Hawkes, F. J.
Proceeding on the assumption that humans learn behaviors by imitating the behavior of others, the author is concerned with the appropriate behavioral models needed in dealing with delinquent female adolescents in a group situation. Three potential models are discussed: (1) the group leader or leaders; (2) the group members; and (3) the invited…
Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Xue, Yange
We investigated whether role models (individuals adolescents look up to) contributed to the resilience of adolescents who were exposed to negative nonparental adult influences. Our sample included 659 African American, ninth-grade adolescents. We found that adolescents' exposure to negative adult behavior was associated with increased…
Juhasz, Anne McCreary
Presents triple-helix model of adult development which incorporates three major roles: family, work, and self, each powered by drive for self-esteem. Asserts that this approach accommodates wide range of possible patterns and varied timing of life events relative to career options, family and relationship choices, and emphasis on self-development.…
Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon
Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…
McCarthy, Gerard; Maughan, Barbara
This study investigated links between internal working models of attachment and the quality of adult love relationships in a high risk sample of women (n = 34), all of whom reported negative parenting in childhood. Half of the sample was identified as having a history of satisfying adult love relationships, while the remainder had experienced ongoing adult relationship problems. Measures of internal working models of attachment were made using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). A strong association was found between attachment classifications and the quality of adult love relationships. In addition, women with satisfying love relationships demonstrated significantly higher coherence of mind ratings than those with poor relationship histories. Insecure working models of attachment were associated with problems in adult love relationships. Although secure/autonomous attachment status was linked to optimal adult relationship outcomes, some women with a history of satisfying love relationships had insecure working models of attachment. These results suggest that the ways that adults process early experiences may influence later psychosocial functioning.
Felstead, Ian S; Springett, Kate
Patients' expectations of being cared for by a nurse who is caring, competent, and professional are particularly pertinent in current health and social care practice. The current drive for NHS values-based recruitment serves to strengthen this. How nursing students' development of professionalism is shaped is not fully known, though it is acknowledged that their practice experience strongly shapes behaviour. This study (in 2013-14) explored twelve adult nursing students' lived experiences of role modelling through an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach, aiming to understand the impact on their development as professional practitioners. Clinical nurses influenced student development consistently. Some students reported that their experiences allowed them to learn how not to behave in practice; a productive learning experience despite content. Students also felt senior staff influence on their development to be strong, citing 'leading by example.' The impact of patients on student professional development was also a key finding. Through analysing information gained, identifying and educating practice-based mentors who are ready, willing, and able to role model professional attributes appear crucial to developing professionalism in nursing students. Those involved in nurse education, whether service providers or universities, may wish to acknowledge the influence of clinical nurse behaviour observed by students both independent of and in direct relation to care delivery and the impact on student nurse professional development. A corollary relates to how students should be guided and briefed/debriefed to work with a staff to ensure their exposure to a variety of practice behaviours.
Harzsch, Steffen; von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver
Persistent neurogenesis in the adult brain of both vertebrates and invertebrates was previously considered to be driven by self-renewing neuronal stem cells of ectodermal origin. Recent findings in an invertebrate model challenge this view and instead provide evidence for a recruitment of neuronal precursors from a non-neuronal source. In the brain of adult crayfish, a neurogenic niche was identified that contributes progeny to the adult central olfactory pathway. The niche may function in attracting cells from the hemolymph and transforming them into cells with a neuronal fate. This finding implies that the first-generation neuronal precursors located in the crayfish neurogenic niche are not self-renewing. Evidence is summarized in support of a critical re-evaluation of long-term self-renewal of mammalian neuronal stem cells. Latest findings suggest that a tight link between the immune system and the system driving adult neurogenesis may not only exist in the crayfish but also in mammals.
Cappetta, Donato; Urbanek, Konrad; Esposito, Grazia; Matteis, Maria; Sgambato, Manuela; Tartaglione, Gioia; Rossi, Francesco
Structural changes contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness and airflow obstruction in asthma. Emerging evidence points to the involvement of c-kit+ cells in lung homeostasis, although their potential role in asthma is unknown. Our aim was to isolate c-kit+ cells from normal mouse lungs and to test whether these cells can interfere with hallmarks of asthma in an animal model. Adult mouse GFP-tagged c-kit+ cells, intratracheally delivered in the ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, positively affected airway remodeling and improved airway function. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of cell-treated animals, a reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and in IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 release, along with an increase of IL-10, was observed. In MSC-treated mice, the macrophage polarization to M2-like subset may explain, at least in part, the increment in the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. After in vitro stimulation of c-kit+ cells with proinflammatory cytokines, the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and TGFβ were upregulated. These data, together with the increased apoptosis of inflammatory cells in vivo, indicate that c-kit+ cells downregulate immune response in asthma by influencing local environment, possibly by cell-to-cell contact combined to paracrine action. In conclusion, intratracheally administered c-kit+ cells reduce inflammation, positively modulate airway remodeling, and improve function. These data document previously unrecognized properties of c-kit+ cells, able to impede pathophysiological features of experimental airway hyperresponsiveness. PMID:28090152
Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.
Experimental results in recent years have shown that adult neurogenesis is a significant phenomenon in the mammalian brain. Little is known, however, about the functional role played by the generation and destruction of neurons in the context of an adult brain. Here, we propose two models where new projection neurons are incorporated. We show that in both models, using incorporation and removal of neurons as a computational tool, it is possible to achieve a higher computational efficiency that in purely static, synapse-learning-driven networks. We also discuss the implication for understanding the role of adult neurogenesis in specific brain areas like the olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus.
Heber, María F; Vélez, Leandro M; Ferreira, Silvana R; Amalfi, Sabrina; Motta, Alicia B
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the commonest endocrine diseases that affect women in their reproductive ages; however, the etiology of the syndrome remains unknown. A hypothesis proposes that during gestation increased exposure of androgen would induce fetal programming that may increase the risk of PCOS development during the adult life. By means of a prenatally hyperandrogenized (HA) rat model we demonstrated the importance of determining the lipid profile at early ages. HA induced two different phenotypes: ovulatory and anovulatory PCOS. HA did not modify total cholesterol but decreased HDL cholesterol and increased both LDL and tryglicerides (TG) when compared with controls. Both, the ratio total cholesterol: HDL (marker of cardiovascular risk) and TG:HDL (marker of metabolic syndrome) were increased in the HA group with respect to controls. In addition, these abnormalities were stronger in the anovulatory than ovulatory phenotype. Our results point out the need to find early markers of PCOS in girls or adolescents with increased risk to develop PCOS (as in daughters of women with PCOS).
In this paper, Larkin and Gould's (1999) activity theory methodology for defining work-related roles and Burns' (1963) analysis of organismic organizational form are merged into a model that describes associate and leadership roles and relationships in virtual organizations. The effects of a lack of shared physical space and face-to-face social…
McCreary, Donald R.; Newcomb, Michael D.; Sadava, Stanley W.
Utilizes structural model to examine relationships between three male-role variables, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related problems in sample of men and women. For men, traditional attitudes led to more alcohol consumption, whereas agentic traits protected them from experiencing alcohol-related problems and from experiencing masculine…
ten Cate, Jacob M
Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of action and was also utilized for the formulation of oral care products. In addition, we made use of intra-oral (in situ) models to study other features of the oral environment that drive the de/remineralization balance in individual patients. This model addressed basic questions, such as how enamel and dentine are affected by challenges in the oral cavity, as well as practical issues related to fluoride toothpaste efficacy. The observation that perhaps fluoride is not sufficiently potent to reduce dental caries in the present-day society triggered us to expand our knowledge in the bacterial aetiology of dental caries. For this we developed the Amsterdam Active Attachment biofilm model. Different from studies on planktonic ('single') bacteria, this biofilm model captures bacteria in a habitat similar to dental plaque. With data from the combination of these models, it should be possible to study separate processes which together may lead to dental caries. Also products and novel agents could be evaluated that interfere with either of the processes. Having these separate models in place, a suggestion is made to design computer models to encompass the available information. Models but also role models are of the utmost importance in bringing and guiding research and researchers.
This book describes several curriculum models currently used in the field of adult education in an effort to assist adult educators who develop curricula as a routine part of their jobs. The book is divided into 14 chapters that are grouped into 7 sections. Each section covers a type of educational program, and each chapter describes a specific…
Lindner, Charles L.
The current economic crisis, a growing workforce, the increasing lifespan of workers, and demanding, complex jobs have made organizations highly selective in employee recruitment and retention. It is therefore important, to the adult educator, to develop models of learning that better prepare adult learners for the workplace. The purpose of…
Snow, Ellen; And Others
This handbook was developed to provide adult educators in Texas with sufficient background in assessment models to ensure confidence in recognizing and/or selecting appropriate measurement techniques and in using evaluation results to individualize and improve instruction for adult students. The handbook is based on information derived from a…
Prenderville, Jack A; Kelly, Áine M; Downer, Eric J
The processes underpinning post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain continue to be defined. Such processes involve the proliferation of neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells (NPCs), neuronal migration, differentiation and integration into a network of functional synapses within the brain. Both intrinsic (cell signalling cascades) and extrinsic (neurotrophins, neurotransmitters, cytokines, hormones) signalling molecules are intimately associated with adult neurogenesis and largely dictate the proliferative activity and differentiation capacity of neural cells. Cannabinoids are a unique class of chemical compounds incorporating plant-derived cannabinoids (the active components of Cannabis sativa), the endogenous cannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoid ligands, and these compounds are becoming increasingly recognized for their roles in neural developmental processes. Indeed, cannabinoids have clear modulatory roles in adult neurogenesis, probably through activation of both CB1 and CB2 receptors. In recent years, a large body of literature has deciphered the signalling networks involved in cannabinoid-mediated regulation of neurogenesis. This timely review summarizes the evidence that the cannabinoid system is intricately associated with neuronal differentiation and maturation of NPCs and highlights intrinsic/extrinsic signalling mechanisms that are cannabinoid targets. Overall, these findings identify the central role of the cannabinoid system in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and the lateral ventricles and hence provide insight into the processes underlying post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. PMID:25951750
Anderson, Scott; Currie, Cheryl L; Copeland, Jennifer L
Sedentary behavior is a modifiable determinant of health. Little is known about the ways in which contextual factors may influence this behavior. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the association between community belonging and adult sedentary behavior during leisure; (2) determine if this association was explained by perceived health. Data were derived from the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 11,494 adults). Multinomial regression models and 99% confidence intervals were used to examine associations between sense of community belonging and sedentary behavior, adjusting for sociodemographic variables and perceived health. On average, adults were sedentary for 20-24 h per week during leisure. More than a third of the sample reported low sedentary behavior (≤ 19 h a week). In a fully adjusted model participants who were female, in middle adulthood, married, and/or living in higher income households were less sedentary during leisure. Adults with a strong sense of community belonging were also significantly less sedentary during leisure; this association remained significant after adjustment for perceived mental and overall health. Most efforts to address sedentary behavior have focused on individual-level interventions. The present finding highlights the role that larger contextual factors may play in sedentary behavior. Sense of community belonging is a contextual determinant of health that may serve as a useful target for interventions designed to reduce adult sedentary behavior during leisure.
Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David
American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians.
Charters, Alexander N.
The author states that the coming of age of adult and continuing education has brought the role of research into focus. Two aspects of the research role are explored: What research has been done on the continuing education of adult educators, and what should be the roles of research? The major portion of this report is devoted to a review of the…
Saar, Ellu; Ure, Odd Bjorn; Desjardins, Richard
This article considers the role of diverse institutions in framing adult learning systems. The focus is on institutional characteristics and configurations in different countries and their potential impact on the extent of adult learning, as well as on inequalities in access to adult learning. Typologies of education and training systems as well…
Martins, Teresa C; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moreira, Helena
Although it is widely recognized that adult attachment is associated with romantic relationship quality, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of external and internal shame on the association between attachment and dyadic adjustment. A battery of self-report measures was completed by 228 Portuguese participants and a serial multiple mediation model was tested. Data showed that, in the population under study, attachment dimensions were associated with worse dyadic adjustment through high external and internal shame. Internal shame alone also mediated the association between attachment avoidance and dyadic adjustment. This study identifies a new putative mechanism linking adult attachment and intimate relationship functioning that may be targeted in couples therapy to promote a better dyadic adjustment and relationship functioning.
Scheyer, Rachel; Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit; Ziyoni, Herzel
In recent years, the healthcare system has grown increasingly aware of the need to develop and adopt new models and intervention methods aimed at improving patients' quality of life. As part of this perception, medical clowns have been integrated into hospitals, primarily in work with children. Recently, there have been attempts to integrate clowns into work with adult patients in emergency rooms, but this intervention method has not yet been systematically implemented and studied. This article describes and examines the definition of the medical clown's role as an intervention strategy with adult outpatients suffering from chronic and life-threatening illnesses. The study is qualitative and based on a content analysis of the documentation of the work of two medical clowns over two years. The dominant theme arising from this analysis involves the definition of the clown's role within the medical space of the hospital and includes perspectives on his integration into the hospital's multidisciplinary medical staff and his impact on the staff and on patients and their families. The findings indicate that, from the clowns' point of view, integrated medical clowns as part of the medical team, would contribute to the functioning of both patients and staff. This is in accord with additional studies conducted recently in medical centers around the world. Since this is a pioneering study, there is room to further probe and research the medical clown's contribution to assisting and improving patients' and staff's quality of life and to develop ways of increasing his integration and professionalism.
This article examines the significance of communal eating among adults from Santiago, Chile, by elaborating on a theoretical model for commensality that is based on empirical material. Based on this objective, 24 group interviews were conducted in Santiago with family members, coworkers, and friends who shared meals with one another. The results showed that the practice of commensality strengthens the cohesion among the members of a group, providing an interactive space in which communal belonging is symbolized and shared norms are respected. However, eating together also is assigned an ambiguous value: On the one hand, commensality is viewed as positive in enabling connections with others. On the other hand, participating in commensality can be viewed as negative, causing tensions depending on the characteristics of the commensal group and the context.
Fernandes, Carina; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F.; Rocha, Susana; Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Salas-Pacheco, José; García-García, Fabio; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar
Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called adult neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of adult neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and adult neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory, and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on adult neurogenesis. PMID:25926773
Viswanathan, Ravi K.; Mathur, Sameer K.
There is a common perception among physicians and patients that allergic diseases are not relevant in older adults. There is recognition that both innate and adaptive immune functions decline with aging. It is the function of a variety of immune cells in the form of allergic inflammation that is a hallmark of allergic diseases. In fact, there is a fairly consistent observation that measures of allergic sensitization, such as skin prick testing, specific IgE or total IgE decline with age. Nonetheless, the association between allergic sensitization and allergic diseases, particularly asthma and allergic rhinitis, remains robust in the elderly population. Consequently, an appropriate evaluation of allergic sensitivities is warranted and indicated in older asthma and rhinitis patients in order to provide optimal care for the individual and minimize any resultant morbidity and mortality. PMID:21667198
Gemma, Carmelina; Bachstetter, Adam D
Our view of microglia has dramatically changed in the last decade. From cells being "silent" in the healthy brain, microglia have emerged to be actively involved in several brain physiological functions including adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and cognitive and behavioral function. In light of recent discoveries revealing a role of microglia as important effectors of neuronal circuit reorganization, considerable attention has been focused on how microglia and hippocampal neurogenesis could be an interdependent phenomenon. In this review the role of microglia in the adult hippocampal neurogenesis under physiological condition is discussed.
BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1989
A study examined the Federal Government's role in adult literacy. A far-reaching plan of action for the Federal Government was proposed that was based on an understanding of national literacy need and the structure and politics of Federal Government. The focus of the current national literacy movement was found to be seriously flawed in…
Ehlman, Katie; Ligon, Mary
Generativity is a concept first introduced by Erik Erikson as a part of his psychosocial theory which outlines eight stages of development in the human life. Generativity versus stagnation is the main developmental concern of middle adulthood; however, generativity is also recognized as an important theme in the lives of older adults. Building on the work of Erikson, McAdams and de St. Aubin (1992) developed a model explaining the generative process. The aims of this article are: (a) to explore the relationship between generativity and older adults as it appears in research literature; and (b) to examine McAdam's model and use it to explain the role of generativity in older adults who share life stories with gerontology students through an oral history project.
Levone, Brunno R.; Cryan, John F.; O'Leary, Olivia F.
There is a growing appreciation that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in emotional and cognitive processes related to psychiatric disorders. Although many studies have investigated the effects of stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, most have not focused on whether stress-induced changes in neurogenesis occur specifically in animals that are more resilient or more susceptible to the behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of stress. Thus, in the present review we explore whether there is a clear relationship between stress-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, stress resilience and antidepressant-induced recovery from stress-induced changes in behaviour. Exposure to different stressors is known to reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but some stressors have also been shown to exert opposite effects. Ablation of neurogenesis does not lead to a depressive phenotype, but it can enhance responsiveness to stress and affect stress susceptibility. Monoaminergic-targeted antidepressants, environmental enrichment and adrenalectomy are beneficial for reversing stress-induced changes in behaviour and have been shown to do so in a neurogenesis-dependant manner. In addition, stress and antidepressants can affect hippocampal neurogenesis, preferentially in the ventral hippocampus. Together, these data show that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in the neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress, although it is not yet fully clear under which circumstances neurogenesis promotes resilience or susceptibility to stress. It will be important that future studies carefully examine how adult hippocampal neurogenesis can contribute to stress resilience/susceptibility so that it may be appropriately exploited for the development of new and more effective treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:27589664
Smith, Matthew J.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick
Sibling expectations to provide future instrumental or emotional support for a brother or sister with schizophrenia when parents became disabled or died were examined. Data came from a sample of 137 siblings participating in a longitudinal study of aging families of adults with schizophrenia. Early socialization experiences, the quality of the sibling relationship, and personal caregiver gains propel siblings toward a future caregiving role, whereas geographic distance and beliefs about the controllability of psychiatric symptoms reduce expectations of future involvement. PMID:17352582
Dickins, Marissa; Thomas, Samantha L; King, Bri; Lewis, Sophie; Holland, Kate
Obese adults face pervasive and repeated weight-based stigma. Few researchers have explored how obese individuals proactively respond to stigma outside of a dominant weight-loss framework. Using a grounded theory approach, we explored the experiences of 44 bloggers within the Fatosphere--an online fat-acceptance community. We investigated participants' pathways into the Fatosphere, how they responded to and interacted with stigma, and how they described the impact of fat acceptance on their health and well-being. The concepts and support associated with the fat-acceptance movement helped participants shift from reactive strategies in responding to stigma (conforming to dominant discourses through weight loss) to proactive responses to resist stigma (reframing "fat" and self-acceptance). Participants perceived that blogging within the Fatosphere led them to feel more empowered. Participants also described the benefits of belonging to a supportive community, and improvements in their health and well-being. The Fatosphere provides an alternative pathway for obese individuals to counter and cope with weight-based stigma.
Handa, R J; Ogawa, S; Wang, J M; Herbison, A E
Oestradiol exerts a profound influence upon multiple brain circuits. For the most part, these effects are mediated by oestrogen receptor (ER)α. We review here the roles of ERβ, the other ER isoform, in mediating rodent oestradiol-regulated anxiety, aggressive and sexual behaviours, the control of gonadotrophin secretion, and adult neurogenesis. Evidence exists for: (i) ERβ located in the paraventricular nucleus underpinning the suppressive influence of oestradiol on the stress axis and anxiety-like behaviour; (ii) ERβ expressed in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones contributing to oestrogen negative-feedback control of gonadotrophin secretion; (iii) ERβ controlling the offset of lordosis behaviour; (iv) ERβ suppressing aggressive behaviour in males; (v) ERβ modulating responses to social stimuli; and (vi) ERβ in controlling adult neurogenesis. This review highlights two major themes; first, ERβ and ERα are usually tightly inter-related in the oestradiol-dependent control of a particular brain function. For example, even though oestradiol feedback to control reproduction occurs principally through ERα-dependent mechanisms, modulatory roles for ERβ also exist. Second, the roles of ERα and ERβ within a particular neural network may be synergistic or antagonistic. Examples of the latter include the role of ERα to enhance, and ERβ to suppress, anxiety-like and aggressive behaviours. Splice variants such as ERβ2, acting as dominant negative receptors, are of further particular interest because their expression levels may reflect preceeding oestradiol exposure of relevance to oestradiol replacement therapy. Together, this review highlights the predominant modulatory, but nonetheless important, roles of ERβ in mediating the many effects of oestradiol upon adult brain function.
Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth
Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor.
Bricheno, Patricia; Thornton, Mary
Background: Claims that male role models can improve the behaviour and achievement of boys are familiar and persistent. However, research has not confirmed such a link; recent UK studies indicate that peers and relatives may be far more important to boys than their teachers. Given the seemingly relentless reference to male teachers as role models…
McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J
There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males.
Arisi, Gabriel M; Foresti, Maira L; Mukherjee, Sanjib; Shapiro, Lee A
Neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian brain in discrete regions related to olfactory sensory signaling and integration. The olfactory receptor cell population is in constant turn-over through local progenitor cells. Also, newborn neurons are added to the olfactory bulbs through a major migratory route from the subventricular zone, the rostral migratory stream. The olfactory bulbs project to different brain structures, including: piriform cortex, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, striatum and hippocampus. These structures play important roles in odor identification, feeding behavior, social interactions, reproductive behavior, behavioral reinforcement, emotional responses, learning and memory. In all of these regions neurogenesis has been described in normal and in manipulated mammalian brain. These data are reviewed in the context of a sensory-behavioral hypothesis on adult neurogenesis that olfactory input modulates neurogenesis in many different regions of the brain.
Marco-Salazar, P; Márquez, M; Fondevila, D; Rabanal, R M; Torres, J M; Pumarola, M; Vidal, E
Neurotrophins are a family of growth factors that act on neuronal cells. The neurotrophins include nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin (NT)-3, -4 and -5. The action of neurotrophins depends on two transmembrane-receptor signalling systems: (1) the tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) family of tyrosine kinase receptors (Trk A, Trk B and Trk C) and (2) the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)). The interaction between neurotrophic factors and their receptors may be involved in the mechanisms that regulate the differential susceptibility of neuronal populations in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of neurotrophins in the pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) using a transgenic mouse overexpressing bovine prnp (BoTg 110). Histochemistry for Lycopersicum esculentum agglutinin, haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry for the abnormal isoform of the prion protein (PrP(d)), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and the receptors Trk A, Trk B, Trk C and p75(NTR) was performed. The lesions and the immunolabelling patterns were assessed semiquantitatively in different areas of the brain. No significant differences in the immunolabelling of neurotrophins and their receptors were observed between BSE-inoculated and control animals, except for p75(NTR), which showed increased expression correlating with the distribution of lesions, PrP(d) deposition and gliosis in the BSE-inoculated mice.
Brown, Mabel C.
Provided for each of 12 minority group role models in aquatic occupations are job responsibilities, educational requirements, comments on a typical day at the job, salary range, and recommendations for students wishing to enter the field described. (JN)
McDermott, Ryon C; Lopez, Frederick G
Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence in relationships are key risk factors for IPV perpetration; however, comparatively few studies have examined the social and relational variables related to IPV acceptance attitudes. In the present study, we proposed and tested a structural model examining the combined contributions of adult attachment dimensions (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and masculine gender role stress in the prediction of IPV acceptance attitudes in a large sample of college men (N = 419). We hypothesized that the relationship between attachment insecurity and IPV acceptance attitudes would be partially mediated by men's gender role stress. A partially mediated model produced the best indices of model fit, accounting for 31% of the variance in an IPV acceptance attitudes latent variable. A bootstrapping procedure confirmed the significance of mediation effects. These results suggest that aspects of adult attachment insecurity are associated with tendencies to experience stress from violations of rigidly internalized traditional male role norms, which, in turn, are associated with acceptance of IPV. Findings are further discussed in relation to adult attachment theory (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007), gender role strain theory (Pleck, 1995), and their implications for IPV prevention in college student populations.
Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Bustillos, Antonio; Santacreu, Marta; Schettini, Rocio; Díaz-Veiga, Pura; Huici, Carmen
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine, from the stereotype content model (SCM) perspective, the role of the competence and warmth stereotypes of older adults held by professional caregivers. Methods A quasi-experimental design, ex post facto with observational analyses, was used in this study. The cultural view on competence and warmth was assessed in 100 caregivers working in a set of six residential geriatric care units (three of them organized following a person-centered care approach and the other three providing standard geriatric care). In order to assess caregivers’ cultural stereotypical views, the SCM questionnaire was administered. To evaluate the role of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes in their professional performance as well as in older adult functioning, two observational scales from the Sistema de Evaluación de Residencias de Ancianos (assessment system for older adults residences)-RS (staff functioning and residents’ functioning) were applied. Results Caregivers’ cultural views of older adults (compared to young people) are characterized by low competence and high warmth, replicating the data obtained elsewhere from the SCM. Most importantly, the person-centered units predict better staff performance and better resident functioning than standard units. Moreover, cultural stereotyping of older adult competence moderates the effects of staff performance on resident functioning, in line with the findings of previous research. Conclusion Our results underline the influence of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes on the type of care, as well as on their professional behaviors and on older adult functioning. Caregivers’ cultural stereotypes could be considered as a central issue in older adult care since they mediate the triangle of care: caregivers/older adults/type of care; therefore, much more attention should be paid to this psychosocial care component. PMID:27217736
Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa
Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586
Apkarian, A Vania; Mutso, Amelia A; Centeno, Maria V; Kan, Lixin; Wu, Melody; Levinstein, Marjorie; Banisadr, Ghazal; Gobeske, Kevin T; Miller, Richard J; Radulovic, Jelena; Hen, René; Kessler, John A
The full role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) remains to be determined, yet it is implicated in learning and emotional functions, and is disrupted in negative mood disorders. Recent evidence indicates that AHN is decreased in persistent pain consistent with the idea that chronic pain is a major stressor, associated with negative moods and abnormal memories. Yet, the role of AHN in development of persistent pain has remained unexplored. In this study, we test the influence of AHN in postinjury inflammatory and neuropathic persistent pain-like behaviors by manipulating neurogenesis: pharmacologically through intracerebroventricular infusion of the antimitotic AraC; ablation of AHN by x-irradiation; and using transgenic mice with increased or decreased AHN. Downregulating neurogenesis reversibly diminished or blocked persistent pain; oppositely, upregulating neurogenesis led to prolonged persistent pain. Moreover, we could dissociate negative mood from persistent pain. These results suggest that AHN-mediated hippocampal learning mechanisms are involved in the emergence of persistent pain.
Apkarian, A. Vania; Mutso, Amelia A.; Centeno, Maria V.; Kan, Lixin; Wu, Melody; Levinstein, Marjorie; Banisadr, Ghazal; Gobeske, Kevin T.; Miller, Richard J.; Radulovic, Jelena; Hen, René; Kessler, John A.
The full role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) remains to be determined, yet it is implicated in learning and emotional functions, and is disrupted in negative mood disorders. Recent evidence indicates that AHN is decreased in persistent pain consistent with the idea that chronic pain is a major stressor, associated with negative moods and abnormal memories. Yet, the role of AHN in development of persistent pain has remained unexplored. In this study, we test the influence of AHN in postinjury inflammatory and neuropathic persistent pain-like behaviors by manipulating neurogenesis: pharmacologically through intracerebroventricular infusion of the antimitotic AraC; ablation of AHN by x-irradiation; and using transgenic mice with increased or decreased AHN. Downregulating neurogenesis reversibly diminished or blocked persistent pain; oppositely, upregulating neurogenesis led to prolonged persistent pain. Moreover, we could dissociate negative mood from persistent pain. These results suggest that AHN-mediated hippocampal learning mechanisms are involved in the emergence of persistent pain. PMID:26313405
Mu, Yangling; Gage, Fred H
The hippocampus, a brain area critical for learning and memory, is especially vulnerable to damage at early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Emerging evidence has indicated that altered neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus represents an early critical event in the course of AD. Although causal links have not been established, a variety of key molecules involved in AD pathogenesis have been shown to impact new neuron generation, either positively or negatively. From a functional point of view, hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in structural plasticity and network maintenance. Therefore, dysfunctional neurogenesis resulting from early subtle disease manifestations may in turn exacerbate neuronal vulnerability to AD and contribute to memory impairment, whereas enhanced neurogenesis may be a compensatory response and represent an endogenous brain repair mechanism. Here we review recent findings on alterations of neurogenesis associated with pathogenesis of AD, and we discuss the potential of neurogenesis-based diagnostics and therapeutic strategies for AD.
The hippocampus, a brain area critical for learning and memory, is especially vulnerable to damage at early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Emerging evidence has indicated that altered neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus represents an early critical event in the course of AD. Although causal links have not been established, a variety of key molecules involved in AD pathogenesis have been shown to impact new neuron generation, either positively or negatively. From a functional point of view, hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in structural plasticity and network maintenance. Therefore, dysfunctional neurogenesis resulting from early subtle disease manifestations may in turn exacerbate neuronal vulnerability to AD and contribute to memory impairment, whereas enhanced neurogenesis may be a compensatory response and represent an endogenous brain repair mechanism. Here we review recent findings on alterations of neurogenesis associated with pathogenesis of AD, and we discuss the potential of neurogenesis-based diagnostics and therapeutic strategies for AD. PMID:22192775
Brown, Lawrence W; Camfield, Peter; Capers, Melissa; Cascino, Greg; Ciccarelli, Mary; de Gusmao, Claudio M; Downs, Stephen M; Majnemer, Annette; Miller, Amy Brin; SanInocencio, Christina; Schultz, Rebecca; Tilton, Anne; Winokur, Annick; Zupanc, Mary
The child neurologist has a critical role in planning and coordinating the successful transition from the pediatric to adult health care system for youth with neurologic conditions. Leadership in appropriately planning a youth's transition and in care coordination among health care, educational, vocational, and community services providers may assist in preventing gaps in care, delayed entry into the adult care system, and/or health crises for their adolescent patients. Youth whose neurologic conditions result in cognitive or physical disability and their families may need additional support during this transition, given the legal and financial considerations that may be required. Eight common principles that define the child neurologist's role in a successful transition process have been outlined by a multidisciplinary panel convened by the Child Neurology Foundation are introduced and described. The authors of this consensus statement recognize the current paucity of evidence for successful transition models and outline areas for future consideration.
Cao, Huimin; Heazlewood, Shen Y; Williams, Brenda; Cardozo, Daniela; Nigro, Julie; Oteiza, Ana; Nilsson, Susan K
Throughout development, hematopoietic stem cells migrate to specific microenvironments, where their fate is, in part, extrinsically controlled. CD44 standard as a member of the cell adhesion molecule family is extensively expressed within adult bone marrow and has been previously reported to play important roles in adult hematopoietic regulation via CD44 standard-ligand interactions. In this manuscript, CD44 expression and function are further assessed and characterized on both fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells. Using a CD44(-/-) mouse model, conserved functional roles of CD44 are revealed throughout development. CD44 is critical in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor pools, as well as in hematopoietic stem cell migration. CD44 expression on hematopoietic stem cells as well as other hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow microenvironment is important in the homing and lodgment of adult hematopoietic stem cells isolated from the bone/bone marrow interface. CD44 is also involved in fetal hematopoietic stem cell migration out of the liver, via a process involving stromal cell-derived factor-1α. The absence of CD44 in neonatal bone marrow has no impact on the size of the long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cell pool, but results in an enhanced long-term engraftment potential of hematopoietic stem cells.
Cao, Huimin; Heazlewood, Shen Y.; Williams, Brenda; Cardozo, Daniela; Nigro, Julie; Oteiza, Ana; Nilsson, Susan K.
Throughout development, hematopoietic stem cells migrate to specific microenvironments, where their fate is, in part, extrinsically controlled. CD44 standard as a member of the cell adhesion molecule family is extensively expressed within adult bone marrow and has been previously reported to play important roles in adult hematopoietic regulation via CD44 standard-ligand interactions. In this manuscript, CD44 expression and function are further assessed and characterized on both fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells. Using a CD44−/− mouse model, conserved functional roles of CD44 are revealed throughout development. CD44 is critical in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor pools, as well as in hematopoietic stem cell migration. CD44 expression on hematopoietic stem cells as well as other hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow microenvironment is important in the homing and lodgment of adult hematopoietic stem cells isolated from the bone/bone marrow interface. CD44 is also involved in fetal hematopoietic stem cell migration out of the liver, via a process involving stromal cell-derived factor-1α. The absence of CD44 in neonatal bone marrow has no impact on the size of the long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cell pool, but results in an enhanced long-term engraftment potential of hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:26546504
Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim
Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment.
Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys M.
The experiences of being a deaf role model have been little explored in the literature. This paper explores the role of the deaf role model as perceived by d/Deaf adults who carried out this role, when working with deaf young people, parents of deaf children, and professionals who work with them. The data were collected from part of the evaluation…
This compilation of program materials serves as an introduction to Florida's Brevard Community College's (BCC's) Competency-Based Adult High School Completion Project, a multi-year project designed to teach adult administrators, counselors, and teachers how to organize and implement a competency-based adult education (CBAE) program; to critique…
Dimou, Helen; Kameas, Achilles
Purpose: This paper aims to present a model for the quality assurance of digital educational material that is appropriate for adult education. The proposed model adopts the software quality standard ISO/IEC 9126 and takes into account adult learning theories, Bloom's taxonomy of learning objectives and two instructional design models: Kolb's model…
Miller, Keith A.
Since the number of adult students engaging in higher education activities is growing rapidly and is expected to continue to climb, this paper is intended to help administrators develop a perspective from which to view adult learners on college campuses and craft programs to help faculty work more effectively with adult students. The first section…
Nuevo, Roberto; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Montorio, Ignacio; Ruiz, Miguel A.; Cabrera, Isabel
Objectives This study aims to explore the relationship between knowledge about aging and severity of worry in older adults, and to test the potential mediational role of intolerance of uncertainty. Method The sample was composed of 120 community-dwelling older adults, with a mean of age of 71.0 years (SD = 6.3). Mediational analyses and structural equation modeling were used to analyze and compare different models. Results Greater knowledge about aging was negatively related to both intolerance of uncertainty and worry, and its effect on worry was partially mediated by intolerance of uncertainty. The mediational model obtained an excellent fit to the data (i.e. Goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.995) and clearly had a better fit than alternative models. Conclusion These results suggest that a good knowledge of the aging process could help decrease aversive uncertainty and thus reduce the level of worry among older adults. Thus, educational programs to increase knowledge about aging could serve as one preventive strategy for anxiety in old age. PMID:19197699
Vyas, Alka; Li, Zhaobo; Aspalter, Manuela; Feiner, Jeffrey; Hoke, Ahmet; Zhou, Chunhua; O'Daly, Andres; Abdullah, Madeel; Rohde, Charles; Brushart, Thomas M
The role of pathway-derived growth factors in the support of peripheral axon regeneration remains elusive. Few appropriate knock-out mice are available, and gene silencing techniques are rarely 100% effective. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed an in vitro organotypic co-culture system that accurately models peripheral nerve repair in the adult mammal. Spinal cord sections from P4 mice that express YFP in their neurons are used to innervate segments of P4 peripheral nerve. This reconstructed ventral root is then transected and joined to a nerve graft. Growth of axons across the nerve repair and into the graft can be imaged repeatedly with fluorescence microscopy to define regeneration speed, and parent neurons can be labeled in retrograde fashion to identify contributing neurons. Nerve graft harvested from adult mice remains viable in culture by both morphologic and functional criteria. Motoneurons are supported with GDNF for the first week in culture, after which they survive axotomy, and are thus functionally adult. This platform can be modified by using motoneurons from any genetically modified mouse that can be bred to express XFP, by harvesting nerve graft from any source, or by treating the culture systemically with antibodies, growth factors, or pathway inhibitors. The regeneration environment is controlled to a degree not possible in vivo, and the use of experimental animals is reduced substantially. The flexibility and control offered by this technique should thus make it a useful tool for the study of regeneration biology.
Vafaei, Afshin; Ahmed, Tamer; Freire, Aline do N. Falcão; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo O.
Objectives To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression. Methods International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967). Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions. Results Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55–0.93). In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated. Conclusions Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman. PMID:26771828
Rowbotham, Michelle; Carroll, Annemaree; Cuskelly, Monica
To date, there have been few studies of mothers' and fathers' roles in caring for their adult children with intellectual disabilities. The present study investigated the care-giving roles of mother and father couples caring for their adult offspring with an intellectual disability, their psychological health, and the demands and satisfaction of…
Chiang, Shu-Chen; Hawley, Josh
This study describes the experience of younger, so called "emerging" adults, as they transition to full-time work, focusing specifically on the role of education in this process. When leaving their family-of-origin, emerging adults re-center themselves to settle down in permanent identity and different role commitments. Our findings show…
Giannoukos, Georgios; Besas, Georgios; Hioctour, Vasilios; Georgas, Thomas
This paper discusses how knowledge of computers can affect our daily personal life as well as in the workplace in Greece. Our research is concerned with how useful the knowledge of computers is in the everyday life and work of adults and attempts to investigate the interest of adults for learning computer programmes and different subjects via…
Mucowski, Richard; Hayden, Robert R.
When children are raised in an environment where alcoholism is prominent, certain dysfunctional responses are learned as a way to cope with the challenge of that environment. This study was conducted to examine the learning styles of adult children of alcoholics. Subjects were college freshmen and self-identified adult children of alcoholics…
Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; McGuire, Lisa C.; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A.
Purpose: With a sample of American Indian adults, we estimated the prevalence of adult caregiving, assessed the demographic and cultural profile of caregivers, and examined the association between cultural factors and being a caregiver. This is the first such study conducted with American Indians. Design and Methods: Data came from a…
There are a rising number of older adults; in the US alone nearly 20% of the population will be 65 or older by 2030. Chiropractic is one of the most frequently utilized types of complementary and alternative care by older adults, used by an estimated 5% of older adults in the U.S. annually. Chiropractic care involves many different types of interventions, including preventive strategies. This commentary by experts in the field of geriatrics, discusses the evidence for the use of spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture, nutritional counseling and fall prevention strategies as delivered by doctors of chiropractic. Given the utilization of chiropractic services by the older adult, it is imperative that providers be familiar with the evidence for and the prudent use of different management strategies for older adults. PMID:22348431
Stapleton, Peta; Luiz, Gabriella; Chatwin, Hannah
Social networking sites (SNSs) provide emerging adults with extreme and unprecedented transparency, exposing them to a plethora of opportunities for social comparison. In light of the growing use of the popular SNS, Instagram, among emerging adults, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of exposure to social media-based social comparison information on self-esteem. The study recruited 237 participants through social media. The sample was narrowed to young adults aged 18-29 years. The study used a correlational nonexperimental approach to investigate two mediation models proposed in the literature. First, the study investigated the mediating role of social comparison on Instagram in the relationship between intensity of Instagram use and self-esteem. Second, the study examined the mediating role of social comparison in the relationship between self-worth contingent on approval from others and self-esteem. Although the first model was found to be nonsignificant, results observed a significant indirect pathway that confirmed the second model. Thus, social comparison on Instagram mediated the relationship between contingent self-worth and self-esteem. Furthermore, moderation analyses found that self-worth contingent on approval from others moderated the relationship between intensity of Instagram use and social comparison on Instagram. Thus, although Instagram did not directly affect self-esteem, the significant moderation suggested that intensity of Instagram use is influential when the young person's self-worth is contingent on approval from others. Overall, the findings are consistent with previous research and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms that link SNS use to low self-esteem.
Lockwood, Penelope; Chasteen, Alison L; Wong, Carol
The authors hypothesized that the effectiveness of role models varies across the adult life span because of differences in health-related regulatory orientations. Because young adults have strong health-related promotion orientations, they should be motivated by positive models who illustrate the benefits of good health. Because older adults have more balanced health-related promotion and prevention orientations, they should be motivated not only by positive models but also by negative models who illustrate the costs of poor health. Results indicated that both young and older adults perceived positive models to be motivating, but older adults found negative models to be more motivating than did young adults. Age differences in responses to negative models were partially mediated by differences in health-related prevention orientation.
Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Brumariu, Laura E; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Hennighausen, Katherine; Holmes, Bjarne
Borderline symptoms are thought to emerge from the interaction of temperamental factors and environmental stressors. Both parental invalidation and attachment disorganization have been hypothesized to play an etiological role. However, to date the quality of parent-child interaction has not been observed directly. In this study, 120 young adults were assessed for features of borderline personality disorder on the SCID II, for severity of childhood maltreatment on interview and self-report measures, and for disturbance in parent-child interaction during a videotaped conflict discussion task. Borderline traits, as well as suicidality/self-injury specifically, were associated with more role confusion and more disoriented behavior in interaction with the parent. Among young adults with recurrent suicidality/self-injury, 40% displayed high levels of role confusion compared to 16% of those who were not suicidal. Neither form of disturbed interaction mediated the independent effect of childhood abuse on borderline symptoms. A parent-child transactional model is proposed to account for the findings.
Riddle, Dorothy I.
A review of the literature on role modeling leads to the conclusions that children internalize particular traits from a variety of role models and that gays are more likely to serve as nontraditional sex-role models than as determiners of same-sex sexual preference. (Author/WI)
Gleeson, Helena; McCartney, Sara; Lidstone, Victoria
The outcome of transition from paediatric to adult care is often judged by what happens after transfer. Young people at the point of transfer are reported to have low levels of knowledge and independence. These observations could be interpreted in one of two ways: either that the transition process before transfer is inadequate or that the transition process needs to continue into young adulthood and therefore adult care. The second interpretation is further supported by brain development continuing into the third decade. There is also growing evidence for the effectiveness of young adult clinics in the process of transition. To optimise transition, adult physicians need not only to work with paediatricians to achieve continuity during transfer, but also to look critically at their service as to how it can be changed to meet the needs of young people. In addition, they need to develop knowledge, skills and attitudes to communicate effectively and address a young person's developmental and health needs.
Sitzman, Danielle M; Rhodes, Matthew G; Tauber, Sarah K; Liceralde, Van Rynald T
Previous work has demonstrated that, when given feedback, younger adults are more likely to correct high-confidence errors compared with low-confidence errors, a finding termed the hypercorrection effect. Research examining the hypercorrection effect in both older and younger adults has demonstrated that the relationship between confidence and error correction was stronger for younger adults compared with older adults. Their results demonstrated that the relationship between confidence and error correction was stronger for younger adults compared with older adults. However, recent work suggests that error correction is largely related to prior knowledge, while confidence may primarily serve as a proxy for prior knowledge. Prior knowledge generally remains stable or increases with age; thus, the current experiment explored how both confidence and prior knowledge contributed to error correction in younger and older adults. Participants answered general knowledge questions, rated how confident they were that their response was correct, received correct answer feedback, and rated their prior knowledge of the correct response. Overall, confidence was related to error correction for younger adults, but this relationship was much smaller for older adults. However, prior knowledge was strongly related to error correction for both younger and older adults. Confidence alone played little unique role in error correction after controlling for the role of prior knowledge. These data demonstrate that prior knowledge largely predicts error correction and suggests that both older and younger adults can use their prior knowledge to effectively correct errors in memory.
Mandyam, Chitra D; Koob, George F
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder associated with compulsive drug taking, drug seeking and a loss of control in limiting intake, reflected in three stages of a recurrent cycle: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation ("craving"). This review discusses the role of adult-born neural and glial progenitors in drug seeking associated with the different stages of the addiction cycle. A review of the current literature suggests that the loss of newly born progenitors, particularly in hippocampal and cortical regions, plays a role in determining vulnerability to relapse in rodent models of drug addiction. The normalization of drug-impaired neurogenesis or gliogenesis may help reverse neuroplasticity during abstinence and, thus, may help reduce the vulnerability to relapse and aid recovery.
Eisenhower, A.; Blacher, J.
Background: Two opposing perspectives--role strain and role enhancement--were considered as predictive of women's psychological and physical health. The authors examined the relation between multiple role occupancy (parenting, employment, marriage) and well-being (depression and health) among mothers of young adults with intellectual disability…
Palagini, Laura; Drake, Christopher L; Gehrman, Philip; Meerlo, Peter; Riemann, Dieter
Insomnia is very common in the adult population and it includes a wide spectrum of sequelae, that is, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular alterations as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. According to the conceptualization of insomnia in the context of the 3-P model, the importance of predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors has been stressed. Predisposing factors are present before insomnia is manifested and they are hypothesized to interact with precipitating factors, such as environmental stressful events, contributing to the onset of insomnia. Understanding the early-life origins of insomnia may be particularly useful in order to prevent and treat this costly phenomenon. Based on recent evidence, prenatal-early-life stress exposure results in a series of responses that involve the stress system in the child and could persist into adulthood. This may encompass an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis accompanied by long-lasting modifications in stress reactivity. Furthermore, early-life stress exposure might play an important role in predisposing to a vulnerability to hyperarousal reactions to negative life events in the adult contributing to the development of chronic insomnia. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be involved in the development of maladaptive stress responses in the newborn, ultimately predisposing to develop a variety of (psycho-) pathological states in adult life.
Ubeda, Francisco; Gardner, Andy
Genomic imprinting refers to genes that are silenced when inherited via sperm or via egg. The silencing of genes conditional upon their parental origin requires an evolutionary explanation. The most widely accepted theory for the evolution of genomic imprinting-the kinship theory-argues that conflict between maternally inherited and paternally inherited genes over phenotypes with asymmetric effects on matrilineal and patrilineal kin results in self-imposed silencing of one of the copies. This theory has been applied to imprinting of genes expressed in the placenta, and infant brain determining the allocation of parental resources being the source of conflict parental promiscuity. However, there is growing evidence that imprinted genes are expressed in the postinfant brain where parental promiscuity per se is no longer a source of conflict. Here, we advance the kinship theory by developing an evolutionary model of genomic imprinting in adults, driven by intragenomic conflict over allocation to parental versus communal care. We consider the role of sex differences in dispersal and variance in reproductive success as sources of conflict. We predict that, in hominids and birds, parental care will be expressed by maternally inherited genes. In nonhominid mammals, we predict more diversity, with some mammals showing the same pattern and other showing the reverse. We use the model to interpret experimental data on imprinted genes in the house mouse: specifically, paternally expressed Peg1 and Peg3 genes, underlying maternal care, and maternally expressed Gnas and paternally expressed Gnasxl genes, underlying communal care. We also use the model to relate ancestral demography to contemporary imprinting disorders of adults, in humans and other taxa.
de Medeiros, Kate; Harris-Trovato, Dana; Bradley, Evelyn; Gaines, Jean; Parrish, John
Lifelong learning programs continue to grow in span and scope. Few studies, however, have investigated how older adults themselves participate in group learning. The central question explored in our study was as follows: Does gender play a role in group dynamics for older adults? Two groups of volunteers (age 62 to 96 years) enrolled in a 16-week…
Rollocks, Steve C. T.; Dass, Natasha; Seepersad, Randy; Mohammed, Linda
This study examined the role of religiosity among adolescents' and adults' alcohol use in Trinidad. A stratified random sample design of 369 adolescents and 210 adult parents belonging to the various religious groups in Trinidad was employed. Participants were randomly selected from various educational districts across Trinidad. Adolescent…
Black, Stephen; Balatti, Jo; Falk, Ian
This paper makes the case for adult literacy (including numeracy) practitioners to play a greater role in health literacy initiatives in Australia. The paper draws on data from a national research project that investigated adult literacy partnerships and pedagogy viewed from a social capital perspective. The primary purpose of the project was to…
Evans, Stephanie; Crockett, Stanley
Passive coping behavior and traditional role-gender definitions affect learning needs of segments of the Mexican American adult community and may affect the behavioral development of younger family members. Networking within the community is useful in defining and meeting learning needs of adult Mexican Americans by creating cooperative,…
Elwyn, Laura; Smith, Carolyn
Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between prospective reports of maltreatment and alcohol problems, and an important link in the path between prospective reports and illegal drug use. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.
ELWYN, LAURA; SMITH, CAROLYN
Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between prospective reports of maltreatment and alcohol problems, and an important link in the path between prospective reports and illegal drug use. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:24319347
Ahn, SangNam; Kim, Seonghoon; Zhang, Hongmei
Depression severely affects older adults in the United States. As part of the social environment, significant social support was suggested to ameliorate depression among older adults. We investigate how varying forms of social support moderate depressive symptomatology among older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC). Data were analyzed using a sample of 11,400 adults, aged 65 years or older, from the 2006-2012 Health and Retirement Study. The current study investigated the moderating effects of positive or negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends on the association between MCC and depression. A linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to estimate the effect of MCC on depression and its interactions with positive and negative social support in explaining depression among older adults. Varying forms of social support played different moderating roles in depressive symptomatology among older adults with MCC. Positive spousal support significantly weakened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Conversely, all negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends significantly strengthened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Minimizing negative social support and maximizing positive spousal support can reduce depression caused by MCC and lead to successful aging among older adults.
Ahn, SangNam; Kim, Seonghoon; Zhang, Hongmei
Depression severely affects older adults in the United States. As part of the social environment, significant social support was suggested to ameliorate depression among older adults. We investigate how varying forms of social support moderate depressive symptomatology among older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC). Data were analyzed using a sample of 11,400 adults, aged 65 years or older, from the 2006–2012 Health and Retirement Study. The current study investigated the moderating effects of positive or negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends on the association between MCC and depression. A linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to estimate the effect of MCC on depression and its interactions with positive and negative social support in explaining depression among older adults. Varying forms of social support played different moderating roles in depressive symptomatology among older adults with MCC. Positive spousal support significantly weakened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Conversely, all negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends significantly strengthened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Minimizing negative social support and maximizing positive spousal support can reduce depression caused by MCC and lead to successful aging among older adults. PMID:28035968
Murnane, Jennifer Aden
Adults today have been submerged in a consumer society from a very young age and face decisions as consumers on a daily basis. Realizing and understanding the impact of these decisions are vital to functioning in a consumer society in order to achieve the greatest benefit for one's family, the environment, and society as a whole. Given that the…
Lozano, Jesus; Belles, Xavier
Juvenile Hormone (JH) represses metamorphosis of young instars in insects. One of the main players in hormonal signalling is Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which plays the role of JH receptor. Using the Polyneopteran insect Blattella germanica as the model and RNAi for transcript depletion, we have confirmed that Met transduces the antimetamorphic signal of JH in young nymphs and plays a role in the last nymphal instar moult in this species. Previously, the function of Met as the JH receptor had been demonstrated in the Eumetabola clade, with experiments in Holometabola (in the beetle Tribolium castaneum) and in their sister group Paraneoptera (in the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus). Our result shows that the function of Met as JH receptor is also conserved in the more basal Polyneoptera. The function of Met as JH transducer might thus predate the evolutionary innovation of metamorphosis. Moreover, expression of Met was also found in last nymphal instar of B. germanica, when JH is absent. Depletion of Met in this stage provoked deficiencies in wing growth and ecdysis problems in the imaginal moult. Down-regulation of the ecdysone-inducible gene E75A and Insulin-Like-Peptide 1 in these Met-depleted specimens suggest that Met is involved in the ecdysone and insulin signalling pathways in last nymphal instar, when JH is virtually absent.
Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.
The present study examined a model of life satisfaction among a diverse sample of 184 adults who had been unemployed for an average of 10.60 months. Using the Lent (2004) model of life satisfaction as a framework, a model was tested with 5 hypothesized predictor variables: optimism, job search self-efficacy, job search support, job search…
Gibbins, Christopher; Toplak, Maggie E.; Flora, David B.; Weiss, Margaret D.; Tannock, Rosemary
Objective: To examine factor structures of "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) symptoms of ADHD in adults. Method: Two sets of models were tested: (a) models with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity as separate but correlated latent constructs and (b) hierarchical general factor models with a general factor for…
Collis, Nathan L; Kohnen, Saskia; Kinoshita, Sachiko
The present study investigated the nature of visual spatial attention deficits in adults with developmental dyslexia, using a partial report task with five-letter, digit, and symbol strings. Participants responded by a manual key press to one of nine alternatives, which included other characters in the string, allowing an assessment of position errors as well as intrusion errors. The results showed that the dyslexic adults performed significantly worse than age-matched controls with letter and digit strings but not with symbol strings. Both groups produced W-shaped serial position functions with letter and digit strings. The dyslexics' deficits with letter string stimuli were limited to position errors, specifically at the string-interior positions 2 and 4. These errors correlated with letter transposition reading errors (e.g., reading slat as "salt"), but not with the Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) task. Overall, these results suggest that the dyslexic adults have a visual spatial attention deficit; however, the deficit does not reflect a reduced span in visual-spatial attention, but a deficit in processing a string of letters in parallel, probably due to difficulty in the coding of letter position.
Lieberwirth, Claudia; Pan, Yongliang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zhibin; Wang, Zuoxin
Adult neurogenesis, defined here as progenitor cell division generating functionally integrated neurons in the adult brain, occurs within the hippocampus of numerous mammalian species including humans. The present review details various endogenous (e.g., neurotransmitters) and environmental (e.g., physical exercise) factors that have been shown to influence hippocampal adult neurogenesis. In addition, the potential involvement of adult-generated neurons in naturally-occurring spatial learning behavior is discussed by summarizing the literature focusing on traditional animal models (e.g., rats and mice), non-traditional animal models (e.g., tree shrews), as well as natural populations (e.g., chickadees and Siberian chipmunk). PMID:27174001
Opfer, John E.; Gelman, Susan A.
Two studies examined models that preschoolers, fifth-graders, and adults use to guide predictions of self-beneficial, goal-directed action. Found that preschoolers' predictions were consistent with an animal-based model, fifth-graders' with biology-based and complexity-based models, and adults' predictions with a biology-based model. All age…
This chapter examines the changing nature of adult education in the age of transnational migration and proposes recognitive adult education as an inclusive model that acknowledges and affirms cultural difference and diversity as positive and desirable assets.
Cozad, Dana Everett
The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…
Howell, Frank M.; Frese, Wolfgang
Focusing on the pre-adolescent to late-adolescent portion of the life cycle, research examined how "early" exit from student role and "early" entry into adult roles of parent or spouse reflects factors operating prior to adolescence. Interviews during 1969 with 1,202 fifth and sixth graders and their mothers in 6 southern…
Schemmel, Todd Aaron
The primary purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Hope Scale scores would play a significant role in predicting the effectiveness of a five-session career planning workshop for 61 adults. The results of three hierarchical regressions suggest that the trait hope does not play a significant role in predicting participants' career…
Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Most, Tova; Michael, Rinat
This study examined the effect of hearing status on role salience and anticipated work-family relations among 101 unmarried young adults aged 20-33 years: 35 with hearing loss (19 hard of hearing and 16 deaf) and 66 hearing. Participants completed the Life Role Salience scale, anticipated conflictual relations scale, anticipated facilitory…
Keller, Heather H.; Dwyer, John J. M.; Edwards, Vicki; Senson, Christine; Edward, H. Gayle
Food insecurity in older adults is influenced by financial constraints, functional disability, and isolation. Twenty-eight social- and community-service providers participated in four focus groups to report (a) perceptions and experiences with food insecurity in their older clients, (b) beliefs about their potential role(s) in promoting food…
Peake, Amy; Harris, Karen L.
For 66 young adult couples, marriage plans were positively related to knowledge and certainty about multiple role planning. Men with more nontraditional career partners had more commitment to and involvement in multiple role planning. Women with marriage plans and nontraditional career expectations had substantially higher commitment and…
Karunanayake, Danesh; Nauta, Margaret M.
The authors examined whether college students' race was related to the modal race of their identified career role models, the number of identified career role models, and their perceived influence from such models. Consistent with A. Bandura's (1977, 1986) social learning theory, students tended to have role models whose race was the same as…
Evans, Sarah E.; Steel, Anne; DiLillo, David
Objectives The current study investigates the moderating effect of perceived social support on associations between child maltreatment severity and adult trauma symptoms. We extend the existing literature by examining the roles of severity of multiple maltreatment types (i.e., sexual, physical, and emotional abuse; physical and emotional neglect) and gender in this process. Methods The sample included 372 newlywed individuals recruited from marriage license records. Participants completed a number of self-report questionnaires measuring the nature and severity of child maltreatment history, perceived social support from friends and family, and trauma-related symptoms. These questionnaires were part of a larger study, investigating marital and intrapersonal functioning. We conducted separate, two-step hierarchical multiple regression models for perceived social support from family and perceived social support from friends. In each of these models, total trauma symptomatology was predicted from each child maltreatment severity variable, perceived social support, and the product of the two variables. In order to examine the role of gender, we conducted separate analyses for women and men. Results As hypothesized, increased severity of several maltreatment types (sexual abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect) predicted greater trauma symptoms for both women and men, and increased physical abuse severity predicted greater trauma symptoms for women. Perceived social support from both family and friends predicted lower trauma symptoms across all levels of maltreatment for men. For women, greater perceived social support from friends, but not from family, predicted decreased trauma symptoms. Finally, among women, perceived social support from family interacted with child maltreatment such that, as the severity of maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse, emotional neglect) increased, the buffering effect of perceived social support from family on
This report, “Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults,” focuses on information sources and data available for modeling environmental exposures in the older U.S. population, defined here to be people 60 years and older, with an emphasis on those...
Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN.
This model is designed to be used as a guide by all teachers and designers of adult vocational consumer and homemaking courses who usually function as program planners. Chapter 1 contains an operational definition, the rationale, and description of intended users. Chapter 2 presents the model description with an overview and discussion of the…
Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth
Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females)…
Kurdziel, Laura B F; Mantua, Janna; Spencer, Rebecca M C
Sleep is an offline period during which newly acquired semantic information is transformed into longer-lasting memories. Language acquisition, which requires new word learning and semantic integration, is preferentially benefitted by a period of sleep in children and young adults. Specific features of sleep (e.g., sleep stage characteristics) have been associated with enhanced language acquisition and generalization. However, with increasing age, even in healthy individuals, sleep quality and quantity decrease. Simultaneously, deficits in word retrieval and new word learning emerge. Yet it is unknown whether age-related alterations in language ability are linked with alterations in sleep. The goal of this review is to examine changes in language learning and sleep across the lifespan. We consider how sleep detriments that occur with aging could affect abilities to learn novel words and semantic generalization and propose hypotheses to motivate future research in this area.
Coolen, Neeltje A; Schouten, Kelly C W M; Boekema, Bouke K H L; Middelkoop, Esther; Ulrich, Magda M W
Early gestation fetal wounds heal without scar formation. Understanding the mechanism of this scarless healing may lead to new therapeutic strategies for improving adult wound healing. The aims of this study were to develop a human fetal wound model in which fetal healing can be studied and to compare this model with a human adult and scar tissue model. A burn wound (10 x 2 mm) was made in human ex vivo fetal, adult, and scar tissue under controlled and standardized conditions. Subsequently, the skin samples were cultured for 7, 14, and 21 days. Cells in the skin samples maintained their viability during the 21-day culture period. Already after 7 days, a significantly higher median percentage of wound closure was achieved in the fetal skin model vs. the adult and scar tissue model (74% vs. 28 and 29%, respectively, p<0.05). After 21 days of culture, only fetal wounds were completely reepithelialized. Fibroblasts migrated into the wounded dermis of all three wound models during culture, but more fibroblasts were present earlier in the wound area of the fetal skin model. The fast reepithelialization and prompt presence of many fibroblasts in the fetal model suggest that rapid healing might play a role in scarless healing.
Calvo, Vincenzo; Bianco, Francesca
Background: Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent–child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem. Methods: The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects) of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0–6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. Results: Path analysis was used to design and test a theoretical integrative model, achieving a good fit with the data. Findings showed that dyadic adjustment mediates the negative influence on parenting self-efficacy of both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Parenting satisfaction is positively influenced by parenting self-efficacy and negatively affected by child’s age. Attachment anxiety negatively influences parenting satisfaction. Conclusion: Our findings are in line with the theoretical expectations and have promising implications for future research and intervention programs designed to improve parenting self-esteem. PMID:26441811
Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas
Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms
Xu, S Y; Cang, C L; Liu, X F; Peng, Y Q; Ye, Y Z; Zhao, Z Q; Guo, A K
Nociception, warning of injury that should be avoided, serves an important protective function in animals. In this study, we show that adult Drosophila avoids noxious heat by a jump response. To quantitatively analyze this nociceptive behavior, we developed two assays. In the CO2 laser beam assay, flies exhibit this behavior when a laser beam heats their abdomens. The consistency of the jump latency in this assay meets an important criterion for a good nociceptive assay. In the hot plate assay, flies jump quickly to escape from a hot copper plate (>45 degrees C). Our results demonstrate that, as in mammals, the latency of the jump response is inversely related to stimulus intensity, and innoxious thermosensation does not elicit this nociceptive behavior. To explore the genetic mechanisms of nociception, we examined several mutants in both assays. Abnormal nociceptive behavior of a mutant, painless, indicates that painless, a gene essential for nociception in Drosophila larvae, is also required for thermal nociception in adult flies. painless is expressed in certain neurons of the peripheral nervous system and thoracic ganglia, as well as in the definite brain structures, the mushroom bodies. However, chemical or genetic insults to the mushroom bodies do not influence the nociceptive behavior, suggesting that different painless-expressing neurons play diverse roles in thermal nociception. Additionally, no-bridge(KS49), a mutant that has a structural defect in the protocerebral bridge, shows defective response to noxious heat. Thus, our results validate adult Drosophila as a useful model to study the genetic mechanisms of thermal nociception.
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks – depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions— marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status—mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15–20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact. PMID:26059537
Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.
Illiteracy is a huge problem, socially, economically and educationally. This study of the history and current practices of American public libraries examines their role in supporting the development of human literate abilities and in helping all Americans to be critically literate in order to participate fully and successfully in our society. This…
Richards, Shana; Cristian, Adrian
Physical therapists play an important role in the care of older adults who have physical disabilities. Proper patient selection, a thorough medical, social, and functional history, and a physical examination emphasizing the neuromusculoskeletal system are the cornerstones of the evaluation process. Treatment is individualized and goal driven, with appropriate precautions being followed. Gait training is an integral part of the treatment process for many older adults with disabilities, and various assistive devices may be used to ensure safe mobility.
Nixon, Kimberly; Morris, Stephanie A; Liput, Daniel J; Kelso, Matthew L
This review discusses the contributions of a newly considered form of plasticity, the ongoing production of new neurons from neural stem cells, or adult neurogenesis, within the context of neuropathologies that occur with excessive alcohol intake in the adolescents. Neural stem cells and adult neurogenesis are now thought to contribute to the structural integrity of the hippocampus, a limbic system region involved in learning, memory, behavioral control, and mood. In adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), the hippocampus appears to be particularly vulnerable to the neurodegenerative effects of alcohol, but the role of neural stem cells and adult neurogenesis in alcoholic neuropathology has only recently been considered. This review encompasses a brief overview of neural stem cells and the processes involved in adult neurogenesis, how neural stem cells are affected by alcohol, and possible differences in the neurogenic niche between adults and adolescents. Specifically, what is known about developmental differences in adult neurogenesis between the adult and adolescent is gleaned from the literature, as well as how alcohol affects this process differently among the age groups. Finally, this review suggests differences that may exist in the neurogenic niche between adults and adolescents and how these differences may contribute to the susceptibility of the adolescent hippocampus to damage. However, many more studies are needed to discern whether these developmental differences contribute to the vulnerability of the adolescent to developing an AUD.
Svantesson, Ulla; Willén, Carin
Physically active older adults have reduced risk of functional restrictions and role limitations. Several aspects may interrelate and influence habitual physical activity (PA). However, older adults' own perspectives towards their PA need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of habitual physical activity in maintaining roles and functioning among older adult Palestinians ≥60 years. Data were collected through in-depth interviews based on a narrative approach. Seventeen participants were recruited (aged 64–84 years). Data were analyzed using a narrative interpretative method. Findings. Three central narratives were identified, “keep moving, stay healthy,” “social connectedness, a motive to stay active,” and “adapting strategies to age-related changes.” Conclusion. Habitual physical activity was perceived as an important factor to maintain functioning and to preserve active roles in older adults. Walking was the most prominent pattern of physical activity and it was viewed as a vital tool to maintain functioning among the older adults. Social connectedness was considered as a contributing factor to the status of staying active. To adapt the process of age-related changes in a context to stay active, the participants have used different adapting strategies, including protective strategy, awareness of own capabilities, and modifying or adopting new roles. PMID:28078141
Fischer, Judith L.; Wampler, Richard S.
Examined relationship between roles in the family and individual personality types and abusive drinking among young adults (n=674). Family roles and personality type were found to moderate effects of family-of-origin variables on abusive drinking: family role of hero acted as buffer between family of origin and young adult's drinking behaviors;…
Reichardt, J.; White, D. R.
We present a framework for automatically decomposing (“block-modeling”) the functional classes of agents within a complex network. These classes are represented by the nodes of an image graph (“block model”) depicting the main patterns of connectivity and thus functional roles in the network. Using a first principles approach, we derive a measure for the fit of a network to any given image graph allowing objective hypothesis testing. From the properties of an optimal fit, we derive how to find the best fitting image graph directly from the network and present a criterion to avoid overfitting. The method can handle both two-mode and one-mode data, directed and undirected as well as weighted networks and allows for different types of links to be dealt with simultaneously. It is non-parametric and computationally efficient. The concepts of structural equivalence and modularity are found as special cases of our approach. We apply our method to the world trade network and analyze the roles individual countries play in the global economy.
Sherman, Jane Ehlinger
A model is described in which student nurses' preceptors are the joint-appointee nurse practitioners, with physicians providing consultation and serving as team participants. Key points that are examined are program development at the University of Illinois, how the program actually operated, and some of the problems encountered. (CT)
The study suggests a general model that could guarantee the cooperation between teachers and their students to overcome the difficulties encountered in ESP learning. It tries to join together different perspectives in the research of adult education, specifically in the teaching of English for Specific Purposes. It also provides some sort of trust…
Leslie, William; Dimitrick, Adam
A description of the uses and application of a model for designing a machine operator adult training program based on Silvern's systems approach (anasynthesis). The DACUM (Developing A Curriculum) process was used in developing the curriculum. The DACUM chart showing the terminal objectives is included. (EM)
Costa, Veronica; Lugert, Sebastian; Jagasia, Ravi
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a remarkable form of brain structural plasticity by which new functional neurons are generated from adult neural stem cells/precursors. Although the precise role of this process remains elusive, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is important for learning and memory and it is affected in disease conditions associated with cognitive impairment, depression, and anxiety. Immature neurons in the adult brain exhibit an enhanced structural and synaptic plasticity during their maturation representing a unique population of neurons to mediate specific hippocampal function. Compelling preclinical evidence suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis is modulated by a broad range of physiological stimuli which are relevant in cognitive and emotional states. Moreover, multiple pharmacological interventions targeting cognition modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition, recent genetic approaches have shown that promoting neurogenesis can positively modulate cognition associated with both physiology and disease. Thus the discovery of signaling pathways that enhance adult neurogenesis may lead to therapeutic strategies for improving memory loss due to aging or disease. This chapter endeavors to review the literature in the field, with particular focus on (1) the role of hippocampal neurogenesis in cognition in physiology and disease; (2) extrinsic and intrinsic signals that modulate hippocampal neurogenesis with a focus on pharmacological targets; and (3) efforts toward novel strategies pharmacologically targeting neurogenesis and identification of biomarkers of human neurogenesis.
Tiraphat, Sariyamon; Peltzer, Karl; Thamma-Aphiphol, Kriengsak; Suthisukon, Kawinarat
Studies on the significance of age-friendly environments towards quality of life among older adults have been limited. This study aimed to examine the association between age-friendly environments and quality of life among Thai older adults. Cross-sectional interview survey data were collected from 4183 older adults (≥60 years) using multistage stratified systematic sampling from all four regions in Thailand. The outcome variable was the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) scale, while independent variables included sociodemographic factors, having a health problem, and neighbourhood age-friendly environment variables. In multivariable logistic regression, significant age-friendly environments predictors of quality of life included walkable neighbourhood, neighbourhood aesthetics, neighbourhood service accessibility, neighbourhood criminal safety, neighbourhood social trust, neighbourhood social support, and neighbourhood social cohesion. The present study confirms the important role of age-friendly neighbourhoods in terms of physical and social environments towards the quality of life of older adults. PMID:28282942
Braun, S M G; Jessberger, S
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the mammalian brain retain the ability to generate new neurones throughout life in discrete brain regions, through a process called adult neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis, a dramatic form of adult brain circuitry plasticity, has been implicated in physiological brain function and appears to be of pivotal importance for certain forms of learning and memory. In addition, failing or altered neurogenesis has been associated with a variety of brain diseases such as major depression, epilepsy and age-related cognitive decline. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the basic biology underlying the neurogenic process in the adult brain, focusing on mechanisms that regulate quiescence, proliferation and differentiation of NSPCs. In addition, we discuss how neurogenesis influences normal brain function, and in particular its role in memory formation, as well as its contribution to neuropsychiatric diseases. Finally, we evaluate the potential of targeting endogenous NSPCs for brain repair.
Vadivelu, Nalini; Schermer, Erika; Kodumudi, Vijay; Belani, Kumar; Urman, Richard D; Kaye, Alan David
Ketamine an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocking agent and a dissociative anesthetic with neurostimulatory side effects. In recent years, multiple research trials as well as systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest the usefulness of ketamine as a strong analgesic used in subanesthetic intravenous doses, and also as a sedative. In addition, ketamine was noted to possess properties of anti-tolerance, anti-hyperalgesia and anti-allodynia most likely secondary to inhibition of the NMDA receptors. Tolerance, hyperalgesia and allodynia phenomena are the main components of opioid resistance, and pathological pain is often seen in the clinical conditions involving neuropathic pain, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and central sensitization with allodynia or hyperalgesia. All these conditions are challenging to treat. In low doses, ketamine does not have major adverse dysphoric effects and also has the favorable effects of reduced incidence of opioid-induced nausea and vomiting. Therefore, ketamine can be a useful adjunct for pain control after surgery. Additional studies are required to determine the role of ketamine in the immediate postoperative period after surgical interventions known to produce severe pain and in the prevention and treatment of chronic pain. PMID:27625475
This study examines the role of language in reducing poverty in Botswana through adult-education programs. Because language is the medium through which human beings communicate and grow intellectually and socially, it should form the basis of any discussion involving the relation between development and education. In order best to respond to societal changes and bridge the gap between the less privileged and the more privileged, adult-education programs should be guided by language policies that are sensitive to this pivotal role that language plays. Language is important in any discussion of poverty reduction because it determines who has access to educational, political and economic resources. The author recommends that adult-education programs in Botswana take account of the multilingual nature of society and so allow learners to participate freely, make use of their indigenous knowledge, and enhance their self-esteem and identity.
Johnson, M J; Ayzman, I; Wood, A S; Tkach, J A; Klauschie, J; Skarupa, D J; McAllister, J P; Luciano, M G
While hydrocephalus is common in adults its pathophysiology is not fully understood and its treatment remains problematic. Previous animal models have been acute, developmental, or involved non-specific blockage or inflammation and are not suitable for study of chronic adult-onset hydrocephalus. In this study, we describe the development of a canine model which allows basic physiological studies along with diagnostic and treatment procedures via surgical occlusion of the fourth ventricle with a bolus injection of cyanoacrylic gel glue. A total of 26 adult male canine mongrels were used for the induction of chronic hydrocephalus and were monitored for 1-12 weeks post-induction using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intracranial pressure measurements, and neurological fitness assessments. Of these, 81% (21/26) developed hydrocephalus that was mild (N = 6), moderate (N = 7), or severe (N = 8). Pressures were mild and transiently elevated, and brain compliance decreased. Clinical symptoms were also mild and transient. This model is unique in its focal obstruction without local compression or general inflammation and should facilitate the study of the pathophysiology and treatment of chronic adult-onset hydrocephalus.
Brisman, Jonas; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Olin, Anna-Carin; Torén, Kjell; Bake, Björn
A spirometric reference equation consists of a mathematical model with constants and coefficients optimized to fit a specific data set from healthy individuals. Commonly applied models are selected on statistical rather than physiological considerations. A predetermined model with constants and coefficients optimized to various populations would enable interpretable and interesting comparisons between populations. Lubiński and Gólczewski recently presented a piecewise linear model with constants and coefficients claimed to be physiologically interpretable (Lubiński model). Three questions were addressed: Is the Lubiński model as useful clinically as other models: multiple linear, piecewise polynomial and exponential with splines? Will reference equations based on the Lubiński model and optimized to a Swedish and to a Polish population allow for interpretable comparisons? Are three well-known reference equations clinically useful in the Swedish adult population? A recent Swedish random population sample with high-quality spirometric measurements enabled the present analyses. When optimized to fit the Swedish population sample, the Lubiński model and two other models provided accurate predictive normal values. Interesting differences were demonstrated between the Polish and Swedish populations. The proportion of subjects below lower limit normal was adequate for the piecewise polynomial equations but too low and not clinically useful for the advocated exponential equations with splines. It is concluded that the Lubiński model is clinically as useful as other models, and it adds important value and is recommended for future spirometric reference equations for adults. The advocated exponential equations with splines are not recommended for Swedish adults because of too wide normal limits.
Comings, John; Sum, Andrew; Uvin, Johan
The role of adult education in sustaining economic growth and expanding opportunity in Massachusetts was explored. The analysis focused on the new basic skills needed for a new economy, groups lacking the new basic skills, the demand for adult basic education (ABE), funding for ABE, building basic skills through adult education, ABE's costs and…
Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Wucinich, Taylor; Moberly, Aaron C.
Purpose: This study examined the potential roles of phonological sensitivity and processing speed in age-related declines of verbal working memory. Method: Twenty younger and 25 older adults with age-normal hearing participated. Two measures of verbal working memory were collected: digit span and serial recall of words. Processing speed was…
Schnitzspahn, Katharina M.; Stahl, Christoph; Zeintl, Melanie; Kaller, Christoph P.; Kliegel, Matthias
Prospective memory performance shows a decline in late adulthood. The present article examines the role of 3 main executive function facets (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition) as possible developmental mechanisms associated with these age effects. One hundred seventy-five young and 110 older adults performed a battery of cognitive tests…
Lysaght, Georgia; Kell, Peter
This paper documents and analyses a range of literature and policy statements that identifies issues and looks at the role which adult education plays in building communities and peace in post-conflict states. This paper explores and documents these developments in countries in close proximity to Australia which have been viewed by the former…
Parish, Kay Annette
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role between mindfulness practice and adult learning. The participants were full-time students enrolled in a two-year radiography program at a Midwestern community college. Critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential to students' success and to healthcare professionals. The main…
This study examined reasoning about gender roles in a traditional society in Benin, West Africa. Ninety-seven male and female adolescents and adults evaluated conflicts between a husband and a wife over gender norms to determine whether gender norms, are judged to be moral or conventional. Although most attributed decision-making power to the…
Rook, Karen S.; Sorkin, Dara H.
This study examined the effects on older adults' psychological health of participation in a volunteer role that afforded opportunities to form friendships with age peers and to express nurturance toward another person. Access to these important social provisions was expected, in turn, to contribute to greater self-esteem, less loneliness, and less…
Beal, Sarah J.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Peugh, James
Individual differences in the transition to adulthood are well established. This study examines the extent to which heterogeneity in pathways to adulthood that have been observed in the broader U.S. population are mirrored in adolescents' expectations regarding when they will experience key adult role transitions (e.g., marriage). Patterns of…
Mitra, Dana L.
School leaders play a crucial role in enabling and sustaining student voice initiatives. This article identifies three specific ways in which administrators can spark and encourage a focus on increasing student voice in school decision making and in classroom practice, including (a) fostering youth-adult partnerships within the context of a…
Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda
This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, discusses men's changing roles. It is designed to provide a framework for exploring how differences in language, laws, and ways for participating in the community and differences in the way…
Themistokleous, Sotiris; Avraamidou, Lucy
In this review, we present an argument for the need to support young adult's civic engagement and we explore the role of online games in supporting such engagement. In doing so, in the first section of the paper, we offer a definition for civic education and citizenship alongside a discussion for the pedagogical frameworks that better support…
Dinshtein, Yula; Dekel, Rachel; Polliack, Miki
The study examined the level of secondary traumatization among adult children of Israeli war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as manifested in emotional distress, stress resulting from terrorist attacks, and capacity for intimacy. In addition, the role of the mother-child relationship as a moderator of these manifestations of…
Bregman, George; Killen, Melanie
Examined adolescents' and young adults' evaluations of reasons for career decisions, and the role of parental influence. Found that subjects supported career choices for reasons of personal growth and rejected choices when decisions were based on interpersonal relationships or hedonism. Parental influence was judged most important when…
Cherry, Katie E.; Brigman, Susan
The authors examined the role of individual difference and event outcome variables in younger and older adults' memory failures appraisal. Participants read vignettes that described fictitious younger characters (in their 20s-30s) or older characters (in their 60s-70s) who had experienced a minor or severe consequence of their forgetfulness. The…
Jabury, Donald Eugene
This study sought to demonstrate that the relative degree of adult female identity diffusion, as well as certain personality correlates, would be a function of specific sex roles and their combinations. Three groups of 32 women each were selected as married and noncareer, married and career, or unmarried and career women. They were administered a…
Psychological and physical segregation are not conditions intrinsic to the aging process--they are created and propagated by society's response to it. Eradication or reduction of older adults' role loss, collective stereotyped treatment, and physical separation require the awareness and application of gerontological concepts in public library…
Presents conceptual reorientation for providing responsive psychological services to older adults, focusing on need to develop prevention programs that encourage maintenance of social roles. Discusses changes in social structures that encourage more active social engagement, with examples from housing options, part-time employment, and ways to…
Cardoos, Stephanie L.; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.
Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with…
Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M
Previous research on the influence of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) on adolescents' stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles has three shortcomings. First, the role of peers has been neglected; second, stereotypical beliefs have rarely been studied as causing the use of SEIM and the selection of specific peers; and third, it is unclear whether adolescents are more vulnerable to the effects of SEIM than adults. We used data from two nationally representative two-wave panel surveys among 1,445 Dutch adolescents and 833 Dutch adults, focusing on the stereotypical belief that women engage in token resistance to sex (i.e., the notion that women say "no" when they actually intend to have sex). Structural equation modeling showed that peers who supported traditional gender roles elicited, both among adolescents and adults, stronger beliefs that women use token resistance to sex. Further, the belief that women engage in token resistance predicted adolescents' and adults' selection of gender-role traditional peers, but it did not predict adolescents' and adults' use of SEIM. Finally, adults, but not adolescents, were susceptible to the impact of SEIM on beliefs that women engage in token resistance to sex.
Malvaut, Sarah; Saghatelyan, Armen
The adult mammalian brain is remarkably plastic and constantly undergoes structurofunctional modifications in response to environmental stimuli. In many regions plasticity is manifested by modifications in the efficacy of existing synaptic connections or synapse formation and elimination. In a few regions, however, plasticity is brought by the addition of new neurons that integrate into established neuronal networks. This type of neuronal plasticity is particularly prominent in the olfactory bulb (OB) where thousands of neuronal progenitors are produced on a daily basis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the OB. In the OB, these neuronal precursors differentiate into local interneurons, mature, and functionally integrate into the bulbar network by establishing output synapses with principal neurons. Despite continuous progress, it is still not well understood how normal functioning of the OB is preserved in the constantly remodelling bulbar network and what role adult-born neurons play in odor behaviour. In this review we will discuss different levels of morphofunctional plasticity effected by adult-born neurons and their functional role in the adult OB and also highlight the possibility that different subpopulations of adult-born cells may fulfill distinct functions in the OB neuronal network and odor behaviour. PMID:26839709
Malvaut, Sarah; Saghatelyan, Armen
The adult mammalian brain is remarkably plastic and constantly undergoes structurofunctional modifications in response to environmental stimuli. In many regions plasticity is manifested by modifications in the efficacy of existing synaptic connections or synapse formation and elimination. In a few regions, however, plasticity is brought by the addition of new neurons that integrate into established neuronal networks. This type of neuronal plasticity is particularly prominent in the olfactory bulb (OB) where thousands of neuronal progenitors are produced on a daily basis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the OB. In the OB, these neuronal precursors differentiate into local interneurons, mature, and functionally integrate into the bulbar network by establishing output synapses with principal neurons. Despite continuous progress, it is still not well understood how normal functioning of the OB is preserved in the constantly remodelling bulbar network and what role adult-born neurons play in odor behaviour. In this review we will discuss different levels of morphofunctional plasticity effected by adult-born neurons and their functional role in the adult OB and also highlight the possibility that different subpopulations of adult-born cells may fulfill distinct functions in the OB neuronal network and odor behaviour.
Linville, Deanna; O'Neil, Maya; Huebner, Angela
This study examined linkages between depression symptoms (DEP) and positive adult support (PAS) in female adolescents and the partially mediating influence of eating disturbances (ED). Structural equation modeling was used to establish measurement models for each of the latent constructs, determine the relationships among the latent constructs,…
Samland, Jana; Josephs, Marina; Waldmann, Michael R; Rakoczy, Hannes
A widely discussed discovery has been the influence of norms on causal selection. Confronted with scenarios in which 2 agents contribute equally to an effect, adult participants tend to choose the agent who is violating a norm over an agent who is conforming to a norm as the cause of the outcome. To date, this effect has been established only in adult populations, so its developmental course is unknown. In 2 experiments, we investigated the influence of norm violations on causal selection in both 5-year-old children and adults. In particular, we focused on the role of mental state ascription and blame evaluation as potential mediating factors in this process. To this end, the knowledge status of the agent in question was varied such that she either was or was not aware of her norm transgression. Results revealed that children and adults assigned blame differently: Only adults were sensitive to the knowledge of the agent about norms as a mitigating factor. Crucially, however, despite its different sensitivity to knowledge ascription in children and adults, blame assignment in both age groups affected causal selection in the same ways. The relevance of these findings for alternative theories of causal selection is discussed.
Chan, Benjamin Tak-Yuen
This article explores the role of adult and continuing education practitioners in Hong Kong as a function of contexts and conceptions of practice. A historical evolutionary approach is used to analyze how roles of practitioners differ in three periods--adult education, continuing education, and lifelong learning. It is revealed that practitioners…
Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Peralta, Robert L.
We utilize data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth young adult sample (N = 1,488) to investigate whether gender role attitudes and the occupation of and transition to three adult roles (i.e., employment, marriage, and parenthood) contribute to the maintenance of the gender gap in the frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Our results…
Zhou, Yixin; Wang, Kexin; Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Jianxin; Zhou, Mingjie
This study tested emerging adult couples’ openness and its fit effect on their romantic relationship quality using quadratic polynomial regression and response surface analysis. Participants were 260 emerging adult dyads. Both dyads’ openness and relationship quality were measured. The result showed that (1) female and male openness contribute differently to relationship quality; (2) couples with similar high openness could experience better relationship quality than those with similar low openness traits; and (3) when dyadic openness is dissimilar, it is better to be either relatively high or relatively low than to be moderate. These findings highlight the role of openness in emerging adults’ romantic relationships from a dyadic angle. PMID:28360875
Nomura, J; Jaaro-Peled, H; Lewis, E; Nuñez-Abades, P; Huppe-Gourgues, F; Cash-Padgett, T; Emiliani, F; Kondo, M A; Furuya, A; Landek-Salgado, M A; Ayhan, Y; Kamiya, A; Takumi, T; Huganir, R; Pletnikov, M; O'Donnell, P; Sawa, A
NMDA glutamate receptors have key roles in brain development, function and dysfunction. Regulatory roles of D-serine in NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity have been reported. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether and how neonatal deficits in NMDA-receptor-mediated neurotransmission affect adult brain functions and behavior. Likewise, the role of D-serine during development remains elusive. Here we report behavioral and electrophysiological deficits associated with the frontal cortex in Pick1 knockout mice, which show D-serine deficits in a neonatal- and forebrain-specific manner. The pathological manifestations observed in adult Pick1 mice are rescued by transient neonatal supplementation of D-serine, but not by a similar treatment in adulthood. These results indicate a role for D-serine in neurodevelopment and provide novel insights on how we interpret data of psychiatric genetics, indicating the involvement of genes associated with D-serine synthesis and degradation, as well as how we consider animal models with neonatal application of NMDA receptor antagonists.
Hilliard, Marisa; Sweenie, Rachel; Riekert, Kristin
Transition from pediatric to adult care represents a high risk period for adolescents and emerging adults with diabetes. Fundamental differences between pediatric and adult care delivery models may contribute to increased risk for poor health outcomes. This review provides a brief overview of models of care in pediatric and adult settings and focuses on patient-provider communication content and quality as potential points of intervention to improve transition-related outcomes. This review also highlights disparities in transition and communication for adolescents and emerging adults from racial/ethnic minority groups and discusses recent changes in health care legislation that have significant implications for the transition process. Intervention opportunities include programs to enhance developmentally-appropriate patient-provider interactions and increased attention to promoting transition readiness skills. Improving patient-provider communication may hasten the development of vital self-advocacy skills needed in adult health care systems and, thus, help establish a lasting pattern of positive diabetes self-care. PMID:24014075
Hassouna, I; Ott, C; Wüstefeld, L; Offen, N; Neher, R A; Mitkovski, M; Winkler, D; Sperling, S; Fries, L; Goebbels, S; Vreja, I C; Hagemeyer, N; Dittrich, M; Rossetti, M F; Kröhnert, K; Hannke, K; Boretius, S; Zeug, A; Höschen, C; Dandekar, T; Dere, E; Neher, E; Rizzoli, S O; Nave, K-A; Sirén, A-L; Ehrenreich, H
Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) improves cognitive performance in neuropsychiatric diseases ranging from schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis to major depression and bipolar disease. This consistent EPO effect on cognition is independent of its role in hematopoiesis. The cellular mechanisms of action in brain, however, have remained unclear. Here we studied healthy young mice and observed that 3-week EPO administration was associated with an increased number of pyramidal neurons and oligodendrocytes in the hippocampus of ~20%. Under constant cognitive challenge, neuron numbers remained elevated until >6 months of age. Surprisingly, this increase occurred in absence of altered cell proliferation or apoptosis. After feeding a (15)N-leucine diet, we used nanoscopic secondary ion mass spectrometry, and found that in EPO-treated mice, an equivalent number of neurons was defined by elevated (15)N-leucine incorporation. In EPO-treated NG2-Cre-ERT2 mice, we confirmed enhanced differentiation of preexisting oligodendrocyte precursors in the absence of elevated DNA synthesis. A corresponding analysis of the neuronal lineage awaits the identification of suitable neuronal markers. In cultured neurospheres, EPO reduced Sox9 and stimulated miR124, associated with advanced neuronal differentiation. We are discussing a resulting working model in which EPO drives the differentiation of non-dividing precursors in both (NG2+) oligodendroglial and neuronal lineages. As endogenous EPO expression is induced by brain injury, such a mechanism of adult neurogenesis may be relevant for central nervous system regeneration.
Liu, Jie; Wu, Weijie; Hao, Jie; Yu, Mingchen; Liu, Jin; Chen, Xinlei; Qian, Rong; Zhang, Feng
PR (PRDI-BF1 and RIZ) domain proteins (PRDM) are a subfamily of the kruppel-like zinc finger gene products that modulate cellular processes such as differentiation, cell growth and apoptosis. PRDM5 is a recently identified family member that functions as a transcriptional repressor and behaves as a putative tumor suppressor in different types of cancer. However, the expression and function of PRDM5 in spinal cord injury (SCI) are still unknown. In the present study, we have performed an acute SCI model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of PRDM5 expression in the spinal cord. We found that PRDM5 protein levels gradually increased, reaching a peak at day 5 and then gradually declined to a normal level at day 14 after SCI with Western blot analysis. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that PRDM5 immunoreactivity was found in neurons, astrocytes and microglia. However, the expression of PRDM5 was increased predominantly in neurons. Additionally, colocalization of PRDM5/active caspase-3 was been respectively detected in neurons. In vitro, we found that depletion of PRDM5 by short interfering RNA, obviously decreases neuronal apoptosis. In summary, this is the first description of PRDM5 expression in SCI. Our results suggested that PRDM5 might play crucial roles in CNS pathophysiology after SCI and this research will provide new drug targets for clinical treatment of SCI.
Hassouna, I; Ott, C; Wüstefeld, L; Offen, N; Neher, R A; Mitkovski, M; Winkler, D; Sperling, S; Fries, L; Goebbels, S; Vreja, I C; Hagemeyer, N; Dittrich, M; Rossetti, M F; Kröhnert, K; Hannke, K; Boretius, S; Zeug, A; Höschen, C; Dandekar, T; Dere, E; Neher, E; Rizzoli, S O; Nave, K-A; Sirén, A-L; Ehrenreich, H
Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) improves cognitive performance in neuropsychiatric diseases ranging from schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis to major depression and bipolar disease. This consistent EPO effect on cognition is independent of its role in hematopoiesis. The cellular mechanisms of action in brain, however, have remained unclear. Here we studied healthy young mice and observed that 3-week EPO administration was associated with an increased number of pyramidal neurons and oligodendrocytes in the hippocampus of ~20%. Under constant cognitive challenge, neuron numbers remained elevated until >6 months of age. Surprisingly, this increase occurred in absence of altered cell proliferation or apoptosis. After feeding a 15N-leucine diet, we used nanoscopic secondary ion mass spectrometry, and found that in EPO-treated mice, an equivalent number of neurons was defined by elevated 15N-leucine incorporation. In EPO-treated NG2-Cre-ERT2 mice, we confirmed enhanced differentiation of preexisting oligodendrocyte precursors in the absence of elevated DNA synthesis. A corresponding analysis of the neuronal lineage awaits the identification of suitable neuronal markers. In cultured neurospheres, EPO reduced Sox9 and stimulated miR124, associated with advanced neuronal differentiation. We are discussing a resulting working model in which EPO drives the differentiation of non-dividing precursors in both (NG2+) oligodendroglial and neuronal lineages. As endogenous EPO expression is induced by brain injury, such a mechanism of adult neurogenesis may be relevant for central nervous system regeneration. PMID:26809838
Intended for planners of adult education curriculums, this literature review explains the concepts involved in designing an adult education program, provides information about the roles of the people involved in the adult education process, cites some program planning models, and applies the program planning principles to an Adult Basic Education…
This study, inspired by Block's (1973) work, was designed to enable one to examine how ego development and socialization experience interact in relation to sex role identity. Sex role identity was measured via the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and socialization practices were measured via the Block Child-Rearing Practices Report. Both measures were scaled so as to yield scores on agency, communion, and androgyny. Ego development was assessed via Loevinger's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development. The sample consisted of 120 young adult men and women, married and single. Analyses revealed that the predictive power of the variables differed by sex. Ego development was predictive of sex role identity in men but not women, whereas socialization practices were predictive of sex role identity in women but not men. The results were seen as supporting Chodorow's (1974) position regarding the differing socialization experiences of men and women.
Chen, Zhifang; Li, Xiao; Zhou, Jingjing; Yuan, Bo; Yu, Bin; Tong, Dali; Cheng, Cheng; Shao, Yinqi; Xia, Shengnan; Zhang, Ran; Lyu, Jingwen; Yu, Xiuya; Dong, Chen; Zhou, Wen-Hao; Qiu, Zilong
Duplications of Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) -containing segments lead to the MECP2 duplication syndrome, in which severe autistic symptoms were identified. Whether adult neurogenesis may play a role in pathogenesis of autism and the role of MECP2 on state determination of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) remain largely unclear. Using a MECP2 transgenic (TG) mouse model for the MECP2 duplication syndrome, we found that adult hippocampal quiescent NSCs were significantly accumulated in TG mice comparing to wild type (WT) mice, the neural progenitor cells (NPCs) were reduced and the neuroblasts were increased in adult hippocampi of MECP2 TG mice. Interestingly, we found that parvalbumin (PV) positive interneurons were significantly decreased in MECP2 TG mice, which were critical for determining fates of adult hippocampal NSCs between the quiescence and activation. In summary, we found that MeCP2 plays a critical role in regulating fate determination of adult NSCs. These evidences further suggest that abnormal development of NSCs may play a role in the pathogenesis of the MECP2 duplication syndrome. PMID:28139724
De Carli, Pietro; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; Santona, Alessandra; Parolin, Laura
Attachment and caregiving are separate motivational systems that share the common evolutionary purpose of favoring child security. In the goal of studying the processes underlying the transmission of attachment styles, this study focused on the role of adult attachment styles in shaping preferences toward particular styles of caregiving. We hypothesized a correspondence between attachment and caregiving styles: we expect an individual to show a preference for a caregiving behavior coherent with his/her own attachment style, in order to increase the chance of passing it on to offspring. We activated different representations of specific caregiving modalities in females, by using three videos in which mothers with different Adult Attachment states of mind played with their infants. Participants' facial expressions while watching were recorded and analyzed with FaceReader software. After each video, participants' attitudes toward the category “mother” were measured, both explicitly (semantic differential) and implicitly (single target-implicit association task, ST-IAT). Participants' adult attachment styles (experiences in close relationships revised) predicted attitudes scores, but only when measured implicitly. Participants scored higher on the ST-IAT after watching a video coherent with their attachment style. No effect was found on the facial expressions of disgust. These findings suggest a role of adult attachment styles in shaping implicit attitudes related to the caregiving system. PMID:26779060
Wilckens, Kristine A.; Woo, Sarah G.; Kirk, Afton R.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Wheeler, Mark E.
The importance of sleep for cognition in young adults is well established, but the role of habitual sleep behavior in cognition across the adult lifespan remains unknown. We examined the relationship between sleep continuity and total sleep time assessed with a sleep detection device and cognitive performance using a battery of tasks in young (n = 59, mean age = 23.05) and older (n = 53, mean age = 62.68) adults. Across age groups, higher sleep continuity was associated with better cognitive performance. In the younger group, higher sleep continuity was associated with better working memory and inhibitory control. In the older group, higher sleep continuity was associated with better inhibitory control, memory recall, and verbal fluency. Very short and very long total sleep time was associated with poorer working memory and verbal fluency, specifically in the younger group. Total sleep time was not associated with cognitive performance in any domains for the older group. These findings reveal that sleep continuity is important for executive function in both young and older adults, but total sleep time may be more important for cognition in young adults. PMID:25244484
Leach, Wesley B.; Owens, Vyrle W.
The authors discuss the qualities possessed by a model change agent and roles played by him as resident technical participant: analyst, advisor, advocate, systems linker, innovator, and trainer. Besides presenting the teaching plan for change agents, the authors call upon their Peace Corps experiences to provide specific examples of what is…
Bird, Jason D. P.; Kuhns, Lisa; Garofalo, Robert
Purpose There is little research on the impact of role models on health outcomes for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) youth. This exploratory study describes the presence and availability of LGBT affirming role models and examines the relationship between the accessibility of role models and health outcomes among a community-based sample of LGBT youth. Methods A convenience sample of 496 ethnically-diverse, 16–24 year old LGBT youth was recruited to complete a computer-assisted interview using standardized instruments validated with adolescents. The prevalence and characteristics of role models was described. Differences in subgroup distribution were assessed using Pearson Chi-square (p<0.05). Differences in health outcomes for those with and without role models and the nature of those role models were determined using analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) models, with post hoc Bonferroni tests to probe significant global findings. Results Sixty-percent of the participants reported having a role model, with younger participants significantly more likely to report having a role model. A majority of the participants reported having inaccessible role models, especially among younger participants. The presence and accessibility of a role model did not have a significant relationship to binge drinking, drug use, or STI diagnoses; however, participants with inaccessible role models showed increased psychological distress versus those with accessible or no role models. Conclusions Inaccessible role models may not be sufficient for protecting youth from negative outcomes and formal mechanisms for connecting LGBT youth with caring adults who can serve as role models, such as mentoring programs, are critical. PMID:22443838
Krause, Elizabeth D.; Mendelson, Tamar; Lynch, Thomas R.
Adults (n=127) completed a series of self-report questionnaires and 88 completed an additional measure of current avoidant coping in response to a laboratory stressor. Findings strongly supported a model in which a history of childhood emotional invalidation was associated with chronic emotional inhibition in adulthood. (Contains references.)…
Gorges, Julia; Kandler, Christian
The present study tested the applicability of expectancy-value theory to adults' learning motivation. Motivation was measured as the anticipated reaction (AR) of German students (N = 300) to receiving their instructions in English as a new learning opportunity. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. Expectancies of success…
Meredith, Pamela; Ownsworth, Tamara; Strong, Jenny
It is now well established that pain is a multidimensional phenomenon, affected by a gamut of psychosocial and biological variables. According to diathesis-stress models of chronic pain, some individuals are more vulnerable to developing disability following acute pain because they possess particular psychosocial vulnerabilities which interact with physical pathology to impact negatively upon outcome. Attachment theory, a theory of social and personality development, has been proposed as a comprehensive developmental model of pain, implicating individual adult attachment pattern in the ontogenesis and maintenance of chronic pain. The present paper reviews and critically appraises studies which link adult attachment theory with chronic pain. Together, these papers offer support for the role of insecure attachment as a diathesis (or vulnerability) for problematic adjustment to pain. The Attachment-Diathesis Model of Chronic Pain developed from this body of literature, combines adult attachment theory with the diathesis-stress approach to chronic pain. The evidence presented in this review, and the associated model, advances our understanding of the developmental origins of chronic pain conditions, with potential application in guiding early pain intervention and prevention efforts, as well as tailoring interventions to suit specific patient needs.
Vaughan, Ellen L; Wong, Y Joel; Middendorf, Katharine G
Gender roles are often cited as a culturally specific predictor of drinking among Latino populations. This study used latent class regression to test the relationships between gender roles and binge drinking in a sample of Latino emerging adults. Participants were Latino emerging adults who participated in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,442). A subsample of these participants (n = 660) completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory--Short. We conducted latent class regression using 3 dimensions of gender roles (femininity, social masculinity, and personal masculinity) to predict binge drinking. Results indicated a 3-class solution. In Class 1, the protective personal masculinity class, personal masculinity (e.g., being a leader, defending one's own beliefs) was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking. In Class 2, the nonsignificant class, gender roles were not related to binge drinking. In Class 3, the mixed masculinity class, personal masculinity was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking, whereas social masculinity (e.g., forceful, dominant) was associated with an increase in the odds of binge drinking. Post hoc analyses found that females, those born outside the United States, and those with greater English language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 1 (vs. Class 2). Males, those born outside the United States, and those with greater Spanish language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 3 (vs. Class 2). Directions for future research and implications for practice with Latino emerging adults are discussed.
Sitter, Stefan; Stein, Adelheit
Introduces a generic, application-independent model of human-computer information-seeking dialog, the Conversational Roles (COR) Model, and reviews the theoretical background. COR is represented as a recursive state-transition-network that determines legitimate types and possible sequences of dialog acts, and categorizes dialog acts on the basis…
Concern for potential developmental effects of exposure to gasoline-ethanol blends has grown along with their increased use in the US fuel supply. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for these complex mixtures were developed to address dosimetric issues related to selection of exposure concentrations for in vivo toxicity studies. Sub-models for individual hydrocarbon (HC) constituents were first developed and calibrated with published literature or QSAR-derived data where available. Successfully calibrated sub-models for individual HCs were combined, assuming competitive metabolic inhibition in the liver, and a priori simulations of mixture interactions were performed. Blood HC concentration data were collected from exposed adult non-pregnant (NP) rats (9K ppm total HC vapor, 6h/day) to evaluate performance of the NP mixture model. This model was then converted to a pregnant (PG) rat mixture model using gestational growth equations that enabled a priori estimation of life-stage specific kinetic differences. To address the impact of changing relevant physiological parameters from NP to PG, the PG mixture model was first calibrated against the NP data. The PG mixture model was then evaluated against data from PG rats that were subsequently exposed (9K ppm/6.33h gestation days (GD) 9-20). Overall, the mixture models adequately simulated concentrations of HCs in blood from single (NP) or repeated (PG) exposures (within ~2-3 fold of measured values of
Bulled, Nicola L
Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics.
Veprauskas, Amy; Cushing, J M
We study a discrete time, structured population dynamic model that is motivated by recent field observations concerning certain life history strategies of colonial-nesting gulls, specifically the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens). The model focuses on mechanisms hypothesized to play key roles in a population's response to degraded environment resources, namely, increased cannibalism and adjustments in reproductive timing. We explore the dynamic consequences of these mechanics using a juvenile-adult structure model. Mathematically, the model is unusual in that it involves a high co-dimension bifurcation at [Formula: see text] which, in turn, leads to a dynamic dichotomy between equilibrium states and synchronized oscillatory states. We give diagnostic criteria that determine which dynamic is stable. We also explore strong Allee effects caused by positive feedback mechanisms in the model and the possible consequence that a cannibalistic population can survive when a non-cannibalistic population cannot.
Sun, Ping; Hua, Qian; Schmitt, Angelika G
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent human neurodegenerative disease. Disturbances of brain glucose uptake, glucose tolerance, glucose utilization and of the insulin/insulin receptor signaling cascade are thought to be key features of the pathophysiology of AD. Changes in energy homeostasis in the brain and in the periphery dramatically influence the proliferation of adult neural stem cells and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Recent findings suggest that adult neurogenesis is altered in the hippocampus of AD patients and in various animal models of AD. Several factors associated with the pathogenesis of AD are also known to be involved in the regulation of adult neurogenesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these changes at different stages of AD could provide insights into its pathogenesis, contribute to identifying biomarkers of early AD, and supply fundamental knowledge that will allow novel therapeutic approaches to treating AD by intervening in adult neurogenesis. In this review we provide an overview of the connections between energy metabolism, adult neurogenesis and AD.
Swan, Alicia A; Clutton, Jonathan Edward; Chary, Priyanka Kesavan; Cook, Sarah G; Liu, Grace G; Drew, Michael R
Recent theories posit that adult neurogenesis supports dentate gyrus pattern separation and hence is necessary for some types of discrimination learning. Using an inducible transgenic mouse model, we investigated the contribution of adult-born neurons to spatial and nonspatial touch-screen discriminations of varying levels of difficulty. Arresting neurogenesis caused a modest but statistically significant impairment in a position discrimination task. However, the effect was present only on trials after a learned discrimination was reversed, suggesting that neurogenesis supports cognitive flexibility rather than spatial discrimination per se. The deficit was present 4-10 weeks after the arrest of neurogenesis but not immediately after, consistent with previous evidence that the behavioral effects of arresting neurogenesis arise because of the depletion of adult-born neurons at least 1 month old. The arrest of neurogenesis failed to affect a nonspatial brightness discrimination task that was equal in difficulty to the spatial task. The data suggest that adult neurogenesis is not strictly necessary for spatial or perceptual discrimination learning and instead implicate adult neurogenesis in factors related to reversal learning, such as cognitive flexibility or proactive interference.
Naser, Rayan; Vandenbosch, Renaud; Omais, Saad; Hayek, Dayana; Jaafar, Carine; Al Lafi, Sawsan; Saliba, Afaf; Baghdadi, Maarouf; Skaf, Larissa; Ghanem, Noël
Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) are relatively quiescent populations that give rise to distinct neuronal subtypes throughout life, yet, at a very low rate and restricted differentiation potential. Thus, identifying the molecular mechanisms that control their cellular expansion is critical for regeneration after brain injury. Loss of the Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, leads to several defects in cell cycle as well as neuronal differentiation and migration during brain development. Here, we investigated the role of Rb during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb (OB) by inducing its temporal deletion in aNSCs and progenitors. Loss of Rb was associated with increased proliferation of adult progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS) but did not alter self-renewal of aNSCs or neuroblasts subsequent migration and terminal differentiation. Hence, one month after their birth, Rb-null neuroblasts were able to differentiate into distinct subtypes of GABAergic OB interneurons but were gradually lost after 3 months. Similarly, Rb controlled aNSCs/progenitors proliferation in vitro without affecting their differentiation capacity. This enhanced SVZ/OB neurogenesis associated with loss of Rb was only transient and negatively affected by increased apoptosis indicating a critical requirement for Rb in the long-term survival of adult-born OB interneurons. PMID:26847607
Naser, Rayan; Vandenbosch, Renaud; Omais, Saad; Hayek, Dayana; Jaafar, Carine; Al Lafi, Sawsan; Saliba, Afaf; Baghdadi, Maarouf; Skaf, Larissa; Ghanem, Noël
Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) are relatively quiescent populations that give rise to distinct neuronal subtypes throughout life, yet, at a very low rate and restricted differentiation potential. Thus, identifying the molecular mechanisms that control their cellular expansion is critical for regeneration after brain injury. Loss of the Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, leads to several defects in cell cycle as well as neuronal differentiation and migration during brain development. Here, we investigated the role of Rb during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb (OB) by inducing its temporal deletion in aNSCs and progenitors. Loss of Rb was associated with increased proliferation of adult progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS) but did not alter self-renewal of aNSCs or neuroblasts subsequent migration and terminal differentiation. Hence, one month after their birth, Rb-null neuroblasts were able to differentiate into distinct subtypes of GABAergic OB interneurons but were gradually lost after 3 months. Similarly, Rb controlled aNSCs/progenitors proliferation in vitro without affecting their differentiation capacity. This enhanced SVZ/OB neurogenesis associated with loss of Rb was only transient and negatively affected by increased apoptosis indicating a critical requirement for Rb in the long-term survival of adult-born OB interneurons.
Koestner, Bryan P.; Hedgcock, William; Halfmann, Kameko; Denburg, Natalie L.
Older adults are frequently the targets of scams and deception, with millions of individuals being affected each year in the United States alone. Previous research has shown that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) may play a role in vulnerability to fraud. The current study examined brain activation patterns in relation to susceptibility to scams and fraud using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-eight healthy, community-dwelling older adults were subdivided into groups of impaired and unimpaired decision makers as determined by their performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). While in the scanner, the participants viewed advertisements that were created directly from cases deemed deceptive by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). We then obtained behavioral measures involving comprehension of claims and purchase intention of the product in each advertisement. Contrasts show brain activity in the vmPFC was less correlated with purchase intention in impaired vs. unimpaired older adult decision makers. Our results have important implications for both future research and recognizing the possible causes of fraud susceptibility among older adults. PMID:27536238
Koestner, Bryan P; Hedgcock, William; Halfmann, Kameko; Denburg, Natalie L
Older adults are frequently the targets of scams and deception, with millions of individuals being affected each year in the United States alone. Previous research has shown that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) may play a role in vulnerability to fraud. The current study examined brain activation patterns in relation to susceptibility to scams and fraud using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-eight healthy, community-dwelling older adults were subdivided into groups of impaired and unimpaired decision makers as determined by their performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). While in the scanner, the participants viewed advertisements that were created directly from cases deemed deceptive by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). We then obtained behavioral measures involving comprehension of claims and purchase intention of the product in each advertisement. Contrasts show brain activity in the vmPFC was less correlated with purchase intention in impaired vs. unimpaired older adult decision makers. Our results have important implications for both future research and recognizing the possible causes of fraud susceptibility among older adults.
Cañete, Ana; Cano, Elena; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón; Carmona, Rita
Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient throughout life. Its physiologically active metabolite retinoic acid (RA), acting through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs), is a potent regulator of patterning during embryonic development, as well as being necessary for adult tissue homeostasis. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy increases risk of maternal night blindness and anemia and may be a cause of congenital malformations. Childhood Vitamin A deficiency can cause xerophthalmia, lower resistance to infection and increased risk of mortality. RA signaling appears to be essential for expression of genes involved in developmental hematopoiesis, regulating the endothelial/blood cells balance in the yolk sac, promoting the hemogenic program in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros area and stimulating eryrthropoiesis in fetal liver by activating the expression of erythropoietin. In adults, RA signaling regulates differentiation of granulocytes and enhances erythropoiesis. Vitamin A may facilitate iron absorption and metabolism to prevent anemia and plays a key role in mucosal immune responses, modulating the function of regulatory T cells. Furthermore, defective RA/RARα signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia due to a failure in differentiation of promyelocytes. This review focuses on the different roles played by vitamin A/RA signaling in physiological and pathological mouse hematopoiesis duddurring both, embryonic and adult life, and the consequences of vitamin A deficiency for the blood system. PMID:28230720
Kim, Kyeongmo; Lee, Minhong
Although some evidence suggests that community characteristics may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms among older adults, current literature has not attended to the role of community characteristics in depression in South Korea. This study begins to address this gap in the literature by examining the relationship of community characteristics and depressive symptoms, controlling for individual characteristics. Using a cross-sectional design and probability sampling, we surveyed 949 older adults living alone in 70 communities in the Busan metropolitan area in South Korea in 2012. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis that community characteristics are predictive of depressive symptoms. We find that both the proportion of older adults and the number of senior citizen facilities in a community are associated with depressive symptoms, whereas community poverty is not related to depressive symptoms. Men with lower income, with lower levels of functional abilities, and without stronger family and friend social networks have a higher risk of depressive symptoms. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.
Zafft, Cynthia; Kallenbach, Silja; Spohn, Jessica
While the majority of adults who take the General Educational Development (GED) test do so in order to continue their education, few go on to enter postsecondary education. Yet, these same adults stand to make substantial economic and personal gains when they use their adult secondary credential to move from the ranks of high school dropout to…
Crockett, Lisa J.; Beal, Sarah J.
Adolescents' expectations about the timing of adult role transitions have the potential to shape their actual transitions, setting the stage for their adult lives. Although expectations about timing emerge by early adolescence, little is known about how these expectations develop across adolescence. This longitudinal study examined developmental…
Hoff, Lutz; Hickling-Hudson, Anne
This paper explores the role of International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs) in adult education as one instrument of global civil society to effect social change. Postcolonial theory is utilized to explore the complex relationships between the concepts of "globalisation", "global civil, society", and "adult education for social change". In…
Lee, Myoung-Hwa; Wang, Tongguang; Jang, Mi-Hyeon; Steiner, Joseph; Haughey, Norman; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun; Nath, Avindra; Venkatesan, Arun
The prevalence of central nervous system (CNS) neurologic dysfunction associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to increase, despite the use of antiretroviral therapy. Previous work has focused on the deleterious effects of HIV on mature neurons and on development of neuroprotective strategies, which have consistently failed to show a meaningful clinical benefit. It is now well established that new neurons are continuously generated in discrete regions in the adult mammalian brain, and accumulating evidence supports important roles for these neurons in specific cognitive functions. In a transgenic mouse model of HIV neurologic disease with glial expression of the HIV envelope protein gp120, we demonstrate a significant reduction in proliferation of hippocampal neural progenitors in the dentate gyrus of adult animals, resulting in a dramatic decrease in the number of newborn neurons in the adult brain. We identify amplifying neural progenitor cells (ANPs) as the first class of progenitors affected by gp120, and we also demonstrate that newly generated neurons exhibit aberrant dendritic development. Furthermore, voluntary exercise and treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor increase the ANP population and rescue the observed deficits in gp120 transgenic mice. Thus, during HIV infection, the envelope protein gp120 may potently inhibit adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and neurorestorative approaches may be effective in ameliorating these effects. Our study has significant implications for the development of novel therapeutic approaches for HIV-infected individuals with neurologic dysfunction and may be applicable to other neurodegenerative diseases in which hippocampal neurogenesis is impaired. PMID:21146610
Ripoche, Doriane; Gout, Johann; Pommier, Roxane M; Jaafar, Rami; Zhang, Chang X; Bartholin, Laurent; Bertolino, Philippe
Alk4 is a type I receptor that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) family. It takes part in the signaling of TGF-β ligands such as Activins, Gdfs, and Nodal that had been demonstrated to participate in numerous mechanisms ranging from early embryonic development to adult-tissue homeostasis. Evidences indicate that Alk4 is a key regulator of many embryonic processes, but little is known about its signaling in adult tissues and in pathological conditions where Alk4 mutations had been reported. Conventional deletion of Alk4 gene (Acvr1b) results in early embryonic lethality prior gastrulation, which has precluded study of Alk4 functions in postnatal and adult mice. To circumvent this problem, we have generated a conditional Acvr1b floxed-allele by flanking the fifth and sixth exons of the Acvr1b gene with loxP sites. Cre-mediated deletion of the floxed allele generates a deleted allele, which behaves as an Acvr1b null allele leading to embryonic lethality in homozygous mutant animals. A tamoxifen-inducible approach to target disruption of Acvr1b specifically in adult tissues was used and proved to be efficient for studying Alk4 functions in various organs. We report, therefore, a novel conditional model allowing investigation of biological role played by Alk4 in a variety of tissue-specific contexts.
Berger, Lawrence M; Bzostek, Sharon H
This article uses data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate the proportions of young men and women who will take on a variety of partner and parent roles by age 30, as well as to describe how these estimates have changed across cohorts. It then draws from identity theory and related theoretical work to consider how the multiple family roles which young adults are likely to occupy-both over their life course and at a single point in time-may influence inter- and intra-family (unit) relationships in light of current trends in family complexity. This discussion highlights four key implications of identity theory as it relates to family complexity, and proposes several hypotheses for future empirical research to explore, such as the greater likelihood of role conflict in families with greater complexity and limited resources. Implications for public policy are also discussed.
Beckwitt, Asher E
This study investigates the role that childhood cancer camps continue to play in the lives of adults surviving childhood cancers (ASCCs). Specifically, the purpose of this study is to understand the roles these camps play in enhancing ASCCs' psychosocial and emotional well-being and access to information. Twenty-three ASCCs participated in this study. Illness narratives were used to understand ASCCs' camp experiences. Three themes emerged from the data analysis to reflect ASCCs' experiences: (1) normalcy, (2) meaningful camp experiences, and (3) access to information. Results show that in the years following camp participation, childhood cancer camps continue to play an important role in ASCCs' lives, providing them with ongoing social and emotional support and access to resources.
Botterill, Emma; Gill, Peter Richard; McLaren, Suzanne; Gomez, Rapson
Problem gambling rates in older adults have risen dramatically in recent years and require further investigation. Limited available research has suggested that social needs may motivate gambling and hence problem gambling in older adults. Un-partnered older adults may be at greater risk of problem gambling than those with a partner. The current study explored whether loneliness mediated the marital status-problem gambling relationship, and whether gender moderated the mediation model. It was hypothesised that the relationship between being un-partnered and higher levels of loneliness would be stronger for older men than older women. A community sample of Australian men (n = 92) and women (n = 91) gamblers aged from 60 to 90 years (M = 69.75, SD = 7.28) completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. The results supported the moderated mediation model, with loneliness mediating the relationship between marital status and problem gambling for older men but not for older women. It appears that felt loneliness is an important predictor of problem gambling in older adults, and that meeting the social and emotional needs of un-partnered men is important.
Carter, Sierra E.; Walker, Rheeda L.
Though emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. PMID:25045943
Cukor, Daniel; McGinn, Lata K
The link between childhood abuse, adult depression, and anxiety has been well studied, but few studies have empirically explored the mechanism of that link. Using a clinical sample of women, this study examined the relationship between retrospectively measured childhood abuse and neglect and current adult symptoms of anxiety and depression, via the mediating effects of cognitive style. This study found that women who reported a positive abuse history were significantly more depressed and exhibited more maladaptive schemas than women who did not report a history of abuse. Specifically, it would appear that cognitive styles marked by interpersonal disconnection and rejection are particularly pathogenic. These findings contribute to the growing literature by providing support for the role of cognitions in mediating the link between childhood abuse and psychopathology.
Bjorum, Sonia M.; Simonette, Rebecca A.; Alanis, Raul; Wang, Jennifer E.; Lewis, Benjamin M.; Trejo, Michael H.; Hanson, Keith A.; Beckingham, Kathleen M.
Innate behaviors have their origins in the specification of neural fates during development. Within Drosophila, BTB (Bric-a-brac,Tramtrack, Broad) domain proteins such as Fruitless are known to play key roles in the neural differentiation underlying such responses. We previously identified a gene, which we have termed jim lovell (lov), encoding a BTB protein with a role in gravity responses. To understand more fully the behavioral roles of this gene we have investigated its function through several approaches. Transcript and protein expression patterns have been examined and behavioral phenotypes of new lov mutations have been characterized. Lov is a nuclear protein, suggesting a role as a transcriptional regulator, as for other BTB proteins. In late embryogenesis, Lov is expressed in many CNS and PNS neurons. An examination of the PNS expression indicates that lov functions in the late specification of several classes of sensory neurons. In particular, only two of the five abdominal lateral chordotonal neurons express Lov, predicting functional variation within this highly similar group. Surprisingly, Lov is also expressed very early in embryogenesis in ways that suggests roles in morphogenetic movements, amnioserosa function and head neurogenesis. The phenotypes of two new lov mutations that delete adjacent non-coding DNA regions are strikingly different suggesting removal of different regulatory elements. In lov47, Lov expression is lost in many embryonic neurons including the two lateral chordotonal neurons. lov47 mutant larvae show feeding and locomotor defects including spontaneous backward movement. Adult lov47 males perform aberrant courtship behavior distinguished by courtship displays that are not directed at the female. lov47 adults also show more defective negative gravitaxis than the previously isolated lov91Y mutant. In contrast, lov66 produces largely normal behavior but severe female sterility associated with ectopic lov expression in the ovary. We
Hoy-Ellis, Charles P
Recent population-based studies indicate that sexual minorities aged 50 and older experience significantly higher rates of psychological distress than their heterosexual age-peers. The minority stress model has been useful in explaining disparately high rates of psychological distress among younger sexual minorities. The purpose of this study is to test a hypothesized structural relationship between two minority stressors--internalized heterosexism and concealment of sexual orientation--and consequent psychological distress among a sample of 2,349 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 50 to 95 years old. Structural equation modeling indicates that concealment has a nonsignificant direct effect on psychological distress but a significant indirect effect that is mediated through internalized heterosexism; the effect of concealment is itself concealed. This may explain divergent results regarding the role of concealment in psychological distress in other studies, and the implications will be discussed.
Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.
Recent population-based studies indicate that sexual minorities aged 50 and older experience significantly higher rates of psychological distress than their heterosexual age-peers. The minority stress model has been useful in explaining disparately high rates of psychological distress among younger sexual minorities. The purpose of this study is to test a hypothesized structural relationship between two minority stressors—internalized heterosexism and concealment of sexual orientation—and consequent psychological distress among a sample of 2,349 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 50 to 95 years old. Structural equation modeling indicates that concealment has a nonsignificant direct effect on psychological distress but a significant indirect effect that is mediated through internalized heterosexism; the effect of concealment is itself concealed. This may explain divergent results regarding the role of concealment in psychological distress in other studies, and the implications will be discussed. PMID:26322654
The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of and an evidentiary warrant for, how a community of practice focused on informal science learning, can engage and promote active participation that offers adult female members and the community opportunities for legitimacy and transformation. This study is a qualitative, ethnographic research study that documents how adult female volunteers, historically inexperienced and/or excluded from traditional practices of science, come to engage in science activities through an informal, community-based context that helps them to appreciate science connections in their lives that are ultimately empowering and agentic. I begin to understand the ways in which such informal contexts, often thought to be marginal to dominant educational beliefs and practices, can offer adults outside of the field of science, education, or both, an entree into science learning and teaching that facilitate female's participation in legitimate and empowering ways. Using descriptive analyses, I first identify the characteristics of peripheral and active program participants. Through phenomenological analyses, I then develop an understanding of participation in an informal science program by focusing on three adult female members' unique trajectories of participation leading to core member status. Each draws on different aspects of the program that they find most salient, illustrating how different elements can serve as motivators for participation, and support continuation along the trajectory of participation reflecting personal and political agency. Through a purposeful ethnographic case-study analysis, I then explore one core member's transformation, evidenced by her developing identities as someone who enjoys science, engages in science activities, and, enacts a role as community old timer and door opener to science learning. This study: (1) contributes to the limited knowledge base in fields of informal learning, science education, and
Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Auais, Mohammad; Guralnik, Jack; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria
Objectives To examine the relationships between physical function and gender-stereotyped traits and whether these relationships are modified by sex or social context. Methods A total of 1995 community-dwelling older adults from the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) aged 65 to 74 years were recruited in Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Tirana (Albania), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada). We performed a cross-sectional analysis. Study outcomes were mobility disability, defined as having difficulty in walking 400 meters without assistance or climbing a flight of stairs without resting, and low physical performance, defined as a score < 8 on the Short Physical Performance Battery. The 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants into four gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using site-specific medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) of mobility disability and poor physical performance according to gender roles. Results In models adjusted for sex, marital status, education, income, and research site, when comparing to the androgynous role, we found higher prevalence of mobility disability and poor physical performance among participants endorsing the feminine role (PRR = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.39 and PRR = 1.37, CI 1.01–1.88, respectively) or the undifferentiated role (PRR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.07–1.42 and PRR = 1.58, CI 1.18–2.12, respectively). Participants classified as masculine did not differ from androgynous participants in prevalence rates of mobility disability or low physical performance. None of the multiplicative interactions by sex and research site were significant. Conclusion Feminine and undifferentiated gender roles are independent risk factors for mobility disability and low physical performance in older adults. Longitudinal
Martin, Monica J; Blozis, Shelley A; Boeninger, Daria K; Masarik, April S; Conger, Rand D
This study of a cohort of 451 adolescents examined associations between trajectories of problem behaviors and the timing of entry into work, marriage, and parenthood. We used data from 12 assessments across adolescence, through emerging adulthood and into young adulthood. We employed 2-phase mixed-effects models to estimate growth in substance use and antisocial behavior across adolescence, deceleration in the period that follows, and the change point that marks the transition between the 2 phases. We then examined the degree to which the timing of entry into a specific adult role was associated with change in problem behaviors and the change point between the 2 phases. We hypothesized that earlier entries into adult roles would be associated with earlier transitions to the decline in problem behaviors generally observed during adulthood but that later entries would be associated with more quickly declining rates of problem behaviors during adulthood. As proposed, earlier entries into marriage and parenthood predicted earlier transitions to declining trajectories in both substance use and antisocial behavior during adulthood. The findings also indicated that delayed marriage and parenthood were associated with more quickly decreasing rates of change in substance use, but not antisocial behavior, during adulthood. Thus, the results are consistent with the idea that substance use decreases earlier but not as quickly during adulthood for those with earlier entries into marriage and parenthood. However, the timing of entry into work did not predict trajectory changes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Kaplan, Eitan S; Cooke, Sam F; Komorowski, Robert W; Chubykin, Alexander A; Thomazeau, Aurore; Khibnik, Lena A; Gavornik, Jeffrey P; Bear, Mark F
The roles played by cortical inhibitory neurons in experience-dependent plasticity are not well understood. Here we evaluate the participation of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) GABAergic neurons in two forms of experience-dependent modification of primary visual cortex (V1) in adult mice: ocular dominance (OD) plasticity resulting from monocular deprivation and stimulus-selective response potentiation (SRP) resulting from enriched visual experience. These two forms of plasticity are triggered by different events but lead to a similar increase in visual cortical response. Both also require the NMDA class of glutamate receptor (NMDAR). However, we find that PV+ inhibitory neurons in V1 play a critical role in the expression of SRP and its behavioral correlate of familiarity recognition, but not in the expression of OD plasticity. Furthermore, NMDARs expressed within PV+ cells, reversibly inhibited by the psychotomimetic drug ketamine, play a critical role in SRP, but not in the induction or expression of adult OD plasticity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11450.001 PMID:26943618
Anderson, Kristin J.; Cavallaro, Donna
Examines the impact of mass media on children's choices of heroes and role models. Addresses questions of which cultural messages children attend to, whether role models vary according to ethnicity and gender, and the role played by educators in exposing children to previously unconsidered role models. (DLH)
Capron, Daniel W; Lamis, Dorian A; Schmidt, Norman B
Suicide is a leading cause of death among young adults and the rate of suicide has been increasing for decades. A depression distress amplification model posits that young adults with comorbid depression and anxiety have elevated suicide rates due to the intensification of their depressive symptoms by anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. The current study tested the effects of anxiety sensitivity subfactors as well as the depression distress amplification model in a very large sample of college students with elevated suicide risk. Participants were 721 college students who were at elevated risk of suicidality (scored>0 on the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation). Consistent with prior work, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, but not physical or social concerns, were associated with suicidal ideation. Consistent with the depression distress amplification model, in individuals high in depression, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns predicted elevated suicidal ideation but not among those with low depression. The results of this study corroborate the role of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and the depression distress amplification model in suicidal ideation among a large potentially high-risk group of college students. The depression distress amplification model suggests a specific mechanism, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, that may be responsible for increased suicide rates among those with comorbid anxiety and depression.
Rutkowski, Joseph M; Boardman, Kendrick C; Swartz, Melody A
To date, adult lymphangiogenesis is not well understood. In this study we describe the evolution of lymphatic capillaries in regenerating skin and correlate lymphatic migration and organization with the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), immune cells, the growth factors VEGF-A and VEGF-C, and the heparan sulfate proteogylcan perlecan, a key component of basement membrane. We show that while lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) migrate and organize unidirectionally, in the direction of interstitial fluid flow, they do not sprout into the region but rather migrate as single cells that later join together into vessels. Furthermore, in a modified "shunted flow" version of the model, infiltrated LECs fail to organize into functional vessels, indicating that interstitial fluid flow is necessary for lymphatic organization. Perlecan expression on new lymphatic vessels was only observed after vessel organization was complete and also appeared first in the distal region, consistent with the directionality of lymphatic migration and organization. VEGF-C expression peaked at the initiation of lymphangiogenesis but was reduced to lower levels throughout organization and maturation. In mice lacking MMP-9, lymphatics regenerated normally, suggesting that MMP-9 is not required for lymphangiogenesis, at least in mouse skin. This study thus characterizes the process of adult lymphangiogenesis and differentiates it from sprouting blood angiogenesis, verifies its dependence on interstitial fluid flow for vessel organization, and correlates its temporal evolution with those of relevant environmental factors.
Law, Jeremy M; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol
This study examines the role of morphological awareness (MA) in literacy achievement and compensation in word reading of adults with dyslexia through an exploration of three questions: (1) Do adult dyslexics demonstrate a deficit in MA, and how is this potential deficit related to phonological awareness (PA)? (2) Does MA contribute independently to literacy skills equally in dyslexics and control readers? and (3) Do MA and PA skills differ in compensated and noncompensated dyslexics? A group of dyslexic and normal reading university students matched for age, education and IQ participated in this study. Group analysis demonstrated an MA deficit in dyslexics; as well, MA was found to significantly predict a greater proportion of word reading and spelling within the dyslexic group compared with the controls. Compensated dyslexics were also found to perform significantly better on the morphological task than noncompensated dyslexics. Additionally, no statistical difference was observed in MA between the normal reading controls and the compensated group (independent of PA and vocabulary). Results suggest that intact and strong MA skills contribute to the achieved compensation of this group of adults with dyslexia. Implications for MA based intervention strategies for people with dyslexia are discussed.
Dhédin, Nathalie; Huynh, Anne; Maury, Sébastien; Tabrizi, Reza; Beldjord, Kheira; Asnafi, Vahid; Thomas, Xavier; Chevallier, Patrice; Nguyen, Stéphanie; Coiteux, Valérie; Bourhis, Jean-Henri; Hichri, Yosr; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Reman, Oumedaly; Graux, Carlos; Chalandon, Yves; Blaise, Didier; Schanz, Urs; Lhéritier, Véronique; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Dombret, Hervé; Ifrah, Norbert
Because a pediatric-inspired Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL) protocol yielded a markedly improved outcome in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL, we aimed to reassess the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients treated in the GRAALL-2003 and GRAALL-2005 trials. In all, 522 patients age 15 to 55 years old and presenting with at least 1 conventional high-risk factor were candidates for SCT in first complete remission. Among these, 282 (54%) received a transplant in first complete remission. At 3 years, posttransplant cumulative incidences of relapse, nonrelapse mortality, and relapse-free survival (RFS) were estimated at 19.5%, 15.5%, and 64.7%, respectively. Time-dependent analysis did not reveal a significant difference in RFS between SCT and no-SCT cohorts. However, SCT was associated with longer RFS in patients with postinduction minimal residual disease (MRD) ≥10(-3) (hazard ratio, 0.40) but not in good MRD responders. In B-cell precursor ALL, SCT also benefitted patients with focal IKZF1 gene deletion (hazard ratio, 0.42). This article shows that poor early MRD response, in contrast to conventional ALL risk factors, is an excellent tool to identify patients who may benefit from allogeneic SCT in the context of intensified adult ALL therapy. Trial GRAALL-2003 was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00222027; GRAALL-2005 was registered as #NCT00327678.
Brady, Thomas C.
The study attempts to demonstrate movement in adult learning from particularization to symbolization to internalization (value choice) through use of a Counseling-Learning Model. Adult resistance to learning is dealt with through application of counseling awarenesses to the learning situation. If the adult learner can be freed from threat to…
Silver, Ellen Johnson; Dean, Randa; Perez, Amanda; Rivera, Angelic
We present the feasibility and acceptability of a parent sexuality education program led by peer educators in community settings. We also report the results of an outcome evaluation with 71 parents who were randomized to the intervention or a control group, and surveyed one month prior to and six months after the 4-week intervention. The program was highly feasible and acceptable to participants, and the curriculum was implemented with a high level of fidelity and facilitator quality. Pilot data show promising outcomes for increasing parental knowledge, communication, and monitoring of their adolescent children. PMID:24883051
Wedgeworth, Monika; LaRocca, Michael A; Chaplin, William F; Scogin, Forrest
The mental health of elderly individuals in rural areas is increasingly relevant as populations age and social structures change. While social support satisfaction is a well-established predictor of quality of life, interpersonal sensitivity symptoms may diminish this relation. The current study extends the findings of Scogin et al by investigating the relationship among interpersonal sensitivity, social support satisfaction, and quality of life among rural older adults and exploring the mediating role of social support in the relation between interpersonal sensitivity and quality of life (N = 128). Hierarchical regression revealed that interpersonal sensitivity and social support satisfaction predicted quality of life. In addition, bootstrapping resampling supported the role of social support satisfaction as a mediator between interpersonal sensitivity symptoms and quality of life. These results underscore the importance of nurses and allied health providers in assessing and attending to negative self-perceptions of clients, as well as the perceived quality of their social networks.
Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection. Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.
Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection.more » Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.« less
Heller, Barbara R.
This report discusses a nationwide study of Adult Performance Level (APL) which involved sixteen projects in seven states and was conducted to (1) examine the University of Texas at Austin's APL study and describe the results and recommendations in terms of the adult needs in New York State; (2) examine several New York State Adult Basic Education…
Czaja, Sara J
The aging of the population, especially the increase in the "oldest old," is a remarkable achievement that presents both opportunities and challenges for policymakers, researchers, and society. Although many older adults enjoy relatively good health into their later years, many have one or more chronic conditions or diseases and need help with disease management activities or activities important to independent living. Technology is playing an increasingly important role in the health care arena and is becoming ubiquitous in health management activities. There are a variety of technology applications that can be used to enhance the mobility and quality of life of people who have limitations and help to foster the ability of those with chronic conditions to remain at home. Technology applications can also provide a central role in providing support to family caregivers in terms of enhancing access to information and community resources and connections to formal and informal support services. Monitoring technologies may also allow caregivers to check on the status or activities of their loved one while they are at work or at a distant location. Furthermore, telemedicine applications can aid the ability of care providers to monitor patients and deliver health services. The objective of this article is to highlight the potential role that technology can play in the provision of long-term support for older adults and their families. Challenges and barriers that currently limit the full potential of technology to be realized for these populations will also be discussed. Finally the role of psychological science toward maximizing the potential of technology applications in enhancing long term care and support services will be highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record
Badisco, Liesbeth; Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Vanden Broeck, Jozef
Insects, like all heterotrophic organisms, acquire from their food the nutrients that are essential for anabolic processes that lead to growth (larval stages) or reproduction (adult stage). In adult females, this nutritional input is processed and results in a very specific output, i.e., the production of fully developed eggs ready for fertilization and deposition. An important role in this input-output transition is attributed to the insulin signaling pathway (ISP). The ISP is considered to act as a sensor of the organism's nutritional status and to stimulate the progression of anabolic events when the status is positive. In several insect species belonging to different orders, the ISP has been demonstrated to positively control vitellogenesis and oocyte growth. Whether or not ISP acts herein via a mediator action of lipophilic insect hormones (ecdysteroids and juvenile hormone) remains debatable and might be differently controlled in different insect orders. Most likely, insulin-related peptides, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormone are involved in a complex regulatory network, in which they mutually influence each other and in which the insect's nutritional status is a crucial determinant of the network's output. The current review will present an overview of the regulatory role of the ISP in female insect reproduction and its interaction with other pathways involving nutrients, lipophilic hormones and neuropeptides. PMID:23966944
Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Serrano, Antonia; Blanco, Eduardo; Araos, Pedro; Suárez, Juan; Pavón, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J
Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease in which the drug seeking habits and profound cognitive, emotional and motivational alterations emerge from drug-induced neuroadaptations on a vulnerable brain. Therefore, a 'cocaine addiction brain circuit' has been described to explain this disorder. Studies in both cocaine patients and rodents reveal the hippocampus as a main node in the cocaine addiction circuit. The contribution of the hippocampus to cocaine craving and the associated memories is essential to understand the chronic relapsing nature of addiction, which is the main obstacle for the recovery. Interestingly, the hippocampus holds a particular form of plasticity that is rare in the adult brain: the ability to generate new functional neurons. There is an active scientific debate on the contributions of these new neurons to the addicted brain. This review focuses on the potential role(s) of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in cocaine addiction. Although the current evidence primarily originates from animal research, these preclinical studies support AHN as a relevant component for the hippocampal effects of cocaine.
Cui, Ming; Fincham, Frank D; Pasley, B Kay
This study examined the link between parental divorce and marital conflict and young adult romantic relationships, and it tested whether offspring efficacy beliefs and conflict mediate this association. Young adults (N=358) provided data at three time points each separated by 7-week intervals. Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that (a) parents' marital conflict, rather than parental divorce, was associated with offspring conflict behavior; (b) relationship efficacy mediated this association; and (c) conflict behavior, in turn, mediated the association between efficacy beliefs and the quality of offspring romantic relationships. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the impact of parents' marital problems on romantic relationships in young adulthood. Their implications for preventive interventions and future research are also outlined.
Thompson, Tara Lynn
Female adult learners, the fastest growing subpopulation in community colleges, face challenges navigating domestic, professional, and academic roles and take time off from school to reconcile issues with multiple role navigation; thus, their education is disjointed and staggered, creating barriers to persistence. This interpretive design…
Kramer, Lorie Renee
This qualitative study used narrative analysis to explore the role of relationships between adults and their canine companions and the role of this relationship in personal growth and well-being. The theoretical frameworks to inform the study consisted of attachment theory and a blend of relational theory and connected knowing. The study focused…
Surcinelli, Paola; Rossi, Nicolino; Montebarocci, Ornella; Baldaro, Bruno
The aim of the present study was to examine differences in anxiety and depression related to differences in attachment models of the self and of others and whether personality traits mediate this relationship. The authors assessed attachment styles, anxiety, depression, and personality traits among 274 adult volunteers. Participants were classified into 4 attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing-avoidant) according to K. Bartholomew's (1990) model. The present authors found significant differences among attachment groups on anxiety and depressive symptoms with attachment styles involving a negative self-model showing higher scores than attachment styles characterized by a positive self-model. The authors also found that differences between attachment styles in anxiety and depression remained significant when personality factors related to attachment prototypes were entered as covariates. Results indicate that secure attachment in adults was associated with better mental health, while insecure attachment styles characterized by negative thinking about the self were associated with higher depression and anxiety scores. Our findings seem to evidence that attachment and personality are only partly overlapping and that attachment cannot be considered as redundant with personality in the explanation of psychological disease.
Matsuda, Hiroki; Shi, Yun-Bo
Organ-specific adult stem cells are critical for the homeostasis of adult organs and organ repair and regeneration. Unfortunately, it has been difficult to investigate the origins of these stem cells and the mechanisms of their development, especially in mammals. Intestinal remodeling during frog metamorphosis offers a unique opportunity for such studies. During the transition from an herbivorous tadpole to a carnivorous frog, the intestine is completely remodeled as the larval epithelial cells undergo apoptotic degeneration and are replaced by adult epithelial cells developed de novo. The entire metamorphic process is under the control of thyroid hormone, making it possible to control the development of the adult intestinal stem cells. Here, we show that the thyroid hormone receptor-coactivator protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is upregulated in a small number of larval epithelial cells and that these cells dedifferentiate to become the adult stem cells. More importantly, transgenic overexpression of PRMT1 leads to increased adult stem cells in the intestine, and conversely, knocking down the expression of endogenous PRMT1 reduces the adult stem cell population. In addition, PRMT1 expression pattern during zebrafish and mouse development suggests that PRMT1 may play an evolutionally conserved role in the development of adult intestinal stem cells throughout vertebrates. These findings are not only important for the understanding of organ-specific adult stem cell development but also have important implications in regenerative medicine of the digestive tract.
SHARIT, JOSEPH; HERNÁNDEZ, MARIO A.; CZAJA, SARA J.; PIROLLI, PETER
This study investigated the influences of knowledge, particularly Internet, Web browser, and search engine knowledge, as well as cognitive abilities on older adult information seeking on the Internet. The emphasis on aspects of cognition was informed by a modeling framework of search engine information-seeking behavior. Participants from two older age groups were recruited: twenty people in a younger-old group (ages 60–70) and twenty people in an older-old group (ages 71–85). Ten younger adults (ages 18–39) served as a comparison group. All participants had at least some Internet search experience. The experimental task consisted of six realistic search problems, all involving information related to health and well-being and which varied in degree of complexity. The results indicated that though necessary, Internet-related knowledge was not sufficient in explaining information-seeking performance, and suggested that a combination of both knowledge and key cognitive abilities is important for successful information seeking. In addition, the cognitive abilities that were found to be critical for task performance depended on the search problem’s complexity. Also, significant differences in task performance between the younger and the two older age groups were found on complex, but not on simple problems. Overall, the results from this study have implications for instructing older adults on Internet information seeking and for the design of Web sites. PMID:20011130
Lu, Deyu; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Shih, Amy Y.; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo; Freddolino, Peter L.; Arkhipov, Anton; Schulten, Klaus
Molecular modeling is advocated here as a key methodology for research and development in bionanotechnology. Molecular modeling provides nanoscale images at atomic and even electronic resolution, predicts the nanoscale interaction of unfamiliar combinations of biological and inorganic materials, and evaluates strategies for redesigning biopolymers for nanotechnological uses. The methodology is illustrated in this paper through reviewing three case studies. The first one involves the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes as biomedical sensors where a computationally efficient, yet accurate, description of the influence of biomolecules on nanotube electronic properties through nanotube-biomolecule interactions was developed; this development furnishes the ability to test nanotube electronic properties in realistic biological environments. The second case study involves the use of nanopores manufactured into electronic nanodevices based on silicon compounds for single molecule electrical recording, in particular, for DNA sequencing. Here, modeling combining classical molecular dynamics, material science and device physics, described the interaction of biopolymers, e.g., DNA, with silicon nitrate and silicon oxide pores, furnished accurate dynamic images of pore translocation processes, and predicted signals. The third case study involves the development of nanoscale lipid bilayers for the study of embedded membrane proteins and cholesterol. Molecular modeling tested scaffold proteins, redesigned apolipoproteins found in mammalian plasma that hold the discoidal membranes in the proper shape, and predicted the assembly as well as final structure of the nanodiscs. In entirely new technological areas such as bionanotechnology, qualitative concepts, pictures and suggestions are sorely needed; these three case studies document that molecular modeling can serve a critical role in this respect, even though it may still fall short on quantitative precision.
Feinson, Marjorie C; Hornik-Lurie, Tzipi
Empirical studies have identified emotional abuse in childhood (CEA) as a risk factor with long-term implications for psychological problems. Indeed, recent studies indicate it is more prevalent than behavioral forms of abuse, (i.e. childhood sexual and physical abuse) and the childhood trauma most clearly associated with subsequent eating pathology in adulthood. However, relatively little is understood about the mechanisms linking these distal experiences. This study explores three psychological mechanisms - self-criticism (SC), depression and anxiety symptoms - as plausible mediators that may account for the relationship between CEA and binge eating (BE) among adult women. Detailed telephone interviews conducted with a community-based sample of 498 adult women (mean age 44) assess BE, CEA and SC along with the most frequently researched psychological variables, anxiety and depression. Regression analyses reveal that BE is partially explained by CEA along with the three mediators. Bootstrapping analysis, which compares multiple mediators within a single model using thousands of repeated random sampling observations from the data set, reveals a striking finding: SC is the only psychological variable that makes a significant contribution to explaining BE severity. The unique role of punitive self-evaluations vis-à-vis binge eating warrants additional research and, in the interim, that clinicians consider broadening treatment interventions accordingly.
Sandhu, Gurjit; Rich, Jessica V.; Magas, Christopher; Walker, G. Ross
Research in the area of role modeling has primarily focused on the qualities and attributes of exceptional role models, and less attention has been given to the act of role modeling itself (Elzubeir & Rizk, 2001; Jochemsen-van der Leeuw, van Dijk, van Etten-Jamaludin, & Wieringa-de Waard, 2013; Wright, 1996; Wright, Wong, & Newill,…
Mastro, James; Ahrens, Christopher; Statton, Nathan
A role model is a person or challenge that inspires an individual to go beyond what is expected of him or her and to reach a specific goal. Role models can exemplify motivation, passion, and a genuine love of their life's work. All students need role models, and Paralympic sport athletes can be just that, especially for students with disabilities.…
Hantman, Shira; Oz, Miriam Ben; Gutman, Caroline; Criden, Wendy
This article describes an innovative model for teaching gerontological social work that has been introduced into the social work methods curriculum in the Department of Social Work at a college in northern Israel. The basic concept of the model is to create an alternative learning environment by including older persons as full participants in the classroom. As experts on old age, they provide social work students with a hands-on learning experience intended to facilitate their understanding of aging. The changing needs of this growing population place a complex and pressing burden on the social systems that provide services to older adults, and on the families that care for them. To meet these needs, it is predicted that there will be a substantial increase in the demand for social workers in the field of gerontology. At present, there is a shortage of social workers who wish to work with this population as a result of negative perceptions and stereotypes relating to old age. This calls for a different approach to teaching gerontological social work, one that will adapt the study of aging to today's older population while addressing the misconceptions and anxieties of social work students.
Guillermina Socías, M; Van Nieuwenhove, Guido; Casmuz, Augusto S; Willink, Eduardo; Liljesthröm, Gerardo G
In this work, we report the effect of rainfall on Sternechus subsignatus Boheman, 1836, adult emergence after winter dormancy. This weevil is a univoltine soybean pest found in northwestern Argentina, a subtropical region with dry winters and rainy summers. Before harvest, fully grown larvae burrow into the soil where they overwinter. In the spring, they emerge as adults and recolonize the crop during its planting and early vegetative stages. Our study examines the seasonal timing of adult emergence with the aim of improving chemical control strategies and avoiding unnecessary pesticide applications. To do so, we developed a regression model to predict adult emergence onset as a function of cumulated rainfall after 1st November. The regression with the highest coefficient of determination between cumulated rainfall and adult emergence onset was Emergence onset (Julian day) = -7.98 Ln(cumulative rainfall) + 65.7. The negative relationship showed that adults emerged earlier in wet years than in dry years. Also it was observed that adults emerged from late November to mid-March, in pulses following periods of rainfall. Males were more abundant than females at first, but then the reverse was true toward the end of the period. In most cases, there was a suggestion of relationship (though not significantly) between peaks of adult emergence with peaks of rainfall 15 d before adult emergence. These results reveal that rainfall has a significant impact on the beginning and dynamics of adult emergence from the soil.
Wen, Zhang; Miao, Ge; Xinlei, Liu; Minyi, Cen
This study aims to provide a scientific basis for unifying the reference value standard of QT dispersion of ECGs in Chinese adults. Three predictive models including regression model, principal component model, and artificial neural network model are combined to establish the optimal weighted combination model. The optimal weighted combination model and single model are verified and compared. Optimal weighted combinatorial model can reduce predicting risk of single model and improve the predicting precision. The reference value of geographical distribution of Chinese adults' QT dispersion was precisely made by using kriging methods. When geographical factors of a particular area are obtained, the reference value of QT dispersion of Chinese adults in this area can be estimated by using optimal weighted combinatorial model and reference value of the QT dispersion of Chinese adults anywhere in China can be obtained by using geographical distribution figure as well.
Wen, Zhang; Miao, Ge; Xinlei, Liu; Minyi, Cen
This study aims to provide a scientific basis for unifying the reference value standard of QT dispersion of ECGs in Chinese adults. Three predictive models including regression model, principal component model, and artificial neural network model are combined to establish the optimal weighted combination model. The optimal weighted combination model and single model are verified and compared. Optimal weighted combinatorial model can reduce predicting risk of single model and improve the predicting precision. The reference value of geographical distribution of Chinese adults' QT dispersion was precisely made by using kriging methods. When geographical factors of a particular area are obtained, the reference value of QT dispersion of Chinese adults in this area can be estimated by using optimal weighted combinatorial model and reference value of the QT dispersion of Chinese adults anywhere in China can be obtained by using geographical distribution figure as well.
Brussino, Silvina; Medrano, Leonardo; Sorribas, Patricia; Rabbia, Hugo H
The aim of this study was to create an explanatory model that allows analyzing the predictive power of a set of variables related to political knowledge; more specifically, to analyze the relationship between the education level of young adults and the variables, interest in politics and internal political efficacy. We also analyzed the combined relationship between these variables, together with age, and political knowledge. We worked with a sample group of 280 young adults between the ages of 18-30 from the city of Córdoba (Argentina). The data was subjected to a structural equation modelling SEM analysis, which allowed for the corroboration of the following hypotheses: the higher the education level, the more the interest in politics; the higher the education level, the better the perception of internal political efficacy; the higher the education level, the more the political knowledge; the more the interest in politics, the more the political knowledge; and the better the perception of internal political efficacy, the more interest in politics. Moreover, the following hypotheses could not be verified: the older an individual, the more the political knowledge; and the better the perception of internal political efficacy, the more the political knowledge. The model obtained allows for discussion of the explanatory value of these socio-cognitive variables.
D'Angelo, L; Castaldo, L; Cellerino, A; de Girolamo, P; Lucini, C
Nerve growth factor (NGF) acts on central nervous system neurons, regulating naturally occurring cell death, synaptic connectivity, fiber guidance and dendritic morphology. The dynamically regulated production of NGF beginning in development, extends throughout adult life and aging, exerting numerous roles through a surprising variety of neurons and glial cells. This study analyzes the localization of NGF in the brain of the teleost fish Nothobranchius furzeri, an emerging model for aging research due to its short lifespan. Immunochemical and immunohistochemical experiments were performed by employing an antibody mapping at the N-terminus of the mature chain human origin NGF. Western blot analysis revealed an intense and well defined band of 20 kDa, which corresponds to proNGF of N. furzeri. Immunohistochemistry revealed NGF immunoreactivity (IR) diffused throughout all regions of telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon and rhomboencephalon. It was detected in neurons and in glial cells, the latter mostly lining the mesencephalic and rhomboencephalic ventricles. Particularly in neurons, NGF IR was localized in perikarya and, to a less extent, in fibers. The widespread distribution of proNGF suggests that it might modulate numerous physiological functions in the adult brain of N. furzeri. The present survey constitutes a baseline study to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the role of NGF during aging processes.
Anand, Suneesh; Jayakumar, Divya; Aronow, Wilbert S; Chandy, Dipak
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides complete or partial support of the heart and lungs. Ever since its inception in the 1960s, it has been used across all age groups in the management of refractory respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock. While it has gained widespread acceptance in the neonatal and pediatric physician community, ECMO remains a controversial therapy for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in adults. Its popularity was revived during the swine flu (H1N1) pandemic and advancements in technology have contributed to its increasing usage. ARDS continues to be a potentially devastating condition with significant mortality rates. Despite gaining more insights into this entity over the years, mechanical ventilation remains the only life-saving, yet potentially harmful intervention available for ARDS. ECMO shows promise in this regard by offering less dependence on mechanical ventilation, thereby potentially reducing ventilator-induced injury. However, the lack of rigorous clinical data has prevented ECMO from becoming the standard of care in the management of ARDS. Therefore, the results of two large ongoing randomized trials, which will hopefully throw more light on the role of ECMO in the management of this disease entity, are keenly awaited. In this article we will provide a basic overview of the development of ECMO, the types of ECMO, the pathogenesis of ARDS, different ventilation strategies for ARDS, the role of ECMO in ARDS and the role of ECMO as a bridge to lung transplantation.
Carter, Sierra E; Walker, Rheeda L
Although emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle; Holford, John
The idea of "sustainability" as a core value has slowly permeated policy and practice at governmental and institutional levels, in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have revealed the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important to consider how sustainability is - and could be - integrated into educational policies. In this theoretical contribution to a special issue on "Societal sustainability", the authors draw on available literature and knowledge. They begin their paper by summarising the conditions under which the concept of "sustainability" entered political discourse in the early 1970s and outline how it has influenced educational research. They then introduce the longstanding debate about the relative role of tradition (in terms of traditional cultural and social order) and change (in terms of efforts to provide learning opportunities for everyone) in adult education. Finally, they argue for a rethinking of the ontology of sustainability: this, they suggest, can shed new light on its relationships with adult education and learning and social justice.
Lubin, Farah D
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) is one of numerous gene products necessary for long-term memory formation and dysregulation of bdnf has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cognitive and mental disorders. Recent work indicates that epigenetic-regulatory mechanisms including the markings of histone proteins and associated DNA remain labile throughout the life-span and represent an attractive molecular process contributing to gene regulation in the brain. In this review, important information will be discussed on epigenetics as a set of newly identified dynamic transcriptional mechanisms serving to regulate gene expression changes in the adult brain with particular emphasis on bdnf transcriptional readout in learning and memory formation. This review will also highlight evidence for the role of epigenetics in aberrant bdnf gene regulation in the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction associated with seizure disorders, Rett syndrome, Schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Such research offers novel concepts for understanding epigenetic transcriptional mechanisms subserving adult cognition and mental health, and furthermore promises novel avenues for therapeutic approach in the clinic.
The nasopharynx serves as the reservoir for anaerobic bacteria as well as pathogenic bacteria that can cause respiratory infections including sinusitis. Some of these organisms possess the ability to interfere with the growth of potential pathogens and may play a role in preventing infections. Anaerobic bacteria emerge as pathogens as the infection becomes chronic. This may result from the selective pressure of antimicrobial agents that enable resistant anaerobic organisms to survive, and from the development of conditions appropriate for anaerobic growth, which include the reduction in oxygen tension and an increase in acidity within the sinus. Anaerobes were identified in chronic sinusitis in adults and children whenever techniques for their cultivation were employed. The predominant isolates were pigmented Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Peptostreptococcus spp. The choice of antimicrobial agent in chronic sinusitis should provide coverage for the usual pathogens in acute sinusitis as well as beta-lactamase-producing aerobic and anaerobic organisms.
O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is implicated in antidepressant action, stress responses, and cognitive functioning. The hippocampus is functionally segregated along its longitudinal axis into dorsal (dHi) and ventral (vHi) regions in rodents, and analogous posterior and anterior regions in primates, whereby the vHi preferentially regulates stress and anxiety, while the dHi preferentially regulates spatial learning and memory. Given the role of neurogenesis in functions preferentially regulated by the dHi or vHi, it is plausible that neurogenesis is preferentially regulated in either the dHi or vHi depending upon the stimulus. We appraise here the literature on the effects of stress and antidepressants on neurogenesis along the hippocampal longitudinal axis and explore whether preferential regulation of neurogenesis in the vHi/anterior hippocampus contributes to stress resilience and antidepressant action.
Barnea, Anat; Pravosudov, Vladimir
During the last few decades, evidence has demonstrated that adult neurogenesis is a well-preserved feature throughout the animal kingdom. In birds, ongoing neuronal addition occurs rather broadly, to a number of brain regions. This review describes adult avian neurogenesis and neuronal recruitment, discusses factors that regulate these processes, and touches upon the question of their genetic control. Several attributes make birds an extremely advantageous model to study neurogenesis. First, song learning exhibits seasonal variation that is associated with seasonal variation in neuronal turnover in some song control brain nuclei, which seems to be regulated via adult neurogenesis. Second, food-caching birds naturally use memory-dependent behavior in learning the locations of thousands of food caches scattered over their home ranges. In comparison with other birds, food-caching species have relatively enlarged hippocampi with more neurons and intense neurogenesis, which appears to be related to spatial learning. Finally, migratory behavior and naturally occurring social systems in birds also provide opportunities to investigate neurogenesis. This diversity of naturally occurring memory-based behaviors, combined with the fact that birds can be studied both in the wild and in the laboratory, make them ideal for investigation of neural processes underlying learning. This can be done by using various approaches, from evolutionary and comparative to neuroethological and molecular. Finally, we connect the avian arena to a broader view by providing a brief comparative and evolutionary overview of adult neurogenesis and by discussing the possible functional role of the new neurons. We conclude by indicating future directions and possible medical applications.
BARNEA, ANAT; PRAVOSUDOV, VLADIMIR
During the last few decades evidence has demonstrated that adult neurogenesis is a well-preserved feature throughout the animal kingdom. In birds, ongoing neuronal addition occurs rather broadly, to a number of brain regions. This review describes adult avian neurogenesis and neuronal recruitment, discusses factors that regulate these processes, and touches upon the question of their genetic control. Several attributes make birds an extremely advantageous model to study neurogenesis. First, song learning exhibits seasonal variation that is associated with seasonal variation in neuronal turnover in some song control brain nuclei, which seems to be regulated via adult neurogenesis. Second, food-caching birds naturally use memory-dependent behavior in learning locations of thousands of food caches scattered over their home ranges. In comparison with other birds, food-caching species have relatively enlarged hippocampi with more neurons and intense neurogenesis, which appears to be related to spatial learning. Finally, migratory behavior and naturally occurring social systems in birds also provide opportunities to investigate neurogenesis. Such diversity of naturally-occurring memory-based behaviors, combined with the fact that birds can be studied both in the wild and in the laboratory, make them ideal for investigation of neural processes underlying learning. This can be done by using various approaches, from evolutionary and comparative to neuroethological and molecular. Finally, we connect the avian arena to a broader view by providing a brief comparative and evolutionary overview of adult neurogenesis and by discussing the possible functional role of the new neurons. We conclude by indicating future directions and possible medical applications. PMID:21929623
Presents evidence demonstrating that, although Colin Robert Badger claimed to have originated the model for Australia's Council of Adult Education, another unacknowledged model had actually formed the basis of it. States that the Badger narrative has become an enduring myth in Australian adult education history. (Contains 20 archival and 36…
The purpose was to examine psychosocial factors that influence the physical activity behaviors of adults with brain injuries. Two differing models, based on Harter's model of self-worth, were proposed to examine the relationship between perceived competence, social support, physical self-worth, affect, and motivation. Adults numbering 384 with…
Parental role models are often put forward as an explanation for the choice of gender-atypical educational routes. This paper aims to test such explanations by examining the impact of family background variables like parental education and occupation, on choice of educational programme at upper secondary school. Using a sample of around 73,000 Swedish teenagers born between 1972 and 1976, girls' and boys' gender-atypical as well as gender-typical educational choices are analysed by means of logistic regression. Parents working or educated within a specific field increase the probability that a child will make a similar choice of educational programme at upper secondary school. This same-sector effect appeared to be somewhat stronger for fathers and sons, while no such same-sex influence was confirmed for girls. No evidence was found that, in addition to a same-sector effect, it matters whether parents' occupations represent gender-traditional or non-traditional models. Parents of the service classes or highly educated parents--expected to be the most gender egalitarian in attitudes and behaviours--have a positive influence upon children's choice of gender-atypical education.
Pozuelo-Carrascosa, Diana P.; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Ferri-Morales, Asunción; Miota Ibarra, Jose; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente
Background The positive relationship between lean mass (LM) and bone health is well known, but a positive association between insulin and LM has also been described. Insulin has some anabolic properties on bone through the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation, yet the role of LM as a confounder or mediator in this relationship remains uncertain. Objective To examine whether the association between insulin levels and bone health is mediated by LM. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Castilla La Mancha University (Spain) involving 466 young adults (113 young men; 19.5±2.3 years). LM and total-body bone mineral content (BMC) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and insulin was measured in fasting serum samples. Results Young adults with high total LM had higher values of total-body BMC than their peers after controlling for age and sex, this relationship persisted after adjusting for insulin levels (p<0.001). In mediation analyses, insulin levels were positively associated with total-body BMC (b = 0.05; p<0.001) and total LM acted as an intermediate variable, attenuating the association between insulin levels and total-body BMC (b = -31.98; p>0.05) as indicated by Sobel test values for indirect effect (z = 4.43; p<0.001). Conclusions LM plays an important role in the relationship between insulin levels and bone health, in such a way that while increases in LM have a positive influence on bone health, they are also negatively associated with insulin levels. PMID:28323845
Patocka, Vojtech; Cadek, Ondrej; Tackley, Paul
A present limitation of global thermo-chemical convection models is that they assume a purely viscous or visco-plastic flow law for solid rock, i.e. elasticity is ignored. This may not be a good assumption in the cold, outer boundary layer known as the lithosphere, where elastic deformation may be important. Elasticity in the lithosphere plays at least two roles: It changes surface topography, which changes the relationship between topography and gravity, and it alters the stress distribution in the lithosphere, which may affect dynamical behaviour such as the formation of plate boundaries and other tectonics features. A method for adding elasticity to a viscous flow solver to make a visco-elastic flow solver, which involves adding advected elastic stress to the momentum equation and introducing an "effective" viscosity has been proposed (e.g. Moresi, 2002). The proposed method is designed primarily for a regional-scale numerical model which employs tracers for advection and co-rotation of the stress field. In this study we test a grid-based version of the method in context of thermal convection in the Boussinesq approximation. A simple finite difference/volume model with staggered grid is used, with the aim to later use the same method to implement viscoelasticity into StagYY (Tackley, 2008). The main obstacle is that Maxwell viscoelastic rheology produces instantaneous deformation if instantaneous change of the driving forces occurs. It is not possible to model such deformation in a velocity formulated convection model, as velocity undergoes a singularity for an instantaneous deformation. For a given Rayleigh number there exists a certain critical value of the Deborah number above which it is necessary to use a thermal time step different from the one used in viscoelastic constitutive equation to avoid this numerical instability from happening. Critical Deborah numbers for various Rayleigh numbers are computed. We then propose a method to decouple the thermal and
Gavett, Brandon E; Zhao, Rui; John, Samantha E; Bussell, Cara A; Roberts, Jennifer R; Yue, Chuan
Phishing is the spoofing of Internet websites or emails aimed at tricking users into entering sensitive information, with such goals as financial or identity theft. The current study sought to determine whether age is associated with increased susceptibility to phishing and whether tests of executive functioning can predict phishing susceptibility. A total of 193 cognitively intact participants, 91 younger adults and 102 older adults, were primarily recruited through a Psychology department undergraduate subject pool and a gerontology research registry, respectively. The Executive Functions Module from the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery and the Iowa Gambling Task were the primary cognitive predictors of reported phishing suspiciousness. Other predictors included age group (older vs. younger), sex, education, race, ethnicity, prior knowledge of phishing, prior susceptibility to phishing, and whether or not browsing behaviors were reportedly different in the laboratory setting versus at home. A logistic regression, which accounted for a 22.7% reduction in error variance compared to the null model and predicted phishing suspiciousness with 73.1% (95% CI [66.0, 80.3]) accuracy, revealed three statistically significant predictors: the main effect of education (b = 0.58, SE = 0.27) and the interactions of age group with prior awareness of phishing (b = 2.31, SE = 1.12) and performance on the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Mazes test (b = 0.16, SE = 0.07). Whether or not older adults reported being suspicious of the phishing attacks used in this study was partially explained by educational history and prior phishing knowledge. This suggests that simple educational interventions may be effective in reducing phishing vulnerability. Although one test of executive functioning was found useful for identifying those at risk of phishing susceptibility, four tests were not found to be useful; these results speak to the need for more ecologically valid tools in
Zhao, Rui; John, Samantha E.; Bussell, Cara A.; Roberts, Jennifer R.; Yue, Chuan
Phishing is the spoofing of Internet websites or emails aimed at tricking users into entering sensitive information, with such goals as financial or identity theft. The current study sought to determine whether age is associated with increased susceptibility to phishing and whether tests of executive functioning can predict phishing susceptibility. A total of 193 cognitively intact participants, 91 younger adults and 102 older adults, were primarily recruited through a Psychology department undergraduate subject pool and a gerontology research registry, respectively. The Executive Functions Module from the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery and the Iowa Gambling Task were the primary cognitive predictors of reported phishing suspiciousness. Other predictors included age group (older vs. younger), sex, education, race, ethnicity, prior knowledge of phishing, prior susceptibility to phishing, and whether or not browsing behaviors were reportedly different in the laboratory setting versus at home. A logistic regression, which accounted for a 22.7% reduction in error variance compared to the null model and predicted phishing suspiciousness with 73.1% (95% CI [66.0, 80.3]) accuracy, revealed three statistically significant predictors: the main effect of education (b = 0.58, SE = 0.27) and the interactions of age group with prior awareness of phishing (b = 2.31, SE = 1.12) and performance on the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Mazes test (b = 0.16, SE = 0.07). Whether or not older adults reported being suspicious of the phishing attacks used in this study was partially explained by educational history and prior phishing knowledge. This suggests that simple educational interventions may be effective in reducing phishing vulnerability. Although one test of executive functioning was found useful for identifying those at risk of phishing susceptibility, four tests were not found to be useful; these results speak to the need for more ecologically valid tools in
Karani, Mamta V.; Haddad, Yara; Lee, Robin
Falls are the leading cause of both fatal and non-fatal injuries in people aged 65 years and older and can lead to significant costs, injuries, functional decline, and reduced quality of life. While certain medications are known to increase fall risk, medication use is a modifiable risk factor. Pharmacists have specialized training in medication management and can play an important role in fall prevention. Working in a patient-centered team-based approach, pharmacists can collaborate with the primary care providers to reduce fall risk. They can screen for fall risk, review and optimize medication therapy, recommend vitamin D, and educate patients and caregivers about ways to prevent falls. To help health-care providers implement fall prevention, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries (STEADI) initiative. Based on the established clinical guidelines, STEADI provides members of the health-care team, including pharmacists, with the tools and resources they need to manage their older patients’ fall risk. These tools are being adapted to specifically advance the roles of pharmacists in reviewing medications, identifying those that increase fall risk, and communicating those risks with patients’ primary care providers. Through a multidisciplinary approach, pharmacists along with other members of the health-care team can better meet the needs of America’s growing older adult population and reduce falls. PMID:27882314
Lee, Matthew R.; Chassin, Laurie; MacKinnon, David P.
Background Research has shown a developmental process of “maturing out” of problem drinking beginning in young adulthood. Perhaps surprisingly, past studies suggests that young adult drinking reductions may be particularly pronounced among those exhibiting relatively severe forms of problem drinking earlier in emerging adulthood. This may occur because more severe problem drinkers experience stronger ameliorative effects of normative young adult role transitions like marriage. Methods The hypothesis of stronger marriage effects among more severe problem drinkers was tested using three waves of data from a large ongoing study of familial alcohol disorder (Chassin et al., 1992; N=844; 51% children of alcoholics). Results Longitudinal growth models characterized (1) the curvilinear trajectory of drinking quantity from ages 17-40, (2) effects of marriage on altering this age-related trajectory, and moderation of this effect by pre-marriage problem drinking levels (alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms). Results confirmed the hypothesis that protective marriage effects on drinking quantity trajectories would be stronger among more severe pre-marriage problem drinkers. Supplemental analyses showed that results were robust to alternative construct operationalizations and modeling approaches. Conclusions Consistent with role incompatibility theory, findings support the view of role conflict as a key mechanism of role-driven behavior change, as greater problem drinking likely conflicts more with demands of roles like marriage. This is also consistent with the developmental psychopathology view of transitions and turning points. Role transitions among already low-severity drinkers may merely represent developmental continuity of a low-risk trajectory, whereas role transitions among higher-severity problem drinkers may represent developmentally discontinuous “turning points” that divert individuals from a higher- to a lower-risk trajectory. Practically
Milke-García, María Del Pilar
Adulthood starts after youth and is characterized by the completion of growth and the achievement of organic and psychological maturity. Obesity and other preventable diseases related to lifestyle are common at this age. A complete, balanced and sufficient diet, together with exercise are important in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Several studies have brought about the mechanisms by which the incorporation of milk and dairy products to diet is beneficial in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Milk also contributes to the improvement of dental, bone and intestinal health, theoretically helps in body weight control, has a definite role on the muscular and bone mass maintenance and is an option for hydration during exercise, this being as important as diet for overweight, obesity, diabetes, dislipidemias and hypertension control.
Rekaik, Hocine; Blaudin de Thé, François-Xavier; Prochiantz, Alain; Fuchs, Julia; Joshi, Rajiv L
The homeoprotein Engrailed (Engrailed-1/Engrailed-2, collectively En1/2) is not only a survival factor for mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons during development, but continues to exert neuroprotective and physiological functions in adult mDA neurons. Loss of one En1 allele in the mouse leads to progressive demise of mDA neurons in the ventral midbrain starting from 6 weeks of age. These mice also develop Parkinson disease-like motor and non-motor symptoms. The characterization of En1 heterozygous mice have revealed striking parallels to central mechanisms of Parkinson disease pathogenesis, mainly related to mitochondrial dysfunction and retrograde degeneration. Thanks to the ability of homeoproteins to transduce cells, En1/2 proteins have also been used to protect mDA neurons in various experimental models of Parkinson disease. This neuroprotection is partly linked to the ability of En1/2 to regulate the translation of certain nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs for complex I subunits. Other transcription factors that govern mDA neuron development (e.g. Foxa1/2, Lmx1a/b, Nurr1, Otx2, Pitx3) also continue to function for the survival and maintenance of mDA neurons in the adult and act through partially overlapping but also diverse mechanisms.
Christy, Shannon M; Winger, Joseph G; Raffanello, Elizabeth W; Halpern, Leslie F; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Mosher, Catherine E
Although cognitions have predicted young adults' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine decision-making, emotion-based theories of healthcare decision-making suggest that anticipatory emotions may be more predictive. This study examined whether anticipated regret was associated with young adults' intentions to receive the HPV vaccine above and beyond the effects of commonly studied cognitions. Unvaccinated undergraduates (N = 233) completed a survey assessing Health Belief Model (HBM) variables (i.e., perceived severity of HPV-related diseases, perceived risk of developing these diseases, and perceived benefits of HPV vaccination), anticipatory emotions (i.e., anticipated regret if one were unvaccinated and later developed genital warts or HPV-related cancer), and HPV vaccine intentions. Anticipated regret was associated with HPV vaccine intentions above and beyond the effects of HBM variables among men. Among women, neither anticipated regret nor HBM variables showed consistent associations with HPV vaccine intentions. Findings suggest that anticipatory emotions should be considered when designing interventions to increase HPV vaccination among college men.
McFarland, Michael J; Uecker, Jeremy E; Regnerus, Mark D
This study assesses the role of religion in influencing sexual frequency and satisfaction among older married adults and sexual activity among older unmarried adults. The study proposes and tests several hypotheses about the relationship between religion and sex among these two groups of older Americans, using nationally representative data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Results suggest that among married older adults, religion is largely unrelated with sexual frequency and satisfaction, although religious integration in daily life shares a weak, but positive, association with pleasure from sex. For unmarried adults, such religious integration exhibits a negative association with having had sex in the last year among women, but not among men.
Xiao, Lijuan; Feng, Qin; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Fen; Lydon, John P.; Ittmann, Michael M.; Xin, Li; Mitsiades, Nicholas; He, Bin
GATA transcription factors are essential in mammalian cell lineage determination and have a critical role in cancer development. In cultured prostate cancer cells, GATA2 coordinates with androgen receptor (AR) to regulate gene transcription. In the murine prostate, among six GATA members, GATA2 and GATA3 are expressed. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that both GATA factors predominantly localize in the nuclei of luminal epithelial cells. The pioneer factor FoxA1 is exclusively detected in the luminal cells, whereas AR is detected in both luminal and basal cells. Using genetic engineering, we generated prostate-specific GATA2 and GATA3 knockout (KO) mice. Ablation of single GATA gene had marginal effect on prostate morphology and AR target gene expression, likely due to their genetic compensation. Double KO mice exhibited PIN III to IV lesions, but decreased prostate to body weight ratio, altered AR target gene expression, and expansion of p63-positive basal cells. However, deletion of GATA2 and GATA3 did not reduce the mRNA or protein levels of AR or FoxA1, indicating that GATA factors are not required for AR or FoxA1 expression in adult prostate. Surprisingly, GATA2 and GATA3 exhibit minimal expression in the ventral prostatic (VP) lobe. In contrast, FoxA1 and AR expression levels in VP are at least as high as those in anterior prostatic (AP) and dorsal-lateral prostatic (DLP) lobes. Together, our results indicate that GATA2 and GATA3 are essential for adult murine prostate function and in vivo AR signaling, and the lack of the GATA factor expression in the VP suggests a fundamental difference between VP and other prostatic lobes. PMID:27374105
Long, Dominique N; Wisniewski, Amy B; Migeon, Claude J
This study evaluated the degree of femininity and masculinity at different developmental stages in a group of adult women, some of whom were exposed to elevated prenatal adrenal androgens as a result of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21 hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency. Women who had presented to the Johns Hopkins Hospital Pediatric Endocrine Clinic for treatment of CAH due to 21-OH deficiency were included. The control group consisted of sisters of CAH participants and women referred for evaluation of polycystic ovary syndrome. Study participants were given a questionnaire asking them to indicate their degree of masculinity and femininity during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. In addition, participants were asked questions related to their play behavior during childhood, including playmate preferences, toy preferences, and admiration of male or female characters during fantasy play. Across participant groups, self-reported femininity decreased in a dose response manner, according to prenatal androgen exposure. For all groups, femininity increased through developmental stages. Women with salt-losing CAH remained less feminine than controls into adulthood. Conversely, self-reported masculinity increased in a dose-response manner, according to prenatal androgen exposure, across participant groups. Women with CAH showed a decrease in masculinity across developmental stages, such that by adulthood, there were no significant differences in masculinity between controls and the women with CAH. Women with salt-losing CAH were more likely to recall preferences for boy playmates, male-typical toys, and admiration for male characters during childhood than other study participants. Our data support the effect of both prenatal androgen exposure and socialization on gender role behavior in adult women with CAH due to 21-OH deficiency.
Farrell, E. R.; Fernandes, J.; Keshishian, H.
In many organisms muscle formation depends on specialized cells that prefigure the pattern of the musculature and serve as templates for myoblast organization and fusion. These include muscle pioneers in insects and muscle organizing cells in leech. In Drosophila, muscle founder cells have been proposed to play a similar role in organizing larval muscle development during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, following histolysis of most of the larval musculature, there is a second round of myogenesis that gives rise to the adult muscles. It is not known whether muscle founder cells organize the development of these muscles. However, in the thorax specific larval muscle fibers do not histolyze at the onset of metamorphosis, but instead serve as templates for the formation of a subset of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Because these persistent larval muscle fibers appear to be functioning in many respects like muscle founder cells, we investigated whether they were necessary for DLM development by using a microbeam laser to ablate them singly and in combination. We found that, in the absence of the larval muscle fibers, DLMs nonetheless develop. Our results show that the persistent larval muscle fibers are not required to initiate myoblast fusion, to determine DLM identity, to locate the DLMs in the thorax, or to specify the total DLM fiber volume. However, they are required to regulate the number of DLM fibers generated. Thus, while the persistent larval muscle fibers are not obligatory for DLM fiber formation and differentiation, they are necessary to ensure the development of the correct number of fibers.
Wohlgenant, Kelly C.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Godwin, Sandria L.; Speller-Henderson, Leslie
Adults aged 60 or older are more likely than younger adults to experience severe complications or even death as a result of foodborne infections. This study investigated which specific groups of healthcare providers or other caregivers are most receptive to providing food safety information to older adults. Telephone-based focus groups were…
McLendon, Lennox L.; Murphy, Garrett W.; Parker, James
The four papers in this series were commissioned for the first meeting of the National Commission on Adult Literacy, which met in Nashville on November 14, 2006. The first paper, "Adult Education and Literacy Legislation and Its Effects on the Field," provides the basic provisions of the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA,…
Mitra, Dana; Lewis, Tiffanie; Sanders, Felicia
While research has documented the many ways in which student voice can enable educational change, the process of how adults can help to enable student voice is less clear. This article examines how adults new to working as advisors of student voice initiatives begin to develop partnerships with young people. Using a Youth-Adult Partnership…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the role of the adult and dislocated... AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Delivery of Adult and Dislocated Worker Services Through the...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is the role of the adult and dislocated... AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Delivery of Adult and Dislocated Worker Services...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is the role of the adult and dislocated... AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Delivery of Adult and Dislocated Worker Services...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is the role of the adult and dislocated... AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Delivery of Adult and Dislocated Worker Services...
Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Hertzman, Clyde
The goal of this research was to examine the role of supportive adults to emotional well-being in a population of Grade 4 students attending public schools in Vancouver, Canada. Reflecting the ecology of middle childhood, we examined the extent to which perceived family, school, and neighborhood support relate to young people's self-reported…
Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Nelson, Larry J.
Although religious participation declines during emerging adulthood (18 years through middle 20s), most emerging adults still claim that their religious beliefs are important to them. However, little research has been conducted to examine the role that religious beliefs and practices may play in the development of self-perceptions during emerging…
Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid
Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in…
Eilam, Efrat; Trop, Tamar
The present study revisits a subfield of environmental education: significant life experiences, which studies the influences that shape the development of environmental stewardship. In the present study, we examine the effect of various formative experiences on a group of adults and analyze the role of school, as a formative influence on the…
Character education considers teachers to be role models, but it is unclear what this means in practice. Do teachers model admirable character traits? And do they do so effectively? In this article the relevant pedagogical and psychological literature is reviewed in order to shed light on these questions. First, the use of role modelling as a…
Akbulut, Asli Y.
The importance of role models on individuals' academic and career development and success has been widely acknowledged in the literature. The purpose of this study was to understand the influence of role models on students' decisions to major in information systems (IS). Utilizing a model derived from the social cognitive career theory, we…
Brown, Qiana; Milam, Adam J; Bowie, Janice V; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Furr-Holden, Debra
Tobacco outlet exposure is a correlate of tobacco use with potential differences by gender that warrant attention. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating role of gender in the relationship between tobacco outlet exposure and past month tobacco use among African American young adults 21 to 24 years old. This cross-sectional study (n = 283) used geospatial methods to determine the number of tobacco outlets within walking distance (i.e., a quarter mile) of participants' homes and distance to the nearest outlet. Logistic regression models were used to test interactions between gender and tobacco outlet exposure (i.e., density and proximity). Tobacco outlets were classified based on whether or not they were licensed to sell tobacco only (TO outlets) or tobacco and alcohol (TA outlets). Neither density nor proximity was associated with past month tobacco use in the pooled models. However, gender modified the relationship between TO outlet density and tobacco use, and this relationship was significant only among women (OR = 1.02; p < 0.01; adjusted OR = 1.01; p < 0.05). This study underscores the importance of reducing tobacco outlet density in residential neighborhoods, especially TO outlets, as well as highlights potential gender differences in the relationship between tobacco outlet density and tobacco use.
Nathanielsz, Peter W
Human epidemiological and animal laboratory studies show that suboptimal environments in the womb and during early neonatal life alter development and predispose the individual to lifelong health problems. The concept of the developmental origins of adult diseases has become well accepted because of the compelling animal studies that have precisely defined the outcomes of specific exposures such as nutrient restriction, overfeeding during pregnancy, maternal stress, and exogenously administered glucocorticoids. This review focuses on the use of animal models to evaluate exposures, mechanisms, and outcomes involved in developmental programming of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and altered pituitary-adrenal function in offspring in later life. Ten principles of developmental programming are described as fundamental, regardless of the exposure during development and the physiological system involved in the altered outcome. The 10 principles are discussed in the context of the physiological systems involved and the animal model studies that have been conducted to evaluate exposures, mechanisms, and outcomes. For example, the fetus responds to challenges such as hypoxia and nutrient restriction in ways that help to ensure its survival, but this "developmental plasticity" may have long-term consequences that may not be beneficial in adult life. To understand developmental programming, which represents the interaction of nature and nurture, it is necessary to integrate whole animal systems physiology, in vitro cellular biology, and genomic and proteomic approaches, and to use animal models that are carefully characterized and appropriate for the questions under study. Animal models play an important role in this evaluation because they permit combined in vivo and in vitro study at different critical time windows during the exposure and the ensuing developmental responses.
Cissé, S.; Ghaout, S.; Babah Ebbe, M. A; Kamara, S; Piou, C.
Previous studies investigated the effect of vegetation on density thresholds of adult Desert Locust gregarization from historical data in Mauritania. We examine here the prediction of locust phase based on adult density and vegetation conditions using the statistical model from Cisse et al. compared with actual behavior of Desert Locust adults observed in the field in Mauritania. From the 130 sites where adult locusts were found, the model predicted the phase of Desert Locust adults with a relatively small error of prediction of 6.1%. Preventive locust control should be rational, based on a risk assessment. The staff involved in implementation of the preventive control strategy needs specific indicators for when or where chemical treatment should be done. In this respect, we show here that the statistical model of Cisse et al. may be appropriate. PMID:27432351
Nahm, Eun Shim; Resnick, Barbara; Mills, Mary Etta
Internet use has been growing exponentially, and older adults are one of the fastest growing online user groups. Due to the various physiological and psychosocial changes associated with aging, older adults are prone to social isolation. The Internet and e-mail may serve as a new source of support for older adults by connecting them with friends and family members, as well as providing useful information. In this study, based on prior research findings in sociology, communications, and informatics, A Model of Computer-Mediated Social Support Among Older Adults that explains relationships among a computer-mediated social network (CMSN), perceived functional social support from that network, and psychological well-being of community dwelling older adults was proposed. The primary purpose of this study was to test this model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).
Cissé, S; Ghaout, S; Babah Ebbe, M A; Kamara, S; Piou, C
Previous studies investigated the effect of vegetation on density thresholds of adult Desert Locust gregarization from historical data in Mauritania. We examine here the prediction of locust phase based on adult density and vegetation conditions using the statistical model from Cisse et al. compared with actual behavior of Desert Locust adults observed in the field in Mauritania. From the 130 sites where adult locusts were found, the model predicted the phase of Desert Locust adults with a relatively small error of prediction of 6.1%. Preventive locust control should be rational, based on a risk assessment. The staff involved in implementation of the preventive control strategy needs specific indicators for when or where chemical treatment should be done. In this respect, we show here that the statistical model of Cisse et al. may be appropriate.
Carson, April P; Lewis, Cora E; Jacobs, David R; Peralta, Carmen A; Steffen, Lyn M; Bower, Julie K; Person, Sharina D; Muntner, Paul
A prediction model was developed in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) to evaluate the short-term risk of hypertension. Our goal was to determine the predictive ability of the FHS hypertension model in a cohort of young adults advancing into middle age and compare it with the predictive ability of prehypertension and individual components of the FHS model. We studied 4388 participants, aged 18 to 30 years without hypertension at baseline, enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, who participated in 2 consecutive examinations occurring 5 years apart between the baseline (1985-1986) and year 25 examination (2010-2011). Weibull regression was used to assess the association of the FHS model overall, individual components of the FHS model, and prehypertension with incident hypertension. During the 25-year follow-up period, 1179 participants developed incident hypertension. The FHS hypertension model (c-index=0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.85) performed well in discriminating those who did and did not develop hypertension and was better than prehypertension alone (c-index=0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.73). The predicted risk from the FHS hypertension model was systematically lower than the observed hypertension incidence initially (χ(2)=249.4; P<0.001) but demonstrated a good fit after recalibration (χ(2)=14.6; P=0.067). In summary, the FHS model performed better than prehypertension and may be a useful tool for identifying young adults with a high risk for developing hypertension.
Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.
'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1-g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also cross- fostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P)12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.
Dauenhauer, Jason; Steitz, David W.; Cochran, Lynda J.
Intergenerational service-learning initiatives are an increasingly common educational practice designed to engage college students and older adults with one another. The growth of the baby boomer population and a growing interest in lifelong learning opportunities among older adults have the potential to create new models of multigenerational…
Iverach, Lisa; O'Brian, Susan; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan; Lincoln, Michelle; Harrison, Elisabeth; Hewat, Sally; Menzies, Ross G.; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark
Previous research has not explored the Five Factor Model of personality among adults who stutter. Therefore, the present study investigated the five personality domains of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), in a sample of 93 adults seeking speech…
Ratcliff, Roger; Love, Jessica; Thompson, Clarissa A.; Opfer, John E.
Children (n = 130; M[subscript age] = 8.51-15.68 years) and college-aged adults (n = 72; M[subscript age] = 20.50 years) completed numerosity discrimination and lexical decision tasks. Children produced longer response times (RTs) than adults. R. Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model, which divides processing into components (e.g., quality of…
Ferguson, Kristin M.; Xie, Bin; Glynn, Shirley
Background: Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless young adults. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining competitive employment; yet few examples exist to date with homeless young adults with mental…
Adams, Gerald R.; LaVoie, Joseph C.
The effects of physical attractiveness, warmth, and sex of an adult model on imitation behavior of adult males and females were investigated. Subjects were randomly paired with confederates of low or high facial attractiveness who interacted with the subject in a cold-unfriendly or warm-friendly manner. The imitation task involved the confederate…
Grable, John E.
Innovation in doctoral degree program development and delivery provides an effective counterpoint to the expert-apprentice model established in the Middle Ages. The author outlines the importance of innovation in reaching adult learners and describes an innovative hybrid PhD program designed to allow aspiring doctoral adult-age students to pursue…
Jungers, Christin M.; Slagel, Leslie
As the U.S. population ages, counselors must begin structuring their interactions to meet the unique needs of older adults, especially in the area of crisis intervention. The purposes of this article are to draw attention to the rapidly growing, often disregarded older population and to introduce the Crisis Model for Older Adults (CM-OA), an…
Currie, Cheryl L; Wild, T Cameron; Schopflocher, Donald P; Laing, Lory; Veugelers, Paul
Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal
Gignac, Monique A M; Backman, Catherine L; Davis, Aileen M; Lacaille, Diane; Cao, Xingshan; Badley, Elizabeth M
Little is known about life course differences in social role participation among those with chronic diseases. This study examined role salience (i.e., importance), role limitations, and role satisfaction among middle- and older-aged adults with and without osteoarthritis (OA) and its relationship to depression, stress, role conflict, health care utilization and coping behaviours. Participants were middle- and older-aged adults with OA (n = 177) or no chronic disabling conditions (n = 193), aged ≥40 years. Respondents were recruited through community advertising and clinics in Ontario, Canada (2009-2010). They completed a 45-50 min telephone interview and 20 min self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics (e.g., age, gender); health (e.g., pain, functional limitations, health care utilization); the Social Role Participation Questionnaire (SRPQ) (role salience, limitations, satisfaction in 12 domains), and psychological variables (e.g., depression, stress, role conflict, behavioural coping). Analyses included two-way ANOVAs, correlations, and linear regression. Results indicated that middle-aged adults (40-59 years) reported greater role salience than older-aged adults (60 + years). Middle-aged adults with OA reported significantly greater role limitations and more health care utilization than all other groups. Middle-aged adults and those with OA also reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping efforts than older adults or healthy controls. Controlling for age and OA, those with higher role salience and greater role limitations reported more health care utilization. Those with greater role limitations and lower role satisfaction reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping. This study has implications for research and interventions, highlighting the need to characterize role participation as multidimensional. It points to the importance of taking into account the meaning of roles at
Adult neurogenesis is the process by which new neurons are generated in the brains of adults. Since its discovery 50 years ago, adult neurogenesis has been widely studied in the mammalian brain and has provided a new perspective on the pathophysiology of many psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, some of which affect memory. In this regard, adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN), which occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG), has been suggested to play a role in the formation and consolidation of new memories. This process involves many transcription factors, of which cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is a well-documented one. In the developing brain, CREB regulates crucial cell stages (e.g., proliferation, differentiation, and survival), and in the adult brain, it participates in neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory. In addition, new evidence supports the hypothesis that CREB may also participate in learning and memory through its involvement in AHN. This review examines the CREB family of transcription factors, including the different members and known signaling pathways. It highlights the role of CREB as a modulator of AHN, which could underlie its function in memory consolidation mechanisms. PMID:26379491
Cardoos, Stephanie L; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P
Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with or without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood (Wave 1; 6-12 years) followed through adolescence (Wave 2; 11-18 years) and into young adulthood (Wave 3; 17-24 years). A subsample of 103 girls with a driving license by Wave 3 and with full data for all study variables was utilized in this investigation. In adolescence, mothers and teachers reported on ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), and participants reported on perceived deviant peer affiliation. In young adulthood, participants reported on driving behavior and outcomes, including number of accidents, number of moving vehicle citations, and ever having driven illegally. Covariates included age and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder. Inattention directly predicted citations. Perceived deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between inattention and (a) accidents and (b) citations. In addition, perceived deviant peer affiliation moderated the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and accidents, with hyperactivity/impulsivity predicting accidents only for those with low perceived deviant peer affiliation. Perceived deviant peer affiliation appears to play an important role in the association between ADHD symptoms and driving outcomes. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that both ADHD symptoms and peer processes should be targeted in interventions that aim to prevent negative driving outcomes in young women with and without ADHD.
Ford, Knatokie M.; Saint-Geniez, Magali; Walshe, Tony; Zahr, Alisar
Purpose. Despite a lack of active angiogenesis, VEGF is expressed in nearly every adult tissue, and recent evidence suggests that VEGF may serve as a survival factor for both vascular and nonvascular tissues. VEGF blockade is a widely used treatment for neovascular diseases such as wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Therefore, it was sought in this study to evaluate the expression and role of endogenous VEGF in RPE. Methods. VEGF and VEGFR2 expression in the murine retina were assessed during development. Bevacizumab was used to neutralize VEGF in ARPE-19 cells, and the effects on cell survival and apical microvill were assessed by TUNEL and SEM, respectively. VEGF was systemically neutralized in vivo by adenoviral-mediated overexpression of soluble VEGFR1 (sFlt). RPE and choriocapillaris were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Changes in gene expression were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Results. VEGF expression was detected in the developing RPE as early as embryonic day (E) 9.5, whereas VEGFR2 expression by RPE began nonuniformly between postnatal (P) day 6.5 and P8.5. VEGF neutralization in vitro led to increased apoptosis and reduced microvilli density and length. Systemic VEGF neutralization led to transient degenerative changes; RPE were vacuolated and separated from photoreceptor outer segments, and choriocapillaris fenestrations were decreased. VEGF levels were elevated in RPE of Ad-sFlt1 mice at day 4 postinfection, and there was increased expression of the neurotrophic factor CD59a at day 14. Conclusions. These results indicate that VEGF plays a critical role in survival and maintenance of RPE integrity. Potential undesired off-target effects should be considered with chronic use of anti-VEGF agents. PMID:22058334
Discusses computer assisted learning and simulation modeling from a United Kingdom perspective. Highlights include modeling with the DMS (Dynamic Modelling System); modeling with STELLA; learning and teaching simulation modeling; educational development roles for learning technologists; and a list of relevant Web sites. (Contains 52 references.)…
Van Gundy, Karen; Schieman, Scott; Kelley, Margaret S; Rebellon, Cesar J
Using self-report data from representative community samples of Moscow and Toronto adults, we examine the effects of sex, masculinity, and femininity on alcohol use. Consistent with prior research, our results show that men in Moscow and Toronto drink significantly more than women; women in both samples tend more toward conventional femininity than men; and masculinity levels are greater among Toronto men relative to Toronto women. Moscow men and women, however, show comparable masculinity levels. Neither masculinity nor femininity explains the sex gap in alcohol use in either sample. However, sex- and sample-specific effects are identified. In Toronto, femininity is associated with higher alcohol use among women. In Moscow, masculinity is associated with lower use among men and higher use among women. The findings provide preliminary support for our assertion that the characteristics of national contexts, such as drinking norms and "Soviet-style socialism" [Cockerham, Snead, and Dewaal (2002). Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 42-55] interact with traditional gender role orientations to influence alcohol use patterns. We suggest that a movement toward culturally sensitive policies that consider sex-specific social expectations and responses may contribute to improved health outcomes across nations.
Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.
A profusion of studies have demonstrated that body size is a major factor in mate selection for both men and women. The particular role played by weight, however, has been subject to some debate, particularly with respect to the types of body sizes deemed most attractive, and scholars have questioned the degree to which body size preferences are constant across groups. In this paper, we drew from two perspectives on this issue, Sexual Strategies Theory and what we termed the cultural variability perspective, and used survey data to examine how body size was associated with both casual dating and serious romantic relationships. We used a United States sample of 386 African American adolescents and young adults between ages 16 and 21, living in the Midwest and Southeast, and who were enrolled in either high school or college. Results showed that overweight women were more likely to report casually dating than women in the thinnest weight category. Body size was not related to dating status among men. Among women, the results suggest stronger support for the cultural variability argument than for Sexual Strategies Theory. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:26973377
Nonaka, Mizuho; Uota, Shin; Saitoh, Yasunori; Takahashi, Mayumi; Sugimoto, Haruyo; Amet, Tohti; Arai, Ayako; Miura, Osamu; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamaoka, Shoji
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease that develops in human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected individuals. Despite the accumulating knowledge of the molecular biology of HTLV-I-infected cells, effective therapeutic strategies remain to be established. Recent reports showed that the hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitor statins have anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on certain tumor cells through inhibition of protein prenylation. Here, we report that statins hinder the survival of ATL cells and induce apoptotic cell death. Inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation is responsible for these effects, since simultaneous treatment with isoprenoid precursors, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate or farnesyl pyrophosphate, but not a cholesterol precursor squalene, restored the viability of ATL cells. Simvastatin inhibited geranylgeranylation of small GTPases Rab5B and Rac1 in ATL cells, and a geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor GGTI-298 reduced ATL cell viability more efficiently than a farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277. These results not only unveil an important role for protein geranylgeranylation in ATL cell survival, but also implicate therapeutic potentials of statins in the treatment of ATL.
Patil, Indrajeet; Melsbach, Jens; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Silani, Giorgia
This study investigated hypothetical moral choices in adults with high-functioning autism and the role of empathy and alexithymia in such choices. We used a highly emotionally salient moral dilemma task to investigate autistics’ hypothetical moral evaluations about personally carrying out harmful utilitarian behaviours aimed at maximizing welfare. Results showed that they exhibited a normal pattern of moral judgments despite the deficits in social cognition and emotional processing. Further analyses revealed that this was due to mutually conflicting biases associated with autistic and alexithymic traits after accounting for shared variance: (a) autistic traits were associated with reduced utilitarian bias due to elevated personal distress of demanding social situations, while (b) alexithymic traits were associated with increased utilitarian bias on account of reduced empathic concern for the victim. Additionally, autistics relied on their non-verbal reasoning skills to rigidly abide by harm-norms. Thus, utilitarian moral judgments in autism were spared due to opposite influences of autistic and alexithymic traits and compensatory intellectual strategies. These findings demonstrate the importance of empathy and alexithymia in autistic moral cognition and have methodological implications for studying moral judgments in several other clinical populations. PMID:27020307
Patil, Indrajeet; Melsbach, Jens; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Silani, Giorgia
This study investigated hypothetical moral choices in adults with high-functioning autism and the role of empathy and alexithymia in such choices. We used a highly emotionally salient moral dilemma task to investigate autistics' hypothetical moral evaluations about personally carrying out harmful utilitarian behaviours aimed at maximizing welfare. Results showed that they exhibited a normal pattern of moral judgments despite the deficits in social cognition and emotional processing. Further analyses revealed that this was due to mutually conflicting biases associated with autistic and alexithymic traits after accounting for shared variance: (a) autistic traits were associated with reduced utilitarian bias due to elevated personal distress of demanding social situations, while (b) alexithymic traits were associated with increased utilitarian bias on account of reduced empathic concern for the victim. Additionally, autistics relied on their non-verbal reasoning skills to rigidly abide by harm-norms. Thus, utilitarian moral judgments in autism were spared due to opposite influences of autistic and alexithymic traits and compensatory intellectual strategies. These findings demonstrate the importance of empathy and alexithymia in autistic moral cognition and have methodological implications for studying moral judgments in several other clinical populations.
The rapid growth in the number of older Americans has many implications for public health, including the need to better understand the risks posed by environmental exposures to older adults. An important element for evaluating risk is the understanding of the doses of environment...
Emerson, Shirley; McBride, Martha C.
It has been estimated that 85% of all women seeking therapy are adults molested as children (AMACs). Group counseling with AMACs is recommended, with groups having homogeneity in terms of presenting problems and heterogeneity in group members' ability to deal with their sexual abuse. Groups should be closed, meet once or twice a week for 2-hour…
What types of personal support are critical in helping teachers to integrate technology? How can adult education programs provide this support and who is best equipped to provide it? What organizational implications should program administrators consider when institutionalizing this personal support infrastructure? The experiences of eight adult…
Ehlman, Katie; Ligon, Mary
Generativity is a concept first introduced by Erik Erikson as a part of his psychosocial theory which outlines eight stages of development in the human life. Generativity versus stagnation is the main developmental concern of middle adulthood; however, generativity is also recognized as an important theme in the lives of older adults. Building on…
Raffard, Stéphane; Bortolon, Catherine; Burca, Marianna; Gely-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Capdevielle, Delphine
Apathy defined as a mental state characterized by a lack of goal-directed behavior is prevalent and associated with poor functioning in older adults. The main objective of this study was to identify factors contributing to the distinct dimensions of apathy (cognitive, emotional, and behavioral) in older adults without dementia. One hundred and fifty participants (mean age, 80.42) completed self-rated questionnaires assessing apathy, emotional distress, anticipatory pleasure, motivational systems, physical functioning, quality of life, and cognitive functioning. Data were analyzed using partial least squares variance-based structural equation modeling in order to examine factors contributing to the three different dimensions of apathy in our sample. Overall, the different facets of apathy were associated with cognitive functioning, anticipatory pleasure, sensitivity to reward, and physical functioning, but the contribution of these different factors to the three dimensions of apathy differed significantly. More specifically, the impact of anticipatory pleasure and physical functioning was stronger for the cognitive than for emotional apathy. Conversely, the impact of sensibility to reward, although small, was slightly stronger on emotional apathy. Regarding behavioral apathy, again we found similar latent variables except for the cognitive functioning whose impact was not statistically significant. Our results highlight the need to take into account various mechanisms involved in the different facets of apathy in older adults without dementia, including not only cognitive factors but also motivational variables and aspects related to physical disability. Clinical implications are discussed.
Mather, Mara; Knight, Marisa
The present study revealed that older adults recruit cognitive control processes to strengthen positive and diminish negative information in memory. In Experiment 1, older adults engaged in more elaborative processing when retrieving positive memories than they did when retrieving negative memories. In Experiment 2, older adults who did well on tasks involving cognitive control were more likely than those doing poorly to favor positive pictures in memory. In Experiment 3, older adults who were distracted during memory encoding no longer favored positive over negative pictures in their later recall, revealing that older adults use cognitive resources to implement emotional goals during encoding. In contrast, younger adults showed no signs of using cognitive control to make their memories more positive, indicating that, for them, emotion regulation goals are not chronically activated.
Amato, Katherine R; Leigh, Steven R; Kent, Angela; Mackie, Roderick I; Yeoman, Carl J; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Wilson, Brenda A; Nelson, Karen E; White, Bryan A; Garber, Paul A
In all mammals, growth, development, pregnancy, and lactation increase nutritional demands. Although primate field studies tend to focus on shifts in activity and diet as mechanisms to compensate for these demands, differences in digestive efficiency also are likely to be important. Because the gut microbiota can impact host digestive efficiency, we examined differences in activity budget, diet, and the gut microbial community among adult male (N = 4), adult female (N = 4), and juvenile (N = 5) wild black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) across a ten-month period in Palenque National Park, Mexico to determine how adult females and juveniles compensate for increased nutritional demands. Results indicate that adult females and juveniles consumed more protein and energy than adult males. Adult males, adult females, and juveniles also possessed distinct gut microbial communities, unrelated to diet. Juveniles exhibited a gut microbiota characterized by bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes, such as Roseburia and Ruminococcus, and demonstrated high fecal volatile fatty acid content, suggesting increased microbial contributions to host energy balances. Adult females possessed a higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, also suggesting increased energy production, and their gut microbiota was characterized by Lactococcus, which has been associated with folate biosynthesis. On the basis of these patterns, it appears that the gut microbiota differentially contributes to howler monkey nutrition during reproduction and growth. Determining the nutritional and energetic importance of shifts in activity, diet, and the gut microbiota in other nonhuman primate taxa, as well as humans, will transform our understanding of these life history processes and the role of host-microbe relationships in primate evolution.
Bailey, Heather R; Zacks, Jeffrey M
Readers construct mental models of situations described by text. Activity in narrative text is dynamic, so readers must frequently update their situation models when dimensions of the situation change. Updating can be incremental, such that a change leads to updating just the dimension that changed, or global, such that the entire model is updated. Here, we asked whether older and young adults make differential use of incremental and global updating. Participants read narratives containing changes in characters and spatial location and responded to recognition probes throughout the texts. Responses were slower when probes followed a change, suggesting that situation models were updated at changes. When either dimension changed, responses to probes for both dimensions were slowed; this provides evidence for global updating. Moreover, older adults showed stronger evidence of global updating than did young adults. One possibility is that older adults perform more global updating to offset reduced ability to manipulate information in working memory.
Bailey, Heather R.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.
Readers construct mental models of situations described by text. Activity in narrative text is dynamic, so readers must frequently update their situation models when dimensions of the situation change. Updating can be incremental, such that a change leads to updating just the dimension that changed, or global, such that the entire model is updated. Here, we asked whether older and young adults make differential use of incremental and global updating. Participants read narratives containing changes in characters and spatial location and responded to recognition probes throughout the texts. Responses were slower when probes followed a change, suggesting that situation models were updated at changes. When either dimension changed, responses to probes for both dimensions were slowed; this provides evidence for global updating. Moreover, older adults showed stronger evidence of global updating than did young adults. One possibility is that older adults perform more global updating to offset reduced ability to manipulate information in working memory. PMID:25938248
Keshvari, Jafar; Heikkilä, Teemu
Previous studies comparing SAR difference in the head of children and adults used highly simplified generic models or half-wave dipole antennas. The objective of this study was to investigate the SAR difference in the head of children and adults using realistic EMF sources based on CAD models of commercial mobile phones. Four MRI-based head phantoms were used in the study. CAD models of Nokia 8310 and 6630 mobile phones were used as exposure sources. Commercially available FDTD software was used for the SAR calculations. SAR values were simulated at frequencies 900 MHz and 1747 MHz for Nokia 8310, and 900 MHz, 1747 MHz and 1950 MHz for Nokia 6630. The main finding of this study was that the SAR distribution/variation in the head models highly depends on the structure of the antenna and phone model, which suggests that the type of the exposure source is the main parameter in EMF exposure studies to be focused on. Although the previous findings regarding significant role of the anatomy of the head, phone position, frequency, local tissue inhomogeneity and tissue composition specifically in the exposed area on SAR difference were confirmed, the SAR values and SAR distributions caused by generic source models cannot be extrapolated to the real device exposures. The general conclusion is that from a volume averaged SAR point of view, no systematic differences between child and adult heads were found.
Quimby, Julie L.; DeSantis, Angela M.
This study of 368 female undergraduates examined self-efficacy and role model influence as predictors of career choice across J. L. Holland's (1997) 6 RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) types. Findings showed that levels of self-efficacy and role model influence differed across Holland types. Multiple…
Price, Adrienne; Price, Bob
This article explores practical ways of role modelling practice with students on clinical placements. Students are frequently assigned to a senior practitioner for periods of observation, which involves shadowing the practitioner in practice. Learning opportunities are not necessarily seized because a strategy is not in place to enhance learning. The article provides guidance on how to proceed effectively with role modelling.
Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Segrin, Chris
This study investigates the role of romantic desolation on life satisfaction in young adulthood. Using data from a Polish sample of 330 (205 females and 125 males) young adults aged 20-30, who completed Polish versions of the Satisfaction With Life Scale, Dating Anxiety Scale, Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire-Revised, and Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults-Short Form, romantic desolation (romantic loneliness and lack of a romantic partner) and dating anxiety were tested as mediators of the association between interpersonal competence and life satisfaction. Results revealed that single individuals reported lower life satisfaction and higher romantic loneliness than did partnered individuals. At the same time, no differences emerged between single and partnered individuals in dating anxiety or interpersonal competence. Structural equation modeling results showed that low interpersonal competence has an indirect effect on romantic desolation through higher levels of dating anxiety. Also, dating anxiety had an indirect effect on lower life satisfaction through increased romantic desolation. These results highlight the important role of dating anxiety and romantic desolation for explaining why low interpersonal competence is associated with diminished life satisfaction in young adults.
Bloch, Jocelyne; Kaeser, Mélanie; Sadeghi, Yalda; Rouiller, Eric M; Redmond, D Eugene; Brunet, Jean-François
We have demonstrated that cortical cell autografts might be a useful therapy in two monkey models of neurological disease: motor cortex lesion and Parkinson's disease. However, the origin of the useful transplanted cells obtained from cortical biopsies is not clear. In this report we describe the expression of doublecortin (DCX) in these cells based on reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunodetection in the adult primate cortex and cell cultures. The results showed that DCX-positive cells were present in the whole primate cerebral cortex and also expressed glial and/or neuronal markers such as glial fibrillary protein (GFAP) or neuronal nuclei (NeuN). We also demonstrated that only DCX/GFAP positive cells were able to proliferate and originate progenitor cells in vitro. We hypothesize that these DCX-positive cells in vivo have a role in cortical plasticity and brain reaction to injury. Moreover, in vitro these DCX-positive cells have the potential to reacquire progenitor characteristics that confirm their potential for brain repair.
Pellis, Sergio M; Iwaniuk, Andrew N
Recent studies have shown that contrary to expectation, larger-brained species within mammalian orders are not more likely to engage in play. This is true for juvenile rodents, juvenile marsupials and adult primates. Neither does the relative size of the neocortex predict the prevalence of play in species of marsupials and primates. Two methodological limitations may account for the lack of such relationships. Firstly, play may only vary systematically with specific brain areas, not overall size increases in brain tissue. Secondly, the play indices used to measure the variation in play across species may be insufficiently sensitive to the effects of changes in brain size. In this study, we attempt to deal with the first methodological problem. The adult-adult play fighting among species of primates was correlated with the relative size of the non-visual cortex and the amygdala. The statistical analyses used took into account the problems of scaling and corrected for degree of phylogenetic relatedness among the species. The size of the non-visual cortex failed to predict the prevalence of play fighting occurring in either sexual or non-sexual contexts. In contrast, the size of the amygdala significantly predicted the prevalence of sexual play, but not non-sexual play. That is, species with larger sized amygdala are more likely to engage in sexual play. These findings provide new insights into the role of different brain systems in the regulation of play behavior.
Hatta, Takeshi; Iwahara, Akihiko; Hatta, Taketoshi; Ito, Emi; Hatta, Junko; Hotta, Chie; Nagahara, Naoko; Fujiwara, Kazumi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki
Two models of cognitive ageing, the hemisphere asymmetry reduction in older adults (HAROLD) model and the right hemi-ageing model, were compared based upon the verbal memory and visuospatial task performance of 338 elderly participants. Comparison of the developmental trajectories for four age groups (50s, 60s, 70s and 80s) supported the HAROLD model, but not the right hemi-ageing model. Performance differences between the verbal memory and visuospatial tasks in the earlier age groups decreased in the later age groups. There was a sex difference in the cognitive-decline trajectories for verbal and visuospatial task performance after the 50s.
Williams, Kristi; Dunne-Bryant, Alexandra
Substantial evidence indicates that marital dissolution has negative consequences for adult well-being. Because most research focuses on the average consequences of divorce, we know very little about factors that moderate this association. The present study tests the hypothesis that the effects of marital dissolution on adult well-being are…
Ward, Nancy Ann
Research has shown that both adults and children will imitate acoustic properties of the speech around them. In fact, studies on adults have shown that this convergence occurs even when the subject simply sees, but does not hear, the interlocutor. Not only does visual speech elicit imitation on its own, but also imitation is greater for…
Mavor, Anne S.; And Others
Part two of the final report on the adult independent learning program focuses on the following: (1) discussion of the 11 data collection categories developed to meet the information needs of specific groups--advisors working with adult learners, planners monitoring service performance, library policy decision makers responsible for determining…
Nelson, Larry J.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara
Research reveals that most 18- to 25-year-old individuals do not consider themselves to be adults. This time period between adolescence and adulthood has been newly defined as emerging adulthood. The purpose of this study was to (a) attempt to identify perceived adults and (b) explore whether differences in adulthood criteria, achievement of those…
Townsend, Robert; Delves, Melinda
Regional adult education and training providers have been required in recent decades to adapt to funding structures rather than engage with their local communities. This has meant providing education programs that are funded based on national or State and Territory based policy frameworks, often linked to human capital development. Adult education…
Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra
This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…
Considers teachers' research into adult/pupil dialog. Questions the way teachers converse with students. Asks how teachers listen to what children say and how teachers reciprocate. Studies language facility as an age-related phenomenon and considers whether conversation is led and developed in linguistic context by the adult. (HB)
Tisdell, Elizabeth J.
Spirituality, religion, and culture are complicated subjects. Indeed, they are fundamental socialising forces that affect how adult learners make meaning in the world. While there has been considerable discussion of the spiritual and religious dimensions of adult learning in North America and to some extent in England, there has been little direct…
Groh, Ashley M.; Roisman, Glenn I.
This article examines the extent to which secure base script knowledge--as reflected in an adult's ability to generate narratives in which attachment-related threats are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved--is associated with adults' autonomic and subjective emotional responses to infant distress and nondistress…
Cukor, Daniel; McGinn, Lata K.
The link between childhood abuse, adult depression, and anxiety has been well studied, but few studies have empirically explored the mechanism of that link. Using a clinical sample of women, this study examined the relationship between retrospectively measured childhood abuse and neglect and current adult symptoms of anxiety and depression, via…
Price, Jodi; Jones, Lauren W; Mueller, Michael L
Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) is a phenomenon wherein practicing recalling some items impairs recall of semantically related, unpracticed items. Two experiments examined whether explicitly warning older (Experiment 1) and younger adults (Experiments 1 and 2) about RIF at different times during two exposures to the retrieval-practice paradigm would affect participants' forgetting. Participants in both experiments were either warned before encoding, retrieval-practice, recall, or not at all. The warning was combined with integration instructions in Experiment 2. Warnings did not reduce forgetting in either age group in Experiment 1. Forgetting increased across exposures in most cases and older adults experienced more forgetting than did younger adults. Combining integration instructions with the warning also did not reduce younger adults' forgetting relative to baseline conditions in Experiment 2. Results indicate that both younger and older adults are susceptible to retrieval-induced forgetting and that raising awareness of the phenomenon increases rather than decreases forgetting rates.
Nanda, Alice O; Greenberg, Daphne; Morris, Robin
This study examined whether measurement constructs behind reading-related tests for struggling adult readers are similar to what is known about measurement constructs for children. The sample included 371 adults reading between the third-and fifth-grade levels, including 127 men and 153 English speakers of other languages. Using measures of skills and subskills, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test child-based theoretical measurement models of reading: an achievement model of reading skills, a core deficit model of reading subskills, and an integrated model containing achievement and deficit variables. Although the findings present the best measurement models, the contribution of this article is the description of the difficulties encountered when applying child-based assumptions to developing measurement models for struggling adult readers.
Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer
Emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) who experience multiple role transitions in a short period of time may engage in hard drug use as a maladaptive coping strategy to avoid negative emotions from stress. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, they may experience additional role transitions due to their group oriented cultural paradigm. This study examined whether those who experience many role transitions are at greater risk for hard drug use compared to those who experience few transitions among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants completed surveys indicating their hard drug use in emerging adulthood, role transitions in the past year of emerging adulthood, age, gender, and hard drug use in high school. Simulation analyses indicated that an increase in the number of role transitions, from 0 to 13, was associated with a 14% (95% CI, 4 to 29) higher probability of hard drug use. Specific role transitions were found to be associated with hard drug use, such as starting to date or experiencing a breakup. Intervention/prevention programs may benefit from acknowledging individual reactions to transitions in emerging adulthood, as these processes may be catalysts for personal growth where identities are consolidated, and decisions regarding hard drug use are formed. PMID:25715073
Kavaler, J; Fu, W; Duan, H; Noll, M; Posakony, J W
The adult peripheral nervous system of Drosophila includes a complex array of mechanosensory organs (bristles) that cover much of the body surface of the fly. The four cells (shaft, socket, sheath, and neuron) which compose each of these organs adopt distinct fates as a result of cell-cell signaling via the Notch (N) pathway. However, the specific mechanisms by which these cells execute their conferred fates are not well understood. Here we show that D-Pax2, the Drosophila homolog of the vertebrate Pax2 gene, has an essential role in the differentiation of the shaft cell. In flies bearing strong loss-of-function mutations in the shaven function of D-Pax2, shaft structures specifically fail to develop. Consistent with this, we find that D-Pax2 protein is expressed in all cells of the bristle lineage during the mitotic (cell fate specification) phase of bristle development, but becomes sharply restricted to the shaft and sheath cells in the post-mitotic (differentiative) phase. Two lines of evidence described here indicate that D-Pax2 expression and function is at least in part downstream of cell fate specification mechanisms such as N signaling. First, we find that the lack of late D-Pax2 expression in the socket cell (the sister of the shaft cell) is controlled by N pathway activity; second, we find that loss of D-Pax2 function is epistatic to the socket-to-shaft cell fate transformation caused by reduced N signaling. Finally, we show that misexpression of D-Pax2 is sufficient to induce the production of ectopic shaft structures. From these results, we propose that D-Pax2 is a high-level transcriptional regulator of the shaft cell differentiation program, and acts downstream of the N signaling pathway as a specific link between cell fate determination and cell differentiation in the bristle lineage.
Cysique, Lucette A; Dermody, Nadene; Carr, Andrew; Brew, Bruce J; Teesson, Maree
Research assessing whether major depressive disorders (MDD) impacts neurocognitive functions in HIV+ persons has yielded inconsistent results. However, none have considered the role of MDD remission, chronicity, and stability on treatment. Ninety-five HIV+ adults clinically stable on combined antiretroviral treatment completed a psychiatric interview, a depression scale, a neuropsychological, daily living, and cognitive complaints assessments at baseline and 18 months. Participants were screened for current (within 12 months of study entry) alcohol and/or substance use disorder. History of alcohol and/or substance abuse disorder prior to the 12 months entry screen and MDD treatments were recorded. Participants were grouped into two psychiatric nomenclatures: (1) lifetime: no MD episode (MDE), single MDE life-event treated and fully remitted, chronic MDD treated and stable, chronic MDD treated and unstable, and baseline untreated MDE; (2) recent: last 2 years MDE (yes or no). We found that lifetime and recent psychiatric history were more strongly associated with decreased in independence in daily living and cognitive complaints than with baseline neuropsychological performance. However, lack of full remission, instability on treatment in chronic MDD, and severity of symptoms in current MDE were factors in whether MDD impacted baseline neuropsychological performance. Depressive symptoms improved at follow-up in those with baseline moderate-severe symptoms, and MDD was not associated with neurocognitive change at 18 months. A history of alcohol and/or substance abuse disorder was significantly more frequent in those with treated and unstable chronic MDD but it was not associated with neuropsychological performance. MDD recurrence, chronicity profiles, and associated comorbidities are keys factors to understand any potential impact on neurocognitive abilities in HIV infection. More comprehensive consideration of these complex effects could serve at constructively
Marshall, Skye; Agarwal, Ekta; Young, Adrienne; Isenring, Elizabeth
Protein-energy malnutrition is common amongst people aged 65 years and older, has a multifactorial aetiology, and numerous negative outcomes. Domiciliary carers (non-clinical paid carers) and family carers (including family, friends and neighbours) are required to support the increasing demand for in-home assistance with activities of daily living due to the ageing population. This review provides insight into the role of both domiciliary and family carers in providing individualised nutrition support for older, community-dwelling adults with malnutrition. Four electronic databases were searched for intervention studies from database inception to December 2016. Both domiciliary and family carers are well placed to monitor the dietary intake and nutritional status of older adults; to assist with many food-related tasks such as the sourcing and preparation of meals, and assisting with feeding when necessary; and to act as a conduit between the care recipient and formal nutrition professionals such as dietitians. There is moderate evidence to support the role of domiciliary carers in implementing nutrition screening and referral pathways, and emerging evidence suggests they may have a role in malnutrition interventions when supported by health professionals. Moderate evidence also supports the engagement of family carers as part of the nutrition care team for older adults with malnutrition. Interventions such as group education, skill-development workshops and telehealth demonstrate promise and have significantly improved outcomes in older adults with dementia. Further interventional and translational research is required to demonstrate the efficacy of engaging with domiciliary and family carers of older adults in the general community.
Peskin, Harvey; Livson, Norman
This paper presents the "uses of the past" model of personality development, a model in which adult development transforms an individual's history into resources for meeting present demands. The components of the model are delineated in terms of how: (1) neither the past nor the present is fixed in its effects or its contribution to present…
Wyrwoll, Caitlin S; Holmes, Megan C
Fetal glucocorticoid exposure is a key mechanism proposed to underlie prenatal 'programming' of adult affective behaviours such as depression and anxiety. Indeed, the glucocorticoid metabolising enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which is highly expressed in the placenta and the developing fetus, acts as a protective barrier from the high maternal glucocorticoids which may alter developmental trajectories. The programmed changes resulting from maternal stress or bypass or from the inhibition of 11β-HSD2 are frequently associated with alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Hence, circulating glucocorticoid levels are increased either basally or in response to stress accompanied by CNS region-specific modulations in the expression of both corticosteroid receptors (mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors). Furthermore, early-life glucocorticoid exposure also affects serotonergic and catecholamine pathways within the brain, with changes in both associated neurotransmitters and receptors. Indeed, global removal of 11β-HSD2, an enzyme that inactivates glucocorticoids, increases anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice; however, in this case the phenotype is not accompanied by overt perturbation in the HPA axis but, intriguingly, alterations in serotonergic and catecholamine pathways are maintained in this programming model. This review addresses one of the potential adverse effects of glucocorticoid overexposure in utero, i.e. increased incidence of affective behaviours, and the mechanisms underlying these behaviours including alteration of the HPA axis and serotonergic and catecholamine pathways.
Kenyon, Jonathan; Gerson, Stanton L
DNA repair maintains genomic stability and the loss of DNA repair capacity results in genetic instability that may lead to a decline of cellular function. Adult stem cells are extremely important in the long-term maintenance of tissues throughout life. They regenerate and renew tissues in response to damage and replace senescent terminally differentiated cells that no longer function. Oxidative stress, toxic byproducts, reduced mitochondrial function and external exposures all damage DNA through base modification or mis-incorporation and result in DNA damage. As in most cells, this damage may limit the survival of the stem cell population affecting tissue regeneration and even longevity. This review examines the hypothesis that an age-related loss of DNA damage repair pathways poses a significant threat to stem cell survival and longevity. Normal stem cells appear to have strict control of gene expression and DNA replication whereas stem cells with loss of DNA repair may have altered patterns of proliferation, quiescence and differentiation. Furthermore, stem cells with loss of DNA repair may be susceptible to malignant transformation either directly or through the emergence of cancer-prone stem cells. Human diseases and animal models of loss of DNA repair provide longitudinal analysis of DNA repair processes in stem cell populations and may provide links to the physiology of aging.
Bharadwaj, Sneha V.; Tobey, Emily A.; Assmann, Peter F.; Katz, William F.
A prominent theory of speech production proposes that speech segments are largely controlled by reference to an internal model, with minimal reliance on auditory feedback. This theory also maintains that suprasegmental aspects of speech are directly regulated by auditory feedback. Accordingly, if a talker is briefly deprived of auditory feedback speech segments should not be affected, but suprasegmental properties should show significant change. To test this prediction, comparisons were made between speech samples obtained from cochlear implant users who repeated words under two conditions (1) implant device turned ON, and (2) implant switched OFF immediately before the repetition of each word. To determine whether producing unfamiliar speech requires greater reliance on auditory feedback than producing familiar speech, English and French words were elicited from English-speaking subjects. Subjects were congenitally deaf children (n=4) and adventitiously deafened adults (n=4). Vowel fundamental frequency and formant frequencies, vowel and syllable durations, and fricative spectral moments were analyzed. Preliminary data only partially confirm the predictions, in that both segmental and suprasegmental aspects of speech were significantly modified in the absence of auditory feedback. Modifications were greater for French compared to English words, suggesting greater reliance on auditory feedback for unfamiliar words. [Work supported by NIDCD.
Friedline, Terri; West, Stacia; Rosell, Nehemiah; Serido, Joyce; Shim, Soyeon
This study examines the extent of emergent, outstanding credit card debt among young adult college students and investigates whether any associations existed between this credit card debt and the characteristics of the communities in which these students grew up or lived. Using data (N = 748) from a longitudinal survey and merging community characteristics measured at the zip code level, we confirmed that a community's unemployment rate, average total debt, average credit score, and number of bank branch offices were associated with a young adult college student's acquisition and accumulation of credit card debt. For example, a community's higher unemployment rate and lower number of bank branches were associated with a young adult college student's greater accumulated debt. Community characteristics had the strongest associations with credit card debt, especially after controlling for individual characteristics (i.e., a young adult college student's race and financial independence) and familial characteristics (i.e., their parents' income and parents' discussions of financial matters while growing up at home). The findings may help to understand the unique roles that communities play in shaping children and young adults' financial capability, and how communities can be better capacitated to support the financial goals of their residents.
Burke, Robert E.; Malone, Daniel; Ridgeway, Kyle J.; McManus, Beth M.; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.
Hospital readmissions in older adult populations are an emerging quality indicator for acute care hospitals. Recent evidence has linked functional decline during and after hospitalization with an elevated risk of hospital readmission. However, models of care that have been developed to reduce hospital readmission rates do not adequately address functional deficits. Physical therapists, as experts in optimizing physical function, have a strong opportunity to contribute meaningfully to care transition models and demonstrate the value of physical therapy interventions in reducing readmissions. Thus, the purposes of this perspective article are: (1) to describe the need for physical therapist input during care transitions for older adults and (2) to outline strategies for expanding physical therapy participation in care transitions for older adults, with an overall goal of reducing avoidable 30-day hospital readmissions. PMID:26939601
Rogers, Chad S; Jacoby, Larry L; Sommers, Mitchell S
In two experiments testing age differences in the subjective experience of listening, which we call meta-audition, young and older adults were first trained to learn pairs of semantic associates. Following training, both groups were tested on identification of words presented in noise, with the critical manipulation being whether the target item was congruent, incongruent, or neutral with respect to prior training. Results of both experiments revealed that older adults compared to young adults were more prone to "false hearing," defined as mistaken high confidence in the accuracy of perception when a spoken word had been misperceived. These results were obtained even when performance was equated across age groups on control items by reducing the noise level for older adults. Such false hearing is shown to reflect older adults' heavier reliance on context. Findings suggest that older adults' greater ability to benefit from semantic context reflects their bias to respond consistently with the context, rather than their greater skill in using context. Procedures employed are unique in measuring the subjective experience of hearing as well as its accuracy. Both theoretical and applied implications of the findings are discussed. Convergence of results with those showing higher false memory, and false seeing are interpreted as showing that older adults are less able to constrain their processing in ways that are optimal for performance of a current task. That lessened constraint may be associated with decline in frontal-lobe functioning.
The Economics of Adult Learning: The Role of Government. A Series of 29 Booklets Documenting Workshops Held at the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (Hamburg, Germany, July 14-18, 1997).
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. for Education.
The booklet reports on a new vision of the economics of adult learning. The vision considers adult learning to be not an expense but an investment that can be analyzed and managed as such. According to the booklet, governments in many countries, therefore, are adopting a steering role and are giving more direct responsibilities to institutions at…
Adult and Higher Education in the Contemporary World: Its Role in Cultural Literacy. Conference Proceedings of the Adult Higher Education Alliance Annual Conference (35th, Orlando, Florida, March 10-11, 2015)
Elufiede, Oluwakemi, Ed.; Flynn, Bonnie, Ed.
This document is Conference Proceedings Of The Adult Higher Education Alliance, 35th Annual Conference. The theme of the conference was Adult And Higher Education In The Contemporary World: Its Role In Cultural Literacy. Conference was March 10-11, 2015. The event was hosted by and held at the College Of Education And Human Performance, Morgridge…
The Role of National Adult Education Centre in Curriculum Development in Somalia in Selected Government Primary Adult Schools of Mogadisho. African Studies in Curriculum Development and Evaluation, No. 109.
Bahar, Ismail F. S.
A study of curriculum development in Somalia focused on the role of the National Adult Education Centre (NAEC) and involvement of teachers and inspectors. The sample consisted of 80 Mogadisho primary adult school teachers. Information sources were related literature, teacher questionnaires, and unstructured interviews with school inspectors,…
Analyses regularly feature claims that European welfare states are in the process of creating an adult worker model. The theoretical and empirical basis of this argument is examined here by looking first at the conceptual foundations of the adult worker model formulation and then at the extent to which social policy reform in western Europe fits with the argument. It is suggested that the adult worker formulation is under-specified. A framework incorporating four dimensions—the treatment of individuals vis-à-vis their family role and status for the purposes of social rights, the treatment of care, the treatment of the family as a social institution, and the extent to which gender inequality is problematized—is developed and then applied. The empirical analysis reveals a strong move towards individualization as social policy promotes and valorizes individual agency and self-sufficiency and shifts some childcare from the family. Yet evidence is also found of continued (albeit changed) familism. Rather than an unequivocal move to an individualized worker model then, a dual earner, gender-specialized, family arrangement is being promoted. The latter is the middle way between the old dependencies and the new “independence.” This makes for complexity and even ambiguity in policy, a manifestation of which is that reform within countries involves concurrent moves in several directions.
Baldwin, Adele; Mills, Jane; Birks, Melanie; Budden, Lea
The transition of nursing education from the hospital setting to the university sector over recent decades has opened dialog about who is guiding the development of nursing students' professional identity. In addition, there is ongoing debate over real or perceived gaps between nursing student learning in the university and the clinical area, how this translates into professional behaviors and how well students make the transition between the two settings. This paper presents the findings of an integrative literature review into the topic of role modeling in undergraduate nursing education. This review was conducted to identify and appraise research findings about role modeling of professional behaviors for undergraduate nursing students. Literature reviewed from 2000 onwards assesses what is currently known about role modeling of undergraduate nursing students. A systematic search of the databases of CINAHL, Scopus and PubMed from 2000 onwards resulted in the selection of 33 articles for deeper analysis. Two clear themes emerged from the literature, the first relating to nurse clinicians as role models for students during clinical placements and the second relating to nurse academics as role models in the academic setting. Findings from this integrative literature review show an imbalance in the recognition of the role modeling of professional behaviors in the clinical versus the academic setting. Nurses in academic settings have more contact with the students over their period of study and as such, the significance of nurse academics as student role models requires further investigation.
Jung, Dukyoo; Kang, Younhee; Kim, Mi Young; Ma, Rye-Won; Bhandari, Pratibha
The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for falls among community-dwelling older adults. The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect data from 658 community-dwelling older adults and were analyzed using logistic and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression. Perceived health status was a significant factor in the count model, and fall efficacy emerged as a significant predictor in the logistic models. The findings suggest that fall efficacy is important for predicting not only faller and nonfaller status but also fall counts in older adults who may or may not have experienced a previous fall. The fall predictors identified in this study--perceived health status and fall efficacy--indicate the need for fall-prevention programs tailored to address both the physical and psychological issues unique to older adults.
Magni, Chiara; Veneroni, Laura; Silva, Matteo; Casanova, Michela; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Ferrari, Andrea
Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer form a particular group of patients with unique characteristics, who inhabit a so-called “no man’s land” between pediatric and adult services. In the last 10 years, the scientific oncology community has started to pay attention to these patients, implementing dedicated programs. A standardized model of care directed toward patients in this age range has yet to be developed and neither the pediatric nor the adult oncologic systems perfectly fit these patients’ needs. The Youth Project of the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to AYA with pediatric-type solid tumors, can be seen as a model of care for AYA patients, with its heterogeneous multidisciplinary staff and close cooperation with adult medical oncologists and surgeons. Further progress in the care of AYA cancer patients is still needed to improve their outcomes. PMID:27606308
Ishii, Kunio; Tado'oka, Yoshika
Previous research has suggested that Western European individuals exhibit negative attitudes toward older adults under pathogen threat. The present study investigated whether Japanese individuals exhibited ageism when pathogen threat was salient. Additionally, the study determined whether pathogen threat would have less of an impact on ageism among individuals with experience living with older adults. Study 1 showed that when pathogen threat was chronically and contextually salient, Japanese university students who had no experience living with older adults exhibited ageism, while those with such experience did not. Study 2 showed similar findings among Japanese nursing students. We argue that familiarity with older adults is essential for diminishing ageism in the event of a pathogen threat.
Rosenkoetter, Marlene M; McDonough, JoEllen; McCall, Amber; Smith, Deborah; Looney, Stephen
For the rapidly growing older adult population, disaster consequences are frequently life disruptive and even life threatening. By 2050, it is estimated that the global older adult population will reach 22 percent of the total. With declining health, this population poses a particular risk needing to be addressed in emergency preparedness and disaster recovery. The purpose of this article is to describe a Flex-Model (F-M) for the long-term assessment of older adults following a disaster. An F-M is a series of three-dimensional representations of an archetype with flexible components, both linear and parallel, that can be adapted to situations, time, place, and needs. The model incorporates the Life Patterns Model and provides a template that can be adjusted to meet the needs of a local community, healthcare providers, and emergency management officials, regardless of the country or region, during the months after a disaster. The focus is on changes resulting from the disaster including roles, relationships, support systems, use of time, self-esteem, and life structure. Following a baseline assessment, each of these life patterns is assessed through the model with options for interventions over time. A pilot study was conducted in Georgia to gain information that would be helpful in developing a more specific assessment tool following a severe winter storm. While this is a local study, the findings can nevertheless be used to refine and focus the F-M for future implementation. Results indicated that older adults used high-risk heating and lighting sources and many were totally responsible for their own welfare. Findings have implications for emergency preparedness and long-term recovery.
Muller, Claude P; Marquet-Blouin, Estelle; Fack, Fred; Damien, Benjamin; Steinmetz, Andŕe; Bouche, Fabienne B
Vaccine-induced immunity against measles is less robust than natural immunity. Waning of immunity in vaccines may eventually require a revaccination of adults. Measles antigens expressed in plants have been shown to be antigenic and immunogenic both after invasive and oral vaccination. Strategies for the vaccination of adults, the potential of an oral measles vaccine produced in edible plants and the design of suitable antigens are discussed.
Pelton, Stephen I; Shea, Kimberly M; Weycker, Derek; Farkouh, Raymond A; Strutton, David R; Edelsberg, John
Using data from 3 private healthcare claims repositories, we evaluated the incidence of pneumococcal disease among adults with US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) defined at-risk conditions or rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, Crohn's disease, and neuromuscular disorder/seizures and those with traditional high-risk conditions. We observed that adults with ≥2 concurrent comorbid conditions had pneumococcal disease incidence rates that were as high as or higher than rates observed in those with traditional high-risk conditions.
This study aims to explore the concepts of independence and shared decision making in the context of smart home technologies for older adults. We conducted a Delphi study with three rounds involving smart home designers, and researchers as well as community dwelling older adults. While there were differences in the way different stakeholders define these concepts, the study findings provide clear implications for the design, implementation and evaluation of smart home applications.
James, Jennifer; Vitaliano, Peter Paul
The interrelationships of deviant life experiences and current status, i.e., prostitution versus non-prostitution, were investigated by the application of multivariate analyses. Variables were studied involving early home life, pregnancy history, sexual history, and criminal involvement. Based on the analyses, three models were developed that…
Hoekstra, Hans A.
Career development is described as the interactive progression of internal career identity formation and the growth of external career significance. Argued is the need for a content model of career development where the field is dominated by process theories. A theory is put forward of career development crystallizing in the acquisition of career…
Doherty, James M; Cooke, Bradley M; Frantz, Kyle J
Adolescent drug abuse is hypothesized to increase the risk of drug addiction. Yet male rats that self-administer heroin as adolescents show attenuated drug-seeking after abstinence, compared with adults. Here we explore a role for neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in age-dependent heroin-seeking. Adolescent (35-day-old at start; adolescent-onset) and adult (86-day-old at start) male rats acquired lever-pressing maintained by heroin using a fixed ratio one reinforcement schedule (0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg per infusion). Following 12 days of forced abstinence, rats were tested for heroin-seeking over 1 h by measuring the number of lever presses on the active lever. Unbiased stereology was then used to estimate the number of Fos-ir(+) and Fos-ir(-) neurons in prelimbic and infralimbic mPFC. As before, adolescents and adults self-administered similar amounts of heroin, but subsequent heroin-seeking was attenuated in the younger rats. Similarly, the adolescent-onset group failed to show significant neural activation in the prelimbic or infralimbic mPFC during the heroin-seeking test, whereas the adult-onset heroin self-administration group showed two to six times more Fos-ir(+) neurons than their saline counterparts in both mPFC subregions. Finally, the overall number of neurons in the infralimbic cortex was greater in rats from the adolescent-onset groups than adults. The mPFC may thus have a key role in some age-dependent effects of heroin self-administration.
König, Annekatrin; Shcherbata, Halyna R
The germaria of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster present an excellent model to study germline stem cell-niche interactions. Two to three adult stem cells are surrounded by a number of somatic cells that form the niche. Here we describe how Drosophilae germaria can be dissected and specifically immuno-stained to allow for identification and analysis of both the adult stem cells and their somatic niche cells.
Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon
Methotrexate is an antimetabolite and antifolate drug that is widely used in the treatment of malignancies and auto-immune disorders. In childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, methotrexate is often combined with 6-mercaptopurine and both of them have been shown to be very effective for maintenance of remission. Large variability in the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate has led to increasing use of therapeutic drug monitoring in its clinical use to identify patients with high risk of toxicity and optimise clinical outcome. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was developed for methotrexate for oral and intravenous dosing and adults and paediatric use. The model has compartments for stomach, gut lumen, enterocyte, gut tissue, spleen, liver vascular, liver tissue, gall bladder, systemic plasma, red blood cells, kidney vascular, kidney tissue, skin, bone marrow, thymus, muscle and rest of body. A mechanistic model was also developed for the kidney to account for renal clearance of methotrexate via filtration and secretion. Variability on system and drug specific parameters was incorporated in the model to reflect observed clinical data and assuming the same pathways in adults and children, age-dependent changes in body size, organ volumes and plasma flows, the model was scaled to children. The model was developed successfully for adults and parameters such as net secretion clearance, biliary transit time and red blood cell distribution and binding parameters were estimated from published adult profiles. A relationship between fraction absorbed and dose using reported mean bioavailability data in the literature was also established. The model also incorporates non-linear binding in some tissues that has been described in the literature. Predictions using this model provide adequate description of observed plasma concentration data in adults and children. The model can be used to predict plasma and tissue concentrations of methotrexate following intravenous and
Differences in inhibitory ability between older (64–79 years, N = 24) and younger adults (18–26 years, N = 24) were investigated using a diffusion model analysis. Participants performed a task-switching paradigm that allows assessing n−2 task repetition costs, reflecting inhibitory control on the level of tasks, as well as n−1 response-repetition costs, reflecting inhibitory control on the level of responses. N−2 task repetition costs were of similar size in both age groups. Diffusion model analysis revealed that for both younger and older adults, drift rate parameters were smaller in the inhibition condition relative to the control condition, consistent with the idea that persisting task inhibition slows down response selection. Moreover, there was preliminary evidence for task inhibition effects in threshold separation and non-decision time in the older, but not the younger adults, suggesting that older adults might apply different strategies when dealing with persisting task inhibition. N−1 response-repetition costs in mean RT were larger in older than younger adults, but in mean error rates tended to be larger in younger than older adults. Diffusion-model analysis revealed longer non-decision times in response repetitions than response switches in both age groups, consistent with the idea that motor processes take longer in response repetitions than response switches due to persisting response inhibition of a previously executed response. The data also revealed age-related differences in overall performance: Older adults responded more slowly and more accurately than young adults, which was reflected by a higher threshold separation parameter in diffusion model analysis. Moreover, older adults showed larger non-decision times and higher variability in non-decision time than young adults, possibly reflecting slower and more variable motor processes. In contrast, overall drift rate did not differ between older and younger adults. Taken together
Analysis of four transcripts of genetic counseling sessions shows how Jarvis' model of contemplative learning helps elucidate the process genetic clients undergo. The model can be applied in other areas of health care involving patient learning. (SK)
Ottenbacher, Allison J; Snih, Soham Al; Bindawas, Saad M; Markides, Kyriakos S; Graham, James E; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Raji, Mukaila; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J
The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults from minority and disadvantaged populations is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal association between physical activity and cognition in older Mexican Americans. The study methodology included a prospective cohort with longitudinal analysis of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. General linear mixed models were used to assess the associations and interactions between physical activity and cognitive function over 14 years. Community-based assessments were performed in participants' homes. Physical activity was recorded for 1,669 older Mexican Americans using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and separated into memory and nonmemory components. A statistically significant positive association was observed between levels of physical activity and cognitive function after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, and comorbid health conditions. There was a statistically significant difference in MMSE scores over time between participants in the third (β = 0.11, standard error (SE) = 0.05) and fourth (β = 0.10, SE = 0.2) quartiles of physical activity and those in the first. The protective effect of physical activity on cognitive decline was evident for the memory component of the MMSE but not the nonmemory component after adjusting for covariates. Greater physical activity at baseline was associated with less cognitive decline over 14 years in older Mexican Americans. The reduction in cognitive decline appeared to be related to the memory components of cognitive function.
Beck, Laura; Burg, Matthias C; Heindel, Walter; Schülke, Christoph
.. Citation Format · Beck L, Burg MC, Heindel W et al. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Adults - Variants, Complications during Therapy, and the Role of Radiological Imaging. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 119 - 127.
Olson, R. Paul
This study confirmed two general predictions: (1) the model contributes to new learning; and (2) neither the model nor reinforcement of the model adds significantly to motivation, beyond the effect that can be attributed to reinforcement of the subject himself. (Author/CG)
Gao, Shenshen; Ren, Li; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan; Li, Junli
Based on the Chinese reference adult male voxel model, a set of microscopic skeletal models of Chinese adult male is constructed through the processes of computed tomography (CT) imaging, bone coring, micro-CT imaging, image segmentation, merging into macroscopic bone model and implementation in Geant4. At the step of image segmentation, a new bone endosteum (BE) segmentation method is realized by sampling. The set of model contains 32 spongiosa samples with voxel size of 19 μm cubes. The microscopic spongiosa bone data for Chinese adult male are provided. Electron absorbed fractions in red bone marrow (RBM) and BE are calculated. Source tissues include the bone marrow (red and yellow), trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes) and cortical bone (surfaces and volumes). Target tissues include RBM and BE. Electron energies range from 10 keV to 10 MeV. Additionally, comparison of the result with other investigations is provided.
Vafaei, Afshin; Alvarado, Beatriz; Tomás, Concepcion; Muro, Carmen; Martinez, Beatriz; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria
The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) is the most commonly used and validated gender role measurement tool across countries and age groups. However, it has been rarely validated in older adults and sporadically used in aging and health studies. Perceived gender role is a crucial part of a person's identity and an established determinant of health. Androgyny model suggests that those with high levels of both masculinity and femininity (androgynous) are more adaptive and hence have better health. Our objectives were to explore the validity of BSRI in an older Spanish population, to compare different standard methods of measuring gender roles, and to examine their impact on health indicators. The BSRI and health indicator questions were completed by 120 community-dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Aragon, Spain. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to examine psychometric properties of the BSRI. Androgyny was measured by three approaches: geometric mean, t-ratio, and traditional four-gender groups classification. Relationships between health indicators and gender roles were explored. Factor analysis resulted in two-factor solution consistent with the original masculine and feminine items with high loadings and good reliability. There were no associations between biological sex and gender roles. Different gender role measurement approaches classified participants differently into gender role groups. Overall, androgyny was associated with better mobility and physical and mental health. The traditional four groups approach showed higher compatibility with the androgyny model and was better able to disentangle the differential impact of gender roles on health.
Zangrossi, Stefano; Marabese, Mirko; Broggini, Massimo; Giordano, Rosaria; D'Erasmo, Marco; Montelatici, Elisa; Intini, Daniela; Neri, Antonino; Pesce, Maurizio; Rebulla, Paolo; Lazzari, Lorenza
The Oct-4 transcription factor, a member of the POU family that is also known as Oct-3 and Oct3/4, is expressed in totipotent embryonic stem cells (ES) and germ cells, and it has a unique role in development and in the determination of pluripotency. ES may have their postnatal counterpart in the adult stem cells, recently described in various mammalian tissues, and Oct-4 expression in putative stem cells purified from adult tissues has been considered a real marker of stemness. In this context, normal mature adult cells would not be expected to show Oct-4 expression. On the contrary, we demonstrated, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (total RNA, Poly A+), real-time PCR, immunoprecipitation, Western blotting, band shift, and immunofluorescence, that human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, genetically stable and mainly terminally differentiated cells with well defined functions and a limited lifespan, express Oct-4. These observations raise the question as to whether the role of Oct-4 as a marker of pluripotency should be challenged. Our findings suggest that the presence of Oct-4 is not sufficient to define a cell as pluripotent, and that additional measures should be used to avoid misleading results in the case of an embryonic-specific gene with a large number of pseudogenes that may contribute to false identification of Oct-4 in adult stem cells. These unexpected findings may provide new insights into the role of Oct-4 in fully differentiated cells. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.
Killick, Richard; Augustin, Hrvoje; Gandy, Carina; Allen, Marcus J.; Hardy, John; Lovestone, Simon; Partridge, Linda
Aβ peptide accumulation is thought to be the primary event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), with downstream neurotoxic effects including the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is increasingly implicated as playing a pivotal role in this amyloid cascade. We have developed an adult-onset Drosophila model of AD, using an inducible gene expression system to express Arctic mutant Aβ42 specifically in adult neurons, to avoid developmental effects. Aβ42 accumulated with age in these flies and they displayed increased mortality together with progressive neuronal dysfunction, but in the apparent absence of neuronal loss. This fly model can thus be used to examine the role of events during adulthood and early AD aetiology. Expression of Aβ42 in adult neurons increased GSK-3 activity, and inhibition of GSK-3 (either genetically or pharmacologically by lithium treatment) rescued Aβ42 toxicity. Aβ42 pathogenesis was also reduced by removal of endogenous fly tau; but, within the limits of detection of available methods, tau phosphorylation did not appear to be altered in flies expressing Aβ42. The GSK-3–mediated effects on Aβ42 toxicity appear to be at least in part mediated by tau-independent mechanisms, because the protective effect of lithium alone was greater than that of the removal of tau alone. Finally, Aβ42 levels were reduced upon GSK-3 inhibition, pointing to a direct role of GSK-3 in the regulation of Aβ42 peptide level, in the absence of APP processing. Our study points to the need both to identify the mechanisms by which GSK-3 modulates Aβ42 levels in the fly and to determine if similar mechanisms are present in mammals, and it supports the potential therapeutic use of GSK-3 inhibitors in AD. PMID:20824130
Bull, Margaret J; Boaz, Lesley; Sjostedt, Jennifer M
Recruiting older adults and their family caregivers into research studies presents challenges. Although the literature notes some general recruitment challenges, no studies specifically address the unique challenges of recruiting older adults who have Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and their family caregivers in studies about delirium or suggest using a framework to identify barriers to recruiting this population. In conducting a pilot study about preparing family caregivers to detect delirium symptoms in older adults with (AD) the researchers used the Public Health Model for identifying barriers to recruitment. The goals of this methodological article are to: (1) briefly describe the methodology of the pilot study to illustrate how the Public Health Model was applied in the context of the present study and (2) discuss the benefits of the Public Health Model for identifying the barriers to recruitment in a study that prepared family caregivers to detect delirium symptoms in older adults with AD. The Public Health Model helped us to identify four specific barriers to recruitment (lack of knowledge about delirium, desire to maintain normalcy, protective caregiving behaviors, and older adult's fears) and ways to overcome them. The Public Health Model might also help other researchers address similar issues.
Vargas, Jessica Y; Fuenzalida, Marco; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C
The role of the Wnt signaling pathway during synaptic development has been well established. In the adult brain, different components of Wnt signaling are expressed, but little is known about its role in mature synapses. Emerging in vitro studies have implicated Wnt signaling in synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, activation of Wnt signaling has shown to protect against amyloid-β-induced synaptic impairment. The present study provides the first evidence that in vivo activation of Wnt signaling improves episodic memory, increases excitatory synaptic transmission, and enhances long-term potentiation in adult wild-type mice. Moreover, the activation of Wnt signaling also rescues memory loss and improves synaptic dysfunction in APP/PS1-transgenic mice that model the amyloid pathology of Alzheimer's diseases. These findings indicate that Wnt signaling modulates cognitive function in the adult brain and could be a novel promising target for Alzheimer's disease therapy.
Long, Kathleen M.
Noting that adolescents who commit suicide are often clinically depressed, this paper examines various approaches in the treatment of depression. Major treatment models of adult depression, which can be directly applied to the treatment of the depressed adolescent, are described. Major treatment models and selected research studies are reviewed in…
A model of literacy instruction for limited-English-proficient (LEP) adults is described that is designed to increase effective parent involvement in children's education. Through the implementation of this model, LEP parents acquire language and parenting skills that allow them to participate more fully in their child's educational process. The…
Sirois, Fuschia M.
Objective This study tested a self-regulation resource model (SRRM) of self-compassion and health-promoting behavior intentions in emerging adults. The SRRM posits that positive and negative affect in conjunction with health self-efficacy serve as valuable self-regulation resources to promote health behaviors. Methods An online survey was completed by 403 emerging adults recruited from the community and a Canadian University in late 2008. Multiple meditation analyses with bootstrapping controlling for demographics and current health behaviors tested the proposed explanatory role of the self-regulation resource variables (affect and self-efficacy) in linking self-compassion to health behavior intentions. Results Self-compassion was positively associated with intentions to engage in health-promoting behaviors. The multiple mediation model explained 23% of the variance in health behavior intentions, with significant indirect effects through health self-efficacy and low negative affect. Conclusion Interventions aimed at increasing self-compassion in emerging adults may help promote positive health behaviors, perhaps through increasing self-regulation resources. PMID:26844074
Govindarajan, Vijay; Trimble, Chris
Fending off new competitors is a perennial struggle for established companies. Govindarajan and Trimble, of Dartmouth's Tuck School of Business, explain why: Many corporations become too comfortable with their existing business models and neglect the necessary work of radically reinventing them. The authors map out an alternative in their "three boxes" framework. They argue that while a CEO manages the present (box 1), he or she must also selectively forget the past (box 2) in order to create the future (box 3). Infosys chairman N.R. Narayana Murthy mastered the three boxes to reinvigorate his company and greatly increased its changes of enduring for generations.
Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; McHale, Susan M
Perceived ethnic discrimination is central to the experiences of Latino young adults, yet we know little about the ways in which and the conditions under which ethnic discrimination relates to Latino young adults' sleep patterns. Using a sample of 246 Mexican-origin young adults (M age = 21.11, SD = 1.54; 50 % female), the current study investigated the longitudinal links between perceived ethnic discrimination and both sleep duration and night-to-night variability in duration, while also examining the moderating roles of Anglo and Mexican orientations in the associations. The results revealed that perceived discrimination predicted greater sleep variability, and this link was not moderated by cultural orientations. The relation between perceived discrimination and hours of sleep, however, was moderated by Anglo and Mexican orientations. Individuals with high Anglo and Mexican orientations (bicultural) and those with only high Mexican orientations (enculturated), showed no association between discrimination and hours of sleep. Individuals with low Anglo and Mexican orientations (marginalized) displayed a positive association, whereas those with high Anglo and low Mexican orientations (acculturated) displayed a negative association. The results suggest that discrimination has long term effects on sleep variability of Mexican-origin young adults, regardless of cultural orientations; however, for sleep duration, bicultural and enculturated orientations are protective.
White, Claire M; Gummerum, Michaela; Hanoch, Yaniv
Young people are exposed to and engage in online risky activities, such as disclosing personal information and making unknown friends online. Little research has examined the psychological mechanisms underlying young people's online risk taking. Drawing on fuzzy trace theory, we examined developmental differences in adolescents' and young adults' online risk taking and assessed whether differential reliance on gist representations (based on vague, intuitive knowledge) or verbatim representations (based on specific, factual knowledge) could explain online risk taking. One hundred and twenty two adolescents (ages 13-17) and 172 young adults (ages 18-24) were asked about their past online risk-taking behavior, intentions to engage in future risky online behavior, and gist and verbatim representations. Adolescents had significantly higher intentions to take online risks than young adults. Past risky online behaviors were positively associated with future intentions to take online risks for adolescents and negatively for young adults. Gist representations about risk negatively correlated with intentions to take risks online in both age groups, while verbatim representations positively correlated with online risk intentions, particularly among adolescents. Our results provide novel insights about the underlying mechanisms involved in adolescent and young adults' online risk taking, suggesting the need to tailor the representation of online risk information to different age groups.
Zidar, Josefina; Sorato, Enrico; Malmqvist, Ann-Marie; Jansson, Emelie; Rosher, Charlotte; Jensen, Per; Favati, Anna; Løvlie, Hanne
Despite intense research efforts, biologists are still puzzled by the existence of animal personality. While recent studies support a link between cognition and personality, the directionality of this relationship still needs to be clarified. Early-life experiences can affect adult behaviour, and among these, cognitive stimulation has been suggested theoretically to influence personality. Yet, the influence of early cognitive stimulation has rarely been explored in empirical investigations of animal behaviour and personality. We investigated the effect of early cognitive stimulation on adult personality in the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus). To this end, we assessed adult behaviour across a number of personality assays and compared behaviour of individuals previously exposed to a series of learning tasks as chicks, with that of control individuals lacking this experience. We found that individuals exposed to early stimulation were, as adults, more vigilant and performed fewer escape attempts in personality assays. Other behaviours describing personality traits in the fowl were not affected. We conclude that our results support the hypothesis that early stimulation can affect aspects of adult behaviour and personality, suggesting a hitherto underappreciated causality link between cognition and personality. Future research should aim to confirm these findings and resolve their underlying dynamics and proximate mechanisms.
AML1/Runx1, originally identified as a gene located at the breakpoint of the t(8;21) translocation, encodes a transcription factor that is widely expressed in multiple hematopoietic lineages and that regulates the expression of a variety of hematopoietic genes. Numerous studies have shown that AML1 is a critical regulator of hematopoietic development. In addition, AML1 is a frequent target for chromosomal translocation in human leukemia. The activity of AML1 can be modulated by various types of posttranslational modification, including phosphorylation and acetylation. Phosphorylation by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of the mechanisms that dictate whether AML1 acts as either a transcriptional repressor or an activator of gene expression. Recently, a physiological role for AML1 in adult hematopoiesis was revealed by conditional gene targeting in mice. Remarkably, adult hematopoietic progenitors are maintained even in the absence of AML1, in stark contrast to the total disruption of definitive hematopoiesis during embryogenesis. AML1 is, however, critical for megakaryopoiesis and plays an important role in T-cell and B-cell development in adult mice. Recent analyses engineered to recreate hematopoiesis in vitro revealed that the transcriptional activity of AML1 is closely related with the potential of AML1 to generate hematopoietic cells and support thymocyte development.
Liang, Ying; Huo, Meng; Kennison, Robert; Zhou, Renlai
Older adults are more likely to regulate their emotions by engaging in cognitive reappraisal. However, depending on the type of cognitive reappraisal used, efforts to regulate emotions are sometimes met with success and other times with failure. It has been suggested the well-known age-related decline in cognitive control might be the culprit behind the poor use of detached reappraisal by older adults. However, this possibility has not been thoroughly investigated. In addition, studies have not examined what aspects of cognitive control– shifting, updating or inhibition–might be relevant to cognitive reappraisal. In the present study, 41 older participants were tested on cognitive control and abilities to use detached and positive reappraisal. Results showed detached reappraisal compared to positive relied more heavily on cognitive control, specifically mental set shifting. Results of this study have important implications for development of cognitive training interventions for older adults. PMID:28326024
Humphrey, Shameka C.; Yoo-Jeong, Moka; Jones, Gwendolyn "Lynn" D.; Nicholson, William C.
The benefits of employment are enormous; being employed, one naturally: 1) socially engages with the public and colleagues/co-workers; 2) learns new skills to increase job productivity and competence; 3) establishes a routine that can prevent lethargy and boredom and may regulate sleep and healthy behaviors; 4) is provided purposeful and meaningful activity that may protect one from depression; and 5) gains income to pursue interests which are cognitively stimulating. All of these and other employment influences can provide an enriched personal and social environment that stimulates positive neuroplasticity and promotes neurocognitive reserve. Such potential neurocognitive benefits are particularly relevant to adults with HIV for two reasons: 1) approximately 50% of adults with HIV experience observable cognitive impairments that can adversely affect everyday functioning such as medication adherence, and 2) approximately 45% of adults with HIV are unemployed and do not receive the neurocognitive benefits of employment. From these considerations, implications for healthcare research and nursing practice are provided. PMID:26066688
Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S
HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility.
Vance, David E; Cody, Shameka L; Yoo-Jeong, Moka; Jones, Gwendolyn Lynn D; Nicholson, William C
The benefits of employment are enormous; when employed, people naturally: (a) engage socially with the public and colleagues/co-workers, (b) learn new skills to increase job productivity and competence, (c) establish routines that can prevent lethargy and boredom and may regulate sleep and healthy behaviors, (d) are provided purposeful and meaningful activity that may prevent depression, and (e) gain income to pursue cognitively stimulating interests. All of these and other employment influences can provide an enriched personal and social environment that stimulates positive neuroplasticity and promotes neurocognitive reserve, which are particularly relevant to adults with HIV because (a) approximately 50% of adults with HIV experience observable cognitive impairments that can adversely affect everyday functioning such as medication adherence, and (b) approximately 45% of adults with HIV are unemployed and do not receive the neurocognitive benefits of employment. From these considerations, implications for health care research and nursing practice are provided.
Lucassen, Paul J; Naninck, Eva F G; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Fitzsimons, Carlos; Joels, Marian; Korosi, Aniko
Early-life stress lastingly affects adult cognition and increases vulnerability to psychopathology, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this Opinion article, we propose that early nutritional input together with stress hormones and sensory stimuli from the mother during the perinatal period act synergistically to program the adult brain, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. We hypothesize that stress during gestation or lactation affects the intake of macro- and micronutrients, including dietary methyl donors, and/or impairs the dam's metabolism, thereby altering nutrient composition and intake by the offspring. In turn, this may persistently modulate gene expression via epigenetic programming, thus altering hippocampal structure and cognition. Understanding how the combination of stress, nutrition, and epigenetics shapes the adult brain is essential for effective therapies.
Liang, Ying; Huo, Meng; Kennison, Robert; Zhou, Renlai
Older adults are more likely to regulate their emotions by engaging in cognitive reappraisal. However, depending on the type of cognitive reappraisal used, efforts to regulate emotions are sometimes met with success and other times with failure. It has been suggested the well-known age-related decline in cognitive control might be the culprit behind the poor use of detached reappraisal by older adults. However, this possibility has not been thoroughly investigated. In addition, studies have not examined what aspects of cognitive control- shifting, updating or inhibition-might be relevant to cognitive reappraisal. In the present study, 41 older participants were tested on cognitive control and abilities to use detached and positive reappraisal. Results showed detached reappraisal compared to positive relied more heavily on cognitive control, specifically mental set shifting. Results of this study have important implications for development of cognitive training interventions for older adults.
Leland, Natalie E.; Marcione, Nicole; Niemiec, Stacey L. Schepens; Don Fogelberg, Kaivalya Kelkar
Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high healthcare costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the AOTA Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. This scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research in order to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly aligned with the Practice Framework, including cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, physical activity, and multi-component interventions. Occupational therapy is primed to address sleep problems by targeting the context and environment, performance patterns, and limited engagement in evening activities that may contribute to poor sleep. Occupational therapy researchers and clinicians need to work collaboratively to establish the evidence-base for occupation-centered sleep interventions in order to improve the health and quality of life of the older adult. PMID:24844879
Gilligan, Megan; Suitor, J. Jill; Pillemer, Karl
Relationships between mothers and their children are expected to be lifelong and rewarding for both members of the dyad. Because of the salience of these ties, they are likely to be disrupted only under conditions of extreme relational tension and dissatisfaction. In this work, the authors drew on theoretical arguments regarding societal norm violations and value similarity to examine the processes that lead to estrangement between mothers and adult children. To address this issue, they used quantitative and qualitative data on 2,013 mother–adult child dyads nested within 561 later life families, including 64 in which mothers reported being estranged from at least 1 of their children. Value dissimilarity was found to be a strong predictor of estrangement, whereas violation of serious societal norms was not. Qualitative data revealed that value dissimilarity created severe relational tension between mothers and adult children leading to estrangement. PMID:26207072
Quas, Jodi A; Yim, Ilona S; Edelstein, Robin S; Cahill, Larry; Rush, Elizabeth B
The purpose of this study was to identify whether cortisol reactivity to a stressful laboratory event was related to children's memory of that event and to determine whether this relation was comparable to that observed in adults. Nine- to 12-year-olds and young adults completed an impromptu speech and math task during which repeated cortisol samples and self-reported stress ratings were collected. Two weeks later, participants' memory for the tasks was examined. Greater cortisol reactivity was associated with enhanced memory, most prominently in children. Self-reported stress was unrelated to memory. Findings reveal that an important mechanism underlying the association between emotion and memory in adults, namely activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, appears to operate similarly in late childhood. Findings also demonstrate that positive associations between cortisol reactivity and memory are evident when the event that actually elicited that reactivity serves as the to-be-remembered event.
Out, Dorothee; Pieper, Suzanne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Zeskind, Philip Sanford; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.
Objective: To examine the underlying mechanisms of adults' intended caregiving responses to cry sounds in a behavioral genetic design and to investigate the role of cry pitch and perceived urgency in sensitive and harsh caregiving responses. Methods: The sample consisted of 184 adult twin pairs (18-69 years), including males and females, parents…
... worker programs in the One-Stop delivery system? 663.100 Section 663.100 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Delivery of Adult and Dislocated Worker Services Through the One-Stop Delivery System § 663.100 What is the role of the adult and dislocated worker programs in the...
Spaniol, Julia; Madden, David J.; Voss, Andreas
Two experiments investigated adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory tasks, as a test of the hypothesis of specific age-related decline in context memory. Older adults were slower and exhibited lower episodic accuracy than younger adults. Fits of the diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978) revealed age-related increases in…
Brito-Rocha, E; Schilling, A C; Dos Anjos, L; Piotto, D; Dalmolin, A C; Mielke, M S
Individual leaf area (LA) is a key variable in studies of tree ecophysiology because it directly influences light interception, photosynthesis and evapotranspiration of adult trees and seedlings. We analyzed the leaf dimensions (length - L and width - W) of seedlings and adults of seven Neotropical rainforest tree species (Brosimum rubescens, Manilkara maxima, Pouteria caimito, Pouteria torta, Psidium cattleyanum, Symphonia globulifera and Tabebuia stenocalyx) with the objective to test the feasibility of single regression models to estimate LA of both adults and seedlings. In southern Bahia, Brazil, a first set of data was collected between March and October 2012. From the seven species analyzed, only two (P. cattleyanum and T. stenocalyx) had very similar relationships between LW and LA in both ontogenetic stages. For these two species, a second set of data was collected in August 2014, in order to validate the single models encompassing adult and seedlings. Our results show the possibility of development of models for predicting individual leaf area encompassing different ontogenetic stages for tropical tree species. The development of these models was more dependent on the species than the differences in leaf size between seedlings and adults.
Hantman, Shira; Oz, Miriam Ben; Gutman, Caroline; Criden, Wendy
This article describes an innovative model for teaching gerontological social work that has been introduced into the social work methods curriculum in the Department of Social Work at a college in northern Israel. The basic concept of the model is to create an alternative learning environment by including older persons as full participants in the…
Nielsen, Mark; Christie, Tamara
The present work investigated the effect of modelling on children's pretend play behaviour. Thirty-seven children aged between 27 and 41 months were given 4 min of free play with a dollhouse and associated toy props (pre-modelling phase). Using dolls, an experimenter then acted out a series of vignettes involving object substitutions, imaginary…
A probabilistic model of individual exposure to chlorpyrifos has been developed in support of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) and the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) program. The model examines a v...
Portland Community Coll., OR.
Three Oregon community colleges collaborated to develop a model program to meet the learning needs of educationally disadvantaged students. The model consists of several Outcome Objectives, or goals for the program. The discussion of each objective includes background information relevant to the specific goal and a description of the methods used…
Eugene, Andy R.
Recent meta-analyses and publications over the past 15 years have provided evidence showing there are considerable gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol. Throughout this time, there have not been any research articles proposing a gender stratified dose-adjustment resulting in an equivalent total drug exposure. Metoprolol pharmacokinetic data was obtained from a previous publication. Data was modeled using nonlinear mixed effect modeling using the MONOLIX software package to quantify metoprolol concentration–time data. Gender-stratified dosing simulations were conducted to identify equivalent total drug exposure based on a 100 mg dose in adults. Based on the pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations, a 50 mg dose in adult women provides an approximately similar metoprolol drug exposure to a 100 mg dose in adult men. PMID:28035289
Leighton, Jacqueline P.; Bisanz, Gay L.
As environmental concepts, the ozone layer and ozone hole are important to understand because they can profoundly influence our health. In this paper, we examined: (a) children's and adults' knowledge of the ozone layer and its depletion, and whether this knowledge increases with age' and (b) how the 'ozone layer' and 'ozone hole' might be structured as scientific concepts. We generated a standardized set of questions and used it to interview 24 kindergarten students, 48 Grade 3 students, 24 Grade 5 students, and 24 adults in university, in Canada. An analysis of participants' responses revealed that adults have more knowledge than children about the ozone layer and ozone hole, but both adults and children exhibit little knowledge about protecting themselves from the ozone hole. Moreover, only some participants exhibited 'mental models' in their conceptual understanding of the ozone layer and ozone hole. The implications of these results for health professionals, educators, and scientists are discussed.
Pelton, Stephen I.; Shea, Kimberly M.; Weycker, Derek; Farkouh, Raymond A.; Strutton, David R.; Edelsberg, John
Using data from 3 private healthcare claims repositories, we evaluated the incidence of pneumococcal disease among adults with US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) defined at-risk conditions or rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, Crohn's disease, and neuromuscular disorder/seizures and those with traditional high-risk conditions. We observed that adults with ≥2 concurrent comorbid conditions had pneumococcal disease incidence rates that were as high as or higher than rates observed in those with traditional high-risk conditions. PMID:26034770
Riser, Diana K; Pegram, Sheri E; Farley, Julee P
The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly recidivistic offenders. It is imperative to focus on adolescents and young adults who sexually abuse because they represent a particularly important intervention point in preventing sexual abuse in comparison to older age groups and address the importance of differentiating among youths who sexually abuse, particularly between one-time offenders and recidivistic offenders. Implications for addressing these differences are discussed.
Woźniak, Magdalena; Kaczmarek-Skamira, Elżbieta; Zegarska, Barbara
Acne in adults is a chronic, increasingly common disease, especially among women. It differs in pathogenesis and clinical presentation from adolescent acne. Acne in adults is associated with Western diet, defined as high consumption of milk, high glycemic load and high calorie intake. Metabolic signals of this diet result in a significant increase in insulin/insulin growth factor 1 serum level and consequently in the molecular interplay of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 kinase (mTORC1)/forkhead box protein 1 (FoxO1) mediated nutrient signaling, leading to increased proliferation of keratinocytes, increased lipogenesis and sebum production and finally to aggravation of acne. PMID:28035217
Solomon-Lane, Tessa K.; Crespi, Erica J.; Grober, Matthew S.
Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds) has been hypothesized to play a mechanistic role linking status to sex change. The HPA/I axis responds to environmental stressors by integrating relevant external and internal cues and coordinating biological responses including changes in behavior, energetics, physiology, and morphology (i.e., metamorphosis). Through actions of both corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoids, the HPA/I axis has been implicated in processes central to sex change, including the regulation of agonistic behavior, social status, energetic investment, and life history transitions. In this paper, we review the hypothesized roles of the HPA/I axis in the regulation of sex change and how those hypotheses have been tested to date. We include original data on sex change in the bluebanded goby (Lythyrpnus dalli), a highly social fish capable of bidirectional sex change. We then propose a model for HPA/I involvement in sex change and discuss how these ideas might be tested in the future. Understanding the regulation of sex change has the potential to elucidate evolutionarily conserved mechanisms responsible for translating pertinent information about the environment into coordinated biological changes along multiple body axes. PMID:24265604
Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark; Estell, David B; Perdue, Neil H
This study investigated the relationship between the monetary giving and volunteering behavior of adolescents and the role-modeling and conversations about giving provided by their parents. The participants are a large nationally-representative sample of 12-18 year-olds from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement (n = 1244). Adolescents reported whether they gave money and whether they volunteered. In a separate interview parents reported whether they talked to their adolescent about giving. In a third interview, parents reported whether they gave money and volunteered. The results show that both role-modeling and conversations about giving are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering. Knowing that both role-modeling and conversation are strongly related to adolescents' giving and volunteering suggests an often over-looked way for practitioners and policy-makers to nurture giving and volunteering among adults: start earlier, during adolescence, by guiding parents in their role-modeling of, and conversations about, charitable giving and volunteering.
Garza-Lombó, Carla; Gonsebatt, María E.
The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates signals triggered by energy, stress, oxygen levels, and growth factors. It regulates ribosome biogenesis, mRNA translation, nutrient metabolism, and autophagy. mTOR participates in various functions of the brain, such as synaptic plasticity, adult neurogenesis, memory, and learning. mTOR is present during early neural development and participates in axon and dendrite development, neuron differentiation, and gliogenesis, among other processes. Furthermore, mTOR has been shown to modulate lifespan in multiple organisms. This protein is an important energy sensor that is present throughout our lifetime its role must be precisely described in order to develop therapeutic strategies and prevent diseases of the central nervous system. The aim of this review is to present our current understanding of the functions of mTOR in neural development, the adult brain and aging. PMID:27378854
Brussoni, M J; Boon, S D
This study explored the role that relationship strength, generally, and emotional closeness, more specifically, may play in delimiting the bounds of grandparental influence in young adults' lives. One-hundred and seventy-one college-aged young adults completed a questionnaire evaluating their relationship with the living grandparent to whom they felt most emotionally close or, if they felt close to none of their living grandparents, the grandparent with whom they had the most contact. Participants' perceptions of the strength of this relationship were significantly and positively related to their responses on measures of the extent to which their closest grandparent influenced various aspects of their lives (e.g., their beliefs and values, how much their lives would be missing had they never known the grandparent). In addition, participants whose grandparent-grandchild relationships were emotionally close endorsed a broader range of alternatives on checklist measures of perceived relationship impact than did those whose relationships were more emotionally distant.
Kennerly, Julie; Weber, Robert J.
The Director’s Forum series is designed to guide pharmacy leaders in establishing patient-centered services in hospitals and health systems. This article focuses on pharmacy academia’s (“Academy”) role in transforming an organization’s pharmacy practice model. Pharmacy students can assume an integrated and accountable role in the practice model by having defined responsibilities for patient care. This role will produce students who are best trained to meet the challenges of pharmacy practice and health care reform. To make the students successful in this role, the pharmacy director must have a specific plan for integrating pharmacy students into the model and establishing relationships with Academy leadership, most importantly with the dean of the school or college of pharmacy. If successfully executed, the relationship between the Academy and the pharmacy department will enhance the mission of developing patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:24421485
Philipp, Laura M; Washington, Christi; Raouf, Mona; Norton, Peter J
Clark and Watson's (1991) tripartite model is commonly viewed as the preferred model for examining the relationship between anxiety and depression. The tripartite model proposes that the overlap and distinction between anxiety and depression can be best understood along three dimensions: positive affect, negative affect, and physiological hyperarousal. Although the tripartite model has received support in a wide variety of samples, little has been done to examine whether the tripartite model holds cross-culturally. Using a highly diverse sample of undergraduate students (n = 923), this study set out to determine the generalizability of the tripartite model among students who identified themselves as African American/Black (non-Hispanic), Caucasian/White (non-Hispanic), Hispanic/Latino(a), and Asian. The results of the present study suggest that the model fits generally for each group, but the study did not find cross-group equivalence in the relationships between constructs. Possible reasons for the lack of cross-group equivalence, as well as limitations of this study, are also discussed.
Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra
Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18–25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18–41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956
Pekmezci, Melike; Rice, Terri; Molinaro, Annette M; Walsh, Kyle M; Decker, Paul A; Hansen, Helen; Sicotte, Hugues; Kollmeyer, Thomas M; McCoy, Lucie S; Sarkar, Gobinda; Perry, Arie; Giannini, Caterina; Tihan, Tarik; Berger, Mitchel S; Wiemels, Joseph L; Bracci, Paige M; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Lachance, Daniel H; Clarke, Jennifer; Taylor, Jennie W; Luks, Tracy; Wiencke, John K; Jenkins, Robert B; Wrensch, Margaret R
The "integrated diagnosis" for infiltrating gliomas in the 2016 revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system requires assessment of the tumor for IDH mutations and 1p/19q codeletion. Since TERT promoter mutations and ATRX alterations have been shown to be associated with prognosis, we analyzed whether these tumor markers provide additional prognostic information within each of the five WHO 2016 categories. We used data for 1206 patients from the UCSF Adult Glioma Study, the Mayo Clinic and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) with infiltrative glioma, grades II-IV for whom tumor status for IDH, 1p/19q codeletion, ATRX, and TERT had been determined. All cases were assigned to one of 5 groups following the WHO 2016 diagnostic criteria based on their morphologic features, and IDH and 1p/19q codeletion status. These groups are: (1) Oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted; (2) Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant; (3) Glioblastoma, IDH-mutant; (4) Glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype; and (5) Astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype. Within each group, we used univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models to assess associations of overall survival with patient age at diagnosis, grade, and ATRX alteration status and/or TERT promoter mutation status. Among Group 1 IDH-mutant 1p/19q-codeleted oligodendrogliomas, the TERT-WT group had significantly worse overall survival than the TERT-MUT group (HR: 2.72, 95% CI 1.05-7.04, p = 0.04). In both Group 2, IDH-mutant astrocytomas and Group 3, IDH-mutant glioblastomas, neither TERT mutations nor ATRX alterations were significantly associated with survival. Among Group 4, IDH-wildtype glioblastomas, ATRX alterations were associated with favorable outcomes (HR: 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.81, p = 0.01). Among Group 5, IDH-wildtype astrocytomas, the TERT-WT group had significantly better overall survival than the TERT-MUT group (HR: 0.48, 95% CI 0.27-0.87), p = 0.02). Thus, we present evidence that in
Tomar, Vinay; Yadav, Sher Singh; Vyas, Nachiket; Yadav, Suresh; Sathian, Brijesh
Introduction The most common cause of adult Giant Hydronephrosis (GH) is congenital Uretero-Pelvic Junction (UPJ) obstruction. Conventional imaging modalities, like Intravenous Urography (IVU) and Computed Tomography Urography (CTU) and radionuclide renal scan can be fallacious. Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is a useful tumour marker for gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer. Only a few studies and case reports have shown raised serum levels due to benign hydronephrosis and GH. Aim To investigate the prognostic role of urine and serum CA19-9 in the diagnosis and follow-up of adult GH due to UPJ obstruction. Materials and Methods The present hospital based observational study was conducted on 24 adult patients (Group 1) with unilateral GH due to UPJ obstruction. Twenty four healthy adults were included as control (Group 2). Serum and voided urine samples were collected to evaluate Carbohydrate Antigen (CA) 19-9 in each group. During surgery, urine from the affected pelvis was collected to determine CA19-9 level. Patients were followed up after surgery at 3 and 9 months with serum and voided urine samples for CA19-9 level. Results Preoperative Serum and voided urine CA19-9 were significantly greater in Group1 than in controls, which significantly correlated inversely with preoperative percentage renal function and glomerular filtration rate. Postoperative improvement in renal function significantly correlated inversely with serum and voided urine CA19-9 at 3 and 9 months. Conclusion Voided urine CA19-9 can be a non-invasive clinical marker in adult GH due to UPJ obstruction. The clinical implications of these data for diagnosis and follow-up of these patients are significant. Our findings suggest, significant decrease in urinary Ca19-9 level during follow-up is predictive of excellent surgical outcome and resolution of renal damage. PMID:27790508
Adam, Emma K; Gunnar, Megan R; Tanaka, Akiko
In a middle-class sample of mothers of 2-year-olds, adult attachment classifications measured in the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) were related to maternal self-reported emotional well-being and observed parenting behavior, and the potential mediating and moderating roles of maternal emotion were tested. Mothers classified as dismissing on the AAI reported significantly lower levels of positive affectivity. Mothers classified as preoccupied reported significantly higher levels of negative affectivity and anxiety. Preoccupied mothers were observed to be significantly higher on angry/intrusive parenting, but this association was not mediated by attachment-related differences in maternal emotion. Maternal emotional well-being did, however, moderate the associations between adult attachment and parenting behavior: Dismissing attachment was significantly associated with lower warmth/responsiveness only among mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms.
Wonacott, Michael E.
Ethics and social responsibility are the subject of both curriculum materials and research in adult and vocational education. State academic standards and curriculum frameworks address citizenship and personal and social responsibility. Ethical and legal issues for specific occupations are addressed in curricula issued by states, professional…
Sussman-Skalka, Carol J.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Stuen, Cynthia
Vision impairment affects approximately 17% of Americans age 45 and older. Yet, 94% of adults with self-reported vision loss did not receive any type of vision rehabilitation services to help them retain independence. These findings underscore the need for promoting awareness about what can be done when vision fails. A national dissemination…
Paulus, Markus; Hunnius, Sabine; van Wijngaarden, Carolien; Vrins, Sven; van Rooij, Iris; Bekkering, Harold
This study investigates the contribution of frequency learning and teleological reasoning to action prediction in 9-month-old infants and adults. Participants observed how an agent repeatedly walked to a goal while taking the longer of 2 possible paths, as the shorter and more efficient path was impassable. In the subsequent test phase, both paths…
Vicenik, Chad Joseph
It has been widely shown that infants and adults are capable of using only prosodic information to discriminate between languages. However, it remains unclear which aspects of prosody, either rhythm or intonation, listeners attend to for language discrimination. Previous researchers have suggested that rhythm, the duration and timing of speech…
Cherry, Katie E.; Morton, Mark R.
Notes that age-related changes in physiology and pharmacokinetics (how drugs are used in the body) lead to increased drug sensitivity and potentially harmful drug effects. Addresses heightened sensitivity to drug effects seen in older adults. Presents three examples of physiologic decline and discusses some broad considerations for geriatric…
Lenglet, Frans; McAnany, Emile G.
Rural adult education projects using television in Tanzania, the Ivory Coast, Dominican Republic, and Guatemala are described and compared with special attention given to objectives, organization, selection and recruitment of supervisors, monitors and participants, use of communication media, feedback and evaluation systems impact, and…
Fernández de Retana, Pablo; Alvarez, Fernando; Bacca, Gustavo
Subtalar arthroereisis, often combined with Achilles tendon lengthening, is a simple and effective way to treat flexible flatfoot in adults. The most common complication is pain in sinus tarsi, which usually disappears after removal of the implant. Midterm results are good and it does not hinder other treatments in the future.
Albrecht, Gary L.
This paper is concerned with the dynamics of the adult socialization process. The general hypothesis is: the level of aspiration of a patient is positively associated with his socialization (his rehabilitation) outcome. Subjects were 105 patients with spinal cord injuries or amputations. The two aspects of socialization considered in the study are…
Smith, Leann E.; Hong, Jinkuk; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.
The present study examined trajectories of adaptive behavior, behavior problems, psychological symptoms, and autism symptoms in adolescents and adults with fragile X syndrome (n = 147) over a three-year period. Adaptive behavior significantly increased over time, particularly for adolescents, and the severity of behavior problems decreased over…
Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.
The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…
Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff
Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers'…
Lou, Vivian W. Q.
This study explores the relationship between the life satisfaction of older adults and the social support from grandchildren in Hong Kong. Two hundred and fifteen older people (from the ages of 64 to 101, mean age 79.3), whose youngest grandchild was aged 12 or older, were recruited from elderly service agencies to participate in the study.…
Golovatch, Yelena; Vanderplank, Robert
This article reports on an investigation into the attributions of success and perceived areas of strength and weakness of adult learners of English as a foreign language in the Department of Continuing Education at Minsk State Linguistic University, Belarus. The students attributed their limited progress in learning the foreign language mainly to…
Rousseau, Charlene X.
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of the lived experiences of female adult learners pursuing graduate degrees online. As online graduate programs have become increasingly popular and more readily available in the last decade, more women than men are enrolling in online graduate programs in addition to…
Milheim, Karen L.
Teaching philosophy is much more than just teaching style, or a framework for a course. It can be defined as one's beliefs about life that are carried out in his/her teaching practice, which serve as a foundation for his/her educational philosophies. The majority of literature addressing philosophies in adult education practice focus on how…
Froger, Charlotte; Bouazzaoui, Badiâa; Isingrini, Michel; Taconnat, Laurence
The present research evaluated both metacognitive and environmental support accounts of age-related changes in the way study time is adapted to task difficulty. The original aim was to examine whether providing environmental support at encoding would allow older adults to adjust their study time to the task difficulty by using effective encoding strategies. The difficulty of the learning task was manipulated by varying the strength of association of cue-target pairs (i.e., weak vs. strong associates). This allowed us to measure metacognitive control in aging and, specifically, the ability to adjust study time according to task difficulty. The level of environmental support at encoding was manipulated to examine whether it could be used by older adults to adjust their study time according to the task difficulty. In contrast to the classical literature on the effect of aging on metacognitive control, we found that older adults were able to adjust their study time to task difficulty when environmental support was provided. Furthermore, providing encoding strategies with information about their effectiveness helped older adults adjust their study time to task difficulty optimally by improving their strategy use and compensating for their associative memory deficit.
This article discusses the role of assessment in a response-to-intervention model. Although assessment represents only 1 component in a response-to-intervention model, a well-articulated assessment system is critical in providing teachers with reliable data that are easily interpreted and used to make instructional decisions. Three components of…
Berson, Janet S.
This study attempts to clarify part of the decision-making process centering around combining family and career. There are two aspects of the study. In the first, perceived costs of combining roles are assessed and evaluated in light of mother's employment history. The subjects in this part of the study were 141 single women and 43 married women.…
Al-Omari, Hasan; Hamed, Razan; Abu Tariah, Hashem
The purpose of this study is to understand religious factors role during recovery period among Jordanian receiving treatment for alcohol and substances abuse. Participants were asked to answer open-ended questions related to role of religion on their recovery from alcohol and substances abuse. Content analysis was used to explore the role of religion on their recovery process. One hundred and forty-six clients from two treatment centers participated with two main themes that emerged from the analysis: role of religion and role of religious men. Religion not only helps during the recovery process, but also is considered as a protector from drug and alcohol abuse in the future.
Conner, Tamlin S.; Thompson, Laura M.; Knight, Rachel L.; Flett, Jayde A. M.; Richardson, Aimee C.; Brookie, Kate L.
This project investigated how individual differences in the big-five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) predicted plant-food consumption in young adults. A total of 1073 participants from two samples of young adults aged 17–25 reported their daily servings of fruits, vegetables, and two unhealthy foods for comparison purposes using an Internet daily diary for 21 or 13 days (micro-longitudinal, correlational design). Participants also completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) measure of personality, and demographic covariates including gender, age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Analyses used hierarchical regression to predict average daily fruit and vegetable consumption as separate dependent variables from the demographic covariates (step 1) and the five personality traits (step 2). Results showed that young adults higher in openness and extraversion, and to some extent conscientiousness, ate more fruits and vegetables than their less open, less extraverted, and less conscientious peers. Neuroticism and agreeableness were unrelated to fruit and vegetable consumption. These associations were unique to eating fruit and vegetables and mostly did not extend to unhealthy foods tested. Young adult women also ate more fruit and vegetables than young adult men. Results suggest that traits associated with greater intellect, curiosity, and social engagement (openness and extraversion), and to a lesser extent, discipline (conscientiousness) are associated with greater plant-food consumption in this population. Findings reinforce the importance of personality in establishing healthy dietary habits in young adulthood that could translate into better health outcomes later in life. PMID:28223952
Park, S M
The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n = 2326) and middle-aged adults (n = 3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations.
Zhu, Chang; Yao, Wen-Long; Tan, Wei; Zhang, Chuan-Han
Evidence has shown that stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1/CXCL12) plays an important role in maintaining adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs). SDF-1 is also known to enhance recovery by recruiting NPCs to damaged regions and recent studies have revealed that SDF-1α exhibits pleiotropism, thereby differentially affecting NPC subpopulations. In this study, we investigated the role of SDF-1 in in vitro NPC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation, following treatment with different concentrations of SDF-1 or a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100. We observed that AMD3100 inhibited the formation of primary neurospheres. However, SDF-1 and AMD3100 exhibited no effect on proliferation upon inclusion of growth factors in the media. Following growth factor withdrawal, AMD3100 and SDF-1 treatment resulted in differential effects on NPC proliferation. SDF-1, at a concentration of 500ng/ml, resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of oligodendrocytes following growth factor withdrawal-induced differentiation. Using CXCR4 knockout mice, we observed that SDF-1 affected NPC proliferation in the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ). We also investigated the occurrence of differential CXCR4 expression at different stages during lineage progression. These results clearly indicate that signaling interactions between SDF-1 and CXCR4 play an important role in adult SVZ lineage cell proliferation and differentiation.
Boehme, Fanny; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Cox, Adrian; Patten, Anna; Giles, Erica; Brocardo, Patricia S; Christie, Brian R
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can result in a myriad of health problems in the affected offspring ranging from growth deficiencies to central nervous system impairments that result in cognitive deficits. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to play a role in cognition (i.e. learning and memory) and can be modulated by extrinsic factors such as alcohol consumption and physical exercise. We examined the impact of voluntary physical exercise on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Intragastric intubation was used to deliver ethanol to rats in a highly controlled fashion through all three trimester equivalents (i.e. throughout gestation and during the first 10 days of postnatal life). Ethanol-exposed animals and their pair-fed and ad libitum controls were left undisturbed until they reached a young adult stage at which point they had free access to a running wheel for 12 days. Prenatal and early postnatal ethanol exposure altered cell proliferation in young adult female rats and increased early neuronal maturation without affecting cell survival in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Voluntary wheel running increased cell proliferation, neuronal maturation and cell survival as well as levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the DG of both ethanol-exposed female rats and their pair-fed and ad libitum controls. These results indicate that the capacity of the brain to respond to exercise is not impaired in this model of FASD, highlighting the potential therapeutic value of physical exercise for this developmental disorder.
Huang, Xinhua; Wang, Hui; Meng, Lu; Wang, Qinglan; Yu, Jia; Gao, Qian; Wang, Decheng
The cell wall lipids phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIMs) and its structurally-related compound, phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) are major virulence factors of mycobacterium, as shown by the reduced growth of PDIMs/PGLs deficient mutants in various animal models. PDIMs/PGLs play active roles in modulating host immune responses. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how PDIMs/PGLs deficient mutant was eliminated in vivo are still elusive. Our aim was to investigate what host immune responses have effect on mycobacterium elimination in vivo. Using microarray, we find PDIMs/PGLs modulate divergent host responses, including chemotaxis and focal adhesion's downstream pathway and apoptosis. We examine these two host responses by Diff-Quik stain, coupled with transmission electron microscopy and TUNEL stain respectively. The ultrastructure observation showed that eosinophils appeared in WT-infected zebrafish at day 1, however eosinophils arrived was delayed to day 7 in PDIMs/PGLs-deficient mutant-infected animals. More intriguingly, apoptosis was markedly increased in PDIMs/PGLs-mutant infected zebrafish at day 1 after infection, compared to WT-infected fishes at this time. However, apoptosis trend was fully reversed by day 7, with increased apoptosis were detected in WT-infected zebrafish compared with the PDIMs/PGLs-deficient mutant, especially more apoptosis within the granuloma. This study shows that the anti-apoptotic effects of PDIMs/PGLs and the recruitment of eosinophils in tissue during the early infection in zebrafish might promote bacterium growth in vivo.
Bahman Bijari, Bahareh; Zare, Morteza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Beigzadeh, Amin; Esmaili, Maryam
Objectives To determine which professional and humanistic attributes demonstrated by teachers in the health disciplines caused them to be perceived by students as positive or negative role models. Methods Quantitative empirical data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire by graduating students in medical, dentistry, and pharmacy schools at Kerman University of Medical Sciences. A total of 3 graduating cohorts, comprising about 220 students, were selected for this study. Surveys were distributed during January-March 2013. Results In total, 183 students participated in the study. Altogether, students considered 504 and 473 academic staff as positive and negative role models (PRMs and NRMs), respectively. Women were considered more negatively than men (mean scores: -12.13 vs. -11.6, p=0.04). While clinicians were considered more positively than basic scientists (mean scores: 12.65 vs. 10.67, p=0.001), dentists received higher positive scores than physicians or pharmacists (average scores: 13.27 vs. 12.99 and 9.82). There was a significant relationship between the personality of the students and the overall characteristics of their perceived role models (β for PRMs=0.35, p<0.0001; and β for NRMs= 0.20, p= 0.039). Conclusions Humanistic and professional attributes were proposed as major components of personal traits in perceived role models. Demonstration of humanistic attributes by teachers was strongly correlated with the students’ perception of the role models. It is suggested that the role of humanistic and professional attributes should be highlighted across medical disciplines in an effort to develop or improve role modelling by academic staff. PMID:27743447
Ng, Kenneth W.; Lima, Eric G.; Bian, Liming; O'Conor, Christopher J.; Jayabalan, Prakash S.; Stoker, Aaron M.; Kuroki, Keiichi; Cook, Cristi R.; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Cook, James L.
It was hypothesized that previously optimized serum-free culture conditions for juvenile bovine chondrocytes could be adapted to generate engineered cartilage with physiologic mechanical properties in a preclinical, adult canine model. Primary or passaged (using growth factors) adult chondrocytes from three adult dogs were encapsulated in agarose, and cultured in serum-free media with transforming growth factor-β3. After 28 days in culture, engineered cartilage formed by primary chondrocytes exhibited only small increases in glycosaminoglycan content. However, all passaged chondrocytes on day 28 elaborated a cartilage matrix with compressive properties and glycosaminoglycan content in the range of native adult canine cartilage values. A preliminary biocompatibility study utilizing chondral and osteochondral constructs showed no gross or histological signs of rejection, with all implanted constructs showing excellent integration with surrounding cartilage and subchondral bone. This study demonstrates that adult canine chondrocytes can form a mechanically functional, biocompatible engineered cartilage tissue under optimized culture conditions. The encouraging findings of this work highlight the potential for tissue engineering strategies using adult chondrocytes in the clinical treatment of cartilage defects. PMID:19845465
Klunklin, Areewan; Sawasdisingha, Piyawan; Viseskul, Nongkran; Funashima, Naomi; Kameoka, Tomomi; Nomoto, Yuriko; Nakayama, Toshiko
Being a role model is very important in order for nurse teachers to promote students' competence and confidence. This descriptive study aimed at exploring the role model behavior of nursing faculty members in Thailand. The Self-Evaluation Scale on Role Model Behaviors for Nursing Faculty (Thai version) was used to collect data from 320 nursing faculty members in eight schools of nursing, four university nursing schools, one college under the Ministry of Public Health, one under the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, and two private schools of nursing. The results revealed that the mean score of the overall items in the role model behaviors of nursing faculty members in Thailand, as perceived by themselves, was at a high level. The scores on each subscale of the role model behaviors also were high and related to respect for students, enthusiastic and high-quality teaching activities, showing the value of nursing practice and the nursing profession, social appropriateness, and ongoing professional development. The results can be used to further develop nurse professionals and to improve the effectiveness of clinical teaching in Thailand.
Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana
Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood.
Clarke, Philippa; Gallagher, Nancy Ambrose
Hazards in the urban built environment can create barriers to mobility among older adults aging in place. We investigated the relationship between urban built environment characteristics and 15-month trajectories of mobility disability in a sample of 1,188 older adults living in Detroit, MI, a city that has undergone rapid economic and structural decline. Data come from the Michigan Minimum Data Set for Home Care (2001-2008), an enumerative database of older adults in Michigan who qualify for federal or state-funded home and community-based long-term care through a Medicaid waiver program. Standardized assessments are made at intake and every 90 days by case managers. Built environments were assessed with a virtual audit using the "Street View" feature of Google Earth. A summary accessibility score was created for each block based on a count of the number of accessible features (e.g., continuous barrier-free sidewalks and proximity of public transportation). Using growth mixture models, two latent trajectories of outdoor mobility were identified: one capturing occasional outdoor mobility (representing 83 % of the sample) and one capturing almost no mobility outside the home. Controlling for sociodemographic and health risk factors, individuals living in more accessible environments had a 18 % higher odds of being in the more mobile group (OR = 1.18, 95 % CI = 1.01, 1.41). These findings emphasize the importance of the built environment for mobility among urban-dwelling older adults.
Cook, Joan M; Orvaschel, Helen; Simco, Edward; Hersen, Michel; Joiner, Thomas
This study examined the tripartite model of depression and anxiety in 131 psychiatric outpatients, ages 55-87. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a 3-factor model provided an adequate fit to the observed data, that the 3-factor model was empirically superior to 1- or 2-factor models, and that the 3-factor structure obtained in the current sample of older adult outpatients converged with that obtained on a separate, younger 'sample. Negative affect was significantly related to depression and anxiety symptoms and syndromes, and positive affect was more highly related to depression than anxiety symptoms and syndromes. Ways for taking into account possible age-associated differences in emotion in older adults and thus improving the conceptual model of anxiety and depression are briefly noted.
Su, Nan; Jin, Min; Chen, Lin
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling plays essential roles in bone development and diseases. Missense mutations in FGFs and FGFRs in humans can cause various congenital bone diseases, including chondrodysplasia syndromes, craniosynostosis syndromes and syndromes with dysregulated phosphate metabolism. FGF/FGFR signaling is also an important pathway involved in the maintenance of adult bone homeostasis. Multiple kinds of mouse models, mimicking human skeleton diseases caused by missense mutations in FGFs and FGFRs, have been established by knock-in/out and transgenic technologies. These genetically modified mice provide good models for studying the role of FGF/FGFR signaling in skeleton development and homeostasis. In this review, we summarize the mouse models of FGF signaling-related skeleton diseases and recent progresses regarding the molecular mechanisms, underlying the role of FGFs/FGFRs in the regulation of bone development and homeostasis. This review also provides a perspective view on future works to explore the roles of FGF signaling in skeletal development and homeostasis. PMID:26273516
Jastrzembski, Tiffany S.; Charness, Neil
The authors estimate weighted mean values for nine information processing parameters for older adults using the Card, Moran, and Newell (1983) Model Human Processor model. The authors validate a subset of these parameters by modeling two mobile phone tasks using two different phones and comparing model predictions to a sample of younger (N = 20; Mage = 20) and older (N = 20; Mage = 69) adults. Older adult models fit keystroke-level performance at the aggregate grain of analysis extremely well (R = 0.99) and produced equivalent fits to previously validated younger adult models. Critical path analyses highlighted points of poor design as a function of cognitive workload, hardware/software design, and user characteristics. The findings demonstrate that estimated older adult information processing parameters are valid for modeling purposes, can help designers understand age-related performance using existing interfaces, and may support the development of age-sensitive technologies. PMID:18194048
Salazar, Christian R
Periodontal disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gingiva (gum tissues) caused by infection with anaerobic bacteria. In older adults, progression of disease can lead to tooth loss, inadequate nutritional intake, and a higher risk of other chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. As the proportion of older adults continues to grow over time and rates of tooth loss decline, prevalence and severity of periodontal disease will increase. While much is known about risk factors for disease onset, gaps remain in our understanding of factors that could influence disease progression. Over the past few decades, stress has been implicated as a contributory factor. This review critically examines the epidemiological and laboratory evidence and describes a conceptual framework that could help move the research forward.
Fuster-Matanzo, Almudena; Llorens-Martín, María; Hernández, Félix; Avila, Jesús
Neuroinflammation, a specialized immune response that takes place in the central nervous system, has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases, and specially, it has been considered as a hallmark of Alzheimer disease, the most common cause of dementia in the elderly nowadays. Furthermore, neuroinflammation has been demonstrated to affect important processes in the brain, such as the formation of new neurons, commonly known as adult neurogenesis. For this, many therapeutic approaches have been developed in order to avoid or mitigate the deleterious effects caused by the chronic activation of the immune response. Considering this, in this paper we revise the relationships between neuroinflammation, Alzheimer disease, and adult neurogenesis, as well as the current therapeutic approaches that have been developed in the field.
Werner, Emmy E; Johnson, Jeannette L
Longitudinal studies of children of alcoholics in a community context are rare, but are of special interest because they provide the opportunity to study families with alcoholic parents who do not reach clinical settings and with offspring who do not receive professional help. The current study reports on the 65 offspring of alcoholics who participated in the Kauai Longitudinal Study. The extensive data on these analyses included questionnaires and interviews of both children and adults that were collected over a 30-year period. The data showed that individuals who coped effectively with the trauma of growing up in an alcoholic family and who became competent adults relied on a significantly larger number of sources of support in their childhood and youth than did the offspring of alcoholics with coping problems by age 32.
Medrano, Silvia; Scrable, Heidi . E-mail: email@example.com
In the adult mammalian brain, neuronal turnover continues to replenish cells in existing neuronal circuits, such as those involved either in odor discrimination or in learning and memory, throughout life. With age, however, the capacity for neurogenesis diminishes and these functions become impaired. Neuronal turnover is a two-step process, which first generates excess neuronal progenitors and then eliminates all but the few that differentiate into fully functional neurons. This process requires a fine balance between cell proliferation and cell death. Altered activity of the tumor suppressor p53 can upset this balance by affecting the rate of cell proliferation, but not the rate of cell death, in neurogenic regions of the adult brain. Genetically engineered mice in which p53 activity is increased demonstrate that premature loss of neurogenic capacity is linked to accelerated organismal aging.
Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E.
The experience of stressful social interactions, negative causal attributions, and the use of maladaptive coping efforts help maintain depression over time in the general population. We investigated whether a similar experience occurs among adults with mild intellectual disability. We compared the frequency and stress impact of such interactions, identified causal attributions for these interactions, and determined the coping strategies of 47 depressed and 47 nondepressed adults with mild intellectual disability matched on subject characteristics. The depressed group reported a higher frequency and stress impact of stressful social interactions, more negative attribution style, and more avoidant and less active coping strategies did than the nondepressed group. Findings have implications for theory building and development of psychotherapies to treat depression. PMID:19374469
Das, Sutapa; Guha, Debjani
Treatment with Spinacia oleracea extract (SO; 400 mg/kg body weight) decreased the locomotor activity, grip strength, increased pentobarbitone induced sleeping time and also markedly altered pentylenetetrazole induced seizure status in Holtzman strain adult male albino rats. SO increased serotonin level and decreased both norepinephrine and dopamine levels in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, midbrain and pons and medulla. Result suggests that SO exerts its CNS depressive effect in PTZ induced seizure by modulating the monoamines in different brain areas.
Richbourg, M J
Undetected vision loss commonly occurs in older adults adding undue stress to those on dialysis. Poor vision is associated with increased risk of falls and decreased quality of life. Common visual impairments--presbyopia, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy--often are detectable by visual acuity testing. Using various methods of visual acuity testing, nephrology nurses can perform vision testing quickly and inexpensively. Other nursing interventions also can improve eyesight.
Baugreet, Sephora; Hamill, Ruth M; Kerry, Joseph P; McCarthy, Sinéad N
The aim of this review is to describe the factors contributing to diminished food intake, resulting in nutritional deficiencies and associated health conditions in older adults and proposes food innovation strategies to mitigate these. Research has provided convincing evidence of a link between healthy eating patterns and healthy aging. There is a need to target new food product development (NPD) with functional health benefits specifically designed to address the particular food-related needs of older consumers. When developing foods for older adults, consideration should be given to the increased requirements for specific macro- and micronutrients, especially protein, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin B. Changes in chemosensory acuity, chewing difficulties, and reduced or poor swallowing ability should also be considered. To compensate for the diminished appetite and reduced intake, foods should be energy dense, nutritionally adequate, and, most importantly, palatable, when targeting this cohort. This paper describes the potential of new food product development to facilitate dietary modification and address health deficiencies in older adults.
Donnelly, Reesa; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff
Although parent behaviors and cognitions are important for stress/health outcomes throughout development, little research examines whether cognitions mediate the relationship between parent behaviors and stress/health outcomes. As a result, the current study examined the reports of 160 emerging adults regarding their mothers' and fathers' behaviors (via the Parental Bonding Instrument and Alabama Parenting Questionnaire), their cognitions (via the Stress Appraisal Measure, Negative Mood Regulation Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Ruminative Response Scale-Abbreviated), and their stress/health outcomes (via the Perceived Stress Scale and Short-Form Health Survey). Results of this study suggested that emerging adults' cognitions partially mediated the relationship between their mothers' behaviors and their stress/health outcomes and fully mediated the relationship between their fathers' behaviors and their stress/health outcomes. Future research should examine parent behaviors as important distal variables in emerging adults' stress/health outcomes but should examine cognitions as more salient, immediate predictors of their stress/health outcomes.
Richardson, Rebecca; Hammerschmidt, Matthias
Complete re-epithelialization of full-thickness skin wounds in adult mammals takes days to complete and relies on numerous signaling cues and multiple overlapping cellular processes that take place both within the epidermis itself and in other participating tissues. We have previously shown that re-epithelialization of full-thickness skin wounds of adult zebrafish, however, is extremely rapid and largely independent of the other processes of wound healing allowing for the dissection of specific processes that occur in, or have a direct effect on, re-epithelializing keratinocytes. Recently, we have shown that, in addition to lamellipodial crawling at the leading edge, re-epithelialization of zebrafish partial- and full-thickness wounds requires long-range epithelial rearrangements including radial intercalations, flattening and directed elongation and that each of these processes involves Rho kinase (Rock) signaling. Our studies demonstrate how these coordinated signaling events allow for the rapid collective cell migration observed in adult zebrafish wound healing. Here we discuss the particular contribution of Rock to each of these processes.
Marra, Kyle V; Wagley, Sushant; Kuperwaser, Mark C; Campo, Rafael; Arroyo, Jorge G
This article aims to facilitate optimal management of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by providing information on indications, risk factors, referral guidelines, and treatments and to describe techniques to maximize quality of life (QOL) for people with irreversible vision loss. A review of PubMed and other online databases was performed for peer-reviewed English-language articles from 1980 through August 2012 on visual impairment in elderly adults. Search terms included vision loss, visual impairment, blind, low vision, QOL combined with age-related, elderly, and aging. Articles were selected that discussed vision loss in elderly adults, effects of vision impairment on QOL, and care strategies to manage vision loss in older adults. The ability of primary care physicians (PCPs) to identify early signs of cataracts and AMD in individuals at risk of vision loss is critical to early diagnosis and management of these common age-related eye diseases. PCPs can help preserve vision by issuing aptly timed referrals and encouraging behavioral modifications that reduce risk factors. With knowledge of referral guidelines for soliciting low-vision rehabilitation services, visual aids, and community support resources, PCPs can considerably increase the QOL of individuals with uncorrectable vision loss. By offering appropriately timed referrals, promoting behavioral modifications, and allocating low-vision care resources, PCPs may play a critical role in preserving visual health and enhancing the QOL for the elderly population.
Neuda, Maria C.
Teacher and students are inherently unequal in the classroom, even when both are adults, because one has what the other wants: subject matter expertise. While this hierarchy is generally viewed as appropriate, it can be detrimental to learning, particularly where English is being taught to adult immigrants. This article explores why. Adult ESL…
Lau, Chiu Ming; Chen, Qijie
The study examined how attitudes and subjective norms could be used to predict participation intention of adults in continuing education. In this research, attitudes comprised the two variables of positive attitude and negative attitude and subjective norms included normative belief and motivation to comply. Structural equation modeling using a…
Lorenz, Dawn C.
Models of career development have been discussed as a matter of growth over the life span and in relation to social learning. An integrated approach using specified career development theories to assist young adults with disabilities will allow professionals to better understand the school-to-work transition and implement meaningful interventions.
Kitinoja, L.; Heimlich, J. E.
A model of adult education appears to function in the outreach programs of three Columbus (Ohio) performing arts organizations. The first tier represents the arts organization's board of trustees, and the second represents the internal administration of the company. Two administrative bodies are arbitrarily labelled as education and marketing,…
Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.
In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…
Smith, Debra M.
The purpose of this study was to develop a research-based model for designing and deploying instructional narratives based on principles derived from narrative theory, development theory, communication theory, learning theory and instructional design theory to enable adult learning and retention and the effective transfer of that retained learning…
Trusty, Jerry; Ng, Kok-Mun; Watts, Richard E.
The effects of adult attachment on emotional empathy were investigated using a sample of master's-degree level counseling students. Through structural equation modeling, the authors found that the latent attachment dimensions of avoidance and anxiety work in tandem in their effects on empathy. Lower avoidance and higher anxiety were associated…
Pashak, Travis J.; Hagen, John W.; Allen, Jennifer M.; Selley, Ryan S.
This brief report assesses the validity of applying the adolescent-based developmental assets model to emerging adults. Developmental assets are specific constructs which predict future success, including positive individual characteristics and environmental resources. The researchers developed a self-report survey based on a subset of the assets…
Kohler Giancola, Jennifer; Grawitch, Matthew J.; Borchert, Dana
With an increase in nontraditional students attending college, there is a need to understand how work/school/life stress affects adult students. The purpose of this study is to test a comprehensive stress model that posits appraisal (cognitive evaluation) and coping as mediators between stressors/interrole conflict and psychosocial outcomes. The…
de Ruiter, Laura E.
In a data set of 291 spontaneous utterances from German 5-year-olds, 7-year-olds and adults, nuclear pitch contours were labeled manually using the GToBI annotation system. Ten different contour types were identified.The fundamental frequency (F0) of these contours was modeled using third-order orthogonal polynomials, following an approach similar…
Korr, Jeremy; Derwin, Ellen Baker; Greene, Kimberly; Sokoloff, William
While many institutions deliver some classes in blended format, Brandman University transitioned all of its face-to-face classes to blended delivery, using a model tailored to the needs of adult learners. This article provides research supporting the ways that blended learning principles align with key principles of andragogy. The article provides…
Philibert, Nanette; Allen, Jeff; Elleven, Russell
The purpose of this study was to examine three components of Donaldson and Graham's (1999) model of college outcomes for adults: (a) Prior Experience & Personal Biographies, (b) the Connecting Classroom, and (c) Life-World Environment. The study was also to assess the application of these components to traditional and nontraditional students…
The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a quantitative synthesis of correlational research that focused on the Dunn and Dunn Learning-Style Model and was concerned with adult populations. A total of 8,661 participants from the 47 original investigations provided 386 individual effect sizes for this meta-analysis. The mean effect size was…
Seto, Atsuko; Dahlen, Penny
This article provides an overview of Japanese women in the role of caregivers of older family members. Cultural influence on women's identity, significance of the caregiver's role, and the struggles and rewards of being caregivers are discussed. Finally, ideas are provided for the use of arts in counseling and implications of their use are…
Adkins, Myrna Ann; Sample, Barbara; Birman, Dina
English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers are often among the first people available to help refugees and other immigrants cope with a new cultural and linguistic environment. Although the identified role of the teacher is to teach English language skills, the teacher's role as cultural broker is also important. This digest focuses on how…
Lafkas, Sara McPhee
More American families now have shifting family forms and gender role practices, but some religious faiths still subscribe to traditional family and gender roles. Following these ideals in modern society can challenge adherents. This qualitative study examined one such faith, considering the perceptions of Mormon (i.e., Latter-day Saint) women…
Evans, Bruce; Gervais, Jack T; Heard, Kennon; Valley, Morgan; Lowenstein, Steven R
Ski helmets reduce the risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but usage rates are low. Ski patrollers could serve as role models for helmet use, but little is known about their practices and beliefs. A written survey was distributed to ski patrollers attending continuing education conferences. The questions addressed included helmet use rates, prior TBI experiences, perceptions of helmet risks and benefits and willingness to serve as safety role models for the public. To assess predictors of helmet use, odds ratios (OR) were calculated, after adjusting for skiing experience. Ninety-three ski patrollers participated and the main outcome was self-reported helmet use of 100% while patrolling. Helmet use was 23% (95% CI 15-32%). Common reasons for non-use included impaired hearing (35%) and discomfort (29%). Most patrollers believed helmets prevent injuries (90%; 95% CI 84-96%) and that they are safety role models (92%; 95% CI 86-98%). However, many believed helmets encourage recklessness (39%; 95% CI 29-49%) and increase injury risks (16%; 95% CI 7-25%). Three factors predicted 100% helmet use: perceived protection from exposure (OR = 9.68; 95% CI 3.14-29.82) or cold (OR = 5.68; 95% CI 1.27-25.42); and belief that role modelling is an advantage of helmets (OR = 4.06; 95% CI 1.29-12.83). Patrollers who believed helmets encourage recklessness were eight times less likely to wear helmets (OR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.58). Ski patrollers know helmets reduce serious injury and believe they are role models for the public, but most do not wear helmets regularly. To increase helmet use, manufacturers should address hearing- and comfort-related factors. Education programmes should address the belief that helmets encourage recklessness and stress role modelling as a professional responsibility.
Evans, Bruce; Gervais, Jack T.; Heard, Kennon; Valley, Morgan; Lowenstein, Steven R.
Objective Ski helmets reduce the risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but usage rates are low. Ski patrollers could serve as role models for helmet use, but little is known about their practices and beliefs. Design A written survey was distributed to ski patrollers attending continuing education conferences. Questions addressed helmet use rates; prior TBI experiences; perceptions of helmet risks and benefits; and willingness to serve as safety role models for the public. To assess predictors of helmet use, odds ratios were calculated, after adjusting for skiing experience. Subjects Ninety-three ski patrollers participated. Main Outcome Self-reported helmet use of 100% while patrolling. Results Helmet use was 23% (95% CI 15–32%). Common reasons for non-use included impaired hearing (35%) and discomfort (29%). Most patrollers believed helmets prevent injuries (90%; 95% CI 84–96%) and that they are safety role models (92%; 95% CI 86–98%). However, many believed helmets encourage recklessness (39%; 95% CI 29–49%) and increase injury risks (16%; 95% CI 7–25%). Three factors predicted 100% helmet use: perceived protection from exposure (OR = 9.68; 95% CI 3.14–29.82) or cold (OR = 5.68; 95% CI 1.27–25.42); and belief that role modeling is an advantage of helmets (OR = 4.06; 95% CI 1.29–12.83). Patrollers who believed helmets encourage recklessness were 8 times less likely to wear helmets (OR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03–0.58). Conclusions Ski patrollers know helmets reduce serious injury and believe they are role models for the public, but most do not wear helmets regularly. To increase helmet use, manufacturers should address hearing- and comfort-related factors. Education programs should address the belief that helmets encourage recklessness and stress role modeling as a professional responsibility. PMID:19225971
Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jinan; Liu, Pengbo
As a leading cause of severe diarrhea in children, the pathogenic role of rotavirus in adults has been underestimated for a long time. A hospital-based prospective clinical and molecular epidemiologic study of rotavirus infections in adults was performed between April 2014 and March 2015 in Shanghai, China. Overall, rotavirus was detected in 48 of 441 (10.9%) specimens with prevalence peaking in December (33.3%) and January (27.9%), whereas bacteria were identified in 45 of 846 (5.3%) samples (p<0.01). The rotavirus winter-spring seasonality (November - March) contrasts with the marked summer-fall seasonality (April - October) of bacterial pathogens (p<0.01). Compared with bacterial pathogens, rotavirus infection from child-to-adult transmission (29.8%, p<0.01) was the most important epidemiologic setting generating a major impact on public health, i.e. increased adult burden of infectious gastroenteritis and genetic diversity of circulating rotaviruses; adults infected with rotavirus developed more severe gastroenteritis symptoms (p<0.01) accompanied with mild intestinal and blood inflammations. Thirty-three G9 (lineages VIe and IIId), seven G2 (lineages IVa-1, IVa-3, and V) and two G1 (lineage Va) strains, together with thirty-eight P-III and eight P-V strains, were identified in this study with multiple amino acid differences observed between sample strains and homotypic vaccines. G9P was the predominant genotype (66.7%), followed by G2P (14.6%) and G1P (4.2%). Eight conserved amino acid substitutions in prototype strain K-1, especially A212T in antigenic region C, formed a novel G9-lineage VIe variant that has emerged worldwide since 2010. Our results indicated that emerging rotavirus G9-VIeP-III predominated over all the genotypes with a short time window in adults in Shanghai, China, and caused a local epidemic during the 2014-2015 rotavirus season. These findings reinforce the importance for inclusion of rotavirus in routine clinical
Barbaree, H E; Marshall, W L
This article examines men's sexual arousal to rape cues and its possible role in sexual assault. The article presents six different models that have been described in the literature to account for men's sexual arousal to descriptions of rape. The models are divided into two broad categories, response control models and stimulus control models, and are further divided into models postulating a "trait" that might distinguish rapists from other men and those postulating a "state" that might be present in men while they commit a sexual assault. A number of the models are supported by empirical data, and some of these data are reviewed. The article suggests that different models may be operating in different men when they commit sexual assault. These models are discussed in relation to the current literature on the classification and diagnosis of sexual offenders.
Morris, S A; Kelso, M L; Liput, D J; Marshall, S A; Nixon, K
Alcohol use during adolescence leads to increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) during adulthood. Converging evidence suggests that this period of enhanced vulnerability for developing an AUD may be due to the adolescent's unique sensitivity and response to alcohol. Adolescent rats have been shown to be less sensitive to alcohol intoxication and withdrawal susceptibility; however, age differences in ethanol pharmacokinetics may underlie these effects. Therefore, this study investigated alcohol intoxication behavior and withdrawal severity using a modified Majchrowicz model of alcohol dependence that has been shown to result in similar blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) despite age differences. Adolescent (postnatal day, PND, 35) and adult rats (PND 70+) received ethanol according to this 4-day binge paradigm and were observed for withdrawal behavior for 17h. As expected, adolescents showed decreased sensitivity to alcohol-induced CNS depression as evidenced by significantly lower intoxication scores. Thus, adolescents received significantly more ethanol each day (12.3+/-0.1g/kg/day) than adults (9.2+/-0.2g/kg/day). Despite greater ethanol dosing in adolescent rats, both adolescent and adult groups had comparable peak BECs (344.5+/-10.2 and 338.5+/-7.8mg/dL, respectively). Strikingly, withdrawal severity was similar quantitatively and qualitatively between adolescent and adult rats. Further, this is the first time that withdrawal behavior has been reported for adolescent rats using this model of alcohol dependence. A second experiment confirmed the similarity in BECs at various time points across the binge. These results demonstrate that after consideration of ethanol pharmacokinetics between adults and adolescents by using a model that produces similar BECs, withdrawal severity is nearly identical. This study, in combination with previous reports on ethanol withdrawal in adolescents and adults, suggests only a BEC-dependent effect of ethanol on
Li, Bin; Piao, Chun-Shu; Liu, Xiao-Yun; Guo, Wen-Ping; Xue, Yue-Qiang; Duan, Wei-Ming; Gonzalez-Toledo, Maria E; Zhao, Li-Ru
Convincing evidence has shown that brain ischemia causes the proliferation of neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) in both the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of adult brain. The role of brain ischemia-induced NSC/NPC proliferation, however, has remained unclear. Here we have determined whether brain ischemia-induced amplification of the NSCs/NPCs in adult brain is required for brain self-protection. The approach of intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), an inhibitor for cell proliferation, for the first 7days after brain ischemia was used to block ischemia-induced NSC/NPC proliferation. We observed that ICV infusion of Ara-C caused a complete blockade of NSC/NPC proliferation in the SVZ and a dramatic reduction of NSC/NPC proliferation in the SGZ. Additionally, as a result of the inhibition of ischemia-induced NSC/NPC pool amplification, the number of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 was significantly reduced, the infarction size was significantly enlarged, and neurological deficits were significantly worsened after focal brain ischemia. We also found that an NSC/NPC-conditioned medium showed neuroprotective effects in vitro and that adult NSC/NPC-released brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are required for NSC/NPC-conditioned medium-induced neuroprotection. These data suggest that NSC/NPC-generated trophic factors are neuroprotective and that brain ischemia-triggered NSC/NPC proliferation is crucial for brain protection. This study provides insights into the contribution of endogenous NSCs/NPCs to brain self-protection in adult brain after ischemia injury.
Ortiz-Matamoros, Abril; Salcedo-Tello, Pamela; Avila-Muñoz, Evangelina; Zepeda, Angélica; Arias, Clorinda
It is well recognized the role of the Wnt pathway in many developmental processes such as neuronal maturation, migration, neuronal connectivity and synaptic formation. Growing evidence is also demonstrating its function in the mature brain where is associated with modulation of axonal remodeling, dendrite outgrowth, synaptic activity, neurogenesis and behavioral plasticity. Proteins involved in Wnt signaling have been found expressed in the adult hippocampus suggesting that Wnt pathway plays a role in the hippocampal function through life. Indeed, Wnt ligands act locally to regulate neurogenesis, neuronal cell shape and pre- and postsynaptic assembly, events that are thought to underlie changes in synaptic function associated with long-term potentiation and with cognitive tasks such as learning and memory. Recent data have demonstrated the increased expression of the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) in brains of Alzheimer´s disease (AD) patients suggesting that dysfunction of Wnt signaling could also contribute to AD pathology. We review here evidence of Wnt-associated molecules expression linked to physiological and pathological hippocampal functioning in the adult brain. The basic aspects of Wnt related mechanisms underlying hippocampal plasticity as well as evidence of how hippocampal dysfunction may rely on Wnt dysregulation is analyzed. This information would provide some clues about the possible therapeutic targets for developing treatments for neurodegenerative diseases associated with aberrant brain plasticity. PMID:24403870
Social interactions come with the fundamental problem of trying to understand others' mental and affective states while under the overpowering influence of one's own concurrent thoughts and feelings. The ability to distinguish between simultaneous representations of others' current experiences as well as our own is crucial to navigate our complex social environments successfully. The developmental building blocks of this ability and how this is given rise to by functional and structural brain development remains poorly understood. In this review, I outline some of the key findings on the role of self-other distinction in understanding others' mental as well as emotional states in children and adults. I will begin by clarifying the crucial role for self-other distinction in avoiding egocentric attributions of one's own cognitive as well as affective states to others in adults and outline the underlying neural circuitry in overcoming such egocentricity. This will provide the basis for a discussion of the emergence of self-other distinction in early childhood as well as developmental changes therein throughout childhood and into adulthood. I will demonstrate that self-other distinction of cognitive and emotional states is already dissociable early in development. Concomitantly, I will show that processes of self-other distinction in cognitive and affective domains rely on adjacent but distinct neural circuitry each with unique connectivity profiles, presumably related to the nature of the distinction that needs to be made.
Chou, Yueh-Ching; Kröger, Teppo
In this study, the concept of social capital is applied to an exploration of Guanxi (social networking to create good relationships) among working lone mothers of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Taiwan. Using in-depth interviews, this study explores the role of social capital, here referred to as 'care capital', in making it possible for working lone mothers to combine their roles as family carers and workers. Eleven divorced or widowed mothers combining their paid work with long-term care responsibilities were recruited from a survey or through NGOs and were interviewed at their home between October 2008 and July 2010. An interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data analysis. The findings revealed that the mothers' care capital was extremely limited and was lost, gained and lost again during their life-cycles of long-term care-giving. Guanxi, especially in relation to their employers, proved to be the sole source of care capital for these mothers, making reconciliation between work and care responsibilities possible. In the absence of formal or informal support, religion and the mother-child relationship seemed also to become a kind of care capital for these lone mothers, helping them to get by with their life-long care responsibilities. For formal social and healthcare services, not just in Taiwan but in every country, it is important to develop support for lone mothers of adults with ID who have long-term care responsibilities and low levels of care capital and thus face care poverty.
Lizen, Benoit; Hutlet, Bertrand; Bissen, Diane; Sauvegarde, Deborah; Hermant, Maryse; Ahn, Marie-Thérèse; Gofflot, Françoise
Hoxa5 is a member of the Hox gene family, which plays critical roles in successive steps of the central nervous system formation during embryonic and fetal development. Hoxa5 expression in the adult mouse brain has been reported, suggesting that this gene may be functionally required in the brain after birth. To provide further insight into the Hoxa5 expression pattern and potential functions in the brain, we have characterized its neuroanatomical profile from embryonic stages to adulthood. While most Hox mapping studies have been based solely on transcript analysis, we extended our analysis to HOXA5 protein localization in adulthood using specific antibodies. Our results show that Hoxa5 expression appears in the most caudal part of the hindbrain at fetal stages, where it is maintained until adulthood. In the medulla oblongata and pons, we detected Hoxa5 expression in many precerebellar neurons and in several nuclei implicated in the control of autonomic functions. In these territories, the HOXA5 protein is present solely in neurons, specifically in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic, glutamatergic, and catecholaminergic neurons. Finally, we also detected Hoxa5 transcripts, but not the HOXA5 protein, in the thalamus and the cortex, from postnatal stages to adult stages, and in the cerebellum at adulthood. We provide evidence that some larger variants of Hoxa5 transcripts are present in these territories. Our mapping analysis allowed us to build hypotheses regarding HOXA5 functions in the nervous system after birth, such as a potential role in the establishment and refinement/plasticity of precerebellar circuits during postnatal and adult life. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1155-1175, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sawasvirojwong, Sutthipong; Srimanote, Potjanee; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai
Cholera is a diarrheal disease causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to establish an adult mouse model of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhea and to characterize its pathophysiology. Ligated ileal loops of adult mice were inoculated for 6, 9, 12 and 18 h with a classical O1 hypertoxigenic 569B strain of V. cholerae (107 CFU/loop). Time-course studies demonstrated that the optimal period for inducing diarrhea was 12 h post-inoculation, when peak intestinal fluid accumulation (loop/weight ratio of ∼0.2 g/cm) occurred with the highest diarrhea success rate (90%). In addition, pathogenic numbers of V. cholerae (∼109 CFU/g tissue) were recovered from ileal loops at all time points between 6–18 h post-inoculation with the diarrheagenic amount of cholera toxin being detected in the secreted intestinal fluid at 12 h post-inoculation. Interestingly, repeated intraperitoneal administration of CFTRinh-172 (20 µg every 6 h), an inhibitor of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), completely abolished the V. cholerae-induced intestinal fluid secretion without affecting V. cholerae growth in vivo. As analyzed by ex vivo measurement of intestinal electrical resistance and in vivo assay of fluorescein thiocyanate (FITC)-dextran trans-intestinal flux, V. cholerae infection had no effect on intestinal paracellular permeability. Measurements of albumin in the diarrheal fluid suggested that vascular leakage did not contribute to the pathogenesis of diarrhea in this model. Furthermore, histological examination of V. cholerae-infected intestinal tissues illustrated edematous submucosa, congestion of small vessels and enhanced mucus secretion from goblet cells. This study established a new adult mouse model of V. cholerae-induced diarrhea, which could be useful for studying the pathogenesis of cholera diarrhea and for evaluating future therapeutics/cholera vaccines. In addition, our study confirmed the major role of CFTR in V
Sawasvirojwong, Sutthipong; Srimanote, Potjanee; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai
Cholera is a diarrheal disease causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to establish an adult mouse model of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhea and to characterize its pathophysiology. Ligated ileal loops of adult mice were inoculated for 6, 9, 12 and 18 h with a classical O1 hypertoxigenic 569B strain of V. cholerae (10(7) CFU/loop). Time-course studies demonstrated that the optimal period for inducing diarrhea was 12 h post-inoculation, when peak intestinal fluid accumulation (loop/weight ratio of ∼0.2 g/cm) occurred with the highest diarrhea success rate (90%). In addition, pathogenic numbers of V. cholerae (∼10(9) CFU/g tissue) were recovered from ileal loops at all time points between 6-18 h post-inoculation with the diarrheagenic amount of cholera toxin being detected in the secreted intestinal fluid at 12 h post-inoculation. Interestingly, repeated intraperitoneal administration of CFTRinh-172 (20 µg every 6 h), an inhibitor of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), completely abolished the V. cholerae-induced intestinal fluid secretion without affecting V. cholerae growth in vivo. As analyzed by ex vivo measurement of intestinal electrical resistance and in vivo assay of fluorescein thiocyanate (FITC)-dextran trans-intestinal flux, V. cholerae infection had no effect on intestinal paracellular permeability. Measurements of albumin in the diarrheal fluid suggested that vascular leakage did not contribute to the pathogenesis of diarrhea in this model. Furthermore, histological examination of V. cholerae-infected intestinal tissues illustrated edematous submucosa, congestion of small vessels and enhanced mucus secretion from goblet cells. This study established a new adult mouse model of V. cholerae-induced diarrhea, which could be useful for studying the pathogenesis of cholera diarrhea and for evaluating future therapeutics/cholera vaccines. In addition, our study confirmed the major role of CFTR in V
Karmakar, Sunita D; Breslin, F Curtis
The mediating effect of job characteristics in the socioeconomic status (SES)-health relationship has not been well studied in the young adult population. The early health trajectory is important to study since the health trajectories of young people shape their health in later years. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the education defined SES-health relationship is mediated through job characteristics, controlling for healthy lifestyle factors in young adults. We hypothesize that accounting for differences in job quality would reduce the education-health gradient. Using a sample of 10,215 Canadian workers aged 20-29 years, we used multivariable logistic regressions to examine the associations of sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle factors with two health outcomes, self-perceived health and work-related injury. The key findings indicate that job characteristics partly explain the education gradient observed in work-related injuries, and to a lesser extent in self-perceived health for working young adults. Our results show that increased physical exertion and working in sales and service or manual occupations were job characteristics which were independently associated with work-related injuries, while low work-related social support and irregular shift work were associated with poor self-perceived health. Lifestyle factors have a greater association with the education-self-perceived health relationship. This pattern of findings suggests that work factors related to education have a more specific effect on occupational health early in the health trajectory. These findings have potential practical implications since policies to reduce poor health must be targeted at appropriate age groups, as workers need to be healthy in their younger years in order to stay in the workforce as they age.
Meerlo, Peter; Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Jacobs, Barry L.; Heller, H. Craig; McGinty, Dennis
Research over the last few decades has firmly established that new neurons are generated in selected areas of the adult mammalian brain, particularly the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The function of adult-born neurons is still a matter of debate. In the case of the hippocampus, integration of new cells in to the existing neuronal circuitry may be involved in memory processes and the regulation of emotionality. In recent years, various studies have examined how the production of new cells and their development into neurons is affected by sleep and sleep loss. While disruption of sleep for a period shorter than one day appears to have little effect on the basal rate of cell proliferation, prolonged restriction or disruption of sleep may have cumulative effects leading to a major decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation, cell survival and neurogenesis. Importantly, while short sleep deprivation may not affect the basal rate of cell proliferation, one study in rats shows that even mild sleep restriction may interfere with the increase in neurogenesis that normally occurs with hippocampus-dependent learning. Since sleep deprivation also disturbs memory formation, these data suggest that promoting survival, maturation and integration of new cells may be an unexplored mechanism by which sleep supports learning and memory processes. Most methods of sleep deprivation that have been employed affect both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Available data favor the hypothesis that decreases in cell proliferation are related to a reduction in REM sleep, whereas decreases in the number of cells that subsequently develop into adult neurons may be related to reductions in both NREM and REM sleep. The mechanisms by which sleep loss affects different aspects of adult neurogenesis are unknown. It has been proposed that adverse effects of sleep disruption may be mediated by stress and
As the silver tsunami continues, assessing and intervening with older adult drivers are becoming an essential aspect of the comprehensive geriatric exam. The current lack of time efficient clinical guidelines is a concern and barrier for NPs. The purpose of this study was to identify strategies currently used by NPs. The critical incident technique was used to obtain data from a convenience sample of NPs. A total of 89 incidents were collected. The perspective of the NP can provide important information for developing clinical guidelines to promote individual and community safety. PMID:27843646
Tsui, Genevieve Hin Ha; Rutherford, M D
With the increases in size and strength that come with adulthood, challenging behaviours among those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can become critical. Few studies have explored behavioural interventions in adults with ASD, though recent studies have shown video self-modeling (VSM) to be effective in children with ASD. VSM involves an individual watching videos of himself demonstrating prosocial behaviours, while those behaviours are pointed out and encouraged. In the current study, VSM was used to encourage prosocial behaviours and to reduce problematic behaviour displayed by an adult with ASD. Results reveal a decrease in the tendency to invade others' personal space and make inappropriate loud noises. VSM may be an effective intervention and improve the lives of adults with ASD.
Mendoza-Garcia, Jenifer; Sebastian, Anil; Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Bayat, Ardeshir
Limited utility of in vitro tests and animal models of human repair, create a demand for alternative models of cutaneous healing capable of functional testing. The adult human skin Wound Healing Organ Culture (WHOC) provides a useful model, to study repair and enable evaluation of therapies such as the photodynamic therapy (PDT). Thus, the aim here was to identify the optimal WHOC model and to evaluate the role of PDT in repair. Wound geometry, system of support, and growth media, cellular and matrix biomarkers were investigated in WHOC models. Subsequently, cellular activity, extracellular matrix remodeling, and oxidative stress plus gene and protein levels of makers of wound repair measured the effect of PDT on the optimized WHOC. WHOCs embedded in collagen and supplemented DMEM were better organized showing stratified epidermis and compact dermis with developing neo-epidermis. Post-PDT, the advancing reepithelialization tongue was 3.5 folds longer, and was highly proliferative with CK-14 plus p16 increased (p < 0.05) compared to controls. The neo-epidermis was fully differentiated forming neo-collagen. Proliferating nuclear antigen, p16, COLI, COLIII, MMP3, MMP19, and α-SMA were significantly more expressed (p < 0.05) in dermis surrounding the healing wound. In conclusion, an optimal model of WHOC treated with PDT shows increased reepithelialization and extracellular matrix reconstruction and remodeling, supporting evidence toward development of an optimal ex vivo wound healing model.
Bertcher, Harvey; And Others
This project investigated two major areas: (1) ways in which social science research and employment agency experience could be melded so as to make practical knowledge available to these agencies, and (2) ways of convincing employment agencies to use this knowledge. The manual resulting from the investigation focuses on role modeling and role…
van Berlo, Jop H; Aronow, Bruce J; Molkentin, Jeffery D
The transcriptional code that programs cardiac hypertrophy involves the zinc finger-containing DNA binding factors GATA-4 and GATA-6, both of which are required to mount a hypertrophic response of the adult heart. Here we performed conditional gene deletion of Gata4 or Gata6 in the mouse heart in conjunction with reciprocal gene replacement using a transgene encoding either GATA-4 or GATA-6 in the heart as a means of parsing dosage effects of GATA-4 and GATA-6 versus unique functional roles. We determined that GATA-4 and GATA-6 play a redundant and dosage-sensitive role in programming the hypertrophic growth response of the heart following pressure overload stimulation. However, non-redundant functions were identified in allowing the heart to compensate and resist heart failure after pressure overload stimulation, as neither Gata4 nor Gata6 deletion was fully rescued by expression of the reciprocal transgene. For example, only Gata4 heart-specific deletion blocked the neoangiogenic response to pressure overload stimulation. Gene expression profiling from hearts of these gene-deleted mice showed both overlapping and unique transcriptional codes, which is presented. These results indicate that GATA-4 and GATA-6 play a dosage-dependent and redundant role in programming cardiac hypertrophy, but that each has a more complex role in maintaining cardiac homeostasis and resistance to heart failure following injury that cannot be compensated by the other.
Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Polimeni, Licia; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria
Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, responsible for hydrolysing the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Wolman Disease represents the early onset phenotype of LAL deficiency rapidly leading to death. Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease is a late onset phenotype that occurs with fatty liver, elevated aminotransferase levels, hepatomegaly and dyslipidaemia, the latter characterized by elevated LDL-C and low HDL-C. The natural history and the clinical manifestations of the LAL deficiency in adults are not well defined, and the diagnosis is often incidental. LAL deficiency has been suggested as an under-recognized cause of dyslipidaemia and fatty liver. Therefore, LAL activity may be reduced also in non-obese patients presenting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), unexplained persistently elevated liver transaminases or with elevation in LDL cholesterol. In these patients, it could be indicated to test LAL activity. So far, very few studies have been performed to assess LAL activity in representative samples of normal subjects or patients with NAFLD. Moreover, no large study has been carried out in adult subjects with NAFLD or cryptogenic cirrhosis. PMID:26602919
Poole, Julia C; Dobson, Keith S; Pusch, Dennis
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, have been identified as salient risk factors for adult depression. However, not all individuals who experience ACEs go on to develop depression. The extent to which resilience- or the ability to demonstrate stable levels of functioning despite adversity- may act as a buffer against depression among individuals with a history of ACEs has not been adequately examined. To address the associations between ACEs, depression, and resilience, 4006 adult participants were recruited from primary care clinics. Participants completed self-report questionnaires including: the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire, a retrospective measure of childhood adversity; the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, a measure of the presence and severity of the major symptoms of depression; and the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, a measure of psychological resilience. Results from regression analyses indicated that, while controlling for a range of demographic variables, both ACEs and resilience independently predicted symptoms of depression, F(9, 3040)=184.81, R(2)=0.354. Further, resilience moderated the association between ACEs and depression, F(10, 3039)=174.36, p<0.001, R(2)=0.365. Specifically, the association between ACEs and depression was stronger among individuals with low resilience relative to those with high resilience. This research provides important information regarding the relationships among ACEs, resilience, and depression. Results have the potential to inform the development of treatments aimed to reduce symptoms of depression among primary care patients with a history of childhood adversity.
Kaestle, Christine E; Allen, Katherine R
Despite efforts to identify masturbation as a strategy to improve sexual health, promote relational intimacy, and reduce unwanted pregnancy, STIs, and HIV transmission, masturbation as a context for healthy sexual development has been met with silence or trepidation in the scientific and educational communities. Relegated to the realm of commercial media, rather than rational discourse in families, schools, and the general public, young people receive mixed messages about this non-reproductive sexual behavior. In order to explore how young adults have learned about masturbation and currently perceive masturbation, we conducted a grounded theory study of 72 college students (56 females; 16 males) enrolled in a human sexuality class. Findings revealed that a young adult's perceptions of and feelings toward masturbation were the result of a developmental process that included: (1) learning about the act of masturbation and how to do it, (2) learning and internalizing the social contradiction of stigma and taboo surrounding this pleasurable act, and (3) coming to terms with this tension between stigma and pleasure. Although nearly all participants learned about masturbation through the media and peers (not parents or teachers), gender was salient in coming to terms with the contradiction of stigma and pleasure. Most of the women reported either still struggling with the contradiction or accepting it as normal. Most of the men recognized the beneficial aspects for healthy sexual development that result from masturbation. Both male and female participants identified differential sexual scripts as contributing to the double standard.
Depaola, Stephen J; Griffin, Melody; Young, Jennie R; Neimeyer, Robert A
The article investigated the relationship between death anxiety, attitudes toward older adults, and personal anxiety toward one's own aging in a group of 197 older men and women. As predicted, negative attitudes toward other older adults were predicted by personal anxieties about aging and death, and, more specifically, fear of the unknown. In addition, several distinctive anxieties were noted for particular subgroups of respondents. Older women scored higher on the Fear of the Dead subscale of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) than did men. Caucasian participants displayed higher Fear of the Dying Process than did older African American participants. Lastly, older African American participants reported higher levels of death anxiety on 3 of the subscales of the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (Fear of the Unknown, Fear of Conscious Death, and Fear for the Body after Death) when compared with older Caucasian participants and also tended to accord less social value to the elderly. These findings are interpreted in terms of patterns of socialization, and their implications for end-of-life care preferences are noted.
Ferrón, S. R.; Radford, E. J.; Domingo-Muelas, A.; Kleine, I.; Ramme, A.; Gray, D.; Sandovici, I.; Constancia, M.; Ward, A.; Menheniott, T. R.; Ferguson-Smith, A. C.
Genomic imprinting is implicated in the control of gene dosage in neurogenic niches. Here we address the importance of Igf2 imprinting for murine adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus in vivo. In the SVZ, paracrine IGF2 is a cerebrospinal fluid and endothelial-derived neurogenic factor requiring biallelic expression, with mutants having reduced activation of the stem cell pool and impaired olfactory bulb neurogenesis. In contrast, Igf2 is imprinted in the hippocampus acting as an autocrine factor expressed in neural stem cells (NSCs) solely from the paternal allele. Conditional mutagenesis of Igf2 in blood vessels confirms that endothelial-derived IGF2 contributes to NSC maintenance in SVZ but not in the SGZ, and that this is regulated by the biallelic expression of IGF2 in the vascular compartment. Our findings indicate that a regulatory decision to imprint or not is a functionally important mechanism of transcriptional dosage control in adult neurogenesis. PMID:26369386
Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Polimeni, Licia; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria
Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, responsible for hydrolysing the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Wolman Disease represents the early onset phenotype of LAL deficiency rapidly leading to death. Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease is a late onset phenotype that occurs with fatty liver, elevated aminotransferase levels, hepatomegaly and dyslipidaemia, the latter characterized by elevated LDL-C and low HDL-C. The natural history and the clinical manifestations of the LAL deficiency in adults are not well defined, and the diagnosis is often incidental. LAL deficiency has been suggested as an under-recognized cause of dyslipidaemia and fatty liver. Therefore, LAL activity may be reduced also in non-obese patients presenting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), unexplained persistently elevated liver transaminases or with elevation in LDL cholesterol. In these patients, it could be indicated to test LAL activity. So far, very few studies have been performed to assess LAL activity in representative samples of normal subjects or patients with NAFLD. Moreover, no large study has been carried out in adult subjects with NAFLD or cryptogenic cirrhosis.
Cihak, David F.; Schrader, Linda
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of learning and maintaining vocational chain tasks using video self-modeling and video adult modeling instruction. Four adolescents with autism spectrum disorders were taught vocational and prevocational skills. Although both video modeling conditions were effective for…
Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon
Valproic acid is an anti-convulscant drug that is widely used in the treatment of different types of epilepsy and since its introduction the clinical use has increased rapidly both as a sole agent and in combination therapies. The mechanism of action has been linked to blockade of voltage-dependent sodium channels and potentiation of GABAergic transmission. The most widely used route of administration of Valproic acid is oral, although it can also be given intravenously and rectally and its pharmacokinetics has been studied extensively. The aim of this work was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for plasma and tissue/organ prediction in children and adults following intravenous and oral dosing of Valproic acid. The plasma/tissue concentration profile will be used for clinical trial simulation in Dravet syndrome, a rare form of epilepsy in children where the combination of Valproic acid, stiripentol and clobazam has shown remarkable results. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was developed with compartments for gut lumen, enterocyte, gut tissue, systemic blood, kidney, liver, brain, spleen, muscle and rest of body. System and drug specific parameters for the model were obtained from the literature from in vitro and in vivo experiments. The model was initially developed for adults and scaled to children using age-dependent changes in anatomical and physiological parameters and ontogeny functions for enzyme maturation assuming the same elimination pathways in adults and children. The results from the model validation showed satisfactory prediction of plasma concentration both in terms of mean prediction and variability in children and adults following intravenous and oral dosing especially after single doses. The model also adequately predicts clearance in children. Due to limited distribution of Valproic acid into tissues, the concentration in plasma is about 8-9 times higher than tissues/organs. The model could help to improve
Schuch, Stefanie; Konrad, Kerstin
One can take n-2 task repetition costs as a measure of inhibition on the level of task sets. When switching back to a Task A after only one intermediate trial (ABA task sequence), Task A is thought to still be inhibited, leading to performance costs relative to task sequences where switching back to Task A is preceded by at least two intermediary trials (CBA). The current study investigated differences in inhibitory ability between children and adults by comparing n-2 task repetition costs in children (9-11years of age, N=32) and young adults (21-30years of age, N=32). The mean reaction times and error rate differences between ABA and CBA sequences did not differ between the two age groups. However, diffusion model analysis revealed that different cognitive processes contribute to the inhibition effect in the two age groups: The adults, but not the children, showed a smaller drift rate in ABA than in CBA, suggesting that persisting task inhibition is associated with slower response selection in adults. In children, non-decision time was longer in ABA than in CBA, possibly reflecting longer task preparation in ABA than in CBA. In addition, Ex-Gaussian functions were fitted to the distributions of correct reaction times. In adults, the ABA-CBA difference was reflected in the exponential parameter of the distribution; in children, the ABA-CBA difference was found in the Gaussian mu parameter. Hence, Ex-Gaussian analysis, although noisier, was generally in line with diffusion model analysis. Taken together, the data suggest that the task inhibition effect found in mean performance is mediated by different cognitive processes in children versus adults.
Bellinger, Kathleen; And Others
Reports on a study of the professional socialization of associate degree nursing (ADN) students. Reviews previous research on the process of nursing socialization. Presents study findings based on responses from 1,877 nursing students in 20 ADN programs, focusing on students' characteristics and ideal and actual role models. (DMM)
Disclafani, Carrie Bertling; Hall, Renee
The Excelsior College Library is turning fearful faculty members into empowered copyright role models. Geared towards institutions operating without a copyright policy or department, this article outlines a three-step process for fostering faculty collaboration surrounding copyright practices: (1) Give faculty and course developers the tools and…
Walker, Alice A.
Since women compose nearly half the labor market and are expected to continue to be a major component, the variables which affect women's career choices are of considerable interest. The effect of role models on attitudes related to career aspirations was examined for female college freshmen. Experimental subjects (N=75) were provided with role…
When Robert Johnson graduates from medical school in 1998, he will become Canada's first Micmac physician. For him, going to medical school is a major responsibility because he is a role model for an entire community. He hopes he is only the first of many Micmacs to make this career choice.
When Robert Johnson graduates from medical school in 1998, he will become Canada's first Micmac physician. For him, going to medical school is a major responsibility because he is a role model for an entire community. He hopes he is only the first of many Micmacs to make this career choice. PMID:9006570
Hoyt, Crystal L.; Simon, Stefanie
The impact of female role models on women's leadership aspirations and self-perceptions after a leadership task were assessed across two laboratory studies. These studies tested the prediction that upward social comparisons to high-level female leaders will have a relatively detrimental impact on women's self-perceptions and leadership aspirations…
Employing students to market higher education (HE) and widen access is established practice in the United Kingdom and other developed countries. In the United Kingdom, student ambassadors are held to be effective in aspiration and attainment-raising work and cited as "role-models" for pupils. The focus of this paper is student ambassador…
Robertson, Martyn; Collins, Amanda
This article examines the need to develop a more enterprising approach to learning by adopting an experiential approach. It specifically examines the use of video case studies of entrepreneurial role models within an enterprise module at Leeds Metropolitan University. The exercise enables students to act as a consultant or counsellor and apply…
Peer-assisted learning as "de rigueur" is reverberating in medical institutions around the world. Anatomy classroom activities are challenging and different, and the stressful environment of dissection rooms poses a greater challenge than what can be addressed through peer-assisted learning. It is here that "near-peer role modeling" is not only…
This essay draws attention to the shifting constructions of nationally famous role models for English learners. It examines how three individuals rose to national prominence because of their association with the craze for learning English in China in the last three decades. This essay compares the constructed images of these individuals and…
Poobalasingam, Thanushiyan; Yates, Laura L; Walker, Simone A; Pereira, Miguel; Gross, Nina Y; Ali, Akmol; Kolatsi-Joannou, Maria; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pekkanen, Juha; Papakrivopoulou, Eugenia; Long, David A; Griffiths, Mark; Wagner, Darcy; Königshoff, Melanie; Hind, Matthew; Minelli, Cosetta; Lloyd, Clare M; Dean, Charlotte H
Lung diseases impose a huge economic and health burden worldwide. A key aspect of several adult lung diseases, such as Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and Chronic Obstructive pulmonary Disease (COPD), including emphysema, is aberrant tissue repair, which leads to an accumulation of damage and impaired respiratory function. Currently, there are few effective treatments available for these diseases and their incidence is rising.The Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway is critical for the embryonic development of many organs, including kidney and lung. We have previously shown that perturbation of the PCP pathway impairs tissue morphogenesis, which disrupts the number and shape of epithelial tubes formed within these organs during embryogenesis. However, very little is known about the role of the PCP pathway beyond birth, partly due to the perinatal lethality of many PCP mouse mutant lines.Here we have investigated heterozygous Looptail (Lp) mice, in which a single copy of the core PCP gene, Vangl2, is disrupted. We show that these mice are viable but display severe airspace enlargement and impaired adult lung function. Underlying these defects, we find that Vangl2(Lp/+) lungs exhibit altered distribution of actin microfilaments and abnormal regulation of the actin modifying protein cofilin. In addition, we show that Vangl2(Lp/+) lungs exhibit many of the hallmarks of tissue damage including an altered macrophage population, abnormal elastin deposition and elevated levels of the elastin-modifying enzyme, Mmp12, all of which are observed in the lung disease, emphysema.In vitro, VANGL2 disruption impairs directed cell migration and reduces the rate of repair following scratch wounding of human alveolar epithelial cells. Moreover, using population data from a birth cohort of young adults, all aged 31, we found evidence of an interactive effect between VANGL2 and smoking (a tissue damaging insult) on lung function. Finally, we show that that PCP genes VANGL2 and
Qiu, Rui; Jiang, Chenxing; Ren, Li; Li, Chunyan; Wu, Zhen; Li, Junli
Breast is one of the most sensitive organs to radiation. In 2007, International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) increased the tissue weighting factor for the breast from 0.05 to 0.12, which made the accurate evaluation of breast dose more important. But in the existing human voxel phantom, the structure of breast is not elaborate enough because of the limitation of image resolution used for phantom modeling. This will probably affect the accuracy of breast dose calculated in simulation. Some researches on detailed breast modeling have been carried out, but there is no such research in this field in China. A detailed breast model for Chinese adult female is established in this article using the mathematical modeling method. It is voxelized and merged with the Chinese reference adult female voxel model for breast dosimetry. Dose conversion coefficients of breast gland for external photon exposures in antero-posterior geometry are calculated as an example of the application and the results are compared with those calculated by the old voxel phantom and ICRP reference adult female voxel phantom.
Background More and more pediatric patients reach adulthood. Some of them are successfully integrating in adult life, but many others are not. Possibly Illness cognitions (IC) - the way people give meaning to their illness/disability – may play a role in individual differences on long-term adjustment. This study explored the association of IC with disease–characteristics and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), anxiety and depression in young adults with a disability benefit due to childhood-onset chronic condition. Methods In a cross-sectional study, young adults (22–31 years, N = 377) who claimed a disability benefit because of a somatic condition since childhood, completed the Illness Cognition Questionnaire (acceptance-helplessness-benefits), RAND-36 (HRQoL) and HADS (anxiety and depression) online. Besides descriptive statistics, linear regression analyses were conducted to predict (1) illness cognitions by age, gender and disease-characteristics, and (2) HRQoL (Mental and Physical Component Scale), Anxiety and Depression by illness cognitions, controlling for disease-characteristics, age and gender. Results Respectively 90.2%, 83.8% and 53.3% of the young adults with a disability benefit experienced feelings of acceptance, benefits and helplessness. Several disease-characteristics were associated with IC. More acceptance and less helplessness were associated with better mental (β = 0.31; β = −0.32) and physical (β = 0.16; β = −0.15) HRQoL and with less anxiety (β = −0.27; β = 0.28) and depression (β = −0.29; β = 0.31). Conclusions IC of young adult beneficiaries were associated with their HRQoL and feelings of anxiety and depression. Early recognition of psychological distress and negative IC might be a key to the identification of pediatric patients at risk for long-term dysfunction. Identification of maladaptive illness cognitions enables the development of psychosocial interventions to optimise
Borella, Erika; Carbone, Elena; Pastore, Massimiliano; De Beni, Rossana; Carretti, Barbara
Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore whether individual characteristics such as age, education, vocabulary, and baseline performance in a working memory (WM) task—similar to the one used in the training (criterion task)—predict the short- and long-term specific gains and transfer effects of a verbal WM training for older adults. Method: Four studies that adopted the Borella et al. (2010) verbal WM training procedure were found eligible for our analysis as they included: healthy older adults who attended either the training sessions (WM training group), or alternative activities (active control group); the same measures for assessing specific gains (on the criterion WM task), and transfer effects (nearest on a visuo-spatial WM task, near on short-term memory tasks and far on a measure of fluid intelligence, a measure of processing speed and two inhibitory measures); and a follow-up session. Results: Linear mixed models confirmed the overall efficacy of the training, in the short-term at least, and some maintenance effects. In the trained group, the individual characteristics considered were found to contribute (albeit only modestly in some cases) to explaining the effects of the training. Conclusions: Overall, our findings suggest the importance of taking individual characteristics and individual differences into account when examining WM training gains in older adults. PMID:28381995
Li, Bo; Feng, Yanli; Ge, Shiyu; Li, Dashe
A bridge role metric model is put forward in this paper. Compared with previous metric models, our solution of a large-scale object-oriented software system as a complex network is inherently more realistic. To acquire nodes and links in an undirected network, a new model that presents the crucial connectivity of a module or the hub instead of only centrality as in previous metric models is presented. Two previous metric models are described for comparison. In addition, it is obvious that the fitting curve between the results and degrees can well be fitted by a power law. The model represents many realistic characteristics of actual software structures, and a hydropower simulation system is taken as an example. This paper makes additional contributions to an accurate understanding of module design of software systems and is expected to be beneficial to software engineering practices. PMID:25364938
Li, Bo; Feng, Yanli; Ge, Shiyu; Li, Dashe
A bridge role metric model is put forward in this paper. Compared with previous metric models, our solution of a large-scale object-oriented software system as a complex network is inherently more realistic. To acquire nodes and links in an undirected network, a new model that presents the crucial connectivity of a module or the hub instead of only centrality as in previous metric models is presented. Two previous metric models are described for comparison. In addition, it is obvious that the fitting curve between the Bre results and degrees can well be fitted by a power law. The model represents many realistic characteristics of actual software structures, and a hydropower simulation system is taken as an example. This paper makes additional contributions to an accurate understanding of module design of software systems and is expected to be beneficial to software engineering practices.
Feller, A. H.
The role of an electromagnetic (EM) environment model in spectrum management is developed. Spectrum management is traced from electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) considerations in international agreements through related domestic law to the fundamental spectrum management procedures allocation, allotment, assignment. The need for a model of the EM environment is derived from requirements of allocation, allotment, and assignment proceedings. Data elements required to support and EM environment model for spectrum management purpose are reviewed. An outline and derivation of a general EM environment model is given. The ways systems respond to the EM environment are cataloged and reviewed so that specific applications of an EM environment model are readily apparent. Application and limitations of current models are discussed.
Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Beck, Matthias; Weitzel, Thomas; Becker, Norbert
The flood plains of the Upper Rhine Valley provide excellent conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes as well as for the development of dragon and damselflies. It could be assumed that mosquitoes belong to the diet of the Odonata and that the latter could be harmed by the reduction of the mosquito population with the purpose of diminishing the massive nuisance for the people living there. A total of 41 adult dragonflies and damselflies were examined by immunoblot for remnants of mosquitoes in their guts. A rabbit antiserum against Aedes vexans proteins was used for the immunoblot. Only 3 Aeshna cyanea and 1 Platycnemis pennipes could be shown to have fed on mosquitoes. In specimens of the genus Sympetrum no mosquitoes were detected. It seems very doubtful that mosquitoes are an essential part of the Odonata diet.
Lindsay, Megan; Booth, Jaime M; Messing, Jill T; Thaller, Jonel
Online harassment is a growing problem. Among college students, 43% report some experience receiving harassing messages. Previous research has shown negative online experiences to be typical among "emerging adults" (especially college students), and these incidents may be related to normative developmental behaviors, such as "on-again-off-again" romantic relationships. Study hypotheses were derived from previous research. Undergraduate student respondents (N = 342) were surveyed about their experiences with online harassment, emotional responses to online harassment, and their relationship with the sender of harassing messages. Findings suggest that online harassment is linked to issues of intimate partner violence. Those who were harassed by a partner reported feelings of depression and anxiety. Using a gendered framework to explore online harassment is warranted because young women who are 18 to 29 years of age have higher rates of intimate partner violence than other demographic groups. Findings suggest future research is needed to understand the time ordering of these issues.
Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes
Background In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. Conclusions/Significance The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia