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Sample records for adult role models

  1. Negative Adult Influences and the Protective Effects of Role Models: A Study with Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Xue, Yange

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether role models (individuals adolescents look up to) contributed to the resilience of adolescents who were exposed to negative nonparental adult influences. Our sample included 659 African American, ninth-grade adolescents. We found that adolescents' exposure to negative adult behavior was associated with increased…

  2. Images of Women in Historical Young Adult Fiction: Seeking Role Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boreen, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Considers a number of young adult novels in light of how they cast female characters as potential role models to which late 20th-century adolescent readers can relate. Offers brief descriptions of 28 young adult books of historical fiction set in America with female protagonists. (SR)

  3. Adults Role in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  4. The value of role modelling: Perceptions of undergraduate and diploma nursing (adult) students.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Jayne H; Carter, Diana

    2005-11-01

    Using a grounded theory methodology, this paper demonstrates the value of role modelling in teaching and learning within the clinical area. Views of undergraduate (n=20) and diploma (n=22) nursing (adult) students were sought using individual and focus group interviews. Although the importance of role modelling is acknowledged within the literature, there appears to be little written about the value of providing role modelling within the clinical learning environment to facilitate learning for student nurses. Both groups of students stated the importance of having access to a good role model in order that they could observe and practice skills and/or behaviour. 'Good' role models were seen to have a tremendous influence on the clinical learning environment and on the development of students' competence and confidence. Recommendations were made to include discussions on the value of role modelling on enhancing the clinical learning environment within mentor preparation courses. These discussions should emphasise the value of observational learning, the necessity of providing constructive feedback and the need for role models to enable the student to convert observed behaviour/skills into their own behaviour and skills set. PMID:19040845

  5. An exploration of role model influence on adult nursing students' professional development: A phenomenological research study.

    PubMed

    Felstead, Ian S; Springett, Kate

    2016-02-01

    Patients' expectations of being cared for by a nurse who is caring, competent, and professional are particularly pertinent in current health and social care practice. The current drive for NHS values-based recruitment serves to strengthen this. How nursing students' development of professionalism is shaped is not fully known, though it is acknowledged that their practice experience strongly shapes behaviour. This study (in 2013-14) explored twelve adult nursing students' lived experiences of role modelling through an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach, aiming to understand the impact on their development as professional practitioners. Clinical nurses influenced student development consistently. Some students reported that their experiences allowed them to learn how not to behave in practice; a productive learning experience despite content. Students also felt senior staff influence on their development to be strong, citing 'leading by example.' The impact of patients on student professional development was also a key finding. Through analysing information gained, identifying and educating practice-based mentors who are ready, willing, and able to role model professional attributes appear crucial to developing professionalism in nursing students. Those involved in nurse education, whether service providers or universities, may wish to acknowledge the influence of clinical nurse behaviour observed by students both independent of and in direct relation to care delivery and the impact on student nurse professional development. A corollary relates to how students should be guided and briefed/debriefed to work with a staff to ensure their exposure to a variety of practice behaviours. PMID:26673614

  6. Modeling computer interest in older adults: the role of age, education, computer knowledge, and computer anxiety.

    PubMed

    Ellis, D; Allaire, J C

    1999-09-01

    We proposed a mediation model to examine the effects of age, education, computer knowledge, and computer anxiety on computer interest in older adults. We hypothesized that computer knowledge and computer anxiety would fully mediate the effects of age and education on computer interest. A sample of 330 older adults from local senior-citizen apartment buildings completed a survey that included an assessment of the constructs included in the model. Using structural equation modeling, we found that the results supported the hypothesized mediation model. In particular, the effect of computer knowledge operated on computer interest through computer anxiety. The effect of age was not fully mitigated by the other model variables, indicating the need for future research that identifies and models other correlates of age and computer interest. The most immediate application of this research is the finding that a simple 3-item instrument can be used to assess computer interest in older populations. This will help professionals plan and implement computer services in public-access settings for older adults. An additional application of this research is the information it provides for training program designers. PMID:10665203

  7. A possible role for the immune system in adult neurogenesis: new insights from an invertebrate model.

    PubMed

    Harzsch, Steffen; von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Persistent neurogenesis in the adult brain of both vertebrates and invertebrates was previously considered to be driven by self-renewing neuronal stem cells of ectodermal origin. Recent findings in an invertebrate model challenge this view and instead provide evidence for a recruitment of neuronal precursors from a non-neuronal source. In the brain of adult crayfish, a neurogenic niche was identified that contributes progeny to the adult central olfactory pathway. The niche may function in attracting cells from the hemolymph and transforming them into cells with a neuronal fate. This finding implies that the first-generation neuronal precursors located in the crayfish neurogenic niche are not self-renewing. Evidence is summarized in support of a critical re-evaluation of long-term self-renewal of mammalian neuronal stem cells. Latest findings suggest that a tight link between the immune system and the system driving adult neurogenesis may not only exist in the crayfish but also in mammals. PMID:26739123

  8. Computational models of adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2005-10-01

    Experimental results in recent years have shown that adult neurogenesis is a significant phenomenon in the mammalian brain. Little is known, however, about the functional role played by the generation and destruction of neurons in the context of an adult brain. Here, we propose two models where new projection neurons are incorporated. We show that in both models, using incorporation and removal of neurons as a computational tool, it is possible to achieve a higher computational efficiency that in purely static, synapse-learning-driven networks. We also discuss the implication for understanding the role of adult neurogenesis in specific brain areas like the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus.

  9. Parents’ Marital Status, Conflict, and Role Modeling: Links With Adult Romantic Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.; Ragan, Erica P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated three parental marital statuses and relationship quality among unmarried, but dating adults ages 18 to 35 (N = 1153). Those whose parents never married one another tended to report the lowest relationship quality (in terms of relationship adjustment, negative communication, commitment, and physical aggression) compared to those with divorced or married biological parents. In addition, those with divorced parents reported lower relationship adjustment and more negative communication than those with married parents. Parental conflict and the degree to which participants rated their parents’ relationship as a healthy model for their own relationships partially explained the associations between parental marital status and relationship outcomes. We suggest that this particular family type (i.e., having parents who never marry one another) needs greater attention in this field in terms of research and intervention. PMID:22822295

  10. Adult Children of Dysfunctional Families: Childhood Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Stephen J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used retrospective accounts to compare adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), adults who experienced stressful events in childhood not involving parental alcoholism (A-D+), and adults with no reported dysfunction in family of origin (A-D-) with regard to dysfunctional roles adopted as children. Dysfunctional role adoption was more frequent in ACOA…

  11. Modeling the Association between Lifecourse Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Systemic Inflammation in Healthy Adults: The Role of Self-Control

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Ross, Kharah M.; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to identify pathways connecting lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) with chronic, low-grade inflammation, focusing on the explanatory roles of self-control, abdominal adiposity, and health practices. Methods Participants were 360 adults aged 15 - 55 who were free of chronic medical conditions. They were roughly equally divided between low and high current SES, with each group further divided between low and high early-life SES. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to identify direct and indirect pathways linking early-life and current SES with low-grade, chronic inflammation in adulthood, as manifest by serum interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Low SES was hypothesized to relate to inflammation by reducing self-control, which in turn was hypothesized to facilitate lifestyle factors that potentiate inflammation (smoking, alcohol use, sedentary behavior, and weight gain). Results Analyses revealed that self-control was pivotal in linking both early-life and current SES to inflammation. Low early-life SES was related to a harsher family climate, and in turn lower adult self-control, over and above the effects of current SES. Controlling for early-life SES, low current SES was associated with perceived stress, and in turn diminished self-control. Results showed that lower self-control primarily operated through higher abdominal adiposity to associate with greater inflammation. Conclusions The findings suggest a mechanistic scenario wherein low SES in early-life or adulthood depletes self-control and in turn fosters adiposity and inflammation. These pathways should be studied longitudinally to elucidate and potentially ameliorate socioeconomic disparities in health. PMID:25110854

  12. Roles and Relationships in Virtual Environments: A Model for Adult Distance Educators Extrapolated from Leadership in Experiences in Virtual Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parchoma, Gale

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, Larkin and Gould's (1999) activity theory methodology for defining work-related roles and Burns' (1963) analysis of organismic organizational form are merged into a model that describes associate and leadership roles and relationships in virtual organizations. The effects of a lack of shared physical space and face-to-face social…

  13. The Male Role, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol Problems: A Structural Modeling Examination in Adult Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreary, Donald R.; Newcomb, Michael D.; Sadava, Stanley W.

    1999-01-01

    Utilizes structural model to examine relationships between three male-role variables, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related problems in sample of men and women. For men, traditional attitudes led to more alcohol consumption, whereas agentic traits protected them from experiencing alcohol-related problems and from experiencing masculine…

  14. Adult Children of Alcoholics: A Counseling Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Robert L.; Phyfer, Ann Quinn

    1988-01-01

    Notes that adult children of alcoholics attending college present unique problems and opportunities to the college counselor. Presents a treatment model for serving such students which identifies four survivor roles and their manifestations, and suggests counseling techniques for each role. (Author/NB)

  15. Adult Roles & Functions. Objective Based Evaluation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

    This book of objective-based test items is designed to be used with the Adult Roles and Functions curriculum for a non-laboratory home economic course for grades eleven and twelve. It contains item banks for each cognitive objective in the curriculum. In addition, there is a form for the table of specifications to be developed for each unit. This…

  16. Models and role models.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of action and was also utilized for the formulation of oral care products. In addition, we made use of intra-oral (in situ) models to study other features of the oral environment that drive the de/remineralization balance in individual patients. This model addressed basic questions, such as how enamel and dentine are affected by challenges in the oral cavity, as well as practical issues related to fluoride toothpaste efficacy. The observation that perhaps fluoride is not sufficiently potent to reduce dental caries in the present-day society triggered us to expand our knowledge in the bacterial aetiology of dental caries. For this we developed the Amsterdam Active Attachment biofilm model. Different from studies on planktonic ('single') bacteria, this biofilm model captures bacteria in a habitat similar to dental plaque. With data from the combination of these models, it should be possible to study separate processes which together may lead to dental caries. Also products and novel agents could be evaluated that interfere with either of the processes. Having these separate models in place, a suggestion is made to design computer models to encompass the available information. Models but also role models are of the utmost importance in bringing and guiding research and researchers. PMID:25871413

  17. Predictive Modeling in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindner, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    The current economic crisis, a growing workforce, the increasing lifespan of workers, and demanding, complex jobs have made organizations highly selective in employee recruitment and retention. It is therefore important, to the adult educator, to develop models of learning that better prepare adult learners for the workplace. The purpose of…

  18. The role of cannabinoids in adult neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Prenderville, Jack A; Kelly, Áine M; Downer, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    The processes underpinning post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain continue to be defined. Such processes involve the proliferation of neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells (NPCs), neuronal migration, differentiation and integration into a network of functional synapses within the brain. Both intrinsic (cell signalling cascades) and extrinsic (neurotrophins, neurotransmitters, cytokines, hormones) signalling molecules are intimately associated with adult neurogenesis and largely dictate the proliferative activity and differentiation capacity of neural cells. Cannabinoids are a unique class of chemical compounds incorporating plant-derived cannabinoids (the active components of Cannabis sativa), the endogenous cannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoid ligands, and these compounds are becoming increasingly recognized for their roles in neural developmental processes. Indeed, cannabinoids have clear modulatory roles in adult neurogenesis, probably through activation of both CB1 and CB2 receptors. In recent years, a large body of literature has deciphered the signalling networks involved in cannabinoid-mediated regulation of neurogenesis. This timely review summarizes the evidence that the cannabinoid system is intricately associated with neuronal differentiation and maturation of NPCs and highlights intrinsic/extrinsic signalling mechanisms that are cannabinoid targets. Overall, these findings identify the central role of the cannabinoid system in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and the lateral ventricles and hence provide insight into the processes underlying post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. PMID:25951750

  19. The role of cannabinoids in adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Prenderville, Jack A; Kelly, Áine M; Downer, Eric J

    2015-08-01

    The processes underpinning post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain continue to be defined. Such processes involve the proliferation of neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells (NPCs), neuronal migration, differentiation and integration into a network of functional synapses within the brain. Both intrinsic (cell signalling cascades) and extrinsic (neurotrophins, neurotransmitters, cytokines, hormones) signalling molecules are intimately associated with adult neurogenesis and largely dictate the proliferative activity and differentiation capacity of neural cells. Cannabinoids are a unique class of chemical compounds incorporating plant-derived cannabinoids (the active components of Cannabis sativa), the endogenous cannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoid ligands, and these compounds are becoming increasingly recognized for their roles in neural developmental processes. Indeed, cannabinoids have clear modulatory roles in adult neurogenesis, probably through activation of both CB1 and CB2 receptors. In recent years, a large body of literature has deciphered the signalling networks involved in cannabinoid-mediated regulation of neurogenesis. This timely review summarizes the evidence that the cannabinoid system is intricately associated with neuronal differentiation and maturation of NPCs and highlights intrinsic/extrinsic signalling mechanisms that are cannabinoid targets. Overall, these findings identify the central role of the cannabinoid system in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and the lateral ventricles and hence provide insight into the processes underlying post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. PMID:25951750

  20. Children's Perceptions of Adult Roles as Affected by Class, Father-Absence and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, Joan

    1969-01-01

    Role theorists maintain that good same-sex parent models are necessary for children to develop knowledge of appropriate sex roles. Cognitive theorists say that development of such knowledge depends on contact with good models, but models need not be parents. In the first phase of the study, children's knowledge of adult sex roles was determined…

  1. Sedentary behavior among adults: The role of community belonging.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Scott; Currie, Cheryl L; Copeland, Jennifer L

    2016-12-01

    Sedentary behavior is a modifiable determinant of health. Little is known about the ways in which contextual factors may influence this behavior. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the association between community belonging and adult sedentary behavior during leisure; (2) determine if this association was explained by perceived health. Data were derived from the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 11,494 adults). Multinomial regression models and 99% confidence intervals were used to examine associations between sense of community belonging and sedentary behavior, adjusting for sociodemographic variables and perceived health. On average, adults were sedentary for 20-24 h per week during leisure. More than a third of the sample reported low sedentary behavior (≤ 19 h a week). In a fully adjusted model participants who were female, in middle adulthood, married, and/or living in higher income households were less sedentary during leisure. Adults with a strong sense of community belonging were also significantly less sedentary during leisure; this association remained significant after adjustment for perceived mental and overall health. Most efforts to address sedentary behavior have focused on individual-level interventions. The present finding highlights the role that larger contextual factors may play in sedentary behavior. Sense of community belonging is a contextual determinant of health that may serve as a useful target for interventions designed to reduce adult sedentary behavior during leisure. PMID:27413688

  2. The role of serotonin in adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike

    2015-01-15

    Serotonin is probably best known for its role in conveying a sense of contentedness and happiness. It is one of the most unique and pharmacologically complex monoamines in both the peripheral and central nervous system (CNS). Serotonin has become in focus of interest for the treatment of depression with multiple serotonin-mimetic and modulators of adult neurogenesis used clinically. Here we will take a broad view of serotonin from development to its physiological role as a neurotransmitter and its contribution to homeostasis of the adult rodent hippocampus. This chapter reflects the most significant findings on cellular and molecular mechanisms from neuroscientists in the field over the last two decades. We illustrate the action of serotonin by highlighting basic receptor targeting studies, and how receptors impact brain function. We give an overview of recent genetically modified mouse models that differ in serotonin availability and focus on the role of the monoamine in antidepressant response. We conclude with a synthesis of the most recent data surrounding the role of serotonin in activity and hippocampal neurogenesis. This synopsis sheds light on the mechanisms and potential therapeutic model by which serotonin plays a critical role in the maintenance of mood. PMID:25125239

  3. Resources for Educators of Adults. Continuing Education for Educators of Adults: The Roles of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N.

    The author states that the coming of age of adult and continuing education has brought the role of research into focus. Two aspects of the research role are explored: What research has been done on the continuing education of adult educators, and what should be the roles of research? The major portion of this report is devoted to a review of the…

  4. Adult Social Roles and Alcohol Use among American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kaylin M.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-01-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  5. Adult social roles and alcohol use among American Indians.

    PubMed

    Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-09-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  6. The Role of Diverse Institutions in Framing Adult Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Ellu; Ure, Odd Bjorn; Desjardins, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the role of diverse institutions in framing adult learning systems. The focus is on institutional characteristics and configurations in different countries and their potential impact on the extent of adult learning, as well as on inequalities in access to adult learning. Typologies of education and training systems as well…

  7. Sex role strain among kibbutz adolescents and adults: A developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Snarey, J; Friedman, K; Blasi, J

    1986-06-01

    In spite of a commitment to equality, the kibbutz is a male-dominated society with highly differentiated sex roles. Has this gap between ideals and reality created sex role strain for kibbutz-born adolescents and adults? Previous kibbutz studies have suggested that sex role strain may be the most intense among adult kibbutz women. Based on Erik Erikson's developmental model, however, we hypothesized that adolescent females would experience significantly greater sex role strain than other kibbutz members, including adult women. Adolescent and adult males and females were tested using Loevinger's ego development test. The sex role items of the test were used to construct a new measure of sex role strain. The global index included the following submeasures: avoidance of sex role issues; expression of intellectual, emotional, or behavioral sex role conflict; and evaluative attitudes toward male roles and female roles. Significant cohort or sex differences were found on the global index and on all submeasures of sex role strain. The findings indicate that sex role strain is greatest among adolescent females, followed by adolescent males. Adult kibbutz women, however, are significantly more likely to focus their dissatisfaction in the area of actual role behavior rather than in terms of how they intellectually conceptualize kibbutz sex roles, as is the case for adolescents and adult males. PMID:24301699

  8. UK Public Libraries: Roles in Adult Literacy Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Carla; Morris, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Reported here are the results of a research project that examined the role of UK public libraries in addressing adult literacy including approaches and issues. Eight public libraries were selected as case studies and adult literacy provision was investigated using staff interviews. The interviews provided support for the role of public libraries…

  9. Adult Attachment and Dyadic Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Shame.

    PubMed

    Martins, Teresa C; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moreira, Helena

    2016-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that adult attachment is associated with romantic relationship quality, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of external and internal shame on the association between attachment and dyadic adjustment. A battery of self-report measures was completed by 228 Portuguese participants and a serial multiple mediation model was tested. Data showed that, in the population under study, attachment dimensions were associated with worse dyadic adjustment through high external and internal shame. Internal shame alone also mediated the association between attachment avoidance and dyadic adjustment. This study identifies a new putative mechanism linking adult attachment and intimate relationship functioning that may be targeted in couples therapy to promote a better dyadic adjustment and relationship functioning. PMID:26759960

  10. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Carina; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F.; Rocha, Susana; Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Salas-Pacheco, José; García-García, Fabio; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called adult neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of adult neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and adult neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory, and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on adult neurogenesis. PMID:25926773

  11. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carina; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F; Rocha, Susana; Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Salas-Pacheco, José; García-García, Fabio; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called adult neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of adult neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and adult neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory, and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on adult neurogenesis. PMID:25926773

  12. Mission Intentionality and Operational Integrity: The Essential Role of Faculty in Adult Degree Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Eastern University has moved from a distributed model to a centralized model for administration of its adult degree programs. This move involved numerous factors and motivations but one central component in the ultimate success of that move was a significant change in the role of faculty assigned to the program. Once regarded as rather ancillary…

  13. The pharmacist's role in preventing medication errors in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kasbekar, Rupal; Maples, Meghan; Bernacchi, Ann; Duong, Linh; Oramasionwu, Christine U

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 1.5 million medication errors occur each year in the United States. Older adults may be at increased risk for these errors as a result of a variety of contributing factors such as inappropriate medication use, polymorbidity, and complexities in managing dosage adjustments for geriatric patients. Pharmacists, as trained medication experts, are uniquely poised to lead efforts to prevent, detect, and resolve medications errors. As the American population continues to age, future pharmacists are likely to play an even greater role in promoting safe and effective medication use in older adults. In this paper, we highlight common settings for medication errors in older individuals, explore tools and solutions for error prevention, and outline the unique role that pharmacists have in preventing medication errors in older adults. PMID:25521659

  14. The Role of Vitamin D in the Aging Adult

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Meghan; Penckofer, Sue

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals aged 65 and older is expected to more than double from 2012 to 2060. The role of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with aging has not been well studied. Traditionally, the role of vitamin D focused on the maintenance of skeletal health in the older adult. With the discovery of vitamin D receptors in the nervous, cardiovascular and endocrine systems, the role of vitamin D and its impact on these systems has become an important area of research. Older adults are at risk for lower levels of vitamin D as a result of decreased cutaneous synthesis and dietary intake of vitamin D. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between low levels of vitamin D and diseases associated with aging such as cognitive decline, depression, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Clinical trials to determine the benefit of vitamin D supplementation in preventing and treating such diseases are in progress. This paper highlights current evidence regarding the role that vitamin D may play in diseases associated with aging and addresses the need for well-designed randomized trials to examine its benefit on health outcomes in the older adult. PMID:25893188

  15. The application of a generativity model for older adults.

    PubMed

    Ehlman, Katie; Ligon, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Generativity is a concept first introduced by Erik Erikson as a part of his psychosocial theory which outlines eight stages of development in the human life. Generativity versus stagnation is the main developmental concern of middle adulthood; however, generativity is also recognized as an important theme in the lives of older adults. Building on the work of Erikson, McAdams and de St. Aubin (1992) developed a model explaining the generative process. The aims of this article are: (a) to explore the relationship between generativity and older adults as it appears in research literature; and (b) to examine McAdam's model and use it to explain the role of generativity in older adults who share life stories with gerontology students through an oral history project. PMID:22950351

  16. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its role in cognition

    PubMed Central

    Oomen, Charlotte A.; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Kent, Brianne A.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) has intrigued neuroscientists for decades. Several lines of evidence show that adult-born neurons in the hippocampus are functionally integrated and contribute to cognitive function, in particular learning and memory processes. Biological properties of immature hippocampal neurons indicate that these cells are more easily excitable compared to mature neurons, and demonstrate enhanced structural plasticity. The structure in which adult-born hippocampal neurons are situated -the dentate gyrus- is thought to contribute to hippocampus function by disambiguating similar input patterns, a process referred to as pattern separation. Several ideas about AHN function have been put forward; currently there is good evidence in favour of a role for AHN in pattern separation. This function of AHN may be understood within a ‘representational-hierarchical’ view of brain organisation. PMID:26308746

  17. Role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in stress resilience.

    PubMed

    Levone, Brunno R; Cryan, John F; O'Leary, Olivia F

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in emotional and cognitive processes related to psychiatric disorders. Although many studies have investigated the effects of stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, most have not focused on whether stress-induced changes in neurogenesis occur specifically in animals that are more resilient or more susceptible to the behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of stress. Thus, in the present review we explore whether there is a clear relationship between stress-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, stress resilience and antidepressant-induced recovery from stress-induced changes in behaviour. Exposure to different stressors is known to reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but some stressors have also been shown to exert opposite effects. Ablation of neurogenesis does not lead to a depressive phenotype, but it can enhance responsiveness to stress and affect stress susceptibility. Monoaminergic-targeted antidepressants, environmental enrichment and adrenalectomy are beneficial for reversing stress-induced changes in behaviour and have been shown to do so in a neurogenesis-dependant manner. In addition, stress and antidepressants can affect hippocampal neurogenesis, preferentially in the ventral hippocampus. Together, these data show that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in the neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress, although it is not yet fully clear under which circumstances neurogenesis promotes resilience or susceptibility to stress. It will be important that future studies carefully examine how adult hippocampal neurogenesis can contribute to stress resilience/susceptibility so that it may be appropriately exploited for the development of new and more effective treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:27589664

  18. Roles for Oestrogen Receptor β in Adult Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Handa, R. J.; Ogawa, S.; Wang, J. M.; Herbison, A. E.

    2012-01-01

    Oestradiol exerts a profound influence upon multiple brain circuits. For the most part, these effects are mediated by oestrogen receptor (ER)α. We review here the roles of ERβ, the other ER isoform, in mediating rodent oestradiol-regulated anxiety, aggressive and sexual behaviours, the control of gonadotrophin secretion, and adult neurogenesis. Evidence exists for: (i) ERβ located in the paraventricular nucleus underpinning the suppressive influence of oestradiol on the stress axis and anxiety-like behaviour; (ii) ERβ expressed in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones contributing to oestrogen negative-feedback control of gonadotrophin secretion; (iii) ERβ controlling the offset of lordosis behaviour; (iv) ERβ suppressing aggressive behaviour in males; (v) ERβ modulating responses to social stimuli; and (vi) ERβ in controlling adult neurogenesis. This review highlights two major themes; first, ERβ and ERα are usually tightly inter-related in the oestradiol-dependent control of a particular brain function. For example, even though oestradiol feedback to control reproduction occurs principally through ERα-dependent mechanisms, modulatory roles for ERβ also exist. Second, the roles of ERα and ERβ within a particular neural network may be synergistic or antagonistic. Examples of the latter include the role of ERα to enhance, and ERβ to suppress, anxiety-like and aggressive behaviours. Splice variants such as ERβ2, acting as dominant negative receptors, are of further particular interest because their expression levels may reflect preceeding oestradiol exposure of relevance to oestradiol replacement therapy. Together, this review highlights the predominant modulatory, but nonetheless important, roles of ERβ in mediating the many effects of oestradiol upon adult brain function. PMID:21851428

  19. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor. PMID:26319254

  20. Is older adult care mediated by caregivers’ cultural stereotypes? The role of competence and warmth attribution

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Bustillos, Antonio; Santacreu, Marta; Schettini, Rocio; Díaz-Veiga, Pura; Huici, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine, from the stereotype content model (SCM) perspective, the role of the competence and warmth stereotypes of older adults held by professional caregivers. Methods A quasi-experimental design, ex post facto with observational analyses, was used in this study. The cultural view on competence and warmth was assessed in 100 caregivers working in a set of six residential geriatric care units (three of them organized following a person-centered care approach and the other three providing standard geriatric care). In order to assess caregivers’ cultural stereotypical views, the SCM questionnaire was administered. To evaluate the role of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes in their professional performance as well as in older adult functioning, two observational scales from the Sistema de Evaluación de Residencias de Ancianos (assessment system for older adults residences)-RS (staff functioning and residents’ functioning) were applied. Results Caregivers’ cultural views of older adults (compared to young people) are characterized by low competence and high warmth, replicating the data obtained elsewhere from the SCM. Most importantly, the person-centered units predict better staff performance and better resident functioning than standard units. Moreover, cultural stereotyping of older adult competence moderates the effects of staff performance on resident functioning, in line with the findings of previous research. Conclusion Our results underline the influence of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes on the type of care, as well as on their professional behaviors and on older adult functioning. Caregivers’ cultural stereotypes could be considered as a central issue in older adult care since they mediate the triangle of care: caregivers/older adults/type of care; therefore, much more attention should be paid to this psychosocial care component. PMID:27217736

  1. The Integrated Attachment and Sexual Minority Stress Model: Understanding the Role of Adult Attachment in the Health and Well-Being of Sexual Minority Men.

    PubMed

    Cook, Stephanie H; Calebs, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Gay and bisexual boys and men experience social stigma associated with their sexual minority status that can negatively influence health. In addition, experiencing sexual orientation stigma may be linked to a decreased capacity to effectively form and maintain secure attachment relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners across the life-course. We proposed that utilizing a framework that integrates the process by which sexual minority men develop attachment relationships in the context of sexual minority stress can lead to a better understanding of health and well-being among sexual minority boys and men. In addition, we highlight where future research can expand upon the presented model in order to better understand the developmental processes through which attachment and sexual minority stress influences health and health behaviors among sexual minority boys and men. PMID:27337620

  2. Role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in persistent pain

    PubMed Central

    Apkarian, A. Vania; Mutso, Amelia A.; Centeno, Maria V.; Kan, Lixin; Wu, Melody; Levinstein, Marjorie; Banisadr, Ghazal; Gobeske, Kevin T.; Miller, Richard J.; Radulovic, Jelena; Hen, René; Kessler, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The full role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) remains to be determined, yet it is implicated in learning and emotional functions, and is disrupted in negative mood disorders. Recent evidence indicates that AHN is decreased in persistent pain consistent with the idea that chronic pain is a major stressor, associated with negative moods and abnormal memories. Yet, the role of AHN in development of persistent pain has remained unexplored. In this study, we test the influence of AHN in postinjury inflammatory and neuropathic persistent pain-like behaviors by manipulating neurogenesis: pharmacologically through intracerebroventricular infusion of the antimitotic AraC; ablation of AHN by x-irradiation; and using transgenic mice with increased or decreased AHN. Downregulating neurogenesis reversibly diminished or blocked persistent pain; oppositely, upregulating neurogenesis led to prolonged persistent pain. Moreover, we could dissociate negative mood from persistent pain. These results suggest that AHN-mediated hippocampal learning mechanisms are involved in the emergence of persistent pain. PMID:26313405

  3. Switching roles: the functional plasticity of adult tissue stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wabik, Agnieszka; Jones, Philip H

    2015-05-01

    Adult organisms have to adapt to survive, and the same is true for their tissues. Rates and types of cell production must be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to meet tissue demands in response to both local and systemic challenges. Recent work reveals how stem cell (SC) populations meet these requirements by switching between functional states tuned to homoeostasis or regeneration. This plasticity extends to differentiating cells, which are capable of reverting to SCs after injury. The concept of the niche, the micro-environment that sustains and regulates stem cells, is broadening, with a new appreciation of the role of physical factors and hormonal signals. Here, we review different functions of SCs, the cellular mechanisms that underlie them and the signals that bias the fate of SCs as they switch between roles. PMID:25812989

  4. Switching roles: the functional plasticity of adult tissue stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wabik, Agnieszka; Jones, Philip H

    2015-01-01

    Adult organisms have to adapt to survive, and the same is true for their tissues. Rates and types of cell production must be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to meet tissue demands in response to both local and systemic challenges. Recent work reveals how stem cell (SC) populations meet these requirements by switching between functional states tuned to homoeostasis or regeneration. This plasticity extends to differentiating cells, which are capable of reverting to SCs after injury. The concept of the niche, the micro-environment that sustains and regulates stem cells, is broadening, with a new appreciation of the role of physical factors and hormonal signals. Here, we review different functions of SCs, the cellular mechanisms that underlie them and the signals that bias the fate of SCs as they switch between roles. PMID:25812989

  5. Multivariate models of adult Pacific salmon returns.

    PubMed

    Burke, Brian J; Peterson, William T; Beckman, Brian R; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

  6. Multivariate Models of Adult Pacific Salmon Returns

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

  7. Role Models in Aquatic Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mabel C.

    1982-01-01

    Provided for each of 12 minority group role models in aquatic occupations are job responsibilities, educational requirements, comments on a typical day at the job, salary range, and recommendations for students wishing to enter the field described. (JN)

  8. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure, Adaptive Function, and Entry into Adult Roles in a Prospective Study of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although many studies have demonstrated effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on physical, cognitive, and behavioral development in children, few have focused on the long term effects on adults. In this study, data are presented on adaptive function and entry into adult roles in a community sample of young adults with PAE. The expectation was that prenatally exposed adults would show lower adaptive functioning and more difficulty with entry into adult roles than the non-exposed control group and that these effects would be related to the severity of PAE effects. Method The predominantly African-American, low income sample included adults with a wide range of prenatal exposure (n = 123) as well as control groups for socioeconomic (SES) (n = 59) and disability (n = 54) status. The mothers of the alcohol-exposed and SES-control group participants were recruited before birth and offspring have been followed up periodically. The disability control group was recruited in adolescence. The adults were interviewed about adaptive function in day-to-day life and adult role entry. Collateral adults who were well-acquainted with each participant were interviewed concerning adaptive function. Results Results showed that adults who were dysmorphic and/or cognitively affected by PAE had difficulty with adaptive function and entry into adult roles. Males showing cognitive effects with no physical effects were the most severely affected. Results for exposed adults not showing physical or cognitive effects were similar to or more positive than those of the control group for most outcomes. Conclusion PAE has long-term effects on adaptive outcomes in early adulthood. Additional research should focus on possible interventions at this transition and on factors contributing to the adjustment of the exposed, but unaffected participants. PMID:26247662

  9. The Role of Personality Characteristics in Young Adult Driving

    PubMed Central

    PATIL, SUJATA M.; SHOPE, JEAN THATCHER; RAGHUNATHAN, TRIVELLORE E.; BINGHAM, C. RAYMOND

    2007-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle injury is the major cause of mortality among young adults. Information about the individual characteristics of those who drive dangerously could enhance traffic safety programs. The goal of this research was to examine the association between various personality-related characteristics and risky driving behaviors. Methods Young adults in Michigan, USA (n = 5,362) were surveyed by telephone regarding several personality factors (risk-taking, hostility, aggression, tolerance of deviance, achievement expectations) and driving behaviors (competitive driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, aggressive driving, and drink/driving). Michigan driver records were obtained to examine offenses, serious offenses, driving offense points, crashes and serious crashes in the three pre-interview years. Multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for age, race, and marital status were conducted separately by sex to identify personality factors related to driving. Results For men and women, greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and tolerance of deviance were significant predictors of a competitive attitude toward driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, driving aggression, and drink/driving. Greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and to a small degree, expectations for achievement predicted higher numbers of offenses, serious offenses, and points. Conclusion Traffic safety policies and programs could be enhanced through recognition of the role personality factors play in driving behavior and the incorporation of this knowledge into the design and implementation of interventions that modify the behaviors associated with them. PMID:17114089

  10. Cytoskeletal disease: a role in the etiology of adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Binderman, I; Gadban, N; Yaffe, A

    2014-01-01

    All cells and organisms across the evolutionary spectrum, from the most primitive to the most complex, are mechanosensitive. As the cytoskeleton is a key in controlling the normal basal prestress of cells and therefore is involved in virtually all physiological cellular processes, abnormalities in this essential cellular characteristic may result in diseases. Indeed, many diseases have now been associated with abnormalities in cytoskeletal and nucleoskeletal proteins. We propose that adult periodontitis is, at least in part, such a cytoskeletal disease. It is well established that adult periodontitis starts by bacterial invasion at the interface between the tooth surface and marginal gingiva that induces a local inflammatory response. The inflammatory cells release metalloproteinases which degrade gingival collagenous fibrous tissue and loss of local tissue integrity that reduces the normal prestressed cell-extracellular matrix network. This is a major signaling trigger that induces a local and rapid release of ATP, which then activates P2X receptors and stimulates a calcium influx, further activating osteoclastic resorption of the alveolar bone. As periodontitis is a chronic disease, it seems reasonable to suggest that agents that maintain cytoskeletal tensegrity, for example, inhibitors of ATP receptors, may diminish the bone loss and may have a role in future periodontal therapy. PMID:23679579

  11. The neurologist's role in supporting transition to adult health care: A consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence W; Camfield, Peter; Capers, Melissa; Cascino, Greg; Ciccarelli, Mary; de Gusmao, Claudio M; Downs, Stephen M; Majnemer, Annette; Miller, Amy Brin; SanInocencio, Christina; Schultz, Rebecca; Tilton, Anne; Winokur, Annick; Zupanc, Mary

    2016-08-23

    The child neurologist has a critical role in planning and coordinating the successful transition from the pediatric to adult health care system for youth with neurologic conditions. Leadership in appropriately planning a youth's transition and in care coordination among health care, educational, vocational, and community services providers may assist in preventing gaps in care, delayed entry into the adult care system, and/or health crises for their adolescent patients. Youth whose neurologic conditions result in cognitive or physical disability and their families may need additional support during this transition, given the legal and financial considerations that may be required. Eight common principles that define the child neurologist's role in a successful transition process have been outlined by a multidisciplinary panel convened by the Child Neurology Foundation are introduced and described. The authors of this consensus statement recognize the current paucity of evidence for successful transition models and outline areas for future consideration. PMID:27466477

  12. The role of CD44 in fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cell regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huimin; Heazlewood, Shen Y.; Williams, Brenda; Cardozo, Daniela; Nigro, Julie; Oteiza, Ana; Nilsson, Susan K.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout development, hematopoietic stem cells migrate to specific microenvironments, where their fate is, in part, extrinsically controlled. CD44 standard as a member of the cell adhesion molecule family is extensively expressed within adult bone marrow and has been previously reported to play important roles in adult hematopoietic regulation via CD44 standard-ligand interactions. In this manuscript, CD44 expression and function are further assessed and characterized on both fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells. Using a CD44−/− mouse model, conserved functional roles of CD44 are revealed throughout development. CD44 is critical in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor pools, as well as in hematopoietic stem cell migration. CD44 expression on hematopoietic stem cells as well as other hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow microenvironment is important in the homing and lodgment of adult hematopoietic stem cells isolated from the bone/bone marrow interface. CD44 is also involved in fetal hematopoietic stem cell migration out of the liver, via a process involving stromal cell-derived factor-1α. The absence of CD44 in neonatal bone marrow has no impact on the size of the long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cell pool, but results in an enhanced long-term engraftment potential of hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:26546504

  13. Longitudinal predictors of adult socioeconomic attainment: the roles of socioeconomic status, academic competence, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-02-01

    Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment. PMID:21262057

  14. Adult Education as Vocation: A Critical Role for the Adult Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Michael

    Fixation on technique, erosion of autonomous and community interests, and efforts to increase professionalization of adult education (which tends to emphasize the differences between adult educators and adult learners rather than their common interests) have created a crisis in adult education. Contemporary practice and research on self-directed…

  15. A mathematical model of adult subventricular neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ashbourn, J. M. A.; Miller, J. J.; Reumers, V.; Baekelandt, V.; Geris, L.

    2012-01-01

    Neurogenesis has been the subject of active research in recent years and many authors have explored the phenomenology of the process, its regulation and its purported purpose. Recent developments in bioluminescent imaging (BLI) allow direct in vivo imaging of neurogenesis, and in order to interpret the experimental results, mathematical models are necessary. This study proposes such a mathematical model that describes adult mammalian neurogenesis occurring in the subventricular zone and the subsequent migration of cells through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb (OB). This model assumes that a single chemoattractant is responsible for cell migration, secreted both by the OB and in an endocrine fashion by the cells involved in neurogenesis. The solutions to the system of partial differential equations are compared with the physiological rodent process, as previously documented in the literature and quantified through the use of BLI, and a parameter space is described, the corresponding solution to which matches that of the rodent model. A sensitivity analysis shows that this parameter space is stable to perturbation and furthermore that the system as a whole is sloppy. A large number of parameter sets are stochastically generated, and it is found that parameter spaces corresponding to physiologically plausible solutions generally obey constraints similar to the conditions reported in vivo. This further corroborates the model and its underlying assumptions based on the current understanding of the investigated phenomenon. Concomitantly, this leaves room for further quantitative predictions pertinent to the design of future proposed experiments. PMID:22572029

  16. Older Adults in Child Care: A Job-Training Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Christopher R.; Smith, Thomas B.

    Recognizing the increasing demand for older adults to work as child care employees, this manual presents the Generations Together model for training older adults at the community college level to work in child care settings. The manual describes the steps necessary to implement a community-college-based, older-adult child care employment training…

  17. Being a Deaf Role Model: Deaf People's Experiences of Working with Families and Deaf Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys M.

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of being a deaf role model have been little explored in the literature. This paper explores the role of the deaf role model as perceived by d/Deaf adults who carried out this role, when working with deaf young people, parents of deaf children, and professionals who work with them. The data were collected from part of the evaluation…

  18. The Role of the Administrator of Local Public School Adult Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szczypkowski, Ronald

    1971-01-01

    Excerpts from a lengthy paper whose main thesis deals with the role of the adult administrator as the key ingredient for a successful adult education program, despite generally poor financial resources. Emphasis is on need to have full-time adult education administrators of the same professional stature as day administrative staff. (Editor)

  19. Competency-Based Adult Education: Florida Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Elizabeth

    This compilation of program materials serves as an introduction to Florida's Brevard Community College's (BCC's) Competency-Based Adult High School Completion Project, a multi-year project designed to teach adult administrators, counselors, and teachers how to organize and implement a competency-based adult education (CBAE) program; to critique…

  20. Dropout Prevention and the Role of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Martin G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines New York State's initiative to address high school dropout rates, finding that few of the 12 pilot sites had explicit links to adult education. Suggests that adult basic education can be a driving force in a community to educate, assemble, organize, and facilitate discourse to support dropout prevention strategies. Urges adult educators…

  1. Role Modeling for Clinical Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettinger, Ellen Richter

    1991-01-01

    To become better role models, higher educators in institutions of clinical education should be conscious of the behaviors they demonstrate and the broad range of activities and attitudes that students observe and emulate, including clinical competence, professional demeanor, doctor-patient interactions, ethical values, and social consciousness.…

  2. Role models face class expulsion.

    PubMed

    Sprinks, Jennifer

    There are plans to drop Mary Seacole and Florence Nightingale from the curriculum taught in schools, according to leaked reports. Here, nurse leaders protest that this would rob young people of valuable role models and undermine the image of the profession. It is also suggested that a person's contribution to society is more important than their personality. PMID:23427681

  3. Adult Children of Alcoholics and Their Family Roles: A Comparison of Incarcerated and Non-Incarcerated Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer Fay; And Others

    This study was conducted to empirically investigate the specific suggestion that, without help, children who play the scapegoat role in the alcoholic family may later end up in prison. Family roles assumed by incarcerated and non-incarcerated male and female Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) were compared. The incarcerated subjects were drawn…

  4. Knowledge about aging and worry in older adults: Testing the mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Nuevo, Roberto; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Montorio, Ignacio; Ruiz, Miguel A.; Cabrera, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the relationship between knowledge about aging and severity of worry in older adults, and to test the potential mediational role of intolerance of uncertainty. Method The sample was composed of 120 community-dwelling older adults, with a mean of age of 71.0 years (SD = 6.3). Mediational analyses and structural equation modeling were used to analyze and compare different models. Results Greater knowledge about aging was negatively related to both intolerance of uncertainty and worry, and its effect on worry was partially mediated by intolerance of uncertainty. The mediational model obtained an excellent fit to the data (i.e. Goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.995) and clearly had a better fit than alternative models. Conclusion These results suggest that a good knowledge of the aging process could help decrease aversive uncertainty and thus reduce the level of worry among older adults. Thus, educational programs to increase knowledge about aging could serve as one preventive strategy for anxiety in old age. PMID:19197699

  5. Depression, Sex and Gender Roles in Older Adult Populations: The International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS)

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Afshin; Ahmed, Tamer; Freire, Aline do N. Falcão; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression. Methods International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967). Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions. Results Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55–0.93). In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated. Conclusions Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman. PMID:26771828

  6. The Role of Higher Education in Their Life: Emerging Adults on the Crossroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Shu-Chen; Hawley, Josh

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the experience of younger, so called "emerging" adults, as they transition to full-time work, focusing specifically on the role of education in this process. When leaving their family-of-origin, emerging adults re-center themselves to settle down in permanent identity and different role commitments. Our findings show…

  7. Role Balance and Depression among College Students: The Moderating Influence of Adult Attachment Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Fons-Scheyd, Alia

    2008-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among role balance perceptions, adult attachment orientations, and depression within an ethnically diverse, mixed-gender sample of college students. Adult attachment orientations--and particularly attachment avoidance--significantly interacted with students' role balance levels to predict their depression…

  8. Mothers' and Fathers' Roles in Caring for an Adult Child with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, Michelle; Carroll, Annemaree; Cuskelly, Monica

    2011-01-01

    To date, there have been few studies of mothers' and fathers' roles in caring for their adult children with intellectual disabilities. The present study investigated the care-giving roles of mother and father couples caring for their adult offspring with an intellectual disability, their psychological health, and the demands and satisfaction of…

  9. Early Entries into Adult Roles: Associations with Aggressive Behavior from Early Adolescence into Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Poduska, Jeanne M.; Kellam, Sheppard G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how early entries into adult roles are associated with aggressive and violent behavior occurring from early adolescence to young adulthood among 499 males and 578 females living in low-income, central-city neighborhoods. Among males, engagement in adult roles accounted for the relationship between higher levels of aggressive…

  10. Implications of an Advice-Giving and Teacher Role on Language Production in Adults with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Bourgeois, Michelle; Youmans, Gina; Hancock, Adrienne

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the two studies described in this paper was to assess whether adults with dementia could assume an advice-giving role (Study 1) and a teacher role (Study 2) despite their cognitive impairments. So far, no research on adults with dementia has compared language production in a social conversation condition with that in an…

  11. Is there a role for telemedicine in adult allergy services?

    PubMed

    Krishna, M T; Knibb, R C; Huissoon, A P

    2016-05-01

    Telemedicine refers to the application of telecommunication and information technology (IT) in the delivery of health and clinical care at a distance or remotely and can be broadly considered in two modalities: store-and-forward and real-time interactive services. Preliminary studies have shown promising results in radiology, dermatology, intensive care, diabetes, rheumatology and primary care. However, the evidence is limited and hampered by small sample sizes, paucity of randomized control studies and lack of data relating to cost-effectiveness, health-related quality of life and patient and clinician satisfaction. This review appraises the evidence from studies that have employed telemedicine tools in other disciplines and makes suggestions for its potential applications in specific clinical scenarios in adult allergy services. Possible examples include: triaging patients to determine the need for allergy tests; pre-assessment for specialized treatments such as allergen immunotherapy, follow-up to assess treatment response and side effects; and education in self-management plan including training updates for self-injectable adrenaline and nasal spray use. This approach might improve access for those with limited mobility or living far away from regional centres, as well as bringing convenience and cost savings for the patient and service provider. These potential benefits need to be carefully weighed against evidence of service safety and quality. Keys to success include delineation of appropriate clinical scenarios, patient selection, training, IT support and robust information governance framework. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to evaluate its role. PMID:26742680

  12. Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents: Their Roles and Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucowski, Richard; Hayden, Robert R.

    When children are raised in an environment where alcoholism is prominent, certain dysfunctional responses are learned as a way to cope with the challenge of that environment. This study was conducted to examine the learning styles of adult children of alcoholics. Subjects were college freshmen and self-identified adult children of alcoholics…

  13. Adult Caregiving among American Indians: The Role of Cultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; McGuire, Lisa C.; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: With a sample of American Indian adults, we estimated the prevalence of adult caregiving, assessed the demographic and cultural profile of caregivers, and examined the association between cultural factors and being a caregiver. This is the first such study conducted with American Indians. Design and Methods: Data came from a…

  14. The Quest for Adult Literacy: Role of the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labunski, Alma J.

    An overview is provided of the issues related to the increase of adult illiteracy in the U.S. and the research, programs, and resources that have sought to move toward a solution of this problem. First, the magnitude of the adult illiteracy issue is addressed, with focus on the small proportion of people being served by literacy programs and the…

  15. Safeguarding Older Adults From Inappropriate Over-the-Counter Medications: The Role of Community Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Chui, Michelle A.; Stone, Jamie A.; Martin, Beth A.; Croes, Kenneth D.; Thorpe, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To elicit the thought process or mental model that community pharmacists use when making recommendations on over-the-counter (OTC) medications to older adults and to elicit the current practices of community pharmacists in providing information, advice, and counseling to older adults about potentially inappropriate OTC medications. Design and Methods: Three separate focus groups with pharmacists were conducted with 5 to 8 pharmacists per group. A vignette about an elderly woman seeking an OTC sleep aid was used to elicit information that pharmacists seek to establish when making a recommendation. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for themes using the initial and focused coding methods of grounded theory. Results: Community pharmacists’ mental models were characterized by 2 similarities: a similarity in what community pharmacists seek to establish about patients and a similarity in when community pharmacists seek to establish it—the sequence in which they try to learn key details about patients. It was identified that pharmacists gather specific information about the patient’s medication profile, health conditions, characteristics of the problem, and past treatments in order to make a recommendation. Community pharmacists recommended behavioral modifications and seeing their physician prior to recommending an OTC sleep aid, primarily due to medication safety concerns. Implications: Pharmacists can play a key role in assisting older adults to select and use OTC medications. PMID:24197014

  16. The role of prior knowledge in error correction for younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Sitzman, Danielle M; Rhodes, Matthew G; Tauber, Sarah K; Liceralde, Van Rynald T

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that, when given feedback, younger adults are more likely to correct high-confidence errors compared with low-confidence errors, a finding termed the hypercorrection effect. Research examining the hypercorrection effect in both older and younger adults has demonstrated that the relationship between confidence and error correction was stronger for younger adults compared with older adults. Their results demonstrated that the relationship between confidence and error correction was stronger for younger adults compared with older adults. However, recent work suggests that error correction is largely related to prior knowledge, while confidence may primarily serve as a proxy for prior knowledge. Prior knowledge generally remains stable or increases with age; thus, the current experiment explored how both confidence and prior knowledge contributed to error correction in younger and older adults. Participants answered general knowledge questions, rated how confident they were that their response was correct, received correct answer feedback, and rated their prior knowledge of the correct response. Overall, confidence was related to error correction for younger adults, but this relationship was much smaller for older adults. However, prior knowledge was strongly related to error correction for both younger and older adults. Confidence alone played little unique role in error correction after controlling for the role of prior knowledge. These data demonstrate that prior knowledge largely predicts error correction and suggests that both older and younger adults can use their prior knowledge to effectively correct errors in memory. PMID:25558782

  17. Role of Adult Education in the Green Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, J. C.

    1970-01-01

    Rural and agricultural extension, functional literacy education, preparation of agricultural experts, education of urban dwellers concerning agricultural matters, and other forms of adult education can contribute to modernization in India. (LY)

  18. The Role of Adults in Facilitating the Play of Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that adults have a responsibility and opportunity to support preschoolers' play by: (1) manifesting positive attitudes toward play; (2) establishing exciting play environments; and (3) offering ideas and play objects. Explores how best to accomplish these supports. (HTH)

  19. Predator-prey role reversals, juvenile experience and adult antipredator behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Choh, Yasuyuki; Ignacio, Maira; Sabelis, Maurice W.; Janssen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Although biologists routinely label animals as predators and prey, the ecological role of individuals is often far from clear. There are many examples of role reversals in predators and prey, where adult prey attack vulnerable young predators. This implies that juvenile prey that escape from predation and become adult can kill juvenile predators. We show that such an exposure of juvenile prey to adult predators results in behavioural changes later in life: after becoming adult, these prey killed juvenile predators at a faster rate than prey that had not been exposed. The attacks were specifically aimed at predators of the species to which they had been exposed. This suggests that prey recognize the species of predator to which they were exposed during their juvenile stage. Our results show that juvenile experience affects adult behaviour after a role reversal. PMID:23061011

  20. Radical Reeducation: Alcoholics Anonymous as a Model in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossman, Lenard H.

    1980-01-01

    The peer self-help group approach used by Alcoholics Anonymous can be a model for other types of adult learning. The group's power, solidarity, experience sharing, and values clarification can provide positive social and educational experiences to others such as the chronically unemployed, illiterate adults, and high school dropouts. (SK)

  1. Adult Community Education: A Model for Regional Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The adult community education (ACE) sector in the state of Victoria provides an example of best practice in regional rural policy in Australia that may serve as a model for other areas of government effort. In 1997, 309,000 Victorians enrolled in adult and community education courses, such as business and technical skills development, literacy and…

  2. A MODEL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR THE ADULT EDUCATION PROFESSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DECROW, ROGER

    A MODEL OF INFORMATION SERVICES FOR THE ADULT EDUCATION PROFESSION PROVIDES FOR--(1) ACCESS TO THE LITERATURE THROUGH BIBLIOGRAPHIES, REVIEWS, AND MECHANIZED RETRIEVAL, (2) PHYSICAL ACCESS (MAINLY IN MICROFORM), (3) SPECIALIZED INFORMATION SERVICES LINKED WITH ONE ANOTHER AND THE ERIC CLEARINGHOUSE ON ADULT EDUCATION, (4) COORDINATION, RESEARCH,…

  3. Building a Data Based Model for Senior Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtenay, Bradley C.; And Others

    Research shows that developing a curriculum model for senior adult education requires consideration of at least four important factors: (1) the heterogeneous nature of the senior adult population; (2) their specific information and interest needs; (3) the specific nature of the learning activities; and (4) the specific barriers and facilitators…

  4. Infant Imitation from Televised Peer and Adult Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seehagen, Sabine; Herbert, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental changes in learning from peers and adults during the second year of life were assessed using an imitation paradigm. Independent groups of 15- and 24-month-old infants watched a prerecorded video of an unfamiliar child or adult model demonstrating a series of actions with objects. When learning was assessed immediately, 15-month-old…

  5. Mothers of Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Multiple Roles, Ethnicity and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, A.; Blacher, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Two opposing perspectives--role strain and role enhancement--were considered as predictive of women's psychological and physical health. The authors examined the relation between multiple role occupancy (parenting, employment, marriage) and well-being (depression and health) among mothers of young adults with intellectual disability…

  6. Wanted: Active Role Models for Today's Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity Wanted: Active Role Models for Today's Kids Past ... the active role models they can get. "With childhood obesity at an all-time high, we need to ...

  7. The Role of Religiosity in Influencing Adolescent and Adult Alcohol Use in Trinidad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollocks, Steve C. T.; Dass, Natasha; Seepersad, Randy; Mohammed, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of religiosity among adolescents' and adults' alcohol use in Trinidad. A stratified random sample design of 369 adolescents and 210 adult parents belonging to the various religious groups in Trinidad was employed. Participants were randomly selected from various educational districts across Trinidad. Adolescent…

  8. Health Literacy and Social Capital: What Role for Adult Literacy Partnerships and Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen; Balatti, Jo; Falk, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes the case for adult literacy (including numeracy) practitioners to play a greater role in health literacy initiatives in Australia. The paper draws on data from a national research project that investigated adult literacy partnerships and pedagogy viewed from a social capital perspective. The primary purpose of the project was to…

  9. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory

    PubMed Central

    ELWYN, LAURA; SMITH, CAROLYN

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between prospective reports of maltreatment and alcohol problems, and an important link in the path between prospective reports and illegal drug use. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:24319347

  10. Childhood Roles and the Interpersonal Circle: A Model for ACOA Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra A.

    1996-01-01

    Combining childhood roles and interpersonal theory produces a schematic model that includes all adult children of alcoholics, enhances understanding of the group dynamic, and suggests specific group treatment strategies. (Author)

  11. The Role and Training of Adult Educators in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, Jindra

    Beginning with the prewar origins and postwar evolution (since 1944) of Polish adult education, this paper describes the tasks and characteristics of cultural workers within the Polish sociopolitical setting, then traces the development of formal training opportunities (graduate, undergraduate, secondary vocational) as well as the dimensions of…

  12. Administering Adult Literacy Programs: The Role of Strategic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Steve Olu

    In an era of rising public criticism of education and decreasing resources, strategic planning can be a major tool for educational administrators who wish to respond to the increasing challenges their adult literacy programs face. Strategic planning can be defined as a disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and…

  13. Resocializing Adults for Their New Role as Consumer-Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnane, Jennifer Aden

    2008-01-01

    Adults today have been submerged in a consumer society from a very young age and face decisions as consumers on a daily basis. Realizing and understanding the impact of these decisions are vital to functioning in a consumer society in order to achieve the greatest benefit for one's family, the environment, and society as a whole. Given that the…

  14. Role of Methoprene-Tolerant (Met) in Adult Morphogenesis and in Adult Ecdysis of Blattella germanica

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Jesus; Belles, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile Hormone (JH) represses metamorphosis of young instars in insects. One of the main players in hormonal signalling is Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which plays the role of JH receptor. Using the Polyneopteran insect Blattella germanica as the model and RNAi for transcript depletion, we have confirmed that Met transduces the antimetamorphic signal of JH in young nymphs and plays a role in the last nymphal instar moult in this species. Previously, the function of Met as the JH receptor had been demonstrated in the Eumetabola clade, with experiments in Holometabola (in the beetle Tribolium castaneum) and in their sister group Paraneoptera (in the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus). Our result shows that the function of Met as JH receptor is also conserved in the more basal Polyneoptera. The function of Met as JH transducer might thus predate the evolutionary innovation of metamorphosis. Moreover, expression of Met was also found in last nymphal instar of B. germanica, when JH is absent. Depletion of Met in this stage provoked deficiencies in wing growth and ecdysis problems in the imaginal moult. Down-regulation of the ecdysone-inducible gene E75A and Insulin-Like-Peptide 1 in these Met-depleted specimens suggest that Met is involved in the ecdysone and insulin signalling pathways in last nymphal instar, when JH is virtually absent. PMID:25072526

  15. Role of Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in adult morphogenesis and in adult ecdysis of Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Jesus; Belles, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile Hormone (JH) represses metamorphosis of young instars in insects. One of the main players in hormonal signalling is Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which plays the role of JH receptor. Using the Polyneopteran insect Blattella germanica as the model and RNAi for transcript depletion, we have confirmed that Met transduces the antimetamorphic signal of JH in young nymphs and plays a role in the last nymphal instar moult in this species. Previously, the function of Met as the JH receptor had been demonstrated in the Eumetabola clade, with experiments in Holometabola (in the beetle Tribolium castaneum) and in their sister group Paraneoptera (in the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus). Our result shows that the function of Met as JH receptor is also conserved in the more basal Polyneoptera. The function of Met as JH transducer might thus predate the evolutionary innovation of metamorphosis. Moreover, expression of Met was also found in last nymphal instar of B. germanica, when JH is absent. Depletion of Met in this stage provoked deficiencies in wing growth and ecdysis problems in the imaginal moult. Down-regulation of the ecdysone-inducible gene E75A and Insulin-Like-Peptide 1 in these Met-depleted specimens suggest that Met is involved in the ecdysone and insulin signalling pathways in last nymphal instar, when JH is virtually absent. PMID:25072526

  16. Dual transcriptional activator and repressor roles of TBX20 regulate adult cardiac structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Sakabe, Noboru J.; Aneas, Ivy; Shen, Tao; Shokri, Leila; Park, Soo-Young; Bulyk, Martha L.; Evans, Sylvia M.; Nobrega, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing requirement in adult heart for transcription factors with key roles in cardiac development is not well understood. We recently demonstrated that TBX20, a transcriptional regulator required for cardiac development, has key roles in the maintenance of functional and structural phenotypes in adult mouse heart. Conditional ablation of Tbx20 in adult cardiomyocytes leads to a rapid onset and progression of heart failure, with prominent conduction and contractility phenotypes that lead to death. Here we describe a more comprehensive molecular characterization of the functions of TBX20 in adult mouse heart. Coupling genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcriptome analyses (RNA-Seq), we identified a subset of genes that change expression in Tbx20 adult cardiomyocyte-specific knockout hearts which are direct downstream targets of TBX20. This analysis revealed a dual role for TBX20 as both a transcriptional activator and a repressor, and that each of these functions regulates genes with very specialized and distinct molecular roles. We also show how TBX20 binds to its targets genome-wide in a context-dependent manner, using various cohorts of co-factors to either promote or repress distinct genetic programs within adult heart. Our integrative approach has uncovered several novel aspects of TBX20 and T-box protein function within adult heart. Sequencing data accession number (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo): GSE30943. PMID:22328084

  17. Changes in Grandchildren’s Adult Role Statuses and Their Relationships with Grandparents

    PubMed Central

    Monserud, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the associations between grandchildren’s (N = 1,170) adult role transitions and their contact with, and closeness to, grandparents, by drawing on data from Waves 2 and 3 of the National Survey of Families and Households. Findings indicate that this relationship is frequently contingent on the nature of the adult role in question, a specific dimension of intergenerational solidarity (i.e., contact vs. closeness), lineage, and grandparent’s gender. The effect of grandchildren’s adult roles on grandparent-grandchild ties may also differ for grandsons and granddaughters. The explanations suggested by relevant theoretical perspectives – the saliency of different roles, the similarity of life experiences between generations, and evaluations of adult role transitions – only partially account for the patterns of these associations. Future research should take into consideration the mediating role of parents, the geographic proximity, social opportunities and constraints related to grandchildren’s adult roles, and grandparents’ assistance for grandchildren. PMID:21572555

  18. Hippocampal adult neurogenesis: Its regulation and potential role in spatial learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Pan, Yongliang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhibin; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-08-01

    Adult neurogenesis, defined here as progenitor cell division generating functionally integrated neurons in the adult brain, occurs within the hippocampus of numerous mammalian species including humans. The present review details various endogenous (e.g., neurotransmitters) and environmental (e.g., physical exercise) factors that have been shown to influence hippocampal adult neurogenesis. In addition, the potential involvement of adult-generated neurons in naturally-occurring spatial learning behavior is discussed by summarizing the literature focusing on traditional animal models (e.g., rats and mice), non-traditional animal models (e.g., tree shrews), as well as natural populations (e.g., chickadees and Siberian chipmunk). PMID:27174001

  19. Examining a Model of Life Satisfaction among Unemployed Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined a model of life satisfaction among a diverse sample of 184 adults who had been unemployed for an average of 10.60 months. Using the Lent (2004) model of life satisfaction as a framework, a model was tested with 5 hypothesized predictor variables: optimism, job search self-efficacy, job search support, job search…

  20. A Coping Model for Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draucker, Claire B.

    1995-01-01

    A group of 149 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse was tested using a causal model that identifies relationships among sexual abuse situation characteristics, the accomplishment of cognitive coping tasks, and long-term effects. Results indicated the model did not fit the data. A revised model is proposed and examined. (JBJ)

  1. Sex Role Orientation Across the Adult Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaks, Peggy M.; And Others

    It was hypothesized that four different "life lines" would affect sex role orientations, specifically intimacy, parenting, grandparenting, and work. Subjects were 74 men and 43 women, white, upper middle class with a mean education level of 14 years. Each participant completed a demographic questionnaire, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, a Life Events…

  2. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  3. The Changing Nature of Adult Education in the Age of Transnational Migration: Toward a Model of Recognitive Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the changing nature of adult education in the age of transnational migration and proposes recognitive adult education as an inclusive model that acknowledges and affirms cultural difference and diversity as positive and desirable assets.

  4. Adult Role Transitions: Some Antecedents and Outcomes Early in the Life Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frank M.; Frese, Wolfgang

    Focusing on the pre-adolescent to late-adolescent portion of the life cycle, research examined how "early" exit from student role and "early" entry into adult roles of parent or spouse reflects factors operating prior to adolescence. Interviews during 1969 with 1,202 fifth and sixth graders and their mothers in 6 southern states, and again during…

  5. Sex Role Strain Among Kibbutz Adolescents and Adults: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snarey, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    It was hypothesized that adolescent females experience greater sex role strain than other kibbutz members. Loevinger's ego development test was administered to 40 kibbutz members. The findings supported the hypothesis and showed that adult women are significantly more likely to focus their dissatisfaction in the area of actual role behavior. (JAZ)

  6. Food Security in Older Adults: Community Service Provider Perceptions of Their Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Heather H.; Dwyer, John J. M.; Edwards, Vicki; Senson, Christine; Edward, H. Gayle

    2007-01-01

    Food insecurity in older adults is influenced by financial constraints, functional disability, and isolation. Twenty-eight social- and community-service providers participated in four focus groups to report (a) perceptions and experiences with food insecurity in their older clients, (b) beliefs about their potential role(s) in promoting food…

  7. Children's Changing Roles. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 28. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, discusses children's changing roles. It is designed to help parents to support their children's roles--becoming bicultural, being learners, and creating oneself. The module contains the…

  8. From "Mentor" to "Role Model": Scaling the Involvement of STEM Professionals through Role Model Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Jennifer; Stein, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Mentors and role models can play a significant role in high school students' motivation to pursue specific careers later in life. Although the use of role models in the classroom is an important research topic, little research has been conducted on scaling up STEM role models reach through the use of video vignettes. This essay outlines a series…

  9. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females)…

  10. Modeling heading in adult soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Ernesto; Ponce, Daniel; Andresen, Max

    2014-01-01

    Heading soccer balls can generate mild brain injuries and in the long run can lead to difficulty in solving problems, memory deficits, and language difficulties. Researchers evaluated the effects on the head for both correct and incorrect heading techniques. They based the head's geometry on medical images. They determined the injury's magnitude by comparing the neurological tissue's resistance with predictions of the generated stresses. The evaluation examined fast playing conditions in adult soccer, taking into account the ball's speed and the type of impact. Mathematical simulations using the finite element method indicated that correctly heading balls arriving at moderate speed presents a low risk of brain injury. However, damage can happen around the third cervical vertebra. These results coincide with medical studies. Incorrect heading greatly increases the brain injury risk and can alter the parietal area. PMID:25248195

  11. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact. PMID:26059537

  12. Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, “Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults,” focuses on information sources and data available for modeling environmental exposures in the older U.S. population, defined here to be people 60 years and older, with an emphasis on those...

  13. Adult Intellectual Development as Social-Cognitive Growth: A Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D.

    This paper describes a tentative model to assist in conceptualization of the dynamics of adult social-cognitive development based on Piaget's and Riegel's thought, gerontological studies, and dialectical theory. The proposed model possesses several qualities: (1) it derives from the concept of intelligence as an adaptive biological entity; (2) it…

  14. Andragogy in Practice: Clarifying the Andragogical Model of Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Swanson, Richard A.; Naquin, Sharon S.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses aspects of andragogy that are important for performance improvement professionals. Topics include the core andragogical model that presents core principles of adult learning; andragogy as an individual-transactional framework; individual learner differences; situational differences; and the Andragogy in Practice Model. (Contains 70…

  15. Research-Based Model for Adult Consumer-Homemaking Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN.

    This model is designed to be used as a guide by all teachers and designers of adult vocational consumer and homemaking courses who usually function as program planners. Chapter 1 contains an operational definition, the rationale, and description of intended users. Chapter 2 presents the model description with an overview and discussion of the…

  16. Influence of adult attachment insecurities on parenting self-esteem: the mediating role of dyadic adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Vincenzo; Bianco, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent–child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem. Methods: The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects) of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0–6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. Results: Path analysis was used to design and test a theoretical integrative model, achieving a good fit with the data. Findings showed that dyadic adjustment mediates the negative influence on parenting self-efficacy of both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Parenting satisfaction is positively influenced by parenting self-efficacy and negatively affected by child’s age. Attachment anxiety negatively influences parenting satisfaction. Conclusion: Our findings are in line with the theoretical expectations and have promising implications for future research and intervention programs designed to improve parenting self-esteem. PMID:26441811

  17. Adult Illiteracy and the Role of the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Larry P.; Piland, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Defines functional illiteracy and offers statistics on the prevalence of illiteracy among various groups in the United States. Advocates a central role for community colleges in linking programs and resources addressing illiteracy, acknowledging constraints limiting the colleges' ability to combat the problem. (DMM)

  18. The History and Role of Libraries in Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horning, Alice

    2010-01-01

    Illiteracy is a huge problem, socially, economically and educationally. This study of the history and current practices of American public libraries examines their role in supporting the development of human literate abilities and in helping all Americans to be critically literate in order to participate fully and successfully in our society. This…

  19. The Relationship between Race and Students' Identified Career Role Models and Perceived Role Model Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karunanayake, Danesh; Nauta, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined whether college students' race was related to the modal race of their identified career role models, the number of identified career role models, and their perceived influence from such models. Consistent with A. Bandura's (1977, 1986) social learning theory, students tended to have role models whose race was the same as…

  20. Roles of neural stem cells and adult neurogenesis in adolescent alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, K.; Morris, S.A.; Liput, D.J.; Kelso, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses the contributions of a newly considered form of plasticity, the ongoing production of new neurons from neural stem cells, or adult neurogenesis, within the context of neuropathologies that occur with excessive alcohol intake in the adolescent. Neural stem cells and adult neurogenesis are now thought to contribute to the structural integrity of the hippocampus, a limbic system region involved in learning, memory, behavioral control, and mood. In adolescents with alcohol use disorders, the hippocampus appears to be particularly vulnerable to the neurodegenerative effects of alcohol, but the role of neural stem cells and adult neurogenesis in alcoholic neuropathology has only recently been considered. This review encompasses a brief overview of neural stem cells and the processes involved in adult neurogenesis, how neural stem cells are affected by alcohol, and possible differences in the neurogenic niche between adults and adolescents. Specifically, what is known about developmental differences in adult neurogenesis between the adult and adolescent is gleaned from the literature, as well as how alcohol affects this process differently between the age groups. And finally, this review suggests differences that may exist in the neurogenic niche between adults and adolescents and how these differences may contribute to the susceptibility of the adolescent hippocampus to damage. However, many more studies are needed to discern whether these developmental differences contribute to the vulnerability of the adolescent to developing an alcohol use disorder. PMID:20113873

  1. Role of pneumococcal vaccination in prevention of pneumococcal disease among adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Eng, Philip; Lim, Lean Huat; Loo, Chian Min; Low, James Alvin; Tan, Carol; Tan, Eng Kiat; Wong, Sin Yew; Setia, Sajita

    2014-01-01

    The burden of disease associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in adults can be considerable but is largely preventable through routine vaccination. Although substantial progress has been made with the recent licensure of the new vaccines for prevention of pneumonia in adults, vaccine uptake rates need to be improved significantly to tackle adult pneumococcal disease effectively. Increased education regarding pneumococcal disease and improved vaccine availability may contribute to a reduction in pneumococcal disease through increased vaccination rates. The increase in the elderly population in Singapore as well as globally makes intervention in reducing pneumococcal disease an important priority. Globally, all adult vaccines remain underused and family physicians give little priority to pneumococcal vaccination for adults in daily practice. Family physicians are specialists in preventive care and can be leaders in ensuring that adult patients get the full benefit of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases. They can play a key role in the immunization delivery of new and routine vaccines by educating the public on the risks and benefits associated with vaccines. Local recommendations by advisory groups on vaccination in adults will also help to tackle vaccine preventable diseases in adults. PMID:24729726

  2. Atom-Role-Based Access Control Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Weihong; Huang, Richeng; Hou, Xiaoli; Wei, Gang; Xiao, Shui; Chen, Yindong

    Role-based access control (RBAC) model has been widely recognized as an efficient access control model and becomes a hot research topic of information security at present. However, in the large-scale enterprise application environments, the traditional RBAC model based on the role hierarchy has the following deficiencies: Firstly, it is unable to reflect the role relationships in complicated cases effectively, which does not accord with practical applications. Secondly, the senior role unconditionally inherits all permissions of the junior role, thus if a user is under the supervisor role, he may accumulate all permissions, and this easily causes the abuse of permission and violates the least privilege principle, which is one of the main security principles. To deal with these problems, we, after analyzing permission types and role relationships, proposed the concept of atom role and built an atom-role-based access control model, called ATRBAC, by dividing the permission set of each regular role based on inheritance path relationships. Through the application-specific analysis, this model can well meet the access control requirements.

  3. The Role of Models in Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, Julia

    2016-04-01

    What is a model, anyway? Different geoscientists will give different answers. There are conceptual models, numerical models, statistical models, forward models and inverse models; there are even different models of the scientific method. As a founding and now chief exec editor of the journal Geoscientific Model Development, I have contemplated the different approaches to computational modelling presently being implemented across the different areas of Geoscience. Meanwhile, in my own work, I have primarily focused on confronting model output with observations. It is from these perspectives that I will discuss the variety of roles and usages of modelling in modern geoscience.

  4. Adult Zebrafish model of streptococcal infection

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Hilary A.; Runft, Donna L.

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcal pathogens cause a wide array of clinical syndromes in humans, including invasive systemic infections resulting in high mortality rates. Many of these pathogens are human specific, and therefore difficult to analyze in vivo using typical animal models, as these models rarely replicate what is observed in human infections. This unit describes the use of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an animal model for streptococcal infection to analyze multiple disease states. This model closely mimics the necrotizing fasciitis/myositis pathology observed in humans from a Streptococcus pyogenes infection. The use of a zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus iniae, which replicates systemic infections caused by many streptococcal pathogens, including dissemination to the brain, is also described. Included protocols describe both intraperitoneal and intramuscular infections, as well as methods for histological and quantitative measurements of infection. PMID:19412913

  5. Functional Role of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis as a Therapeutic Strategy for Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed Qasim Hussaini, Syed; Rigby, Michael J.; Jang, Mi-Hyeon

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the process of generating new neurons from neural stem cells, plays significant roles in synaptic plasticity, memory, and mood regulation. In the mammalian brain, it continues to occur well into adulthood in discrete regions, namely, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its role in the etiology of mental disorders. In addition, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly correlated with the remission of the antidepressant effect. In this paper, we discuss three major psychiatric disorders, depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction, in light of preclinical evidence used in establishing the neurobiological significance of adult neurogenesis. We interpret the significance of these results and pose questions that remain unanswered. Potential treatments which include electroconvulsive therapy, deep brain stimulation, chemical antidepressants, and exercise therapy are discussed. While consensus lacks on specific mechanisms, we highlight evidence which indicates that these treatments may function via an increase in neural progenitor proliferation and changes to the hippocampal circuitry. Establishing a significant role of adult neurogenesis in the pathogenicity of psychiatric disorders may hold the key to potential strategies toward effective treatment. PMID:23346419

  6. A TRAINING MODEL FOR THE JOBLESS ADULT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ULRICH, BERNARD

    THE TRAINING SYSTEMS DESIGN, AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH UTILIZING KNOWLEDGE OF BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES, NEW INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY, AND SYSTEMS DESIGN, HAS BEEN APPLIED TO DEVELOP A MODEL FOR RE-EDUCATING AND TRAINING THE AGING UNEMPLOYED. RESEARCH INTO EXISTING MDTA DEMONSTRATION PROGRAMS BY THE COOPERATIVE EFFORTS OF MCGRAW-HILL AND THE…

  7. Suggesting a General ESP Model for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jumaily, Samir

    2011-01-01

    The study suggests a general model that could guarantee the cooperation between teachers and their students to overcome the difficulties encountered in ESP learning. It tries to join together different perspectives in the research of adult education, specifically in the teaching of English for Specific Purposes. It also provides some sort of trust…

  8. The Role of Language in Adult Education and Poverty Reduction in Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagwasi, Mompoloki

    2006-05-01

    This study examines the role of language in reducing poverty in Botswana through adult-education programs. Because language is the medium through which human beings communicate and grow intellectually and socially, it should form the basis of any discussion involving the relation between development and education. In order best to respond to societal changes and bridge the gap between the less privileged and the more privileged, adult-education programs should be guided by language policies that are sensitive to this pivotal role that language plays. Language is important in any discussion of poverty reduction because it determines who has access to educational, political and economic resources. The author recommends that adult-education programs in Botswana take account of the multilingual nature of society and so allow learners to participate freely, make use of their indigenous knowledge, and enhance their self-esteem and identity.

  9. Role of children in end-of-life treatment planning among Korean American older adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunjeong; Berkman, Cathy S

    2010-01-01

    Three focus groups (n = 23) with Korean American older adults explored the role of culture in end-of-life decision making. No participants had completed an advance directive and few had discussed end-of-life treatment preferences. Focus group themes addressed: (a) whether children are resistant or receptive to discussing their parents' end-of-life treatment preferences; (b) whether the older adults or their children should make decisions about end-of-life treatment; (c) whether decision making should be the responsibility of the eldest son or of all the children; and (d) whether children would implement the parent's preferences for end-of-life treatment. Understanding the role of children in end-of-life decision making among Korean American older adults is important for culturally competent care. PMID:21132598

  10. Role of Special Olympics for Mothers of Adult Athletes with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2008-01-01

    The role of Special Olympics in the lives of mothers of adult athletes was examined. Forty-six mothers participated in a longitudinal study, completing a parenting stress questionnaire, a measure of their child's maladaptive behavior, and a survey of athlete involvement in Special Olympics at two time periods, 42 months apart. Results confirm that…

  11. Secondary Traumatization among Adult Children of PTSD Veterans: The Role of Mother-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinshtein, Yula; Dekel, Rachel; Polliack, Miki

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the level of secondary traumatization among adult children of Israeli war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as manifested in emotional distress, stress resulting from terrorist attacks, and capacity for intimacy. In addition, the role of the mother-child relationship as a moderator of these manifestations of…

  12. Adult Roles & Functions. A Nonlaboratory Home Economics Course for Eleventh and Twelfth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

    This competency-based curriculum guide is designed for a non-laboratory course in home economics for eleventh and twelfth grades. It was developed and field tested by twenty-nine teachers in high schools in West Virginia. The Adult Roles and Functions curriculum is organized in two sections. The teacher's section contains information on teaching…

  13. The Role of Shifting, Updating, and Inhibition in Prospective Memory Performance in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M.; Stahl, Christoph; Zeintl, Melanie; Kaller, Christoph P.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory performance shows a decline in late adulthood. The present article examines the role of 3 main executive function facets (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition) as possible developmental mechanisms associated with these age effects. One hundred seventy-five young and 110 older adults performed a battery of cognitive tests…

  14. The Role of Online Games in Promoting Young Adults' Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Themistokleous, Sotiris; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we present an argument for the need to support young adult's civic engagement and we explore the role of online games in supporting such engagement. In doing so, in the first section of the paper, we offer a definition for civic education and citizenship alongside a discussion for the pedagogical frameworks that better support…

  15. Emerging New Service Roles for Older Adults on College and University Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, David C.; Tomb, Karyl

    1981-01-01

    Explored number of programs initiated to involve older adults in meaningful volunteer tasks, responsibilities, and roles on university campuses. Data demonstrate the feasibility of these programs and positive outcomes include improvement of intergenerational communication, reduction of ageism, provision of services to educational institutions, and…

  16. Adolescent and Adult Reasoning about Gender Roles and Fairness in Benin, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conry-Murray, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This study examined reasoning about gender roles in a traditional society in Benin, West Africa. Ninety-seven male and female adolescents and adults evaluated conflicts between a husband and a wife over gender norms to determine whether gender norms, are judged to be moral or conventional. Although most attributed decision-making power to the…

  17. Building Future Sustainability and Democratic Practices: The Role of Adult Education in Post-Conflict Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaght, Georgia; Kell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents and analyses a range of literature and policy statements that identifies issues and looks at the role which adult education plays in building communities and peace in post-conflict states. This paper explores and documents these developments in countries in close proximity to Australia which have been viewed by the former…

  18. Women's Changing Roles. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 11. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, addresses the different roles of women in the United States. Topics covered include the following: identifying problematic lifestyle differences; defining solutions to such problems;…

  19. Men's Changing Roles. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 27. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, discusses men's changing roles. It is designed to provide a framework for exploring how differences in language, laws, and ways for participating in the community and differences in the way…

  20. Role of ketamine for analgesia in adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Schermer, Erika; Kodumudi, Vijay; Belani, Kumar; Urman, Richard D; Kaye, Alan David

    2016-01-01

    Ketamine an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocking agent and a dissociative anesthetic with neurostimulatory side effects. In recent years, multiple research trials as well as systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest the usefulness of ketamine as a strong analgesic used in subanesthetic intravenous doses, and also as a sedative. In addition, ketamine was noted to possess properties of anti-tolerance, anti-hyperalgesia and anti-allodynia most likely secondary to inhibition of the NMDA receptors. Tolerance, hyperalgesia and allodynia phenomena are the main components of opioid resistance, and pathological pain is often seen in the clinical conditions involving neuropathic pain, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and central sensitization with allodynia or hyperalgesia. All these conditions are challenging to treat. In low doses, ketamine does not have major adverse dysphoric effects and also has the favorable effects of reduced incidence of opioid-induced nausea and vomiting. Therefore, ketamine can be a useful adjunct for pain control after surgery. Additional studies are required to determine the role of ketamine in the immediate postoperative period after surgical interventions known to produce severe pain and in the prevention and treatment of chronic pain. PMID:27625475

  1. Role models for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichardt, J.; White, D. R.

    2007-11-01

    We present a framework for automatically decomposing (“block-modeling”) the functional classes of agents within a complex network. These classes are represented by the nodes of an image graph (“block model”) depicting the main patterns of connectivity and thus functional roles in the network. Using a first principles approach, we derive a measure for the fit of a network to any given image graph allowing objective hypothesis testing. From the properties of an optimal fit, we derive how to find the best fitting image graph directly from the network and present a criterion to avoid overfitting. The method can handle both two-mode and one-mode data, directed and undirected as well as weighted networks and allows for different types of links to be dealt with simultaneously. It is non-parametric and computationally efficient. The concepts of structural equivalence and modularity are found as special cases of our approach. We apply our method to the world trade network and analyze the roles individual countries play in the global economy.

  2. Differential roles of estrogen receptors, ESR1 and ESR2, in adult rat spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dumasia, Kushaan; Kumar, Anita; Deshpande, Sharvari; Sonawane, Shobha; Balasinor, N H

    2016-06-15

    Estrogens, through their receptors, play an important role in regulation of spermatogenesis. However, the precise role of the estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2) has been difficult to determine as in vivo estradiol treatment would signal through both the ESRs. Hence we had developed in vivo selective ESR agonist administration models in adult male rats to decipher the individual roles of the ESRs. Treatment with both ESR1 and ESR2 agonists decreased sperm counts after 60 days of treatment. The present study aimed to delineate the precise causes of decreased sperm counts following treatment with the two ESR agonists. Treatment with ESR1 agonist causes an arrest in differentiation of round spermatids into elongated spermatids, mainly due to down-regulation of genes involved in spermiogenesis. ESR2 agonist administration reduces sperm counts due to spermiation failure and spermatocyte apoptosis. Spermiation failure observed is due to defects in tubulobulbar complex formation because of decrease in expression of genes involved in actin remodelling. The increase in spermatocyte apoptosis could be due to increase in oxidative stress and decrease in transcripts of anti-apoptotic genes. Our results suggest that the two ESRs regulate distinct aspects of spermatogenesis. ESR1 is mainly involved with regulation of spermiogenesis, while ESR2 regulates spermatocyte apoptosis and spermiation. Activation of estrogen signaling through either of the receptors can affect their respective processes during spermatogenesis and lead to low sperm output. Since many environmental estrogens can bind to the two ESRs with different affinities, these observations can be useful in understanding their potential effects on spermatogenesis. PMID:27004961

  3. The influence of sexually explicit Internet material and peers on stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles: similarities and differences between adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2011-09-01

    Previous research on the influence of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) on adolescents' stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles has three shortcomings. First, the role of peers has been neglected; second, stereotypical beliefs have rarely been studied as causing the use of SEIM and the selection of specific peers; and third, it is unclear whether adolescents are more vulnerable to the effects of SEIM than adults. We used data from two nationally representative two-wave panel surveys among 1,445 Dutch adolescents and 833 Dutch adults, focusing on the stereotypical belief that women engage in token resistance to sex (i.e., the notion that women say "no" when they actually intend to have sex). Structural equation modeling showed that peers who supported traditional gender roles elicited, both among adolescents and adults, stronger beliefs that women use token resistance to sex. Further, the belief that women engage in token resistance predicted adolescents' and adults' selection of gender-role traditional peers, but it did not predict adolescents' and adults' use of SEIM. Finally, adults, but not adolescents, were susceptible to the impact of SEIM on beliefs that women engage in token resistance to sex. PMID:21332367

  4. Positive Role Modeling on TV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Norton

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes major findings of research report issued by Institute of Social Research (University of Michigan) on "Freestyle," a Public Broadcast System television program designed to counteract limiting effects of sexist stereotyping on career aspirations and life skills of boys and girls aged 9 to 12. Strategies in pro-social modeling are…

  5. The Role of Adult-Born Neurons in the Constantly Changing Olfactory Bulb Network

    PubMed Central

    Malvaut, Sarah; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    The adult mammalian brain is remarkably plastic and constantly undergoes structurofunctional modifications in response to environmental stimuli. In many regions plasticity is manifested by modifications in the efficacy of existing synaptic connections or synapse formation and elimination. In a few regions, however, plasticity is brought by the addition of new neurons that integrate into established neuronal networks. This type of neuronal plasticity is particularly prominent in the olfactory bulb (OB) where thousands of neuronal progenitors are produced on a daily basis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the OB. In the OB, these neuronal precursors differentiate into local interneurons, mature, and functionally integrate into the bulbar network by establishing output synapses with principal neurons. Despite continuous progress, it is still not well understood how normal functioning of the OB is preserved in the constantly remodelling bulbar network and what role adult-born neurons play in odor behaviour. In this review we will discuss different levels of morphofunctional plasticity effected by adult-born neurons and their functional role in the adult OB and also highlight the possibility that different subpopulations of adult-born cells may fulfill distinct functions in the OB neuronal network and odor behaviour. PMID:26839709

  6. Modelling Focused Learning in Role Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matessa, Michael; Anderson, John R.

    2000-01-01

    ACT-R is a theory of cognition that is capable of learning the relative usefulness of alternative rules. A model using this implicit procedural learning mechanism is described that explains results from a concept formation task created by McDonald and MacWhinney (1991), a role assignment created by Blackwell (1995), and a new role assignment…

  7. The Changing Roles of Adult and Continuing Education Practitioners in Hong Kong: Analysis from a Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Benjamin Tak-Yuen

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the role of adult and continuing education practitioners in Hong Kong as a function of contexts and conceptions of practice. A historical evolutionary approach is used to analyze how roles of practitioners differ in three periods--adult education, continuing education, and lifelong learning. It is revealed that practitioners…

  8. The role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in neonatal uterine smooth muscle: enhanced role compared to adult rat

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Karen; Wray, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about contractile activity, response to agonists or excitation-contraction coupling in neonatal smooth muscle. We have therefore investigated 10-day rat uterus to better understand these processes, and compared it to adult uterus to elucidate how control of contractility develops. Spontaneous contractions are present in the 10-day neonatal uterus, although they are not as large or as regular as those present in adult tissues. External Ca2+ entry via L-type Ca2+ channels is the sole source of Ca2+ and is essential for the spontaneous activity. The neonatal uterus was responsive to carbachol or prostaglandin F2α application; it showed a marked stimulation and a clear dissociation between the force and Ca2+ changes. Such sensitization was not apparent in adult rat myometrium. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) had more releasable Ca2+ and contributed more to the response to agonists in neonatal compared to adult tissues. Thus, Ca2+ entry as opposed to SR Ca2+ release contributed much less to the uterine response to agonists in the neonatal, compared to adult tissues. Inhibition of the SR by cyclopiazonic acid also caused a more vigorous increase in Ca2+ and contractile activity, particularly frequency, in the neonatal compared to the adult uterus. Taken together these data suggest that: (1) spontaneous activity is already present by day 10, (2) receptor-coupling and excitation-contraction signalling pathways are functional, (3) the SR and Ca2+ sensitization mechanisms play a more prominent role in the neonate, and (4) there is a shift to a greater reliance on Ca2+ entry and excitability with development of the myometrium. PMID:12456834

  9. Comparative neuroscience of stimulant-induced memory dysfunction: role for neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Canales, Juan J

    2010-09-01

    The discovery that the addictive drugs impair neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus has prompted the elaboration of new biological hypotheses to explain addiction and drug-induced cognitive dysfunction. Considerable evidence now implicates the process of adult neurogenesis in at least some critical components of hippocampal-dependent memory function. In experimental models, psychomotor stimulant drugs produce alterations in the rate of birth, survival, maturation and functional integration of adult-born hippocampal neurons. Thus some of the deleterious consequences of drug abuse on memory could result from the neurotoxic actions of drugs on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In this review, we will first summarize preclinical and clinical literature on the disruptive effects of drugs such as cocaine and ecstasy in the areas of learning, memory and attention. We will also summarize data that document the widespread effects of stimulant drugs on progenitor activity and precursor incorporation in the adult dentate gyrus. Finally, we will examine evidence that supports the involvement of hippocampal neurogenesis in specific aspects of learning and memory function and we will consider critically the hypothesis that some of the negative consequences of drug abuse on cognition might be ascribed to deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Evidence suggests that stimulant abuse impacts negatively on at least four areas of memory/cognitive function that may be influenced by adult hippocampal neurogenesis: contextual memory, spatial memory, working memory and cognitive flexibility. PMID:20700045

  10. Positive Adult Support and Depression Symptoms in Adolescent Females: The Partially Mediating Role of Eating Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…

  11. The Mediating Role of Visuospatial Planning Skills on Adaptive Function Among Young-Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumor.

    PubMed

    King, Tricia Z; Smith, Kristen M; Ivanisevic, Mirjana

    2015-08-01

    The Boston Qualitative Scoring System (BQSS) was used as a method to examine executive skills on the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF). Young-adult survivors of childhood brain tumor (N = 31) and a demographically-matched comparison group (N = 33) completed the ROCF copy version and Grooved Pegboard, and informants were administered the Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R) and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Survivors had significantly lower BQSS planning and SIB-R community living skills and greater perseveration. Mediation analyses found that BQSS planning skills mediate the relationship between group and community living skills. Convergent findings of the BRIEF Planning, and discriminant findings with the BQSS Fragmentation, BRIEF Emotional Control, and Grooved Pegboard support the planning construct as the specific mediator in this model. Together, these findings highlight the role of planning skills in adaptive functions of young-adult survivors of childhood brain tumor. PMID:26055499

  12. Transition of pediatric patients to adult care: an analysis of provider perceptions across discipline and role.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan-Oliveira, Joanne; Fernandes, Susan M; Borges, Lawrence F; Fishman, Laurie N

    2014-01-01

    The importance of successfully transitioning pediatric patients to adult care is increasingly recognized as more children with chronic diseases are living to adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the current state of provider perceptions across disciplines regarding transition of pediatric patients to adult care. Focus groups made up of providers of various roles and experience levels were conducted. A total of six major themes were identified. We conclude that pediatric providers share common concerns about transitioning pediatric patients to adult care. We reinforce many of the issues raised in the literature and also discuss a sense of professional ego that was identified as a barrier to successful transition, which is not widely reported in other studies. PMID:25134224

  13. Sex role identity in young adults: its parental antecedents and relation to ego development.

    PubMed

    Costos, D

    1986-03-01

    This study, inspired by Block's (1973) work, was designed to enable one to examine how ego development and socialization experience interact in relation to sex role identity. Sex role identity was measured via the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and socialization practices were measured via the Block Child-Rearing Practices Report. Both measures were scaled so as to yield scores on agency, communion, and androgyny. Ego development was assessed via Loevinger's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development. The sample consisted of 120 young adult men and women, married and single. Analyses revealed that the predictive power of the variables differed by sex. Ego development was predictive of sex role identity in men but not women, whereas socialization practices were predictive of sex role identity in women but not men. The results were seen as supporting Chodorow's (1974) position regarding the differing socialization experiences of men and women. PMID:3701594

  14. Implicit Attitude Toward Caregiving: The Moderating Role of Adult Attachment Styles

    PubMed Central

    De Carli, Pietro; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; Santona, Alessandra; Parolin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Attachment and caregiving are separate motivational systems that share the common evolutionary purpose of favoring child security. In the goal of studying the processes underlying the transmission of attachment styles, this study focused on the role of adult attachment styles in shaping preferences toward particular styles of caregiving. We hypothesized a correspondence between attachment and caregiving styles: we expect an individual to show a preference for a caregiving behavior coherent with his/her own attachment style, in order to increase the chance of passing it on to offspring. We activated different representations of specific caregiving modalities in females, by using three videos in which mothers with different Adult Attachment states of mind played with their infants. Participants' facial expressions while watching were recorded and analyzed with FaceReader software. After each video, participants' attitudes toward the category “mother” were measured, both explicitly (semantic differential) and implicitly (single target-implicit association task, ST-IAT). Participants' adult attachment styles (experiences in close relationships revised) predicted attitudes scores, but only when measured implicitly. Participants scored higher on the ST-IAT after watching a video coherent with their attachment style. No effect was found on the facial expressions of disgust. These findings suggest a role of adult attachment styles in shaping implicit attitudes related to the caregiving system. PMID:26779060

  15. Role of sleep continuity and total sleep time in executive function across the adult lifespan.

    PubMed

    Wilckens, Kristine A; Woo, Sarah G; Kirk, Afton R; Erickson, Kirk I; Wheeler, Mark E

    2014-09-01

    The importance of sleep for cognition in young adults is well established, but the role of habitual sleep behavior in cognition across the adult life span remains unknown. We examined the relationship between sleep continuity and total sleep time as assessed with a sleep-detection device, and cognitive performance using a battery of tasks in young (n = 59, mean age = 23.05) and older (n = 53, mean age = 62.68) adults. Across age groups, higher sleep continuity was associated with better cognitive performance. In the younger group, higher sleep continuity was associated with better working memory and inhibitory control. In the older group, higher sleep continuity was associated with better inhibitory control, memory recall, and verbal fluency. Very short and very long total sleep time was associated with poorer working memory and verbal fluency, specifically in the younger group. Total sleep time was not associated with cognitive performance in any domains for the older group. These findings reveal that sleep continuity is important for executive function in both young and older adults, but total sleep time may be more important for cognition in young adults. PMID:25244484

  16. The role of sleep continuity and total sleep time in executive function across the adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Wilckens, Kristine A.; Woo, Sarah G.; Kirk, Afton R.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Wheeler, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of sleep for cognition in young adults is well established, but the role of habitual sleep behavior in cognition across the adult lifespan remains unknown. We examined the relationship between sleep continuity and total sleep time assessed with a sleep detection device and cognitive performance using a battery of tasks in young (n = 59, mean age = 23.05) and older (n = 53, mean age = 62.68) adults. Across age groups, higher sleep continuity was associated with better cognitive performance. In the younger group, higher sleep continuity was associated with better working memory and inhibitory control. In the older group, higher sleep continuity was associated with better inhibitory control, memory recall, and verbal fluency. Very short and very long total sleep time was associated with poorer working memory and verbal fluency, specifically in the younger group. Total sleep time was not associated with cognitive performance in any domains for the older group. These findings reveal that sleep continuity is important for executive function in both young and older adults, but total sleep time may be more important for cognition in young adults. PMID:25244484

  17. Adult mammalian stem cells: the role of Wnt, Lgr5 and R-spondins.

    PubMed

    Schuijers, Jurian; Clevers, Hans

    2012-06-13

    After its discovery as oncogen and morphogen, studies on Wnt focused initially on its role in animal development. With the finding that the colorectal tumour suppressor gene APC is a negative regulator of the Wnt pathway in (colorectal) cancer, attention gradually shifted to the study of the role of Wnt signalling in the adult. The first indication that adult Wnt signalling controls stem cells came from a Tcf4 knockout experiment: mutant mice failed to build crypt stem cell compartments. This observation was followed by similar findings in multiple other tissues. Recent studies have indicated that Wnt agonists of the R-spondin family provide potent growth stimuli for crypts in vivo and in vitro. Independently, Lgr5 was found as an exquisite marker for these crypt stem cells. The story has come full circle with the finding that the stem cell marker Lgr5 constitutes the receptor for R-spondins and occurs in complex with Frizzled/Lrp. PMID:22617424

  18. Juvenile neurogenesis makes essential contributions to adult brain structure and plays a sex-dependent role in fear memories

    PubMed Central

    Cushman, Jesse D.; Maldonado, Jose; Kwon, Eunice E.; Garcia, A. Denise; Fan, Guoping; Imura, Tetsuya; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Fanselow, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal neurogenesis (PNN) contributes neurons to olfactory bulb (OB) and dentate gyrus (DG) throughout juvenile development, but the quantitative amount, temporal dynamics and functional roles of this contribution have not been defined. By using transgenic mouse models for cell lineage tracing and conditional cell ablation, we found that juvenile neurogenesis gradually increased the total number of granule neurons by approximately 40% in OB, and by 25% in DG, between 2 weeks and 2 months of age, and that total numbers remained stable thereafter. These findings indicate that the overwhelming majority of net postnatal neuronal addition in these regions occurs during the juvenile period and that adult neurogenesis contributes primarily to replacement of granule cells in both regions. Behavioral analysis in our conditional cell ablation mouse model showed that complete loss of PNN throughout both the juvenile and young adult period produced a specific set of sex-dependent cognitive changes. We observed normal hippocampus-independent delay fear conditioning, but excessive generalization of fear to a novel auditory stimulus, which is consistent with a role for PNN in psychopathology. Standard contextual fear conditioning was intact, however, pre-exposure dependent contextual fear was impaired suggesting a specific role for PNN in incidental contextual learning. Contextual discrimination between two highly similar contexts was enhanced; suggesting either enhanced contextual pattern separation or impaired temporal integration. We also observed a reduced reliance on olfactory cues, consistent with a role for OB PNN in the efficient processing of olfactory information. Thus, juvenile neurogenesis adds substantively to the total numbers of granule neurons in OB and DG during periods of critical juvenile behavioral development, including weaning, early social interactions and sexual maturation, and plays a sex-dependent role in fear memories. PMID:22347173

  19. Role Models for Pregnancy, Birth, and Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2011-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses how the media provide role models—good and bad—for pregnancy, birth, and breastfeeding. There is a critical need for more positive role models that promote natural, safe, and healthy pregnancy and birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote natural, safe, and healthy birth. PMID:22379353

  20. Role modeling excellence in clinical nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Perry, R N Beth

    2009-01-01

    Role modeling excellence in clinical nursing practice is the focus of this paper. The phenomenological research study reported involved a group of 8 nurses identified by their colleagues as exemplary. The major theme revealed in this study was that these exemplary nurses were also excellent role models in the clinical setting. This paper details approaches used by these nurses that made them excellent role models. Specifically, the themes of attending to the little things, making connections, maintaining a light-hearted attitude, modeling, and affirming others are presented. These themes are discussed within the framework of Watson [Watson, J., 1989. Human caring and suffering: a subjective model for health services. In: Watson, J., Taylor, R. (Eds.), They Shall Not Hurt: Human Suffering and Human Caring. Colorado University, Boulder, CO] "transpersonal caring" and [Bandura, A., 1997. Social Learning Theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ] "Social Learning Theory." Particular emphasis in the discussion is on how positive role modeling by exemplary practitioners can contribute to the education of clinical nurses in the practice setting. PMID:18590978

  1. Childhood Sjögren Syndrome: Insights from adults and animal models

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Sjögren syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting lacrimal and salivary glands and potentially involving extraglandular manifestations. While common in adults, the prevalence and prognosis of childhood SS is unknown, in part due to lack of child-specific diagnostic and classification criteria. This review discusses difficulties in diagnosing childhood SS and highlights recent findings in SS treatment and pathogenesis from studies in adults and animal models over the past 18 months. Recent findings Studies of rituximab show some therapeutic potential in adult SS while newer modalities including gene therapy and mesenchymal stem cell transfer are promising. The pathogenesis of SS is emerging, including roles of T and B lymphocytes, autoantibodies, interferons, and glandular epithelial cells. Specific recent notable findings in SS pathogenesis include identification of a type II interferon signature in salivary glands of SS patients, characterization of salivary gland-infiltrating T cell subsets, and characterization of anti-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor type 3 autoantibodies. Summary Childhood SS is a poorly defined and underdiagnosed autoimmune disease which requires child-specific criteria in order to study disease burden and prognosis. Studies in adults and animal models continue to elucidate new potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets, which may be relevant for childhood SS. PMID:23917159

  2. Adults' Learning Motivation: Expectancy of Success, Value, and the Role of Affective Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorges, Julia; Kandler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested the applicability of expectancy-value theory to adults' learning motivation. Motivation was measured as the anticipated reaction (AR) of German students (N = 300) to receiving their instructions in English as a new learning opportunity. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. Expectancies of success…

  3. The Impact of Role Models on Health Outcomes for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Jason D. P.; Kuhns, Lisa; Garofalo, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose There is little research on the impact of role models on health outcomes for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) youth. This exploratory study describes the presence and availability of LGBT affirming role models and examines the relationship between the accessibility of role models and health outcomes among a community-based sample of LGBT youth. Methods A convenience sample of 496 ethnically-diverse, 16–24 year old LGBT youth was recruited to complete a computer-assisted interview using standardized instruments validated with adolescents. The prevalence and characteristics of role models was described. Differences in subgroup distribution were assessed using Pearson Chi-square (p<0.05). Differences in health outcomes for those with and without role models and the nature of those role models were determined using analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) models, with post hoc Bonferroni tests to probe significant global findings. Results Sixty-percent of the participants reported having a role model, with younger participants significantly more likely to report having a role model. A majority of the participants reported having inaccessible role models, especially among younger participants. The presence and accessibility of a role model did not have a significant relationship to binge drinking, drug use, or STI diagnoses; however, participants with inaccessible role models showed increased psychological distress versus those with accessible or no role models. Conclusions Inaccessible role models may not be sufficient for protecting youth from negative outcomes and formal mechanisms for connecting LGBT youth with caring adults who can serve as role models, such as mentoring programs, are critical. PMID:22443838

  4. Energy Metabolism, Adult Neurogenesis and their Possible Roles in Alzheimer's Disease: A Brief Overview.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Hua, Qian; Schmitt, Angelika G

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent human neurodegenerative disease. Disturbances of brain glucose uptake, glucose tolerance, glucose utilization and of the insulin/insulin receptor signaling cascade are thought to be key features of the pathophysiology of AD. Changes in energy homeostasis in the brain and in the periphery dramatically influence the proliferation of adult neural stem cells and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Recent findings suggest that adult neurogenesis is altered in the hippocampus of AD patients and in various animal models of AD. Several factors associated with the pathogenesis of AD are also known to be involved in the regulation of adult neurogenesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these changes at different stages of AD could provide insights into its pathogenesis, contribute to identifying biomarkers of early AD, and supply fundamental knowledge that will allow novel therapeutic approaches to treating AD by intervening in adult neurogenesis. In this review we provide an overview of the connections between energy metabolism, adult neurogenesis and AD. PMID:26268335

  5. From progenitors to integrated neurons: role of neurotransmitters in adult olfactory neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bovetti, Serena; Gribaudo, Simona; Puche, Adam C; De Marchis, Silvia; Fasolo, Aldo

    2011-12-01

    Adult neurogenesis is due to the persistence of pools of constitutive stem cells able to give rise to a progeny of proliferating progenitors. In rodents, adult neurogenic niches have been found in the subventricular zone (SVZ) along the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. SVZ progenitors undergo a unique process of tangential migration from the lateral ventricle to the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate mainly into GABAergic interneurons in the granule and glomerular layers. SVZ progenitor proliferation, migration and differentiation into fully integrated neurons, are strictly related processes regulated by complex interactions between cell intrinsic and extrinsic influences. Numerous observations demonstrate that neurotrasmitters are involved in all steps of the adult neurogenic process, but the understanding of their role is hampered by their intricate mechanism of action and by the highly complex network in which neurotransmitters work. By considering the three main steps of olfactory adult neurogenesis (proliferation, migration and integration), this review will discuss recent advances in the study of neurotransmitters, highlighting the regulatory mechanisms upstream and downstream their action. PMID:21641990

  6. Role of the Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Naser, Rayan; Vandenbosch, Renaud; Omais, Saad; Hayek, Dayana; Jaafar, Carine; Al Lafi, Sawsan; Saliba, Afaf; Baghdadi, Maarouf; Skaf, Larissa; Ghanem, Noël

    2016-01-01

    Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) are relatively quiescent populations that give rise to distinct neuronal subtypes throughout life, yet, at a very low rate and restricted differentiation potential. Thus, identifying the molecular mechanisms that control their cellular expansion is critical for regeneration after brain injury. Loss of the Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, leads to several defects in cell cycle as well as neuronal differentiation and migration during brain development. Here, we investigated the role of Rb during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb (OB) by inducing its temporal deletion in aNSCs and progenitors. Loss of Rb was associated with increased proliferation of adult progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS) but did not alter self-renewal of aNSCs or neuroblasts subsequent migration and terminal differentiation. Hence, one month after their birth, Rb-null neuroblasts were able to differentiate into distinct subtypes of GABAergic OB interneurons but were gradually lost after 3 months. Similarly, Rb controlled aNSCs/progenitors proliferation in vitro without affecting their differentiation capacity. This enhanced SVZ/OB neurogenesis associated with loss of Rb was only transient and negatively affected by increased apoptosis indicating a critical requirement for Rb in the long-term survival of adult-born OB interneurons. PMID:26847607

  7. Role of the Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Naser, Rayan; Vandenbosch, Renaud; Omais, Saad; Hayek, Dayana; Jaafar, Carine; Al Lafi, Sawsan; Saliba, Afaf; Baghdadi, Maarouf; Skaf, Larissa; Ghanem, Noël

    2016-01-01

    Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) are relatively quiescent populations that give rise to distinct neuronal subtypes throughout life, yet, at a very low rate and restricted differentiation potential. Thus, identifying the molecular mechanisms that control their cellular expansion is critical for regeneration after brain injury. Loss of the Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, leads to several defects in cell cycle as well as neuronal differentiation and migration during brain development. Here, we investigated the role of Rb during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb (OB) by inducing its temporal deletion in aNSCs and progenitors. Loss of Rb was associated with increased proliferation of adult progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS) but did not alter self-renewal of aNSCs or neuroblasts subsequent migration and terminal differentiation. Hence, one month after their birth, Rb-null neuroblasts were able to differentiate into distinct subtypes of GABAergic OB interneurons but were gradually lost after 3 months. Similarly, Rb controlled aNSCs/progenitors proliferation in vitro without affecting their differentiation capacity. This enhanced SVZ/OB neurogenesis associated with loss of Rb was only transient and negatively affected by increased apoptosis indicating a critical requirement for Rb in the long-term survival of adult-born OB interneurons. PMID:26847607

  8. The Role of the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Purchase Intent Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Koestner, Bryan P; Hedgcock, William; Halfmann, Kameko; Denburg, Natalie L

    2016-01-01

    Older adults are frequently the targets of scams and deception, with millions of individuals being affected each year in the United States alone. Previous research has shown that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) may play a role in vulnerability to fraud. The current study examined brain activation patterns in relation to susceptibility to scams and fraud using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-eight healthy, community-dwelling older adults were subdivided into groups of impaired and unimpaired decision makers as determined by their performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). While in the scanner, the participants viewed advertisements that were created directly from cases deemed deceptive by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). We then obtained behavioral measures involving comprehension of claims and purchase intention of the product in each advertisement. Contrasts show brain activity in the vmPFC was less correlated with purchase intention in impaired vs. unimpaired older adult decision makers. Our results have important implications for both future research and recognizing the possible causes of fraud susceptibility among older adults. PMID:27536238

  9. The Role of the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Purchase Intent Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Koestner, Bryan P.; Hedgcock, William; Halfmann, Kameko; Denburg, Natalie L.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults are frequently the targets of scams and deception, with millions of individuals being affected each year in the United States alone. Previous research has shown that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) may play a role in vulnerability to fraud. The current study examined brain activation patterns in relation to susceptibility to scams and fraud using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-eight healthy, community-dwelling older adults were subdivided into groups of impaired and unimpaired decision makers as determined by their performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). While in the scanner, the participants viewed advertisements that were created directly from cases deemed deceptive by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). We then obtained behavioral measures involving comprehension of claims and purchase intention of the product in each advertisement. Contrasts show brain activity in the vmPFC was less correlated with purchase intention in impaired vs. unimpaired older adult decision makers. Our results have important implications for both future research and recognizing the possible causes of fraud susceptibility among older adults. PMID:27536238

  10. Social models of HIV risk among young adults in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Bulled, Nicola L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics. PMID:26284999

  11. Against Apathy: Role Models for Engagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Paul Rogat

    2001-01-01

    Explores how to address the perceptual barriers that dissuade student involvement in social and political issues, including feelings of resignation and helplessness, belief that they must be perfect in their knowledge and confidence before tackling such issues, lack of real knowledge about role models, and a disconnection between smaller,…

  12. The Role of International Non-Governmental Organisations in Promoting Adult Education for Social Change: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Lutz; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role of International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs) in adult education as one instrument of global civil society to effect social change. Postcolonial theory is utilized to explore the complex relationships between the concepts of "globalisation", "global civil, society", and "adult education for social change". In…

  13. The Life Course in the Making: Gender and the Development of Adolescents' Expected Timing of Adult Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Lisa J.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' expectations about the timing of adult role transitions have the potential to shape their actual transitions, setting the stage for their adult lives. Although expectations about timing emerge by early adolescence, little is known about how these expectations develop across adolescence. This longitudinal study examined developmental…

  14. A genetic platform to model sarcomagenesis from primary adult mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Guarnerio, Jlenia; Riccardi, Luisa; Taulli, Riccardo; Maeda, Takahiro; Wang, Guocan; Hobbs, Robin M.; Song, Min Sup; Sportoletti, Paolo; Bernardi, Rosa; Bronson, Roderick T.; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory factors governing adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) physiology and their tumorigenic potential are still largely unknown, which substantially delays the identification of effective therapeutic approaches for the treatment of aggressive and lethal form of MSC-derived mesenchymal tumors, such as undifferentiated sarcomas. Here we have developed a novel platform to screen and quickly identify genes and pathways responsible for adult MSCs transformation, modeled undifferentiated sarcoma in vivo, and, ultimately, tested the efficacy of targeting the identified oncopathways. Importantly, by taking advantage of this new platform, we demonstrate the key role of an aberrant LRF-DLK1-SOX9 pathway in the pathogenesis of undifferentiated sarcoma with important therapeutic implications. PMID:25614485

  15. Marital Status and Problem Gambling Among Australian Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Loneliness.

    PubMed

    Botterill, Emma; Gill, Peter Richard; McLaren, Suzanne; Gomez, Rapson

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling rates in older adults have risen dramatically in recent years and require further investigation. Limited available research has suggested that social needs may motivate gambling and hence problem gambling in older adults. Un-partnered older adults may be at greater risk of problem gambling than those with a partner. The current study explored whether loneliness mediated the marital status-problem gambling relationship, and whether gender moderated the mediation model. It was hypothesised that the relationship between being un-partnered and higher levels of loneliness would be stronger for older men than older women. A community sample of Australian men (n = 92) and women (n = 91) gamblers aged from 60 to 90 years (M = 69.75, SD = 7.28) completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. The results supported the moderated mediation model, with loneliness mediating the relationship between marital status and problem gambling for older men but not for older women. It appears that felt loneliness is an important predictor of problem gambling in older adults, and that meeting the social and emotional needs of un-partnered men is important. PMID:26450126

  16. Roles of Wnt Signaling in the Neurogenic Niche of the Adult Mouse Ventricular-Subventricular Zone.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Yuki; Sawada, Masato; Huang, Shih-Hui; Ogino, Takashi; Ohata, Shinya; Kubo, Akiharu; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2016-02-01

    In many animal species, the production of new neurons (neurogenesis) occurs throughout life, in a specialized germinal region called the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). In this region, neural stem cells undergo self-renewal and generate neural progenitor cells and new neurons. In the olfactory system, the new neurons migrate rostrally toward the olfactory bulb, where they differentiate into mature interneurons. V-SVZ-derived new neurons can also migrate toward sites of brain injury, where they contribute to neural regeneration. Recent studies indicate that two major branches of the Wnt signaling pathway, the Wnt/β-catenin and Wnt/planar cell polarity pathways, play essential roles in various facets of adult neurogenesis. Here, we review the Wnt signaling-mediated regulation of adult neurogenesis in the V-SVZ under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:26572545

  17. The Drosophila BTB Domain Protein Jim Lovell Has Roles in Multiple Larval and Adult Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bjorum, Sonia M.; Simonette, Rebecca A.; Alanis, Raul; Wang, Jennifer E.; Lewis, Benjamin M.; Trejo, Michael H.; Hanson, Keith A.; Beckingham, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Innate behaviors have their origins in the specification of neural fates during development. Within Drosophila, BTB (Bric-a-brac,Tramtrack, Broad) domain proteins such as Fruitless are known to play key roles in the neural differentiation underlying such responses. We previously identified a gene, which we have termed jim lovell (lov), encoding a BTB protein with a role in gravity responses. To understand more fully the behavioral roles of this gene we have investigated its function through several approaches. Transcript and protein expression patterns have been examined and behavioral phenotypes of new lov mutations have been characterized. Lov is a nuclear protein, suggesting a role as a transcriptional regulator, as for other BTB proteins. In late embryogenesis, Lov is expressed in many CNS and PNS neurons. An examination of the PNS expression indicates that lov functions in the late specification of several classes of sensory neurons. In particular, only two of the five abdominal lateral chordotonal neurons express Lov, predicting functional variation within this highly similar group. Surprisingly, Lov is also expressed very early in embryogenesis in ways that suggests roles in morphogenetic movements, amnioserosa function and head neurogenesis. The phenotypes of two new lov mutations that delete adjacent non-coding DNA regions are strikingly different suggesting removal of different regulatory elements. In lov47, Lov expression is lost in many embryonic neurons including the two lateral chordotonal neurons. lov47 mutant larvae show feeding and locomotor defects including spontaneous backward movement. Adult lov47 males perform aberrant courtship behavior distinguished by courtship displays that are not directed at the female. lov47 adults also show more defective negative gravitaxis than the previously isolated lov91Y mutant. In contrast, lov66 produces largely normal behavior but severe female sterility associated with ectopic lov expression in the ovary. We

  18. Clinical role modelling: uncovering hidden knowledge.

    PubMed

    Davies, E

    1993-04-01

    Those responsible for the education of nurses are well aware of the need to reconcile the art and science of nursing so that future practitioners can be prepared to offer a humanistic and professional service to society. One way to assist students in this integration is to provide them with opportunities for role modelling as a means of discovering the knowledge embedded in clinical practice. A study of first-year undergraduate students undertaking a course which provides such opportunities in a number of practice settings was carried out to determine whether the observation of clinical role models does lead to knowledge discovery. The study, which used a grounded theory approach, indicated that the major aspect of nursing uncovered by the students through observation of clinical role models was that of provision of direct care. They articulated their values in relation to 'good' and 'bad' care and identified those attributes of nurses which they considered contributed to these care positions. In addition, they were able to recognize creativity and flexibility in practitioners and to relate these attributes to the ability to provide individualized, context-specific care. There was some uncovering of aspects of the nurse's role in maintaining their own professional competence, socializing neophytes into the profession and collaborating with the members of the multi-disciplinary health care team. PMID:8496511

  19. Concealing Concealment: The Mediating Role of Internalized Heterosexism in Psychological Distress Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent population-based studies indicate that sexual minorities aged 50 and older experience significantly higher rates of psychological distress than their heterosexual age-peers. The minority stress model has been useful in explaining disparately high rates of psychological distress among younger sexual minorities. The purpose of this study is to test a hypothesized structural relationship between two minority stressors—internalized heterosexism and concealment of sexual orientation—and consequent psychological distress among a sample of 2,349 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 50 to 95 years old. Structural equation modeling indicates that concealment has a nonsignificant direct effect on psychological distress but a significant indirect effect that is mediated through internalized heterosexism; the effect of concealment is itself concealed. This may explain divergent results regarding the role of concealment in psychological distress in other studies, and the implications will be discussed. PMID:26322654

  20. Educating adult females for leadership roles in an informal science program for girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreedy, Dale

    The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of and an evidentiary warrant for, how a community of practice focused on informal science learning, can engage and promote active participation that offers adult female members and the community opportunities for legitimacy and transformation. This study is a qualitative, ethnographic research study that documents how adult female volunteers, historically inexperienced and/or excluded from traditional practices of science, come to engage in science activities through an informal, community-based context that helps them to appreciate science connections in their lives that are ultimately empowering and agentic. I begin to understand the ways in which such informal contexts, often thought to be marginal to dominant educational beliefs and practices, can offer adults outside of the field of science, education, or both, an entree into science learning and teaching that facilitate female's participation in legitimate and empowering ways. Using descriptive analyses, I first identify the characteristics of peripheral and active program participants. Through phenomenological analyses, I then develop an understanding of participation in an informal science program by focusing on three adult female members' unique trajectories of participation leading to core member status. Each draws on different aspects of the program that they find most salient, illustrating how different elements can serve as motivators for participation, and support continuation along the trajectory of participation reflecting personal and political agency. Through a purposeful ethnographic case-study analysis, I then explore one core member's transformation, evidenced by her developing identities as someone who enjoys science, engages in science activities, and, enacts a role as community old timer and door opener to science learning. This study: (1) contributes to the limited knowledge base in fields of informal learning, science education, and

  1. Gender Roles and Physical Function in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Auais, Mohammad; Guralnik, Jack; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationships between physical function and gender-stereotyped traits and whether these relationships are modified by sex or social context. Methods A total of 1995 community-dwelling older adults from the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) aged 65 to 74 years were recruited in Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Tirana (Albania), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada). We performed a cross-sectional analysis. Study outcomes were mobility disability, defined as having difficulty in walking 400 meters without assistance or climbing a flight of stairs without resting, and low physical performance, defined as a score < 8 on the Short Physical Performance Battery. The 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants into four gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using site-specific medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) of mobility disability and poor physical performance according to gender roles. Results In models adjusted for sex, marital status, education, income, and research site, when comparing to the androgynous role, we found higher prevalence of mobility disability and poor physical performance among participants endorsing the feminine role (PRR = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.39 and PRR = 1.37, CI 1.01–1.88, respectively) or the undifferentiated role (PRR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.07–1.42 and PRR = 1.58, CI 1.18–2.12, respectively). Participants classified as masculine did not differ from androgynous participants in prevalence rates of mobility disability or low physical performance. None of the multiplicative interactions by sex and research site were significant. Conclusion Feminine and undifferentiated gender roles are independent risk factors for mobility disability and low physical performance in older adults. Longitudinal

  2. The timing of entry into adult roles and changes in trajectories of problem behaviors during the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Martin, Monica J; Blozis, Shelley A; Boeninger, Daria K; Masarik, April S; Conger, Rand D

    2014-11-01

    This study of a cohort of 451 adolescents examined associations between trajectories of problem behaviors and the timing of entry into work, marriage, and parenthood. We used data from 12 assessments across adolescence, through emerging adulthood and into young adulthood. We employed 2-phase mixed-effects models to estimate growth in substance use and antisocial behavior across adolescence, deceleration in the period that follows, and the change point that marks the transition between the 2 phases. We then examined the degree to which the timing of entry into a specific adult role was associated with change in problem behaviors and the change point between the 2 phases. We hypothesized that earlier entries into adult roles would be associated with earlier transitions to the decline in problem behaviors generally observed during adulthood but that later entries would be associated with more quickly declining rates of problem behaviors during adulthood. As proposed, earlier entries into marriage and parenthood predicted earlier transitions to declining trajectories in both substance use and antisocial behavior during adulthood. The findings also indicated that delayed marriage and parenthood were associated with more quickly decreasing rates of change in substance use, but not antisocial behavior, during adulthood. Thus, the results are consistent with the idea that substance use decreases earlier but not as quickly during adulthood for those with earlier entries into marriage and parenthood. However, the timing of entry into work did not predict trajectory changes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25243329

  3. Contrasting roles for parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons in two forms of adult visual cortical plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Eitan S; Cooke, Sam F; Komorowski, Robert W; Chubykin, Alexander A; Thomazeau, Aurore; Khibnik, Lena A; Gavornik, Jeffrey P; Bear, Mark F

    2016-01-01

    The roles played by cortical inhibitory neurons in experience-dependent plasticity are not well understood. Here we evaluate the participation of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) GABAergic neurons in two forms of experience-dependent modification of primary visual cortex (V1) in adult mice: ocular dominance (OD) plasticity resulting from monocular deprivation and stimulus-selective response potentiation (SRP) resulting from enriched visual experience. These two forms of plasticity are triggered by different events but lead to a similar increase in visual cortical response. Both also require the NMDA class of glutamate receptor (NMDAR). However, we find that PV+ inhibitory neurons in V1 play a critical role in the expression of SRP and its behavioral correlate of familiarity recognition, but not in the expression of OD plasticity. Furthermore, NMDARs expressed within PV+ cells, reversibly inhibited by the psychotomimetic drug ketamine, play a critical role in SRP, but not in the induction or expression of adult OD plasticity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11450.001 PMID:26943618

  4. Role Models and Psychosocial Outcomes among African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Alison L.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined relationship of role models among African American ninth-graders to substance use, delinquency, academic engagement, and psychological well-being. Found that males without male role models and females identifying brothers as role models reported the most problem behavior. Adolescents with paternal role models had most positive school…

  5. Derivation of Neural Stem Cells from Human Adult Peripheral CD34+ Cells for an Autologous Model of Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tongguang; Choi, Elliot; Monaco, Maria Chiara G.; Campanac, Emilie; Medynets, Marie; Do, Thao; Rao, Prashant; Johnson, Kory R.; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Von Geldern, Gloria; Johnson, Tory; Subramaniam, Sriram; Hoffman, Dax; Major, Eugene; Nath, Avindra

    2013-01-01

    Proinflammatory factors from activated T cells inhibit neurogenesis in adult animal brain and cultured human fetal neural stem cells (NSC). However, the role of inhibition of neurogenesis in human neuroinflammatory diseases is still uncertain because of the difficulty in obtaining adult NSC from patients. Recent developments in cell reprogramming suggest that NSC may be derived directly from adult fibroblasts. We generated NSC from adult human peripheral CD34+ cells by transfecting the cells with Sendai virus constructs containing Sox2, Oct3/4, c-Myc and Klf4. The derived NSC could be differentiated to glial cells and action potential firing neurons. Co-culturing NSC with activated autologous T cells or treatment with recombinant granzyme B caused inhibition of neurogenesis as indicated by decreased NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Thus, we have established a unique autologous in vitro model to study the pathophysiology of neuroinflammatory diseases that has potential for usage in personalized medicine. PMID:24303066

  6. Attraction Toward the Model and Model's Competence as Determinants of Adult Imitative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.

    1970-01-01

    Suggests that adults are quicker to learn to match the performance of a model similar to themselves in attitude if he is competent. Similarity of the model interferes with rate of learning if he is incompetent. Tables, graph, and bibliography. (RW)

  7. Role of preoperative screening for adult patients for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Selim, Bernardo J; Surani, Salim R; Ramar, Kannan

    2014-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic disease with increasing prevalence. Underdiagnosed in the surgical population, OSA can reach a prevalence of up to 70% in bariatric surgery, and be associated with difficult airways and postoperative cardiopulmonary adverse events. Despite its association with escalation of care, increased health care resource utilization, and length of hospital stay, < 25% of health care institutions in the United States have OSA perioperative protocols to improve patient safety. This is explained in part by a lack of studies that support a widely accepted systematic approach to preoperative screening and risk stratification. This review evaluates the role of preoperative screening tools for adult patients with suspected OSA. PMID:25485922

  8. The role of spin in cosmological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedran, M. L.; Vasconcellos-Vaidya, E. P.

    1984-09-01

    The classical description of spin in a perfect fluid of Ray and Smalley (1982) and its energy-momentum-tensor formulation are applied to cosmological models. The Raychaudhuri equation for the evolution of a continuous matter distribution in hydrodynamic motion is analyzed, and the role of spin and torsion in the Einstein-Cartan theory of gravitation (Hehl et al., 1976) is compared to that of spin in general relativity. It is found that spin-spin interaction is significant only at extremely high densities, and that spin-vorticity interactions are of potential importance at high vorticity, as in the early moments of cosmological models.

  9. From children's hands to adults' ears: gesture's role in the learning process.

    PubMed

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Singer, Melissa A

    2003-05-01

    Children can express thoughts in gesture that they do not express in speech--they produce gesture-speech mismatches. Moreover, children who produce mismatches on a given task are particularly ready to learn that task. Gesture, then, is a tool that researchers can use to predict who will profit from instruction. But is gesture also useful to adults who must decide how to instruct a particular child? We asked 8 adults to instruct 38 third- and fourth-grade children individually in a math problem. We found that the adults offered more variable instruction to children who produced mismatches than to children who produced no mismatches--more different types of instructional strategies and more instructions that contained two different strategies, one in speech and the other in gesture. The children thus appeared to be shaping their own learning environments just by moving their hands. Gesture not only reflects a child's understanding but can play a role in eliciting input that could shape that understanding. As such, it may be part of the mechanism of cognitive change. PMID:12760519

  10. Role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adult patients with Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dhédin, Nathalie; Huynh, Anne; Maury, Sébastien; Tabrizi, Reza; Beldjord, Kheira; Asnafi, Vahid; Thomas, Xavier; Chevallier, Patrice; Nguyen, Stéphanie; Coiteux, Valérie; Bourhis, Jean-Henri; Hichri, Yosr; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Reman, Oumedaly; Graux, Carlos; Chalandon, Yves; Blaise, Didier; Schanz, Urs; Lhéritier, Véronique; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Dombret, Hervé; Ifrah, Norbert

    2015-04-16

    Because a pediatric-inspired Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL) protocol yielded a markedly improved outcome in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL, we aimed to reassess the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients treated in the GRAALL-2003 and GRAALL-2005 trials. In all, 522 patients age 15 to 55 years old and presenting with at least 1 conventional high-risk factor were candidates for SCT in first complete remission. Among these, 282 (54%) received a transplant in first complete remission. At 3 years, posttransplant cumulative incidences of relapse, nonrelapse mortality, and relapse-free survival (RFS) were estimated at 19.5%, 15.5%, and 64.7%, respectively. Time-dependent analysis did not reveal a significant difference in RFS between SCT and no-SCT cohorts. However, SCT was associated with longer RFS in patients with postinduction minimal residual disease (MRD) ≥10(-3) (hazard ratio, 0.40) but not in good MRD responders. In B-cell precursor ALL, SCT also benefitted patients with focal IKZF1 gene deletion (hazard ratio, 0.42). This article shows that poor early MRD response, in contrast to conventional ALL risk factors, is an excellent tool to identify patients who may benefit from allogeneic SCT in the context of intensified adult ALL therapy. Trial GRAALL-2003 was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00222027; GRAALL-2005 was registered as #NCT00327678. PMID:25587040

  11. Morphological Awareness and Its Role in Compensation in Adults with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Law, Jeremy M; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the role of morphological awareness (MA) in literacy achievement and compensation in word reading of adults with dyslexia through an exploration of three questions: (1) Do adult dyslexics demonstrate a deficit in MA, and how is this potential deficit related to phonological awareness (PA)? (2) Does MA contribute independently to literacy skills equally in dyslexics and control readers? and (3) Do MA and PA skills differ in compensated and noncompensated dyslexics? A group of dyslexic and normal reading university students matched for age, education and IQ participated in this study. Group analysis demonstrated an MA deficit in dyslexics; as well, MA was found to significantly predict a greater proportion of word reading and spelling within the dyslexic group compared with the controls. Compensated dyslexics were also found to perform significantly better on the morphological task than noncompensated dyslexics. Additionally, no statistical difference was observed in MA between the normal reading controls and the compensated group (independent of PA and vocabulary). Results suggest that intact and strong MA skills contribute to the achieved compensation of this group of adults with dyslexia. Implications for MA based intervention strategies for people with dyslexia are discussed. PMID:25620091

  12. Potential role for mucosal IgA in modulating Haemonchus contortus adult worm infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hernández, J N; Hernández, A; Stear, M J; Conde-Felipe, M; Rodríguez, E; Piedrafita, D; González, J F

    2016-06-15

    Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) is a haematophagous parasite which causes important economic losses in small ruminants. On the island of Gran Canaria, two sheep breeds coexist which differ in their susceptibility to the infection with H. contortus; the resistant Canaria Hair Breed (CHB) sheep and the susceptible Canaria Sheep (CS) breed. The major target of resistance mechanisms in CHB sheep are directed to the adult parasite stage, reducing the worm burden, and decreased length and fecundity of surviving worms. Mucosal IgA (mIgA) has been shown to be an important regulator of immunity in Haemonchus and Teladorsagia infections; through correlations with larval stages where such mechanisms as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity and enzyme inhibition may mediate resistance. Here for the first time, we demonstrate a significant negative correlation between mIgA and adult worm length and fecundity only in the resistant CHB sheep. In contrast, and as reported in other sheep breeds, mIgA was only negatively correlated against the larval stage in the more susceptible CS breed. This study suggests mIgA may play a role in resistance to both larval and adult stages. PMID:27198794

  13. Role of α-synuclein in adult neurogenesis and neuronal maturation in the dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Regensburger, Martin; Schreglmann, Sebastian; Boyer, Leah; Prots, Iryna; Rockenstein, Edward; Mante, Michael; Zhao, Chunmei; Winkler, Jürgen; Masliah, Eliezer; Gage, Fred H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary α-Synuclein has been reported to be important in modulating brain plasticity and to be a key protein in neurodegenerative diseases, including Lewy body dementia (LBD). We investigated how α-synuclein levels modulate adult neurogenesis and the development of dendritic arborization and spines in the dentate gyrus (DG), where new neurons are constantly added. In the human hippocampus, levels of endogenous α-synuclein were increased in LBD and the numbers of SOX2-positive cells were decreased. We investigated whether newly generated neurons were modulated by endogenous α-synuclein and we found increased adult neurogenesis in α/β-synuclein knockout mice. In contrast, overexpression of human wild-type α-synuclein (WTS) decreased the survival and dendritic development of newborn neurons. Endogenous α-synuclein expression levels increased the negative impact of WTS on dendrite development, suggesting a toxic effect of increasing amounts of α-synuclein. To attempt a rescue of the dendritic phenotype, we administered rolipram to activate the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway, which led to a partial rescue of neurite development. The current work provides novel insights into the role of α-synuclein in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:23175842

  14. Compromised encoding of proprioceptively determined joint angles in older adults: the role of working memory and attentional load.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J; Mousigian, Marianne A; Brown, Susan H

    2012-01-01

    Perceiving the positions and movements of one's body segments (i.e., proprioception) is critical for movement control. However, this ability declines with older age as has been demonstrated by joint angle matching paradigms in the absence of vision. The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which reduced working memory and attentional load influence older adult proprioceptive matching performance. Older adults with relatively HIGH versus LOW working memory ability as determined by backward digit span and healthy younger adults, performed memory-based elbow position matching with and without attentional load (i.e., counting by 3 s) during target position encoding. Even without attentional load, older adults with LOW digit spans (i.e., 4 digits or less) had larger matching errors than younger adults. Further, LOW older adults made significantly greater errors when attentional loads were present during proprioceptive target encoding as compared to both younger and older adults with HIGH digit span scores (i.e., 5 digits or greater). These results extend previous position matching results that suggested greater errors in older adults were due to degraded input signals from peripheral mechanoreceptors. Specifically, the present work highlights the role cognitive factors play in the assessment of older adult proprioceptive acuity using memory-based matching paradigms. Older adults with LOW working memory appear prone to compromised proprioceptive encoding, especially when secondary cognitive tasks must be concurrently executed. This may ultimately result in poorer performance on various activities of daily living. PMID:22006273

  15. A revised dosimetric model of the adult head and brain

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchet, L.G.; Bolch, W.E.; Weber, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    During the last decade, new radiopharmaceutical have been introduced for brain imaging. The marked differences of these tracers in tissue specificity within the brain and their increasing use for diagnostic studies support the need for a more anthropomorphic model of the human brain and head. Brain and head models developed in the past have been only simplistic representations of this anatomic region. For example, the brain within the phantom of MIRD Pamphlet No. 5 Revised is modeled simply as a single ellipsoid of tissue With no differentiation of its internal structures. To address this need, the MIRD Committee established a Task Group in 1992 to construct a more detailed brain model to include the cerebral cortex, the white matter, the cerebellum, the thalamus, the caudate nucleus, the lentiform nucleus, the cerebral spinal fluid, the lateral ventricles, and the third ventricle. This brain model has been included within a slightly modified version of the head model developed by Poston et al. in 1984. This model has been incorporated into the radiation transport code EGS4 so as to calculate photon and electron absorbed fractions in the energy range 10 keV to 4 MeV for each of thirteen sources in the brain. Furthermore, explicit positron transport have been considered, separating the contribution by the positron itself and its associated annihilations photons. No differences are found between the electron and positron absorbed fractions; however, for initial energies of positrons greater than {approximately}0.5 MeV, significant differences are found between absorbed fractions from explicit transport of annihilation photons and those from an assumed uniform distribution of 0.511-MeV photons. Subsequently, S values were calculated for a variety of beta-particle and positron emitters brain imaging agents. Moreover, pediatric head and brain dosimetric models are currently being developed based on this adult head model.

  16. Test of the depression distress amplification model in young adults with elevated risk of current suicidality.

    PubMed

    Capron, Daniel W; Lamis, Dorian A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-11-30

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among young adults and the rate of suicide has been increasing for decades. A depression distress amplification model posits that young adults with comorbid depression and anxiety have elevated suicide rates due to the intensification of their depressive symptoms by anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. The current study tested the effects of anxiety sensitivity subfactors as well as the depression distress amplification model in a very large sample of college students with elevated suicide risk. Participants were 721 college students who were at elevated risk of suicidality (scored>0 on the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation). Consistent with prior work, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, but not physical or social concerns, were associated with suicidal ideation. Consistent with the depression distress amplification model, in individuals high in depression, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns predicted elevated suicidal ideation but not among those with low depression. The results of this study corroborate the role of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and the depression distress amplification model in suicidal ideation among a large potentially high-risk group of college students. The depression distress amplification model suggests a specific mechanism, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, that may be responsible for increased suicide rates among those with comorbid anxiety and depression. PMID:25063018

  17. A Study in the Application of the C. A. Curran Counseling-Learning Model to Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Thomas C.

    The study attempts to demonstrate movement in adult learning from particularization to symbolization to internalization (value choice) through use of a Counseling-Learning Model. Adult resistance to learning is dealt with through application of counseling awarenesses to the learning situation. If the adult learner can be freed from threat to…

  18. Developing Programs in Adult Education: A Conceptual Programming Model. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Edgar J.; Safrit, R. Dale; Jones, Jo

    This guide for current and prospective adult educators is a comprehensive, practical conceptual framework for planning, designing/implementing, and evaluating/accounting for adult education programs. Chapter 1 describes the programming process. Chapter 2 describes 13 nationally recognized models of the adult education programming process, the…

  19. Long-term care services and support systems for older adults: The role of technology.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Sara J

    2016-01-01

    The aging of the population, especially the increase in the "oldest old," is a remarkable achievement that presents both opportunities and challenges for policymakers, researchers, and society. Although many older adults enjoy relatively good health into their later years, many have one or more chronic conditions or diseases and need help with disease management activities or activities important to independent living. Technology is playing an increasingly important role in the health care arena and is becoming ubiquitous in health management activities. There are a variety of technology applications that can be used to enhance the mobility and quality of life of people who have limitations and help to foster the ability of those with chronic conditions to remain at home. Technology applications can also provide a central role in providing support to family caregivers in terms of enhancing access to information and community resources and connections to formal and informal support services. Monitoring technologies may also allow caregivers to check on the status or activities of their loved one while they are at work or at a distant location. Furthermore, telemedicine applications can aid the ability of care providers to monitor patients and deliver health services. The objective of this article is to highlight the potential role that technology can play in the provision of long-term support for older adults and their families. Challenges and barriers that currently limit the full potential of technology to be realized for these populations will also be discussed. Finally the role of psychological science toward maximizing the potential of technology applications in enhancing long term care and support services will be highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27159436

  20. Dropout and Completion in Adult Vocational Job Training Programs: A Prediction Model for the Adult Vocational Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Jacqueline A.; McCracken, J. David

    A study described the nontraditional adult students attending full-time, occupationally specific vocational training programs in Ohio. It also developed a dropout prediction model of enrolled students using sets of independent variables adapted from the Conceptual Model of Nontraditional Student Attrition and Persistence in Postsecondary…

  1. The role of alcohol price in young adult drinking cultures in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Seaman, Pete; Edgar, Fiona; Ikegwuonu, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) is one of the Scottish Government's key policy options to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm. Although strongly evidenced for efficacy in reducing headline population level consumption, efficacy in changing the role of alcohol in Scottish culture is unknown. Questions remain as to how MUP will play across population subgroups with different sensitivities to price. In this paper we explore the views of the young adult population and situate the influence of price paid for alcohol alongside broader cultural drivers of consumption. Qualitative data from two studies investigating the role of alcohol in the transition to adulthood from 130 participants (aged 16–30) are analysed to situate the influence of price paid in shaping drinking styles and practices. Findings highlight how considerations of price paid for alcohol compete with non-financial considerations associated with choosing to drink excessively, moderately or not at all. Two broad categories of response to potential price increases were anticipated by drinkers which indicate that young adults are not a homogenous group in relation to price sensitivity. These differences highlight the potential for variation in subgroup responses to a pricing policy conceived to be effective at a population level. PMID:23864771

  2. Secondary traumatization among ex-POWs' adult children: the mediating role of differentiation of the self.

    PubMed

    Zerach, Gadi

    2015-03-01

    The aversive impact of combat and parents' combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder on young children has been examined in a few studies. However, the long-term toll of war captivity on secondary traumatization (ST) and the mediating role of differentiation of the self remain unknown. This study examined ST symptoms and differentiation of the self (DS) among adult children of former prisoners of war (ex-POW's children) who were compared with adult children of comparable veterans (controls' children). Furthermore, I examined the mediating role of DS dimensions in the association between exposure to stress and ST symptoms. Participants were Israeli ex-POW's children (n = 98) and controls' children (n = 90), whose fathers fought in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Results showed that ex-POW's children reported a higher number of ST symptoms and lower levels of emotional cutoff differentiation compared with controls' children. Emotional cutoff was also found to mediate the association between research group and ST symptoms. Among ex-POW's children, emotional cutoff and emotional reactivity dimensions mediated the association between exposure to stress stemming from fathers' behaviors and ST symptoms. Forty years after the war ended, the experience of living with ex-POWs is associated with ex-POW's children ST symptoms. PMID:25793696

  3. Eat to reproduce: a key role for the insulin signaling pathway in adult insects

    PubMed Central

    Badisco, Liesbeth; Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Insects, like all heterotrophic organisms, acquire from their food the nutrients that are essential for anabolic processes that lead to growth (larval stages) or reproduction (adult stage). In adult females, this nutritional input is processed and results in a very specific output, i.e., the production of fully developed eggs ready for fertilization and deposition. An important role in this input-output transition is attributed to the insulin signaling pathway (ISP). The ISP is considered to act as a sensor of the organism's nutritional status and to stimulate the progression of anabolic events when the status is positive. In several insect species belonging to different orders, the ISP has been demonstrated to positively control vitellogenesis and oocyte growth. Whether or not ISP acts herein via a mediator action of lipophilic insect hormones (ecdysteroids and juvenile hormone) remains debatable and might be differently controlled in different insect orders. Most likely, insulin-related peptides, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormone are involved in a complex regulatory network, in which they mutually influence each other and in which the insect's nutritional status is a crucial determinant of the network's output. The current review will present an overview of the regulatory role of the ISP in female insect reproduction and its interaction with other pathways involving nutrients, lipophilic hormones and neuropeptides. PMID:23966944

  4. A place for the hippocampus in the cocaine addiction circuit: Potential roles for adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Serrano, Antonia; Blanco, Eduardo; Araos, Pedro; Suárez, Juan; Pavón, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J

    2016-07-01

    Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease in which the drug seeking habits and profound cognitive, emotional and motivational alterations emerge from drug-induced neuroadaptations on a vulnerable brain. Therefore, a 'cocaine addiction brain circuit' has been described to explain this disorder. Studies in both cocaine patients and rodents reveal the hippocampus as a main node in the cocaine addiction circuit. The contribution of the hippocampus to cocaine craving and the associated memories is essential to understand the chronic relapsing nature of addiction, which is the main obstacle for the recovery. Interestingly, the hippocampus holds a particular form of plasticity that is rare in the adult brain: the ability to generate new functional neurons. There is an active scientific debate on the contributions of these new neurons to the addicted brain. This review focuses on the potential role(s) of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in cocaine addiction. Although the current evidence primarily originates from animal research, these preclinical studies support AHN as a relevant component for the hippocampal effects of cocaine. PMID:27118134

  5. Alcohol disorders in young adulthood: effects of transitions into adult roles.

    PubMed

    Chilcoat, H D; Breslau, N

    1996-12-01

    Using data gathered prospectively, the authors examined whether transitions in two major adult social roles, marriage and parenthood, influence the risk of developing (1) DSM-III-R alcohol disorder and (2) symptoms of alcohol disorder. Additionally, the potential impact of these transitions on persistence of alcohol disorder was examined. In the study, 1,007 members (21 to 30 years old) of a large health maintenance organization located in southeast Michigan were interviewed initially in 1989, 979 of whom were reinterviewed in 1992. Incidence of alcohol disorder symptoms was significantly higher among those who remained single (RR = 2.1) or became divorced (RR = 6.0) during the follow-up period, compared to those getting or staying married. Those who were never parents through the follow-up were also at increased risk (RR = 2.5), relative to those who became parents for the first time. Similar results were obtained for the incidence and persistence of an alcohol disorder. Transitions into adult roles, such as marriage and parenthood, appear to reduce the risk of developing alcohol disorder or related symptoms in young adulthood. These transitions also reduce the likelihood that an existing alcohol disorder will persist. PMID:8997889

  6. New York State Adult Functional Literacy Models. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Barbara R.

    This report discusses a nationwide study of Adult Performance Level (APL) which involved sixteen projects in seven states and was conducted to (1) examine the University of Texas at Austin's APL study and describe the results and recommendations in terms of the adult needs in New York State; (2) examine several New York State Adult Basic Education…

  7. Parents or Pop Culture? Children's Heroes and Role Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin J.; Cavallaro, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Examines the impact of mass media on children's choices of heroes and role models. Addresses questions of which cultural messages children attend to, whether role models vary according to ethnicity and gender, and the role played by educators in exposing children to previously unconsidered role models. (DLH)

  8. Female Adult Learners in Rural Community Colleges: A Case Study of Role Perception and Navigation for Student Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tara Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Female adult learners, the fastest growing subpopulation in community colleges, face challenges navigating domestic, professional, and academic roles and take time off from school to reconcile issues with multiple role navigation; thus, their education is disjointed and staggered, creating barriers to persistence. This interpretive design…

  9. The Role of Relationships between Adults and Their Canine Companions: The Impact on Personal Growth and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Lorie Renee

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study used narrative analysis to explore the role of relationships between adults and their canine companions and the role of this relationship in personal growth and well-being. The theoretical frameworks to inform the study consisted of attachment theory and a blend of relational theory and connected knowing. The study focused…

  10. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection. Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.

  11. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection.more » Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.« less

  12. The Adult Roles Models Program: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Dean, Randa; Perez, Amanda; Rivera, Angelic

    2014-01-01

    We present the feasibility and acceptability of a parent sexuality education program led by peer educators in community settings. We also report the results of an outcome evaluation with 71 parents who were randomized to the intervention or a control group, and surveyed one month prior to and six months after the 4-week intervention. The program was highly feasible and acceptable to participants, and the curriculum was implemented with a high level of fidelity and facilitator quality. Pilot data show promising outcomes for increasing parental knowledge, communication, and monitoring of their adolescent children. PMID:24883051

  13. Some Models of Adult Learning and Adult Change. Studies on Permanent Education, No. 22/1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberman, A. M.

    With emphasis on the developmental psychology unique to adults, the author presents a comprehensive document of research and progress pertaining to adult learning and change. Section 1 reviews age cycles of adulthood as well as changing career patterns for men and women. Also examined are changes with age in leisure and interest patterns,…

  14. Conceptual model and map of financial exploitation of older adults.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Kendon J; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W; Fairman, Kimberly P; Rosen, Abby; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2011-10-01

    This article describes the processes and outcomes of three-dimensional concept mapping to conceptualize financial exploitation of older adults. Statements were generated from a literature review and by local and national panels consisting of 16 experts in the field of financial exploitation. These statements were sorted and rated using Concept Systems software, which grouped the statements into clusters and depicted them as a map. Statements were grouped into six clusters, and ranked by the experts as follows in descending severity: (a) theft and scams, (b) financial victimization, (c) financial entitlement, (d) coercion, (e) signs of possible financial exploitation, and (f) money management difficulties. The hierarchical model can be used to identify elder financial exploitation and differentiate it from related but distinct areas of victimization. The severity hierarchy may be used to develop measures that will enable more precise screening for triage of clients into appropriate interventions. PMID:21978290

  15. A role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis at multiple time scales: A study of recent and remote memory in humans.

    PubMed

    Déry, Nicolas; Goldstein, Aaron; Becker, Suzanna

    2015-08-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is downregulated by numerous lifestyle factors including chronic stress. While the functional significance of AHN remains elusive, computational models and empirical evidence implicate immature neurons in minimizing interference between similar memories-a process termed pattern separation. The role of neurogenesis in remote memory is less clear. Some have proposed that neurogenesis promotes the clearance of old memories from the hippocampus, while others have proposed that neurogenesis promotes long-term retention of memories within the hippocampus. We used a modified version of the behavioral pattern separation task originally described by Kirwan and Stark (2007). In this task, some objects are repeated across trials, some are similar lures and the rest are novel. Participants are asked to classify each object as old, new, or similar. The correct classification of lures as similar may tax pattern separation processes in the hippocampus and AHN. To investigate the potential role of AHN in remote memory, we introduced a 2-week delay between the presentation and recognition of certain stimuli. As in previous studies, we found that those with higher depression scores made significantly more errors at identifying lures as similar when presentation and recognition were separated by a brief delay. When presentation and recognition trials were separated by a longer delay, the correct classification of lures dropped to chance levels for all groups, but now lower stress and depression scores were associated with superior identification of exact repetitions. Our data suggest a role for AHN in the stabilization of remote memories. PMID:26076341

  16. Educating Deaf Adults: The LaGuardia Community College Model. NCCSCE Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Fern J.

    1987-01-01

    A description is provided of the development, students, program offerings, personnel, and funding of LaGuardia Community College's (LCC) Continuing Education Programs for Deaf Adults (PDA). First, introductory material describes the postsecondary educational options available to deaf adults, and highlights the community college's emerging role as…

  17. The role of dietary polyphenols on adult hippocampal neurogenesis: molecular mechanisms and behavioural effects on depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Dias, Gisele Pereira; Cavegn, Nicole; Nix, Alina; do Nascimento Bevilaqua, Mário Cesar; Stangl, Doris; Zainuddin, Muhammad Syahrul Anwar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Gardino, Patricia Franca; Thuret, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been long believed that new neurons were only generated during development, there is now growing evidence indicating that at least two regions in the brain are capable of continuously generating functional neurons: the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is a widely observed phenomenon verified in different adult mammalian species including humans. Factors such as environmental enrichment, voluntary exercise, and diet have been linked to increased levels of AHN. Conversely, aging, stress, anxiety and depression have been suggested to hinder it. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still unclear and yet to be determined. In this paper, we discuss some recent findings addressing the effects of different dietary polyphenols on hippocampal cell proliferation and differentiation, models of anxiety, and depression as well as some proposed molecular mechanisms underlying those effects with particular focus on those related to AHN. As a whole, dietary polyphenols seem to exert positive effects on anxiety and depression, possibly in part via regulation of AHN. Studies on the effects of dietary polyphenols on behaviour and AHN may play an important role in the approach to use diet as part of the therapeutic interventions for mental-health-related conditions. PMID:22829957

  18. Investigating the Roles of Knowledge and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adult Information Seeking on the Web

    PubMed Central

    SHARIT, JOSEPH; HERNÁNDEZ, MARIO A.; CZAJA, SARA J.; PIROLLI, PETER

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the influences of knowledge, particularly Internet, Web browser, and search engine knowledge, as well as cognitive abilities on older adult information seeking on the Internet. The emphasis on aspects of cognition was informed by a modeling framework of search engine information-seeking behavior. Participants from two older age groups were recruited: twenty people in a younger-old group (ages 60–70) and twenty people in an older-old group (ages 71–85). Ten younger adults (ages 18–39) served as a comparison group. All participants had at least some Internet search experience. The experimental task consisted of six realistic search problems, all involving information related to health and well-being and which varied in degree of complexity. The results indicated that though necessary, Internet-related knowledge was not sufficient in explaining information-seeking performance, and suggested that a combination of both knowledge and key cognitive abilities is important for successful information seeking. In addition, the cognitive abilities that were found to be critical for task performance depended on the search problem’s complexity. Also, significant differences in task performance between the younger and the two older age groups were found on complex, but not on simple problems. Overall, the results from this study have implications for instructing older adults on Internet information seeking and for the design of Web sites. PMID:20011130

  19. The Role of Rainfall in Sternechus subsignatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Adult Emergence From the Soil After Its Winter Dormant Period.

    PubMed

    Guillermina Socías, M; Van Nieuwenhove, Guido; Casmuz, Augusto S; Willink, Eduardo; Liljesthröm, Gerardo G

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we report the effect of rainfall on Sternechus subsignatus Boheman, 1836, adult emergence after winter dormancy. This weevil is a univoltine soybean pest found in northwestern Argentina, a subtropical region with dry winters and rainy summers. Before harvest, fully grown larvae burrow into the soil where they overwinter. In the spring, they emerge as adults and recolonize the crop during its planting and early vegetative stages. Our study examines the seasonal timing of adult emergence with the aim of improving chemical control strategies and avoiding unnecessary pesticide applications. To do so, we developed a regression model to predict adult emergence onset as a function of cumulated rainfall after 1st November. The regression with the highest coefficient of determination between cumulated rainfall and adult emergence onset was Emergence onset (Julian day) = -7.98 Ln(cumulative rainfall) + 65.7. The negative relationship showed that adults emerged earlier in wet years than in dry years. Also it was observed that adults emerged from late November to mid-March, in pulses following periods of rainfall. Males were more abundant than females at first, but then the reverse was true toward the end of the period. In most cases, there was a suggestion of relationship (though not significantly) between peaks of adult emergence with peaks of rainfall 15 d before adult emergence. These results reveal that rainfall has a significant impact on the beginning and dynamics of adult emergence from the soil. PMID:27235846

  20. Simple adult rabbit model for Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, M B; Walker, R I; Stewart, S D; Rogers, J E

    1983-01-01

    We tested the usefulness of the Removable Intestinal Tie Adult Rabbit Diarrhea model to establish Campylobacter jejuni infection in rabbits. The procedure involved ligation of the cecum, placement of a slip knot at the terminal ileum, and injection of the test inoculum into the mid-small bowel. The ends of the slip knot were externalized, and the tie was released 4 h later. Fifty-five rabbits received C. jejuni, and 16 received uninoculated medium as controls. Daily rectal swabs were positive for 2 weeks in infected rabbits. The diarrheal attack rate was 64% in infected rabbits and 0% in controls. Diarrhea was characterized by loose, mucus-containing stools after an incubation period ranging from 24 h to 6 days. When blood was obtained daily for culture from 30 rabbits for 4 days post-challenge, bacteremia was present in 96.3% 24 h after challenge but diminished to 5 of 19 (26.3%) at 96 h. Death occurred in 53% of rabbits and was always preceded by diarrhea. No control animal died. Only 5 of 35 animals experiencing diarrhea recovered. An indirect whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine serum immunoglobulin G responses. Mean titers rose from 1:198 preoperatively to 1:9,087 on day 28. Necropsy on eight infected and two control animals showed inflammatory lesions with ulceration in 62.5% and goblet cell hyperplasia in 75% of infected rabbits. We conclude that the Removable Intestinal Tie Adult Rabbit Diarrhea procedure is a simple, effective method to establish C. jejuni infection which mimics human disease. Images PMID:6642664

  1. [Developmental origins of health and disease in adults: role of maternal environment].

    PubMed

    Chavatte-Palmer, P; Tarrade, A; Lévy, R

    2012-09-01

    Many epidemiological studies indicate that environmental conditions during embryonic and fetal development can have an impact on health at adulthood. Animal studies clearly demonstrate that maternal, and even paternal undernutrition or nutritional excess durably modify some epigenetic marks in their offspring, affecting gene expression and physiological adaptations to the environment. It is crucial to better define the effects of early environment on adult phenotype and epigenetic marks in humans and to develop, with the help of animal models, new preventive strategies and treatments. PMID:22901783

  2. Young adults' knowledge of politics: evaluating the role of socio-cognitive variables using structural equations.

    PubMed

    Brussino, Silvina; Medrano, Leonardo; Sorribas, Patricia; Rabbia, Hugo H

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to create an explanatory model that allows analyzing the predictive power of a set of variables related to political knowledge; more specifically, to analyze the relationship between the education level of young adults and the variables, interest in politics and internal political efficacy. We also analyzed the combined relationship between these variables, together with age, and political knowledge. We worked with a sample group of 280 young adults between the ages of 18-30 from the city of Córdoba (Argentina). The data was subjected to a structural equation modelling SEM analysis, which allowed for the corroboration of the following hypotheses: the higher the education level, the more the interest in politics; the higher the education level, the better the perception of internal political efficacy; the higher the education level, the more the political knowledge; the more the interest in politics, the more the political knowledge; and the better the perception of internal political efficacy, the more interest in politics. Moreover, the following hypotheses could not be verified: the older an individual, the more the political knowledge; and the better the perception of internal political efficacy, the more the political knowledge. The model obtained allows for discussion of the explanatory value of these socio-cognitive variables. PMID:21568176

  3. Modeling: The Role of Atomistic Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Aga, Rachel S; Morris, James R

    2007-01-01

    A major advantage of atomistic simulations is that a detailed picture of the model under investigation is available, and so they have been very instrumental in explaining the connection of macroscopic properties to the atomic scale. Simulations play a significant role in the development and testing of theories. For example, simulations have been extensively used to test the mode-coupling theory (MCT). The theory predicts that at some critical temperature Tc, known as the mode-coupling temperature, the supercooled liquid undergoes a structural arrest, prohibiting the system from accessing all possible states, thus, essentially undergoing an ergodic to nonergodic transition. It gives definite predictions on various correlation functions that can be calculated directly in simulations. Simulations and MCT have played a tremendous role in elucidating a majority of what we now understand about the dynamics of glass-forming systems. Simulations can also be used to compare with experimental results to validate the model, so that one can use simulation results to measure properties not accessible to experiments. In many cases, as will be illustrated in the next sections, results of simulations motivate experimental investigations. Part of the goal of this chapter is to examine the contributions of atomic simulations to the current state of understanding of metallic glasses.

  4. Role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adult respiratory failure: an overview.

    PubMed

    Anand, Suneesh; Jayakumar, Divya; Aronow, Wilbert S; Chandy, Dipak

    2016-04-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides complete or partial support of the heart and lungs. Ever since its inception in the 1960s, it has been used across all age groups in the management of refractory respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock. While it has gained widespread acceptance in the neonatal and pediatric physician community, ECMO remains a controversial therapy for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in adults. Its popularity was revived during the swine flu (H1N1) pandemic and advancements in technology have contributed to its increasing usage. ARDS continues to be a potentially devastating condition with significant mortality rates. Despite gaining more insights into this entity over the years, mechanical ventilation remains the only life-saving, yet potentially harmful intervention available for ARDS. ECMO shows promise in this regard by offering less dependence on mechanical ventilation, thereby potentially reducing ventilator-induced injury. However, the lack of rigorous clinical data has prevented ECMO from becoming the standard of care in the management of ARDS. Therefore, the results of two large ongoing randomized trials, which will hopefully throw more light on the role of ECMO in the management of this disease entity, are keenly awaited. In this article we will provide a basic overview of the development of ECMO, the types of ECMO, the pathogenesis of ARDS, different ventilation strategies for ARDS, the role of ECMO in ARDS and the role of ECMO as a bridge to lung transplantation. PMID:26848884

  5. Optimal weighted combinatorial forecasting model of QT dispersion of ECGs in Chinese adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhang; Miao, Ge; Xinlei, Liu; Minyi, Cen

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to provide a scientific basis for unifying the reference value standard of QT dispersion of ECGs in Chinese adults. Three predictive models including regression model, principal component model, and artificial neural network model are combined to establish the optimal weighted combination model. The optimal weighted combination model and single model are verified and compared. Optimal weighted combinatorial model can reduce predicting risk of single model and improve the predicting precision. The reference value of geographical distribution of Chinese adults' QT dispersion was precisely made by using kriging methods. When geographical factors of a particular area are obtained, the reference value of QT dispersion of Chinese adults in this area can be estimated by using optimal weighted combinatorial model and reference value of the QT dispersion of Chinese adults anywhere in China can be obtained by using geographical distribution figure as well.

  6. Optimal weighted combinatorial forecasting model of QT dispersion of ECGs in Chinese adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhang; Miao, Ge; Xinlei, Liu; Minyi, Cen

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to provide a scientific basis for unifying the reference value standard of QT dispersion of ECGs in Chinese adults. Three predictive models including regression model, principal component model, and artificial neural network model are combined to establish the optimal weighted combination model. The optimal weighted combination model and single model are verified and compared. Optimal weighted combinatorial model can reduce predicting risk of single model and improve the predicting precision. The reference value of geographical distribution of Chinese adults' QT dispersion was precisely made by using kriging methods. When geographical factors of a particular area are obtained, the reference value of QT dispersion of Chinese adults in this area can be estimated by using optimal weighted combinatorial model and reference value of the QT dispersion of Chinese adults anywhere in China can be obtained by using geographical distribution figure as well.

  7. Bringing older adults into the classroom: the sharing community model.

    PubMed

    Hantman, Shira; Oz, Miriam Ben; Gutman, Caroline; Criden, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an innovative model for teaching gerontological social work that has been introduced into the social work methods curriculum in the Department of Social Work at a college in northern Israel. The basic concept of the model is to create an alternative learning environment by including older persons as full participants in the classroom. As experts on old age, they provide social work students with a hands-on learning experience intended to facilitate their understanding of aging. The changing needs of this growing population place a complex and pressing burden on the social systems that provide services to older adults, and on the families that care for them. To meet these needs, it is predicted that there will be a substantial increase in the demand for social workers in the field of gerontology. At present, there is a shortage of social workers who wish to work with this population as a result of negative perceptions and stereotypes relating to old age. This calls for a different approach to teaching gerontological social work, one that will adapt the study of aging to today's older population while addressing the misconceptions and anxieties of social work students. PMID:23383713

  8. Combating elder and dependent adult mistreatment: the role of the clinical psychologist.

    PubMed

    Wiglesworth, Aileen; Kemp, Bryan; Mosqueda, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Among the many different professionals who work to address elder and dependent adult mistreatment, the clinical psychologist performs a function that is not well documented. The experiences of a clinical psychologist attached to a medical response team and an elder abuse forensic center provide insight into this complex and multifaceted role. Case examples from an elder abuse forensic center illustrate the breadth of referral questions that a clinical psychologist addresses. This information may be of use to those who would argue that these services be made widely available to elder abuse professionals such as social workers, public guardians, and those in the criminal justice system. The case studies also may be useful for training purposes. PMID:18928051

  9. BIRDS AS A MODEL TO STUDY ADULT NEUROGENESIS: BRIDGING EVOLUTIONARY, COMPARATIVE AND NEUROETHOLOGICAL APPROCHES

    PubMed Central

    BARNEA, ANAT; PRAVOSUDOV, VLADIMIR

    2011-01-01

    During the last few decades evidence has demonstrated that adult neurogenesis is a well-preserved feature throughout the animal kingdom. In birds, ongoing neuronal addition occurs rather broadly, to a number of brain regions. This review describes adult avian neurogenesis and neuronal recruitment, discusses factors that regulate these processes, and touches upon the question of their genetic control. Several attributes make birds an extremely advantageous model to study neurogenesis. First, song learning exhibits seasonal variation that is associated with seasonal variation in neuronal turnover in some song control brain nuclei, which seems to be regulated via adult neurogenesis. Second, food-caching birds naturally use memory-dependent behavior in learning locations of thousands of food caches scattered over their home ranges. In comparison with other birds, food-caching species have relatively enlarged hippocampi with more neurons and intense neurogenesis, which appears to be related to spatial learning. Finally, migratory behavior and naturally occurring social systems in birds also provide opportunities to investigate neurogenesis. Such diversity of naturally-occurring memory-based behaviors, combined with the fact that birds can be studied both in the wild and in the laboratory, make them ideal for investigation of neural processes underlying learning. This can be done by using various approaches, from evolutionary and comparative to neuroethological and molecular. Finally, we connect the avian arena to a broader view by providing a brief comparative and evolutionary overview of adult neurogenesis and by discussing the possible functional role of the new neurons. We conclude by indicating future directions and possible medical applications. PMID:21929623

  10. The Model for the Council of Adult Education? Beyond the Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadswell, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    Presents evidence demonstrating that, although Colin Robert Badger claimed to have originated the model for Australia's Council of Adult Education, another unacknowledged model had actually formed the basis of it. States that the Badger narrative has become an enduring myth in Australian adult education history. (Contains 20 archival and 36…

  11. Development of a Conceptual Model to Predict Physical Activity Participation in Adults with Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to examine psychosocial factors that influence the physical activity behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Two differing models, based on Harter's model of self-worth, were proposed to examine the relationship between perceived competence, social support, physical self-worth, affect, and motivation. Adults numbering 384 with…

  12. The Family of Origin Parachute Model: Landing Safely in Adult Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Dean M.; Gardner, Brandt C.; Taniguchi, Narumi

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the utility of the family of origin parachute model in predicting longitudinal outcomes for couples in romantic relationships. This conceptual model contains common family variables that are theoretically and empirically related to later adult functioning and are believed to influence attitudes that adult children develop…

  13. A Diverging View of Role Modeling in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Gurjit; Rich, Jessica V.; Magas, Christopher; Walker, G. Ross

    2015-01-01

    Research in the area of role modeling has primarily focused on the qualities and attributes of exceptional role models, and less attention has been given to the act of role modeling itself (Elzubeir & Rizk, 2001; Jochemsen-van der Leeuw, van Dijk, van Etten-Jamaludin, & Wieringa-de Waard, 2013; Wright, 1996; Wright, Wong, & Newill,…

  14. Using Role Models to Help Celebrate Paralympic Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastro, James; Ahrens, Christopher; Statton, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    A role model is a person or challenge that inspires an individual to go beyond what is expected of him or her and to reach a specific goal. Role models can exemplify motivation, passion, and a genuine love of their life's work. All students need role models, and Paralympic sport athletes can be just that, especially for students with disabilities.…

  15. Resources for Educators of Adults. Who We Are: What Some Educators of Adults Say about Their Characteristics, Competencies & Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N.; Hilton, Ronald J.

    In this study full-time adult education program administrators were interviewed and taped to determine what they did on the job, how they felt about what they did, and how they prepared or felt they should be preparing to achieve the goals they identified as essential to doing those jobs well. Transcript responses from the interviews were divided…

  16. The role of molecular modeling in bionanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Deyu; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Shih, Amy Y.; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo; Freddolino, Peter L.; Arkhipov, Anton; Schulten, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Molecular modeling is advocated here as a key methodology for research and development in bionanotechnology. Molecular modeling provides nanoscale images at atomic and even electronic resolution, predicts the nanoscale interaction of yet unfamiliar combinations of biological and inorganic materials, and can evaluate strategies for redesigning biopolymers for nanotechnological uses. The methodology is illustrated in this paper through three case studies. The first involves the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes as biomedical sensors where a computationally efficient, yet accurate description of the influence of biomolecules on nanotube electronic properties and a description of nanotube - biomolecule interactions were developed; this development furnishes the ability to test nanotube electronic properties in realistic biological environments. The second case study involves the use of nanopores manufactured into electronic nanodevices based on silicon compounds for single molecule electrical recording, in particular, for DNA sequencing. Here, modeling combining classical molecular dynamics, material science, and device physics, describes the interaction of biopolymers, e.g., DNA, with silicon nitrate and silicon oxide pores, furnishes accurate dynamic images of pore translocation processes, and predicts signals. The third case study involves the development of nanoscale lipid bilayers for the study of embedded membrane proteins and cholesterol. Molecular modeling tested scaffold proteins, redesigned lipoproteins found in mammalian plasma that hold the discoidal membranes in shape, and predicted the assembly as well as final structure of the nanodiscs. In entirely new technological areas like bionanotechnology qualitative concepts, pictures, and suggestions are sorely needed; these three case studies document that molecular modeling can serve a critical role in this respect, even though it may still fall short on quantitative precision. PMID:16582464

  17. The role of molecular modeling in bionanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Deyu; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Shih, Amy Y.; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo; Freddolino, Peter L.; Arkhipov, Anton; Schulten, Klaus

    2006-03-01

    Molecular modeling is advocated here as a key methodology for research and development in bionanotechnology. Molecular modeling provides nanoscale images at atomic and even electronic resolution, predicts the nanoscale interaction of unfamiliar combinations of biological and inorganic materials, and evaluates strategies for redesigning biopolymers for nanotechnological uses. The methodology is illustrated in this paper through reviewing three case studies. The first one involves the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes as biomedical sensors where a computationally efficient, yet accurate, description of the influence of biomolecules on nanotube electronic properties through nanotube-biomolecule interactions was developed; this development furnishes the ability to test nanotube electronic properties in realistic biological environments. The second case study involves the use of nanopores manufactured into electronic nanodevices based on silicon compounds for single molecule electrical recording, in particular, for DNA sequencing. Here, modeling combining classical molecular dynamics, material science and device physics, described the interaction of biopolymers, e.g., DNA, with silicon nitrate and silicon oxide pores, furnished accurate dynamic images of pore translocation processes, and predicted signals. The third case study involves the development of nanoscale lipid bilayers for the study of embedded membrane proteins and cholesterol. Molecular modeling tested scaffold proteins, redesigned apolipoproteins found in mammalian plasma that hold the discoidal membranes in the proper shape, and predicted the assembly as well as final structure of the nanodiscs. In entirely new technological areas such as bionanotechnology, qualitative concepts, pictures and suggestions are sorely needed; these three case studies document that molecular modeling can serve a critical role in this respect, even though it may still fall short on quantitative precision.

  18. Role models and social supports related to adolescent physical activity and overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L

    2015-07-01

    Positive role models, social and community activities, and school support are protective social factors that promote youth health and well-being. Latino, African-American, Asian, multi-racial, and low-income adolescents are less likely to experience these protective social factors compared to other groups, which may contribute to health disparities. Adolescents who identify a role model, volunteer, participate in organizations outside of school, or experience high levels of teacher or other adult support at school engage in greater physical activity and are more likely to have a healthy weight. Strategies to increase these protective social factors among adolescents could help promote healthy weight and healthy behaviors. PMID:26248387

  19. Are adult nonbreeders prudent parents? The kittiwake model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cam, E.; Hines, J.E.; Monnat, J.-Y.; Nichols, J.D.; Danchin, E.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding evolutionary consequences of intermittent breeding (non-breeding in individuals that previously bred) requires investigation of the relationships between adult breeding state and two demographic parameters: survival probability and subsequent breeding probability. One major difficulty raised by comparing the demographic features of breeders and nonbreeders as estimated from capture-recapture data is that breeding state is often suspected to influence recapture or resighting probability. We used multistate capture-recapture models to test the hypothesis of equal recapture probabilities for breeding and nonbreeding Kittiwakes and found no evidence of an effect of breeding state on this parameter. The same method was used to test whether reproductive state affects survival probability. Nonbreeding individuals have lower survival rates than breeders. Moreover, nonbreeders have a higher probability of being nonbreeders the following year than do breeders. State-specific survival rates and transition probabilities vary from year to year, but temporal variations of survival and transition probabilities of breeders and nonbreeders are in parallel (on a logit scale). These inferences led us to conclude that nonbreeders tend to be lower quality individuals. The effect of sex was also investigated: males and females do not differ with respect to survival probabilities when reproductive state is taken into account. Similarly, there is no effect of sex on transition probabilities between reproductive states.

  20. Lithium suppresses Aβ pathology by inhibiting translation in an adult Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sofola-Adesakin, Oyinkan; Castillo-Quan, Jorge I.; Rallis, Charalampos; Tain, Luke S.; Bjedov, Ivana; Rogers, Iain; Li, Li; Martinez, Pedro; Khericha, Mobina; Cabecinha, Melissa; Bähler, Jürg; Partridge, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is age, and changes in the ageing nervous system are likely contributors to AD pathology. Amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation, which occurs as a result of the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), is thought to initiate the pathogenesis of AD, eventually leading to neuronal cell death. Previously, we developed an adult-onset Drosophila model of AD. Mutant Aβ42 accumulation led to increased mortality and neuronal dysfunction in the adult flies. Furthermore, we showed that lithium reduced Aβ42 protein, but not mRNA, and was able to rescue Aβ42-induced toxicity. In the current study, we investigated the mechanism/s by which lithium modulates Aβ42 protein levels and Aβ42 induced toxicity in the fly model. We found that lithium caused a reduction in protein synthesis in Drosophila and hence the level of Aβ42. At both the low and high doses tested, lithium rescued the locomotory defects induced by Aβ42, but it rescued lifespan only at lower doses, suggesting that long-term, high-dose lithium treatment may have induced toxicity. Lithium also down-regulated translation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe associated with increased chronological lifespan. Our data highlight a role for lithium and reduced protein synthesis as potential therapeutic targets for AD pathogenesis. PMID:25126078

  1. The Role and Modeling of Dispersive Stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavit, U.; Moltchanov, S.

    2012-12-01

    Dispersive stresses represent momentum fluxes that are induced by the spatial heterogeneity of flow environments such as forest canopies, river vegetation and coral reefs. When deriving the average momentum equation for such flow environments, these dispersive stresses resemble the Reynolds stresses but instead of correlations of temporal fluctuations they represent correlations of spatial fluctuations. Surprisingly, these stresses are ignored in flow models and very few studies attempted to provide a physical interpretation, let alone a closure model. Typical arguments that justify such modeling are that these stresses are small and negligible; however, recent studies have shown that they may be important. In a recent study we showed that dispersive stresses at the inlet to obstructed region (made of glass cylinders) are larger than the Reynolds stresses and their contribution to the momentum balance is as important as the pressure and the drag forces. In this presentation we will try to explain what they are, provide some intuitive physical interoperation and show that closure models can be developed. Our results are based on highly detailed particle image velocimeter (PIV) measurements that were obtained inside a canopy model made of vertical thin glass plates. Forty nine vertical cross sections were obtained 1000 times generating a huge dataset of more than 250 million data points for each flow conditions. A careful spatial averaging procedure was developed and both temporal and spatial correlations were obtained. An order of magnitude analysis will be presented and the role of each of the terms in the momentum equation will be evaluated. It will be shown that the dispersive stresses are large and significant within the area of the canopy leading edge. Since dispersive stresses do not exist upstream from the canopy they are expected to grow once the flow enters the canopy. Our PIV data shows an initial fast growth up to about one length scale into the patch

  2. An Essential Role for Cdc42 in the Functioning of the Adult Mammary Gland.

    PubMed

    Druso, Joseph E; Endo, Makoto; Lin, Miao-Chong Joy; Peng, Xu; Antonyak, Marc A; Meller, Stephanie; Cerione, Richard A

    2016-04-22

    The Rho family small GTPase Cdc42 has been implicated in a wide range of cellular functions including the establishment of cell polarity and the remodeling of the actin cytoskeletal architecture, resulting in the tight regulation of cell growth and survival during developmental processes. The complete knock-out of Cdc42 in the mouse is embryonic-lethal, and its targeted deletion in various tissues has been shown to disrupt tissue homeostasis. Thus far, in most studies, the targeted deletion of Cdc42 occurred during embryogenesis. Here, we have used a conditional gene deletion strategy in mice to probe the specific role of Cdc42 during adult mammary gland function. Cdc42 conditional-knock-out females were unable to adequately nourish their pups, due to a disorganized epithelial compartment within their mammary glands. A closer examination showed that their mammary epithelial cells were not able to maintain functional alveolar lumens, due to an inability to establish normal apical/basal epithelial polarity, as well as proper cell-cell contacts. Loss of these essential epithelial characteristics led to a premature sloughing off of the Cdc42-null epithelial cells. Overall our findings demonstrate that Cdc42 plays essential roles in mammary gland function post pregnancy, where it helps to establish proper epithelial cell polarity and tissue homeostasis during lactation. PMID:26912661

  3. Weight management services for adults--highlighting the role of primary care.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S J; O'Shea, D

    2012-01-01

    Ireland has the fourth highest prevalence of overweight and obese men in the European Union and the seventh highest prevalence among women. This study focuses on 777 referrals on the waiting list for Ireland's only fully funded hospital-based adult weight management service with special emphasis on the role of primary care in the referral process. Since our last review two years ago, we found that patients are now being referred at a younger age (mean 43 years). The mean BMI at referral has increased from 44 to 46. Five hundred and forty eight (70%) referrals were from primary care with males accounting for 163 (30%) of these, despite male obesity being more prevalent. Interestingly, as the distance from Dublin increased, the number of referrals decreased. Overall this is a concerning trend showing the increasing burden of obesity on a younger population and a health system inadequately equipped to deal with the problem. It also highlights the central role of the primary care physician in the timely and appropriate referral to optimise use of our available resources. PMID:23495548

  4. Nativity Status and Depressive Symptoms among Hispanic Young Adults: The Role of Stress Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, Kathryn Harker; Weiss, Ursula Keller

    2009-01-01

    Objective This article documents nativity differentials in depressive symptoms among Hispanics during their initial years of adulthood and explores how ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, and exposure to stressful life events and changes in social roles help to explain those differentials. Methods Data is drawn from a large-scale two-wave community study of stress, psychiatric well-being, and substance use disorders among young adults. Our analytic sample includes 553 Hispanic respondents and we employ multivariate regression techniques. Results Regardless of age at immigration, foreign-born women experience greater declines in depressive symptoms than native-born women during early adulthood. This advantage is explained by differences in perceptions of discrimination, family-based stress, and social role changes. The association between nativity and depressive symptoms is not conditioned by ethnicity, but ethnicity does condition the association between stressful events and depressive symptoms. Conclusions The findings suggest that mental health treatment and prevention efforts should focus more heavily on stress exposure. PMID:21743751

  5. The roles of behavioural activation and inhibition among young adults engaging in self-injury.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Abigail L; Seelbach, Abigail C; Conner, Bradley T; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behaviour, particularly among young adults. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms underlying NSSI or the personality correlates of these behaviours. The goal of this study was to examine the roles of the behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS) in NSSI. A total of 604 undergraduates completed two self-report measures of BAS and BIS, as well as NSSI history. Logistic and negative binomial linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between measures of BAS and BIS and the presence and course characteristics of NSSI. Approximately 30% of participants reported a history of NSSI. High scores on BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), combined with low scores on BIS total, predicted NSSI history. However, the opposite was also true, with high levels of BIS total, combined with low levels of BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), also predicting NSSI history. In addition, several BAS by BIS interactions predicted an NSSI course characterized by more acts and methods used. This study supports the roles of both BAS and BIS in NSSI and takes the first step in identifying how these personality correlates may help identify individuals at risk for NSSI. PMID:24343924

  6. The roles of behavioural activation and inhibition among young adults engaging in self-injury

    PubMed Central

    JENKINS, ABIGAIL L.; SEELBACH, ABIGAIL C.; CONNER, BRADLEY T.; ALLOY, LAUREN B.

    2014-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behaviour, particularly among young adults. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms underlying NSSI or the personality correlates of these behaviours. The goal of this study was to examine the roles of the behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS) in NSSI. A total of 604 undergraduates completed two self-report measures of BAS and BIS, as well as NSSI history. Logistic and negative binomial linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between measures of BAS and BIS and the presence and course characteristics of NSSI. Approximately 30% of participants reported a history of NSSI. High scores on BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), combined with low scores on BIS total, predicted NSSI history. However, the opposite was also true, with high levels of BIS total, combined with low levels of BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), also predicting NSSI history. In addition, several BAS by BIS interactions predicted an NSSI course characterized by more acts and methods used. This study supports the roles of both BAS and BIS in NSSI and takes the first step in identifying how these personality correlates may help identify individuals at risk for NSSI. PMID:24343924

  7. Modelling adult Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus survival at different temperatures in laboratory and field settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The survival of adult female Aedes mosquitoes is a critical component of their ability to transmit pathogens such as dengue viruses. One of the principal determinants of Aedes survival is temperature, which has been associated with seasonal changes in Aedes populations and limits their geographical distribution. The effects of temperature and other sources of mortality have been studied in the field, often via mark-release-recapture experiments, and under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Survival results differ and reconciling predictions between the two settings has been hindered by variable measurements from different experimental protocols, lack of precision in measuring survival of free-ranging mosquitoes, and uncertainty about the role of age-dependent mortality in the field. Methods Here we apply generalised additive models to data from 351 published adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus survival experiments in the laboratory to create survival models for each species across their range of viable temperatures. These models are then adjusted to estimate survival at different temperatures in the field using data from 59 Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus field survivorship experiments. The uncertainty at each stage of the modelling process is propagated through to provide confidence intervals around our predictions. Results Our results indicate that adult Ae. albopictus has higher survival than Ae. aegypti in the laboratory and field, however, Ae. aegypti can tolerate a wider range of temperatures. A full breakdown of survival by age and temperature is given for both species. The differences between laboratory and field models also give insight into the relative contributions to mortality from temperature, other environmental factors, and senescence and over what ranges these factors can be important. Conclusions Our results support the importance of producing site-specific mosquito survival estimates. By including fluctuating temperature regimes

  8. [Adult].

    PubMed

    Milke-García, María Del Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Adulthood starts after youth and is characterized by the completion of growth and the achievement of organic and psychological maturity. Obesity and other preventable diseases related to lifestyle are common at this age. A complete, balanced and sufficient diet, together with exercise are important in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Several studies have brought about the mechanisms by which the incorporation of milk and dairy products to diet is beneficial in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Milk also contributes to the improvement of dental, bone and intestinal health, theoretically helps in body weight control, has a definite role on the muscular and bone mass maintenance and is an option for hydration during exercise, this being as important as diet for overweight, obesity, diabetes, dislipidemias and hypertension control. PMID:27603885

  9. A Biopsychosocial-Spiritual Model of Chronic Pain in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lou Ella V.; Stotts, Nancy A.; Humphreys, Janice; Treadwell, Marsha J.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) is a complex multidimensional experience that includes biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual factors. To date, three models of pain associated with SCD (i.e., biomedical model; biopsychosocial model for SCD pain; Health Belief Model) are published. The biopsychosocial (BPS) multidimensional approach to chronic pain developed by Turk and Gatchel is a widely used model of chronic pain. However, this model has not been applied to chronic pain associated with SCD. In addition, a spiritual/religious dimension is not included in this model. Because spirituality/religion is central to persons affected by SCD, this dimension needs to be added to any model of chronic pain in adults with SCD. In fact, data from one study suggest that spirituality/religiosity is associated with decreased pain intensity in adults with chronic pain from SCD. A BPS-Spiritual model is proposed for adults with chronic pain from SCD since it embraces the whole person. This model includes the biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual factors relevant to adults with SCD based on past and current research. The purpose of this paper is to describe an adaptation of Turk and Gatchel’s model of chronic pain for adults with SCD and to summarize research findings that support each component of the revised model (i.e., biological, psychological, sociological, spiritual). The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for the use of this model in research. PMID:24315252

  10. Role Transitions and Young Adult Maturing Out of Heavy Drinking: Evidence for Larger Effects of Marriage among More Severe Pre-Marriage Problem Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew R.; Chassin, Laurie; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown a developmental process of “maturing out” of problem drinking beginning in young adulthood. Perhaps surprisingly, past studies suggests that young adult drinking reductions may be particularly pronounced among those exhibiting relatively severe forms of problem drinking earlier in emerging adulthood. This may occur because more severe problem drinkers experience stronger ameliorative effects of normative young adult role transitions like marriage. Methods The hypothesis of stronger marriage effects among more severe problem drinkers was tested using three waves of data from a large ongoing study of familial alcohol disorder (Chassin et al., 1992; N=844; 51% children of alcoholics). Results Longitudinal growth models characterized (1) the curvilinear trajectory of drinking quantity from ages 17-40, (2) effects of marriage on altering this age-related trajectory, and moderation of this effect by pre-marriage problem drinking levels (alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms). Results confirmed the hypothesis that protective marriage effects on drinking quantity trajectories would be stronger among more severe pre-marriage problem drinkers. Supplemental analyses showed that results were robust to alternative construct operationalizations and modeling approaches. Conclusions Consistent with role incompatibility theory, findings support the view of role conflict as a key mechanism of role-driven behavior change, as greater problem drinking likely conflicts more with demands of roles like marriage. This is also consistent with the developmental psychopathology view of transitions and turning points. Role transitions among already low-severity drinkers may merely represent developmental continuity of a low-risk trajectory, whereas role transitions among higher-severity problem drinkers may represent developmentally discontinuous “turning points” that divert individuals from a higher- to a lower-risk trajectory. Practically

  11. The Role of Religion in Shaping Sexual Frequency and Satisfaction: Evidence from Married and Unmarried Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Michael J.; Uecker, Jeremy E.; Regnerus, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the role of religion in influencing sexual frequency and satisfaction among older married adults and sexual activity among older unmarried adults. We propose and test several hypotheses about the relationship between religion and sex among these two groups of older Americans, using nationally representative data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). Results suggest that among married older adults, religion is largely unrelated with sexual frequency and satisfaction, although religious integration in daily life shares a weak but positive association with pleasure from sex. For unmarried adults, such religious integration exhibits a negative association with having had sex in the last year among women but not men. PMID:20349390

  12. Role of saliva in caries models.

    PubMed

    Edgar, W M; Higham, S M

    1995-11-01

    The crucial role played by the actions of saliva in controlling the equilibrium between de- and remineralization in a cariogenic environment is demonstrated by the effects on caries incidence of salivary dysfunction and by the distribution of sites of caries predilection to those were salivary effects are restricted. However, of the several properties of saliva which may confer protective effects, it is not certain which are most important. A distinction can be made between static protective effects, which act continuously, and dynamic effects, which act during the time-course of the Stephan curve. Evidence implicates salivary buffering and sugar clearance as important dynamic effects of saliva to prevent demineralization; of these, the buffering of plaque acids may predominate. Enhanced remineralization of white spot lesions may also be regarded as dynamic protective effects of saliva. Fluoride in saliva (from dentifrices, ingesta, etc.) may promote remineralization and (especially fluoride in plaque) inhibit demineralization. The design of experiments using caries models must take into account the static and dynamic effects of saliva. Some models admit a full expression of these effects, while others may exclude them, restricting the range of investigations possible. The possibility is raised that protective effects of saliva and therapeutic agents may act cooperatively. PMID:8615945

  13. Parental role models, gender and educational choice.

    PubMed

    Dryler, H

    1998-09-01

    Parental role models are often put forward as an explanation for the choice of gender-atypical educational routes. This paper aims to test such explanations by examining the impact of family background variables like parental education and occupation, on choice of educational programme at upper secondary school. Using a sample of around 73,000 Swedish teenagers born between 1972 and 1976, girls' and boys' gender-atypical as well as gender-typical educational choices are analysed by means of logistic regression. Parents working or educated within a specific field increase the probability that a child will make a similar choice of educational programme at upper secondary school. This same-sector effect appeared to be somewhat stronger for fathers and sons, while no such same-sex influence was confirmed for girls. No evidence was found that, in addition to a same-sector effect, it matters whether parents' occupations represent gender-traditional or non-traditional models. Parents of the service classes or highly educated parents--expected to be the most gender egalitarian in attitudes and behaviours--have a positive influence upon children's choice of gender-atypical education. PMID:9867028

  14. Metamemory in older adults: the role of monitoring in serial recall.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M D; Schmitt, F A; Caruso, M J; Sanders, R E

    1987-12-01

    Older and younger adults were asked to think aloud while studying sets of pictures matched in difficulty for immediate serial recall. When instructed only to remember, young adults tended to study longer, rehearse more, and recall better than did older adults on the most difficult lists. Young adults were also much more likely to spontaneously test themselves during study in the most difficult condition. Older adult groups instructed either to study longer or to self-test, both showed improved recall. Only the older adults who had been instructed to self-monitor, however, recalled better on tests of short-term maintenance and generalization; overt rehearsal data showed that these older adults continued to test themselves. Metamemory deficits may be present with older adults when a strategy, like self-testing, is needed to generate metamemorial knowledge. Strategies such as self-testing can be easily taught, however, and they hold promise of being useful across situations. PMID:3268225

  15. The role of anticipated regret and health beliefs in HPV vaccination intentions among young adults.

    PubMed

    Christy, Shannon M; Winger, Joseph G; Raffanello, Elizabeth W; Halpern, Leslie F; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Mosher, Catherine E

    2016-06-01

    Although cognitions have predicted young adults' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine decision-making, emotion-based theories of healthcare decision-making suggest that anticipatory emotions may be more predictive. This study examined whether anticipated regret was associated with young adults' intentions to receive the HPV vaccine above and beyond the effects of commonly studied cognitions. Unvaccinated undergraduates (N = 233) completed a survey assessing Health Belief Model (HBM) variables (i.e., perceived severity of HPV-related diseases, perceived risk of developing these diseases, and perceived benefits of HPV vaccination), anticipatory emotions (i.e., anticipated regret if one were unvaccinated and later developed genital warts or HPV-related cancer), and HPV vaccine intentions. Anticipated regret was associated with HPV vaccine intentions above and beyond the effects of HBM variables among men. Among women, neither anticipated regret nor HBM variables showed consistent associations with HPV vaccine intentions. Findings suggest that anticipatory emotions should be considered when designing interventions to increase HPV vaccination among college men. PMID:26782668

  16. The role of romantic relationship status in pathways of risk for emerging adult alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Jessica E; Thomas, Nathaniel S; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Kendler, Kenneth S; Dick, Danielle M

    2016-05-01

    Dating several people in emerging adulthood has been associated with higher alcohol use compared with being single or being in an exclusive relationship. As a follow-up to that report, we examined whether romantic relationship status is part of a pathway of risk between antecedent alcohol use risk factors and subsequent alcohol outcomes. Participants were 4,410 emerging adults assessed at 2 time-points during their first year of college. We found that a parental history of alcohol problems was indirectly related to dating several people via 2 modestly correlated pathways. The first pathway was through conduct problems. The second pathway was through positive urgency (i.e., a positive emotion-based predisposition to rash action). In turn, dating several people was associated with higher alcohol use. Our results suggest that these familial and individual-level alcohol risk factors are related to emerging adults' selection into subsequent romantic relationship experiences that are associated with higher alcohol use. These findings have implications for how romantic relationship experiences may fit into developmental models of the etiology of alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27214170

  17. 20 CFR 663.100 - What is the role of the adult and dislocated worker programs in the One-Stop delivery system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 CFR part 662. Consistent with those provisions: (1) Core services for adults and dislocated... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the role of the adult and dislocated... AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE...

  18. 20 CFR 663.100 - What is the role of the adult and dislocated worker programs in the One-Stop delivery system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... partners described in 20 CFR part 662. Consistent with those provisions: (1) Core services for adults and... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is the role of the adult and dislocated... AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER...

  19. Long-term Outcomes and Role of Chemotherapy in Adults With Newly Diagnosed Medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Call, Jason A.; Naik, Mihir; Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Giannini, Caterina; Wu, Wenting; Buckner, Jan C.; Parney, Ian F.; Laack, Nadia N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the survival and role of adjuvant chemotherapy in adult medulloblastoma. Methods We reviewed outcomes of 66 patients (aged 18 y or more; median age, 33 y) with medulloblastoma. Forty-four (67%) patients had M0 disease, 9 had M1-M4, and 13 had MX. Thirty-one patients each for whom risk stratification was available were classified as high risk or standard risk. Fifty-six patients had histologic results: classic histology was the most common (n = 46 [84%]), followed by desmoplastic (n = 9), and large cell/anaplastic (n = 1). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were estimated with Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Cox regression analysis was used to compare recurrences. Results Median follow-up was 6.7 years. The estimated 5-year OS and PFS were 74% and 59%, respectively. High-risk versus standard-risk classification was associated with worse OS (61% vs. 86%; P = 0.03) and recurrence (hazard ratio, 2.56; P = 0.05) and a trend for worse PFS (49% vs. 69%; P = 0.13). Gross total resection was associated with improved OS (P = 0.03) and a trend toward improved PFS (P = 0.09). No chemotherapy benefit could be demonstrated for the group as a whole. For high-risk patients with classic histology (n = 25), chemotherapy was associated with a trend for improvement in 5-year PFS from 36% to 71% (P = 0.10) and in 5-year OS from 49% to 100% (P = 0.08). Conclusions In adult patients with medulloblastoma, the extent of resection and risk classification predicts the outcome. These results suggest a chemotherapy benefit for high-risk patients with classic histology. PMID:23111362

  20. Differential roles of hypoxia and innate immunity in juvenile and adult dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Preuße, Corinna; Allenbach, Yves; Hoffmann, Olaf; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Pehl, Debora; Radke, Josefine; Doeser, Alexandra; Schneider, Udo; Alten, Rieke H E; Kallinich, Tilmann; Benveniste, Olivier; von Moers, Arpad; Schoser, Benedikt; Schara, Ulrike; Stenzel, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) can occur in both adults and juveniles with considerable clinical differences. The links between immune-mediated mechanisms and vasculopathy with respect to development of perifascicular pathology are incompletely understood. We investigated skeletal muscle from newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve juvenile (jDM) and adult dermatomyositis (aDM) patients focusing on hypoxia-related pathomechanisms, vessel pathology, and immune mechanisms especially in the perifascicular region. Therefore, we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsies from 21 aDM, and 15 jDM patients by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Transcriptional analyses of genes involved in hypoxia, as well as in innate and adaptive immunity were performed by quantitative Polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of whole tissue cross sections including perifascicular muscle fibers.Through these analysis, we found that basic features of DM, like perifascicular atrophy and inflammatory infiltrates, were present at similar levels in jDM and aDM patients. However, jDM was characterized by predominantly hypoxia-driven pathology in perifascicular small fibers and by macrophages expressing markers of hypoxia. A more pronounced regional loss of capillaries, but no relevant activation of type-1 Interferon (IFN)-associated pathways was noted. Conversely, in aDM, IFN-related genes were expressed at significantly elevated levels, and Interferon-stimulated gene (ISG)15 was strongly positive in small perifascicular fibers whereas hypoxia-related mechanisms did not play a significant role.In our study we could provide new molecular data suggesting a conspicuous pathophysiological 'dichotomy' between jDM and aDM: In jDM, perifascicular atrophy is tightly linked to hypoxia-related pathology, and poorly to innate immunity. In aDM, perifascicular atrophy is prominently associated with molecules driving innate immunity, while hypoxia-related mechanisms seem to be less relevant. PMID:27121733

  1. Muscle organizers in Drosophila: the role of persistent larval fibers in adult flight muscle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, E. R.; Fernandes, J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    In many organisms muscle formation depends on specialized cells that prefigure the pattern of the musculature and serve as templates for myoblast organization and fusion. These include muscle pioneers in insects and muscle organizing cells in leech. In Drosophila, muscle founder cells have been proposed to play a similar role in organizing larval muscle development during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, following histolysis of most of the larval musculature, there is a second round of myogenesis that gives rise to the adult muscles. It is not known whether muscle founder cells organize the development of these muscles. However, in the thorax specific larval muscle fibers do not histolyze at the onset of metamorphosis, but instead serve as templates for the formation of a subset of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Because these persistent larval muscle fibers appear to be functioning in many respects like muscle founder cells, we investigated whether they were necessary for DLM development by using a microbeam laser to ablate them singly and in combination. We found that, in the absence of the larval muscle fibers, DLMs nonetheless develop. Our results show that the persistent larval muscle fibers are not required to initiate myoblast fusion, to determine DLM identity, to locate the DLMs in the thorax, or to specify the total DLM fiber volume. However, they are required to regulate the number of DLM fibers generated. Thus, while the persistent larval muscle fibers are not obligatory for DLM fiber formation and differentiation, they are necessary to ensure the development of the correct number of fibers.

  2. The role of apelin in the modulation of gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Antuschevich, H; Kapica, M; Krawczynska, A; Herman, A; Kato, I; Kuwahara, A; Zabielski, R

    2016-06-01

    Apelin is considered as important gut regulatory peptide ligand of APJ receptor with a potential physiological role in gastrointestinal cytoprotection, regulation of food intake and drinking behavior. Circulating apelin inhibits secretion of pancreatic juice through vagal- cholecystokinin-dependent mechanism and reduces local blood flow. Our study was aimed to determine the effect of fundectomy and intraperitoneal or intragastric administration of apelin-13 on pancreatic and gastric enzymes activities in adult rats. Fundectomy is a surgical removal of stomach fundus - maine site apelin synthesis. Three independent experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. In the first and second experiment apelin-13 was given by intragastric or intraperitoneal way twice a day for 10 days (100 nmol/kg b.w.). Control groups received the physiological saline respectively. In the third experiment the group of rats after fundectomy were used. Fundectomized rats did not receive apelin and the rats from control group were 'sham operated'. At the end of experiment rats were sacrificed and blood from rats was withdrawn for apelin and CCK (cholecystokinin) radioimmunoassay analysis and pancreas and stomach tissues were collected for enzyme activity analyses. Intragastric and intraperitoneal administrations of apelin-13 increased basal plasma CCK level and stimulated gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in rats. In animals after fundectomy decreased activity of studied enzymes was observed, as well as basal plasma apelin and CCK levels. In conclusion, apelin can effects on CCK release and stimulates some gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in adult rats while fudectomy suppresses those processes. Changes in the level of pancreatic lipase activity point out that apelin may occurs as a regulator of lipase secretion. PMID:27512001

  3. Architects, Captains, and Dreamers: Creating Advisor Roles that Foster Youth-Adult Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Dana; Lewis, Tiffanie; Sanders, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    While research has documented the many ways in which student voice can enable educational change, the process of how adults can help to enable student voice is less clear. This article examines how adults new to working as advisors of student voice initiatives begin to develop partnerships with young people. Using a Youth-Adult Partnership…

  4. Four Lay-of-the-Land Papers on the Federal Role in Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLendon, Lennox L.; Murphy, Garrett W.; Parker, James

    2006-01-01

    The four papers in this series were commissioned for the first meeting of the National Commission on Adult Literacy, which met in Nashville on November 14, 2006. The first paper, "Adult Education and Literacy Legislation and Its Effects on the Field," provides the basic provisions of the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA, 1998): its…

  5. The Role of Healthcare Providers and Caregivers in Educating Older Adults about Foodborne Illness Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlgenant, Kelly C.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Godwin, Sandria L.; Speller-Henderson, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Adults aged 60 or older are more likely than younger adults to experience severe complications or even death as a result of foodborne infections. This study investigated which specific groups of healthcare providers or other caregivers are most receptive to providing food safety information to older adults. Telephone-based focus groups were…

  6. Factors Influencing Adults' Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors and the Role of Environmental Schools in Influencing Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Efrat; Trop, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    The present study revisits a subfield of environmental education: significant life experiences, which studies the influences that shape the development of environmental stewardship. In the present study, we examine the effect of various formative experiences on a group of adults and analyze the role of school, as a formative influence on the…

  7. The Effects of Gender Segregation, Labor Force Participation, and Family Roles on the Earnings of Young Adult Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowski, Kristine M.; Leicht, Kevin T.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of data from 12,686 young adult workers demonstrated that men's wages benefited more from marriage, women's were constrained by dual marital/parental roles; detrimental effects of female-dominated occupations were more pronounced for single or childless married persons; married women experience social closure, sorting them into segregated…

  8. Career Success: The Role of Teenage Career Aspirations, Ambition Value and Gender in Predicting Adult Social Status and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in…

  9. The Role of Astrocytes in the Generation, Migration, and Integration of New Neurons in the Adult Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Gengatharan, Archana; Bammann, Rodrigo R.; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, new neurons in the adult olfactory bulb originate from a pool of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Adult-born cells play an important role in odor information processing by adjusting the neuronal network to changing environmental conditions. Olfactory bulb neurogenesis is supported by several non-neuronal cells. In this review, we focus on the role of astroglial cells in the generation, migration, integration, and survival of new neurons in the adult forebrain. In the subventricular zone, neural stem cells with astrocytic properties display regional and temporal specificity when generating different neuronal subtypes. Non-neurogenic astrocytes contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the neurogenic niche. Neuroblast chains migrate through the rostral migratory stream ensheathed by astrocytic processes. Astrocytes play an important regulatory role in neuroblast migration and also assist in the development of a vasculature scaffold in the migratory stream that is essential for neuroblast migration in the postnatal brain. In the olfactory bulb, astrocytes help to modulate the network through a complex release of cytokines, regulate blood flow, and provide metabolic support, which may promote the integration and survival of new neurons. Astrocytes thus play a pivotal role in various processes of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis, and it is likely that many other functions of these glial cells will emerge in the near future. PMID:27092050

  10. The Role of Astrocytes in the Generation, Migration, and Integration of New Neurons in the Adult Olfactory Bulb.

    PubMed

    Gengatharan, Archana; Bammann, Rodrigo R; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, new neurons in the adult olfactory bulb originate from a pool of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Adult-born cells play an important role in odor information processing by adjusting the neuronal network to changing environmental conditions. Olfactory bulb neurogenesis is supported by several non-neuronal cells. In this review, we focus on the role of astroglial cells in the generation, migration, integration, and survival of new neurons in the adult forebrain. In the subventricular zone, neural stem cells with astrocytic properties display regional and temporal specificity when generating different neuronal subtypes. Non-neurogenic astrocytes contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the neurogenic niche. Neuroblast chains migrate through the rostral migratory stream ensheathed by astrocytic processes. Astrocytes play an important regulatory role in neuroblast migration and also assist in the development of a vasculature scaffold in the migratory stream that is essential for neuroblast migration in the postnatal brain. In the olfactory bulb, astrocytes help to modulate the network through a complex release of cytokines, regulate blood flow, and provide metabolic support, which may promote the integration and survival of new neurons. Astrocytes thus play a pivotal role in various processes of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis, and it is likely that many other functions of these glial cells will emerge in the near future. PMID:27092050

  11. The Role of Spirituality in Learning Music: A Case of North American Adult Students of Japanese Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunobu, Koji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the role of spirituality in learning music for North American adult students is explored by examining the case of shakuhachi music. One distinctive character of engaging in music through the shakuhachi is that it facilitates the attainment of an "optimal relationship" between the practitioners" musical pursuit and self-cultivation…

  12. Adolescent Girls' ADHD Symptoms and Young Adult Driving: The Role of Perceived Deviant Peer Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoos, Stephanie L.; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with…

  13. The Role of Supportive Adults in Promoting Positive Development in Middle Childhood: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Hertzman, Clyde

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the role of supportive adults to emotional well-being in a population of Grade 4 students attending public schools in Vancouver, Canada. Reflecting the ecology of middle childhood, we examined the extent to which perceived family, school, and neighborhood support relate to young people's self-reported…

  14. Frailty and cardiovascular disease: potential role of gait speed in surgical risk stratification in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a state of late life decline and vulnerability, typified by physical weakness and decreased physiologic reserve. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of frailty share features with those of cardiovascular disease. Gait speed can be used as a measure of frailty and is a powerful predictor of mortality. Advancing age is a potent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has been associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Older adults comprise approximately half of cardiac surgery patients, and account for nearly 80% of the major complications and deaths following surgery. The ability of traditional risk models to predict mortality and major morbidity in older patients being considered for cardiac surgery may improve if frailty, as measured by gait speed, is included in their assessment. It is possible that in the future frailty assessment may assist in choosing among therapies (e.g., surgical vs. percutaneous aortic valve replacement for patients with aortic stenosis). PMID:25678904

  15. New Perspectives in Amblyopia Therapy on Adults: A Critical Role for the Excitatory/Inhibitory Balance

    PubMed Central

    Baroncelli, Laura; Maffei, Lamberto; Sale, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Amblyopia is the most common form of impairment of visual function affecting one eye, with a prevalence of about 1–5% of the total world population. This pathology is caused by early abnormal visual experience with a functional imbalance between the two eyes owing to anisometropia, strabismus, or congenital cataract, resulting in a dramatic loss of visual acuity in an apparently healthy eye and various other perceptual abnormalities, including deficits in contrast sensitivity and in stereopsis. It is currently accepted that, due to a lack of sufficient plasticity within the brain, amblyopia is untreatable in adulthood. However, recent results obtained both in clinical trials and in animal models have challenged this traditional view, unmasking a previously unsuspected potential for promoting recovery after the end of the critical period for visual cortex plasticity. These studies point toward the intracortical inhibitory transmission as a crucial brake for therapeutic rehabilitation and recovery from amblyopia in the adult brain. PMID:22144947

  16. Role of Place in Explaining Racial Heterogeneity in Cognitive Outcomes among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sze Yan; Glymour, M Maria; Zahodne, Laura B; Weiss, Christopher; Manly, Jennifer J

    2015-10-01

    Racially patterned disadvantage in Southern states, especially during the formative years of primary school, may contribute to enduring disparities in adult cognitive outcomes. Drawing on a lifecourse perspective, we examine whether state of school attendance affects cognitive outcomes in older adults and partially contributes to persistent racial disparities. Using data from older African American and white participants in the national Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and the New York based Washington Heights Inwood Cognitive Aging Project (WHICAP), we estimated age-and gender-adjusted multilevel models with random effects for states predicting years of education and cognitive outcomes (e.g., memory and vocabulary). We summarized the proportion of variation in outcomes attributable to state of school attendance and compared the magnitude of racial disparities across states. Among WHICAP African Americans, state of school attendance accounted for 9% of the variance in years of schooling, 6% of memory, and 12% of language. Among HRS African Americans, state of school attendance accounted for 13% of the variance in years of schooling and also contributed to variance in cognitive function (7%), memory (2%), and vocabulary (12%). Random slope models indicated state-level African American and white disparities in every Census region, with the largest racial differences in the South. State of school attendance may contribute to racial disparities in cognitive outcomes among older Americans. Despite tremendous within-state heterogeneity, state of school attendance also accounted for some variability in cognitive outcomes. Racial disparities in older Americans may reflect historical patterns of segregation and differential access to resources such as education. PMID:26412671

  17. Clinicians should be aware of their responsibilities as role models: a case report on the impact of poor role modeling

    PubMed Central

    Mileder, Lukas P.; Schmidt, Albrecht; Dimai, Hans P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Role modeling is an important and valuable educational method. It is predominant throughout (under-)graduate medical education, and attributes of exemplary medical role models are manifold. Aim This article describes the impact of poor role modeling on medical students’ professional and personal development on the basis of a singular incident at an associated teaching hospital. In addition, scientific literature studying the effect of and the reasons behind poor role modeling in undergraduate and graduate medical education is analyzed and discussed. Results To maximize the educational potential of clinical role modeling, medical schools have to consider strategies both on the individual as well as on the institutional level. Several suggestions are offered on both levels. Discussion/conclusion Based on a case report of significantly poor role modeling, this article outlines strategies through which academic medical institutions may maximize the educational potential of role modeling and lastingly enhance teaching proficiency of clinical faculty. PMID:24499869

  18. Field Verification of the Prediction Model on Desert Locust Adult Phase Status From Density and Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Cissé, S.; Ghaout, S.; Babah Ebbe, M. A; Kamara, S; Piou, C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the effect of vegetation on density thresholds of adult Desert Locust gregarization from historical data in Mauritania. We examine here the prediction of locust phase based on adult density and vegetation conditions using the statistical model from Cisse et al. compared with actual behavior of Desert Locust adults observed in the field in Mauritania. From the 130 sites where adult locusts were found, the model predicted the phase of Desert Locust adults with a relatively small error of prediction of 6.1%. Preventive locust control should be rational, based on a risk assessment. The staff involved in implementation of the preventive control strategy needs specific indicators for when or where chemical treatment should be done. In this respect, we show here that the statistical model of Cisse et al. may be appropriate. PMID:27432351

  19. Field Verification of the Prediction Model on Desert Locust Adult Phase Status From Density and Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Cissé, S; Ghaout, S; Babah Ebbe, M A; Kamara, S; Piou, C

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the effect of vegetation on density thresholds of adult Desert Locust gregarization from historical data in Mauritania. We examine here the prediction of locust phase based on adult density and vegetation conditions using the statistical model from Cisse et al. compared with actual behavior of Desert Locust adults observed in the field in Mauritania. From the 130 sites where adult locusts were found, the model predicted the phase of Desert Locust adults with a relatively small error of prediction of 6.1%. Preventive locust control should be rational, based on a risk assessment. The staff involved in implementation of the preventive control strategy needs specific indicators for when or where chemical treatment should be done. In this respect, we show here that the statistical model of Cisse et al. may be appropriate. PMID:27432351

  20. The Moderating Role of Executive Functioning in Older Adults' Responses to a Reminder of Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Molly; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff; Pepin, Renee; Davis, Hasker P.

    2011-01-01

    In previous research, older adults responded to mortality salience (MS) with increased tolerance, whereas younger persons responded with increased punitiveness. One possible explanation for this is that many older adults adapt to challenges of later life, such as the prospect of mortality, by becoming more flexible. Recent studies suggest that positively-oriented adaptation is more likely for older adults with high levels of executive functioning. We thus hypothesized that the better an older adult's executive functioning, the more likely MS would result in increased tolerance. Older and younger adults were randomly assigned to MS or control conditions, and then evaluated moral transgressors. As in previous research, younger adults were more punitive following reminders of mortality; executive functioning did not affect their responses. Among older adults, high functioning individuals responded to MS with increased tolerance rather than intolerance, whereas those low in functioning became more punitive. PMID:21728445

  1. Role of viscoelasticity in mantle convection models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patocka, Vojtech; Cadek, Ondrej; Tackley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    A present limitation of global thermo-chemical convection models is that they assume a purely viscous or visco-plastic flow law for solid rock, i.e. elasticity is ignored. This may not be a good assumption in the cold, outer boundary layer known as the lithosphere, where elastic deformation may be important. Elasticity in the lithosphere plays at least two roles: It changes surface topography, which changes the relationship between topography and gravity, and it alters the stress distribution in the lithosphere, which may affect dynamical behaviour such as the formation of plate boundaries and other tectonics features. A method for adding elasticity to a viscous flow solver to make a visco-elastic flow solver, which involves adding advected elastic stress to the momentum equation and introducing an "effective" viscosity has been proposed (e.g. Moresi, 2002). The proposed method is designed primarily for a regional-scale numerical model which employs tracers for advection and co-rotation of the stress field. In this study we test a grid-based version of the method in context of thermal convection in the Boussinesq approximation. A simple finite difference/volume model with staggered grid is used, with the aim to later use the same method to implement viscoelasticity into StagYY (Tackley, 2008). The main obstacle is that Maxwell viscoelastic rheology produces instantaneous deformation if instantaneous change of the driving forces occurs. It is not possible to model such deformation in a velocity formulated convection model, as velocity undergoes a singularity for an instantaneous deformation. For a given Rayleigh number there exists a certain critical value of the Deborah number above which it is necessary to use a thermal time step different from the one used in viscoelastic constitutive equation to avoid this numerical instability from happening. Critical Deborah numbers for various Rayleigh numbers are computed. We then propose a method to decouple the thermal and

  2. The Five Factor Model of Personality Applied to Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverach, Lisa; O'Brian, Susan; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan; Lincoln, Michelle; Harrison, Elisabeth; Hewat, Sally; Menzies, Ross G.; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has not explored the Five Factor Model of personality among adults who stutter. Therefore, the present study investigated the five personality domains of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), in a sample of 93 adults seeking speech…

  3. Innovation in Doctoral Degrees Designed for Adult Learners: A Hybrid Model in Personal Financial Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grable, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Innovation in doctoral degree program development and delivery provides an effective counterpoint to the expert-apprentice model established in the Middle Ages. The author outlines the importance of innovation in reaching adult learners and describes an innovative hybrid PhD program designed to allow aspiring doctoral adult-age students to pursue…

  4. Adapting the Individual Placement and Support Model with Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Xie, Bin; Glynn, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless young adults. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining competitive employment; yet few examples exist to date with homeless young adults with mental…

  5. Fostering a New Model of Multigenerational Learning: Older Adult Perspectives, Community Partners, and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauenhauer, Jason; Steitz, David W.; Cochran, Lynda J.

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational service-learning initiatives are an increasingly common educational practice designed to engage college students and older adults with one another. The growth of the baby boomer population and a growing interest in lifelong learning opportunities among older adults have the potential to create new models of multigenerational…

  6. Children Are Not like Older Adults: A Diffusion Model Analysis of Developmental Changes in Speeded Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger; Love, Jessica; Thompson, Clarissa A.; Opfer, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Children (n = 130; M[subscript age] = 8.51-15.68 years) and college-aged adults (n = 72; M[subscript age] = 20.50 years) completed numerosity discrimination and lexical decision tasks. Children produced longer response times (RTs) than adults. R. Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model, which divides processing into components (e.g., quality of…

  7. The role of ASTN2 variants in childhood and adult ADHD, comorbid disorders and associated personality traits.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Christine M; Lempp, Thomas; Nguyen, T Trang; Jacob, Christian P; Weissflog, Lena; Romanos, Marcel; Renner, Tobias J; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Rujescu, Dan; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Previous linkage and genome wide association (GWA) studies in ADHD indicated astrotactin 2 (ASTN2) as a candidate gene for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ASTN2 plays a key role in glial-guided neuronal migration. To investigate whether common variants in ASTN2 contribute to ADHD disorder risk, we tested 63 SNPs spanning ASTN2 for association with ADHD and specific comorbid disorders in two samples: 171 families of children with ADHD and their parents (N = 592), and an adult sample comprising 604 adult ADHD cases and 974 controls. The C-allele of rs12376789 in ASTN2 nominally increased the risk for ADHD in the trio sample (p = 0.025). This was not observed in the adult case-control sample alone, but retained in the combined sample (nominal p = 0.030). Several other SNPs showed nominally significant association with comorbid disorders, especially anxiety disorder, in the childhood and adult ADHD samples. Some ASTN2 variants were nominally associated with personality traits in the adult ADHD sample and overlapped with risk alleles for comorbid disorders in childhood. None of the findings survived correction for multiple testing, thus, results do not support a major role of common variants in ASTN2 in the pathogenesis of ADHD, its comorbid disorders or ADHD associated personality traits. PMID:27138430

  8. A Model for Partnering First-Year Student Pharmacists With Community-Based Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Andrea L.; Shawl, Lauren; Motl Moroney, Susannah E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To design, integrate, and assess the effectiveness of an introductory pharmacy practice experience intended to redefine first-year student pharmacists’ views on aging and medication use through their work with a healthy, community-based older-adult population. Design. All students (N = 273) completed live skills training in an 8-hour boot camp provided during orientation week. Teams were assigned an independently living senior partner, completed 10 visits and reflections, and documented health-related information using an electronic portfolio (e-portfolio). Assessment. As determined by pre- and post-experience survey instruments, students gained significant confidence in 7 skill areas related to communication, medication interviews, involving the partner in health care, and applying patient-care skills. Student reflections, in-class presentations, and e-portfolios documented that personal attitudes toward seniors changed over time. Senior partners enjoyed mentoring and interacting with students and many experienced health improvements as a result of the interaction. Conclusions. The model for partnering first-year student pharmacists with community-based older adults improved students’ skills and fostered their connections to pharmacist roles and growth as person-centered providers. PMID:22761526

  9. The life course in the making: gender and the development of adolescents' expected timing of adult role transitions.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Lisa J; Beal, Sarah J

    2012-11-01

    Adolescents' expectations about the timing of adult role transitions have the potential to shape their actual transitions, setting the stage for their adult lives. Although expectations about timing emerge by early adolescence, little is known about how these expectations develop across adolescence. This longitudinal study examined developmental trajectories of adolescents' anticipated ages of school completion, job entry, marriage, and parenthood over the high school years, focusing on gender differences. Latent growth curve analysis of data from 411 rural youths followed from Grades 9 through 12 (age at Grade 9: M = 14.35, SD = 0.77) indicated a significant increase in adolescents' anticipated ages of entry into work and parenthood as well as gender differences in the trajectory of the expected age of marriage. Gender role attitudes, school performance, romantic relationships, and expected educational and occupational attainment were associated with the anticipated timing of role transitions, with significant variations by gender. Adolescents' expected ages of entry into adult family roles predicted their educational attainment and family role transitions in early adulthood. The findings provide insights into the process through which adolescent boys and girls construct their expectations regarding the transition to adulthood and, in turn, their future life course. PMID:22448985

  10. [Current model of breakfast for different age groups: children, a adolescents and adults].

    PubMed

    Núñez, C; Cuadrado, C; Carbajal, A; Moreiras, O

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to assess the current breakfast model in different age groups: children between the ages of 6 and 12 years (n = 54); adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years (n = 174); and adults, older than 18 years of age (n = 252). For this a questionnaire has been designed that follows the standards of that used for a similar study by our team in 1984 on a sample of 1350 individuals. The modified and amplified questionnaire included open and closed questions about: the omission of breakfast and its causes, foods that are a part of breakfast, the most frequent types and the variations, the role of the second breakfast, the number of fasting hours since dinner, the time spent of breakfast, and the subjective opinion regarding the importance or not of having breakfast. 98.95% answer yes to the question do you have breakfast, but only 9% eats a nutritionally correct breakfast, one defined as that breakfast that supplies 20% of the total energy and includes foods from at least four different groups. All the children included some form of milk product in their breakfast. The adolescents consumed the lowest proportion of cereals (19.4%) and the highest proportion of pastries (24.2%). The percentage of adults who drink coffee with milk (57%) and sugar (37.7%) is significantly higher than that it the other two groups. Bread (37.7%), pastries (28.3%) and cookies (26.1%) are the solid foods eaten most by the adults. The children spend the longest time on breakfast. 35.9% of the sample varies their breakfast, 43.1% never does, and 21% does so sometimes. The average time elapsed between dinner and breakfast is 10.5 +/- 1.2 hours. It is advisable to have a more nutritionally balanced breakfast, including different foods from at least four groups, and including a greater variety in the menus. PMID:9780752

  11. Adolescent Girls’ ADHD Symptoms and Young Adult Driving: The Role of Perceived Deviant Peer Affiliation

    PubMed Central

    Cardoos, Stephanie L.; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. Method The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with or without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood (Wave 1; 6–12 years) followed through adolescence (Wave 2; 11–18 years) and into young adulthood (Wave 3; 17–24 years). A subsample of 103 girls with a driving license by Wave 3 and with full data for all study variables was utilized in this investigation. In adolescence, mothers and teachers reported on ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), and participants reported on perceived deviant peer affiliation. In young adulthood, participants reported on driving behavior and outcomes, including number of accidents, number of moving vehicle citations, and ever having driven illegally. Covariates included age and adolescent conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder. Results Inattention directly predicted citations. Perceived deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between inattention and (a) accidents and (b) citations. Additionally, perceived deviant peer affiliation moderated the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and accidents, with hyperactivity/impulsivity predicting accidents only for those with low perceived deviant peer affiliation. Conclusions Perceived deviant peer affiliation appears to play an important role in the association between ADHD symptoms and driving outcomes. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that both ADHD symptoms and peer processes should be targeted in interventions that aim to prevent negative driving outcomes in young women with and without ADHD. PMID:23330831

  12. Role for protein geranylgeranylation in adult T-cell leukemia cell survival

    SciTech Connect

    Nonaka, Mizuho; Uota, Shin; Saitoh, Yasunori; Takahashi, Mayumi; Sugimoto, Haruyo; Amet, Tohti; Arai, Ayako; Miura, Osamu; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamaoka, Shoji

    2009-01-15

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease that develops in human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected individuals. Despite the accumulating knowledge of the molecular biology of HTLV-I-infected cells, effective therapeutic strategies remain to be established. Recent reports showed that the hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitor statins have anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on certain tumor cells through inhibition of protein prenylation. Here, we report that statins hinder the survival of ATL cells and induce apoptotic cell death. Inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation is responsible for these effects, since simultaneous treatment with isoprenoid precursors, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate or farnesyl pyrophosphate, but not a cholesterol precursor squalene, restored the viability of ATL cells. Simvastatin inhibited geranylgeranylation of small GTPases Rab5B and Rac1 in ATL cells, and a geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor GGTI-298 reduced ATL cell viability more efficiently than a farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277. These results not only unveil an important role for protein geranylgeranylation in ATL cell survival, but also implicate therapeutic potentials of statins in the treatment of ATL.

  13. Divergent roles of autistic and alexithymic traits in utilitarian moral judgments in adults with autism.

    PubMed

    Patil, Indrajeet; Melsbach, Jens; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Silani, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated hypothetical moral choices in adults with high-functioning autism and the role of empathy and alexithymia in such choices. We used a highly emotionally salient moral dilemma task to investigate autistics' hypothetical moral evaluations about personally carrying out harmful utilitarian behaviours aimed at maximizing welfare. Results showed that they exhibited a normal pattern of moral judgments despite the deficits in social cognition and emotional processing. Further analyses revealed that this was due to mutually conflicting biases associated with autistic and alexithymic traits after accounting for shared variance: (a) autistic traits were associated with reduced utilitarian bias due to elevated personal distress of demanding social situations, while (b) alexithymic traits were associated with increased utilitarian bias on account of reduced empathic concern for the victim. Additionally, autistics relied on their non-verbal reasoning skills to rigidly abide by harm-norms. Thus, utilitarian moral judgments in autism were spared due to opposite influences of autistic and alexithymic traits and compensatory intellectual strategies. These findings demonstrate the importance of empathy and alexithymia in autistic moral cognition and have methodological implications for studying moral judgments in several other clinical populations. PMID:27020307

  14. Young Australian adults' beliefs about alcohol's role in sexual aggression and victimisation.

    PubMed

    Starfelt, Louise C; Young, Ross McD; Palk, Gavan R M; White, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    Beliefs and misconceptions about sex, gender, and rape have been explored extensively to explain attributions concerning alcohol-involved sexual violence. However, less is known about the specific beliefs that people hold about how alcohol facilitates sexual aggression and victimisation. The present study aimed to identify these alcohol-related beliefs among young Australian adults. Six men and nine women (N = 15; 18-24 years) in focus groups (n = 13) and interviews (n = 2) were asked to discuss the role of alcohol in a hypothetical alcohol-involved rape. Using a consensual qualitative research methodology, the effects of alcohol that were seen to introduce, progress, and intensify risks for rape were: increased confidence; character transformation; impaired cognition; behavioural disinhibition; altered sexual negotiation; enhanced self-centredness; impaired awareness of wrongdoing; increased/decreased sexual assertiveness; and compromised self-protection. Some of the beliefs identified in this study are not currently captured in alcohol expectancy measures which assess people's beliefs about alcohol's effects on cognition, emotion, and behaviour. This study's findings offer a conceptual basis for the development of a new alcohol expectancy measure that can be used in future rape-perception research. PMID:25187278

  15. Divergent roles of autistic and alexithymic traits in utilitarian moral judgments in adults with autism

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Indrajeet; Melsbach, Jens; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Silani, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated hypothetical moral choices in adults with high-functioning autism and the role of empathy and alexithymia in such choices. We used a highly emotionally salient moral dilemma task to investigate autistics’ hypothetical moral evaluations about personally carrying out harmful utilitarian behaviours aimed at maximizing welfare. Results showed that they exhibited a normal pattern of moral judgments despite the deficits in social cognition and emotional processing. Further analyses revealed that this was due to mutually conflicting biases associated with autistic and alexithymic traits after accounting for shared variance: (a) autistic traits were associated with reduced utilitarian bias due to elevated personal distress of demanding social situations, while (b) alexithymic traits were associated with increased utilitarian bias on account of reduced empathic concern for the victim. Additionally, autistics relied on their non-verbal reasoning skills to rigidly abide by harm-norms. Thus, utilitarian moral judgments in autism were spared due to opposite influences of autistic and alexithymic traits and compensatory intellectual strategies. These findings demonstrate the importance of empathy and alexithymia in autistic moral cognition and have methodological implications for studying moral judgments in several other clinical populations. PMID:27020307

  16. The Regenerative Role of the Fetal and Adult Stem Cell Secretome

    PubMed Central

    Bollini, Sveva; Gentili, Chiara; Tasso, Roberta; Cancedda, Ranieri

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, the stem cell regenerative paradigm has been based on the assumption that progenitor cells play a critical role in tissue repair by means of their plasticity and differentiation potential. However, recent works suggest that the mechanism underlying the benefits of stem cell transplantation might relate to a paracrine modulatory effect rather than the replacement of affected cells at the site of injury. Therefore, mounting evidence that stem cells may act as a reservoir of trophic signals released to modulate the surrounding tissue has led to a paradigm shift in regenerative medicine. Attention has been shifted from analysis of the stem cell genome to understanding the stem cell “secretome”, which is represented by the growth factors, cytokines and chemokines produced through paracrine secretion. Insights into paracrine-mediated repair support a new approach in regenerative medicine and the isolation and administration of specific stem cell-derived paracrine factors may represent an extremely promising strategy, introducing paracrine-based therapy as a novel and feasible clinical application. In this review, we will discuss the regenerative potential of fetal and adult stem cells, with particular attention to their secretome. PMID:26237150

  17. Inactivation of Drosophila Huntingtin affects long-term adult functioning and the pathogenesis of a Huntington’s disease model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Feany, Mel B.; Saraswati, Sudipta; Littleton, J. Troy; Perrimon, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY A polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene causes neurodegeneration in Huntington’s disease (HD), but the in vivo function of the native protein (Htt) is largely unknown. Numerous biochemical and in vitro studies have suggested a role for Htt in neuronal development, synaptic function and axonal trafficking. To test these models, we generated a null mutant in the putative Drosophila HTT homolog (htt, hereafter referred to asdhtt) and, surprisingly, found that dhtt mutant animals are viable with no obvious developmental defects. Instead, dhtt is required for maintaining the mobility and long-term survival of adult animals, and for modulating axonal terminal complexity in the adult brain. Furthermore, removing endogenous dhtt significantly accelerates the neurodegenerative phenotype associated with a Drosophila model of polyglutamine Htt toxicity (HD-Q93), providing in vivo evidence that disrupting the normal function of Htt might contribute to HD pathogenesis. PMID:19380309

  18. The role of gut microbes in satisfying the nutritional demands of adult and juvenile wild, black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra).

    PubMed

    Amato, Katherine R; Leigh, Steven R; Kent, Angela; Mackie, Roderick I; Yeoman, Carl J; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Wilson, Brenda A; Nelson, Karen E; White, Bryan A; Garber, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    In all mammals, growth, development, pregnancy, and lactation increase nutritional demands. Although primate field studies tend to focus on shifts in activity and diet as mechanisms to compensate for these demands, differences in digestive efficiency also are likely to be important. Because the gut microbiota can impact host digestive efficiency, we examined differences in activity budget, diet, and the gut microbial community among adult male (N = 4), adult female (N = 4), and juvenile (N = 5) wild black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) across a ten-month period in Palenque National Park, Mexico to determine how adult females and juveniles compensate for increased nutritional demands. Results indicate that adult females and juveniles consumed more protein and energy than adult males. Adult males, adult females, and juveniles also possessed distinct gut microbial communities, unrelated to diet. Juveniles exhibited a gut microbiota characterized by bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes, such as Roseburia and Ruminococcus, and demonstrated high fecal volatile fatty acid content, suggesting increased microbial contributions to host energy balances. Adult females possessed a higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, also suggesting increased energy production, and their gut microbiota was characterized by Lactococcus, which has been associated with folate biosynthesis. On the basis of these patterns, it appears that the gut microbiota differentially contributes to howler monkey nutrition during reproduction and growth. Determining the nutritional and energetic importance of shifts in activity, diet, and the gut microbiota in other nonhuman primate taxa, as well as humans, will transform our understanding of these life history processes and the role of host-microbe relationships in primate evolution. PMID:25252073

  19. The Meaning of Role Modelling in Moral and Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderse, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Character education considers teachers to be role models, but it is unclear what this means in practice. Do teachers model admirable character traits? And do they do so effectively? In this article the relevant pedagogical and psychological literature is reviewed in order to shed light on these questions. First, the use of role modelling as a…

  20. Role-Model Identification and School Achievement: A Developmental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Peter

    Research on role-model identification has demonstrated the powerful effect that models have on individuals' behavior. To extend prior research on this phenomenon, the role-model identifications of first-, third-, fifth-, and ninth-grade students were outlined and examined. The results did not support the hypothesis that adolescents identify with…

  1. Psychological Basis of the Relationship Between the Rorschach Texture Response and Adult Attachment: The Mediational Role of the Accessibility of Tactile Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Kazunori; Ogawa, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    This study clarifies the psychological basis for the linkage between adult attachment and the texture response on the Rorschach by examining the mediational role of the accessibility of tactile knowledge. Japanese undergraduate students (n = 35) completed the Rorschach Inkblot Method, the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale for General Objects (Nakao & Kato, 2004) and a lexical decision task designed to measure the accessibility of tactile knowledge. A mediation analysis revealed that the accessibility of tactile knowledge partially mediates the association between attachment anxiety and the texture response. These results suggest that our hypothetical model focusing on the response process provides a possible explanation of the relationship between the texture response and adult attachment. PMID:26569020

  2. Health Educators: Role Modeling and Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Andrew J. J.; Galli, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Examined cigarette smoking among health educators, their views about the effects of this behavior upon their audiences and beliefs about smoking in light of their professional role. Smokers and nonsmokers were significantly less included than former smokers to feel the role of health education is to convince people not to smoke. (Author/ABL)

  3. The Application of a Generativity Model for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlman, Katie; Ligon, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Generativity is a concept first introduced by Erik Erikson as a part of his psychosocial theory which outlines eight stages of development in the human life. Generativity versus stagnation is the main developmental concern of middle adulthood; however, generativity is also recognized as an important theme in the lives of older adults. Building on…

  4. Andragogy Content Knowledge Technology: A Training Model for Teaching Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Professional Development (PD) is an important tool in the field of education. Successful PD programs are those that include adult learning methods and opportunities for experiential learning and discussion. The university where this action research was conducted does not offer formal training to adjunct instructors. The adjunct instructors are…

  5. EVALUATING RISK IN OLDER ADULTS USING PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid growth in the number of older Americans has many implications for public health, including the need to better understand the risks posed by environmental exposures to older adults. An important element for evaluating risk is the understanding of the doses of environment...

  6. Situation Model Updating in Young and Older Adults: Global versus Incremental Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Readers construct mental models of situations described by text. Activity in narrative text is dynamic, so readers must frequently update their situation models when dimensions of the situation change. Updating can be incremental, such that a change leads to updating just the dimension that changed, or global, such that the entire model is updated. Here, we asked whether older and young adults make differential use of incremental and global updating. Participants read narratives containing changes in characters and spatial location and responded to recognition probes throughout the texts. Responses were slower when probes followed a change, suggesting that situation models were updated at changes. When either dimension changed, responses to probes for both dimensions were slowed; this provides evidence for global updating. Moreover, older adults showed stronger evidence of global updating than did young adults. One possibility is that older adults perform more global updating to offset reduced ability to manipulate information in working memory. PMID:25938248

  7. Multidimensional model of apathy in older adults using partial least squares-path modeling.

    PubMed

    Raffard, Stéphane; Bortolon, Catherine; Burca, Marianna; Gely-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Apathy defined as a mental state characterized by a lack of goal-directed behavior is prevalent and associated with poor functioning in older adults. The main objective of this study was to identify factors contributing to the distinct dimensions of apathy (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral) in older adults without dementia. One hundred and fifty participants (mean age, 80.42) completed self-rated questionnaires assessing apathy, emotional distress, anticipatory pleasure, motivational systems, physical functioning, quality of life, and cognitive functioning. Data were analyzed using partial least squares variance-based structural equation modeling in order to examine factors contributing to the three different dimensions of apathy in our sample. Overall, the different facets of apathy were associated with cognitive functioning, anticipatory pleasure, sensitivity to reward, and physical functioning, but the contribution of these different factors to the three dimensions of apathy differed significantly. More specifically, the impact of anticipatory pleasure and physical functioning was stronger for the cognitive than for emotional apathy. Conversely, the impact of sensibility to reward, although small, was slightly stronger on emotional apathy. Regarding behavioral apathy, again we found similar latent variables except for the cognitive functioning whose impact was not statistically significant. Our results highlight the need to take into account various mechanisms involved in the different facets of apathy in older adults without dementia, including not only cognitive factors but also motivational variables and aspects related to physical disability. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:27153818

  8. Relationship between pain and chronic illness among seriously ill older adults: expanding role for palliative social work.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Mary Beth; Viola, Deborah; Shi, Qiuhu

    2014-01-01

    Confronting the issue of pain among chronically ill older adults merits serious attention in light of mounting evidence that pain in this population is often undertreated or not treated at all (Institute of Medicine, 2011 ). The relationship between pain and chronic illness among adults age 50 and over was examined in this study through the use of longitudinal data from the University of Michigan Health and Retirement Study, sponsored by the National Institute on Aging and the Social Security Administration. Findings suggested positive associations between pain and chronic disease, pain and multimorbidity, as well as an inverse association between pain and education. Policy implications for workforce development and public health are many, and amplification of palliative social work roles to relieve pain and suffering among seriously ill older adults at all stages of the chronic illness trajectory is needed. PMID:24628140

  9. Early community contexts, race/ethnicity and young adult CVD risk factors: the protective role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lott, Ryan E

    2012-08-01

    Using a sample of 13,500 adolescents (53% female and 47% male) who participated in all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study used multilevel regression to examine the influence of early structural community adversity (as measured by rates of community poverty, single-parent headed families, and two indicators of employment) and racial/ethnic status on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors of young adults (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure). The moderating role of youth's socioeconomic attainment was also examined. Results indicate that early community adversity and African American racial status place young adults at risk for CVD. Youth's socioeconomic attainment does not erase the persistent influences of early community adversity and African American racial status on CVD risk. However, the level of education attained can protect African American young adults and those experiencing early community adversity from CVD risk factors. PMID:22101680

  10. Volume-averaged SAR in adult and child head models when using mobile phones: a computational study with detailed CAD-based models of commercial mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Keshvari, Jafar; Heikkilä, Teemu

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies comparing SAR difference in the head of children and adults used highly simplified generic models or half-wave dipole antennas. The objective of this study was to investigate the SAR difference in the head of children and adults using realistic EMF sources based on CAD models of commercial mobile phones. Four MRI-based head phantoms were used in the study. CAD models of Nokia 8310 and 6630 mobile phones were used as exposure sources. Commercially available FDTD software was used for the SAR calculations. SAR values were simulated at frequencies 900 MHz and 1747 MHz for Nokia 8310, and 900 MHz, 1747 MHz and 1950 MHz for Nokia 6630. The main finding of this study was that the SAR distribution/variation in the head models highly depends on the structure of the antenna and phone model, which suggests that the type of the exposure source is the main parameter in EMF exposure studies to be focused on. Although the previous findings regarding significant role of the anatomy of the head, phone position, frequency, local tissue inhomogeneity and tissue composition specifically in the exposed area on SAR difference were confirmed, the SAR values and SAR distributions caused by generic source models cannot be extrapolated to the real device exposures. The general conclusion is that from a volume averaged SAR point of view, no systematic differences between child and adult heads were found. PMID:22005524

  11. Intergenerational transmission of role reversal between parent and child: dyadic and family systems internal working models.

    PubMed

    Macfie, Jenny; McElwain, Nancy L; Houts, Renate M; Cox, Martha J

    2005-03-01

    The current study examined the intergenerational transmission of role reversal within a developmental psychopathology framework. Role reversal is a relationship disturbance in which a parent looks to a child to meet the parent's need for comfort, parenting, intimacy, or play, and the child attempts to meet these needs. In a normative sample, n=138, fathers and mothers reported on childhood role reversal with their mothers as part of the Adult Attachment Interview, AAI (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1984). Mother-child role reversal was then assessed in an observational paradigm when children were 2 years of age. Based on theories of dyadic and family systems internal working models we hypothesized gender specific replications of role reversal in the next generation. Indeed, mothers who reported role reversal with their mothers during the AAI tended to engage in higher levels of role reversal with their toddler-aged daughters. Furthermore, when fathers reported role reversal with their mothers during the AAI, mothers tended to engage in higher levels of role reversal with their toddler-aged sons. The importance of the inclusion of fathers in family research, the relationship between role reversal and attachment, and implications for preventive interventions are discussed. PMID:15984085

  12. The Role of Modality and Register in Imitation by Adults and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Nancy Ann

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that both adults and children will imitate acoustic properties of the speech around them. In fact, studies on adults have shown that this convergence occurs even when the subject simply sees, but does not hear, the interlocutor. Not only does visual speech elicit imitation on its own, but also imitation is greater for…

  13. Distinguishing Features of Emerging Adulthood: The Role of Self-Classification as an Adult

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara

    2005-01-01

    Research reveals that most 18- to 25-year-old individuals do not consider themselves to be adults. This time period between adolescence and adulthood has been newly defined as emerging adulthood. The purpose of this study was to (a) attempt to identify perceived adults and (b) explore whether differences in adulthood criteria, achievement of those…

  14. History of Child Abuse and Severity of Adult Depression: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Schema

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cukor, Daniel; McGinn, Lata K.

    2006-01-01

    The link between childhood abuse, adult depression, and anxiety has been well studied, but few studies have empirically explored the mechanism of that link. Using a clinical sample of women, this study examined the relationship between retrospectively measured childhood abuse and neglect and current adult symptoms of anxiety and depression, via…

  15. Divorce and Adult Psychological Well-Being: Clarifying the Role of Gender and Child Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kristi; Dunne-Bryant, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that marital dissolution has negative consequences for adult well-being. Because most research focuses on the average consequences of divorce, we know very little about factors that moderate this association. The present study tests the hypothesis that the effects of marital dissolution on adult well-being are…

  16. Family Literacy in Adult Education: The Federal and State Support Role. A Special Perspectives Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyton, Tony

    2007-01-01

    Family literacy programs are a unique component of the adult education system. They work by bringing parents with low literacy skills together with their children to learn and receive instruction, reaching a cohort of people who might not be served by other adult education programs. As parents see their children's learning increase, they are…

  17. Tree Changes or Wholesale Changes: The Role of Adult Education in Transitions in Regional Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Robert; Delves, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Regional adult education and training providers have been required in recent decades to adapt to funding structures rather than engage with their local communities. This has meant providing education programs that are funded based on national or State and Territory based policy frameworks, often linked to human capital development. Adult education…

  18. The Role of Spirituality in Irish Adult Education in Culturally Responsive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Spirituality, religion, and culture are complicated subjects. Indeed, they are fundamental socialising forces that affect how adult learners make meaning in the world. While there has been considerable discussion of the spiritual and religious dimensions of adult learning in North America and to some extent in England, there has been little direct…

  19. From Children's Hands to Adults' Ears: Gesture's Role in the Learning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Singer, Melissa A.

    2003-01-01

    Asked eight adults to instruct third- and fourth-graders individually in a math problem. Found that the adults offered more variable instruction to children who produced gesture-speech mismatches than to children with no mismatches--more types of instructional strategies and more instructions that contained two different strategies, one in speech…

  20. Race Disparities in Health among Older Adults: Examining the Role of Productive Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinterlong, James E.

    2006-01-01

    Productive engagement is a potential pathway to health for older adults, but this relationship varies by race. This study examines the relationship of productive engagement to the health and observed health disparities of older African American and white adults. Productive activities include formal and irregular paid employment, caregiving,…

  1. The Role of Adolescent Physical Abuse in Adult Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…

  2. Simulation Modelling: Educational Development Roles for Learning Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, David

    2002-01-01

    Discusses computer assisted learning and simulation modeling from a United Kingdom perspective. Highlights include modeling with the DMS (Dynamic Modelling System); modeling with STELLA; learning and teaching simulation modeling; educational development roles for learning technologists; and a list of relevant Web sites. (Contains 52 references.)…

  3. The Relationship Between the Accumulated Number of Role Transitions and Hard Drug Use Among Hispanic Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) who experience multiple role transitions in a short period of time may engage in hard drug use as a maladaptive coping strategy to avoid negative emotions from stress. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, they may experience additional role transitions due to their group oriented cultural paradigm. This study examined whether those who experience many role transitions are at greater risk for hard drug use compared to those who experience few transitions among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants completed surveys indicating their hard drug use in emerging adulthood, role transitions in the past year of emerging adulthood, age, gender, and hard drug use in high school. Simulation analyses indicated that an increase in the number of role transitions, from 0 to 13, was associated with a 14% (95% CI, 4 to 29) higher probability of hard drug use. Specific role transitions were found to be associated with hard drug use, such as starting to date or experiencing a breakup. Intervention/prevention programs may benefit from acknowledging individual reactions to transitions in emerging adulthood, as these processes may be catalysts for personal growth where identities are consolidated, and decisions regarding hard drug use are formed. PMID:25715073

  4. Using Bibliotherapy to Help Children Adjust to Changing Role Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardeck, John T.; Pardeck, Jean A.

    One technique for helping children adjust to changing role models is bibliotherapy--the use of children's books to facilitate identification with and exploration of sex role behavior. Confronted with change in various social systems, particularly the family, children are faced with conflicts concerning their sex role development. The process…

  5. The role of depression chronicity and recurrence on neurocognitive dysfunctions in HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Cysique, Lucette A; Dermody, Nadene; Carr, Andrew; Brew, Bruce J; Teesson, Maree

    2016-02-01

    Research assessing whether major depressive disorders (MDD) impacts neurocognitive functions in HIV+ persons has yielded inconsistent results. However, none have considered the role of MDD remission, chronicity, and stability on treatment. Ninety-five HIV+ adults clinically stable on combined antiretroviral treatment completed a psychiatric interview, a depression scale, a neuropsychological, daily living, and cognitive complaints assessments at baseline and 18 months. Participants were screened for current (within 12 months of study entry) alcohol and/or substance use disorder. History of alcohol and/or substance abuse disorder prior to the 12 months entry screen and MDD treatments were recorded. Participants were grouped into two psychiatric nomenclatures: (1) lifetime: no MD episode (MDE), single MDE life-event treated and fully remitted, chronic MDD treated and stable, chronic MDD treated and unstable, and baseline untreated MDE; (2) recent: last 2 years MDE (yes or no). We found that lifetime and recent psychiatric history were more strongly associated with decreased in independence in daily living and cognitive complaints than with baseline neuropsychological performance. However, lack of full remission, instability on treatment in chronic MDD, and severity of symptoms in current MDE were factors in whether MDD impacted baseline neuropsychological performance. Depressive symptoms improved at follow-up in those with baseline moderate-severe symptoms, and MDD was not associated with neurocognitive change at 18 months. A history of alcohol and/or substance abuse disorder was significantly more frequent in those with treated and unstable chronic MDD but it was not associated with neuropsychological performance. MDD recurrence, chronicity profiles, and associated comorbidities are keys factors to understand any potential impact on neurocognitive abilities in HIV infection. More comprehensive consideration of these complex effects could serve at constructively

  6. What is the best model for girls and boys faced with a standardized mathematics evaluation situation: a hardworking role model or a gifted role model?

    PubMed

    Bagès, Céline; Martinot, Delphine

    2011-09-01

    Same-gender role models are likely to improve girls' math performance. This field experiment examined whether the explanation given for a role model's success also influence children's math performance. Fifth graders were presented with a female or a male role model before a difficult math test and were informed about the cause of his/her math success (effort vs. ability vs. no explanation). The results showed that the gender of a hardworking role model did not influence math performance. In contrast, when the role model's success was not explained or explained by abilities, children performed better with the female role model than with the male role model. The hardworking role model and the female role model allowed reducing stereotype threat among girls. PMID:21453310

  7. Adult and Higher Education in the Contemporary World: Its Role in Cultural Literacy. Conference Proceedings of the Adult Higher Education Alliance Annual Conference (35th, Orlando, Florida, March 10-11, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elufiede, Oluwakemi, Ed.; Flynn, Bonnie, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This document is Conference Proceedings Of The Adult Higher Education Alliance, 35th Annual Conference. The theme of the conference was Adult And Higher Education In The Contemporary World: Its Role In Cultural Literacy. Conference was March 10-11, 2015. The event was hosted by and held at the College Of Education And Human Performance, Morgridge…

  8. Role of Physical Therapists in Reducing Hospital Readmissions: Optimizing Outcomes for Older Adults During Care Transitions From Hospital to Community.

    PubMed

    Falvey, Jason R; Burke, Robert E; Malone, Daniel; Ridgeway, Kyle J; McManus, Beth M; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E

    2016-08-01

    Hospital readmissions in older adult populations are an emerging quality indicator for acute care hospitals. Recent evidence has linked functional decline during and after hospitalization with an elevated risk of hospital readmission. However, models of care that have been developed to reduce hospital readmission rates do not adequately address functional deficits. Physical therapists, as experts in optimizing physical function, have a strong opportunity to contribute meaningfully to care transition models and demonstrate the value of physical therapy interventions in reducing readmissions. Thus, the purposes of this perspective article are: (1) to describe the need for physical therapist input during care transitions for older adults and (2) to outline strategies for expanding physical therapy participation in care transitions for older adults, with an overall goal of reducing avoidable 30-day hospital readmissions. PMID:26939601

  9. The Adult Life Spiral: A Critique of the Life Cycle Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Peter; Etzkowitz, Henry

    We can identify and describe alternate paths of adulthood utilizing data from interviews with single adults. Our review of major models used in adulthood studies suggests that a developmental model, such as Daniel Levinson's life cycle model, is too tied to the notion of the imminent unfolding of the life course. The age-stratification theory…

  10. Educational Strategies for Learning to Learn from Role Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Martha

    The way that socialization, via role modeling, can be enhanced in professional education is discussed, and 10 class assignments are used to illustrate teaching methods for enhancing role modeling, based on a course on women in administration at The University of Texas at Austin. Among the objectives of the course assignments are the following: to…

  11. Developing a Role-Model Index. A Guide Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Eva; Smith, Armenia

    This handbook consists of guidelines and sample materials for use by individuals who want to learn how to identify nontraditional role models, implement a linkage conference for vocational educators and nontraditional workers, and help nontraditional workers serve as role models for students in vocational programs. The first part of the guide,…

  12. Emulation and the Use of Role Models in Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2006-01-01

    This article is about (1) the ancient (Aristotelian) emotional virtue of emulation, (2) some current character-education inspired accounts of the use of role models in moral education and, most importantly, (3) the potential relevance of (1) for (2). The author argues that the strategy of role-modelling, as explicated by the character-education…

  13. Role Models, Sports and Youth. NSSC Resource Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

    Research and numerous model programs suggest that sport plays an important social role. Particularly among youth, sports and professional athlete role models help deter juvenile delinquency. An overview is presented of current efforts to involve young people, particularly inner-city black youths, in athletic activities. A majority of sociological…

  14. Characteristics Students View as Important in Nurse Faculty Role Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Geneva

    Nursing students' views concerning the behavior of faculty role models were studied. The sample consisted of 75 senior-level baccalaureate nursing students, 69 females and 6 males. The theoretical framework for the research was role theory and Bandura's social learning and modeling theory. The Clinical Instructor Characteristics Ranking Scale…

  15. The Influence of Role Models on Women's Career Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Julie L.; DeSantis, Angela M.

    2006-01-01

    This study of 368 female undergraduates examined self-efficacy and role model influence as predictors of career choice across J. L. Holland's (1997) 6 RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) types. Findings showed that levels of self-efficacy and role model influence differed across Holland types. Multiple…

  16. Evaluating the relationship between muscle and bone modeling response in older adults.

    PubMed

    Reider, Lisa; Beck, Thomas; Alley, Dawn; Miller, Ram; Shardell, Michelle; Schumacher, John; Magaziner, Jay; Cawthon, Peggy M; Barbour, Kamil E; Cauley, Jane A; Harris, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    Bone modeling, the process that continually adjusts bone strength in response to prevalent muscle-loading forces throughout an individual's lifespan, may play an important role in bone fragility with age. Femoral stress, an index of bone modeling response, can be estimated using measurements of DXA derived bone geometry and loading information incorporated into an engineering model. Assuming that individuals have adapted to habitual muscle loading forces, greater stresses indicate a diminished response and a weaker bone. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the associations of lean mass and muscle strength with the femoral stress measure generated from the engineering model and to examine the extent to which lean mass and muscle strength account for variation in femoral stress among 2539 healthy older adults participating in the Health ABC study using linear regression. Mean femoral stress was higher in women (9.51, SD=1.85Mpa) than in men (8.02, SD=1.43Mpa). Percent lean mass explained more of the variation in femoral stress than did knee strength adjusted for body size (R(2)=0.187 vs. 0.055 in men; R(2)=0.237 vs. 0.095 in women). In models adjusted for potential confounders, for every percent increase in lean mass, mean femoral stress was 0.121Mpa lower (95% CI: -0.138, -0.104; p<0.001) in men and 0.139Mpa lower (95% CI: -0.158, -0.121; p<0.001) in women. The inverse association of femoral stress with lean mass and with knee strength did not differ by category of BMI. Results from this study provide insight into bone modeling differences as measured by femoral stress among older men and women and indicate that lean mass may capture elements of bone's response to load. PMID:27352990

  17. What adult worker model? A critical look at recent social policy reform in Europe from a gender and family perspective.

    PubMed

    Daly, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Analyses regularly feature claims that European welfare states are in the process of creating an adult worker model. The theoretical and empirical basis of this argument is examined here by looking first at the conceptual foundations of the adult worker model formulation and then at the extent to which social policy reform in western Europe fits with the argument. It is suggested that the adult worker formulation is under-specified. A framework incorporating four dimensions—the treatment of individuals vis-à-vis their family role and status for the purposes of social rights, the treatment of care, the treatment of the family as a social institution, and the extent to which gender inequality is problematized—is developed and then applied. The empirical analysis reveals a strong move towards individualization as social policy promotes and valorizes individual agency and self-sufficiency and shifts some childcare from the family. Yet evidence is also found of continued (albeit changed) familism. Rather than an unequivocal move to an individualized worker model then, a dual earner, gender-specialized, family arrangement is being promoted. The latter is the middle way between the old dependencies and the new “independence.” This makes for complexity and even ambiguity in policy, a manifestation of which is that reform within countries involves concurrent moves in several directions. PMID:21692242

  18. The effect of childhood trauma on spatial cognition in adults: a possible role of sex.

    PubMed

    Syal, Supriya; Ipser, Jonathan; Phillips, Nicole; Thomas, Kevin G F; van der Honk, Jack; Stein, Dan J

    2014-06-01

    Although animal evidence indicates that early life trauma results in pervasive hippocampal deficits underlying spatial and cognitive impairment, visuo-spatial data from adult humans with early childhood adversity are lacking. We administered 4 tests of visuo-spatial ability from the Cambridge Neuorpsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to adults with a history of childhood trauma (measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and a matched sample of healthy controls (trauma/control = 27/28). We observed a significant effect of trauma history on spatial/pattern learning. These effects could not be accounted for by adverse adult experiences, and were sex-specific, with prior adversity improving performance in men but worsening performance in women, relative to controls. Limitations include the small sample size and reliance of our study design on a retrospective, self report measure. Our results suggest that early adversity can lead to specific and pervasive deficits in adult cognitive function. PMID:24553877

  19. [The influence of pathogen threat on ageism in Japan: The role of living with older adults].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kunio; Tado'oka, Yoshika

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has suggested that Western European individuals exhibit negative attitudes toward older adults under pathogen threat. The present study investigated whether Japanese individuals exhibited ageism when pathogen threat was salient. Additionally, the study determined whether pathogen threat would have less of an impact on ageism among individuals with experience living with older adults. Study 1 showed that when pathogen threat was chronically and contextually salient, Japanese university students who had no experience living with older adults exhibited ageism, while those with such experience did not. Study 2 showed similar findings among Japanese nursing students. We argue that familiarity with older adults is essential for diminishing ageism in the event of a pathogen threat. PMID:26402955

  20. Predictive modelling of adult emergence in a polyphagous Eucolaspis (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) leaf beetle.

    PubMed

    Doddala, P R C; Trewick, S A; Rogers, D J; Minor, M A

    2013-04-01

    Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) is a pest that inflicts huge economic loss in many organic apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards in New Zealand. The timing of control methods for this pest has been shown to be crucial for success. To aid in planning control programs, we studied threshold temperature and degree-days required for the development of Eucolaspis sp. "Hawke's Bay" pupae and modeled adult emergence in the field. Pupal development was observed at three constant temperatures. Pupae required 237.0 +/- 21.67 degree-days above lower threshold temperature of 4.7 degrees C +/- 0.89 degrees C to develop into adults. The emergence of adults was modeled with these thermal values and the model was tested for accuracy with field data. The model performed well with a precision of +/- 4 d. The proposed phenology model has wide applicability in monitoring and planning pest control measures. PMID:23786080

  1. A role for the prefrontal cortex in heroin-seeking after forced abstinence by adult male rats but not adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doherty, James M; Cooke, Bradley M; Frantz, Kyle J

    2013-02-01

    Adolescent drug abuse is hypothesized to increase the risk of drug addiction. Yet male rats that self-administer heroin as adolescents show attenuated drug-seeking after abstinence, compared with adults. Here we explore a role for neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in age-dependent heroin-seeking. Adolescent (35-day-old at start; adolescent-onset) and adult (86-day-old at start) male rats acquired lever-pressing maintained by heroin using a fixed ratio one reinforcement schedule (0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg per infusion). Following 12 days of forced abstinence, rats were tested for heroin-seeking over 1 h by measuring the number of lever presses on the active lever. Unbiased stereology was then used to estimate the number of Fos-ir(+) and Fos-ir(-) neurons in prelimbic and infralimbic mPFC. As before, adolescents and adults self-administered similar amounts of heroin, but subsequent heroin-seeking was attenuated in the younger rats. Similarly, the adolescent-onset group failed to show significant neural activation in the prelimbic or infralimbic mPFC during the heroin-seeking test, whereas the adult-onset heroin self-administration group showed two to six times more Fos-ir(+) neurons than their saline counterparts in both mPFC subregions. Finally, the overall number of neurons in the infralimbic cortex was greater in rats from the adolescent-onset groups than adults. The mPFC may thus have a key role in some age-dependent effects of heroin self-administration. PMID:23072838

  2. A Role For The Prefrontal Cortex In Heroin-Seeking After Forced Abstinence By Adult Male Rats But Not Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, James M; Cooke, Bradley M; Frantz, Kyle J

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent drug abuse is hypothesized to increase the risk of drug addiction. Yet male rats that self-administer heroin as adolescents show attenuated drug-seeking after abstinence, compared with adults. Here we explore a role for neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in age-dependent heroin-seeking. Adolescent (35-day-old at start; adolescent-onset) and adult (86-day-old at start) male rats acquired lever-pressing maintained by heroin using a fixed ratio one reinforcement schedule (0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg per infusion). Following 12 days of forced abstinence, rats were tested for heroin-seeking over 1 h by measuring the number of lever presses on the active lever. Unbiased stereology was then used to estimate the number of Fos-ir+ and Fos-ir− neurons in prelimbic and infralimbic mPFC. As before, adolescents and adults self-administered similar amounts of heroin, but subsequent heroin-seeking was attenuated in the younger rats. Similarly, the adolescent-onset group failed to show significant neural activation in the prelimbic or infralimbic mPFC during the heroin-seeking test, whereas the adult-onset heroin self-administration group showed two to six times more Fos-ir+ neurons than their saline counterparts in both mPFC subregions. Finally, the overall number of neurons in the infralimbic cortex was greater in rats from the adolescent-onset groups than adults. The mPFC may thus have a key role in some age-dependent effects of heroin self-administration. PMID:23072838

  3. The role of auditory abilities in basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Massimo; Borella, Erika

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess age-related differences between young and older adults in auditory abilities and to investigate the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults. Although there is a certain consensus that the participant’s sensitivity to the absolute intensity of sounds (such as that measured via pure tone audiometry) explains his/her cognitive performance, there is not yet much evidence that the participant’s auditory ability (i.e., the whole supra-threshold processing of sounds) explains his/her cognitive performance. Twenty-eight young adults (age <35), 26 young–old adults (65 í age í 75), and 28 old–old adults (age >75) were presented with a set of tasks estimating several auditory abilities (i.e., frequency discrimination, intensity discrimination, duration discrimination, timbre discrimination, gap detection, amplitude modulation detection, and the absolute threshold for a 1 kHz pure tone) and the participant’s working memory, cognitive inhibition, and processing speed. Results showed an age-related decline in both auditory and cognitive performance. Moreover, regression analyses showed that a subset of the auditory abilities (i.e., the ability to discriminate frequency, duration, timbre, and the ability to detect amplitude modulation) explained a significant part of the variance observed in the processing speed of older adults. Overall, the present results highlight the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition. PMID:24115932

  4. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan.

    PubMed

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called "no man's land" between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients' needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308

  5. Model of Care for Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The Youth Project in Milan

    PubMed Central

    Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called “no man’s land” between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients’ needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308

  6. A Flex-Model for long-term assessment of community-residing older adults following disasters.

    PubMed

    Rosenkoetter, Marlene M; McDonough, JoEllen; McCall, Amber; Smith, Deborah; Looney, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    For the rapidly growing older adult population, disaster consequences are frequently life disruptive and even life threatening. By 2050, it is estimated that the global older adult population will reach 22 percent of the total. With declining health, this population poses a particular risk needing to be addressed in emergency preparedness and disaster recovery. The purpose of this article is to describe a Flex-Model (F-M) for the long-term assessment of older adults following a disaster. An F-M is a series of three-dimensional representations of an archetype with flexible components, both linear and parallel, that can be adapted to situations, time, place, and needs. The model incorporates the Life Patterns Model and provides a template that can be adjusted to meet the needs of a local community, healthcare providers, and emergency management officials, regardless of the country or region, during the months after a disaster. The focus is on changes resulting from the disaster including roles, relationships, support systems, use of time, self-esteem, and life structure. Following a baseline assessment, each of these life patterns is assessed through the model with options for interventions over time. A pilot study was conducted in Georgia to gain information that would be helpful in developing a more specific assessment tool following a severe winter storm. While this is a local study, the findings can nevertheless be used to refine and focus the F-M for future implementation. Results indicated that older adults used high-risk heating and lighting sources and many were totally responsible for their own welfare. Findings have implications for emergency preparedness and long-term recovery. PMID:26537697

  7. On Roles of Models in Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sølvberg, Arne

    The increasing penetration of computers into all aspects of human activity makes it desirable that the interplay among software, data and the domains where computers are applied is made more transparent. An approach to this end is to explicitly relate the modeling concepts of the domains, e.g., natural science, technology and business, to the modeling concepts of software and data. This may make it simpler to build comprehensible integrated models of the interactions between computers and non-computers, e.g., interaction among computers, people, physical processes, biological processes, and administrative processes. This chapter contains an analysis of various facets of the modeling environment for information systems engineering. The lack of satisfactory conceptual modeling tools seems to be central to the unsatisfactory state-of-the-art in establishing information systems. The chapter contains a proposal for defining a concept of information that is relevant to information systems engineering.

  8. Caustic ingestion in adults: The role of endoscopic classification in predicting outcome

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hao-Tsai; Cheng, Chi-Liang; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Tang, Jui-Hsiang; Chu, Yin-Yi; Liu, Nai-Jen; Chen, Pang-Chi

    2008-01-01

    Background The ingestion of caustic substances induces an extensive spectrum of injuries to the aerodigestive tract which include extensive necrosis and perforation of the esophagus and stomach. The gold standard of safely assessing depth, extent of injury, and appropriate therapeutic regimen is esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The objective of this study was to report our clinical experience and to evaluate the role of a 6-point EGD classification system of injury in predicting outcomes in adult patients diagnosed with caustic agent ingestion. Methods The study was a retrospective medical chart review from 273 patients admitted to the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Tao-Yuan, Taiwan between June 1999 and July 2006 for treatment of caustic ingestion. The patients underwent EGD within 24 hours of admission and mucosal damage was graded using Zagar's modified endoscopic classification scheme. After treatment, patients were followed in the outpatient clinic for a minimum of 6 months. Results A total of 273 patients were included for analysis. Grade 3b injury was the most common caustic injury (n = 82, 30.03%), followed by grade 2b injuries (n = 62, 22.71%). Stricture was the most common complication (n = 66, 24.18%), followed by aspiration pneumonia (n = 31, 11.36%), and respiratory failure (n = 21, 7.69%). Compared to grade 3a mucosal injury, grade 3b mucosal injuries were at greater risk of prolonged hospital stay (odds ratio [OR]: 2.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25–4.80), ICU admission (OR: 10.82; 95% CI: 2.05–200.39), and gastrointestinal (OR: 4.15; 95% CI: 1.55–13.29) and systemic complications (OR: 4.07; 95% CI: 1.81–14.07). Conclusion In patients with caustic ingestion, EGD should be performed within 12 to 24 hours and categorized according to a 6-point scale. Patients with grade 3b burns identified on endoscopy have high rates of morbidity. The 6-point scale is useful for predicting immediate and long-term complications, and guiding appropriate

  9. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Perceived Stress, and Well-Being: The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemata.

    PubMed

    Miklósi, Mónika; Máté, Orsolya; Somogyi, Klára; Szabó, Marianna

    2016-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent chronic neuropsychiatric disorders, severely affecting the emotional well-being of children as well as of adults. It has been suggested that individuals who experience symptoms of ADHD develop maladaptive schemata of failure, impaired self-discipline, social isolation, and shame. These schemata may then contribute to impaired emotional well-being by increasing unhelpful responses to stressful life events. However, to date, no empirical research has tested this theoretical proposition. In a sample of 204 nonclinical adults, we conducted a serial multiple mediator analysis, which supported the proposed model. More severe ADHD symptoms were associated with higher levels of perceived stress both directly and indirectly through stronger maladaptive schemata, which, in turn, were related to lower levels of emotional well-being. Results suggest that identifying and modifying maladaptive schemata may be an important addition to psychotherapy for adult ADHD patients. PMID:26825377

  10. Retrograde axonal transport of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the adult nigrostriatal system suggests a trophic role in the adult.

    PubMed Central

    Tomac, A; Widenfalk, J; Lin, L F; Kohno, T; Ebendal, T; Hoffer, B J; Olson, L

    1995-01-01

    The recently cloned, distant member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), has potent trophic actions on fetal mesencephalic dopamine neurons. GDNF also has protective and restorative activity on adult mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and potently protects motoneurons from axotomy-induced cell death. However, evidence for a role for endogenous GDNF as a target-derived trophic factor in adult midbrain dopaminergic circuits requires documentation of specific transport from the sites of synthesis in the target areas to the nerve cell bodies themselves. Here, we demonstrate that GDNF is retrogradely transported by mesencephalic dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway. The pattern of retrograde transport following intrastriatal injections indicates that there may be subpopulations of neurons that are GDNF responsive. Retrograde axonal transport of biologically active 125I-labeled GDNF was inhibited by an excess of unlabeled GDNF but not by an excess of cytochrome c. Specificity was further documented by demonstrating that another TGF-beta family member, TGF-beta 1, did not appear to affect retrograde transport. Retrograde transport was also demonstrated by immunohistochemistry by using intrastriatal injections of unlabeled GDNF. GDNF immunoreactivity was found specifically in dopamine nerve cell bodies of the substantia nigra pars compacta distributed in granules in the soma and proximal dendrites. Our data implicate a specific receptor-mediated uptake mechanism operating in the adult. Taken together, the present findings suggest that GDNF acts endogenously as a target-derived physiological survival/maintenance factor for dopaminergic neurons. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7667281

  11. Postsynaptic TrkB signaling has distinct roles in spine maintenance in adult visual cortex and hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Sridhara; Saiepour, M. Hadi; Bence, Matthew; Perry, Sean; Hartman, Robin; Couey, Jonathan J.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Levelt, Christiaan N.

    2006-01-01

    In adult primary visual cortex (V1), dendritic spines are more persistent than during development. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) increases synaptic strength, and its levels rise during cortical development. We therefore asked whether postsynaptic BDNF signaling through its receptor TrkB regulates spine persistence in adult V1. This question has been difficult to address because most methods used to alter TrkB signaling in vivo affect cortical development or cannot distinguish between pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. We circumvented these problems by employing transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative TrkB–EGFP fusion protein in sparse pyramidal neurons of the adult neocortex and hippocampus, producing a Golgi-staining-like pattern. In adult V1, expression of dominant negative TrkB-EGFP resulted in reduced mushroom spine maintenance and synaptic efficacy, accompanied by an increase in long and thin spines and filopodia. In contrast, mushroom spine maintenance was unaffected in CA1, indicating that TrkB plays fundamentally different roles in structural plasticity in these brain areas. PMID:16418274

  12. Role modeling in undergraduate nursing education: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Adele; Mills, Jane; Birks, Melanie; Budden, Lea

    2014-06-01

    The transition of nursing education from the hospital setting to the university sector over recent decades has opened dialog about who is guiding the development of nursing students' professional identity. In addition, there is ongoing debate over real or perceived gaps between nursing student learning in the university and the clinical area, how this translates into professional behaviors and how well students make the transition between the two settings. This paper presents the findings of an integrative literature review into the topic of role modeling in undergraduate nursing education. This review was conducted to identify and appraise research findings about role modeling of professional behaviors for undergraduate nursing students. Literature reviewed from 2000 onwards assesses what is currently known about role modeling of undergraduate nursing students. A systematic search of the databases of CINAHL, Scopus and PubMed from 2000 onwards resulted in the selection of 33 articles for deeper analysis. Two clear themes emerged from the literature, the first relating to nurse clinicians as role models for students during clinical placements and the second relating to nurse academics as role models in the academic setting. Findings from this integrative literature review show an imbalance in the recognition of the role modeling of professional behaviors in the clinical versus the academic setting. Nurses in academic settings have more contact with the students over their period of study and as such, the significance of nurse academics as student role models requires further investigation. PMID:24411579

  13. Toward a Model of Young Adult Participation in Adult Education Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James Leonard

    The goal of this study was to construct from the available data a model for integrating the interrelated variables of participation into a consistent, theoretical framework which explained who participated in which activities and why they participated. The author sought to attain the goal by establishing two variable relationships to determine the…

  14. Intended Sensitive and Harsh Caregiving Responses to Infant Crying: The Role of Cry Pitch and Perceived Urgency in an Adult Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Out, Dorothee; Pieper, Suzanne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Zeskind, Philip Sanford; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the underlying mechanisms of adults' intended caregiving responses to cry sounds in a behavioral genetic design and to investigate the role of cry pitch and perceived urgency in sensitive and harsh caregiving responses. Methods: The sample consisted of 184 adult twin pairs (18-69 years), including males and females, parents…

  15. The role of acid-sensing ion channels in epithelial Na+ uptake in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Dymowska, Agnieszka K; Boyle, David; Schultz, Aaron G; Goss, Greg G

    2015-04-15

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are epithelial Na(+) channels gated by external H(+). Recently, it has been demonstrated that ASICs play a role in Na(+) uptake in freshwater rainbow trout. Here, we investigate the potential involvement of ASICs in Na(+) transport in another freshwater fish species, the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Using molecular and histological techniques we found that asic genes and the ASIC4.2 protein are expressed in the gill of adult zebrafish. Immunohistochemistry revealed that mitochondrion-rich cells positive for ASIC4.2 do not co-localize with Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-rich cells, but co-localize with cells expressing vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibitors of ASIC and Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger significantly reduced uptake of Na(+) in adult zebrafish exposed to low-Na(+) media, but did not cause the same response in individuals exposed to ultra-low-Na(+) water. Our results suggest that in adult zebrafish ASICs play a role in branchial Na(+) uptake in media with low Na(+) concentrations and that mechanisms used for Na(+) uptake by zebrafish may depend on the Na(+) concentration in the acclimation medium. PMID:25722005

  16. FSTL3 deletion reveals roles for TGF-β family ligands in glucose and fat homeostasis in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Abir; Sidis, Yisrael; Mahan, Amy; Raher, Michael J.; Xia, Yin; Rosen, Evan D.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Thomas, Melissa K.; Schneyer, Alan L.

    2007-01-01

    Activin and myostatin are related members of the TGF-β growth factor superfamily. FSTL3 (Follistatin-like 3) is an activin and myostatin antagonist whose physiological role in adults remains to be determined. We found that homozygous FSTL3 knockout adults developed a distinct group of metabolic phenotypes, including increased pancreatic islet number and size, β cell hyperplasia, decreased visceral fat mass, improved glucose tolerance, and enhanced insulin sensitivity, changes that might benefit obese, insulin-resistant patients. The mice also developed hepatic steatosis and mild hypertension but exhibited no alteration of muscle or body weight. This combination of phenotypes appears to arise from increased activin and myostatin bioactivity in specific tissues resulting from the absence of the FSTL3 antagonist. Thus, the enlarged islets and β cell number likely result from increased activin action. Reduced visceral fat is consistent with a role for increased myostatin action in regulating fat deposition, which, in turn, may be partly responsible for the enhanced glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Our results demonstrate that FSTL3 regulation of activin and myostatin is critical for normal adult metabolic homeostasis, suggesting that pharmacological manipulation of FSTL3 activity might simultaneously reduce visceral adiposity, increase β cell mass, and improve insulin sensitivity. PMID:17229845

  17. A self-regulation resource model of self-compassion and health behavior intentions in emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Sirois, Fuschia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study tested a self-regulation resource model (SRRM) of self-compassion and health-promoting behavior intentions in emerging adults. The SRRM posits that positive and negative affect in conjunction with health self-efficacy serve as valuable self-regulation resources to promote health behaviors. Methods An online survey was completed by 403 emerging adults recruited from the community and a Canadian University in late 2008. Multiple meditation analyses with bootstrapping controlling for demographics and current health behaviors tested the proposed explanatory role of the self-regulation resource variables (affect and self-efficacy) in linking self-compassion to health behavior intentions. Results Self-compassion was positively associated with intentions to engage in health-promoting behaviors. The multiple mediation model explained 23% of the variance in health behavior intentions, with significant indirect effects through health self-efficacy and low negative affect. Conclusion Interventions aimed at increasing self-compassion in emerging adults may help promote positive health behaviors, perhaps through increasing self-regulation resources. PMID:26844074

  18. The role of adolescent physical abuse in adult intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra

    2011-12-01

    This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with other risk factors) a significant predictor of intimate partner physical and emotional violence perpetration or victimization. In this longitudinal study, 67 abused and 78 nonabused adults (of an original sample of 198 adolescents) completed the Modified Conflict Tactics Scale and the Jealousy and Emotional Control Scales. Nonabused comparison adolescents were matched for age, gender, and community income. As adults, participants with abuse histories had significantly higher rates of intimate partner physical violence and verbal aggression than did comparison participants. Multivariate logistic regressions indicated that adults with histories of physical abuse were more than twice as likely to be physically violent and almost six times more likely to be verbally aggressive to their intimate partners than were comparison participants. Having had an alcohol use disorder, being married to or living with a partner, and perceiving one's partner as controlling were also significantly associated with physical violence. Jealousy and feeling controlled by one's partner were also significant predictors of verbal aggression. These findings underscore the importance of preventing adolescent abuse as a means of decreasing the incidence of intimate partner physical violence in adulthood. PMID:21602201

  19. Reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis confers vulnerability in an animal model of cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Michele A; Bulin, Sarah E; Fuller, Dwain C; Eisch, Amelia J

    2010-01-01

    Drugs of abuse dynamically regulate adult neurogenesis, which appears important for some types of learning and memory. Interestingly, a major site of adult neurogenesis, the hippocampus, is important in the formation of drug-context associations and in the mediation of drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in animal models of addiction. Correlative evidence suggests an inverse relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and drug-taking or drug-seeking behaviors, but the lack of a causative link has made the relationship between adult-generated neurons and addiction unclear. We used rat intravenous cocaine self-administration in rodents, a clinically relevant animal model of addiction, to test the hypothesis that suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis enhances vulnerability to addiction and relapse. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis via cranial irradiation before drug-taking significantly increased cocaine self-administration on both fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio schedules, as well as induced a vertical shift in the dose-response curve. This was not a general enhancement of learning, motivation, or locomotion, because sucrose self-administration and locomotor activity were unchanged in irradiated rats. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis after drug-taking significantly enhanced resistance to extinction of drug-seeking behavior. These studies identify reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a novel risk factor for addiction-related behaviors in an animal model of cocaine addiction. Furthermore, they suggest that therapeutics to specifically increase or stabilize adult hippocampal neurogenesis could aid in preventing initial addiction as well as future relapse. PMID:20053911

  20. Reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis confers vulnerability in an animal model of cocaine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Michele A.; Bulin, Sarah; Fuller, Dwain C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2010-01-01

    Drugs of abuse dynamically regulate adult neurogenesis, which appears important for some types of learning and memory. Interestingly, a major site of adult neurogenesis - the hippocampus - is important in the formation of drug-context associations and in the mediation of drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in animal models of addiction. Correlative evidence suggests an inverse relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and drug-taking or drug-seeking behaviors, but the lack of a causative link has made the relationship between adult-generated neurons and addiction unclear. We used rat i.v. cocaine self-administration in rodents, a clinicall-relevant animal model of addiction, to test the hypothesis that suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis enhances vulnerability to addiction and relapse. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis via cranial irradiation before drug-taking significantly increased cocaine self-administration on both fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio schedules, as well as induced a vertical shift in the dose-response curve. This was not a general enhancement of learning, motivation or locomotion, as sucrose self-administration and locomotor activity were unchanged in irradiated rats. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis after drug-taking significantly enhanced resistance to extinction of drug-seeking behavior. These studies identify reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a novel risk factor for addiction-related behaviors in an animal model of cocaine addiction. Further, they suggest that therapeutics to specifically increase or stabilize adult hippocampal neurogenesis could aid in preventing initial addiction as well as future relapse. PMID:20053911

  1. An Instrument Development Model for Online Surveys in Human Resource Development and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strachota, Elaine M.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Schmidt, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of a schematic model for developing and distributing online surveys. Two empirical studies that developed and implemented online surveys to collect data to measure satisfaction in various aspects of human resource development and adult education exemplify the use of the model to conduct online survey research. The…

  2. Emerging from Depression: Treatment of Adolescent Depression Using the Major Treatment Models of Adult Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kathleen M.

    Noting that adolescents who commit suicide are often clinically depressed, this paper examines various approaches in the treatment of depression. Major treatment models of adult depression, which can be directly applied to the treatment of the depressed adolescent, are described. Major treatment models and selected research studies are reviewed in…

  3. Teaching Adult Education Courses: The Business Management Model. Social Sciences. Agricultural Education 3. Information Bulletin 98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bail, Joe P.; Cushman, Harold R.

    The model described here was developed for use as a program planning guide by teachers, many of them business and other lay people, at the secondary school level who offer adult education courses on how to make management decisions and solve problems. Ten features of the model are listed: (1) The purpose is to assist owner-operators or managers to…

  4. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-01-01

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility. PMID:26552702

  5. The Role of Employment on Neurocognitive Reserve in Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Shameka C.; Yoo-Jeong, Moka; Jones, Gwendolyn "Lynn" D.; Nicholson, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of employment are enormous; being employed, one naturally: 1) socially engages with the public and colleagues/co-workers; 2) learns new skills to increase job productivity and competence; 3) establishes a routine that can prevent lethargy and boredom and may regulate sleep and healthy behaviors; 4) is provided purposeful and meaningful activity that may protect one from depression; and 5) gains income to pursue interests which are cognitively stimulating. All of these and other employment influences can provide an enriched personal and social environment that stimulates positive neuroplasticity and promotes neurocognitive reserve. Such potential neurocognitive benefits are particularly relevant to adults with HIV for two reasons: 1) approximately 50% of adults with HIV experience observable cognitive impairments that can adversely affect everyday functioning such as medication adherence, and 2) approximately 45% of adults with HIV are unemployed and do not receive the neurocognitive benefits of employment. From these considerations, implications for healthcare research and nursing practice are provided. PMID:26066688

  6. What is occupational therapy's role in addressing sleep problems among older adults?

    PubMed

    Leland, Natalie E; Marcione, Nicole; Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Kelkar, Kaivalya; Fogelberg, Don

    2014-01-01

    Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the American Occupational Therapy Association's Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. The current scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly aligned with the practice framework, including cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, physical activity, multicomponent interventions, and other interventions. Occupational therapy is primed to address sleep problems by targeting the context and environment, performance patterns, and limited engagement in evening activities that may contribute to poor sleep. Occupational therapy researchers and clinicians need to work collaboratively to establish the evidence base for occupation-centered sleep interventions to improve the health and quality of life of older adults. PMID:24844879

  7. The Role of Employment on Neurocognitive Reserve in Adults With HIV: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Vance, David E; Cody, Shameka L; Yoo-Jeong, Moka; Jones, Gwendolyn Lynn D; Nicholson, William C

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of employment are enormous; when employed, people naturally: (a) engage socially with the public and colleagues/co-workers, (b) learn new skills to increase job productivity and competence, (c) establish routines that can prevent lethargy and boredom and may regulate sleep and healthy behaviors, (d) are provided purposeful and meaningful activity that may prevent depression, and (e) gain income to pursue cognitively stimulating interests. All of these and other employment influences can provide an enriched personal and social environment that stimulates positive neuroplasticity and promotes neurocognitive reserve, which are particularly relevant to adults with HIV because (a) approximately 50% of adults with HIV experience observable cognitive impairments that can adversely affect everyday functioning such as medication adherence, and (b) approximately 45% of adults with HIV are unemployed and do not receive the neurocognitive benefits of employment. From these considerations, implications for health care research and nursing practice are provided. PMID:26066688

  8. Distinct roles of hand2 in developing and adult autonomic neurons.

    PubMed

    Stanzel, Sabine; Stubbusch, Jutta; Pataskar, Abhijeet; Howard, Marthe J; Deller, Thomas; Ernsberger, Uwe; Tiwari, Vijay K; Rohrer, Hermann; Tsarovina, Konstantina

    2016-10-01

    The bHLH transcription factor Hand2 is essential for the acquisition and maintenance of noradrenergic properties of embryonic sympathetic neurons and controls neuroblast proliferation. Hand2 is also expressed in embryonic and postnatal parasympathetic ganglia and remains expressed in sympathetic neurons up to the adult stage. Here, we address its function in developing parasympathetic and adult sympathetic neurons. We conditionally deleted Hand2 in the parasympathetic sphenopalatine ganglion by crossing a line of floxed Hand2 mice with DbhiCre transgenic mice, taking advantage of the transient Dbh expression in parasympathetic ganglia. Hand2 elimination does not affect Dbh expression and sphenopalatine ganglion size at E12.5 and E16.5, in contrast to sympathetic ganglia. These findings demonstrate different functions for Hand2 in the parasympathetic and sympathetic lineage. Our previous Hand2 knockdown in postmitotic, differentiated chick sympathetic neurons resulted in decreased expression of noradrenergic marker genes but it was unclear whether Hand2 is required for maintaining noradrenergic neuron identity in adult animals. We now show that Hand2 elimination in adult Dbh-expressing sympathetic neurons does not decrease the expression of Th and Dbh, in contrast to the situation during development. However, gene expression profiling of adult sympathetic neurons identified 75 Hand2-dependent target genes. Interestingly, a notable proportion of down-regulated genes (15%) encode for proteins with synaptic and neurotransmission functions. These results demonstrate a change in Hand2 target genes during maturation of sympathetic neurons. Whereas Hand2 controls genes regulating noradrenergic differentiation during development, Hand2 seems to be involved in the regulation of genes controlling neurotransmission in adult sympathetic neurons. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1111-1124, 2016. PMID:26818017

  9. A Diffusion Model Analysis of Adult Age Differences in Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaniol, Julia; Madden, David J.; Voss, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory tasks, as a test of the hypothesis of specific age-related decline in context memory. Older adults were slower and exhibited lower episodic accuracy than younger adults. Fits of the diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978) revealed age-related increases in…

  10. Intussusception in Adults: The Role of MDCT in the Identification of the Site and Cause of Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Viola; Buquicchio, Grazia Loretta; Galluzzo, Michele; Ianniello, Stefania; Di Grezia, Graziella; Ambrosio, Rosa; Trinci, Margherita; Miele, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Unlike pediatric intussusception, intestinal intussusception is infrequent in adults and it is often secondary to a pathological condition. The growing use of Multi-Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) in abdominal imaging has increased the number of radiological diagnoses of intussusception, even in transient and nonobstructing cases. MDCT is well suited to delineate the presence of the disease and provides valuable information about several features, such as the site of intussusception, the intestinal segments involved, and the extent of the intussuscepted bowel. Moreover, MDCT can demonstrate the complications of intussusceptions, represented by bowel wall ischemia and perforation, which are mandatory to promptly refer for surgery. However, not all intussusceptions need an operative treatment. In this paper, we review the current role of MDCT in the diagnosis and management of intussusception in adults, focusing on features, as the presence of a leading point, that may guide an accurate selection of patients for surgery. PMID:26819606

  11. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin: Its Role in Early Neural Development and in Adult and Aged Brain Function.

    PubMed

    Garza-Lombó, Carla; Gonsebatt, María E

    2016-01-01

    The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates signals triggered by energy, stress, oxygen levels, and growth factors. It regulates ribosome biogenesis, mRNA translation, nutrient metabolism, and autophagy. mTOR participates in various functions of the brain, such as synaptic plasticity, adult neurogenesis, memory, and learning. mTOR is present during early neural development and participates in axon and dendrite development, neuron differentiation, and gliogenesis, among other processes. Furthermore, mTOR has been shown to modulate lifespan in multiple organisms. This protein is an important energy sensor that is present throughout our lifetime its role must be precisely described in order to develop therapeutic strategies and prevent diseases of the central nervous system. The aim of this review is to present our current understanding of the functions of mTOR in neural development, the adult brain and aging. PMID:27378854

  12. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin: Its Role in Early Neural Development and in Adult and Aged Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Garza-Lombó, Carla; Gonsebatt, María E.

    2016-01-01

    The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates signals triggered by energy, stress, oxygen levels, and growth factors. It regulates ribosome biogenesis, mRNA translation, nutrient metabolism, and autophagy. mTOR participates in various functions of the brain, such as synaptic plasticity, adult neurogenesis, memory, and learning. mTOR is present during early neural development and participates in axon and dendrite development, neuron differentiation, and gliogenesis, among other processes. Furthermore, mTOR has been shown to modulate lifespan in multiple organisms. This protein is an important energy sensor that is present throughout our lifetime its role must be precisely described in order to develop therapeutic strategies and prevent diseases of the central nervous system. The aim of this review is to present our current understanding of the functions of mTOR in neural development, the adult brain and aging. PMID:27378854

  13. The role of religious affiliation in Christian and unaffiliated bereaved emerging adults' use of religious coping.

    PubMed

    Collison, Elizabeth A; Gramling, Sandra E; Lord, Benjamin D

    2016-01-01

    Though research on bereavement has grown, few studies have focused on emerging adults. To add to the literature, the authors administered the RCOPE to a sample of bereaved college students (analyzed sample N = 748) and explored the relationship between self-reported religious affiliation and religious coping strategies used and endorsed as "most helpful." Results highlight the rich topography of bereavement previously unexamined in understudied populations (i.e., emerging adults, religiously unaffiliated). Specifically, the Christians/affiliated used "negative" religious coping strategies most often, yet identified "positive" strategies as "most helpful," whereas the unaffiliated instead used "positive" strategies most often and identified "negative" strategies as "most helpful." PMID:26313501

  14. Modeling the Drift Towards Sex Role Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jennifer; Vitaliano, Peter Paul

    The interrelationships of deviant life experiences and current status, i.e., prostitution versus non-prostitution, were investigated by the application of multivariate analyses. Variables were studied involving early home life, pregnancy history, sexual history, and criminal involvement. Based on the analyses, three models were developed that…

  15. A Career Roles Model of Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Hans A.

    2011-01-01

    Career development is described as the interactive progression of internal career identity formation and the growth of external career significance. Argued is the need for a content model of career development where the field is dominated by process theories. A theory is put forward of career development crystallizing in the acquisition of career…

  16. Children's and adults' knowledge and models of reasoning about the ozone layer and its depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighton, Jacqueline P.; Bisanz, Gay L.

    2003-01-01

    As environmental concepts, the ozone layer and ozone hole are important to understand because they can profoundly influence our health. In this paper, we examined: (a) children's and adults' knowledge of the ozone layer and its depletion, and whether this knowledge increases with age' and (b) how the 'ozone layer' and 'ozone hole' might be structured as scientific concepts. We generated a standardized set of questions and used it to interview 24 kindergarten students, 48 Grade 3 students, 24 Grade 5 students, and 24 adults in university, in Canada. An analysis of participants' responses revealed that adults have more knowledge than children about the ozone layer and ozone hole, but both adults and children exhibit little knowledge about protecting themselves from the ozone hole. Moreover, only some participants exhibited 'mental models' in their conceptual understanding of the ozone layer and ozone hole. The implications of these results for health professionals, educators, and scientists are discussed.

  17. Stress and serial adult metamorphosis: multiple roles for the stress axis in socially regulated sex change

    PubMed Central

    Solomon-Lane, Tessa K.; Crespi, Erica J.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds) has been hypothesized to play a mechanistic role linking status to sex change. The HPA/I axis responds to environmental stressors by integrating relevant external and internal cues and coordinating biological responses including changes in behavior, energetics, physiology, and morphology (i.e., metamorphosis). Through actions of both corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoids, the HPA/I axis has been implicated in processes central to sex change, including the regulation of agonistic behavior, social status, energetic investment, and life history transitions. In this paper, we review the hypothesized roles of the HPA/I axis in the regulation of sex change and how those hypotheses have been tested to date. We include original data on sex change in the bluebanded goby (Lythyrpnus dalli), a highly social fish capable of bidirectional sex change. We then propose a model for HPA/I involvement in sex change and discuss how these ideas might be tested in the future. Understanding the regulation of sex change has the potential to elucidate evolutionarily conserved mechanisms responsible for translating pertinent information about the environment into coordinated biological changes along multiple body axes. PMID:24265604

  18. Development of a conceptual model to predict physical activity participation in adults with brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Driver, Simon

    2008-10-01

    The purpose was to examine psychosocial factors that influence the physical activity behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Two differing models, based on Harter's model of self-worth, were proposed to examine the relationship between perceived competence, social support, physical self-worth, affect, and motivation. Adults numbering 384 with brain injuries completed a series of questionnaires measuring each psychosocial variable. The structural analysis indicated a nonsignificant chi squared value and good fit indices for model two which included affect as the mediating variable. Findings indicate that affect is critical in shaping the physical activity cognitions and behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Suggestions are made on practical ways to enhance affect and subsequently physical activity participation. PMID:18955746

  19. The Managerial Roles of Academic Library Directors: The Mintzberg Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Michael Ann

    1986-01-01

    A study based on a model developed by Henry Mintzberg examined the internal and external managerial roles of 126 New England college and university library directors. Survey results indicate that the 97 responding directors were primarily involved with internal managerial roles and work contacts. (CDD)

  20. Contrasting Models of the Healer's Role: South Texas Case Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Robert T., II

    1982-01-01

    Two models of the healer's role are compared: physicians and Mexican American folk healers (curanderos). Effects of culture on the delivery of health care are manifested in the protection of patient modesty, locus of control over diagnosis and treatment, and the healer's role as a cultural interpreter of therapeutic regimens. (Author/NQA)

  1. Adolescents' Attainability and Aspiration Beliefs for Famous Musician Role Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivaldi, Antonia; O'Neill, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role that adolescents' competence beliefs and subjective task values for music have in relation to their aspirations and expectations for becoming like their musician role models. A total of 381 adolescents (aged 13-14) completed a questionnaire about their competence beliefs and values for music, the musicians they admired…

  2. Social role participation and the life course in healthy adults and individuals with osteoarthritis: are we overlooking the impact on the middle-aged?

    PubMed

    Gignac, Monique A M; Backman, Catherine L; Davis, Aileen M; Lacaille, Diane; Cao, Xingshan; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about life course differences in social role participation among those with chronic diseases. This study examined role salience (i.e., importance), role limitations, and role satisfaction among middle- and older-aged adults with and without osteoarthritis (OA) and its relationship to depression, stress, role conflict, health care utilization and coping behaviours. Participants were middle- and older-aged adults with OA (n = 177) or no chronic disabling conditions (n = 193), aged ≥40 years. Respondents were recruited through community advertising and clinics in Ontario, Canada (2009-2010). They completed a 45-50 min telephone interview and 20 min self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics (e.g., age, gender); health (e.g., pain, functional limitations, health care utilization); the Social Role Participation Questionnaire (SRPQ) (role salience, limitations, satisfaction in 12 domains), and psychological variables (e.g., depression, stress, role conflict, behavioural coping). Analyses included two-way ANOVAs, correlations, and linear regression. Results indicated that middle-aged adults (40-59 years) reported greater role salience than older-aged adults (60 + years). Middle-aged adults with OA reported significantly greater role limitations and more health care utilization than all other groups. Middle-aged adults and those with OA also reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping efforts than older adults or healthy controls. Controlling for age and OA, those with higher role salience and greater role limitations reported more health care utilization. Those with greater role limitations and lower role satisfaction reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping. This study has implications for research and interventions, highlighting the need to characterize role participation as multidimensional. It points to the importance of taking into account the meaning of roles at

  3. The roles of primary care PAs and NPs caring for older adults with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Everett, Christine M; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Palta, Mari; Carayon, Pascale; Gilchrist, Valerie J; Smith, Maureen A

    2014-04-01

    Electronic health record data linked with Medicare data from an academic physician group were used to propose a multidimensional characterization of PA and NP roles on panels of primary care patients with diabetes. Seven PA and NP roles were defined based on level of involvement, visits with complex patients, and delivery of chronic care. Findings suggest that PAs and NPs in primary care perform a variety of roles and frequently perform multiple roles within a clinic. PMID:24662258

  4. A test of an adapted multiple domain model in predicting sexual behaviors among unmarried young adults in India.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Purnima; Zimmerman, Rick S; Noar, Seth M; Dumenci, Levant

    2013-01-01

    Theory-based, scientific research examining sexual behaviors of young adults is sparse in India, even though pre-marital sex among unmarried young people has been rising in recent years. At the same time, young people aged 15 to 24 are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This has been attributed in part to rising pre-marital sexual behaviors, coupled with a lack of sex education. The objective of this study was to advance an understanding of the determinants of sexual behavior among unmarried young adults in northern India. An adaptation of a comprehensive model of health behavior, the Multiple Domain Model, was employed to study the effects of environmental/cultural influences (parental and media), structural determinants (sex, socioeconomic status, age, caste, and place of residence), personality factors (sensation-seeking and impulsive decision making), gender role identity, psychosocial variables (attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy), contextual influences (relationship status and alcohol/drug use) and preparatory behaviors (frequency of being in sexual situations) on adolescents' sexual behaviors. Results of path analysis indicated that key predictors of ever having had vaginal sex included preparatory behaviors, masculine gender role identity, attitudes toward having sex and peer norms regarding sex. Implications of these findings for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:22206501

  5. The Role of "Is" in the Acquisition of Finiteness by Adult Turkish Learners of Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Craats, Ineke

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the interlanguage of adult second language (L2) learners acquiring finiteness. Due to the inaccessibility of bound inflectional morphology, learners use free morphology to mark a syntactic relationship as well as person and number features separately from the thematic verb, expressed by a pattern like "the man is go".…

  6. The Role of Realism in Memory for Computergraphics by Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alison

    1986-01-01

    The effects of realism on child and adult memory for computergraphics were examined. Recognition of images showed an unusual pattern of decline over time with the initial advantage for realistic and abstract computergraphics disappearing at a week's delay, while recognition for linear image was superior to that of realistic and abstract.…

  7. Drug Sensitivity in Older Adults: The Role of Physiologic and Pharmacokinetic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Morton, Mark R.

    1989-01-01

    Notes that age-related changes in physiology and pharmacokinetics (how drugs are used in the body) lead to increased drug sensitivity and potentially harmful drug effects. Addresses heightened sensitivity to drug effects seen in older adults. Presents three examples of physiologic decline and discusses some broad considerations for geriatric…

  8. Supporting School Completion among Latino Youth: The Role of Adult Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    The social environment has a significant influence on a youth's trajectory in terms of school success, especially the powerful influence of the social interactions students experience with adults in their lives. These social interactions are even more important and influential for students from non-dominant race or ethnicity groups, including…

  9. The Role of Adolescent Extracurricular Activities in Adult Political Participation. CIRCLE Working Paper 02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirlin, Mary

    2003-01-01

    This literature review is specifically interested in empirical research addressing the relationship between adolescent participation in extracurricular activities and adult political engagement. Relevant research is found in political science, psychology, education and sociology. In order to capture the literature most directly related to the main…

  10. Change in the Behavioral Phenotype of Adolescents and Adults with FXS: Role of the Family Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leann E.; Hong, Jinkuk; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of adaptive behavior, behavior problems, psychological symptoms, and autism symptoms in adolescents and adults with fragile X syndrome (n = 147) over a three-year period. Adaptive behavior significantly increased over time, particularly for adolescents, and the severity of behavior problems decreased over…

  11. The Supportive Roles that Learners' Families Play in Adult Literacy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Marion

    2007-01-01

    In 2002-03, a qualitative case study explored the experiences of stakeholders connected to two adult literacy programs in Manitoba, Canada. Data were collected through official documents, personal documents, and interviews. Influences by family members contributed significantly to the theme of human relations that arose from these data. The…

  12. The Role of Libraries in Providing Services to Adults Learning English. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezada, Shelley

    This digest discusses some of the challenges facing libraries in the area of service to adults learning English as a Second Language. It describes services provided for this population by some libraries, and suggests tools and approaches that other libraries can use. It also outlines actions that participants at the 1991 White House Conference on…

  13. The Role of Frequency Information and Teleological Reasoning in Infants' and Adults' Action Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Markus; Hunnius, Sabine; van Wijngaarden, Carolien; Vrins, Sven; van Rooij, Iris; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the contribution of frequency learning and teleological reasoning to action prediction in 9-month-old infants and adults. Participants observed how an agent repeatedly walked to a goal while taking the longer of 2 possible paths, as the shorter and more efficient path was impassable. In the subsequent test phase, both paths…

  14. Reading and Adult English Language Learners: The Role of the First Language. ERIC Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Miriam; Peyton, Joy Kreeft

    This brief describes how literacy in the first language (L1) can affect the acquisition of reading skills in English, examining ways that instruction should be developed. It explains that learning to read is especially difficult for adults learning to read in a second language. According to the research, all English language learners (ELLs),…

  15. Cognitive Mechanisms of Word Learning in Bilingual and Monolingual Adults: The Role of Phonological Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may facilitate lexical learning in adults. The goals of this research were (i) to examine whether bilingual influences on word learning diverge for phonologically-familiar and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words, and (ii) to examine whether increased phonological memory capacity can account for…

  16. The Intergenerational Transmission of Externalizing Behaviors in Adult Participants: The Mediating Role of Childhood Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verona, Edelyn; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    Childhood abuse was investigated as a potential mediator of the intergenerational transmission of externalizing behaviors (EXT) in adulthood among a large general population sample drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey. Community participants (N = 5,424) underwent diagnostic and psychosocial interviews and reported on their own adult symptoms…

  17. Emerging Adults' Stress and Health: The Role of Parent Behaviors and Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2013-01-01

    Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers'…

  18. Was It Worth It? Gender Boundaries and the Role of Adult Education in Labour Market Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with 31 men and 43 women in Scotland indicated that most felt participation in adult education had direct or indirect effects on their labor market progress. A significant number had unintended labor market outcomes. Although many women were in low-paying jobs, only 10% had reservations about job satisfaction compared to one-third of…

  19. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  20. Depression in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability: Role of Stress, Attributions, and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The experience of stressful social interactions, negative causal attributions, and the use of maladaptive coping efforts help maintain depression over time in the general population. We investigated whether a similar experience occurs among adults with mild intellectual disability. We compared the frequency and stress impact of such interactions,…

  1. The Role of Community College Adult and Continuing Education in Iowa's Workforce Development Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    The members of the Iowa Association of Adult and Continuing Education Deans and Directors believe that Iowa's community colleges are well positioned to provide the high quality, cost-effective, work force training required to prepare a skilled work force for Iowa for the 21st century. Iowa's community colleges are the logical providers of work…

  2. The Role of Intonation in Language Discrimination by Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicenik, Chad Joseph

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely shown that infants and adults are capable of using only prosodic information to discriminate between languages. However, it remains unclear which aspects of prosody, either rhythm or intonation, listeners attend to for language discrimination. Previous researchers have suggested that rhythm, the duration and timing of speech…

  3. Childhood Abuse and Current Health Problems among Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Medley, Amanda N.; Kendall – Tackett, Kathleen; Taylor, John

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Child abuse has negative consequences on health functioning and the self-concept. Prior studies have garnered support for these relationships in younger adults; yet few studies have looked at the effects of abuse on health in older adults and the psychosocial variables, specifically self-efficacy, that may influence the abuse-health relationship. Methods Data obtained from the Physical Health and Disability Study were used to explore the impact of child abuse on current medical problems among older adults who were screened on physical disability status (N=1396, Mean age = 67, SD = 10.2). The study was conducted in South Florida and employed a multiethnic sample that is representative of the general population in this area. Results Child abuse was associated with the number of current medical problems and disability. Child abuse was also related to lower self-efficacy, and self-efficacy explained the relationship between abuse and the number of health problems. Conclusions There are far reaching effects of child abuse on older adults' health and self-concept. Health care providers and gerontologists need to be aware that child abuse is a life-long risk factor for increased disability and specific health problems, especially among the elderly. Future research should examine treatments designed to increase self-efficacy, especially among those who experienced child abuse, and observe any positive effects on health functioning. PMID:21922052

  4. Virtual adult ears reveal the roles of acoustical factors and experience in auditory space map development

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Robert A. A.; King, Andrew J.; Nodal, Fernando R.; Schnupp, Jan W. H.; Carlile, Simon; Doubell, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    Auditory neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) respond preferentially to sounds from restricted directions to form a map of auditory space. The development of this representation is shaped by sensory experience, but little is known about the relative contribution of peripheral and central factors to the emergence of adult responses. By recording from the SC of anesthetized ferrets at different age points, we show that the map matures gradually after birth; the spatial receptive fields (SRFs) become more sharply tuned and topographic order emerges by the end of the second postnatal month. Principal components analysis of the head-related transfer function revealed that the time course of map development is mirrored by the maturation of the spatial cues generated by the growing head and external ears. However, using virtual acoustic space stimuli, we show that these acoustical changes are not by themselves responsible for the emergence of SC map topography. Presenting stimuli to infant ferrets through virtual adult ears did not improve the order in the representation of sound azimuth in the SC. But using linear discriminant analysis to compare different response properties across age, we found that the SRFs of infant neurons nevertheless became more adult-like when stimuli were delivered through virtual adult ears. Hence, although the emergence of auditory topography is likely to depend on refinements in neural circuitry, maturation of the structure of the SRFs (particularly their spatial extent) can be largely accounted for by changes in the acoustics associated with growth of the head and ears. PMID:18987192

  5. Virtual adult ears reveal the roles of acoustical factors and experience in auditory space map development.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Robert A A; King, Andrew J; Nodal, Fernando R; Schnupp, Jan W H; Carlile, Simon; Doubell, Timothy P

    2008-11-01

    Auditory neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) respond preferentially to sounds from restricted directions to form a map of auditory space. The development of this representation is shaped by sensory experience, but little is known about the relative contribution of peripheral and central factors to the emergence of adult responses. By recording from the SC of anesthetized ferrets at different age points, we show that the map matures gradually after birth; the spatial receptive fields (SRFs) become more sharply tuned and topographic order emerges by the end of the second postnatal month. Principal components analysis of the head-related transfer function revealed that the time course of map development is mirrored by the maturation of the spatial cues generated by the growing head and external ears. However, using virtual acoustic space stimuli, we show that these acoustical changes are not by themselves responsible for the emergence of SC map topography. Presenting stimuli to infant ferrets through virtual adult ears did not improve the order in the representation of sound azimuth in the SC. But by using linear discriminant analysis to compare different response properties across age, we found that the SRFs of infant neurons nevertheless became more adult-like when stimuli were delivered through virtual adult ears. Hence, although the emergence of auditory topography is likely to depend on refinements in neural circuitry, maturation of the structure of the SRFs (particularly their spatial extent) can be largely accounted for by changes in the acoustics associated with growth of the head and ears. PMID:18987192

  6. Screening for Adults with Learning Disabilities: The Role of the Practitioner in the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riviere, Adrienne

    Adult education practitioners need informal measures for determining whether particular learners may have a learning disability. The process of identifying individuals with possible learning disabilities begins with a simple screening. Screening does not happen just once; it is an ongoing process that serves as the practitioner's guide, at…

  7. The Role of Organizations in Reaching Older Adults about Vision Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman-Skalka, Carol J.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Stuen, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Vision impairment affects approximately 17% of Americans age 45 and older. Yet, 94% of adults with self-reported vision loss did not receive any type of vision rehabilitation services to help them retain independence. These findings underscore the need for promoting awareness about what can be done when vision fails. A national dissemination…

  8. Counselors' Role in Preventing Abuse of Older Adults: Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Julia M.; McBride, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    Mistreatment of older adults is commonplace. These individuals are subjected to abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. The authors present an overview of the literature concerning mistreatment, with an emphasis on clinical, ethical, and legal considerations. Methods are proposed for prevention, including counselor education, advocacy, and…

  9. Adult Attachment, Shame, Depression, and Loneliness: The Mediation Role of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Meifen; Shaffer, Philip A.; Young, Shannon K.; Zakalik, Robyn A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined basic psychological needs satisfaction (i.e., the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness) as a mediator between adult attachment (i.e., anxiety and avoidance) and distress (i.e., shame, depression, and loneliness). A total of 299 undergraduates from a Midwestern university participated. Results from structural equation…

  10. Ethics: The Role of Adult and Vocational Education. Trends and Issues Alert No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonacott, Michael E.

    Ethics and social responsibility are the subject of both curriculum materials and research in adult and vocational education. State academic standards and curriculum frameworks address citizenship and personal and social responsibility. Ethical and legal issues for specific occupations are addressed in curricula issued by states, professional…

  11. The Role of Adult Education Philosophy in Facilitating the Online Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milheim, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching philosophy is much more than just teaching style, or a framework for a course. It can be defined as one's beliefs about life that are carried out in his/her teaching practice, which serve as a foundation for his/her educational philosophies. The majority of literature addressing philosophies in adult education practice focus on how…

  12. The role of retinoids in the adult nervous system and their therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Christie, V B; Marder, T B; Whiting, A; Przyborski, S A

    2008-06-01

    The mode of action of retinoids in relation to their activity in the adult central nervous system and the potential of synthetic retinoid analogues is reviewed. Investigation into the activity of such molecules will further our understanding of the retinoid pathway during nervous system development and in various neurological disease states. PMID:18537715

  13. The Role of Context-Related Parameters in Adults' Mental Computational Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naresh, Nirmala; Presmeg, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Researchers who have carried out studies pertaining to mental computation and everyday mathematics point out that adults and children reason intuitively based upon experiences within specific contexts; they use invented strategies of their own to solve real-life problems. We draw upon research areas of mental computation and everyday mathematics…

  14. Rural Adult Education and the Role of Mass Media: A Comparative Analysis of Four Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenglet, Frans; McAnany, Emile G.

    Rural adult education projects using television in Tanzania, the Ivory Coast, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala are described and compared with special attention given to objectives, organization, selection and recruitment of supervisors, monitors and participants, use of communication media, feedback and evaluation systems impact, and…

  15. Resilience in Community: A Social Ecological Development Model for Young Adult Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18–25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18–41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956

  16. A simple assessment model to quantifying the dynamic hippocampal neurogenic process in the adult mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minee L; Begeti, Faye; Barker, Roger A; Kim, Namho

    2016-04-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a highly dynamic process in which new cells are born, but only some of which survive. Of late it has become clear that these surviving newborn neurons have functional roles, most notably in certain forms of memory. Conventional methods to look at adult neurogenesis are based on the quantification of the number of newly born neurons using a simple cell counting methodology. However, this type of approach fails to capture the dynamic aspects of the neurogenic process, where neural proliferation, death and differentiation take place continuously and simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a simple mathematical approach to better understand the adult neurogenic process in the hippocampus which in turn will allow for a better analysis of this process in disease states and following drug therapies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26443687

  17. Modeling Face Identification Processing in Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzer, Gudrun; Massaro, Dominic W.

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments studied whether and how 5-year-olds integrate single facial features to identify faces. Results indicated that children could evaluate and integrate information from eye and mouth features to identify a face when salience of features was varied. A weighted Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception fit better than a Single Channel Model,…

  18. Bringing Older Adults into the Classroom: The Sharing Community Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantman, Shira; Oz, Miriam Ben; Gutman, Caroline; Criden, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an innovative model for teaching gerontological social work that has been introduced into the social work methods curriculum in the Department of Social Work at a college in northern Israel. The basic concept of the model is to create an alternative learning environment by including older persons as full participants in the…

  19. MODELING MULTIPATHWAY EXPOSURES OF CHILDREN AND ADULTS TO PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A probabilistic model of individual exposure to chlorpyrifos has been developed in support of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) and the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) program. The model examines a v...

  20. Suicidal ideation and its determinants in Korean adults: The role of physical activity and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Park, S M

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n = 2326) and middle-aged adults (n = 3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations. PMID:25434531

  1. Childhood family disruption and adult height: is there a mediating role of puberty?

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Paula; Garcia, Justin R.; Sear, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Childhood family background is known to be associated with child growth and development, including the onset of puberty, but less is known about the influence of childhood family disruption on outcomes in later life. Given the associations between early family disruption and childhood development, we predicted that there may be long-term health-relevant consequences of childhood disruption. Methodology: Using data from a large US interview sample (n = 16 207), we test if death or divorce of parents, at different childhood periods, was associated with adult stature, and whether age at puberty mediated this relationship, for men and women. Results: Men: parental death and divorce during early childhood was associated with shorter adult height, and later puberty. Later puberty was associated with shorter adult height. Path analyses demonstrated that the relationship between parental divorce and height was completely mediated by age at puberty; although parental death was only partially mediated by age at puberty. Women: the father’s death during early childhood was associated with earlier puberty, which was in turn associated with shorter adult stature. The relationship between paternal death and height is entirely mediated by age at puberty; no evidence of a direct relationship between childhood family disruption and adult height. Conclusions: Early childhood familial disruption is associated with shorter height for men, and is partially mediated by later puberty. For women, the relationship between father’s death, and height was completely mediated by earlier puberty. These findings indicate that disruption during childhood can have long-reaching health repercussions, particularly for boys. PMID:26609061

  2. The CEO's role in business model reinvention.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Vijay; Trimble, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Fending off new competitors is a perennial struggle for established companies. Govindarajan and Trimble, of Dartmouth's Tuck School of Business, explain why: Many corporations become too comfortable with their existing business models and neglect the necessary work of radically reinventing them. The authors map out an alternative in their "three boxes" framework. They argue that while a CEO manages the present (box 1), he or she must also selectively forget the past (box 2) in order to create the future (box 3). Infosys chairman N.R. Narayana Murthy mastered the three boxes to reinvigorate his company and greatly increased its changes of enduring for generations. PMID:21370808

  3. Role of Bioindicators In Earthquake Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelinsky, I. P.; Melkonyan, D. V.; Astrova, N. G.

    On the basis of experimental researches of influence of sound waves on bacteria- indicators a model of earthquake is constructed. It is revealed that the growth of num- ber of bacteria depends on frequency of a sound wave, influencing on the bacterium, (the less frequency of a sound wave, the faster takes place a growth). It is shown, that at absorption of energy of a sound wave by bacterium occurs growth of concentration of isopotential lines of biodynamic field in a bacterium. This process leads to the bac- terium braking and heating. By structure of deformation of lines of a biodynamic field it is possible to predict various geodynamic processes including earthquakes.

  4. The Prototype Hypothesis and the Origins of Attachment Working Models: Adult Relationships with Parents and Romantic Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Gretchen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used Current Relationship Interview (CRI) to examine correspondence between adults' models of their current love relationships and generalized attachment models accessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Found that early experience influences later relationships, but little support for the idea that a working model formed by caregiver-child…

  5. Voluntary exercise induces adult hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF expression in a rodent model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Fanny; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Cox, Adrian; Patten, Anna; Giles, Erica; Brocardo, Patricia S; Christie, Brian R

    2011-05-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can result in a myriad of health problems in the affected offspring ranging from growth deficiencies to central nervous system impairments that result in cognitive deficits. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to play a role in cognition (i.e. learning and memory) and can be modulated by extrinsic factors such as alcohol consumption and physical exercise. We examined the impact of voluntary physical exercise on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Intragastric intubation was used to deliver ethanol to rats in a highly controlled fashion through all three trimester equivalents (i.e. throughout gestation and during the first 10 days of postnatal life). Ethanol-exposed animals and their pair-fed and ad libitum controls were left undisturbed until they reached a young adult stage at which point they had free access to a running wheel for 12 days. Prenatal and early postnatal ethanol exposure altered cell proliferation in young adult female rats and increased early neuronal maturation without affecting cell survival in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Voluntary wheel running increased cell proliferation, neuronal maturation and cell survival as well as levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the DG of both ethanol-exposed female rats and their pair-fed and ad libitum controls. These results indicate that the capacity of the brain to respond to exercise is not impaired in this model of FASD, highlighting the potential therapeutic value of physical exercise for this developmental disorder. PMID:21535455

  6. Fate Analysis of Adult Hippocampal Progenitors in a Murine Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)

    PubMed Central

    Kajimoto, Kenta; Allan, Andrea; Cunningham, Lee Anna

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and associated behavioral impairments that may be linked to disruptions in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Social and physical enrichment has been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach toward reversing behavioral deficits associated with FASD and is also a potent stimulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In the present study, we utilized a genetic fate mapping approach in nestin-CreERT2/YFP bitransgenic mice to identify the stage-specific impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on the stepwise maturation of adult hippocampal progenitors. Using a limited alcohol access “drinking-in-the-dark” model of FASD, we confirm previous findings that moderate prenatal alcohol exposure has no effect on adult neurogenesis under standard housing conditions, but abolishes the neurogenic response to enriched environment (EE). Furthermore, we demonstrate that this effect is primarily due to failed EE-mediated survival of postmitotic neurons. Finally, we demonstrate that the neurogenic deficit is associated with impaired spatial pattern recognition, as demonstrated by delayed learning of FASD-EE mice in an A–B contextual discrimination task. These results identify a potential maturational stage-specific mechanism(s) underlying impaired neurogenic function in a preclinical model of FASD, and provide a basis for testing regulatory pathways in this model through conditional and inducible manipulation of gene expression in the adult hippocampal progenitor population. PMID:24040071

  7. Fate analysis of adult hippocampal progenitors in a murine model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Kenta; Allan, Andrea; Cunningham, Lee Anna

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and associated behavioral impairments that may be linked to disruptions in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Social and physical enrichment has been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach toward reversing behavioral deficits associated with FASD and is also a potent stimulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In the present study, we utilized a genetic fate mapping approach in nestin-CreER(T2)/YFP bitransgenic mice to identify the stage-specific impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on the stepwise maturation of adult hippocampal progenitors. Using a limited alcohol access "drinking-in-the-dark" model of FASD, we confirm previous findings that moderate prenatal alcohol exposure has no effect on adult neurogenesis under standard housing conditions, but abolishes the neurogenic response to enriched environment (EE). Furthermore, we demonstrate that this effect is primarily due to failed EE-mediated survival of postmitotic neurons. Finally, we demonstrate that the neurogenic deficit is associated with impaired spatial pattern recognition, as demonstrated by delayed learning of FASD-EE mice in an A-B contextual discrimination task. These results identify a potential maturational stage-specific mechanism(s) underlying impaired neurogenic function in a preclinical model of FASD, and provide a basis for testing regulatory pathways in this model through conditional and inducible manipulation of gene expression in the adult hippocampal progenitor population. PMID:24040071

  8. The influence of ethnicity and adverse life experiences during adolescence on young adult socioeconomic attainment: the moderating role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood. PMID:22528370

  9. [PANDAS: a possible model for adult OCD pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Marconi, Daniela; Limpido, Lucilla; Bersani, Iliana; Giordano, Annalisa; Bersani, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a disabling disorder. Genetic predisposing factors may have an important role in the onset of the symptoms, but is not been individualized any specific gene yet. In the last years it has been demonstrated that obsessive-compulsive disease and/or tic syndromes may be triggered by an antecedent infection especially with group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. On the basis of recent studies has been postulated that in genetically predisposed individuals, certain streptococcal antigens trigger antibodies which, through a process of molecular mimicry, cross-react with epitopes on the basal ganglia. According to such hypothesis, the acronym PANDAS has been used to describe a subset of children with abrupt onset or exacerbations of OCD or tics, or both, following streptococcal infections. Neuroimaging studies reveal increased basal ganglia volumes, and the proposed cause involves the cross-reaction of streptococcal antibodies with basal ganglia tissue. The hypothesis of a possible involvement of the immunitary system seems justified from quantitative alterations of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 in the patients' serum with such syndrome. Echotomographic studies on cardiac valves have not yet demonstrated the parallels between PANDAS and Sydenham's chorea. The use of treatment strategies, such as therapeutic plasmapheresis or intravenous immunoglobulin, has been proposed to explain the autoimmune process responsible for the pathogenesis of PANDAS. Further research is still necessary in order to understand the role of streptococcal infection in the pathogenesis of PANDAS. PMID:20066816

  10. Passaged Adult Chondrocytes Can Form Engineered Cartilage with Functional Mechanical Properties: A Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kenneth W.; Lima, Eric G.; Bian, Liming; O'Conor, Christopher J.; Jayabalan, Prakash S.; Stoker, Aaron M.; Kuroki, Keiichi; Cook, Cristi R.; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Cook, James L.

    2010-01-01

    It was hypothesized that previously optimized serum-free culture conditions for juvenile bovine chondrocytes could be adapted to generate engineered cartilage with physiologic mechanical properties in a preclinical, adult canine model. Primary or passaged (using growth factors) adult chondrocytes from three adult dogs were encapsulated in agarose, and cultured in serum-free media with transforming growth factor-β3. After 28 days in culture, engineered cartilage formed by primary chondrocytes exhibited only small increases in glycosaminoglycan content. However, all passaged chondrocytes on day 28 elaborated a cartilage matrix with compressive properties and glycosaminoglycan content in the range of native adult canine cartilage values. A preliminary biocompatibility study utilizing chondral and osteochondral constructs showed no gross or histological signs of rejection, with all implanted constructs showing excellent integration with surrounding cartilage and subchondral bone. This study demonstrates that adult canine chondrocytes can form a mechanically functional, biocompatible engineered cartilage tissue under optimized culture conditions. The encouraging findings of this work highlight the potential for tissue engineering strategies using adult chondrocytes in the clinical treatment of cartilage defects. PMID:19845465

  11. A revised dosimetric model of the adult head and brain

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchet, L.G.; Bolch, W.E.; Weber, D.A.; Atkins, H.L.; Poston, J.W. ||

    1996-07-01

    During the last decade, several new radiopharmaceuticals have been introduced for brain imaging. The marked differences of these tracers in tissue specificicity within the brain and their increasing use for diagnostic studies support the need for a more antihropomorphic model of the human brain and head. Brain and head models developed in the past have comprised only simplistic representations of this anatomic region. A new brain model has been developed which includes eight subregions: the caudate nucleus, the cerebellium, the cerebral cortex, the lateral ventricles, the lentiform nucleus, the thalamus, the third ventricle and the white matter. This brain model has been included within a slightly modified version of the head model developed by Poston et al. in 1984. The head model, which includes both the thyroid and eyes, was modified in this work to include the cerebrospinal fluid within the cranial and spinal regions. Absorbed fractions of energy for photon and electron sources located in thirteen source regions within the new head model were calculated using the EGS4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code for radiations in the energy range 10 keV to 4 MeV. S-values were calculated for five radionuclides used in brain imaging ({sup 11}C, {sup 15}O, {sup 18}F, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I) and for three radionuclides showing selective uptake in the thyroid ({sup 99m}Tc, {sup 123}I, and {sup 131}I). S-values were calculated using 100 discrete energy points in the beta-emission spectrum of the different radionuclides. 17 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. THE ROLE OF STRESS IN PERIODONTAL DISEASE PROGRESSION IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gingiva (gum tissues) caused by infection with anaerobic bacteria. In older adults, progression of disease can lead to tooth loss, inadequate nutritional intake, and a higher risk of other chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. As the proportion of older adults continues to grow over time and rates of tooth loss decline, prevalence and severity of periodontal disease will increase. While much is known about risk factors for disease onset, gaps remain in our understanding of factors that could influence disease progression. Over the past few decades, stress has been implicated as a contributory factor. This review critically examines the epidemiological and laboratory evidence and describes a conceptual framework that could help move the research forward.

  13. Family Support and Diminished Control in Older Adults: The Role of Proxy Control

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Leslie A.; Brazda, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Diminished personal control over tasks and decisions in later life, shifted to caregiving kin or others, has been associated with negative psychosocial outcomes. This study employs qualitative interview data from older adults in assisted living to examine their accounts of how control was transferred to kin or quasi-kin, focusing on decisions by older kin to delegate tasks (proxy control). Narratives were searched for instances of transfer/loss of control; these instances were reviewed to determine if transfers used proxy control (i.e., transfer chosen by the older adult) and how this change was evaluated. While many transfer events were not fully described, among those with full information there was a clear connection between use of proxy transfer and a positive evaluation. Proxy control shows promise as a strategy to minimize negative outcomes from age-related loss of control and warrants further study. PMID:25474792

  14. Maintaining appearances-The role of p53 in adult neurogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Medrano, Silvia; Scrable, Heidi . E-mail: hs2n@virginia.edu

    2005-06-10

    In the adult mammalian brain, neuronal turnover continues to replenish cells in existing neuronal circuits, such as those involved either in odor discrimination or in learning and memory, throughout life. With age, however, the capacity for neurogenesis diminishes and these functions become impaired. Neuronal turnover is a two-step process, which first generates excess neuronal progenitors and then eliminates all but the few that differentiate into fully functional neurons. This process requires a fine balance between cell proliferation and cell death. Altered activity of the tumor suppressor p53 can upset this balance by affecting the rate of cell proliferation, but not the rate of cell death, in neurogenic regions of the adult brain. Genetically engineered mice in which p53 activity is increased demonstrate that premature loss of neurogenic capacity is linked to accelerated organismal aging.

  15. The role of caring adults in the lives of children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Werner, Emmy E; Johnson, Jeannette L

    2004-04-01

    Longitudinal studies of children of alcoholics in a community context are rare, but are of special interest because they provide the opportunity to study families with alcoholic parents who do not reach clinical settings and with offspring who do not receive professional help. The current study reports on the 65 offspring of alcoholics who participated in the Kauai Longitudinal Study. The extensive data on these analyses included questionnaires and interviews of both children and adults that were collected over a 30-year period. The data showed that individuals who coped effectively with the trauma of growing up in an alcoholic family and who became competent adults relied on a significantly larger number of sources of support in their childhood and youth than did the offspring of alcoholics with coping problems by age 32. PMID:15202805

  16. Health Disparities among LGBT Older Adults and the Role of Nonconscious Bias.

    PubMed

    Foglia, Mary Beth; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the significance of key empirical findings from the recent and landmark study Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging and Sexuality Study (with Karen I. Fredriksen-Goldsen as the principal investigator), on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender aging and health disparities. We will illustrate these findings with select quotations from study participants and show how nonconscious bias (i.e., activation of negative stereotypes outside conscious awareness) in the clinical encounter and health care setting can threaten shared decision-making and perpetuate health disparities among LGBT older adults. We recognize that clinical ethicists are not immune from nonconscious bias but maintain that they are well situated to recognize bias and resulting injustice by virtue of their training. Further, we discuss how clinical ethicists can influence the organization's ethical culture and environment to improve the quality and acceptability of health care for LGBT older adults. PMID:25231786

  17. Adolescent and young adult male sex offenders: understanding the role of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Riser, Diana K; Pegram, Sheri E; Farley, Julee P

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly recidivistic offenders. It is imperative to focus on adolescents and young adults who sexually abuse because they represent a particularly important intervention point in preventing sexual abuse in comparison to older age groups and address the importance of differentiating among youths who sexually abuse, particularly between one-time offenders and recidivistic offenders. Implications for addressing these differences are discussed. PMID:23350537

  18. Care of Older Adults: Role of Primary Care Physicians in the Treatment of Cataracts and Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Marra, Kyle V; Wagley, Sushant; Kuperwaser, Mark C; Campo, Rafael; Arroyo, Jorge G

    2016-02-01

    This article aims to facilitate optimal management of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by providing information on indications, risk factors, referral guidelines, and treatments and to describe techniques to maximize quality of life (QOL) for people with irreversible vision loss. A review of PubMed and other online databases was performed for peer-reviewed English-language articles from 1980 through August 2012 on visual impairment in elderly adults. Search terms included vision loss, visual impairment, blind, low vision, QOL combined with age-related, elderly, and aging. Articles were selected that discussed vision loss in elderly adults, effects of vision impairment on QOL, and care strategies to manage vision loss in older adults. The ability of primary care physicians (PCPs) to identify early signs of cataracts and AMD in individuals at risk of vision loss is critical to early diagnosis and management of these common age-related eye diseases. PCPs can help preserve vision by issuing aptly timed referrals and encouraging behavioral modifications that reduce risk factors. With knowledge of referral guidelines for soliciting low-vision rehabilitation services, visual aids, and community support resources, PCPs can considerably increase the QOL of individuals with uncorrectable vision loss. By offering appropriately timed referrals, promoting behavioral modifications, and allocating low-vision care resources, PCPs may play a critical role in preserving visual health and enhancing the QOL for the elderly population. PMID:26825587

  19. The role of biochemical risk factors in the etiology of AIS in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Kopyta, Ilona; Zimny, Mikołaj; Sarecka-Hujar, Beata

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is an abrupt onset of both focal and global neurological deficits secondary to a vascular event lasting more than 24 h and with a vascular background as its only cause. It can be triggered by a rupture of a blood vessel, aneurysm (hemorrhagic stroke, HS), thrombosis or embolisms (ischemic stroke, IS). In developed countries, it is the third most common cause of death in the adult population. Stroke in children is a rare disorder with a reported frequency of about 3 cases per 100,000 children per year. The history of acute brain ischemia is burdened with neurological complications such as motor impairment, speech impairment and intellectual delay. Moreover, in children after AIS seizures and epilepsy are also quite common. Stroke is a heterogeneous disorder; its risk factors in adults are well known, however, in pediatrics, in more than 20% cases, the cause of stroke is impossible to determine. Due to the fact that stroke usually arises as a consequence of the cerebral thrombosis, many of the mechanisms responsible for its occurrence can be considered as risk factors. We have reviewed the recent case-control studies conducted on pediatric patients regarding biochemical risk factors such as elevated levels of homocysteine, fibrinogen, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, lipoprotein(a), cholesterol and its fractions, and compared them with the results obtained from adult patients. PMID:25428197

  20. The Model Human Processor and the Older Adult: Parameter Estimation and Validation Within a Mobile Phone Task

    PubMed Central

    Jastrzembski, Tiffany S.; Charness, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The authors estimate weighted mean values for nine information processing parameters for older adults using the Card, Moran, and Newell (1983) Model Human Processor model. The authors validate a subset of these parameters by modeling two mobile phone tasks using two different phones and comparing model predictions to a sample of younger (N = 20; Mage = 20) and older (N = 20; Mage = 69) adults. Older adult models fit keystroke-level performance at the aggregate grain of analysis extremely well (R = 0.99) and produced equivalent fits to previously validated younger adult models. Critical path analyses highlighted points of poor design as a function of cognitive workload, hardware/software design, and user characteristics. The findings demonstrate that estimated older adult information processing parameters are valid for modeling purposes, can help designers understand age-related performance using existing interfaces, and may support the development of age-sensitive technologies. PMID:18194048

  1. Adult attachment styles, the desire to have children, and working models of parenthood.

    PubMed

    Rholes, W S; Simpson, J A; Blakely, B S; Lanigan, L; Allen, E A

    1997-06-01

    College students who had yet to marry and begin a family were asked about their desire to have children and their beliefs and expectations about themselves as parents (Study 1) and the characteristics of their prospective children (Study 2). Persons with more avoidant and anxious-ambivalent models of close adult relationships harbored more negative models of parenthood and parent-child relationships. These findings indicate that working models of parenting and parent-child relationships form well before marriage and the birth of children and that these models are systematically associated with attachment styles in adult relationships. The findings also suggest ways in which insecure attachments between child and parent may be influenced by the caregiver's models of parenting and parent-child relationships. PMID:9226942

  2. The Role of Assessment in a Response to Intervention Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lindy

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the role of assessment in a response-to-intervention model. Although assessment represents only 1 component in a response-to-intervention model, a well-articulated assessment system is critical in providing teachers with reliable data that are easily interpreted and used to make instructional decisions. Three components of…

  3. Mental Health and the Adult Refugee: The Role of the ESL Teacher. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Myrna Ann; Sample, Barbara; Birman, Dina

    English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers are often among the first people available to help refugees and other immigrants cope with a new cultural and linguistic environment. Although the identified role of the teacher is to teach English language skills, the teacher's role as cultural broker is also important. This digest focuses on how…

  4. Gender Role Perceptions of Mormon Women from Divorced Families: An Adult-Developmental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafkas, Sara McPhee

    2012-01-01

    More American families now have shifting family forms and gender role practices, but some religious faiths still subscribe to traditional family and gender roles. Following these ideals in modern society can challenge adherents. This qualitative study examined one such faith, considering the perceptions of Mormon (i.e., Latter-day Saint) women…

  5. Role of eosinophils and apoptosis in PDIMs/PGLs deficient mycobacterium elimination in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinhua; Wang, Hui; Meng, Lu; Wang, Qinglan; Yu, Jia; Gao, Qian; Wang, Decheng

    2016-06-01

    The cell wall lipids phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIMs) and its structurally-related compound, phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) are major virulence factors of mycobacterium, as shown by the reduced growth of PDIMs/PGLs deficient mutants in various animal models. PDIMs/PGLs play active roles in modulating host immune responses. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how PDIMs/PGLs deficient mutant was eliminated in vivo are still elusive. Our aim was to investigate what host immune responses have effect on mycobacterium elimination in vivo. Using microarray, we find PDIMs/PGLs modulate divergent host responses, including chemotaxis and focal adhesion's downstream pathway and apoptosis. We examine these two host responses by Diff-Quik stain, coupled with transmission electron microscopy and TUNEL stain respectively. The ultrastructure observation showed that eosinophils appeared in WT-infected zebrafish at day 1, however eosinophils arrived was delayed to day 7 in PDIMs/PGLs-deficient mutant-infected animals. More intriguingly, apoptosis was markedly increased in PDIMs/PGLs-mutant infected zebrafish at day 1 after infection, compared to WT-infected fishes at this time. However, apoptosis trend was fully reversed by day 7, with increased apoptosis were detected in WT-infected zebrafish compared with the PDIMs/PGLs-deficient mutant, especially more apoptosis within the granuloma. This study shows that the anti-apoptotic effects of PDIMs/PGLs and the recruitment of eosinophils in tissue during the early infection in zebrafish might promote bacterium growth in vivo. PMID:26855012

  6. Role of FGF/FGFR signaling in skeletal development and homeostasis: learning from mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Su, Nan; Jin, Min; Chen, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling plays essential roles in bone development and diseases. Missense mutations in FGFs and FGFRs in humans can cause various congenital bone diseases, including chondrodysplasia syndromes, craniosynostosis syndromes and syndromes with dysregulated phosphate metabolism. FGF/FGFR signaling is also an important pathway involved in the maintenance of adult bone homeostasis. Multiple kinds of mouse models, mimicking human skeleton diseases caused by missense mutations in FGFs and FGFRs, have been established by knock-in/out and transgenic technologies. These genetically modified mice provide good models for studying the role of FGF/FGFR signaling in skeleton development and homeostasis. In this review, we summarize the mouse models of FGF signaling-related skeleton diseases and recent progresses regarding the molecular mechanisms, underlying the role of FGFs/FGFRs in the regulation of bone development and homeostasis. This review also provides a perspective view on future works to explore the roles of FGF signaling in skeletal development and homeostasis. PMID:26273516

  7. Distinctive roles of PLD signaling elicited by oxidative stress in synaptic endings from adult and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Melina V; Giusto, Norma M; Salvador, Gabriela A

    2012-12-01

    The role of iron in oxidative injury in the nervous system has been extensively described. However, little is known about the role of lipid signal transduction in neurodegeneration processes triggered by iron overload. The purpose of this work was to characterize the regulation and the crosstalk between phosphatidylcholine (PC)-derived diacylglycerol (DAG) and cannonical signaling pathways during iron-induced oxidative stress in cerebral cortex synaptic endings (Syn) obtained from adult (4 months old) and aged (28 months old) rats. DAG production was increased in Syn exposed to iron. This rise in DAG formation was due to phospholipase D1 (PLD1) and PLD2 activations. In adult rats, PKD1, ERK1/2 and PKCα/βII activations were PLD1 and PLD2 dependent. In contrast, in senile rats, DAG formation catalyzed by PLDs did not participate in PKD1, ERK1/2 and PKCα/βII regulations, but it was dependent on ERK and PKC activities. Iron-induced oxidative stress promoted an increased localization of PLD1 in membrane rafts, whereas PLD2 was excluded from these domains and appeared to be involved in glutamate transporter function. Our results show a differential regulation and synaptic function of DAG generated by PLDs during iron-induced oxidative stress as a consequence of aging. PMID:23010583

  8. To Switch or Not to Switch: Role of Cognitive Control in Working Memory Training in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Basak, Chandramallika; O'Connell, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    It is currently not known what are the best working memory training strategies to offset the age-related declines in fluid cognitive abilities. In this randomized clinical double-blind trial, older adults were randomly assigned to one of two types of working memory training - one group was trained on a predictable memory updating task (PT) and another group was trained on a novel, unpredictable memory updating task (UT). Unpredictable memory updating, compared to predictable, requires greater demands on cognitive control (Basak and Verhaeghen, 2011a). Therefore, the current study allowed us to evaluate the role of cognitive control in working memory training. All participants were assessed on a set of near and far transfer tasks at three different testing sessions - before training, immediately after the training, and 1.5 months after completing the training. Additionally, individual learning rates for a comparison working memory task (performed by both groups) and the trained task were computed. Training on unpredictable memory updating, compared to predictable, significantly enhanced performance on a measure of episodic memory, immediately after the training. Moreover, individuals with faster learning rates showed greater gains in this episodic memory task and another new working memory task; this effect was specific to UT. We propose that the unpredictable memory updating training, compared to predictable memory updating training, may a better strategy to improve selective cognitive abilities in older adults, and future studies could further investigate the role of cognitive control in working memory training. PMID:26973554

  9. The role of self-other distinction in understanding others' mental and emotional states: neurocognitive mechanisms in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus

    2016-01-19

    Social interactions come with the fundamental problem of trying to understand others' mental and affective states while under the overpowering influence of one's own concurrent thoughts and feelings. The ability to distinguish between simultaneous representations of others' current experiences as well as our own is crucial to navigate our complex social environments successfully. The developmental building blocks of this ability and how this is given rise to by functional and structural brain development remains poorly understood. In this review, I outline some of the key findings on the role of self-other distinction in understanding others' mental as well as emotional states in children and adults. I will begin by clarifying the crucial role for self-other distinction in avoiding egocentric attributions of one's own cognitive as well as affective states to others in adults and outline the underlying neural circuitry in overcoming such egocentricity. This will provide the basis for a discussion of the emergence of self-other distinction in early childhood as well as developmental changes therein throughout childhood and into adulthood. I will demonstrate that self-other distinction of cognitive and emotional states is already dissociable early in development. Concomitantly, I will show that processes of self-other distinction in cognitive and affective domains rely on adjacent but distinct neural circuitry each with unique connectivity profiles, presumably related to the nature of the distinction that needs to be made. PMID:26644593

  10. Months of asynchrony in offspring production but synchronous adult emergence: the role of diapause in an ectoparasite's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, Laura; Kaitala, Arja

    2013-12-01

    Off-host stages of temperate zone ectoparasites must overcome two challenges: coping with unfavorable seasons and synchronizing their life cycles with host availability. In general, little is known about the seasonal cycles of insect ectoparasites of warm-blooded animals. The current study investigates the unusual phenology of a viviparous hippoboscid fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi L.), that parasitizes boreal cervids. Despite months of asynchrony in offspring production, the adults emerge synchronously in mid-August across the northern boreal zone. We examined the role of diapause variation in the synchronization of life cycles by testing adult emergence success and time in relation to offspring birth month (October to April) and with respect to chilling time and photoperiod. Unexpectedly, we found that photoperiod had no role in regulating the life cycle, but diapause was maintained as long as pupae were exposed to cold. Pupae born before February needed a slightly longer exposure to high temperatures to terminate diapause if the cold period was short. Despite the apparent importance of a long period of chilling for life cycle synchrony, it was not required to terminate diapause. This finding of cold mainly preventing, rather than promoting, diapause termination is not novel among temperate insects, but it is rare. Slow diapause termination as a response to exceptionally long exposure to high, not low, temperatures seems to be a cornerstone for synchronizing the life cycle in the deer ked. PMID:24216221

  11. To Switch or Not to Switch: Role of Cognitive Control in Working Memory Training in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Chandramallika; O’Connell, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    It is currently not known what are the best working memory training strategies to offset the age-related declines in fluid cognitive abilities. In this randomized clinical double-blind trial, older adults were randomly assigned to one of two types of working memory training – one group was trained on a predictable memory updating task (PT) and another group was trained on a novel, unpredictable memory updating task (UT). Unpredictable memory updating, compared to predictable, requires greater demands on cognitive control (Basak and Verhaeghen, 2011a). Therefore, the current study allowed us to evaluate the role of cognitive control in working memory training. All participants were assessed on a set of near and far transfer tasks at three different testing sessions – before training, immediately after the training, and 1.5 months after completing the training. Additionally, individual learning rates for a comparison working memory task (performed by both groups) and the trained task were computed. Training on unpredictable memory updating, compared to predictable, significantly enhanced performance on a measure of episodic memory, immediately after the training. Moreover, individuals with faster learning rates showed greater gains in this episodic memory task and another new working memory task; this effect was specific to UT. We propose that the unpredictable memory updating training, compared to predictable memory updating training, may a better strategy to improve selective cognitive abilities in older adults, and future studies could further investigate the role of cognitive control in working memory training. PMID:26973554

  12. Experiences of role model instructors and nursing students about facilitator factors of role-modeling process: A qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Jamileh Mokhtari; Ebadi, Abbas; Alhani, Fatemeh; Rejeh, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the key strategies in students’ learning is the influence of models on them. Understanding the factors affecting the implementation of role-modeling process in education will help to make greater use of this training strategy. This study aimed to understand the experiences of role model instructors and nursing students about the facilitator factors in the role-modeling process. Material and Methods: This qualitative study was carried out by using thematic analysis method and purposeful sampling. Data were collected until saturation by using three focus group discussions (n = 20) and two individual interviews with nursing instructors, as well as six semi-structured face-to-face interviews with role model instructors from five nursing faculties of Tehran universities in 2011. Results: Six themes, “effort for humanistic and professional growth of students,” “individual and managerial empowerment of instructor,” “instructor and student's modeling,” “motivation and effort of student,” “strategies governing the education system,” and “appropriate facilities and equipment,” were extracted as the facilitating factors. Conclusions: For development of role-modeling process in nursing education, paying attention to personal and environmental factors, especially effort for professional and humanistic growth of nursing students is necessary. PMID:24949062

  13. Latent Model Analysis of Substance Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among High-Risk Minority Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min Qi; Matthew, Resa F.; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Yan, Fang; Bellamy, Nikki D.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated substance use and HIV risk profile using a latent model analysis based on ecological theory, inclusive of a risk and protective factor framework, in sexually active minority adults (N=1,056) who participated in a federally funded substance abuse and HIV prevention health initiative from 2002 to 2006. Methods: Data…

  14. Motives and Determinants of Volunteering in Older Adults: An Integrated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio; Zelli, Arnaldo; Violani, Cristiano

    2008-01-01

    The present study focused on changes in volunteering over time among Italian adults and examined a model in which motives from self-determination theory (SDT) were hypothesized to influence a series of social-cognitive processes including self-efficacy judgments and constructs from the theory of planned behavior (TPB). The study was conducted with…

  15. Transitioning an Adult-Serving University to a Blended Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korr, Jeremy; Derwin, Ellen Baker; Greene, Kimberly; Sokoloff, William

    2012-01-01

    While many institutions deliver some classes in blended format, Brandman University transitioned all of its face-to-face classes to blended delivery, using a model tailored to the needs of adult learners. This article provides research supporting the ways that blended learning principles align with key principles of andragogy. The article provides…

  16. Adult Participation in Children's Word Searches: On the Use of Prompting, Hinting, and Supplying a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Although word searching in children is very common, very little is known about how adults support children in the turns following the child's search behaviours, an important topic because of the social, educational, and clinical implications. This study characterizes, in detail, teachers' use of prompting, hinting, and supplying a model. From a…

  17. Adaptive Behavior and Cognitive Function of Adults with Down Syndrome: Modeling Change with Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Barbara A.; Eklund, Susan J.; James, David R.; Foose, Alice K.

    2003-01-01

    Fifty-eight adults with Down syndrome were assessed longitudinally over 10 years for the purpose of modeling aging-related change in cognitive function and adaptive behavior. Findings provide further evidence of changes in performance with age and include selected effects for participants who completed the study and those lost to follow-up.…

  18. Modeling dietary fiber intakes in US adults: implications for public policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to simulate the application of the dietary recommendations to increase dietary fiber (DF)-containing foods. This study used 24-hour dietary recalls from NHANES 2003-2006 to model the impact of different approaches of increasing DF with current dietary patterns of US adults...

  19. Levinson's Model as a Predictor of the Adult Development of Policemen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, M. Michael; Ayers, Kenneth, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated adult development of police officers compared to the development of subjects in Daniel Levinson's study. Interviews with 23 male police officers indicated that their lives generally corresponded to Levinson's theory. The nature of subjects' psychosocial stages was similar to Levinson's model for some age periods, but not all.…

  20. Completion and Attrition in Adult Basic Education: A Test of Two Pragmatic Prediction Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkx, John M.; Jha, Ladeane R.

    1994-01-01

    Two prediction models using age and entry-level reading and math scores to differentiate completers and noncompleters were tested with 1,319 community college adult basic education students. Persisters and dropouts were not homogeneous groups; for example, General Educational Development completers differed from other completers, and early and…

  1. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  2. A Leadership Decision-Making Model for the Program Development and Management of Adult Education Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sample, John A.

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the issue of participation in the development and management of programs for adult learners. The Vroom and Yetton model of leadership decision making, a contingency approach that utilizes a range of decision styles, is described through various case examples. (CT)

  3. Developmental Assets: Validating a Model of Successful Adaptation for Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pashak, Travis J.; Hagen, John W.; Allen, Jennifer M.; Selley, Ryan S.

    2014-01-01

    This brief report assesses the validity of applying the adolescent-based developmental assets model to emerging adults. Developmental assets are specific constructs which predict future success, including positive individual characteristics and environmental resources. The researchers developed a self-report survey based on a subset of the assets…

  4. Modeling Participation Intention of Adults in Continuing Education--A Behavioral Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Chiu Ming; Chen, Qijie

    2012-01-01

    The study examined how attitudes and subjective norms could be used to predict participation intention of adults in continuing education. In this research, attitudes comprised the two variables of positive attitude and negative attitude and subjective norms included normative belief and motivation to comply. Structural equation modeling using a…

  5. The Effects of Time-Limitations and Peer Relationships on Adult Student Learning: A Causal Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Carol

    Using data from 4,644 undergraduates, this study tested a causal model identifying effects of social integration, age, and time limiting characteristics on adult student learning. Time limiting characteristics included such constraints as off-campus responsibilities and relationships. Educationally related peer relationships were the strongest…

  6. Polynomial Modeling of Child and Adult Intonation in German Spontaneous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ruiter, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    In a data set of 291 spontaneous utterances from German 5-year-olds, 7-year-olds and adults, nuclear pitch contours were labeled manually using the GToBI annotation system. Ten different contour types were identified.The fundamental frequency (F0) of these contours was modeled using third-order orthogonal polynomials, following an approach similar…

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Dunn and Dunn Model Correlational Research with Adult Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangino, Christine

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a quantitative synthesis of correlational research that focused on the Dunn and Dunn Learning-Style Model and was concerned with adult populations. A total of 8,661 participants from the 47 original investigations provided 386 individual effect sizes for this meta-analysis. The mean effect size was…

  8. The Source of Adult Age Differences in Event-Based Prospective Memory: A Multinomial Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Bayen, Ute J.

    2006-01-01

    Event-based prospective memory involves remembering to perform an action in response to a particular future event. Normal younger and older adults performed event-based prospective memory tasks in 2 experiments. The authors applied a formal multinomial processing tree model of prospective memory (Smith & Bayen, 2004) to disentangle age differences…

  9. A Conceptual Model and Assessment Template for Capacity Evaluation in Adult Guardianship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Jennifer; Butz, Steven W.; Marson, Daniel C.; Wood, Erica

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We develop a conceptual model and associated assessment template that is usable across state jurisdictions for evaluating the independent-living capacity of older adults in guardianship proceedings. Design and Methods: We used an iterative process in which legal provisions for guardianship and prevailing clinical practices for capacity…

  10. Dealing with the Stress of College: A Model for Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler Giancola, Jennifer; Grawitch, Matthew J.; Borchert, Dana

    2009-01-01

    With an increase in nontraditional students attending college, there is a need to understand how work/school/life stress affects adult students. The purpose of this study is to test a comprehensive stress model that posits appraisal (cognitive evaluation) and coping as mediators between stressors/interrole conflict and psychosocial outcomes. The…

  11. Parent Power Nights: A Model for Engaging Adults/Families in Learning Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosheleva, Olga; Lesser, Larry; Munter, Judith; Trillo, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Located on the U.S./México border, The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) offers academic programs in K-12 school teacher preparation. Many of the courses integrate parents and families into teacher preparation courses. One example of effective adult/community learning is the "Parent Power Night" (PPN) component. This model builds a…

  12. A Proposed Integrative Model for Enhanced Career Development for Young Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Dawn C.

    2011-01-01

    Models of career development have been discussed as a matter of growth over the life span and in relation to social learning. An integrated approach using specified career development theories to assist young adults with disabilities will allow professionals to better understand the school-to-work transition and implement meaningful interventions.

  13. Medical Students’ Perceptions of Clinical Teachers as Role Model

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Sonia Ijaz; Snead, David R. J.; Bari, Muhammad Furqan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Role models facilitate student learning and assists in the development of professional identity. However, social organization and cultural values influence the choice of role models. Considering that the social organization and cultural values in South East Asia are different from other countries, it is important to know whether this affects the characteristics medical students look for in their role models in these societies. Methods A 32 item questionnaire was developed and self-administered to undergraduate medical students. Participants rated the characteristics on a three point scale (0 = not important, 1 = mildly important, 2 = very important). One way ANOVA and student's t-test were used to compare the groups. Results A total of 349 (65.23%) distributed questionnaires were returned. The highest ranked themes were teaching and facilitating learning, patient care and continuing professional development followed by communication and professionalism. Safe environment and guiding personal and professional development was indicated least important. Differences were also observed between scores obtained by males and females. Conclusion Globally there are attributes which are perceived as essential for role models, while others are considered desirable. An understanding of the attributes which are essential and desirable for role models can help medical educators devise strategies which can reinforce those attributes within their institutions. PMID:26959364

  14. New neurons in the adult brain: The role of sleep and consequences of sleep loss

    PubMed Central

    Meerlo, Peter; Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Jacobs, Barry L.; Heller, H. Craig; McGinty, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Research over the last few decades has firmly established that new neurons are generated in selected areas of the adult mammalian brain, particularly the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The function of adult-born neurons is still a matter of debate. In the case of the hippocampus, integration of new cells in to the existing neuronal circuitry may be involved in memory processes and the regulation of emotionality. In recent years, various studies have examined how the production of new cells and their development into neurons is affected by sleep and sleep loss. While disruption of sleep for a period shorter than one day appears to have little effect on the basal rate of cell proliferation, prolonged restriction or disruption of sleep may have cumulative effects leading to a major decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation, cell survival and neurogenesis. Importantly, while short sleep deprivation may not affect the basal rate of cell proliferation, one study in rats shows that even mild sleep restriction may interfere with the increase in neurogenesis that normally occurs with hippocampus-dependent learning. Since sleep deprivation also disturbs memory formation, these data suggest that promoting survival, maturation and integration of new cells may be an unexplored mechanism by which sleep supports learning and memory processes. Most methods of sleep deprivation that have been employed affect both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Available data favor the hypothesis that decreases in cell proliferation are related to a reduction in REM sleep, whereas decreases in the number of cells that subsequently develop into adult neurons may be related to reductions in both NREM and REM sleep. The mechanisms by which sleep loss affects different aspects of adult neurogenesis are unknown. It has been proposed that adverse effects of sleep disruption may be mediated by stress and

  15. Change in the Behavioral Phenotype of Adolescents and Adults with FXS: Role of the Family Environment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Leann E; Hong, Jinkuk; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2016-05-01

    The present study examined trajectories of adaptive behavior, behavior problems, psychological symptoms, and autism symptoms in adolescents and adults with fragile X syndrome (n = 147) over a three-year period. Adaptive behavior significantly increased over time, particularly for adolescents, and the severity of behavior problems decreased over time. Family environmental factors predicted phenotypic variables net of gender, intellectual disability status, and medication use. Maternal warmth was associated with higher levels of adaptive behavior, lower levels of autism symptoms, and decreases in behavior problems over time. Maternal depressive symptoms and criticism were associated with higher levels of psychological symptoms. Implications for interventions are discussed. PMID:26861717

  16. Role of minimally invasive surgery for adult spinal deformity in preventing complications.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chun-Po; Mosley, Yusef I; Uribe, Juan S

    2016-09-01

    With the aging population, there is a rising prevalence of degenerative spinal deformity and need of surgical care for these patients. Surgical treatment for adult spinal deformity (ASD) is often fraught with a high rate of complications. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has for the past decade been adopted by spine surgeons to treat ASD in the hopes of reducing access-related morbidity and perioperative complications. The benefits of MIS approach in general and recent development of MIS techniques to avoid long-term complications such as pseudoarthrosis or proximal junctional kyphosis are reviewed. PMID:27411527

  17. The role of Clofarabine in the treatment of adults with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fozza, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    The therapeutic scenario available for adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has shown only partial progresses over the last few years. This is especially true for refractory and relapsed AML whose outcome is still extremely disappointing. In this context Clofarabine has offered new promising perspectives within first and second line protocols. This review will firstly describe the initial development in monotherapy, considering then the different potential combination strategies which include both polichemotherapeutic regimens and less conventional approaches with new generation drugs. The potential use of Clofarabine as induction treatment for patients candidate to stem cell transplantation and within conditioning regimens will be finally evaluated. PMID:25457773

  18. Aging in Place vs. Relocation for Older Adults with Neurocognitive Disorder: Applications of Wiseman's Behavioral Model.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Daniel B; Andersen, Troy Christian; Lehning, Amanda J; Perry, Tam E

    2015-01-01

    Some older adults are more vulnerable to housing concerns due to physical and cognitive challenges, including those with a neurocognitive disorder who need extensive support. Environmental gerontology frameworks, including Wiseman's 1980 Behavioral Model of Elderly Migration, have informed scholarship on aging in place and relocation. Understanding Wiseman's model, including considerations for working with families confronting a neurocognitive disorder, can help practitioners ensure that older clients live in settings that best meet their wants and needs. PMID:26016530

  19. Loneliness and depressive symptoms among older adults: The moderating role of subjective life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Ehud; Bergman, Yoav S

    2016-03-30

    Loneliness and depressive symptoms are closely related, and both are indicators of reduced physical and mental well-being in old age. In recent years, the subjective perception of how long an individual expects to live (subjective life expectancy) has gained importance as a significant predictor of future psychological functioning, as well as of physical health. The current study examined whether subjective life expectancy moderates the connection between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of older adults. Data was collected from the Israeli component of the fifth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE-Israel). Participants (n=2210; mean age=70.35) completed measures of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and life expectancy target age. A hierarchical regression analysis predicting depressive symptoms yielded a significant interaction of loneliness and subjective life expectancy. Further analyses demonstrated that low subjective life expectancy mitigated the loneliness-depressive symptoms connection. Findings are discussed in light of the potential burden of higher subjective life expectancy for lonesome older adults, and practical implications are suggested. PMID:26921056

  20. Differential genomic imprinting regulates paracrine and autocrine roles of IGF2 in mouse adult neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ferrón, S. R.; Radford, E. J.; Domingo-Muelas, A.; Kleine, I.; Ramme, A.; Gray, D.; Sandovici, I.; Constancia, M.; Ward, A.; Menheniott, T. R.; Ferguson-Smith, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is implicated in the control of gene dosage in neurogenic niches. Here we address the importance of Igf2 imprinting for murine adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in vivo. In the SVZ, paracrine IGF2 is a cerebrospinal fluid and endothelial-derived neurogenic factor requiring biallelic expression, with mutants having reduced activation of the stem cell pool and impaired olfactory bulb neurogenesis. In contrast, Igf2 is imprinted in the hippocampus acting as an autocrine factor expressed in neural stem cells (NSCs) solely from the paternal allele. Conditional mutagenesis of Igf2 in blood vessels confirms that endothelial-derived IGF2 contributes to NSC maintenance in SVZ but not in the SGZ, and that this is regulated by the biallelic expression of IGF2 in the vascular compartment. Our findings indicate that a regulatory decision to imprint or not is a functionally important mechanism of transcriptional dosage control in adult neurogenesis. PMID:26369386

  1. Role of impulsivity in the relationship between depression and alcohol problems among emerging adult college drinkers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Vivian M; Reynolds, Brady; Skewes, Monica C

    2011-08-01

    Depression is common among college students and higher levels of depression are associated with greater alcohol-related problems. However, depression is frequently not found to be directly associated with more alcohol use. This study examined whether various aspects of impulsivity (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking, and delay discounting) and drinking to cope with negative affect help to account for the relationship between depression and alcohol problems among emerging adult college drinkers who reported at least a minimal level of depressive symptoms. In this cross-sectional study, 143 emerging adult (between 18 and 25 years old) female (69.9%, n = 100) and male (30.1%, n = 43) college drinkers with at least minimal depressive symptoms completed measures of depression, alcohol use and problems, drinking to cope, and impulsivity. A multiple mediation analysis revealed that only negative urgency and drinking to cope partially mediated the depression-alcohol problems relationship. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that impulsivity-related constructs did not significantly interact with drinking to cope to increase alcohol problems. It appears that alcohol use is particularly problematic for students with elevated depression, and this is partly attributable to depression's association with negative urgency, in addition to its association with drinking to cope. Our findings suggest that students who suffer from depression may engage in problematic drinking behavior in part because negative affect is detrimental to their short-term impulse control and decision making, independent of maladaptive attempts to regulate affect through drinking to cope. PMID:21480733

  2. The role of masturbation in healthy sexual development: perceptions of young adults.

    PubMed

    Kaestle, Christine E; Allen, Katherine R

    2011-10-01

    Despite efforts to identify masturbation as a strategy to improve sexual health, promote relational intimacy, and reduce unwanted pregnancy, STIs, and HIV transmission, masturbation as a context for healthy sexual development has been met with silence or trepidation in the scientific and educational communities. Relegated to the realm of commercial media, rather than rational discourse in families, schools, and the general public, young people receive mixed messages about this non-reproductive sexual behavior. In order to explore how young adults have learned about masturbation and currently perceive masturbation, we conducted a grounded theory study of 72 college students (56 females; 16 males) enrolled in a human sexuality class. Findings revealed that a young adult's perceptions of and feelings toward masturbation were the result of a developmental process that included: (1) learning about the act of masturbation and how to do it, (2) learning and internalizing the social contradiction of stigma and taboo surrounding this pleasurable act, and (3) coming to terms with this tension between stigma and pleasure. Although nearly all participants learned about masturbation through the media and peers (not parents or teachers), gender was salient in coming to terms with the contradiction of stigma and pleasure. Most of the women reported either still struggling with the contradiction or accepting it as normal. Most of the men recognized the beneficial aspects for healthy sexual development that result from masturbation. Both male and female participants identified differential sexual scripts as contributing to the double standard. PMID:21293916

  3. Performance of daily activities by older adults with dementia: the role of an assistive robot.

    PubMed

    Begum, Momotaz; Wang, Rosalie; Huq, Rajibul; Mihailidis, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Older adults with cognitive impairment often have difficulties in remembering the proper sequence of activities of daily living (ADLs) or how to use the tools necessary to perform ADLs. They, therefore, require reminders in a timely fashion while performing ADLs. This is a very stressful situation for the caregivers of people with dementia. In this paper we describe a pilot study where a tele-operated assistive robot helps a group of older adults with dementia (OAwD) to perform an ADL, namely making a cup of tea in the kitchen. Five OAwD along with their caregivers participated in this study which took place in a simulated-home setting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and usability of a robotic system in assisting the OAwD to perform ADL in a home setting. The findings from this study will contribute to achieve our ultimate goal of designing a full-fledged assistive robot that assists OAwD aging in their own homes. The assistive robots designed for people with dementia mostly focus on companionship. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first attempt to design an assistive robot which will provide step-by-step guidance to people with dementia in their activities of daily living. PMID:24187224

  4. Early adult sexual assault and disordered eating: the mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Dubosc, Auberi; Capitaine, Maud; Franko, Debra L; Bui, Eric; Brunet, Alain; Chabrol, Henri; Rodgers, Rachel F

    2012-02-01

    Although adult sexual assault has been suggested to be a risk factor for disordered eating, little is known about the pathways leading to this disorder. This study aimed to examine the mediating effect of depressive symptoms and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in the relationship between sexual assault and disordered eating among female students. A sample of 296 French female students completed a questionnaire assessing experiences of sexual assault from age 15, PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and disordered eating. Results revealed that PTSD symptoms fully mediated the effect of early adult sexual assault on disordered eating (B = 1.10, SE = 1.64), and depressive symptoms were a partial mediator of this relationship (B = 2.64, SE = 1.28). When examining both mediators simultaneously the relationship was fully mediated and neither variable emerged as a significantly stronger mediator. Our findings highlight the complex relationship between PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and disordered eating following sexual assault. Further investigation into the temporal relationships between these variables would contribute to inform prevention interventions for disordered eating. PMID:22354508

  5. Differential genomic imprinting regulates paracrine and autocrine roles of IGF2 in mouse adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ferrón, S R; Radford, E J; Domingo-Muelas, A; Kleine, I; Ramme, A; Gray, D; Sandovici, I; Constancia, M; Ward, A; Menheniott, T R; Ferguson-Smith, A C

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is implicated in the control of gene dosage in neurogenic niches. Here we address the importance of Igf2 imprinting for murine adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in vivo. In the SVZ, paracrine IGF2 is a cerebrospinal fluid and endothelial-derived neurogenic factor requiring biallelic expression, with mutants having reduced activation of the stem cell pool and impaired olfactory bulb neurogenesis. In contrast, Igf2 is imprinted in the hippocampus acting as an autocrine factor expressed in neural stem cells (NSCs) solely from the paternal allele. Conditional mutagenesis of Igf2 in blood vessels confirms that endothelial-derived IGF2 contributes to NSC maintenance in SVZ but not in the SGZ, and that this is regulated by the biallelic expression of IGF2 in the vascular compartment. Our findings indicate that a regulatory decision to imprint or not is a functionally important mechanism of transcriptional dosage control in adult neurogenesis. PMID:26369386

  6. Ski patrollers: Reluctant role models for helmet use

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bruce; Gervais, Jack T.; Heard, Kennon; Valley, Morgan; Lowenstein, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Ski helmets reduce the risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but usage rates are low. Ski patrollers could serve as role models for helmet use, but little is known about their practices and beliefs. Design A written survey was distributed to ski patrollers attending continuing education conferences. Questions addressed helmet use rates; prior TBI experiences; perceptions of helmet risks and benefits; and willingness to serve as safety role models for the public. To assess predictors of helmet use, odds ratios were calculated, after adjusting for skiing experience. Subjects Ninety-three ski patrollers participated. Main Outcome Self-reported helmet use of 100% while patrolling. Results Helmet use was 23% (95% CI 15–32%). Common reasons for non-use included impaired hearing (35%) and discomfort (29%). Most patrollers believed helmets prevent injuries (90%; 95% CI 84–96%) and that they are safety role models (92%; 95% CI 86–98%). However, many believed helmets encourage recklessness (39%; 95% CI 29–49%) and increase injury risks (16%; 95% CI 7–25%). Three factors predicted 100% helmet use: perceived protection from exposure (OR = 9.68; 95% CI 3.14–29.82) or cold (OR = 5.68; 95% CI 1.27–25.42); and belief that role modeling is an advantage of helmets (OR = 4.06; 95% CI 1.29–12.83). Patrollers who believed helmets encourage recklessness were 8 times less likely to wear helmets (OR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03–0.58). Conclusions Ski patrollers know helmets reduce serious injury and believe they are role models for the public, but most do not wear helmets regularly. To increase helmet use, manufacturers should address hearing- and comfort-related factors. Education programs should address the belief that helmets encourage recklessness and stress role modeling as a professional responsibility. PMID:19225971

  7. Optimization of an ex vivo wound healing model in the adult human skin: Functional evaluation using photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Garcia, Jenifer; Sebastian, Anil; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-09-01

    Limited utility of in vitro tests and animal models of human repair, create a demand for alternative models of cutaneous healing capable of functional testing. The adult human skin Wound Healing Organ Culture (WHOC) provides a useful model, to study repair and enable evaluation of therapies such as the photodynamic therapy (PDT). Thus, the aim here was to identify the optimal WHOC model and to evaluate the role of PDT in repair. Wound geometry, system of support, and growth media, cellular and matrix biomarkers were investigated in WHOC models. Subsequently, cellular activity, extracellular matrix remodeling, and oxidative stress plus gene and protein levels of makers of wound repair measured the effect of PDT on the optimized WHOC. WHOCs embedded in collagen and supplemented DMEM were better organized showing stratified epidermis and compact dermis with developing neo-epidermis. Post-PDT, the advancing reepithelialization tongue was 3.5 folds longer, and was highly proliferative with CK-14 plus p16 increased (p < 0.05) compared to controls. The neo-epidermis was fully differentiated forming neo-collagen. Proliferating nuclear antigen, p16, COLI, COLIII, MMP3, MMP19, and α-SMA were significantly more expressed (p < 0.05) in dermis surrounding the healing wound. In conclusion, an optimal model of WHOC treated with PDT shows increased reepithelialization and extracellular matrix reconstruction and remodeling, supporting evidence toward development of an optimal ex vivo wound healing model. PMID:26094764

  8. The Role of Neuropeptides in Mouse Models of Colitis.

    PubMed

    Padua, David; Vu, John P; Germano, Patrizia M; Pisegna, Joseph R

    2016-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) constitutes an important clinically significant condition that results in morbidity and mortality. IBD can be generally classified into either ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) that differs in the clinical and histopathology. The role of neuropeptides in the pathogenesis of these conditions is becoming increasingly recognized for their importance in modulating the inflammatory state. Animal models provide the greatest insight to better understand the pathophysiology of both disorders which will hopefully allow for improved treatment strategies. This review will provide a better understanding of the role of murine models for studying colitis. PMID:26646243

  9. Life Satisfaction and Psychological Well-Being of Older Adults With Cancer Experience: The Role of Optimism and Volunteering.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinmoo; Chun, Sanghee; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Junhyoung

    2016-09-01

    Promoting health and well-being among individuals of advancing age is a significant issue due to increased incidence of cancer among older adults. This study demonstrates the benefits of expecting positive outcomes and participating in volunteer activities among older adults with cancer. We used a nationally representative sample of 2,670 individuals who have experienced cancer from the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. We constructed a structural equation model to explore the associations of optimism, volunteerism, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. The level of optimism was a significant predictor of volunteerism, which in turn affected life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The level of engagement in volunteer activities was found to have significant path coefficients toward both life satisfaction and psychological well-being. Our study provides evidence that older adults who have experienced cancer and maintained a positive outlook on their lives and engaged in personally meaningful activities tended to experience psychological well-being and life satisfaction. PMID:27273518

  10. Does the Model Matter? Comparing Video Self-Modeling and Video Adult Modeling for Task Acquisition and Maintenance by Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.; Schrader, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of learning and maintaining vocational chain tasks using video self-modeling and video adult modeling instruction. Four adolescents with autism spectrum disorders were taught vocational and prevocational skills. Although both video modeling conditions were effective for…

  11. The Role of Mosquitoes in the Diet of Adult Dragon and Damselflies (Odonata).

    PubMed

    Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Beck, Matthias; Weitzel, Thomas; Becker, Norbert

    2015-06-01

    The flood plains of the Upper Rhine Valley provide excellent conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes as well as for the development of dragon and damselflies. It could be assumed that mosquitoes belong to the diet of the Odonata and that the latter could be harmed by the reduction of the mosquito population with the purpose of diminishing the massive nuisance for the people living there. A total of 41 adult dragonflies and damselflies were examined by immunoblot for remnants of mosquitoes in their guts. A rabbit antiserum against Aedes vexans proteins was used for the immunoblot. Only 3 Aeshna cyanea and 1 Platycnemis pennipes could be shown to have fed on mosquitoes. In specimens of the genus Sympetrum no mosquitoes were detected. It seems very doubtful that mosquitoes are an essential part of the Odonata diet. PMID:26181697

  12. Optimizing mobility in later life: the role of the urban built environment for older adults aging in place.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa; Gallagher, Nancy Ambrose

    2013-12-01

    Hazards in the urban built environment can create barriers to mobility among older adults aging in place. We investigated the relationship between urban built environment characteristics and 15-month trajectories of mobility disability in a sample of 1,188 older adults living in Detroit, MI, a city that has undergone rapid economic and structural decline. Data come from the Michigan Minimum Data Set for Home Care (2001-2008), an enumerative database of older adults in Michigan who qualify for federal or state-funded home and community-based long-term care through a Medicaid waiver program. Standardized assessments are made at intake and every 90 days by case managers. Built environments were assessed with a virtual audit using the "Street View" feature of Google Earth. A summary accessibility score was created for each block based on a count of the number of accessible features (e.g., continuous barrier-free sidewalks and proximity of public transportation). Using growth mixture models, two latent trajectories of outdoor mobility were identified: one capturing occasional outdoor mobility (representing 83 % of the sample) and one capturing almost no mobility outside the home. Controlling for sociodemographic and health risk factors, individuals living in more accessible environments had a 18 % higher odds of being in the more mobile group (OR = 1.18, 95 % CI = 1.01, 1.41). These findings emphasize the importance of the built environment for mobility among urban-dwelling older adults. PMID:23592019

  13. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults: The Role of Basal Ganglia Volume

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. Conclusions/Significance The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia

  14. Role of context in care transition interventions for medically complex older adults: a realist synthesis protocol

    PubMed Central

    Pitzul, Kristen B; Lane, Natasha E; Voruganti, Teja; Khan, Anum I; Innis, Jennifer; Wodchis, Walter P; Baker, G Ross

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 30–50% of older adults have two or more conditions and are referred to as multimorbid or complex patients. These patients often require visits to various healthcare providers in a number of settings and are therefore susceptible to fragmented healthcare delivery while transitioning to receive care. Care transition interventions have been implemented to improve continuity of care, however, current evidence suggests that some interventions or components of interventions are only effective within certain contexts. There is therefore a need to unpack the mechanisms of how and within which contexts care transition interventions and their components are effective. Realist review is a synthesis method that explains how complex programmes work within various contexts. The purpose of this study is to explain the effect of context on the activities and mechanisms of care transition interventions in medically complex older adults using a realist review approach. Methods and analysis This synthesis will be guided by Pawson and colleagues’ 2004 and 2005 protocols for conducting realist reviews. The underlying theories of care transition interventions were determined based on an initial literature search using relevant databases. English language peer-reviewed studies published after 1993 will be included. Several relevant databases will be searched using medical subject headings and text terms. A screening form will be piloted and titles, abstracts and full text of potentially relevant articles will be screened in duplicate. Abstracted data will include study characteristics, intervention type, contextual factors, intervention activities and underlying mechanisms. Patterns in Context-Activity-Mechanism-Outcome (CAMO) configurations will be reported. Ethics and dissemination Internal knowledge translation activities will occur throughout the review and existing partnerships will be leveraged to disseminate findings to frontline staff, hospital

  15. Role of oxidative stress in rabies virus infection of adult mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alan C; Kammouni, Wafa; Zherebitskaya, Elena; Fernyhough, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Rabies virus infection of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was studied in vitro with cultured adult mouse DRG neurons. Recent in vivo studies of transgenic mice that express the yellow fluorescent protein indicate that neuronal process degeneration, involving both dendrites and axons, occurs in mice infected with the challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of rabies virus by footpad inoculation. Because of the similarities of the morphological changes in experimental rabies and in diabetic neuropathy and other diseases, we hypothesize that neuronal process degeneration occurs as a result of oxidative stress. DRG neurons were cultured from adult ICR mice. Two days after plating, they were infected with CVS. Immunostaining was evaluated with CVS- and mock-infected cultures for neuron specific beta-tubulin, rabies virus antigen, and amino acid adducts of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) (marker of lipid peroxidation and hence oxidative stress). Neuronal viability (by trypan blue exclusion), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining, and axonal growth were also assessed with the cultures. CVS infected 33 to 54% of cultured DRG neurons. Levels of neuronal viability and TUNEL staining were similar in CVS- and mock-infected DRG neurons. There were significantly more 4-HNE-labeled puncta at 2 and 3 days postinfection in CVS-infected cultures than in mock-infected cultures, and axonal outgrowth was reduced at these time points in CVS infection. Axonal swellings with 4-HNE-labeled puncta were also associated with aggregations of actively respiring mitochondria. We have found evidence that rabies virus infection in vitro causes axonal injury of DRG neurons through oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may be important in vivo in rabies and may explain previous observations of the degeneration of neuronal processes. PMID:20181692

  16. Epidermal growth factor receptor plays a role in the regulation of liver and plasma lipid levels in adult male mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiuqi; Garcia, Oscar A.; Wang, Rebecca F.; Stevenson, Mary C.; Threadgill, David W.; Russell, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Dsk5 mice have a gain of function in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), caused by a point mutation in the kinase domain. We analyzed the effect of this mutation on liver size, histology, and composition. We found that the livers of 12-wk-old male Dsk5 heterozygotes (+/Dsk5) were 62% heavier compared with those of wild-type controls (+/+). The livers of the +/Dsk5 mice compared with +/+ mice had larger hepatocytes with prominent, polyploid nuclei and showed modestly increased cell proliferation indices in both hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells. An analysis of total protein, DNA, and RNA (expressed relative to liver weight) revealed no differences between the mutant and wild-type mice. However, the livers of the +/Dsk5 mice had more cholesterol but less phospholipid and fatty acid. Circulating cholesterol levels were twice as high in adult male +/Dsk5 mice but not in postweaned young male or female mice. The elevated total plasma cholesterol resulted mainly from an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The +/Dsk5 adult mouse liver expressed markedly reduced protein levels of LDL receptor, no change in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, and a markedly increased fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase. Increased expression of transcription factors associated with enhanced cholesterol synthesis was also observed. Together, these findings suggest that the EGFR may play a regulatory role in hepatocyte proliferation and lipid metabolism in adult male mice, explaining why elevated levels of EGF or EGF-like peptides have been positively correlated to increased cholesterol levels in human studies. PMID:24407590

  17. Partially ordered mixed hidden Markov model for the disablement process of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Edward H.; Zhang, Qiang; Rejeski, W. Jack; Harris, Tamara B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    At both the individual and societal levels, the health and economic burden of disability in older adults is enormous in developed countries, including the U.S. Recent studies have revealed that the disablement process in older adults often comprises episodic periods of impaired functioning and periods that are relatively free of disability, amid a secular and natural trend of decline in functioning. Rather than an irreversible, progressive event that is analogous to a chronic disease, disability is better conceptualized and mathematically modeled as states that do not necessarily follow a strict linear order of good-to-bad. Statistical tools, including Markov models, which allow bidirectional transition between states, and random effects models, which allow individual-specific rate of secular decline, are pertinent. In this paper, we propose a mixed effects, multivariate, hidden Markov model to handle partially ordered disability states. The model generalizes the continuation ratio model for ordinal data in the generalized linear model literature and provides a formal framework for testing the effects of risk factors and/or an intervention on the transitions between different disability states. Under a generalization of the proportional odds ratio assumption, the proposed model circumvents the problem of a potentially large number of parameters when the number of states and the number of covariates are substantial. We describe a maximum likelihood method for estimating the partially ordered, mixed effects model and show how the model can be applied to a longitudinal data set that consists of N = 2,903 older adults followed for 10 years in the Health Aging and Body Composition Study. We further statistically test the effects of various risk factors upon the probabilities of transition into various severe disability states. The result can be used to inform geriatric and public health science researchers who study the disablement process. PMID:24058222

  18. The Counselor's Role Communication Skills, or The Roles Counselors Play: A Conceptual Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a two-dimensional conceptual model which outlines a comprehensive approach to skill-oriented counselor training. Discusses eight major counselor roles: attender; clarifier; informer or describer; prober or inquirer; supporter or reassurer; motivator or prescriber; evaluator or analyzer; and problem solver. (Author)

  19. Family Members Providing Home-Based Palliative Care to Older Adults: The Enactment of Multiple Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmer, Sarah J.; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Canadians are experiencing increased life expectancy and chronic illness requiring end-of-life care. There is limited research on the multiple roles for family members providing home-based palliative care. Based on a larger ethnographic study of client-family-provider relationships in home-based palliative care, this qualitative secondary analysis…

  20. The Role of Experience: A Qualitative Study of Adult Learning in History Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    The problem to be investigated by this study is whether museum visitors' history content knowledge is enhanced by their museum experience and whether their lived experiences played a role in their learning. The study is based on the theories of experiential, informal and free-choice learning. A qualitative design examined the lived experiences of…