and smoking were statistically significantly associated with sex. Conclusion In this study, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, apart from hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity and low HDL-C had a low prevalence in the rural Nigerian community. However, the high prevalence of hypertension in this poor community suggests a high risk of a future cardiovascular event. PMID:24138186

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of posterior vitreous detachment in a Chinese adult population: the Handan eye study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To describe the prevalence and associations of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) in a rural adult Chinese population. Methods All eligible subjects were requested to carry out a comprehensive eye examination; PVD was a pre-specified outcome variable and was determined via biomicroscopical examination (slit-lamp biomicroscopy) with a +90-D preset lens after mydriasis. Prevalence was standardized to China population census (2000). Results 5890 (86.2%) subjects completed the examination of slit-lamp biomicroscopy with a +90-D lens. PVD was present in 160 participants (2.7%); the standardized prevalence was 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-2.3%). PVD developed increasingly with age (P for trend < 0.001) for both men and women. Using a multivariate regression model, older people were found to run a higher risk of developing PVD than younger people, and women were found to have a higher risk than men (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.5-5.9). Diabetes, hypertension, smoking, drinking, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were not significantly associated with PVD. Conclusions About one in fifty people is found to have PVD in this population-based study. Age and female are independently associated with PVD occurrence. PMID:23855829

  2. Dietary factors and the risk of glioma in adults: results of a case-control study in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Giles, G G; McNeil, J J; Donnan, G; Webley, C; Staples, M P; Ireland, P D; Hurley, S F; Salzberg, M

    1994-11-01

    In a population-based case-control study of 416 incident gliomas in adults carried out in Melbourne, Australia, between 1987 and 1991, 409 age-sex-matched case-control pairs (243 male and 166 female) had adequate data available to examine associations between the dietary intake of N-nitroso compounds, N-nitroso precursors, other nutrients including N-nitroso inhibitors, and the risk of glioma. Dietary intakes were based on the reported frequency of consumption of 59 food items. Increased odds ratio (OR) were observed in males who consumed high levels of bacon, corned meats, apples, melons and oil. OR less than unity were observed in men consuming cabbage and cola drinks, and in women who consumed wholegrain bread, pasta, corned meat, bananas, cauliflower, brocoli, cola drinks and nuts. Generally, N-nitroso associations were greater in men and micronutrient associations were greater in women. Elevated OR in men, but not women, were associated with the intake of N-nitroso dimethylamine (NDMA), retinol and vitamin E. The intake of nitrate (largely of vegetable origin) was protective in women but not in men. When analyzed using multiple logistic regression, the association with NDMA intake in males was not modified by dietary micronutrient intakes. In females, beta carotene alone, though not directly associated with risk, modified the effect of NDMA. On balance, this study added only limited support to the N-nitroso hypothesis of glial carcinogenesis. PMID:7927941

  3. Dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents and young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Hannah J; Draffin, Claire R; Woodside, Jayne V; Cardwell, Chris R; Young, Ian S; Hunter, Steven J; Murray, Liam J; Boreham, Colin A; Gallagher, Alison M; Neville, Charlotte E; McKinley, Michelle C

    2014-11-28

    Dietary pattern (DP) analysis allows examination of the combined effects of nutrients and foods on the markers of CVD. Very few studies have examined these relationships during adolescence or young adulthood. Traditional CVD risk biomarkers were analysed in 12-15-year-olds (n 487; Young Hearts (YH)1) and again in the same individuals at 20-25 years of age (n 487; YH3). Based on 7 d diet histories, in the present study, DP analysis was performed using a posteriori principal component analysis for the YH3 cohort and the a priori Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was calculated for both YH1 and YH3 cohorts. In the a posteriori DP analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the 'healthy' DP were found to have lower pulse wave velocity (PWV) and homocysteine concentrations, the 'sweet tooth' DP were found to have increased LDL concentrations, and decreased HDL concentrations, [corrected] the 'drinker/social' DP were found to have lower LDL and homocysteine concentrations, but exhibited a trend towards a higher TAG concentration, and finally the 'Western' DP were found to have elevated homocysteine and HDL concentrations. In the a priori dietary score analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the Mediterranean diet were found to exhibit a trend towards a lower PWV. MDS did not track between YH1 and YH3, and nor was there a longitudinal relationship between the change in the MDS and the change in CVD risk biomarkers. In conclusion, cross-sectional analysis revealed that some associations between DP and CVD risk biomarkers were already evident in the young adult population, namely the association between the healthy DP (and the MDS) and PWV; however, no longitudinal associations were observed between these relatively short time periods. PMID:25234582

  4. Plasma Fatty Acids in Zambian Adults with HIV/AIDS: Relation to Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nyirenda, Christopher K.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Koethe, John R.; Kiage, James N.; Chi, Benjamin H.; Musonda, Patrick; Blevins, Meridith; Bosire, Claire N.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Heimburger, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether 24 hr dietary recalls (DR) are a good measure of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake when compared to plasma levels, and whether plasma PUFA is associated with markers of HIV/AIDS progression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods. In a cross-sectional study among 210 antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected adults from Lusaka, Zambia, we collected data on medical history and dietary intake using 24 hr DR. We measured fatty acids and markers of AIDS progression and CVD risk in fasting plasma collected at baseline. Results. PUFA intakes showed modest correlations with corresponding plasma levels; Spearman correlations were 0.36 (p < 0.01) for eicosapentaenoic acid and 0.21 (p = 0.005) for docosahexaenoic acid. While there were no significant associations (p > 0.05) between total plasma PUFA and C-reactive protein (CRP) or lipid levels, plasma arachidonic acid was inversely associated with CRP and triglycerides and positively associated with HDL-C, CD4+ T-cell count, and plasma albumin (p < 0.05). Plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) were positively associated with CRP (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.40, p = 0.003) and triglycerides (β = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.12, p < 0.01). Conclusions. Our data suggest that a single DR is inadequate for assessing PUFA intake and that plasma arachidonic acid levels may modulate HIV/AIDS progression and CVD risk. PMID:26161268

  5. Tuberculosis Incidence and Risk Factors Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large HIV Program in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chang, Charlotte A; Meloni, Seema Thakore; Eisen, Geoffrey; Chaplin, Beth; Akande, Patrick; Okonkwo, Prosper; Rawizza, Holly E; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Kanki, Phyllis J

    2015-12-01

    Background.  Despite the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART), tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in Africa. Nigeria bears the highest TB burden in Africa and second highest HIV burden globally. This long-term multicenter study aimed to determine the incidence rate and predictors of TB in adults in the Harvard/AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Nigeria ART program. Methods.  This retrospective evaluation used data collected from 2004 to 2012 through the Harvard/APIN PEPFAR program. Risk factors for incident TB were determined using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression with time-dependent covariates. Results.  Of 50 320 adults enrolled from 2005 to 2010, 11 092 (22%) had laboratory-confirmed active TB disease at ART initiation, and 2021 (4%) developed active TB after commencing ART. During 78 228 total person-years (PY) of follow-up, the TB incidence rate was 25.8 cases per 1000 PY (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.7-27.0) overall, and it decreased significantly both with duration on ART and calendar year. Risk factors at ART initiation for incident TB included the following: earlier ART enrollment year, tenofovir-containing initial ART regimen, and World Health Organization clinical stage above 1. Time-updated risk factors included the following: low body mass index, low CD4(+) cell count, unsuppressed viral load, anemia, and ART adherence below 80%. Conclusions.  The rate of incident TB decreased with longer duration on ART and over the program years. The strongest TB risk factors were time-updated clinical markers, reinforcing the importance of consistent clinical and laboratory monitoring of ART patients in prompt diagnosis and treatment of TB and other coinfections. PMID:26613097

  6. Tuberculosis Incidence and Risk Factors Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large HIV Program in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Charlotte A.; Meloni, Seema Thakore; Eisen, Geoffrey; Chaplin, Beth; Akande, Patrick; Okonkwo, Prosper; Rawizza, Holly E.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART), tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in Africa. Nigeria bears the highest TB burden in Africa and second highest HIV burden globally. This long-term multicenter study aimed to determine the incidence rate and predictors of TB in adults in the Harvard/AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Nigeria ART program. Methods. This retrospective evaluation used data collected from 2004 to 2012 through the Harvard/APIN PEPFAR program. Risk factors for incident TB were determined using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression with time-dependent covariates. Results. Of 50 320 adults enrolled from 2005 to 2010, 11 092 (22%) had laboratory-confirmed active TB disease at ART initiation, and 2021 (4%) developed active TB after commencing ART. During 78 228 total person-years (PY) of follow-up, the TB incidence rate was 25.8 cases per 1000 PY (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.7–27.0) overall, and it decreased significantly both with duration on ART and calendar year. Risk factors at ART initiation for incident TB included the following: earlier ART enrollment year, tenofovir-containing initial ART regimen, and World Health Organization clinical stage above 1. Time-updated risk factors included the following: low body mass index, low CD4+ cell count, unsuppressed viral load, anemia, and ART adherence below 80%. Conclusions. The rate of incident TB decreased with longer duration on ART and over the program years. The strongest TB risk factors were time-updated clinical markers, reinforcing the importance of consistent clinical and laboratory monitoring of ART patients in prompt diagnosis and treatment of TB and other coinfections. PMID:26613097

  7. The Role of Neighborhood Environment in Promoting Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease among Young Adults: Data from Middle to High Income Population in an Asian Megacity

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Mirza Zain; Noor, Arish; Aqil, Amash; Bham, Nida Shahab; Khan, Mohammad Ali; Hassan, Irfan Nazir; Kadir, M. Masood

    2015-01-01

    Background Modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have their triggers in the neighborhood environments of communities. Studying the environmental triggers for CVD risk factors is important to understand the situation in a broader perspective. Young adults are influenced the most by the environment profile around them hence it is important to study this subset of the population. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted using the EPOCH research tool designed by the authors of the PURE study. The study population consisted of young adults aged 18-25 in two areas of Karachi. The study setting was busy shopping malls frequented by young adults in the particular community being studied. Results Our total sample size was 120 individuals, who consented to be interviewed by our interviewers. Less than 50% of the population recognized some form of restriction regarding smoking in their communities. The largest contributor to tobacco advertising was actors smoking in movies and TV shows with 89% responses from both communities. Only 11.9% of the individuals disapproved of smoking cigarettes among men with wide acceptance of ‘sheesha’ across all age groups. Advertising for smoking and junk food was more frequent as compared to smoking cessation, healthy diet and exercise in both the areas. Unhealthy food items were more easily available in contrast to healthier options. The cost of healthy snack food options including vegetables and fruits was higher than sugary drinks and foods. Conclusion This assessment showed that both communities were exposed to environments that promote risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25946006

  8. Effects of Qigong Exercise on Biomarkers and Mental and Physical Health in Adults With at Least One Risk Factor for Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Yeh, Shu-Hui; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2016-05-01

    Current medical technology permits the early detection of risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in adults, and interventions are available to prevent CAD-related morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Qigong exercise intervention in improving biomarker levels and mental and physical health outcomes in community-dwelling adults diagnosed with CAD risk factors, in a southern Taiwanese city. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (n= 84) group that participated in a 60-min Qigong group session 3 times per week for 3 months or a control (n= 61) group that did not receive the intervention. Self-perceived mental and physical health assessed with the Chinese Health Questionnaire-12, and body fat percentage were measured at baseline and 6, 12, and 16 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 12 weeks for analysis of lipid profiles, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and fasting plasma sugar. Linear mixed model analyses revealed that experimental participants had significantly improved perceived mental and physical health and body fat percentage compared to the control group at 6 and 12 weeks but not 16 weeks. The lipid profiles were significantly more improved in the Qigong group than in the control group at 12 weeks. Qigong exercise, however, had no significant effects on hs-CRP, HbA1c, or fasting plasma sugar. Findings suggest that Qigong exercise improves a limited number of CAD risk factors in community-dwelling adults aged 40 years and over. PMID:26590130

  9. Protective and risk factors associated with stigma in a population of older adults living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Emlet, Charles A; Brennan, David J; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Rueda, Sergio; Hart, Trevor A; Rourke, Sean B

    2013-01-01

    Although the deleterious effects of HIV stigma are well documented, less is known about how various types of stigma impact older adults living with HIV disease and what factors exacerbate or lessen the effects of HIV stigma. Using cross-sectional data from the OHTN cohort study (OCS), we undertook multiple linear regression to determine the predictors of overall HIV stigma, and enacted, anticipated, and internalized stigma subscales in a sample of OCS participants age 50 and over (n = 378). Being female, heterosexual, engaging in maladaptive coping, and having poor self-rated health were associated with greater overall stigma while being older, having greater mastery, increased emotional-informational social support, and a longer time since HIV diagnosis were associated with lower levels of stigma. The final model accounted for 31% of the variance in overall stigma. Differences in these findings by subscale and implications for practice are discussed. PMID:23452022

  10. Association between Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study from 2003 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Chao, Jane C-J

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality and loss of disability-adjusted life years in developed countries. This study derived a dietary pattern using an a priori method and additionally derived dietary patterns using a posteriori methods, and assessed the relationship with CVD risk factors in Taiwanese middle-aged and elderly adults. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of 62,965 subjects aged 40 years and above from the Mei Jau (MJ) database collected between 2003 and 2012 in Taiwan. Diet was assessed using a 22 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using this information, three dietary patterns were generated. The a priori diet was labeled the Taiwanese dietary pattern and was derived using hypothesized effect of 22 food groups, while two a posteriori dietary patterns, “vegi-fruits” and “meat-processed”, were derived using principal component analysis. The association between dietary patterns and a range of CVD risk factors (i.e. blood lipids, blood glucose and C-reactive protein) was evaluated using linear regression. Results The results showed that high intake (Q5, quintile 5) of Taiwanese diet was negatively associated with CVD risk factors at (p < 0.001, model 3), but not with triacylglycerol. In addition, high intake of vegi-fruit dietary pattern (Q5) was negatively associated with CVD risk factors (p < 0.001), but not with high-density lipoprotein, while high consumption of meat-processed dietary pattern (Q5) was positively associated with CVD risk factors (p < 0.001), but negatively related with triacylglycerol in Q3 level and no association with C-reactive protein. Conclusion A negative association was observed between Taiwanese or vegi-fruit dietary patterns and CVD risk factors, while a positive association was found between meat-processed dietary pattern and CVD risk factors. The findings suggested that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits has a beneficial effect in the management of CVD risk

  11. Self-reported Prevalence and Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases in the Albanian Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kraja, Fatjona; Kraja, Bledar; Mone, Iris; Harizi, Ilda; Babameto, Adriana; Burazeri, Genc

    2016-01-01

    Aim: There is growing evidence that non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major health problem in developing and transitional countries. The prevalence of NCDs and associated factors are under-researched in Albania. We aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of NCDs in the Albanian adult population. Methods: The study was carried out in the framework of Albania Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS), a national population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 including 12,554 men and women aged ≥35 years. All participants reported on the presence of at least one chronic condition, which in the analysis was dichotomized into “yes” vs. “no”. Information on socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, employment status, residence) and lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption) was also collected. Logistic regression was used to assess socio-demographic and behavioral correlates of NCDs. Results: Overall, the prevalence of chronic diseases in this population-based sample of Albanian adults was 2864/12554=22.8%. Upon multivariable adjustment for all covariates, positive correlates of chronic conditions were older age (OR=6.0, 95%CI=5.3-6.8), female gender (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.1-1.4), residence in coastal areas of Albania (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.7-2.5), unemployment (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.6-2.0), low education (OR=1.6, OR=1.3-1.9) and current smoking (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.1-1.5). Conversely, there was an inverse association with poverty (OR=0.8, 95%CI=0.7-1.0). Conclusions: This study provides evidence on self-reported NCDs and its determinants in transitional Albania. These baseline data may be useful for assessment of future NCD trends in Albania and cross-comparisons with the neighboring countries. PMID:27594748

  12. Primary care-based educational interventions to decrease risk factors for metabolic syndrome for adults with major psychotic and/or affective disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals with major psychotic and/or affective disorders are at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome due to lifestyle- and treatment-related factors. Numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been tested in inpatient and outpatient mental health settings to decrease these risk factors. This review focuses on primary care-based non-pharmacological (educational or behavioral) interventions to decrease metabolic syndrome risk factors in adults with major psychotic and/or affective disorders. Methods The authors conducted database searches of PsychINFO, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, as well as manual searches and gray literature searches to identify included studies. Results The authors were unable to identify any studies meeting a priori inclusion criteria because there were no primary care-based studies. Conclusions This review was unable to demonstrate effectiveness of educational interventions in primary care. Interventions to decrease metabolic syndrome risk have been demonstrated to be effective in mental health and other outpatient settings. The prevalence of mental illness in primary care settings warrants similar interventions to improve health outcomes for this population. PMID:24369749

  13. Candy consumption in childhood is not predictive of weight, adiposity measures or cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, C. E.; Nicklas, T. A.; Liu, Y.; Berenson, G. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are limited data available on the longitudinal relationship between candy consumption by children on weight and other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in young adults. The present study investigated whether candy consumption in children was predictive of weight and CVRF in young adults. Methods A longitudinal sample of children 10 years (n = 355; 61% females; 71% European Americans, 29% African Americans) who partici pated in cross sectional surveys from 1973 to 1984 (baseline) and in one of two surveys (follow ups) as young adults [19–38] years; mean (SD) = 23.6 (2.6) years] in Bogalusa, LA, were studied. Dietary data were collected using 24 h dietary recalls at baseline and at one follow up survey; a food frequency questionnaire was used in the other follow up survey. Candy consumers were those consuming any amount of candy. Candy con sumption was calculated (g day−1) from baseline 24 h dietary recalls, and was used as a covariate in the adjusted linear mixed models. Dependent variables included body mass index (BMI) and CVRF measured in young adults. Results At baseline, 92% of children reported consuming candy [46 (45) g day−1]; the percentage decreased to 67% [20 (30) g day−1] at fol low up. No longitudinal relationship was shown between baseline candy consumption and BMI or CVRF in young adults, suggesting that candy consumption was not predictive of health risks later in life. Conclusions The consumption of nutrient rich foods consistent with die tary recommendations is important, although modest amounts of candy can be added to the diet without potential adverse long term consequences to weight or CVRF. Additional studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:24382141

  14. Risk Factors for Long-Term Homelessness: Findings From a Longitudinal Study of First-Time Homeless Single Adults

    PubMed Central

    Caton, Carol L. M.; Dominguez, Boanerges; Schanzer, Bella; Hasin, Deborah S.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Felix, Alan; McQuistion, Hunter; Opler, Lewis A.; Hsu, Eustace

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined risk factors for long-term homelessness among newly homeless men and women who were admitted to New York City shelters in 2001 and 2002. Methods. Interviews were conducted with 377 study participants upon entry into the shelter and at 6-month intervals for 18 months. Standardized assessments of psychiatric diagnosis, symptoms, and coping skills; social and family history; and service use were analyzed. Kaplan—Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were used to examine the association between baseline assessments and duration of homelessness. Results. Eighty-one percent of participants returned to community housing during the follow-up period; the median duration of homelessness was 190 days. Kaplan—Meier survival analysis showed that a shorter duration of homelessness was associated with younger age, current or recent employment, earned income, good coping skills, adequate family support, absence of a substance abuse treatment history, and absence of an arrest history. Cox regression showed that older age group P<.05) and arrest history (P<.01) were the strongest predictors of a longer duration of homelessness. Conclusions. Identification of risk factors for long-term homelessness can guide efforts to reduce lengths of stay in homeless shelters and to develop new preventive interventions. PMID:16131638

  15. Factors Associated with Nocturnal Hypoglycemia in At-Risk Adolescents and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Darrell M.; Calhoun, Peter M.; Maahs, David M.; Chase, H. Peter; Messer, Laurel; Buckingham, Bruce A.; Aye, Tandy; Clinton, Paula K.; Hramiak, Irene; Kollman, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hypoglycemia remains an impediment to good glycemic control, with nocturnal hypoglycemia being particularly dangerous. Information on major contributors to nocturnal hypoglycemia remains critical for understanding and mitigating risk. Materials and Methods: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data for 855 nights were studied, generated by 45 subjects 15–45 years of age with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of ≤8.0% who participated in a larger randomized study. Factors assessed for potential association with nocturnal hypoglycemia (CGM measurement of <60 mg/dL for ≥30 min) included bedtime blood glucose (BG), exercise intensity, bedtime snack, insulin on board, day of the week, previous daytime hypoglycemia, age, gender, HbA1c level, diabetes duration, daily basal insulin, and daily insulin dose. Results: Hypoglycemia occurred during 221 of 885 (25%) nights and was more frequent with younger age (P<0.001), lower HbA1c levels (P=0.006), medium/high-intensity exercise during the preceding day (P=0.003), and the occurrence of antecedent daytime hypoglycemia (P=0.001). There was a trend for lower bedtime BG levels to be associated with more frequent nocturnal hypoglycemia (P=0.10). Bedtime snack, before bedtime insulin bolus, weekend versus weekday, gender, and daily basal and bolus insulin were not associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia. Conclusions: Awareness that HbA1c level, exercise, bedtime BG level, and daytime hypoglycemia are all modifiable factors associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia may help patients and providers decrease the risk of hypoglycemia at night. Risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia increased in a linear fashion across the range of variables, with no clear-cut thresholds to guide clinicians or patients for any particular night. PMID:25761202

  16. Comatose and noncomatose adult diabetic ketoacidosis patients at the University Teaching Hospital, Zambia: Clinical profiles, risk factors, and mortality outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kakusa, Mwanja; Kamanga, Brown; Ngalamika, Owen; Nyirenda, Soka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the commonly encountered diabetes mellitus emergencies. Aim: This study aimed at describing the clinical profiles and hospitalization outcomes of DKA patients at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia and to investigate the role of coma on mortality outcome. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical study of hospitalized DKA patients at UTH. The data collected included clinical presentation, precipitating factors, laboratory profiles, complications, and hospitalization outcomes. Primary outcome measured was all-cause in-hospital mortality. Results: The median age was 40 years. Treatment noncompliance was the single highest identified risk factor for development of DKA, followed by new detection of diabetes, then infections. Comatose patients were significantly younger, had lower baseline blood pressure readings, and higher baseline respiratory rates compared to noncomatose patients. In addition, comatose patients had higher baseline admission random blood glucose readings. Their baseline sodium and chloride levels were also higher. The prevalences of hypokalemia, hypernatremia, and hyperchloremia were also higher among comatose patients compared to noncomatose patients. Development of aspiration during admission with DKA, pneumonia at baseline, development of renal failure, and altered mental status were associated with an increased risk of mortality. Development of renal failure was independently predictive of mortality. Conclusion: The mortality rate from DKA hospitalizations is high at UTH. Treatment noncompliance is the single highest identifiable precipitant of DKA. Aspiration, development of renal failure, altered sensorium, and pneumonia at baseline are associated with an increased risk of mortality. Development of renal failure during admission is predictive of mortality. PMID:27042416

  17. Nationwide prevalence and risk factors for faecal carriage of Escherichia coli O157 and O26 in very young calves and adult cattle at slaughter in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Jaros, P; Cookson, A L; Reynolds, A; Prattley, D J; Campbell, D M; Hathaway, S; French, N P

    2016-06-01

    Nationwide prevalence and risk factors for faecal carriage of Escherichia coli O157 and O26 in cattle were assessed in a 2-year cross-sectional study at four large slaughter plants in New Zealand. Recto-anal mucosal swab samples from a total of 695 young (aged 4-7 days) calves and 895 adult cattle were collected post-slaughter and screened with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of E. coli O157 and O26 [Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and non-STEC]. Co-infection with either serogroup of E. coli (O157 or O26) was identified as a risk factor in both calves and adult cattle for being tested real-time PCR-positive for E. coli O157 or O26. As confirmed by culture isolation and molecular analysis, the overall prevalence of STEC (STEC O157 and STEC O26 combined) was significantly higher in calves [6·0% (42/695), 95% confidence interval (CI) 4·4-8·1] than in adult cattle [1·8% (16/895), 95% CI 1·1-3·0] (P < 0·001). This study is the first of its kind in New Zealand to assess the relative importance of cattle as a reservoir of STEC O157 and O26 at a national level. Epidemiological data collected will be used in the development of a risk management strategy for STEC in New Zealand. PMID:26733155

  18. Segment-Specific Associations of Carotid IMT with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Joseph F.; Person, Sharina D.; Wei, Gina S.; Godreau, Ayleen; Jacobs, David R.; Harrington, Anita; Sidney, Stephen; O’Leary, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose We propose to study possible differences in the associations between risk factors for cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction and stroke) and Carotid Intima-Media thickness (IMT) measurements made at three different levels of the carotid bifurcation. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a cohort of Whites and African Americans of both genders with mean age 45 years. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were determined in cohort members. Carotid IMT was measured from high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images at three levels: the common carotid artery (CCA), the carotid artery bulb (Bulb) and the internal carotid artery (ICA). Associations with risk factors were evaluated by multivariate linear regression analyses. Results Of 3258 who underwent carotid IMT measurements, CCA, Bulb, and ICA IMT were measured at all three separate levels in 3023 (92.7%). A large proportion of the variability of CCA IMT was explained by cardiovascular risk factors (26.8%) but less so for the Bulb (11.2%) and ICA (8.0%). Carotid IMT was consistently associated with age, LDL-cholesterol, smoking and hypertension in all segments. Associations with fasting glucose and diastolic blood pressure were stronger for CCA than for the other segments. Hypertension, diabetes and current smoking had qualitatively stronger associations with Bulb IMT, and LDL cholesterol with ICA IMT. Conclusion: In our cohort of relatively young white and African-American men and women, a greater proportion of the variability in common carotid IMT can be explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors than for the carotid artery bulb and internal carotid arteries. PMID:19910544

  19. A Study of the Academic and Life Factors that Contribute to Attrition of Male Adult At-Risk Students Attending For-Profit Degree-Granting Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Eli J.

    2010-01-01

    Adults are a significant, growing part of today's postsecondary education demographic that may face special challenges that classify them as at-risk. Specifically, adult "at-risk" students may be recent immigrants to the United States, residents of a home where English is not the native language, members of a minority group, employees working…

  20. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and associated risk factors among adults in Xi'an, China: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meiqin; Wan, Yi; Yu, Lifen; Yuan, Jing; Ma, Yonghong; Hou, Bin; Jiang, Xun; Shang, Lei

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, and the associated risk factors among adults in Xi'an, China.From October to December 2013, participants in Xi'an, China were recruited for the study by using a multiple-stage sampling method. A self-developed questionnaire with an additional health examination was used to collect data on the history of hypertension diagnosis and antihypertensive medication. The status on prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were analyzed and related risk factors were identified by using logistic regression analysis.A total of 8193 participants were included with an overall prevalence of hypertension of 20.4%. Among the hypertensive participants, 63.7% were aware of their conditions, 47.3% took antihypertensive medication, and 17.8% had their blood pressure (BP) controlled within 140/90 mm Hg. More complications and less frequent BP measurements were associated with hypertension. Older participants, non-drinkers, and those with more complications and more frequent BP measurements were more aware of their hypertension. Being older, living in an urban area, and having more frequent BP measurements were all factors for better treatment. Participants who were women, living in an urban area, with a higher educational level and who were not obese were more likely to have their hypertension controlled.The prevalence of hypertension among adults in Xi'an is high with suboptimal low awareness, treatment, and control rates. Further comprehensive integrated strategies based on these risk factors should be taken into account in order to improve the prevention, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. PMID:27559980

  1. Utilization of Small Changes in Serum Creatinine with Clinical Risk Factors to Assess the Risk of AKI in Critically lll Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Nadal, Asunción; Piccinni, Pasquale; Goldstein, Stuart L.; Chawla, Lakhmir S.; Alessandri, Elisa; Belluomo Anello, Clara; Bohannon, Will; Bove, Tiziana; Brienza, Nicola; Carlini, Mauro; Forfori, Francesco; Garzotto, Francesco; Gramaticopolo, Silvia; Iannuzzi, Michele; Montini, Luca; Pelaia, Paolo; Ronco, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Disease biomarkers require appropriate clinical context to be used effectively. Combining clinical risk factors, in addition to small changes in serum creatinine, has been proposed to improve the assessment of AKI. This notion was developed in order to identify the risk of AKI early in a patient's clinical course. We set out to assess the performance of this combination approach. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A secondary analysis of data from a prospective multicenter intensive care unit cohort study (September 2009 to April 2010) was performed. Patients at high risk using this combination approach were defined as an early increase in serum creatinine of 0.1–0.4 mg/dl, depending on number of clinical factors predisposing to AKI. AKI was defined and staged using the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. The primary outcome was evolution to severe AKI (Acute Kidney Injury Network stages 2 and 3) within 7 days in the intensive care unit. Results Of 506 patients, 214 (42.2%) patients had early creatinine elevation and were deemed at high risk for AKI. This group was more likely to subsequently develop the primary endpoint (16.4% versus 1.0% [not at high risk], P<0.001). The sensitivity of this grouping for severe AKI was 92%, the specificity was 62%, the positive predictive value was 16%, and the negative predictive value was 99%. After adjustment for Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, serum creatinine, and hazard tier for AKI, early creatinine elevation remained an independent predictor for severe AKI (adjusted relative risk, 12.86; 95% confidence interval, 3.52 to 46.97). Addition of early creatinine elevation to the best clinical model improved prediction of the primary outcome (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased from 0.75 to 0.83, P<0.001). Conclusion Critically ill patients at high AKI risk, based on the combination of clinical factors and early creatinine elevation, are

  2. Shorter adult stature increases the impact of risk factors for cognitive impairment: a comparison of two Nordic twin cohorts.

    PubMed

    Laitala, Venla S; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Koskenvuo, Markku; Räihä, Ismo; Rinne, Juha O; Christensen, Kaare; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2011-12-01

    We analyzed the association between mean height and old age cognition in two Nordic twin cohorts with different childhood living conditions. The cognitive performance of 4720 twin individuals from Denmark (mean age 81.6 years, SD = 4.59) and Finland (mean age 74.4 years, SD = 5.26) was measured using validated cognitive screens. Taller height was associated with better cognitive performance in Finland (beta-estimates 0.18 SD/10cm, p value < .001, for men and 0.13 SD, p = .008, for women), but this association was not significant in Denmark (beta-estimates 0.0093 SD, p value = .16, for men and 0.0075 SD, p value = .016, for women) when adjusted for age and education/social class. Among Finnish participants higher variability of cognitive performance within shorter height quintiles was observed. Analysis using gene-environment interaction models showed that environmental factors exerted a greater impact on cognitive performance in shorter participants, whereas in taller participants' it was explained mainly by genetic factors. Our results suggest that shorter participants with childhood adversity are more vulnerable to environmental risk factors for cognitive impairment. PMID:22506310

  3. Candy consumption was not associated with body weight measures, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, or metabolic syndrome in US adults: NHANES 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol E; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2011-02-01

    There is limited research examining the relationship of candy consumption by adults on diet and health. The purpose of this study was to determine total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption and their effect on energy, saturated fatty acid and added sugar intake, weight, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diet quality in adults 19 years and older (n = 15,023) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Covariate-adjusted means ± SE and prevalence rates were determined for candy consumption groups. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. A total of 21.8%, 12.9%, and 10.9% of adults consumed total, chocolate, and sugar candy, respectively. Mean daily per capita intake of total, chocolate, and sugar candy was 9.0 ± 0.3, 5.7 ± 0.2, and 3.3 ± 0.2 g, respectively; intake in consumers was 38.3 ± 1.0, 39.9 ± 1.1, and 28.9 ± 1.3 g, respectively. Energy (9973 ± 92 vs 9027 ± 50 kJ; P < .0001), saturated fatty acid (27.9 ± 0.26 vs 26.9 ± 0.18 g; P = .0058), and added sugar (25.7 ± 0.42 vs 21.1 ± 0.41 g; P < .0001) intake were higher in candy consumers than nonconsumers. Body mass index (27.7 ± 0.15 vs 28.2 ± 0.12 kg/m(2); P = .0092), waist circumference (92.3 ± 0.34 vs 96.5 ± 0.29 cm; P = .0051), and C-reactive protein (0.40 ± 0.01 vs 0.43 ± 0.01 mg/dL; P = .0487) levels were lower in candy consumers than nonconsumers. Candy consumers had a 14% decreased risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure (P = .0466); chocolate consumers had a 19% decreased risk of lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .0364) and a 15% reduced risk of MetS (P = .0453). Results suggest that the current level of candy consumption was not associated with health risks. PMID:21419316

  4. The Age Conundrum: A Scoping Review of Younger Age or Adolescent and Young Adult as a Risk Factor for Clinical Distress, Depression, or Anxiety in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2015-12-01

    This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population. PMID:26697266

  5. Relationship between sum of the four limbs' pulse pressure and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and atherosclerosis risk factors in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yansong; Li, Zongbin; Shu, Hua; Liu, Minyan; Chen, Zhilai; Huang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between the sum of the four limbs' pulse pressure (Sum-PP) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and atherosclerosis risk factors and evaluate the feasibility of Sum-PP in diagnosing atherosclerosis systemically. For the purpose, a cross-sectional study was conducted on the basis of medical information of 20748 adults who had a health examination in our hospital. Both Sum-PP and baPWV exhibited significant variations among different human populations grouped by gender, smoking, drinking, and age. Interestingly, Sum-PP had similar varying tendency with baPWV in different populations. And further study in different populations showed that Sum-PP was significantly positively related to baPWV. We also investigated the relationship between Sum-PP, baPWV, and cardiovascular risk factors, respectively. We found that both Sum-PP and baPWV had significant positive correlation with atherosclerosis risk factors while both of them were negatively related to HDL-c. In addition, there was a significant close correlation between Sum-PP and baPWV in the whole population (r = 0.4616, P < 0.0001). Thus, Sum-PP is closely related to baPWV and is of important value for clinical diagnosis of atherosclerosis. PMID:25695080

  6. Disturbed sleep as risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder--Data from a 10-year prospective-longitudinal study among adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Philipp S; Höfler, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea; Beesdo-Baum, Katja

    2015-09-01

    There is ample data suggesting that individuals with bipolar disorder more frequently suffer from disturbed sleep even when euthymic. Since sleep is a process that is crucial for affective homeostasis, disturbed sleep in healthy individuals may be a risk factor for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Utilizing data from a large cohort of adolescents and young adults, this study tests the hypothesis that disturbed sleep constitutes a risk factor for the later onset of bipolar disorder. A representative community sample of N = 3021 adolescents and young adults (baseline age 14-24) was assessed using the standardized Composite International Diagnostic Interview and followed-up prospectively up to 3 times over up to 10 years. Disturbed sleep at baseline was quantified utilizing the corresponding items from the self-report inventory SCL-90-R. The compound value (insomnia-score) as an ordinal parameter for the severity of sleep disturbances was used to assess associations with the incidence of bipolar disorder among participants free of major mental disorder at baseline (N = 1943) using odds ratios (OR) from logistic regressions. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, parental mood disorder and lifetime alcohol or cannabis dependence. Poor sleep quality significantly increased the risk for the subsequent development of bipolar disorder (OR = 1.75; p = 0.001). Regarding individual sleep items, trouble falling asleep and early morning awakening were predictive for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. Disturbed sleep in persons otherwise free of major mental disorders appears to confer an increased risk for the subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. PMID:26228404

  7. Risk Factors for Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease After Human Leukocyte Antigen–Identical Sibling Transplants for Adults With Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Theresa; McCarthy, Philip L.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Wang, Dan; Arora, Mukta; Frangoul, Haydar; Gale, Robert Peter; Hale, Gregory A.; Horan, John; Isola, Luis; Maziarz, Richard T.; van Rood, Jon J.; Gupta, Vikas; Halter, Joerg; Reddy, Vijay; Tiberghien, Pierre; Litzow, Mark; Anasetti, Claudio; Pavletic, Stephen; Ringdén, Olle

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) causes substantial morbidity and mortality after human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling transplants. No large registry studies of acute GVHD risk factors have been reported in two decades. Risk factors may have changed in this interval as transplant-related techniques have evolved. Patients and Methods Acute GVHD risk factors were analyzed in 1,960 adults after HLA-identical sibling myeloablative transplant for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) reported by 226 centers worldwide to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research from 1995 to 2002. Outcome was measured as time from transplant to onset of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD, with death without acute GVHD as a competing risk. Results Cumulative incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD was 35% (95% CI, 33% to 37%). In multivariable analyses, factors significantly associated with grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD were cyclophosphamide + total-body irradiation versus busulfan + cyclophosphamide (relative risk [RR] = 1.4; P < .0001), blood cell versus bone marrow grafts in patients age 18 to 39 years (RR = 1.43; P = .0023), recipient age 40 and older versus age 18 to 39 years receiving bone marrow grafts (RR = 1.44; P = .0005), CML versus AML/ALL (RR = 1.35; P = .0003), white/Black versus Asian/Hispanic race (RR = 1.54; P = .0003), Karnofsky performance score less than 90 versus 90 to 100 (RR = 1.27; P = .014), and recipient/donor cytomegalovirus-seronegative versus either positive (RR = 1.20; P = .04). Stratification by disease showed the same significant predictors of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD for CML; however, KPS and cytomegalovirus serostatus were not significant predictors for AML/ALL. Conclusion This analysis confirmed several previously reported risk factors for grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD. However, several new factors were identified whereas others are no longer significant. These new data may

  8. Association of ambulatory heart rate and atherosclerosis risk factors with blood pressure in young non-hypertensive adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cynthia; Daskalakis, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study objective was to assess the association between 24 h ambulatory heart rate (HR), atherosclerosis risk factors and blood pressure (BP) in young non-hypertensive patients. Methods We recruited 186 participants aged 18–45 years from a large urban academic Family Medicine outpatient practice, serving 40 000 individuals for this observational study. The main analyses were based on multiple linear regression, with mean 24 h BP (systolic BP (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP)) as the outcomes, mean 24 h HR as the main predictor of interest, and controlling for age, gender, race, insulin sensitivity/resistance and endothelial function measured by strain gauge venous occlusion plethysmography. Results HR was independently associated with mean 24 h SBP and DBP (SBP and DBP: p=0.042 and 0.001, respectively). In our analyses, associations were markedly stronger for ambulatory compared with office BP measurements. Endothelial dysfunction was associated with higher SBP (p=0.013); plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was significantly associated with both SBP and DBP (p=0.041 and 0.015, respectively), while insulin resistance was not associated with either SBP or DBP. Insulin resistance and C reactive protein were significant predictors of HR (p=0.013 and 0.007, respectively). Conclusions These findings suggest that HR may be a potential marker of elevated cardiovascular risk in young asymptomatic individuals, prior to the development of clinical hypertension or cardiovascular disease. PMID:26925242

  9. Factors in risk perception

    PubMed

    Sjoberg

    2000-02-01

    Risk perception is a phenomenon in search of an explanation. Several approaches are discussed in this paper. Technical risk estimates are sometimes a potent factor in accounting for perceived risk, but in many important applications it is not. Heuristics and biases, mainly availability, account for only a minor portion of risk perception, and media contents have not been clearly implicated in risk perception. The psychometric model is probably the leading contender in the field, but its explanatory value is only around 20% of the variance of raw data. Adding a factor of "unnatural risk" considerably improves the psychometric model. Cultural Theory, on the other hand, has not been able to explain more than 5-10% of the variance of perceived risk, and other value scales have similarly failed. A model is proposed in which attitude, risk sensitivity, and specific fear are used as explanatory variables; this model seems to explain well over 30-40% of the variance and is thus more promising than previous approaches. The model offers a different type of psychological explanation of risk perception, and it has many implications, e.g., a different approach to the relationship between attitude and perceived risk, as compared with the usual cognitive analysis of attitude. PMID:10795334

  10. Bioimpedence to Assess Breast Density as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Adult Women and Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Laguana, Michelle B; Novotny, Rachel; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T

    2016-01-01

    Although high mammographic density is one of the strongest predictors of breast cancer risk, X-ray based mammography cannot be performed before the recommended screening age, especially not in adolescents and young women. Therefore, new techniques for breast density measurement are of interest. In this pilot study in Guam and Hawaii, we evaluated a radiation-free, bioimpedance device called Electrical Breast DensitometerTM (EBD; senoSENSE Medical Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada) for measuring breast density in 95 women aged 31-82 years and 41 girls aged 8-18 years. Percent density (PD) was estimated in the women's most recent mammogram using a computer-assisted method. Correlation coefficients and linear regression were applied for statistical analysis. In adult women, mean EBD and PD values of the left and right breasts were 230±52 and 226±50 Ω and 23.7±15.1 and 24.2±15.2%, respectively. The EBD measurements were inversely correlated with PD (rSpearman=-0.52, p<0.0001); the correlation was stronger in Caucasians (rSpearman=-0.70, p<0.0001) than Asians (rSpearman=-0.54, p<0.01) and Native Hawaiian/Chamorro/Pacific Islanders (rSpearman=-0.34, p=0.06). Using 4 categories of PD (<10, 10-25, 26-50, 51-75%), the respective mean EBD values were 256±32, 249±41, 202±46, and 178±43 Ω (p<0.0001). In girls, the mean EBD values in the left and right breast were 148±40 and 155±54 Ω; EBD values decreased from Tanner stages 1 to 4 (204±14, 154±79, 136±43, and 119±16 Ω for stages 1-4, respectively) but were higher at Tanner stage 5 (165±30 Ω). With further development, this bioimpedance method may allow for investigations of breast development among adolescent, as well as assessment of breast cancer risk early in life and in populations without access to mammography. PMID:26838256

  11. Bioimpedence to Assess Breast Density as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Adult Women and Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Laguaña, Michelle B; Novotny, Rachel; Guerrero, Rachael T Leon

    2016-01-01

    Although high mammographic density is one of the strongest predictors of breast cancer risk, X-ray based mammography cannot be performed before the recommended screening age, especially not in adolescents and young women. Therefore, new techniques for breast density measurement are of interest. In this pilot study in Guam and Hawaii, we evaluated a radiation-free, bioimpedance device called Electrical Breast Densitometer™ (EBD; senoSENSE Medical Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada) for measuring breast density in 95 women aged 31–82 years and 41 girls aged 8–18 years. Percent density (PD) was estimated in the women’s most recent mammogram using a computer-assisted method. Correlation coefficients and linear regression were applied for statistical analysis. In adult women, mean EBD and PD values of the left and right breasts were 230±52 and 226±50 Ω and 23.7±15.1 and 24.2±15.2%, respectively. The EBD measurements were inversely correlated with PD (rSpearman=−0.52, p<0.0001); the correlation was stronger in Caucasians (rSpearman=−0.70, p<0.0001) than Asians (rSpearman=−0.54, p<0.01) and Native Hawaiian/Chamorro/Pacific Islanders (rSpearman=−0.34, p=0.06). Using 4 categories of PD (<10, 10–25, 26–50, 51–75%), the respective mean EBD values were 256±32, 249±41, 202±46, and 178±43 Ω (p<0.0001). In girls, the mean EBD values in the left and right breast were 148±40 and 155±54 Ω; EBD values decreased from Tanner stages 1 to 4 (204±14, 154±79, 136±43, and 119±16 Ω for stages 1–4, respectively) but were higher at Tanner stage 5 (165±30 Ω). With further development, this bioimpedance method may allow for investigations of breast development among adolescent, as well as assessment of breast cancer risk early in life and in populations without access to mammography. PMID:26838256

  12. Cerebellar Lingula Size and Experiential Risk Factors Associated with High Levels of Alcohol and Drug Use in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Carl M.; Rabi, Keren; Lukas, Scott E.; Teicher, Martin H.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported cerebellar abnormalities or static ataxia associated with risk for chronic use of alcohol and drugs. Adverse childhood experience (ACE) is another strong risk factor for later substance abuse. We therefore, sought to ascertain the relationship between morphological phenotypes of the lingula (Lobule I) of the anterior cerebellar vermis (ACV), and exposure to emotional (EM) versus physical (PM) maltreatment,on the degree of ongoing alcohol or drug use. The study design consisted of a cross-sectional in vivo neuroimaging study, utilizing retrospective assessment of maltreatment history and self-reports of alcohol and substance use. Study participants were 153 subjects (54M/99F, 21.9±2.2 years) selected for imaging from a database of 1,402 community participants 18–25 years of age, who completed a detailed online screening instrument, and met rigorous inclusion/exclusion criteria. Subjects were exposed to only physical abuse or harsh corporal punishment (PM group, n=37); parental verbal abuse and/or witnessing domestic violence (EM group, n= 58); or had no history of maltreatment or Axis I disorders (n=58). The main outcomes measures consisted of the grey matter volume of Lobule I as measured by manual tracing, number and type of alcoholic beverages consumed during a drinking session, number of sessions per month, and monthly drug use, along with family history of drug and alcohol abuse. Lingula thickness was not attenuated by alcohol use or maltreatment history. However, increased lingula thickness was associated with greater consumption of drugs and hard liquor, particularly in physically maltreated subjects who consumed 2.5- and 2.7-fold more alcohol, and used drugs 6.1- and 7.8-fold more frequently than controls or EM subjects, respectively. In conclusion, physical maltreatment was observed to interact with cerebellar morphology resulting in a strong association with alcohol and substance use. Lingula thickness may represent a

  13. Cerebellar lingula size and experiential risk factors associated with high levels of alcohol and drug use in young adults.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Carl M; Rabi, Keren; Lukas, Scott E; Teicher, Martin H

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have reported cerebellar abnormalities or static ataxia associated with risk for chronic use of alcohol and drugs. Adverse childhood experience is another strong risk factor for later substance abuse. We therefore sought to ascertain the relationship between morphological phenotypes of the lingula (lobule I) of the anterior cerebellar vermis, and exposure to emotional (EM) versus physical (PM) maltreatment, on the degree of ongoing alcohol or drug use. The study design consisted of a cross-sectional in vivo neuroimaging study, utilizing retrospective assessment of maltreatment history and self-reports of alcohol and substance use. Study participants were 153 subjects (54 M/99F, 21.9 +/- 2.2 years) selected for imaging from a database of 1,402 community participants 18-25 years of age, who completed a detailed online screening instrument and met rigorous inclusion/exclusion criteria. Subjects were exposed to only physical abuse or harsh corporal punishment (HCP; PM group, n = 37) and parental verbal abuse and/or witnessing domestic violence (EM group, n = 58) or had no history of maltreatment or axis I disorders (n = 58). The main outcome measures consisted of the gray matter volume of lobule I as measured by manual tracing, number and type of alcoholic beverages consumed during a drinking session, number of sessions per month, and monthly drug use, along with family history of drug and alcohol abuse. Lingula thickness was not attenuated by alcohol use or maltreatment history. However, increased lingula thickness was associated with greater consumption of drugs and hard liquor, particularly in physically maltreated subjects who consumed 2.5- and 2.7-fold more alcohol and used drugs 6.1- and 7.8-fold more frequently than controls or EM subjects, respectively. In conclusion, physical maltreatment was observed to interact with cerebellar morphology resulting in a strong association with alcohol and substance use. Lingula thickness may represent a novel

  14. Passive smoking at home is a risk factor for community-acquired pneumonia in older adults: a population-based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Almirall, Jordi; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Bolíbar, Ignasi; Palomera, Elisabet; Roig, Jordi; Hospital, Imma; Carandell, Eugenia; Agustí, Mercè; Ayuso, Pilar; Estela, Andreu; Torres, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess whether passive smoking exposure at home is a risk factor for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults. Setting A population-based case-control study was designed in a Mediterranean area with 860 000 inhabitants >14 years of age. Participants 1003 participants who had never smoked were recruited. Primary and secondary outcome measures Risk factors for CAP, including home exposure to passive smoking, were registered. All new cases of CAP in a well-defined population were consecutively recruited during a 12-month period. Methods A population-based case-control study was designed to assess risk factors for CAP, including home exposure to passive smoking. All new cases of CAP in a well-defined population were consecutively recruited during a 12-month period. The subgroup of never smokers was selected for the present analysis. Results The study sample included 471 patients with CAP and 532 controls who had never smoked. The annual incidence of CAP was estimated to be 1.14 cases×10–3 inhabitants in passive smokers and 0.90×10−3 in non-passive smokers (risk ratio (RR) 1.26; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.55) in the whole sample. In participants ≥65 years of age, this incidence was 2.50×10−3 in passive smokers and 1.69×10−3 in non-passive smokers (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.03). In this last age group, the percentage of passive smokers in cases and controls was 26% and 18.1%, respectively (p=0.039), with a crude OR of 1.59 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.38) and an adjusted (by age and sex) OR of 1.56 (95% CI 1.00 to 2.45). Conclusions Passive smoking at home is a risk factor for CAP in older adults (65 years or more). PMID:24928592

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Adults Age 20–49 Years in the United States, 1971–2012: A Series of Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Sarah S.; Menke, Andy; Cowie, Catherine C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The health of younger adults in the U.S. has important public health and economic-related implications. However, previous literature is insufficient to fully understand how the health of this group has changed over time. This study examined generational differences in cardiovascular risk factors of younger adults over the past 40 years. Methods Data were from 6 nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1971–2012; N = 44,670). Participants were adults age 20–49 years who self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and health conditions, and had examination/laboratory measures for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease. Prevalences of sociodemographic characteristics and health status were determined by study period. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval] of health conditions by study period: models adjusted only for age, sex, and race, and fully adjusted models additionally adjusted for socioeconomic characteristics, smoking, BMI, diabetes, and/or hypertension (depending on the outcome) were assessed. Results Participants in 2009–2012 were significantly more likely to be obese and have diabetes compared to those in 1971–1975 (OR = 4.98, 3.57–6.97; OR = 3.49, 1.59–7.65, respectively, fully adjusted). Participants in 2009–2012 vs. 1988–1994 were significantly more likely to have had hypertension but uncontrolled hypertension was significantly less likely (OR = 0.67, 0.52–0.86, fully adjusted). There was no difference over time for high cholesterol, but uncontrolled high cholesterol was significantly less likely in 2009–2012 vs. 1988–1994 (OR = 0.80, 0.68–0.94, fully adjusted). The use of hypertensive and cholesterol medications increased while chronic kidney and cardiovascular diseases were relatively stable. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors of younger U.S. adults have worsened over

  16. Comparing measures of overall and central obesity in relation to cardiometabolic risk factors among US Hispanic/Latino adults

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qibin; Strizich, Garrett; Hanna, David B.; Giacinto, Rebeca E.; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Pirzada, Amber; Llabre, Maria M.; Schneiderman, Neil; Aviles-Santa, Larissa; Kaplan, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective US Hispanics/Latinos have high prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities. We compared overall and central obesity measures in associations with cardiometabolic outcomes among US Hispanics/Latinos. Methods Multivariable regression assessed cross-sectional relationships of six obesity measures with cardiometabolic outcomes among 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years. Results BMI was moderately correlated with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; women, r=0.37; men, r=0.58) and highly correlated with other obesity measures (r≥0.87) (P<0.0001). All measures of obesity were correlated with unfavorable levels of glycemic traits, blood pressure, and lipids, with similar r-estimates for each obesity measure (P<0.05). Multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) for diabetes (women, 6.7 [3.9, 11.5]; men, 3.9 [2.2, 6.9]), hypertension (women, 2.4 [1.9, 3.1]; men, 2.5 [1.9, 3.4]), and dyslipidemia (women, 2.1 [1.8, 2.4]; men, 2.2 [1.9, 2.6]) were highest for individuals characterized as overweight/obese (BMI≥25kg/m2) and abnormal WHR (women, ≥0.85; men, ≥0.90), compared to those with normal BMI and WHR (P<0.0001). Among normal-weight individuals, abnormal WHR was associated with increased cardiometabolic condition prevalence (P<0.05), particularly diabetes (women, PR=4.0 [2.2, 7.1]; men, PR=3.0 [1.6, 5.7]). Conclusions Obesity measures were associated with cardiometabolic risk factors to a similar degree in US Hispanics/Latinos. WHR is useful to identify individuals with normal BMI at increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:26260150

  17. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764

  18. Risk factors and socioeconomic condition effects on periodontal and dental health: A pilot study among adults over fifty years of age

    PubMed Central

    Bertoldi, Carlo; Lalla, Michele; Pradelli, John Mauricio; Cortellini, Pierpaolo; Lucchi, Andrea; Zaffe, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Observational studies on the association among systemic/general and oral cavity indices, tooth loss, periodontal conditions, and socioeconomic inequalities are to be still performed in the population of Southern Europe. This study aims to determine the extent of this relationship among Italian healthy adults 50 years of age and above. Materials and Methods: Socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, cardiovascular indicators, and systemic indices were examined by contrasting the dental indices among adult people of Northern Italy. Data were processed through correlation analysis, and multivariate analysis was carried out using seemingly unrelated regressions. Results: A total of 118 adults 50 years of age and above, after anamnesis, underwent systemic and dental examination. Their socioeconomic status was found to be inversely associated only with smoking and dental parameters. Unexpected outcomes between lifestyle and risk factors were detected. The statistical analysis showed an uneven correlation among dental indices and between those indices and the socioeconomic status, such as, a periodontal condition, apparently free from influences, unusually became worse as the socioeconomic status enhanced. Conclusions: The study outcomes indicate a relationship between tooth loss and conservative endodontic therapy, but they result in alternative choices. Nevertheless, the socioeconomic status has an inverse relationship with tooth loss and conservative endodontic therapy, but a direct relation with worsening of the periodontal condition. This pilot study highlights a need for the public health administration to adopt a socioeconomic assessment not only based on the household income, but also to accordingly improve its therapeutic course. PMID:24926214

  19. Prediabetes is not an independent risk factor for incident heart failure, other cardiovascular events or mortality in older adults: Findings from a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Deedwania, Prakash; Patel, Kanan; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Desai, Ravi V.; Zhang, Yan; Feller, Margaret A.; Ovalle, Fernando; Love, Thomas E.; Aban, Inmaculada B.; Mujib, Marjan; Ahmed, Mustafa I.; Anker, Stefan D.; Ahmed, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Whether prediabetes is an independent risk factor for incident heart failure (HF) in non-diabetic older adults remains unclear. Methods Of the 4602 Cardiovascular Health Study participants, age ≥ 65 years, without baseline HF and diabetes, 2157 had prediabetes, defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 100–125 mg/dL. Propensity scores for prediabetes, estimated for each of the 4602 participants, were used to assemble a cohort of 1421 pairs of individuals with and without prediabetes, balanced on 44 baseline characteristics. Results Participants had a mean age of 73 years, 57% were women, and 13% African American. Incident HF occurred in 18% and 20% of matched participants with and without prediabetes, respectively (hazard ratio {HR} associated with prediabetes, 0.90; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.76–1.07; p = 0.239). Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for incident HF associated with prediabetes among 4602 pre-match participants were 1.22 (95% CI, 1.07–1.40; p = 0.003) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.85–1.14; p = 0.826), respectively. Among matched individuals, prediabetes had no independent association with incident acute myocardial infarction (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.81–1.28; p = 0.875), angina pectoris (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.77–1.12; p = 0.451), stroke (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.70–1.06; p = 0.151) or all-cause mortality (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88–1.11; p = 0.840). Conclusions We found no evidence that prediabetes is an independent risk factor for incident HF, other cardiovascular events or mortality in community-dwelling older adults. These findings question the wisdom of routine screening for prediabetes in older adults and targeted interventions to prevent adverse outcomes in older adults with prediabetes. PMID:23731526

  20. Trends in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in 16 US states: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1990-1996.

    PubMed Central

    Li, R; Serdula, M; Bland, S; Mokdad, A; Bowman, B; Nelson, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined trends in fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in 16 US states. METHODS: Data from telephone surveys were used to stratify respondents by sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. RESULTS: The proportion of adults who consumed fruits and vegetables at least 5 times daily was 19%, 22%, and 23% in 1990, 1994, and 1996, respectively. While the proportion increased among those with active leisure-time physical activities and normal weight, it remained almost the same among inactive people and dropped among the obese. CONCLUSIONS: Progress in fruit and vegetable intake from 1990 to 1994 was encouraging, but it changed little between 1994 and 1996. PMID:10800429

  1. Risk Factors for Tardive Dyskinesia in Adults with Intellectual Disability, Comorbid Psychopathology, and Long-Term Psychotropic Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Neal, Daniene; Dempsey, Timothy; Rivet, Tessa T.

    2010-01-01

    Psychotropic medications are commonly used as an adjunct treatment in large-scale residential care facilities for adults with developmental disabilities. While the benefits of medication are noted, there are very severe conditions that can result from long term medication use. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) manifests as a variety of involuntary,…

  2. Impaired Control over Alcohol Use: An Under-Addressed Risk Factor for Problem Drinking in Young Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired control over alcohol use may be defined as “a breakdown of an intention to limit consumption in a particular situation” (Heather, Tebbutt, Mattick, & Zamir, 1993, p. 701) and has long been considered an important feature of alcohol dependence. Evidence suggests impaired control is highly relevant to young adult problem drinking. In the natural history of problem drinking, impaired control tends to develop early and may predict alcohol-related problems prospectively in undergraduates. Impaired control over alcohol use may be a facet of generalized behavioral under-control specifically related to drinking. In particular, impaired control is theoretically and empirically related to impulsivity. The question of whether impaired control represents a facet of impulsivity or a related but separate construct requires further study. However, theoretical arguments and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique qualities to the constructs. Specifically, existing data suggest that self-report measures of impaired control and impulsivity over alcohol use relate distinctly to problem drinking indices in young adults. Several lines of future research concerning impaired control are suggested, using the impulsivity literature as a guide. We conclude that impaired control is a valuable construct to the study of young adult problem drinking and that measures of impaired control should be included in more young adult alcohol studies. The extent to which impaired control over the use of other substances and impaired control over engagement in other addictive behaviors are clinically relevant constructs requires additional study. PMID:22182417

  3. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... and radiation fallout from power plant accidents or nuclear weapons. Having had head or neck radiation treatments in childhood is a risk factor for ... should be done using the lowest dose of radiation that still provides a clear ... from nuclear weapons or power plant accidents. For instance, thyroid ...

  4. Is Plate Clearing a Risk Factor for Obesity? A Cross-Sectional Study of Self-Reported Data in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Eric; Aveyard, Paul; Jebb, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Identifying eating behaviors which contribute to excess weight gain will inform obesity prevention strategies. A tendency to clear one’s plate when eating may be a risk factor for obesity in an environment where food is plentiful. Whether plate clearing is associated with increased body weight in a cohort of US participants was examined. Methods Nine hundred and ninety-three US adults (60% male, 80% American European, mean age = 31 years) completed self-report measures of habitual plate clearing together with behavioral and demographic characteristics known to be associated with obesity. Results Plate clearing tendencies were positively associated with BMI and remained so after accounting for a large number of other demographic and behavioral predictors of BMI in analyses (β = 0.18, 95% CIs = 0.07, 0.29, P < 0.001); an increased tendency to plate clear was associated with a significantly higher body weight. Conclusions The tendency to clear one’s plate when eating is associated with increased body weight and may constitute a risk factor for weight gain. PMID:25521278

  5. Perioperative allergy: risk factors.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, C; Stringari, G; Pajno, G B; Peroni, D G; Franceschini, F; Dello Iacono, I; Bernardini, R

    2011-01-01

    Perioperative anaphylactic as well as anaphylactoid reactions can be elicited by drugs, diagnostic agents, antiseptics, disinfectants and latex. In some individuals, allergic reactions occur in the absence of any evident risk factor. Previous history of specific safe exposure to a product does not permit to exclude the risk of having a reaction. We have systematically reviewed characteristics in the patient's history or clinical parameters that affect the risk of developing reactions during anesthesia. Evidence shows that patients with previous unexplained reaction during anesthesia are at risk for perioperative allergic reactions. An allergic reaction to an agent is associated with previous reaction to a product that is related with the culprit agent. Multiple surgery procedures, professional exposure to latex and allergy to fruit are associated with an increased frequency of latex allergy. It has been shown that in some instances, allergic perioperative reactions may be more common in atopic patients and in females. PMID:22014923

  6. Descriptive data on cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in ambulatory and non-ambulatory adults with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, P.G.; Gorter, J.W.; Cotie, L.M.; Timmons, B.W.; Bentley, T.; MacDonald, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Forty-two participants with cerebral palsy were recruited for a study examining traditional and novel indicators of cardiovascular risk (McPhee et al., 2015 [1]). Data pertaining to the prevalence of obesity, smoking, hypertension, and metabolic risk are provided. These data are presented along with the scoring methods used in evaluation of the study participants. Percentages are included for comparative purposes with the existing literature. PMID:26759816

  7. Severity of childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--a risk factor for personality disorders in adult life?

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Feige, Bernd; Fischer, Daniel; Scheel, Corinna; Krogmann, Eva; Perlov, Evgeniy; Ebert, Dieter; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2011-02-01

    Some evidence points to an increased rate of cluster B and C personality disorders (PDs) in adult ADHD patients. In order to assess axis II disorders comprehensively we used the diagnostic instrument of the WHO. In sixty adult out-patients with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria PDs were assessed with the International PD Examination (IPDE) and severity of childhood ADHD with the Wender-Utah-Rating Scale (WURS). We found at least one PD in 25% of cases. Cluster C PDs were most common (36.6%) followed by Cluster B (23.3%) and A (8.3%). Avoidant (21.7%) and borderline (18.3%) were the most frequent single PD entities. ADHD patients with PD suffered from significantly more severe childhood ADHD compared to those without co-occurring PD. Applying the IPDE we confirmed a high number of PDs among adult ADHD patients. Our findings point to a higher vulnerability for the development of PDs in patients with severe childhood ADHD. PMID:21309626

  8. Growing-Related Changes in Arterial Properties of Healthy Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults Nonexposed to Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Analysis of Gender-Related Differences.

    PubMed

    Curcio, S; García-Espinosa, V; Arana, M; Farro, I; Chiesa, P; Giachetto, G; Zócalo, Y; Bia, D

    2016-01-01

    The aims of our work were to determine normal aging rates for structural and functional arterial parameters in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults and to identify gender-related differences in these aging rates. Methods. 161 subjects (mean: 15 years (range: 4-28 years), 69 females) were studied. Subjects included had no congenital or chronic diseases, nor had they been previously exposed to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Arterial parameters assessed were (1) central blood pressure (BP) and aortic pulse wave analysis, (2) arterial local (pressure-strain elastic modulus) and regional (pulse wave velocity, PWV) stiffness, and (3) arterial diameters and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Simple linear regression models (age as the independent variable) were obtained for all the parameters and the resulting rates of change were compared between genders. Results. No gender-related differences were found in mean values of arterial structural and functional parameters in prepubertal ages (4-8 years), but they started to appear at ~15 years. Boys showed a greater rate of change for central systolic BP, central pulse pressure, CIMT, and carotid-femoral PWV. Conclusion. Gender-related differences in arterial characteristics of adults can be explained on the basis of different growing-related patterns between boys and girls, with no existing differences in prepubertal ages. PMID:26989504

  9. Growing-Related Changes in Arterial Properties of Healthy Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults Nonexposed to Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Analysis of Gender-Related Differences

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, S.; García-Espinosa, V.; Arana, M.; Farro, I.; Chiesa, P.; Giachetto, G.; Zócalo, Y.; Bia, D.

    2016-01-01

    The aims of our work were to determine normal aging rates for structural and functional arterial parameters in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults and to identify gender-related differences in these aging rates. Methods. 161 subjects (mean: 15 years (range: 4–28 years), 69 females) were studied. Subjects included had no congenital or chronic diseases, nor had they been previously exposed to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Arterial parameters assessed were (1) central blood pressure (BP) and aortic pulse wave analysis, (2) arterial local (pressure-strain elastic modulus) and regional (pulse wave velocity, PWV) stiffness, and (3) arterial diameters and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Simple linear regression models (age as the independent variable) were obtained for all the parameters and the resulting rates of change were compared between genders. Results. No gender-related differences were found in mean values of arterial structural and functional parameters in prepubertal ages (4–8 years), but they started to appear at ~15 years. Boys showed a greater rate of change for central systolic BP, central pulse pressure, CIMT, and carotid-femoral PWV. Conclusion. Gender-related differences in arterial characteristics of adults can be explained on the basis of different growing-related patterns between boys and girls, with no existing differences in prepubertal ages. PMID:26989504

  10. Risk Factors and Disability Associated with Low Back Pain in Older Adults in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Results from the WHO Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Ng, Nawi; Peltzer, Karl; Yawson, Alfred; Biritwum, Richard; Maximova, Tamara; Wu, Fan; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Background Back pain is a common disabling chronic condition that burdens individuals, families and societies. Epidemiological evidence, mainly from high-income countries, shows positive association between back pain prevalence and older age. There is an urgent need for accurate epidemiological data on back pain in adult populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where populations are ageing rapidly. The objectives of this study are to: measure the prevalence of back pain; identify risk factors and determinants associated with back pain, and describe association between back pain and disability in adults aged 50 years and older, in six LMICs from different regions of the world. The findings provide insights into country-level differences in self-reported back pain and disability in a group of socially, culturally, economically and geographically diverse LMICs. Methods Standardized national survey data collected from adults (50 years and older) participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analysed. The weighted sample (n = 30, 146) comprised respondents in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, South Africa and the Russian Federation. Multivariable regressions describe factors associated with back pain prevalence and intensity, and back pain as a determinant of disability. Results Prevalence was highest in the Russian Federation (56%) and lowest in China (22%). In the pooled multi-country analyses, female sex, lower education, lower wealth and multiple chronic morbidities were significant in association with past-month back pain (p<0.01). About 8% of respondents reported that they experienced intense back pain in the previous month. Conclusions Evidence on back pain and its impact on disability is needed in developing countries so that governments can invest in cost-effective education and rehabilitation to reduce the growing social and economic burden imposed by this disabling condition. PMID:26042785

  11. Risk Factors in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mustacchi, Piero

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, stroke accounts for 160,000 annual deaths; only 16% of the 1.8 million stroke survivors are fully independent. The incidence of stroke increases with age. Hemorrhagic strokes outnumber ischemic strokes before age 15. Japanese men in this country have a lower stroke mortality than their age peers in Japan. Excessive stroke mortality for US nonwhites may not be entirely due to the greater prevalence of hypertension among blacks. Hypertension emerges as the single most powerful and reversible risk factor in stroke and for survival after stroke. Impaired cardiac function is the second most important precursor of stroke. The recurrence of stroke in survivors is high. The frequency of completed stroke is high in persons with transient ischemic attacks, but not in those with asymptomatic carotid bruits. Other reversible risk factors are smoking, the use of oral contraceptives, alcoholic excess, a low level of physical activity, blood hyperviscosity and drug abuse. PMID:3898597

  12. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  13. Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in healthy older adults. Methods A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25), moderate (n=20), and physically active (n=35). Serum 25(OH)D (25-hydroxy vitamin D) levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline), physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale) were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively. Results Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5%) compared to females (26.25%). Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale) were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores, and negatively with body mass index, lipid profile, fatigue scores (visual analog scale), and muscle fatigue biomarkers. Stepwise regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D concentrations, physical activity, Ca, TAC, and demographic parameters explained

  14. Interactive Cognitive-Motor Step Training Improves Cognitive Risk Factors of Falling in Older Adults – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schoene, Daniel; Valenzuela, Trinidad; Toson, Barbara; Delbaere, Kim; Severino, Connie; Garcia, Jaime; Davies, Thomas A.; Russell, Frances; Smith, Stuart T.; Lord, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Interactive cognitive-motor training (ICMT) requires individuals to perform both gross motor movements and complex information processing. This study investigated the effectiveness of ICMT on cognitive functions associated with falls in older adults. Methods A single-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted in community-dwelling older adults (N = 90, mean age 81.5±7) without major cognitive impairment. Participants in the intervention group (IG) played four stepping games that required them to divide attention, inhibit irrelevant stimuli, switch between tasks, rotate objects and make rapid decisions. The recommended minimum dose was three 20-minute sessions per week over a period of 16 weeks unsupervised at home. Participants in the control group (CG) received an evidence-based brochure on fall prevention. Measures of processing speed, attention/executive function (EF), visuo-spatial ability, concerns about falling and depression were assessed before and after the intervention. Results Eighty-one participants (90%) attended re-assessment. There were no improvements with respect to the Stroop Stepping Test (primary outcome) in the intervention group. Compared to the CG, the IG improved significantly in measures of processing speed, visuo-spatial ability and concern about falling. Significant interactions were observed for measures of EF and divided attention, indicating group differences varied for different levels of the covariate with larger improvements in IG participants with poorer baseline performance. The interaction for depression showed no change for the IG but an increase in the CG for those with low depressive symptoms at baseline. Additionally, low and high-adherer groups differed in their baseline performance and responded differently to the intervention. Compared to high adherers, low adherers improved more in processing speed and visual scanning while high-adherers improved more in tasks related to EF. Conclusions This study shows

  15. A dose-response study of consuming high-fructose corn syrup–sweetened beverages on lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults123456

    PubMed Central

    Medici, Valentina; Bremer, Andrew A; Lee, Vivien; Lam, Hazel D; Nunez, Marinelle V; Chen, Guoxia X; Keim, Nancy L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Background: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data show an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with an increased intake of added sugar. Objective: We determined the dose-response effects of consuming beverages sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at zero, low, medium, and high proportions of energy requirements (Ereq) on circulating lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for CVD and uric acid in adults [age: 18–40 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 18–35]. Design: We conducted a parallel-arm, nonrandomized, double-blinded intervention study in which adults participated in 3.5 inpatient days of baseline testing at the University of California Davis Clinical and Translational Science Center’s Clinical Research Center. Participants then consumed beverages sweetened with HFCS at 0% (aspartame sweetened, n = 23), 10% (n = 18), 17.5% (n = 16), or 25% (n = 28) of Ereq during 13 outpatient days and during 3.5 inpatient days of intervention testing at the research center. We conducted 24-h serial blood collections during the baseline and intervention testing periods. Results: Consuming beverages containing 10%, 17.5%, or 25% Ereq from HFCS produced significant linear dose-response increases of lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for CVD and uric acid: postprandial triglyceride (0%: 0 ± 4; 10%: 22 ± 8; 17.5%: 25 ± 5: 25%: 37 ± 5 mg/dL, mean of Δ ± SE, P < 0.0001 effect of HFCS-dose), fasting LDL cholesterol (0%: −1.0 ± 3.1; 10%: 7.4 ± 3.2; 17.5%: 8.2 ± 3.1; 25%: 15.9 ± 3.1 mg/dL, P < 0.0001), and 24-h mean uric acid concentrations (0%: −0.13 ± 0.07; 10%: 0.15 ± 0.06; 17.5%: 0.30 ± 0.07; 25%: 0.59 ± 0.09 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). Compared with beverages containing 0% HFCS, all 3 doses of HFCS-containing beverages increased concentrations of postprandial triglyceride, and the 2 higher doses increased fasting and/or postprandial concentrations of non–HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein CIII, and

  16. Fine scale spatial urban land cover factors associated with adult mosquito abundance and risk in Tucson, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Landau, Katheryn I; van Leeuwen, Willem J D

    2012-12-01

    It is currently unclear what role microhabitat land cover plays in determining the seasonal spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, disease vectors of dengue and West Nile Virus, respectively, in Tucson, AZ. We compared mosquito abundance to sixteen land cover variables derived from 2010 NAIP multispectral data and 2008 LiDAR height data. Mosquitoes were trapped with 30-9 traps from May to October of 2010 and 2011. Variables were extracted for five buffer zones (10-50 m radii at 10 m intervals) around trapping sites. Stepwise regression was performed to determine the best scale for observation and the influential land cover variables. The 30 m radius buffer was determined to be the best for observing the land cover-mosquito abundance relationship. Ae. aegypti presence was positively associated with structure and medium height trees and negatively associated with bare earth; Cx. quinquefasciatus presence was positively associated with pavement and medium height trees and negatively associated with shrubs. These findings emphasize vegetation, impervious surfaces, and soil influences on mosquito presence in an urban setting. Lastly, the land cover-mosquito abundance relationships were used to produce risk maps of seasonal presence that highlight high risk areas in Tucson, which may be useful for focusing mosquito control program actions. PMID:23181866

  17. Food Insufficiency is a Risk Factor for Suboptimal Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence among HIV-Infected Adults in Urban Peru

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Molly F.; Murray, Megan B.; Muñoz, Maribel; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Sebastián, José Luís; Atwood, Sidney; Caldas, Adolfo; Bayona, Jaime; Shin, Sonya S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between food insufficiency and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. A cohort of HIV-infected adults in urban Peru was followed for a two-year period after ART initiation. ART adherence was measured using a 30-day self-report tool and classified as suboptimal if <95% adherence was reported. We conducted a repeated measures cohort analysis to examine whether food insufficiency was more common during months of suboptimal adherence relative to months with optimal adherence. 1,264 adherence interviews were conducted for 134 individuals. Participants who reported food insufficiency in the month prior to interview were more likely to experience suboptimal adherence than those who did not (odds ratio [O.R.]:2.4; 95% confidence interval [C.I.]:1.4, 4.1), even after adjusting for baseline social support score (O.R. per 5 point increase:0.91; C.I.:[0.85, 0.98]) and good baseline adherence self-efficacy (O.R.:0.25; C.I.:[0.09, 0.69]). Interventions that ensure food security for HIV-infected individuals may help sustain high levels of adherence. PMID:20714923

  18. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  19. Incidence, Risk Factors and Consequences of Emergence Agitation in Adult Patients after Elective Craniotomy for Brain Tumor: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Xu, Ming; Li, Gui-Yun; Cai, Wei-Xin; Zhou, Jian-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Emergence agitation is a frequent complication that can have serious consequences during recovery from general anesthesia. However, agitation has been poorly investigated in patients after craniotomy. In this prospective cohort study, adult patients were enrolled after elective craniotomy for brain tumor. The sedation-agitation scale was evaluated during the first 12 hours after surgery. Agitation developed in 35 of 123 patients (29%). Of the agitated patients, 28 (80%) were graded as very and dangerously agitated. By multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, independent predictors for agitation included male sex, history of long-term use of anti-depressant drugs or benzodiazepines, frontal approach of the operation, method and duration of anesthesia and presence of endotracheal intubation. Total intravenous anesthesia and balanced anesthesia with short duration were protective factors. Emergence agitation was associated with self-extubation (8.6% vs 0%, P = 0.005). Sedatives were administered more in agitated patients than non-agitated patients (85.7% vs 6.8%, P<0.001). In conclusion, emergence agitation was a frequent complication in patients after elective craniotomy for brain tumors. The clarification of risk factors could help to identify the high-risk patients, and then to facilitate the prevention and treatment of agitation. For patients undergoing craniotomy, greater attention should be paid to those receiving a frontal approach for craniotomy and those anesthetized under balanced anesthesia with long duration. More researches are warranted to elucidate whether total intravenous anesthesia could reduce the incidence of agitation after craniotomy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00590499. PMID:25493435

  20. Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Based Intervention to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Remote Reservation-Dwelling American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Chubak, Jessica; O'Connell, Joan; Ramos, Maria C.; Jensen, Julie; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a randomized controlled trial, the Lakota Oyate Wicozani Pi Kte (LOWPK) trial, which was designed to determine whether a Web-based diabetes and nutritional intervention can improve risk factors related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) among a group of remote reservation-dwelling adult American Indian men and women with type 2 diabetes…

  1. Severe street and mountain bicycling injuries in adults: a comparison of the incidence, risk factors and injury patterns over 14 years

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Derek J.; Ouellet, Jean-Francois; Sutherland, Francis R.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Lall, Rohan N.; Ball, Chad G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Street and mountain bicycling are popular recreational activities and prevalent modes of transportation with the potential for severe injury. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the incidence, risk factors and injury patterns among adults with severe street versus mountain bicycling injuries. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Southern Alberta Trauma Database of all adults who were severely injured (injury severity score [ISS] ≥ 12) while street or mountain bicycling between Apr. 1, 1995, and Mar. 31, 2009. Results Among 11 772 severely injured patients, 258 (2.2%) were injured (mean ISS 17, hospital stay 6 d, mortality 7%) while street (n = 209) or mountain bicycling (n = 49). Street cyclists were often injured after being struck by a motor vehicle, whereas mountain bikers were frequently injured after faulty jump attempts, bike tricks and falls (cliffs, roadsides, embankments). Mountain cyclists were admitted more often on weekends than weekdays (61.2% v. 45.0%, p = 0.040). Injury patterns were similar for both cohorts (all p > 0.05), with trauma to the head (67.4%), extremities (38.4%), chest (34.1%), face (26.0%) and abdomen (10.1%) being common. Spinal injuries, however, were more frequent among mountain cyclists (65.3% v. 41.1%, p = 0.003). Surgical intervention was required in 33.3% of patients (9.7% open reduction internal fixation, 7.8% spinal fixation, 7.0% craniotomy, 5.8% facial repair and 2.7% laparotomy). Conclusion With the exception of spine injuries, severely injured cyclists display similar patterns of injury and comparable outcomes, regardless of style (street v. mountain). Helmets and thoracic protection should be advocated for injury prevention. PMID:23706856

  2. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  3. Coronary risk factors in schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Boreham, C; Savage, J M; Primrose, D; Cran, G; Strain, J

    1993-01-01

    Death rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in Northern Ireland are among the highest in the world. However, no data have been available to test the hypothesis that the high prevalence of CHD is reflected by the risk status of the childhood population. A randomly selected 2% population sample of 1015 children aged 12 and 15 years was studied to obtain baseline information on blood pressure, lipid profile, cigarette smoking, family history, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and dietary fat intake. Using available criteria thresholds, 15-23% displayed increased blood pressure, 12-25% had unfavourable lipid profiles, and 18-34% were overfat. In 15 year old children, 16-21% admitted being regular smokers, 26-34% displayed poor cardiorespiratory fitness, and 24-29% reported little physical activity in the previous week. Dietary analysis revealed relatively low polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios and high mean fat intakes, accounting for approximately 40% total daily energy. Despite the exclusion of family history from the analysis, 16% of the older children exhibited three or more risk factors. These results justify major concern about the level of potential coronary risk in Northern Ireland schoolchildren. Broadly based primary prevention strategies aimed at children are essential if future adult CHD mortality is to be reduced. PMID:8481039

  4. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  5. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  6. Triptans Use for Migraine Headache among Nonelderly Adults with Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and triptans use among adults with migraine. Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study design was used. Data were derived from 2009–2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). The study sample consisted of adults (age > 21 years) with migraine headache (N = 1,652). Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between CV risk factors and triptans use. Results. Overall, 21% adults with migraine headache used triptans. Nearly two-thirds (61%) of adults with migraine had at least one CV risk factor. A significantly lower percentage of adults with CV risk (18.1%) used triptans compared to those without CV risk factors (25.5%). After controlling for demographic, socioeconomic status, access to care, and health status, adults with no CV risk factors were more likely to use triptans as compared to those with one CV risk factor (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.17–2.87). There were no statistically significant differences in triptans use between those with two or more CV risk factors and those with one CV risk factor. Conclusion. An overwhelming majority of adults with migraine had a contraindication to triptans based on their CV risk factors. The use of triptans among adults with migraine and multiple CV risk factors warrants further investigation.

  7. Chronic disease, risk factors and disability in adults aged 50 and above living with and without HIV: findings from the Wellbeing of Older People Study in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mugisha, Joseph O.; Schatz, Enid J.; Randell, Madeleine; Kuteesa, Monica; Kowal, Paul; Negin, Joel; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on the prevalence of chronic conditions, their risk factors, and their associations with disability in older people living with and without HIV are scarce in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives In older people living with and without HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: 1) to describe the prevalence of chronic conditions and their risk factors and 2) to draw attention to associations between chronic conditions and disability. Methods Cross-sectional individual-level survey data from people aged 50 years and over living with and without HIV were analyzed from three study sites in Uganda. Diagnoses of chronic conditions were made through self-report, and disability was determined using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS). We used ordered logistic regression and calculated predicted probabilities to show differences in the prevalence of multiple chronic conditions across HIV status, age groups, and locality. We used linear regression to determine associations between chronic conditions and the WHODAS. Results In total, 471 participants were surveyed; about half the respondents were living with HIV. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and eye problems (except for those aged 60–69 years) was higher in the HIV-positive participants and increased with age. The prevalence of diabetes and angina was higher in HIV-negative participants. The odds of having one or more compared with no chronic conditions were higher in women (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) and in those aged 70 years and above (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.6). Sleep problems (coefficient 14.2, 95% CI 7.3–21.0) and depression (coefficient 9.4, 95% CI 1.2–17.0) were strongly associated with higher disability scores. Conclusion Chronic conditions are common in older adults and affect their functioning. Many of these conditions are not currently addressed by health services in Uganda. There is a need to revise health care policy and practice in Uganda to consider the health needs of

  8. The Relative Influence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Family Background Risk Factors on Adult Adversities in Female Outpatients Treated for Anxiety Disorders and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleikis, Dawn E.; Mykletun, Arnstein; Dahl, Alv A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study from Norway examines the relative influence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and family background risk factors (FBRF) on the risk for current mental disorders and the quality of current intimate relationships in women with CSA treated for anxiety disorders and/or depression. Women with these disorders frequently seek treatment,…

  9. Changing Behavioral Lifestyle Risk Factors Related to Cognitive Decline in Later Life Using a Self-Motivated eHealth Intervention in Dutch Adults

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Li; Baars, Maria AE; de Lange, Annet; Kessels, Roy PC; Olde Rikkert, Marcel GM

    2016-01-01

    Dutch population, this eHealth intervention resulted in lifestyle changes in behavioral risk factors associated with cognitive decline, and these improvements lasted over the period of 1 year. Given the general aging of our workforce, this eHealth intervention opens new avenues for the widespread use of cost-effective self-motivated prevention programs aimed at prevention of early-stage cognitive decline and more self-management of their risk factors. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register: NTR4144; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4144 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6cZzwZSg3). PMID:27317506

  10. Season of Birth and Risk for Adult Onset Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.

    2010-01-01

    Adult onset glioma is a rare cancer which occurs more frequently in Caucasians than African Americans, and in men than women. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown. Exposure to ionizing radiation is the only well established environmental risk factor, and this factor explains only a small percentage of cases. Several recent studies have reported an association between season of birth and glioma risk. This paper reviews the plausibility of evidence focusing on the seasonal interrelation of farming, allergies, viruses, vitamin D, diet, birth weight, and handedness. To date, a convincing explanation for the occurrence of adult gliomas decades after a seasonal exposure at birth remains elusive. PMID:20623001

  11. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ≥14 days during the past 30 days), obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged ≥ 18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity). Results The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p < 0.0001) after adjustment for covariates and were modestly attenuated but not fully explained by FMD. The relationships between insufficient sleep and both diabetes and high blood pressure were also modestly attenuated but not fully explained by obesity. Conclusions Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health. PMID:23360346

  12. Does the Method of Weight Loss Effect Long-Term Changes in Weight, Body Composition or Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Richard A.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Lambourne, Kate; Willis, Erik A.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. Objective To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). Results Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise. PMID:25333384

  13. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  14. The CroHort study: cardiovascular behavioral risk factors in adults, school children and adolescents, hospitalized coronary heart disease patients, and cardio rehabilitation groups in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Sanja Musić; Uhernik, Ana Ivicević; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Brborović, Ognjen; Poljicanin, Tamara; Fister, Kristina; Juresa, Vesna; Heim, Inge; Vrazić, Hrvoje; Bergovec, Mijo; Kern, Josipa; Vuletić, Silvije

    2012-01-01

    Based on repeated measurement of health behaviors the CroHort Study showed that health behavior explains a great deal more of class inequalities in mortality than observed in previous studies. These include decreasing prevalence of smoking and increase in obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The lowest prevalence of health risks was recorded among children and adolescents, followed by general adult population from the CroHort Study. Hospitalized coronary heart disease patients had higher risks prevalence than general population, while the highest prevalence of risks was recorded among patients in cardiac rehabilitation program. The higher levels of stress were associated to lower financial conditions, poorer social functioning and poorer mental health for both men and women. Higher levels of stress were also associated with heart problems, higher alcohol consumption in men while in women stress was associated to poorer general health, higher age and lower levels of education. PMID:22338783

  15. Stroke prevention: modifying risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Romero, José Rafael; Morris, Jane; Pikula, Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Risk factor modification remains as the principal aspect of care for stroke prevention. Understanding of risk factors has advanced and several options are now available to treat modifiable risk factors. However, effective treatment remains a challenging task in clinical practice. Prevention begins with awareness of risk factors by patients and clinicians. Risk factor assessment along with overall stroke risk estimation should be part of evaluation of patients with stroke, and used with careful clinical judgment. In this review we discuss the impact of modifiable traditional vascular risk factors on ischemic stroke, interventions for stroke prevention, and evidence for early treatment of risk factors where available as well as areas of research progress. Emphasis should be paid in education of patients, the community and medical personnel. Future research in the field of genetic determinants of vascular risk factors and stroke will increase our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of cerebrovascular disease and likely result in development of new therapies and individualized programs for stroke prevention. PMID:19124428

  16. Primary Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults as a Risk Factor for Pulmonary Embolism: An Up-to-Date Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Ali, Alaa M.; Barbaryan, Aram; Prueksaritanond, Suartcha; Hussain, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Patients with nephrotic syndrome are at an increased risk for thrombotic events; deep venous thrombosis, renal vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism are quite common in patients with nephrotic syndrome. It is important to note that nephrotic syndrome secondary to membranous nephropathy may impose a greater thrombotic risk for unclear reasons. Increased platelet activation, enhanced red blood cell aggregation, and an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors are thought to underlie the excessive thrombotic risk in patients with nephrotic syndrome. The current scientific literature suggests that patients with low serum albumin levels and membranous nephropathy may benefit from primary prophylactic anticoagulation. A thorough approach which includes accounting for all additional thrombotic risk factors is, therefore, essential. Patient counseling regarding the pros and cons of anticoagulation is of paramount importance. Future prospective randomized studies should address the question regarding the utility of primary thromboprophylaxis in patients with nephrotic syndrome. PMID:24829800

  17. Cervical artery dissection: emerging risk factors.

    PubMed

    Micheli, S; Paciaroni, M; Corea, F; Agnelli, G; Zampolini, M; Caso, V

    2010-01-01

    Cervical artery dissection (CAD) represents an increasingly recognized cause of stroke and the most common cause of ischemic stroke in young adults. Many factors have been identified in association with CAD such as primary disease of arterial wall (fibrodysplasia) and other non-specific diseases related to CAD like Ehlers Danlos-syndrome IV, Marfan's syndrome, vessel tortuosity. Moreover, an underlying arteriopathy which could be in part genetically determined, has been suspected. The rule of emerging risk factors for CAD such as recent respiratory tract infection, migraine and hyperhomocysteinemia are still a matter of research. Other known risks factors for CAD are major head/neck trauma like chiropractic maneuver, coughing or hyperextension injury associated to car. We examined emerging risks factors for CAD detected in the last years, as CAD pathogenesis is still not completely understood and needs further investigations. PMID:21270941

  18. Latent Model Analysis of Substance Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among High-Risk Minority Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min Qi; Matthew, Resa F.; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Yan, Fang; Bellamy, Nikki D.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated substance use and HIV risk profile using a latent model analysis based on ecological theory, inclusive of a risk and protective factor framework, in sexually active minority adults (N=1,056) who participated in a federally funded substance abuse and HIV prevention health initiative from 2002 to 2006. Methods: Data…

  19. Correlation of anthropometric indices with common cardiovascular risk factors in an urban adult population of Iran: data from Zanjan Healthy Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Mellati, Ali Awsat; Mousavinasab, Seyed Nouraddin; Sokhanvar, Sepide; Kazemi, Seyed Ali Naghi; Esmailli, Mohammad Hossain; Dinmohamadi, Hossain

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the anthropometric index that best predicts common cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 2768 individuals (1310 men and 1458 women) aged 21-75 years with full relevant data from the Zanjan Healthy Heart Study (a prospective study in Zanjan and Abhar, two main cities of Zanjan Province, Iran) were recruited. Common cardiovascular risk factors (TG, TC, HDL-c, LDL-c, fast blood sugar, blood pressure), anthropometric indices (BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR) were measured using standard process, and their correlated classification was evaluated by partial correlation and Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Area under curve (AUC) of WHtR was the largest for most (6 of 7) of the common cardiovascular risk factors in both men and women; followed by WC (4 of the 7 including ties) in men, while AUCs of three anthropometric indices (WC, BMI, WHR) were the same with the largest for 1 of 7 risk factors in women. These results show that the high prevalence of lipid profiles, as cardiovascular risk factors, need special attention, intervention and appropriate treatment. Consistence with other reports, WHtR is a better discriminator of cardiovascular risk factors compared with the other three indices (BMI, WC, and WHR). We determined its optimal cut-off point of 0.5 for both genders. However, due to differences in reported cut-off values across different ethnic groups, future research and longitudinal data is needed before reaching an internationally accepted simple and appropriate measure that could be effectively used in the clinical and epidemiological fields. PMID:19713181

  20. Risk Factors for Teenage Fatherhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Howard, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    Uses data from the Rochester Youth Development Study of urban youth (N=615) to identify early risk factors for the likelihood of becoming a teen father. Results show that teen fatherhood is related to a variety of risk factors, such as social class, educational performance, precocious sexual activity, and drug use. (RJM)

  1. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of a study, please call the Scleroderma Research Foundation at 1-800-441-CURE. Environmental Risk Some ... is both time consuming and expensive. The Scleroderma Research Foundation continues to fund and facilitate the most promising ...

  2. Driving after Drinking among Young Adults of Different Race/Ethnicities in the United States: Unique Risk Factors in Early Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Delcher, Chris; Johnson, Rachel; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose National guidelines for alcohol screening and brief interventions advise practitioners to consider age, drinking frequency, and context to identify at-risk youth. The purpose of this study was to identify the contextual risk and protective factors in high school-aged adolescents associated with future driving after drinking (DUI at age 21) by race/ethnicity. Methods Data included 10,271 adolescents (67% White, 12% Hispanic, 16% Black, 3.6% Asian; 49% Male) who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I, II, and III) from 1995 to 2001. A lagged panel design and survey logistic regression was used to examine the association between multiple contextual factors (e.g. demographics, parents, peers, social context) during adolescence and self-reported DUI in young adulthood. Results As expected, the likelihood of DUI was higher among Whites followed by Hispanics, Asians, and Blacks in all models. Perception of easy home access to alcohol increased risk for future DUI for Whites (OR: 1.25 CI: 1.04–1.49), Hispanics (OR: 2.02 CI: 1.29–3.16), and Asians (OR: 1.90 CI: 1.13–3.22), but not for Black youth. Drinking frequency and prior DUI were not risk factors for Hispanics. Risk-taking attitudes, marijuana use, and religious affiliation were risk factors for Whites only. Conclusions Findings suggest that in addition to screening for drinking behaviors, brief interventions and prevention efforts should assess perceived home access to alcohol and other race-specific factors to reduce alcohol-related injuries and harm. PMID:23608720

  3. Left atrial dimension and traditional cardiovascular risk factors predict 20-year clinical cardiovascular events in young healthy adults: the CARDIA study

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Anderson C.; Liu, Kiang; Lewis, Cora E.; Sidney, Stephen; Colangelo, Laura A.; Kishi, Satoru; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Arynchyn, Alex; Jacobs, David R.; Correia, Luís C.L.; Gidding, Samuel S.; Lima, João A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims We investigated whether the addition of left atrial (LA) size determined by echocardiography improves cardiovascular risk prediction in young adults over and above the clinically established Framingham 10-year global CV risk score (FRS). Methods and results We included white and black CARDIA participants who had echocardiograms in Year-5 examination (1990–91). The combined endpoint after 20 years was incident fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular disease: myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, and atrial fibrillation/flutter. Echocardiography-derived M-mode LA diameter (LAD; n = 4082; 149 events) and 2D four-chamber LA area (LAA; n = 2412; 77 events) were then indexed by height or body surface area (BSA). We used Cox regression, areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC), and net reclassification improvement (NRI) to assess the prediction power of LA size when added to calculated FRS or FRS covariates. The LAD and LAA cohorts had similar characteristics; mean LAD/height was 2.1 ± 0.3 mm/m and LAA/height 9.3 ± 2.0 mm2/m. After indexing by height and adjusting for FRS covariates, hazard ratios were 1.31 (95% CI 1.12, 1.60) and 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for LAD and LAA, respectively; AUC was 0.77 for LAD and 0.78 for LAA. When LAD and LAA were indexed to BSA, the results were similar but slightly inferior. Both LAD and LAA showed modest reclassification ability, with non-significant NRIs. Conclusion LA size measurements independently predict clinical outcomes. However, it only improves discrimination over clinical parameters modestly without altering risk classification. Indexing LA size by height is at least as robust as by BSA. Further research is needed to assess subgroups of young adults who may benefit from LA size information in risk stratification. PMID:24534011

  4. Dietary Intake, Food Processing, and Cooking Methods Among Amish and Non-Amish Adults Living in Ohio Appalachia: Relevance to Nutritional Risk Factors for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuyun Carter, Gebra B.; Katz, Mira L.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Clinton, Steven K.; Grainger, Elizabeth M.; Paskett, Electra D.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2013-01-01

    This study’s purpose was to examine the source, storage, preparation, and intake of food among Amish and non-Amish adults to understand dietary practices as a potential contributing factor to lower cancer incidence rates. Interviews were conducted with a random sample of 134 Amish and 154 non-Amish adults including questions about dietary practices and a 24-h dietary recall. Amish compared to non-Amish adults reported (1) less refrigeration in homes (85% vs. 100%, P < .01); (2) rarely/never obtaining food from restaurants and grocery stores (P < .01); (3) consuming less alcohol (P < .01); (4) consuming fewer daily servings of vegetables (males: 1.2 vs. 1.9 servings/day, P < .01; females: 1.0 vs. 2.1 servings/day, P < .01); and (5) a greater percentage of energy from saturated fat (males: 16.7% vs. 12.6%, P < .01; females: 16.3% vs. 12.0%, P < .01). Amish males reported greater amount of energy intake (2780 kcal vs. 2298 kcal, P = .03) compared to non-Amish males. Amish and non-Amish dietary patterns show some differences that may impact cancer although neither group achieves current diet and cancer prevention guidelines. Lifestyle factors, screening, and healthcare access may be contributing to the lower cancer incidence rates among the Amish and these results suggest areas of intervention to reduce the cancer burden. PMID:22026912

  5. Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Salsberry, Pamela J.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Ahijevych, Karen L.; Hood, Nancy E.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examined the association between social, demographic, and psychologic factors and smoking status among Appalachian Ohio women. A secondary aim examined whether specific factors could be identified and segmented for future tailored treatment of tobacco dependence. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n=570) obtained information about social, demographic, and psychologic factors and smoking. Logistic regression described associations between these characteristics and smoking status. Chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) analyses identified subgroups at risk for smoking. Results Fifty-two percent never smoked, with 20.5% and 27.5% categorized as former and current smokers, respectively. Women with low adult socioeconomic position (SEP) were more likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] 3.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74-5.34) compared to high SEP women. Other factors associated with current smoking included age 31–50 (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.22-4.33), age 18–30 (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.72-5.34), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) score≥16 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.31-3.05), and first pregnancy at age<20 (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.14-2.66). The prevalence of smoking was 50% among those with four or more risk factors compared to 10% for those reporting no risk factors. CHAID analyses identified low adult SEP and depressive symptoms as the combination of risk factors most strongly associated with smoking; 49.3% of women in this subgroup currently smoked. Conclusions Low SEP in adulthood, maternal circumstances, and depressive symptoms are associated with current smoking. Tailored cessation interventions that address these risk factors should be developed and further evaluated in an attempt to reduce disparities in smoking prevalence among this vulnerable group of women. PMID:22360694

  6. Variables Affecting Emerging Adults' Self-Reported Risk and Reckless Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duangpatra, Krisna N. K.; Bradley, Graham L.; Glendon, A. Ian

    2009-01-01

    Young adults' behaviors are frequently characterized by risk-taking and recklessness. Few studies have examined the correlates of risk and reckless behaviors in emerging adults. Drawing on theories emphasising multifactorial effects of personality, social, and cognitive variables, this study explores psychosocial factors contributing to risk and…

  7. Suicide Risks among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sibo; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age. PMID:25546276

  8. Legionnaires’ disease case-finding algorithm, attack rates, and risk factors during a residential outbreak among older adults: an environmental and cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During a Legionnaires’ disease (LD) outbreak, combined epidemiological and environmental investigations were conducted to identify prevention recommendations for facilities where elderly residents live independently but have an increased risk of legionellosis. Methods Survey responses (n = 143) were used to calculate attack rates and describe transmission routes by estimating relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Potable water collected from five apartments of LD patients and three randomly-selected apartments of residents without LD (n = 103 samples) was cultured for Legionella. Results Eight confirmed LD cases occurred among 171 residents (attack rate = 4.7%); two visitors also developed LD. One case was fatal. The average age of patients was 70 years (range: 62–77). LD risk was lower among residents who reported tub bathing instead of showering (RR = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.02–1.09, P = 0.03). Two respiratory cultures were characterized as L. pneumophila serogroup 1, monoclonal antibody type Knoxville (1,2,3), sequence type 222. An indistinguishable strain was detected in 31 (74%) of 42 potable water samples. Conclusions Managers of elderly-housing facilities and local public health officials should consider developing a Legionella prevention plan. When Legionella colonization of potable water is detected in these facilities, remediation is indicated to protect residents at higher risk. If LD occurs among residents, exposure reduction, heightened awareness, and clinical surveillance activities should be coordinated among stakeholders. For prompt diagnosis and effective treatment, clinicians should recognize the increased risk and atypical presentation of LD in older adults. PMID:23806063

  9. Risk factors and cardiovascular disease in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Onat, A

    2001-05-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors as well as morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease among Turkish adults are herein reviewed. Lipids and lipoproteins are in focus, but other relevant risk factors are also discussed. Turks have distinctively low levels of total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, associated with high levels of hepatic lipase and fasting triglycerides. In addition, physical inactivity is common in both genders; close to 60% of men have the smoking habit, while obesity is common among Turkish women leading to a high prevalence of hypertension and diabetes in them. These factors probably account for the unanticipated fact that Turkish adults have the pattern of causes of death similar to a developed population, although the process of industrialization is ongoing, the structure of its population is young and overall cholesterol levels are comparatively low. The age-standardized coronary heart disease death rate is estimated to rank among the highest in Europe. The leading independent predictors of coronary events and death [systolic blood pressure, total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, followed by diabetes and (central) obesity] are related to the metabolic syndrome, estimated to prevail in 3-4% of adults aged 30 or over, and to underlie one-eighth of cases of coronary disease. Since several adverse factors exhibit a rising trend, primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease must assume a much higher priority in various issues in Turkey than it currently does. PMID:11368991

  10. Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective if given quickly. Every minute counts! "Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms", NINDS. June 1, 2008. Prepared by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  11. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... high cholesterol. “Those are the most common risk factors,” according to Steven J. Kittner, M.D., director of the Maryland Stroke Center at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore. “But ...

  12. Social models of HIV risk among young adults in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Bulled, Nicola L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics. PMID:26284999

  13. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  14. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  15. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715

  16. Depression in athletes: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wolanin, Andrew; Gross, Michael; Hong, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects an estimated 6.7% of today's adult population in a 12-month period. The prevalence rates for certain age groups, such as young adults and older adults, are higher. There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association student athletes competing each year and 5 to 7 million high school student athletes involved in competitive interscholastic sports. Given such a high prevalence rate in certain age groups and a large denominator pool of athletes, past notions that athletes are devoid of mental health issues have come under scrutiny by sports medicine providers. Initial data suggest that athletes are far from immune to depression. The purpose of this article was to review the current research on athletes and depression; particularly this article will provide an overview of studies, which have investigated the rate of depression among athletes, and discuss relevant risk factors, which may contribute to depression among athletes. PMID:25574886

  17. Breakfast patterns and their likelihood of increased risk of overweight/obesity and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in adults 19+ years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the relationship of specific types of breakfast consumed and the risk of overweight/obesity or risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Cluster analysis using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 data identified 12 breakfast clusters—including no breakfast, in...

  18. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Judith E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Taylor, Shelley E; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-10-15

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood. PMID:24062432

  19. Birth by Caesarean Section and Prevalence of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in Young Adults: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bernardo L.; Gigante, Denise P.; Lima, Rosangela C.; Barros, Fernando C.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Conflicting findings on the risk of obesity among subjects born by caesarean section have been published. Caesarean section should also increase the risk of obesity related cardiovascular risk factors if type of delivery is associated with obesity later in life. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of type of delivery on metabolic cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood. Methodology and Principal Findings In 1982, maternity hospitals in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were visited and those livebirths whose family lived in the urban area of the city have been followed. In 2000, when male subjects undertook the Army entrance examination (n=2200), fat mass and fat free mass were estimated through bioimpedance. In 2004–2005, we attempted to follow the whole cohort (n=4297), and the following outcomes were studied: blood pressure; HDL cholesterol; triglycerides; random blood glucose, C-reactive protein, waist circumference and body mass index. The estimates were adjusted for the following confounders: family income at birth; maternal schooling; household assets index in childhood; maternal skin color; birth order; maternal age; maternal prepregnancy weight; maternal height; maternal smoking during pregnancy; birthweight and family income at early adulthood. Results In the crude analyses, blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure) and body mass index were higher among subjects who were delivered through caesarean section. After controlling for confounders, systolic blood pressure was 1.15 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0.05; 2.25) higher among subjects delivered by caesarean section, and BMI 0.40 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 0.08; 0.71). After controlling for BMI the effect on systolic blood pressure dropped to 0.60 mmHg (95% confidence interval: -0.47; 1.67). Fat mass at 18 years of age was also higher among subjects born by caesarean section. Conclusion Caesarean section was associated with a small increased in systolic

  20. Awareness Levels about Breast Cancer Risk Factors, Early Warning Signs, and Screening and Therapeutic Approaches among Iranian Adult Women: A large Population Based Study Using Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tazhibi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. Breast cancer (BC) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women throughout the world and in Iran. Lack of awareness and early detection program in developing country is a main reason for escalating the mortality. The present research was conducted to assess the Iranian women's level of knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches, and their correlated determinants. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 2250 women before participating at a community based screening and public educational program in an institute of cancer research in Isfahan, Iran, in 2012 were investigated using a self-administered questionnaire about risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches of BC. Latent class regression as a comprehensive statistical method was used for evaluating the level of knowledge and its correlated determinants. Results. Only 33.2%, 31.9%, 26.7%, and 35.8% of study participants had high awareness levels about screening approaches, risk factors, early warning signs and therapeutic modalities of breast cancer, respectively, and majority had poor to moderate knowledge levels. Most effective predictors of high level of awareness were higher educational qualifications, attending in screening and public educational programs, personal problem, and family history of BC, respectively. Conclusion. Results of current study indicated that the levels of awareness among study population about key elements of BC are low. These findings reenforce the continuing need for more BC education through conducting public and professional programs that are intended to raise awareness among younger, single women and those with low educational attainments and without family history. PMID:25295257

  1. Risk factors for visual impairment and blindness amongst black adult diabetics receiving treatment at Government healthcare facilities in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common systemic disease amongst Black South Africans. It may lead to diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common cause of visual impairment (VI) and blindness. DR may significantly increase the prevalence of VI and blindness. Aim To assess risk factors for VI and blindness amongst a black diabetic South African population aged ≥ 40 years. Setting The study was conducted in seven Government healthcare facilities (two hospitals, four clinics and one health centre) in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa. Methods This was a cross-sectional health facility-based quantitative study. Structured interviews were used to obtain information, which included sociodemographic profile, knowledge about DM and its ocular complications, presence of hypertension and accessibility to health facilities. Subsequently participants were examined for VI and blindness using an autorefractor, pinhole disc, ophthalmoscope and logMAR visual acuity chart. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist) were also taken. Associations between 31 risk factors and VI as well as blindness were statistically examined. Results Participants (N = 225) included 161 women and 64 men aged 40–90 years (mean 61.5 ± 10.49 years); 41.3% of them had VI and 3.6% were blind. Cataracts (76.8%) and DR (7.1%) were the common causes of compensated VI and blindness. Risk factors that were associated with VI and blindness were age, monthly income, compliance with losing weight and physical activity. Conclusion Findings suggest that lifestyle intervention and appropriate eyecare programmes may reduce VI and blindness in this population. PMID:26245418

  2. About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention We can’t control some risk factors for ... as well. NIA Information on Risk Factors and Prevention 2014-2015 Alzheimer's Disease Progress Report: Advancing Research ...

  3. Gender Differences in Risk for Intimate Partner Violence among South African Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a…

  4. Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence and Risk Factors of Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draheim, Christopher C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence, CVD-related mortality, physiological CVD risk factors, and behavioral CVD risk factors in adults with mental retardation (MR). The literature on the potential influences of modifiable behavioral CVD risk factors and the physiological CVD risk factors are also…

  5. Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. ); Epstein, S. ); Bhattacharyya, M. ); Pounds, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

  6. Leg lengthening of more than 5 cm is a risk factor for sciatic nerve injury after total hip arthroplasty for adult hip dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Yoshitoshi; Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with high hip dislocation is challenging and technically demanding. Nerve injury is a problem associated with leg lengthening after THA. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for sciatic nerve injury after THA in patients with high hip dislocation. Thirty-seven patients (41 THAs) with Crowe type IV hips were consecutively treated. The average leg lengthening (LL) was 3.2 cm. The average Harris hip score was improved from 57.5 points to 83.1 points at the final follow-up. The clinical outcomes after an average 6.4-years follow-up were satisfactory. Sciatic nerve injury was observed in two joints. LL in the two joints (two patients) with sciatic nerve injury was 5.2 cm and 6.7 cm, respectively. Leg lengthening of >5 cm was a risk factor for sciatic nerve injury. Therefore, leg lengthening of >5 cm should be avoided to prevent sciatic nerve injury. PMID:26412892

  7. Risk Factors For Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jin-Young; Tan, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the recent literature on risk factors for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with an emphasis on genetic, comorbid diseases and environmental factors associated with CRS. Through identifying potential risk factors for CRS, we glean insights into the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and essential for developing effective therapeutic strategies. Recent findings Recent findings demonstrate that genetics, comorbid medical conditions including airway diseases, gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and various demographic and environmental factors are associated with having a CRS diagnosis. Limitations of current studies include, variable application of disease definitions, lack of prospective longitudinal studies and a disproportionate focus on tertiary care populations. Summary CRS has a broad spectrum of associations ranging from genetics to comorbid diseases and environmental factors. These predisposing factors provide valuable information for possible designing therapeutic and preventive interventions. However, to better understand whether these associations cause CRS, further studies are needed to independently replicate findings, establish temporal relationships between exposure and disease onset, evaluate the influence of exposure dose on disease severity, and to understand the biological effects of these risk factors in the context of CRS. PMID:25479315

  8. The Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors amongst Adults in the Dikgale Health Demographic and Surveillance System (HDSS) Site, Limpopo Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Maimela, Eric; Modjadji, Sewela E. P.; Choma, Solomon S. R.; Dikotope, Sekgothe A.; Ntuli, Thembelihle S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of chronic non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors in a rural community in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Methods This survey was conducted using the WHO "STEPwise approach to the surveillance of non-communicable diseases" (STEPS) methodology. Participants were residents of the Dikgale HDSS site and standardised international protocols were used to measure behavioural risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable intake and, physical activity) and physical characteristics (weight, height, waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure–BP). Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and HDL-C were determined in 732 participants. Data were analysed using STATA 12 for Windows. Results The prevalence of current smokers amongst the participants was 13.7%, of which 81.3% were daily smokers. Alcohol was consumed by 16.3% of the participants. The majority of participants (88.6%) had low daily intake of fruit and vegetables and low physical activity (66.5%). The prevalence of hypertension amongst the participants was 38.2%. Overweight, obesity and high waist circumference were prevalent in females. The cardio-metabolic risk profile was not significantly different between men and women. People who were older than 40 years, overweight or obese and those who consumed alcohol were more likely to be hypertensive. Smoking was associated significantly with older age, males, never married and divorced people. Alcohol consumption was associated with older age, males, low educational status and low income. Conclusion High levels of risk factors for NCDs among adults in the Dikgale HDSS suggest an urgent need for health interventions to control these risk factors at the population level in order to reduce the prevalence of NCDs. PMID:26882033

  9. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures. PMID:9883305

  10. Assessment of Interpersonal Risk (AIR) in Adults with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour--Piloting a New Risk Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Martin; McCue, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A new risk assessment tool, "Assessment of Interpersonal Risk" (AIR), was piloted and evaluated to measure risk factors and compatibility between individuals living in an assessment and treatment unit in one NHS area. The adults with learning disabilities in this unit had severe and enduring mental health problems and/or behaviour that is severely…

  11. Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Based Intervention to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Remote Reservation–Dwelling American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chubak, Jessica; O’Connell, Joan; Ramos, Maria C.; Jensen, Julie; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a randomized controlled trial, the Lakota Oyate Wicozani Pi Kte (LOWPK) trial, which was designed to determine whether a Web-based diabetes and nutritional intervention can improve risk factors related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) among a group of remote reservation–dwelling adult American Indian men and women with type 2 diabetes who are at high risk for CVD. Enrollment on a rolling basis of 180 planned participants began during 2009; an average 18-month follow-up was completed by June 2011. The primary outcome variable is change in glycosylated hemoglobin level after an average 18-month follow-up period. Secondary outcome variables include changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and smoking status, as well as an evaluation of intervention cost-effectiveness. If effective, the LOWPK trial may serve as a guide for future chronic disease intervention trials in remote, technologically challenged settings. PMID:23001642

  12. Design of a randomized controlled trial of a web-based intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors among remote reservation-dwelling American Indian adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Jeffrey A; Chubak, Jessica; O'Connell, Joan; Ramos, Maria C; Jensen, Julie; Jobe, Jared B

    2012-08-01

    We describe a randomized controlled trial, the Lakota Oyate Wicozani Pi Kte (LOWPK) trial, which was designed to determine whether a Web-based diabetes and nutritional intervention can improve risk factors related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) among a group of remote reservation-dwelling adult American Indian men and women with type 2 diabetes who are at high risk for CVD. Enrollment on a rolling basis of 180 planned participants began during 2009; an average 18-month follow-up was completed by June 2011. The primary outcome variable is change in glycosylated hemoglobin level after an average 18-month follow-up period. Secondary outcome variables include changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and smoking status, as well as an evaluation of intervention cost-effectiveness. If effective, the LOWPK trial may serve as a guide for future chronic disease intervention trials in remote, technologically challenged settings. PMID:23001642

  13. Associations of plasma fibrinogen levels with established cardiovascular disease risk factors, inflammatory markers, and other characteristics: individual participant meta-analysis of 154,211 adults in 31 prospective studies: the fibrinogen studies collaboration.

    PubMed

    Kaptoge, S; White, I R; Thompson, S G; Wood, A M; Lewington, S; Lowe, G D O; Danesh, J

    2007-10-15

    Long-term increases in plasma fibrinogen levels of 1 g/liter are associated with an approximate doubling of risk of major cardiovascular disease outcomes, but causality remains uncertain. To quantify cross-sectional associations of fibrinogen levels with established risk factors and other characteristics, the investigators combined individual data on 154,211 apparently healthy adults from 31 prospective studies conducted between 1967 and 2003, using a linear mixed model that included random effects at the cohort level. Fibrinogen levels increased with age and showed continuous, approximately linear relations with several risk markers and slightly curvilinear associations with log triglycerides, albumin, and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Female sex, Black ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status, and alcohol abstinence were each associated with modestly higher fibrinogen levels. Approximately one third of the variation in fibrinogen levels was explained by cohort, age, and sex. An additional 7% was explained by established risk factors (notably, positive associations with smoking and body mass index and an inverse association with high density lipoprotein cholesterol), and a further 10% was explained by inflammatory markers (notably, a positive association with C-reactive protein). The association with body mass index was twice as strong in women as in men, whereas the association with smoking was much stronger in men. These findings substantially advance understanding of the correlates and possible determinants of fibrinogen levels. PMID:17785713

  14. [Psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors].

    PubMed

    Tal, Roy; Pavlovsky, Lev; David, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease which may dramatically affect patients' lives. This chronic disease is characterized by a protracted course of alternating remissions and relapses. In recent years, the attention of researchers has focused on the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease risk factors. This review summarizes the literature on this topic with an emphasis on research conducted in Israel. PMID:23316664

  15. Profile of non-communicable disease risk factors among adults in the Republic of Palau: findings of a national STEPS survey.

    PubMed

    Watson, Berry Moon; Chiang, Chifa; Ikerdeu, Edolem; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Honjo, Kaori; Mita, Takashi; Cui, Renzhe; Madraisau, Sherilynn; Ngirmang, Gregorio; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2015-11-01

    Palau, similar to other Pacific island countries, is currently highly burdened with non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The WHO STEPS was launched in 2011 to comprehensively survey indicators for NCDs in the country. This paper aims to describe the prevalence of key NCD risk factors assessed by the survey. The WHO instrument, including behavioral, physical and biochemical measurements, was adopted to the nationwide survey for all residents aged 25 to 64 years. A cluster-based sampling method was performed to obtain a national representative data. Valid data from 2,184 individuals were selected for the analyses, of which 75% were Palauans and 19% were Filipinos. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 25% in men and 10% in women. Betel nut chewing with tobacco was prevalent particularly among Palauans (58% in men, 69% in women) compared to the other ethnic groups. In terms of all types of tobacco use, 60% of men and 58% of women were current users. Overweight or obesity was very common among Palauans (84% in men, 86% in women) as well as Filipinos (52% in men, 40% in women). Hypertension was found in 55% of men and 49% of women, with the stage 2 hypertension being 21% and 19%, respectively. The prevalence of diabetic level hyperglycemia was more than 20%. Raised total cholesterol was detected in 16% of men and 20% of women. This survey revealed an alarmingly high prevalence of NCD risk factors, especially tobacco use, obesity, hypertension and raised blood glucose. The data would be useful baseline information to develop effective NCD strategies in Palau. PMID:26663939

  16. Profile of non-communicable disease risk factors among adults in the Republic of Palau: findings of a national STEPS survey

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Berry Moon; Chiang, Chifa; Ikerdeu, Edolem; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Honjo, Kaori; Mita, Takashi; Cui, Renzhe; Madraisau, Sherilynn; Ngirmang, Gregorio; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Palau, similar to other Pacific island countries, is currently highly burdened with non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The WHO STEPS was launched in 2011 to comprehensively survey indicators for NCDs in the country. This paper aims to describe the prevalence of key NCD risk factors assessed by the survey. The WHO instrument, including behavioral, physical and biochemical measurements, was adopted to the nationwide survey for all residents aged 25 to 64 years. A cluster-based sampling method was performed to obtain a national representative data. Valid data from 2,184 individuals were selected for the analyses, of which 75% were Palauans and 19% were Filipinos. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 25% in men and 10% in women. Betel nut chewing with tobacco was prevalent particularly among Palauans (58% in men, 69% in women) compared to the other ethnic groups. In terms of all types of tobacco use, 60% of men and 58% of women were current users. Overweight or obesity was very common among Palauans (84% in men, 86% in women) as well as Filipinos (52% in men, 40% in women). Hypertension was found in 55% of men and 49% of women, with the stage 2 hypertension being 21% and 19%, respectively. The prevalence of diabetic level hyperglycemia was more than 20%. Raised total cholesterol was detected in 16% of men and 20% of women. This survey revealed an alarmingly high prevalence of NCD risk factors, especially tobacco use, obesity, hypertension and raised blood glucose. The data would be useful baseline information to develop effective NCD strategies in Palau. PMID:26663939

  17. Age-specific prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A in Santiago, Chile: risk factors and shift in age of infection among children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Fix, Alan D; Martin, Oriana San; Gallicchio, Lisa; Vial, Pablo A; Lagos, Rosanna

    2002-05-01

    Transition from high to lower endemicity of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection may portend increased public health burden with the shift of infection to older ages and increasing morbidity and mortality. This report describes age-specific prevalence of antibodies to HAV (anti-HAV) among children and young adults in Santiago, Chile, compared with previous prevalence data and assesses factors predictive for anti-HAV. In 1998, a serosurvey was performed in Metropolitan Santiago, designed to enroll a representative, age-stratified population on the basis of area of residence. A total of 784 individuals (age range, 1-24 years) were enrolled. Anti-HAV prevalence by year of life was as follows: ages 1 to 4, 12.5%; 5 to 9, 26.2%; 10 to 14, 43.4%; 15 to 19, 57.4%; 20 to 24, 73.9%. Adjusting for age, factors associated (inversely) with anti-HAV included residential areas of higher socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, and household characteristics of potable water, municipal sewage system, and the presence of a toilet or refrigerator in the house. In logistic regression analysis, only maternal years of education and residence in areas of higher SES remained independently associated with anti-HAV. Excluding those from higher SES areas, comparison of the age-specific anti-HAV prevalence data from previous studies of similar methodology in areas of lower SES revealed consistent decreases across all age groups; the age-standardized prevalence for this age range (1-24 years) dropped from 53.7% in 1990 to 40.6% in 1998. In light of the growing pool of susceptible individuals at older ages, with HAV continuing to circulate in the communities, evaluation of the feasibility of vaccination programs would be judicious. PMID:12201603

  18. Subsets of symptomatic hand osteoarthritis in community-dwelling older adults in the United Kingdom: prevalence, inter-relationships, risk factor profiles and clinical characteristics at baseline and 3-years

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M.; Peat, G.; Nicholls, E.; van der Windt, D.; Myers, H.; Dziedzic, K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective To compare the population prevalence, inter-relationships, risk factor profiles and clinical characteristics of subsets of symptomatic hand osteoarthritis (OA) with a view to understanding their relative frequency and distinctiveness. Method 1076 community-dwelling adults with hand symptoms (60% women, mean age 64.7 years) were recruited and classified into pre-defined subsets using physical examination and standardised hand radiographs, scored with the Kellgren & Lawrence (K&L) and Verbruggen–Veys grading systems. Detailed information on selected risk factors was obtained from direct measurement (Body Mass Index (BMI)), self-complete questionnaires (excessive use of hands, previous hand injury) and medical record review (hypertension, dyslipidaemia, type 2 diabetes). Hand pain and disability were self-reported at baseline and 3-year follow-up using Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN). Results Crude population prevalence estimates for symptomatic hand OA subsets in the adult population aged 50 years and over were: thumb base OA (22.4%), nodal interphalangeal joint (IPJ) OA (15.5%), generalised hand OA (10.4%), non-nodal IPJ OA (4.9%), erosive OA (1.0%). Apart from thumb base OA, there was considerable overlap between the subsets. Erosive OA appeared the most distinctive with the highest female: male ratio, and the most disability at baseline and 3-years. A higher frequency of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and metabolic syndrome was observed in this subset. Conclusion Overlap in the occurrence of hand OA subsets poses conceptual and practical challenges to the pursuit of distinct phenotypes. Erosive OA may nevertheless provide particular insight into the role of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in the pathogenesis of OA. PMID:23954700

  19. Exploring DRD4 and its interaction with SLC6A3 as possible risk factors for adult ADHD: a meta-analysis in four European populations.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Ribasés, Marta; Casas, Miquel; Bayés, Mònica; Bosch, Rosa; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noelia; Brunso, Lucas; Jacobsen, Kaya K; Landaas, Elisabeth T; Lundervold, Astri J; Gross-Lesch, Silke; Kreiker, Susanne; Jacob, Christian P; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoogman, Martine; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kooij, J J Sandra; Mick, Eric; Asherson, Phil; Faraone, Stephen V; Franke, Barbara; Reif, Andreas; Johansson, Stefan; Haavik, Jan; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Cormand, Bru

    2011-07-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder affecting about 4-8% of children. ADHD persists into adulthood in around 65% of cases, either as the full condition or in partial remission with persistence of symptoms. Pharmacological, animal and molecular genetic studies support a role for genes of the dopaminergic system in ADHD due to its essential role in motor control, cognition, emotion, and reward. Based on these data, we analyzed two functional polymorphisms within the DRD4 gene (120 bp duplication in the promoter and 48 bp VNTR in exon 3) in a clinical sample of 1,608 adult ADHD patients and 2,352 controls of Caucasian origin from four European countries that had been recruited in the context of the International Multicentre persistent ADHD CollaboraTion (IMpACT). Single-marker analysis of the two polymorphisms did not reveal association with ADHD. In contrast, multiple-marker meta-analysis showed a nominal association (P = 0.02) of the L-4R haplotype (dup120bp-48bpVNTR) with adulthood ADHD, especially with the combined clinical subtype. Since we previously described association between adulthood ADHD and the dopamine transporter SLC6A3 9R-6R haplotype (3'UTR VNTR-intron 8 VNTR) in the same dataset, we further tested for gene × gene interaction between DRD4 and SLC6A3. However, we detected no epistatic effects but our results rather suggest additive effects of the DRD4 risk haplotype and the SLC6A3 gene. PMID:21595008

  20. Increased Circulating ANG II and TNF-α Represents Important Risk Factors in Obese Saudi Adults with Hypertension Irrespective of Diabetic Status and BMI

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Bindahman, Lotfi S.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Saleem, Tahia H.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Draz, Hossam M.; Yakout, Sobhy; Mohamed, Amany O.; Harte, Alison L.; McTernan, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Central adiposity is a significant determinant of obesity-related hypertension risk, which may arise due to the pathogenic inflammatory nature of the abdominal fat depot. However, the influence of pro-inflammatory adipokines on blood pressure in the obese hypertensive phenotype has not been well established in Saudi subjects. As such, our study investigated whether inflammatory factors may represent useful biomarkers to delineate hypertension risk in a Saudi cohort with and without hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2). Subjects were subdivided into four groups: healthy lean controls (age: 47.9±5.1 yr; BMI: 22.9±2.1 Kg/m2), non-hypertensive obese (age: 46.1±5.0 yr; BMI: 33.7±4.2 Kg/m2), hypertensive obese (age: 48.6±6.1 yr; BMI: 36.5±7.7 Kg/m2) and hypertensive obese with DMT2 (age: 50.8±6.0 yr; BMI: 35.3±6.7 Kg/m2). Anthropometric data were collected from all subjects and fasting blood samples were utilized for biochemical analysis. Serum angiotensin II (ANG II) levels were elevated in hypertensive obese (p<0.05) and hypertensive obese with DMT2 (p<0.001) compared with normotensive controls. Systolic blood pressure was positively associated with BMI (p<0.001), glucose (p<0.001), insulin (p<0.05), HOMA-IR (p<0.001), leptin (p<0.01), TNF-α (p<0.001) and ANG II (p<0.05). Associations between ANG II and TNF-α with systolic blood pressure remained significant after controlling for BMI. Additionally CRP (p<0.05), leptin (p<0.001) and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p<0.001) were also significantly associated with the hypertension phenotype. In conclusion our data suggests that circulating pro-inflammatory adipokines, particularly ANG II and, TNF-α, represent important factors associated with a hypertension phenotype and may directly contribute to predicting and exacerbating hypertension risk. PMID:23251471

  1. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes. PMID:17008855

  2. Improving Fall Risk Factor Identification and Documentation of Risk Reduction Strategies by Rehabilitation Therapists through Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Michele J.

    2011-01-01

    This static group comparison study determined that an educational intervention was effective in increasing fall risk factor assessment, documentation of fall risk factors, and strategies devised to reduce fall risk factors by rehabilitation therapists for their older adult outpatients in clinics. Results showed that experimental group identified…

  3. Exposure to Adult Substance Use as a Risk Factor in Adolescent Substance Use Onset: Part 1. Technical Report #97-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Allison J.; Collins, Linda M.; Graham, John W.

    The influence of parents and other important adults on adolescent substance use is becoming recognized as a salient topic of research. A study designed to assess the impact of adult substance use on adolescents' progression through increasingly more advanced stages of substance use is reported here. Latent Transition Analysis was used to estimate…

  4. Dietary behaviors of adults born prematurely may explain future risk for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Duffy, Valerie B; Miller, Robin J; Winchester, Suzy B; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Sullivan, Mary C

    2016-04-01

    Being born prematurely associates with greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adulthood. Less understood are the unique and joint associations of dietary patterns and behaviors to this elevated risk among adults who are born prematurely. We aimed to model the associations between term status, dietary and lifestyle behaviors with CVD risk factors while accounting for the longitudinal effects of family protection, and medical or environmental risks. In wave-VIII of a longitudinal study, 23-year olds born prematurely (PT-adults, n = 129) and full term (FT-adults, n = 38) survey-reported liking for foods/beverages and activities, constructed into indexes of dietary quality and sensation-seeking, dietary restraint and physical activity. Measured CVD risk factors included fasting serum lipids and glucose, blood pressure and adiposity. In bivariate relationships, PT-adults reported lower dietary quality (including less affinity for protein-rich foods and higher affinity for sweets), less liking for sensation-seeking foods/activities, and less restrained eating than did FT-adults. In comparison to nationally-representative values and the FT-adults, PT-adults showed greater level of CVD risk factors for blood pressure and serum lipids. In structural equation modeling, dietary quality completely mediated the association between term status and HDL-cholesterol (higher quality, lower HDL-cholesterol) yet joined term status to explain variability in systolic blood pressure (PT-adults with lowest dietary quality had highest blood pressures). Through lower dietary quality, being born prematurely was indirectly linked to higher cholesterol/HDL, higher LDL/HDL and elevated waist/hip ratios. The relationship between dietary quality and CVD risk was strongest for PT-adults who had developed greater cumulative medical risk. Protective environments failed to attenuate relationships between dietary quality and elevated CVD risk among PT-adults. In summary, less healthy dietary

  5. Risk factors for postoperative ileus

    PubMed Central

    Kutun, Suat; Ulucanlar, Haluk; Tarcan, Oguz; Demir, Abdullah; Cetin, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine extended postoperative ileus and its risk factors in patients who have undergone abdominal surgery, and discuss the techniques of prevention and management thereof the light of related risk factors connected with our study. Methods This prospective study involved 103 patients who had undergone abdominal surgery. The effects of age, gender, diagnosis, surgical operation conducted, excessive small intestine manipulation, opioid analgesic usage time, and systemic inflammation on the time required for the restoration of intestinal motility were investigated. The parameters were investigated prospectively. Results Regarding the factors that affected the restoration of gastrointestinal motility, resection operation type, longer operation period, longer opioid analgesics use period, longer nasogastric catheter use period, and the presence of systemic inflammation were shown to retard bowel motility for 3 days or more. Conclusion Our study confirmed that unnecessary analgesics use in patients with pain tolerance with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, excessive small bowel manipulation, prolonged nasogastric catheter use have a direct negative effect on gastrointestinal motility. Considering that an exact treatment for postoperative ileus has not yet been established, and in light of the risk factors mentioned above, we regard that prevention of postoperative ileus is the most effective way of coping with intestinal dysmotility. PMID:22111079

  6. Contact patterns as a risk factor for bovine tuberculosis infection in a free-living adult brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula population.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, T; McKenzie, J; Stevenson, M A

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (TB) in a free-roaming, capture-mark-recapture monitored possum Trichosurus vulpecula population in a 22-ha study site at Castlepoint, New Zealand from 1 April 1989 to 31 March 1994. A matched case-control design was used to evaluate the influence of sex, habitat and contact opportunities on TB risk. Cases comprised possums identified as TB-positive throughout the study period. Controls were selected from the group of possums that were captured and showed no clinical signs of TB throughout the study period. Measures derived from a social network analysis of possum capture locations such as degree, clustering coefficient (CC) and betweenness were used to represent potential contact opportunities among possums. Network analysis measures recorded for individual possums in the 12-month period before a diagnosis of TB were evaluated in a conditional logistic regression model. We found no evidence of an association between case status and the total number of possums with which there was potential contact (degree) (P=0.5). The odds of cases being exposed to unit increases in the number of TB-positive contacts was 2.50 (95% CI 1.24-5.05; P<0.01) times that of controls. This effect was conditional on the total number of potential contacts made, with a negative interaction with increasing degree. These findings indicate that potential contact with TB-positive possums increases the odds of disease whereas potential contact with large numbers of possums does not. This suggests that multiple contacts with TB-positive possum(s) are necessary for transmission of TB and this is more likely to occur in networks that are smaller. We challenge the hypothesis that contact with large numbers of individuals increases the probability of becoming TB infected and argue that individual contact behaviour is a determinant of the creation of TB foci within free-living possum populations. PMID:21550126

  7. [Environmental Risk Factors for Dementia].

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yoshitaka; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2016-07-01

    Owing to recent advancements in imaging techniques and biomarker research, the natural history of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become clear from the very first preclinical stage. According to the study, more than 20 years before the onset of AD, Aβ starts to accumulate in the brain. This induces neurofibrillary tangle formation in the cerebral isocortex, leading to cognitive decline. If this process is suppressed, disease activity can be controlled. However, at this point, the best and most realistic way to deal with AD is to target the environmental factors that have been identified as risk factors by epidemiological studies. PMID:27395468

  8. Human factors and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Minhali, A.

    1996-11-01

    A case study was presented in the 1994 Abu Dhabi International Exhibition and Conference (ADIPEC, 94) which discussed the importance of investigating human factors in the design of a high integrity protection system (HIPS) to be installed on an offshore high pressure gas platform, (SPE reference ADSPE 80). This paper will follow up on the design changes, installation and operation of the HIPS with emphasis on practical implications as a result of improper integration of human factors in the system reliability and risk assessment studies.

  9. [Suicide - background, epidemiology, risk factors].

    PubMed

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-10-01

    Suicide research, in particular epidemiology, comprises a huge amount of data. However, the theoretical understanding clearly lags behind the empirical knowledge. Suicide, suicide attempts and other suicidal behaviors are more heterogeneous than most explanatory approaches would assume. The most important recent contributions to a better understanding have come from selected epidemiological findings and, interestingly, prevention. This article provides an overview of epidemiological findings, the most relevant risk factors and conclusions related to successful preventive efforts. PMID:26423878

  10. Socio-Psychological Factors Driving Adult Vaccination: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, Ana; Parand, Anam; Rigole, Bruno; Thomson, Angus; Miraldo, Marisa; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background While immunization is one of the most effective and successful public health interventions, there are still up to 30,000 deaths in major developed economies each year due to vaccine-preventable diseases, almost all in adults. In the UK, despite comparatively high vaccination rates among ≧65 s (73%) and, to a lesser extent, at-risk ≤65 s (52%) in 2013/2014, over 10,000 excess deaths were reported the previous influenza season. Adult tetanus vaccines are not routinely recommended in the UK, but may be overly administered. Social influences and risk-perceptions of diseases and vaccines are known to affect vaccine uptake. We aimed to explore the socio-psychological factors that drive adult vaccination in the UK, specifically influenza and tetanus, and to evaluate whether these factors are comparable between vaccines. Methods 20 in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted with members of the UK public who represented a range of socio-demographic characteristics associated with vaccination uptake. We employed qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing adult vaccination decisions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Participants were classified according to their vaccination status as regular, intermittent and non-vaccinators for influenza, and preventative, injury-led, mixed (both preventative and injury-led) and as non-vaccinators for tetanus. We present our finding around five overarching themes: 1) perceived health and health behaviors; 2) knowledge; 3) vaccination influences; 4) disease appraisal; and 5) vaccination appraisal. Conclusion The uptake of influenza and tetanus vaccines was largely driven by participants' risk perception of these diseases. The tetanus vaccine is perceived as safe and sufficiently tested, whereas the changing composition of the influenza vaccine is a cause of uncertainty and distrust. To maximize the public health impact of adult vaccines

  11. Dietary factors associated with metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is defined as the association of numerous factors that increase cardiovascular risk and diet is one of the main factors related to increase the MS in the population. This study aimed to evaluate the association of diet on the presence of MS in an adult population sample. Methodology 305 adults were clinically screened to participate in a lifestyle modification program. Anthropometric assessments included waist circumference (WC), body fat and calculated BMI (kg/m2) and muscle-mass index (MMI kg/m2). Dietary intake was estimated by 24 h dietary recall. Fasting blood was used for biochemical analysis. MS was diagnosed using NCEP-ATPIII (2001) criteria with adaptation for glucose (≥ 100 mg/dL). Logistic regression (Odds ratio) was performed in order to determine the odds ratio for developing MS according to dietary intake. Results An adequate intake of fruits, OR = 0.52 (CI:0.28-0.98), and an intake of more than 8 different items in the diet (variety), OR = 0.31 (CI:0.12-0.79) showed to be a protective factor against a diagnosis of MS. Saturated fat intake greater than 10% of total caloric value represented a risk for MS diagnosis, OR = 2.0 (1.04-3.84). Conclusion Regarding the dietary aspect, a risk factor for MS was higher intake of saturated fat, and protective factors were high diet variety and adequate fruit intake. PMID:22417631

  12. Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Paul, Gregory; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Singer, William

    2014-01-01

    diet, thus improving heart disease risk factors. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/), #NCT00256516. PMID:24500611

  13. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Judith E.; Gruenewald, Tara L.; Taylor, Shelley E.; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this “toxic” stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = −0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood. PMID:24062432

  14. Individual Difference Factors in Risky Driving among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Ball, Karlene K.; Severson, Joan; Barton, Benjamin K.; Rizzo, Matthew; Viamonte, Sarah M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Motor-vehicle crashes kill roughly 4,500 American adults over the age of 75 annually. Among younger adults, one behavioral factor consistently linked to risky driving is personality, but this predictor has been overshadowed by research on cognitive, perceptual, and motor processes among older drivers. Method In this study, a sample of 101 licensed drivers, all age 75 and over, were recruited to complete self-report measures on personality, temperament, and driving history. Participants also completed a virtual environment (VE) course designed to assess risk-taking driving behavior. State records of motor-vehicle crashes were collected. Results Results suggest both a sensation-seeking personality and an undercontrolled temperament are related to risky driving among older adults. Sensation-seeking was particularly related to history of violations and tickets, while temperamental control was more broadly related to a number of risky driving measures. Methodological and crash prevention issues are discussed. PMID:18023635

  15. Adoption as a risk factor for mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P F; Wells, J E; Bushnell, J A

    1995-08-01

    Although adoption has been viewed as a risk factor for mental disorders in children and adolescents, few studies have investigated this association in adults. To address this question, we analyzed data from a random community sample of adults where the presence of adoption in the first year of life was systematically noted and where the presence of lifetime mental disorders was determined by structured interview. In comparison to individuals raised by both biological parents, adoption was strongly associated with a history of childhood conduct disorder, antisocial personality and drug abuse or dependence. Adoption may thus be a risk factor for these mental disorders. PMID:7572257

  16. A photovoice study of older adults' conceptualizations of risk.

    PubMed

    Rush, Kathy L; Murphy, Mary Ann; Kozak, Jean Francois

    2012-12-01

    Risk is a multifaceted and complex concept that mediates quality of life through the balance between risk taking and risk avoidance. Society expects older adults to identify and manage their personal risks yet little is known about the meaning of risk in their daily lives and how they balance the tensions between taking and avoiding risks. Therefore the purpose of this study was to explore how older adults construe risk. A qualitative exploratory study that incorporated photovoice methodology was used. Seventeen older adults, over a weeklong period, took pictures and kept a log of the places, spaces, events, activities, or situations that best represented risk. Subsequently, they participated in a follow-up individual interview. Older adults viewed risk both positively and negatively, judging the saliency of a risk according to criteria that related both to the risk itself and to personal characteristics. Although risk was avoided in specific situations, risk taking was participants' primary approach to risk, which assumed three forms: adaptive, opportunistic, and/or unjustifiable. Contrary to societal views, older adults view risk as constructive and personally relevant, and as something to be taken and need to be supported in risk taking rather than risk avoidance. PMID:22939541

  17. Nut consumption is associated with decreased health risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in US adults: NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few recent epidemiologic studies have assessed the effect that nut consumption (including tree nuts and peanuts) has on health risks, including metabolic syndrome. This study compared the health risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome of nut consumers with that of no...

  18. Modifications of Coronary Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Albu, Jeanine; Gottlieb, Sheldon H.; August, Phyllis; Nesto, Richard W.; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the revascularization and glycemic management interventions assigned at random, the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) design includes the uniform control of major coronary artery disease risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, central obesity, and sedentary lifestyle. Target levels for risk factors were adjusted throughout the trial to comply with changes in recommended clinical practice guidelines. At present, the goals are low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.59 mmol/L (<100 mg/dL) with an optional goal of <1.81 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL); plasma triglyceride level <1.70 mmol/L (<150 mg/dL); blood pressure level <130 mm Hg systolic and <80 mm Hg diastolic; and smoking cessation treatment for all active smokers. Algorithms were developed for the pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Dietary prescriptions for the management of glycemia, plasma lipid profiles, and blood pressure levels were adapted from existing clinical practice guidelines. Patients with a body mass index >25 were prescribed moderate caloric restriction; after the trial was under way, a lifestyle weight-management program was instituted. All patients were formally prescribed both endurance and resistance/flexibility exercises, individually adapted to their level of disability and fitness. Pedometers were distributed as a biofeedback strategy. Strategies to achieve the goals for risk factors were designed by BARI 2D working groups (lipid, cardiovascular and hypertension, and nonpharmacologic intervention) and the ongoing implementation of the strategies is monitored by lipid, hypertension, and lifestyle intervention management centers. PMID:16813737

  19. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Nerylee; Dyer, Kathryn; Buckley, Jonathan; Brinkworth, Grant; Coates, Alison; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Murphy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP) diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat) to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23%) on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction) followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index) 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m², aged 55 ± 8 years) with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8) who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: -7.8 ± 0.6 kg), there were significant reductions in HbA1c (-1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001) and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance. PMID:27187457

  20. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nerylee; Dyer, Kathryn; Buckley, Jonathan; Brinkworth, Grant; Coates, Alison; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Murphy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP) diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat) to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23%) on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction) followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index) 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2, aged 55 ± 8 years) with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8) who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: −7.8 ± 0.6 kg), there were significant reductions in HbA1c (−1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001) and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance. PMID:27187457

  1. Gingival recession: prevalence and risk indicators among young greek adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. Material and Methods: A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. Results: The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. Conclusions: The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults. PMID:25136424

  2. Diabetes Risk Factor Knowledge Varies Among Multiracial College Students.

    PubMed

    Mongiello, Lorraine Laccetti; Freudenberg, Nicholas; Jones, Hollie

    2016-10-01

    All racial/ethnic groups are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes compared to whites, but it is unknown if young adults recognize their risk. Risk knowledge and individual risk perception were examined in 1579 multiracial urban college students. Students have little knowledge of diabetes risk factors; identifying less than three of ten. Considerable variation exists in the understanding of risk; only .02 % of Asian, 14.0 % of Hispanic and 22.8 % of black students recognized that their race increased risk. Among those with ≥3 risk factors (n = 541) only 39 % perceived their risk. These under-estimators had lower knowledge scores (p = .03) than those who acknowledged their risk; indicating that the cause of under-estimating risk may be, at least, in part due to a lack of information. There is a pressing need to heighten understanding of type 2 diabetes risk among young adults to decrease the future burden of this disease. PMID:26169506

  3. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Cancer.gov

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  4. Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2) Polymorphism and Context-Specific Risk of Impaired Fasting Glucose in African American and Caucasian Adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Y.; North, K. E.; Heiss, G.; Klein, R.; Girman, C. J.; Lange, E. M.; Pankow, J. S.; Brancati, F. L.; Boerwinkle, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although variants in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene are consistently associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in Caucasians, data from large population-based studies of African Americans are lacking. Moreover, few studies have investigated the effects of TCF7L2 on IFG in the context of metabolic risk factors for diabetes. Methods We investigated the association between the TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and incident IFG defined as fasting serum glucose levels of 100–125 mg/dl (5.6–6.9 mmol/l) in 1,377 African American and 5,152 Caucasian participants without diabetes and IFG at intake who participated in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in 1987–1989 and were followed for 9 years. Results Incident IFG was identified in 810 (58.8%) African American and 2,652 (51.5%) Caucasian participants. Compared to homozygous CC Caucasian individuals, heterozygous CT [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.09 (95% CI=1.03–1.15)] and homozygous TT [1.18 (1.05–1.33)] individuals had significantly higher risk of developing IFG over 9-year follow up. The association between rs7903146 and IFG risk was stronger in Caucasians with obesity [HRCT vs. CC=1.28 (1.12, 1.47); HRTT vs. CC=1.65 (1.25, 2.17)] or high triglycerides [HRCT vs. CC=1.31(1.10, 1.56); HRTT vs. CC=1.72 (1.21, 2.43)]. No association of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and incident IFG was noted in African Americans. Conclusions Our study replicates the association between rs7903146 and IFG risk in a population-based, longitudinal cohort of Caucasians but not in African Americans. For the first time, our study provides evidence for interactions between TCF7L2 and metabolic risk factors on the occurrence of IFG in Caucasians. PMID:20578204

  5. Sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods Young adults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. PMID:23299017

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors among Chamorros

    PubMed Central

    Chiem, Binh; Nguyen, Victoria; Wu, Phillis L; Ko, Celine M; Cruz, Lee Ann; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2006-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chamorros residing in the United States. Methods The Chamorro Directory International and the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS) were used to assess the health related practices and needs of a random sample of 228 Chamorros. Results Inactivity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in this Chamorro sample compared to the US average. Participants who were 50-and-older or unemployed were more likely to report hypertension, diabetes and inactivity, but they were also more likely to consume more fruits and vegetables than their younger and employed counterparts. Women were more likely to report hypertension and diabetes, whereas men were more likely to have elevated BMI and to have never had their blood cholesterol checked. Conclusion The study provides data that will help healthcare providers, public health workers and community leaders identify where to focus their health improvement efforts for Chamorros and create culturally competent programs to promote health in this community. PMID:17156462

  7. Emerging Comorbidities in Adult Asthma: Risks, Clinical Associations, and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanranta, Hannu; Kauppi, Paula; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Ilmarinen, Pinja

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with many phenotypes, and age at disease onset is an important factor in separating the phenotypes. Most studies with asthma have been performed in patients being otherwise healthy. However, in real life, comorbid diseases are very common in adult patients. We review here the emerging comorbid conditions to asthma such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), and cardiac and psychiatric diseases. Their role as risk factors for incident asthma and whether they affect clinical asthma are evaluated. Obesity, independently or as a part of metabolic syndrome, DM2, and depression are risk factors for incident asthma. In contrast, the effects of comorbidities on clinical asthma are less well-known and mostly studies are lacking. Cross-sectional studies in obese asthmatics suggest that they may have less well controlled asthma and worse lung function. However, no long-term clinical follow-up studies with these comorbidities and asthma were identified. These emerging comorbidities often occur in the same multimorbid adult patient and may have in common metabolic pathways and inflammatory or other alterations such as early life exposures, systemic inflammation, inflammasome, adipokines, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, lung mechanics, mitochondrial dysfunction, disturbed nitric oxide metabolism, and leukotrienes. PMID:27212806

  8. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  9. Concurrent Risk Factors for Adolescent Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saner, Hilary; Ellickson, Phyllis

    1996-01-01

    Examines the risk and protective factors for different types of violent behavior in high school adolescents. Major risk factors include gender and deviant behaviors, committing nonviolent felonies, academic failure, and lack of parental affection and support. As risk factors increase, the likelihood of violent behavior increases. Impaired parental…

  10. Falls risk factors in the hospital setting: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Evans, D; Hodgkinson, B; Lambert, L; Wood, J

    2001-02-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to summarize the best available evidence on the factors that increase the risk of patients falling during hospitalization. Studies included in the review were those that involved adult patients in hospital, that attempted to identify risk factors for falling, and used a cohort or case-control research design. The search strategy covered all major databases and including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Current Contents, Psyclit, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Results were summarized by a narrative discussion, identifying risk factors that were commonly identified in a range of practice settings. Eighteen papers met the review inclusion criteria and are reported in this paper. Factors associated with an increased risk of falling include impaired mental status, special toileting needs, impaired mobility, and a history of falling. While findings are contradictory, it appears that both medications and advanced age will also influence a patient's risk of falling. PMID:11811346

  11. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact. PMID:26059537

  12. A dose-response of consuming high fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages on lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data show increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with increased intake of added sugar across quintiles. Objective: To determine the dose response effects of consuming beverages sweetened with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at zero, ...

  13. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity. PMID:26157264

  14. Chewing impairment and associated factors among adults

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Daniela de Rossi; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Luchi, Carla Antoni; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chewing impairment according to sex, and its associated factors in adults. METHODS A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out with 2,016 subjects aged between 20 and 59 years in Florianopolis, SC, Southern Brazil, in 2009. The sampling was undertaken in two stages, census tracts and households. The outcome 'chewing impairment' was obtained from the question "How often do you have chewing impairment due to teeth or denture problems?". Analyses were carried out with demographics and socioeconomic factors, dental services utilization, and self-related oral health using multivariable logistic regression and stratified by sex. RESULTS The response rate was 85.3% (1,720 adults). The prevalence of chewing impairment was 13,0% (95%CI 10.3;15.8) and 18,0% (95%CI 14.6;21.3) among men and women, respectively. Women and men fifty years old and over, who had ten or fewer natural teeth and those who reported toothache were more likely to have chewing impairment. The combination of tooth loss and toothache on chewing impairment was almost four times higher among women. CONCLUSIONS The magnitude of the associations among socioeconomic, demographics and self-related oral health factors was different according to sex, in general higher for women, with emphasis on toothache. The findings suggest that the impact of oral conditions varies by sex. PMID:24626541

  15. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Raabe, Florian Joachim; Spengler, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis integrates cognitive, behavioral, and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programing can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress-associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention, and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs. PMID:23966957

  16. Psychosocial Distress and Stroke Risk in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Kimberly M.; Clark, Cari J.; Lewis, Tené T.; Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Beck, Todd; Guo, Hongfei; Lunos, Scott; Brearley, Ann; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association of psychosocial distress with risk of stroke mortality and incident stroke in older adults. Methods Data were from the Chicago Health and Aging Project, a longitudinal population-based study conducted in three contiguous neighborhoods on the south side of Chicago, Illinois. Participants were community-dwelling black and non-Hispanic white adults, age 65 and older (N=4,120 for stroke mortality; N=2,649 for incident stroke). Psychosocial distress was an analytically-derived composite measure of depressive symptoms, perceived stress, neuroticism, and life dissatisfaction. Cox proportional hazards models examined the association of distress with stroke mortality and incident stroke over 6 years of follow-up. Results 151 stroke deaths and 452 incident strokes were identified. Adjusting for age, race, and sex, the hazard ratio (HR) for each 1-SD increase in distress was 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.28–1.70) for stroke mortality and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.07–1.30) for incident stroke. Associations were reduced following adjustment for stroke risk factors and remained significant for stroke mortality (HR=1.29; 95% CI=1.10–1.52) but not for incident stroke (HR=1.09; 95% CI=0.98–1.21). Secondary analyses of stroke subtypes showed that distress was strongly related to incident hemorrhagic strokes (HR=1.70; 95% CI=1.28–2.25) but not ischemic strokes (HR=1.02; 95% CI=0.91–1.15) in fully adjusted models. Conclusions Increasing levels of psychosocial distress are related to excess risk of both fatal and nonfatal stroke in older black and white adults. Additional research is needed to examine pathways linking psychosocial distress to cerebrovascular disease risk. PMID:23238864

  17. Smoking: A risk factor for vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Phyllis; Flanagan, Patty

    2016-09-01

    Smoking in the United States includes at least 16% of the adults, 24% of high school students, nearly 8% of middle school students and is more prevalent in men than women; however, a decline in smoking has been documented in recent years. Cardiovascular disease continues to be a leading cause of death. Smoking is identified as a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, carotid disease, and peripheral artery disease with peripheral artery disease documented in 5%-10% of all Americans. Smoking is also a significant risk factor in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm in 7% of men aged 65-75 years with a smoking history. Toxic chemicals found in tobacco smoke are reported at 7,357 chemical compounds including the addictive chemical of nicotine. A substantial number of large studies and well-known trials have identified an increase in proinflammatory cells and cellular processes in the smoker diagnosed with atherosclerosis and in the mechanism attributed to abdominal aortic aneurysm development. The cost of smoking to health care is significant, and smoking cessation can demonstrate benefits to health improvement and the cost of health care. PMID:27568314

  18. Gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence among South African adults.

    PubMed

    Gass, Jesse D; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-09-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a national sample of South African men and women. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South Africa Stress and Health Study, the authors examine data from 1,715 currently married or cohabiting adults on reporting of intimate partner violence. Our analysis include (a) demographic factors, (b) early life risk factors (including exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, parental closeness, and early onset DSM-IV disorders), and (c) adult risk factors (including experiencing the death of a child and episodes of DSM-IV disorders after age 20). Although prevalence rates of intimate partner violence are high among both genders, women are significantly more likely than men to report being victimized (29.3% vs. 20.9%). Rates of perpetrating violence are similar for women and men (25.2% and 26.5%, respectively). Men are more likely to report predictive factors for perpetration, whereas women are more likely to report predictors for victimization. Common risk factors among men and women reporting perpetration include exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and adult onset alcohol abuse/dependence. However, risk factors in male perpetrators are more likely to include cohabitation, low income, and early and adult-onset mood disorders, whereas risk factors in female perpetrators include low educational attainment and early onset alcohol abuse/dependence. The single common risk factor for male and female victims of partner violence is witnessing parental violence. Additional risk factors for male victims are low income and lack of closeness to a primary female

  19. Signal Detection Analysis of Factors Associated with Diabetes among Semirural Mexican American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanni, K. D.; Ahn, D. A.; Winkleby, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Signal detection analysis was used to evaluate a combination of sociodemographic, acculturation, mental health, health care, and chronic disease risk factors potentially associated with diabetes in a sample of 4,505 semirural Mexican American adults. Overall, 8.9% of adults had been diagnosed with diabetes. The analysis resulted in 12 mutually…

  20. A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a dynamic developmental systems perspective, risk factors included: (a) contextual characteristics of partners (demographic, neighborhood, community and school factors), (b) developmental characteristics and behaviors of the partners (e.g., family, peer, psychological/behavioral, and cognitive factors), and (c) relationship influences and interactional patterns. Comparisons to a prior review highlight developments in the field in the past 10 years. Recommendations for intervention and policy along with future directions for intimate partner violence (IPV) risk factor research are presented. PMID:22754606

  1. Adult Psychotic Symptoms, Their Associated Risk Factors and Changes in Prevalence in Men and Women Over a Decade in a Poor Rural District of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Ongeri, Linnet; Ogutu, Bernards; Sifuna, Peter; Kingora, James; Kiima, David; Ongecha, Michael; Omollo, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    There have been no repeat surveys of psychotic symptoms in Kenya or indeed subSaharan Africa. A mental health epidemiological survey was therefore conducted in a demographic surveillance site of a Kenyan household population in 2013 to test the hypothesis that the prevalence of psychotic symptoms would be similar to that found in an earlier sample drawn from the same sample frame in 2004, using the same overall methodology and instruments. This 2013 study found that the prevalence of one or more psychotic symptoms was 13.9% with one or more symptoms and 3.8% with two or more symptoms, while the 2004 study had found that the prevalence of single psychotic symptoms in rural Kenya was 8% of the adult population, but only 0.6% had two symptoms and none had three or more psychotic symptoms. This change was accounted for by a striking increase in psychotic symptoms in women (17.8% in 2013 compared with 6.9% in 2004, p < 0.001), whereas there was no significant change in men (10.6% in 2013 compared with 9.4% in 2004, p = 0.582). Potential reasons for this increase in rate of psychotic symptoms in women are explored. PMID:25996885

  2. [Suicide risk factors among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Pérez Barrero, Sergio Andrés

    2012-08-01

    The author offers a brief overview of suicide risk factors among the elderly such as depression, all manner of abuse of the elderly, as well as medical, psychological and social risk factors, etc. By way of conclusion, a practical guide to evaluate suicide risk among the elderly is provided. PMID:22899142

  3. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  4. Prevalence and Clustering of Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Cheng, Xinqi; Qiu, Ling; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Guangjin; Han, Jianhua; Xia, Liangyu; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the Chinese population. Although general prevalence estimates of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) are available for Chinese adults, prevalence estimates covering all adult age groups by race/ethnicity have not been reported. The aim of this study is to estimate the current prevalence and clustering of major CVRFs in Chinese adults, including a plurality of ethnic minorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 23,010 adults aged 18 years and older from 2007 to 2011. Questionnaires and physical examinations were performed, and fasting blood was collected for laboratory measurements. The prevalence of traditional CVRFs, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight, and current smoking, were determined. The prevalence of the major CVRFs, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight, and current smoking were 24.3%, 4.3%, 49.3%, 32.0%, and 21.7%, respectively. These risk factors were significantly associated with sex, age, region, ethnicity, and education levels. Overall, 70.3%, 40.3%, and 16.7% of Chinese adults had ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 CVRFs, respectively. Men, northern and rural residents were more likely to have clustered CVRFs compared with women, southern and urban residents, respectively. Compared with Han residents, Hui and Mongolian residents were more likely, and Tujia and Miao residents were less likely, to have ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 risk factors. The prevalence of Chinese women having ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 CVRFs decreased with increasing levels of education. The prevalence and clustering of CVRFs is still high in Chinese adults ≥18 years old, especially in men and in individuals living in the northern and rural areas. Of note, there are differences in cardiovascular risk among different ethnic groups. Therefore, targeted and enhanced intervention measures are required to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and the

  5. Arterial Ischemic Stroke in Children: Risk Factors and Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Numis, Adam L.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is increasingly recognized as a significant cause of morbidity or mortality in children and as a financial burden for families and society. Recent studies have identified and confirmed presumptive risk factors and have identified novel associations with childhood arterial ischemic stroke. A better understanding of these risk factors for stroke in children, which differ from the atherosclerotic risk factors in adults, is the first step needed to improve strategies for stroke prevention and intervention and ultimately minimize the physical, mental and financial burden of AIS. Here, we discuss recent advances in research for selected childhood stroke risk factors, highlighting the progress made in our understanding of etiologic mechanisms and pathophysiology, and address the future directions for acute and long-term treatment strategies for pediatric stroke. PMID:24384876

  6. Attending religious services and its relationship with coronary heart disease and related risk factors in older adults: a qualitative study of church pastors' and parishioners' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Ananya Tina; Strachan, Patricia H; Boyle, Michael H; Anand, Sonia S; Oremus, Mark

    2014-12-01

    A qualitative study was undertaken to explain findings of a cross-sectional study of Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 4.1 data showing older persons who attend religious services more than once a week, compared to persons who do not attend at all, have lower prevalences of coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes and high blood pressure. Twelve semi-structured interviews with ordained pastors and three focus groups with older parishioners from Canadian churches were conducted. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed for emergent themes through a process of direct content analysis. All participants claimed that religious service attendance (RSA): (1) enhances mental health; (2) provides social support and activities; and (3) promotes health and lifestyle behaviours that lower CHD risk. These three themes appear to be underlying mechanisms that help to explain the inverse association between RSA and the prevalence of adverse health outcomes found in the CCHS 4.1 data. PMID:24132458

  7. Risk Factors for β-Amyloid Deposition in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigue, Karen M.; Rieck, Jennifer R.; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Devous, Michael D.; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Park, Denise C.

    2013-01-01

    Importance Identifying risk factors for increased β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition is important for targeting individuals most at risk for developing Alzheimer disease and informing clinical practice concerning prevention and early detection. Objective To investigate risk factors for Aβ deposition in cognitively healthy middle-aged and older adults. Specifically, we hypothesized that individuals with a vascular risk factor such as hypertension, in combination with a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (apolipoprotein E ε4 allele), would show greater amyloid burden than those without such risk. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting General community. Participants One hundred eighteen well-screened and cognitively normal adults, aged 47 to 89 years. Participants were classified in the hypertension group if they reported a medical diagnosis of hypertension or if blood pressure exceeded 140 mm Hg systolic/90 mm Hg diastolic, as measured across 7 occasions at the time of study. Intervention Participants underwent Aβ positron emission tomography imaging with radiotracer fluorine 18–labeled florbetapir. Participants were genotyped for apolipoprotein E and were classified as ε4+ or ε4−. Main Outcome Measure Amyloid burden. Results Participants in the hypertension group with at least 1 ε4 allele showed significantly greater amyloid burden than those with only 1 risk factor or no risk factors. Furthermore, increased pulse pressure was strongly associated with increased mean cortical amyloid level for subjects with at least 1 ε4 allele. Conclusions and Relevance Vascular disease is a prevalent age-related condition that is highly responsive to both behavioral modification and medical treatment. Proper control and prevention of risk factors such as hypertension earlier in the life span may be one potential mechanism to ameliorate or delay neuropathological brain changes with aging. PMID:23553344

  8. Suicide protective factors among trans adults.

    PubMed

    Moody, Chérie; Smith, Nathan Grant

    2013-07-01

    A recent study indicated a suicide attempt rate of 41 % among trans (e.g., trans, transgender, transexual/transsexual, genderqueer, two-spirit) individuals. Although this rate is alarming, there is a dearth of literature regarding suicide prevention for trans individuals. A vital step in developing suicide prevention models is the identification of protective factors. It was hypothesized that social support from friends, social support from family, optimism, reasons for living, and suicide resilience, which are known to protect cis (non-trans) individuals, also protect trans individuals. A sample of self-identified trans Canadian adults (N = 133) was recruited from LGBT and trans LISTSERVs. Data were collected online using a secure survey platform. A three block hierarchical multiple regression model was used to predict suicidal behavior from protective factors. Social support from friends, social support from family, and optimism significantly and negatively predicted 33 % of variance in participants' suicidal behavior after controlling for age. Reasons for living and suicide resilience accounted for an additional 19 % of the variance in participants' suicidal behavior after controlling for age, social support from friends, social support from family, and optimism. Of the factors mentioned above, perceived social support from family, one of three suicide resilience factors (emotional stability), and one of six reasons for living (child-related concerns) significantly and negatively predicted participants' suicidal behavior. Overall, these findings can be used to inform the practices of mental health workers, medical doctors, and suicide prevention workers working with trans clients. PMID:23613139

  9. Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: Adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population. PMID:17968646

  10. Disease History and Medication Use as Risk Factors for the Clinical Manifestation of Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Young Adults: An Explorative Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C.; van der Vorst, Marja M. J.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; Knibbe, Catherijne A. J.; de Boer, Anthonius

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a highly variable asymptomatic period of beta cell destruction prior to the clinical presentation of type1 diabetes. It is not well known what triggers type 1 diabetes to become a clinically overt disease. This explorative study aimed to identify the association between disease history/medication use and the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes. Methodology/Principal Findings An explorative case control study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO Record Linkage System. Cases (n  = 1,107) were younger than 25 years and had at least 2 insulin prescriptions between 1999 and 2009. For each case, up to 4 controls (without any prescription for the glucose lowering medications (n  = 4,424)) were matched by age and sex. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between disease history/medication use in the year prior to the diagnosis of type1 diabetes and clinical manifestation of this disease. Type1 diabetes was significantly associated with a history of mental disorder (odds ratio (OR) 8.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–43.7), anemia (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.1–22.9), and disease of digestive system (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2–5.5). The following drug exposures were significantly associated with the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes: “systemic hormonal preparations” (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.6), medications for “blood and blood forming organs” (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.6), “alimentary tract and metabolism” (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1.6), and “anti-infectives for systemic use” (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01–1.4). Conclusions Our explorative study demonstrated that in the year prior to the presentation of type1 diabetes in children and young adults, hospitalization for a diverse group of diseases and drug exposures were significantly more prevalent compared with age- and sex-matched diabetes-free controls. PMID:24498320

  11. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 ...

  12. [General practitioner burnout: risk factors].

    PubMed

    Dagrada, H; Verbanck, P; Kornreich, C

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims to review current knowledge on risk factors leading to burn-out of general practitioners, who are particularly concerned by burn-out, as 50% of them are being more or less affected. This article is based on bibliographic research covering literature between 1975 and 2010, using PUB MED software, medical books and articles. 44 articles were selected as dealing well with the aspects of the burn-out reviewed here. It seems established that stress precedes burnout symptoms. Theories investigating relationships between stress and work are presented. Exogenic stress (load and organization of work, emotional interaction with the patient, constraints, lack of recognition, conflicts between private and professional life) interacts with endogenous stress (idealism, (too much) acute feeling of responsibility, mood disorder, difficulty in collaborating, character, personality). Burn-out symptoms would appear preferentially when these two stresses coexist. Despite the wealth of publications, there is still a lack of knowledge of the causes of burn-out, requiring therefore increased research efforts, in order to improve the implementation of preventive measures, beneficial to the doctors as well as to their patients. PMID:22034773

  13. Falls Risk and Simulated Driving Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, John G.; Neider, Mark B.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    Declines in executive function and dual-task performance have been related to falls in older adults, and recent research suggests that older adults at risk for falls also show impairments on real-world tasks, such as crossing a street. The present study examined whether falls risk was associated with driving performance in a high-fidelity simulator. Participants were classified as high or low falls risk using the Physiological Profile Assessment and completed a number of challenging simulated driving assessments in which they responded quickly to unexpected events. High falls risk drivers had slower response times (~2.1 seconds) to unexpected events compared to low falls risk drivers (~1.7 seconds). Furthermore, when asked to perform a concurrent cognitive task while driving, high falls risk drivers showed greater costs to secondary task performance than did low falls risk drivers, and low falls risk older adults also outperformed high falls risk older adults on a computer-based measure of dual-task performance. Our results suggest that attentional differences between high and low falls risk older adults extend to simulated driving performance. PMID:23509627

  14. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  15. Social-Relational Risk Factors for Predicting Elder Physical Abuse: An Ecological Bi-Focal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Heydrich, Levente; Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Annually in the United States, 1 to 5 million older adults, 65 and above, are physically or sexually injured or mistreated by their caregivers in family settings. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors involved in elder physical abuse by adult child caregivers, moving from the immediate elderly parent/adult child relationship context…

  16. Adolescent Psychosocial Risk Factors for Severe Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…

  17. Effect of a Web-Based Behavior Change Program on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults at High Risk of Developing Cardiovascular Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Sinead; Woodside, Jayne V; Ware, Lisa J; Hunter, Steven J; McGrath, Alanna; Cardwell, Christopher R; Appleton, Katherine M; Young, Ian S

    2015-01-01

    Background Web-based programs are a potential medium for supporting weight loss because of their accessibility and wide reach. Research is warranted to determine the shorter- and longer-term effects of these programs in relation to weight loss and other health outcomes. Objective The aim was to evaluate the effects of a Web-based component of a weight loss service (Imperative Health) in an overweight/obese population at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a randomized controlled design and a true control group. Methods A total of 65 overweight/obese adults at high risk of CVD were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 (n=32) was provided with the Web-based program, which supported positive dietary and physical activity changes and assisted in managing weight. Group 2 continued with their usual self-care (n=33). Assessments were conducted face-to-face. The primary outcome was between-group change in weight at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included between-group change in anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid measurements, physical activity, and energy intake at 3, 6, and 12 months. Interviews were conducted to explore participants’ views of the Web-based program. Results Retention rates for the intervention and control groups at 3 months were 78% (25/32) vs 97% (32/33), at 6 months were 66% (21/32) vs 94% (31/33), and at 12 months were 53% (17/32) vs 88% (29/33). Intention-to-treat analysis, using baseline observation carried forward imputation method, revealed that the intervention group lost more weight relative to the control group at 3 months (mean –3.41, 95% CI –4.70 to –2.13 kg vs mean –0.52, 95% CI –1.55 to 0.52 kg, P<.001), at 6 months (mean –3.47, 95% CI –4.95 to –1.98 kg vs mean –0.81, 95% CI –2.23 to 0.61 kg, P=.02), but not at 12 months (mean –2.38, 95% CI –3.48 to –0.97 kg vs mean –1.80, 95% CI –3.15 to –0.44 kg, P=.77). More intervention group participants lost ≥5% of their baseline body

  18. Factors associated with cognitive function in older adults in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Miu, Jenny; Negin, Joel; Salinas-Rodriguez, Aarón; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa; Cumming, Robert; Kowal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background As populations age, cognitive decline and dementia pose significant burdens for societies and health care systems, including low- and middle-income countries such as Mexico. Minor age-related declines in cognitive function appear to represent a stable but heterogeneous phase in the continuum between normal cognitive ageing and dementia. Loss of cognitive function has impacts at societal and individual levels and understanding the risk factors can help provide a framework for health policies and interventions to target at-risk groups. Design A cohort of older Mexican adults (50+) from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO SAGE) was used to examine cognitive function, including a total of 2315 respondents, with 325 respondents aged 80 years and older. Cognition was objectively evaluated using verbal recall, verbal fluency, forward digit span and backward digit span, with differences in an overall cognitive score assessed against sociodemographic variables, and associated factors using linear regression. Results The most significant predictors of poorer cognitive function were found to be older age (β=−13.88), rural living (β=−2.25), low income (β=−8.28), self-reported severe or extreme memory difficulties (β=−6.62), and difficulty with two or more activities of daily living (β=−2.02). Conclusions These findings can inform public health initiatives to address cognitive impairment in ageing populations in Mexico and other middle-income countries. PMID:27032808

  19. [Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours].

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Szumiło, Justyna; Jankiewicz, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2016-04-01

    Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment. PMID:27137819

  20. Discrimination, Affect, and Cancer Risk Factors among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Adolfo G.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Adams, Claire E.; Cao, Yumei; Nguyen, Nga; Wetter, David W.; Watkins, Kellie L.; Regan, Seann D.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether stress or depressive symptoms mediated associations between perceived discrimination and multiple modifiable behavioral risk factors for cancer among 1363 African American adults. Methods Nonparametric bootstrapping procedures, adjusted for sociodemographics, were used to assess mediation. Results Stress and depressive symptoms each mediated associations between discrimination and current smoking, and discrimination and the total number of behavioral risk factors for cancer. Depressive symptoms also mediated the association between discrimination and overweight/obesity (p values < .05). Conclusions Discrimination may influence certain behavioral risk factors for cancer through heightened levels of stress and depressive symptoms. Interventions to reduce cancer risk may need to address experiences of discrimination, as well as the stress and depression they engender. PMID:24034678

  1. Genetic polymorphisms as a risk factor for dyslipidemia in children

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Izabela R.; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Sousa, Marinez O.; Ferreira, Cláudia N.; Gomes, Karina B.

    2013-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is an important etiological factor for development of cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of deaths in adults. Given the growing global epidemic of dyslipidemia, lipoprotein metabolism disorders have become an important health problem not only in adulthood, but have also emerged as an increasingly risk factor in childhood. Although several genome-wide association studies in multiple large population-based cohorts of adults and meta-analyses have identified susceptibility genes or loci, especially in lipid-related traits, it is of great importance to evaluate genetic predisposition at an early age. Recent findings suggest that the identification of polymorphisms in the metabolism of lipids in childhood may help fight subclinical atherosclerosis and its progression to cardiovascular complications in adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review genetic polymorphisms as risk factors associated with dyslipidemia in children and adolescents.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors in Italy.

    PubMed

    Menotti, A

    1999-12-01

    In the 1950s the Italian population was known for its low mean levels of major cardiovascular risk factors and serum cholesterol in particular. A definite increase of those mean levels was associated, in the next 2 decades, with increasing death rates from cardiovascular diseases and coronary heart disease. Between the late 1970s and early 1990s cardiovascular death rates declined by over 40%. Large population surveys showed, between 1978 and 1987, small decreases in the mean levels of blood pressure (in both sexes), of smoking habits (in men), and of body weight (in women), while serum cholesterol remained stable. These changes mathematically explained about two-thirds of the observed decline in cardiovascular mortality among middle-aged people. In the late 1980s and early 1990s scattered population studies suggested a decline in mean population levels of serum cholesterol, at least in some areas of the country. More coordinated or systematic preventive campaigns were organized by the public health authorities. On the other hand activities of many small private organizations dealing with heart health likely explain the spread of knowledge, attitude, and practice in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Food industry started to produce low-fat products and to label foods with nutrition facts. Changes in food consumption in the beneficial direction started to be recorded in the late 1980s. The spread of antihypertensive treatment was partly favored by the National Health Service offering anti-hypertensive drugs at relatively low cost. Government regulations have more and more restricted the public areas where smoking is allowed. An increasing interest for prevention on the part of physicians is a recent issue, mainly bound to the success of some major controlled trials of hypocholesterolemic drugs. PMID:10641828

  3. Recognising falls risk in older adult mental health patients and acknowledging the difference from the general older adult population.

    PubMed

    Wynaden, Dianne; Tohotoa, Jenny; Heslop, Karen; Al Omari, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Older adults admitted to inpatient mental health units present with complex mental health care needs which are often compounded by the challenges of living with physical co-morbidities. They are a mobile population and a high risk group for falling during hospitalisation. To address quality and safety concerns around the increased risk for falls, a qualitative research study was completed to obtain an improved understanding of the factors that increase the risk of falling in this patient cohort. Focus groups were conducted with mental health professionals working across older adult mental health services in metropolitan Western Australia. Data were analysed using content analysis and three themes emerged that were significant concepts relevant to falls risk in this patient group. These themes were (1) limitations of using generic falls risk assessment and management tools, (2) assessment of falls risk not currently captured on standardised tools, and (3) population specific causes of falls. The findings demonstrate that older adult mental health patients are a highly mobile group that experience frequent changes in cognition, behaviour and mental state. The mix of patients with organic or functional psychiatric disorders within the same environment also presents complex and unique care challenges and multi-disciplinary collaboration is central to reduce the risk of falls. As this group of patients are also frequently admitted to both general inpatient and aged care settings, the findings are relevant to the assessment and management of falls risk across all health care settings. PMID:27188045

  4. Adult-Onset Asthma Might Raise Heart Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Risks But shared risk factors, such as air pollution, might explain the connection, researchers say To use ... is often caused by different factors -- such as air pollution -- and often results in a more rapid decline ...

  5. Successful Up-Scaled Population Interventions to Reduce Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Disease in Adults: Results from the International Community Interventions for Health (CIH) Project in China, India and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Pamela A.; Anthony, Denis; Fenton, Brenda; Stevens, Denise E.; Champagne, Beatriz; Li, Li-Ming; Lv, Jun; Ramírez Hernández, Jorge; Thankappan, K. R.; Matthews, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-communicable disease (NCD) is increasing rapidly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), and is associated with tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. There is little evidence for up-scaled interventions at the population level to reduce risk in LMIC. Methods The Community Interventions for Health (CIH) program was a population-scale community intervention study with comparator population group undertaken in communities in China, India, and Mexico, each with populations between 150,000-250,000. Culturally appropriate interventions were delivered over 18-24 months. Two independent cross-sectional surveys of a stratified sample of adults aged 18-64 years were conducted at baseline and follow-up. Results A total of 6,194 adults completed surveys at baseline, and 6,022 at follow-up. The proportion meeting physical activity recommendations decreased significantly in the control group (C) (44.1 to 30.2%), but not in the intervention group (I) (38.0 to 36.1%), p<0.001. Those eating ≥5 portions of fruit and vegetables daily decreased significantly in C (19.2 to 17.2%), but did not change in I (20.0 to 19.6%,), p=0.013. The proportion adding salt to food was unchanged in C (24.9 to 25.3%) and decreased in I (25.9 to 19.6%), p<0.001. Prevalence of obesity increased in C (8.3 to 11.2%), with no change in I (8.6 to 9.7%,) p=0.092. Concerning tobacco, for men the difference-in-difference analysis showed that the reduction in use was significantly greater in I compared to C (p=0.014) Conclusions Up-scaling known health promoting interventions designed to reduce the incidence of NCD in whole communities in LMIC is feasible, and has measurable beneficial outcomes on risk factors for NCD, namely tobacco use, diet, and physical inactivity. PMID:25875825

  6. Multiple Interacting Risk Factors: On Methods for Allocating Risk Factor Interactions.

    PubMed

    Price, Bertram; MacNicoll, Michael

    2015-05-01

    A persistent problem in health risk analysis where it is known that a disease may occur as a consequence of multiple risk factors with interactions is allocating the total risk of the disease among the individual risk factors. This problem, referred to here as risk apportionment, arises in various venues, including: (i) public health management, (ii) government programs for compensating injured individuals, and (iii) litigation. Two methods have been described in the risk analysis and epidemiology literature for allocating total risk among individual risk factors. One method uses weights to allocate interactions among the individual risk factors. The other method is based on risk accounting axioms and finding an optimal and unique allocation that satisfies the axioms using a procedure borrowed from game theory. Where relative risk or attributable risk is the risk measure, we find that the game-theory-determined allocation is the same as the allocation where risk factor interactions are apportioned to individual risk factors using equal weights. Therefore, the apportionment problem becomes one of selecting a meaningful set of weights for allocating interactions among the individual risk factors. Equal weights and weights proportional to the risks of the individual risk factors are discussed. PMID:25644783

  7. Which psychosocial factors best predict cognitive performance in older adults?

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Nowinski, Cindy J; Gershon, Richard C; Manly, Jennifer J

    2014-05-01

    Negative affect (e.g., depression) is associated with accelerated age-related cognitive decline and heightened dementia risk. Fewer studies examine positive psychosocial factors (e.g., emotional support, self-efficacy) in cognitive aging. Preliminary reports suggest that these variables predict slower cognitive decline independent of negative affect. No reports have examined these factors in a single model to determine which best relate to cognition. Data from 482 individuals 55 and older came from the normative sample for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Negative and positive psychosocial factors, executive functioning, working memory, processing speed, and episodic memory were measured with the NIH Toolbox Emotion and Cognition modules. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling characterized independent relations between psychosocial factors and cognition. Psychosocial variables loaded onto negative and positive factors. Independent of education, negative affect and health status, greater emotional support was associated with better task-switching and processing speed. Greater self-efficacy was associated with better working memory. Negative affect was not independently associated with any cognitive variables. Findings support the conceptual distinctness of negative and positive psychosocial factors in older adults. Emotional support and self-efficacy may be more closely tied to cognition than other psychosocial variables. PMID:24685143

  8. Early Life Adversity and Adult Biological Risk Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Esther M.; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Gruenewald, Tara; Koretz, Brandon; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether there is a relationship between early life adversity (ELA) and biological parameters known to predict health risks and to examine the extent to which circumstances in midlife mediate this relationship. Methods We analyzed data on 1,180 respondents from the biomarker subsample of the second wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study. ELA assessments were based on childhood socioeconomic disadvantage (i.e. on welfare, perceived low income, less-educated parents) and other stressors (e.g., parental death, parental divorce, and parental physical abuse). The outcome variable was cumulative allostatic load (AL), a marker of biological risk. We also incorporate information on adult circumstances, including: education, social relationships, and health behaviors. Results Childhood socioeconomic adversity was associated with increased AL (B=0.094, SE=0.041) and physical abuse (B=0.263, SE=0.091), with non-significant associations for parental divorce and death. Adult education mediated the relationship between socioeconomic ELA and cumulative allostatic load to the point of non-significance, with this factor alone explaining nearly 40% of the relationship. The association between childhood physical abuse and AL remained even after adjusting for adult educational attainments, social relationships, and health behaviors. These associations were most pronounced for secondary stress systems, including inflammation, cardiovascular function, and lipid metabolism. Conclusions The physiological consequences of early life socioeconomic adversity are attenuated by achieving high levels of schooling later on. The adverse consequences of childhood physical abuse, on the other hand, persist in multivariable adjusted analysis. PMID:25650548

  9. What Are the Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... what causes gastrointestinal stromal tumors? What are the risk factors for gastrointestinal stromal tumors? A risk factor is ... disease like cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like ...

  10. Pathways to Health Risk Exposure in Adult Film Performers

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers’ exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18709554

  11. Pathways to health risk exposure in adult film performers.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Ryan, Gery; Margold, William; Torres, Jacqueline; Gelberg, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    Despite being part of a large and legal industry in Los Angeles, little is known about adult film performers' exposure to health risks and when and how these risks might occur. The objective was to identify exposure to physical, mental, and social health risks and the pathways to such risks among adult film performers and to determine how risks differ between different types of performers, such as men and women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 female and ten male performers as well as two key informants from the industry. Performers and key informants were recruited through Protecting Adult Welfare, adult film venues, and snowball sampling. Performers engaged in risky health behaviors that included high-risk sexual acts that are unprotected, substance abuse, and body enhancement. They are exposed to physical trauma on the film set. Many entered and left the industry with financial insecurity and suffered from mental health problems. Women were more likely than men to be exposed to health risks. Adult film performers, especially women, are exposed to health risks that accumulate over time and that are not limited to sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18709554

  12. [Lifestyle-related risk factors for dementia].

    PubMed

    Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Andersen, Kjeld; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2006-10-01

    Emerging knowledge about modifiable risk factors for dementia has given rise to interventions that can potentially prevent or delay the onset of dementia and the possible target periods for intervention extend from prenatal period to old age. Factors during early life such as nutrition, education, and parental socioeconomic status can influence the development of dementia later in life. From mid to late life, a physically, socially, and intellectually active lifestyle is associated with reduced risk for dementia. Moreover, modification of cardiovascular risk factors during this period can potentially reduce risk for dementia. PMID:17032603

  13. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  14. Risk factors across the eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth

    2014-12-15

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  15. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26469872

  16. Adult leukemia risk and personal appliance use: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lovely, R H; Buschbom, R L; Slavich, A L; Anderson, L E; Hansen, N H; Wilson, B W

    1994-09-15

    /sec. These epidemiologic data must be interpreted cautiously because the number of cases is limited and because of proxy reporting of appliance use for deceased cases. Nevertheless, the authors believe these data indicate that peak magnetic field exposure from personal appliances warrants further investigation as a possible risk factor for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in adults. PMID:8067344

  17. Predicting risk of adverse drug reactions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lavan, Amanda Hanora; Gallagher, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are common in older adults, with falls, orthostatic hypotension, delirium, renal failure, gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding being amongst the most common clinical manifestations. ADR risk increases with age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, increasing burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing and suboptimal monitoring of drugs. ADRs are a preventable cause of harm to patients and an unnecessary waste of healthcare resources. Several ADR risk tools exist but none has sufficient predictive value for clinical practice. Good clinical practice for detecting and predicting ADRs in vulnerable patients includes detailed documentation and regular review of prescribed and over-the-counter medications through standardized medication reconciliation. New medications should be prescribed cautiously with clear therapeutic goals and recognition of the impact a drug can have on multiple organ systems. Prescribers should regularly review medication efficacy and be vigilant for ADRs and their contributory risk factors. Deprescribing should occur at an individual level when drugs are no longer efficacious or beneficial or when safer alternatives exist. Inappropriate prescribing and unnecessary polypharmacy should be minimized. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and the use of explicit prescribing criteria can be useful in this regard. PMID:26834959

  18. Predicting risk of adverse drug reactions in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Lavan, Amanda Hanora; Gallagher, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are common in older adults, with falls, orthostatic hypotension, delirium, renal failure, gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding being amongst the most common clinical manifestations. ADR risk increases with age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, increasing burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing and suboptimal monitoring of drugs. ADRs are a preventable cause of harm to patients and an unnecessary waste of healthcare resources. Several ADR risk tools exist but none has sufficient predictive value for clinical practice. Good clinical practice for detecting and predicting ADRs in vulnerable patients includes detailed documentation and regular review of prescribed and over-the-counter medications through standardized medication reconciliation. New medications should be prescribed cautiously with clear therapeutic goals and recognition of the impact a drug can have on multiple organ systems. Prescribers should regularly review medication efficacy and be vigilant for ADRs and their contributory risk factors. Deprescribing should occur at an individual level when drugs are no longer efficacious or beneficial or when safer alternatives exist. Inappropriate prescribing and unnecessary polypharmacy should be minimized. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and the use of explicit prescribing criteria can be useful in this regard. PMID:26834959

  19. Risk factors for criminal recidivism in older sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Seena; Sjöstedt, Gabrielle; Långström, Niklas; Grann, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Sexual offenders constitute a substantial proportion of the older male prison population. Recent research findings, with potential consequences for risk management, indicate that recidivism risk might be lower in older sexual offenders. We followed up all adult male sexual offenders released from prison in Sweden during 1993-1997 (N=1,303) for criminal reconviction for an average of 8.9 years. We studied rates of repeat offending (sexual and any violent) by four age bands (<25, 25-39, 40-54, and 55+years), and examined whether risk factors for recidivism remained stable across age groups. Results showed that recidivism rates decreased significantly in older age bands. In addition, the effect of certain risk factors varied by age band. These findings on recidivism rates in older sexual offenders concur with studies from the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada and may suggest some generalizability in Western settings. Further research is needed to address underlying mechanisms. PMID:16633906

  20. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  1. [Eating disorders as risk factors for osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Gallardo, Ma Teresa; Ma del Socorro, Parra-Cabrera; Barriguete-Meléndez, Jorge Armando

    2005-01-01

    Eating disorders (TCA per its abbreviation in Spanish) are common in young women, with an estimated prevalence of 4-5%. One of the physical complications of eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (TANE) is bone mass loss, which affects both cortical and trabecular bone. The synergistic effect of malnutrition and estrogen deficiency produces significant bone mass loss, resulting from the uncoupling of bone turnover characterized by a decrease in osteoblastic bone formation and an increase in osteclastic bone resorption. The mechanisms implied in the pathogenesis of bone loss are the hypoestrogenism, hypercortisolism, serum leptin levels and insulin-like growth factor decrease. Severity of bone loss in anorexia nervosa varies depending on duration of illness, the minimal weight ever and sedentarism or strenuous exercise. Long term consequences occur, such as a fracture risk increase in patients who have suffered anorexia nervosa, compared with the general population. The first treatment line to recover bone mass is nutritional rehabilitation together with weight gain. Hormonal replacement therapy may be effective if combined with an anabolic method. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are terms adopted to define the deficiency of bone mass in adults. Authors have used these terms to define densitometric data in young subjects who have not reached their peak bone mass. We suggest the term "hypo-osteogenesia" to define the deficiency in the development of bone mass in adolescents or children. PMID:16259293

  2. Factors associated with falls among older adults living in institutions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Falls have enormous impact in older adults. Yet, there is insufficient evidence regarding the effectiveness of preventive interventions in this setting. The objectives were to measure the frequency of falls and associated factors among older people living institutions. Methods Data were obtained from a survey on a probabilistic sample of residents aged ≥65 years, drawn in 1998-99 from institutions of Madrid (Spain). Residents, their caregivers, and facility physicians were interviewed. Fall rates were computed based on the number of physician-reported falls in the preceding 30 days. Adjusted rate ratios were computed using negative binomial regression models, including age, sex, cognitive status, functional dependence, number of diseases, and polypharmacy. Results The final sample comprised 733 residents. The fall rate was 2.4 falls per person-year (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-2.82). The strongest risk factor was number of diseases, with an adjusted rate ratio (RR) of 1.32 (95% CI, 1.17-1.50) for each additional diagnosis. Other variables associated with falls were: urinary incontinence (RR = 2.56 [95% CI, 1.32-4.94]); antidepressant use (RR = 2.32 [95% CI, 1.22-4.40]); arrhythmias (RR = 2.00 [95% CI, 1.05-3.81]); and polypharmacy (RR = 1.07 [95% CI, 0.95-1.21], for each additional medication). The attributable fraction for number of diseases (with reference to those with ≤ 1 condition) was 84% (95% CI, 45-95%). Conclusions Number of diseases was the main risk factor for falls in this population of institutionalized older adults. Other variables associated with falls, probably more amenable to preventive action, were urinary incontinence, antidepressants, arrhythmias, and polypharmacy. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3916151157277337 PMID:23320746

  3. Left ventricular diastolic function in young adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Xie, X; Gidding, S S; Gardin, J M; Bild, D E; Wong, N D; Liu, K

    1995-01-01

    Doppler transmitral flow velocities have been used to assess left ventricular diastolic function. Associations of transmitral velocities with specific physiologic variables and cardiovascular risk factors have not been reported previously in a large population-based study of young adults. We performed Doppler analysis of left ventricular inflow in 3492 black and white men and women (aged 23 to 35 years) in the year-5 examination of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. First third filling fraction, peak flow velocity in early diastole (PFVE), peak flow velocity in late diastole (PFVA), and the PFVA/PFVE ratio were measured. Women had higher PFVE and PFVA than had men (PFVE: 0.81 +/- 0.13 m/sec versus 0.76 +/- 0.13 m/sec; PFVA: 0.47 +/- 0.11 m/sec versus 0.43 +/- 0.10 m/sec; both p < 0.001). Gender-specific multiple regression analyses showed that age, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular percent fractional shortening, and body weight were independently and positively related to PFVA (all p < 0.001) in men and women. Age, heart rate, and forced expiratory lung capacity in 1 second were inversely related to PFVE and first third filling fraction (both p < 0.01). Left ventricular percent fractional shortening was positively related to PFVE and first third filling fraction (p < 0.001). Age, heart rate, and body weight were positively correlated with the PFVA/PFVE ratio (all p < 0.001). Height had weak negative associations with PFVA and PFVE in women only. These results suggest that, in young adults, Doppler measures of left ventricular diastolic filling are related to age, sex, body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular systolic function, and lung function. PMID:8611277

  4. Psychosocial Predictors of Emerging Adults' Risk and Reckless Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham; Wildman, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Studied risk and reckless behavior in 375 emerging adults using self-report measures and a cross-sectional design. Risk behaviors were found to be reliably predicted by sensation seeking, but not by antisocial peer pressure, while the reverse pattern was more true in relation to "reckless" behaviors. (SLD)

  5. EVALUATING RISK IN OLDER ADULTS USING PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid growth in the number of older Americans has many implications for public health, including the need to better understand the risks posed by environmental exposures to older adults. An important element for evaluating risk is the understanding of the doses of environment...

  6. Vehicle emission unit risk factors for transportation risk assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Butler, J.P.

    1999-12-01

    When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often by as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per=kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessment for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations.

  7. Vehicle emission unit risk factors for transportation risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Biwer, B M; Butler, J P

    1999-12-01

    When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often be as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per-kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessments for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations. PMID:10765454

  8. Adolescent and adult risk-taking in virtual social contexts

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Anneke D. M.; Norman, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of experimental data addressing how peers influence adolescent risk-taking. Here, we examined peer effects on risky decision-making in adults and adolescents using a virtual social context that enabled experimental control over the peer “interactions.” 40 adolescents (age 11–18) and 28 adults (age 20–38) completed a risk-taking (Wheel of Fortune) task under four conditions: in private; while being observed by (fictitious) peers; and after receiving ‘risky’ or ‘safe’ advice from the peers. For high-risk gambles (but not medium-risk or even gambles), adolescents made more risky decisions under peer observation than adults. Adolescents, but not adults, tended to resist ‘safe’ advice for high-risk gambles. Although both groups tended to follow ‘risky’ advice for high-risk gambles, adults did so more than adolescents. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between the effects of peer observation and peer advice on risky decision-making. PMID:25566150

  9. Genetic Insights into Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, John B

    2014-01-01

    Many biochemical traits are recognised as risk factors, which contribute to or predict the development of disease. Only a few are in widespread use, usually to assist with treatment decisions and motivate behavioural change. The greatest effort has gone into evaluation of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes, with substantial overlap as ‘cardiometabolic’ risk. Over the past few years many genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have sought to account for variation in risk factors, with the expectation that identifying relevant polymorphisms would improve our understanding or prediction of disease; others have taken the direct approach of genomic case-control studies for the corresponding diseases. Large GWAS have been published for coronary heart disease and Type 2 diabetes, and also for associated biomarkers or risk factors including body mass index, lipids, C-reactive protein, urate, liver function tests, glucose and insulin. Results are not encouraging for personal risk prediction based on genotyping, mainly because known risk loci only account for a small proportion of risk. Overlap of allelic associations between disease and marker, as found for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and heart disease, supports a causal association, but in other cases genetic studies have cast doubt on accepted risk factors. Some loci show unexpected effects on multiple markers or diseases. An intriguing feature of risk factors is the blurring of categories shown by the correlation between them and the genetic overlap between diseases previously thought of as distinct. GWAS can provide insight into relationships between risk factors, biomarkers and diseases, with potential for new approaches to disease classification. PMID:24659834

  10. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD) IN GENETICALLY PREDISPOSED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent CVD models are increasingly used for understanding individual differences in susceptibility to environmental stressors such as air pollution. We characterized pathologies and a number of known human risk factors of CVD in genetically predisposed, male young adult Spontaneo...

  11. Sudden cardiac death: epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Adabag, A. Selcuk; Luepker, Russell V.; Roger, Véronique L.; Gersh, Bernard J.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an important public-health problem with multiple etiologies, risk factors, and changing temporal trends. Substantial progress has been made over the past few decades in identifying markers that confer increased SCD risk at the population level. However, the quest for predicting the high-risk individual who could be a candidate for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, or other therapy, continues. In this article, we review the incidence, temporal trends, and triggers of SCD, and its demographic, clinical, and genetic risk factors. We also discuss the available evidence supporting the use of public-access defibrillators. PMID:20142817

  12. Summary of factors contributing to falls in older adults and nursing implications.

    PubMed

    Enderlin, Carol; Rooker, Janet; Ball, Susan; Hippensteel, Dawn; Alderman, Joanne; Fisher, Sarah Jean; McLeskey, Nanci; Jordan, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Falls are a common cause of serious injury and injury-related death in the older adult population, and may be associated with multiple risks such as age, history of falls, impaired mobility, balance and gait problems, and medications. Sensory and environmental factors as well as the fear of falling may also increase the risk of falls. The purpose of this article is to review current best practice on screening fall risks and fear of falling, fall prevention strategies, and fall prevention resources to assist gerontological nurses in reducing falls by their older adult clients. PMID:26343008

  13. Risk Factors and Levels of Risk for High School Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Suh, Jingyo

    2007-01-01

    The study in this article identifies three major risk categories of high school dropouts and evaluates the impact of possible prevention strategies. As students accumulate these risks, they became more likely to drop out and prevention programs become less effective. Additionally, it was found that factors influencing the decision to drop out vary…

  14. Risk Factors for Complications of Traumatic Injuries.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar Júnior, Wagner; Saleh, Carmen Mohamad Rida; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Complications in hospitalized trauma patients are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to identify the in-hospital trauma patients' complications and identify the risk factors for complications in this population. A retrospective analysis was conducted in a sample from a Brazilian hospital. The sample consisted of 407 patients, 194 (47.66%) of whom had records of complications. The most common complications were infections (41.80%). The risk factors related to the complications were age, length of hospital stay, external causes, and injury severity. The complications were frequent in this sample, and the risk for complications was characterized by multiple factors. PMID:27618375

  15. Differences in Risk Aversion between Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Steven M.; Duffy, John

    2013-01-01

    Research on decision-making strategies among younger and older adults suggests that older adults may be more risk averse than younger people in the case of potential losses. These results mostly come from experimental studies involving gambling paradigms. Since these paradigms involve substantial demands on memory and learning, differences in risk aversion or other features of decision-making attributed to age may in fact reflect age-related declines in cognitive abilities. In the current study, older and younger adults completed a simpler, paired lottery choice task used in the experimental economics literature to elicit risk aversion. A similar approach was used to elicit participants' discount rates. The older adult group was more risk averse than younger adults (p < .05) and also had a higher discount rate (15.6-21.0% vs. 10.3-15.5%, p < .01), indicating lower expected utility from future income. Risk aversion and implied discount rates were weakly correlated. It may be valuable to investigate developmental changes in neural correlates of decision-making across the lifespan. PMID:24319671

  16. Depression and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Late-life depression is an important public health problem because of its devastating consequences. The study aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported symptom-based depression in a national sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements as well as questions on depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the association of socio-demographic factors, health variables, and depression. Results The overall prevalence of symptom-based depression in the past 12 months was 4.0%. In multivariable analysis, functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems) were associated with self-reported depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Conclusions Self-reported depression in older South Africans seems to be a public health problem calling for appropriate interventions to reduce occurrence. Factors identified to be associated with depression, including functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems), can be used to guide interventions. The identified protective and risk factors can help in formulating public health care policies to improve quality of life among older adults. PMID:23336621

  17. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ewald, D Rose; Haldeman PhD, Lauren A

    2016-01-01

    Hy