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Sample records for adult role transitions

  1. 'Everybody's business': transition and the role of adult physicians.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Helena; McCartney, Sara; Lidstone, Victoria

    2012-12-01

    The outcome of transition from paediatric to adult care is often judged by what happens after transfer. Young people at the point of transfer are reported to have low levels of knowledge and independence. These observations could be interpreted in one of two ways: either that the transition process before transfer is inadequate or that the transition process needs to continue into young adulthood and therefore adult care. The second interpretation is further supported by brain development continuing into the third decade. There is also growing evidence for the effectiveness of young adult clinics in the process of transition. To optimise transition, adult physicians need not only to work with paediatricians to achieve continuity during transfer, but also to look critically at their service as to how it can be changed to meet the needs of young people. In addition, they need to develop knowledge, skills and attitudes to communicate effectively and address a young person's developmental and health needs.

  2. Adolescents' Changing Future Expectations Predict the Timing of Adult Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Sarah J.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Peugh, James

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the transition to adulthood are well established. This study examines the extent to which heterogeneity in pathways to adulthood that have been observed in the broader U.S. population are mirrored in adolescents' expectations regarding when they will experience key adult role transitions (e.g., marriage). Patterns of…

  3. The neurologist's role in supporting transition to adult health care: A consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence W; Camfield, Peter; Capers, Melissa; Cascino, Greg; Ciccarelli, Mary; de Gusmao, Claudio M; Downs, Stephen M; Majnemer, Annette; Miller, Amy Brin; SanInocencio, Christina; Schultz, Rebecca; Tilton, Anne; Winokur, Annick; Zupanc, Mary

    2016-08-23

    The child neurologist has a critical role in planning and coordinating the successful transition from the pediatric to adult health care system for youth with neurologic conditions. Leadership in appropriately planning a youth's transition and in care coordination among health care, educational, vocational, and community services providers may assist in preventing gaps in care, delayed entry into the adult care system, and/or health crises for their adolescent patients. Youth whose neurologic conditions result in cognitive or physical disability and their families may need additional support during this transition, given the legal and financial considerations that may be required. Eight common principles that define the child neurologist's role in a successful transition process have been outlined by a multidisciplinary panel convened by the Child Neurology Foundation are introduced and described. The authors of this consensus statement recognize the current paucity of evidence for successful transition models and outline areas for future consideration.

  4. The Life Course in the Making: Gender and the Development of Adolescents' Expected Timing of Adult Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Lisa J.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' expectations about the timing of adult role transitions have the potential to shape their actual transitions, setting the stage for their adult lives. Although expectations about timing emerge by early adolescence, little is known about how these expectations develop across adolescence. This longitudinal study examined developmental…

  5. The Relationship Between the Accumulated Number of Role Transitions and Hard Drug Use Among Hispanic Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) who experience multiple role transitions in a short period of time may engage in hard drug use as a maladaptive coping strategy to avoid negative emotions from stress. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, they may experience additional role transitions due to their group oriented cultural paradigm. This study examined whether those who experience many role transitions are at greater risk for hard drug use compared to those who experience few transitions among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants completed surveys indicating their hard drug use in emerging adulthood, role transitions in the past year of emerging adulthood, age, gender, and hard drug use in high school. Simulation analyses indicated that an increase in the number of role transitions, from 0 to 13, was associated with a 14% (95% CI, 4 to 29) higher probability of hard drug use. Specific role transitions were found to be associated with hard drug use, such as starting to date or experiencing a breakup. Intervention/prevention programs may benefit from acknowledging individual reactions to transitions in emerging adulthood, as these processes may be catalysts for personal growth where identities are consolidated, and decisions regarding hard drug use are formed. PMID:25715073

  6. Transition Readiness in Adolescents and Emerging Adults with Diabetes: The Role of Patient-Provider Communication

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, Marisa; Sweenie, Rachel; Riekert, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Transition from pediatric to adult care represents a high risk period for adolescents and emerging adults with diabetes. Fundamental differences between pediatric and adult care delivery models may contribute to increased risk for poor health outcomes. This review provides a brief overview of models of care in pediatric and adult settings and focuses on patient-provider communication content and quality as potential points of intervention to improve transition-related outcomes. This review also highlights disparities in transition and communication for adolescents and emerging adults from racial/ethnic minority groups and discusses recent changes in health care legislation that have significant implications for the transition process. Intervention opportunities include programs to enhance developmentally-appropriate patient-provider interactions and increased attention to promoting transition readiness skills. Improving patient-provider communication may hasten the development of vital self-advocacy skills needed in adult health care systems and, thus, help establish a lasting pattern of positive diabetes self-care. PMID:24014075

  7. Adult Role Transitions: Some Antecedents and Outcomes Early in the Life Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frank M.; Frese, Wolfgang

    Focusing on the pre-adolescent to late-adolescent portion of the life cycle, research examined how "early" exit from student role and "early" entry into adult roles of parent or spouse reflects factors operating prior to adolescence. Interviews during 1969 with 1,202 fifth and sixth graders and their mothers in 6 southern…

  8. Immigration and Adult Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Ruben Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage…

  9. The timing of entry into adult roles and changes in trajectories of problem behaviors during the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Martin, Monica J; Blozis, Shelley A; Boeninger, Daria K; Masarik, April S; Conger, Rand D

    2014-11-01

    This study of a cohort of 451 adolescents examined associations between trajectories of problem behaviors and the timing of entry into work, marriage, and parenthood. We used data from 12 assessments across adolescence, through emerging adulthood and into young adulthood. We employed 2-phase mixed-effects models to estimate growth in substance use and antisocial behavior across adolescence, deceleration in the period that follows, and the change point that marks the transition between the 2 phases. We then examined the degree to which the timing of entry into a specific adult role was associated with change in problem behaviors and the change point between the 2 phases. We hypothesized that earlier entries into adult roles would be associated with earlier transitions to the decline in problem behaviors generally observed during adulthood but that later entries would be associated with more quickly declining rates of problem behaviors during adulthood. As proposed, earlier entries into marriage and parenthood predicted earlier transitions to declining trajectories in both substance use and antisocial behavior during adulthood. The findings also indicated that delayed marriage and parenthood were associated with more quickly decreasing rates of change in substance use, but not antisocial behavior, during adulthood. Thus, the results are consistent with the idea that substance use decreases earlier but not as quickly during adulthood for those with earlier entries into marriage and parenthood. However, the timing of entry into work did not predict trajectory changes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Tryin' to Make It during the Transition from High School: The Role of Family Obligation Attitudes and Economic Context for Latino-Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Bernadette; Esparza, Patricia; Colon, Yari; Davis, Katrina E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the role of familial and economic context in the decisions and behaviors of low-income, urban Latinos during the transition from high school. Thirty-two Latino emerging adults who graduated from a public high school participated in one-on-one in-depth interviews about their transition. Participants…

  11. Youths Transitioning as Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, C. Amelia

    2014-01-01

    This chapter considers how transitions to adulthood have been historically represented and presents alternative ways of thinking about transitions to adulthood through the context of adult basic education programs.

  12. Tree Changes or Wholesale Changes: The Role of Adult Education in Transitions in Regional Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Robert; Delves, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Regional adult education and training providers have been required in recent decades to adapt to funding structures rather than engage with their local communities. This has meant providing education programs that are funded based on national or State and Territory based policy frameworks, often linked to human capital development. Adult education…

  13. Immigration and adult transitions.

    PubMed

    Rumbaut, Rubén G; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Rubén Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage counterparts, including blacks and whites. The authors document the demographic changes in the United States over the past forty years and describe the ways in which generation and national origin shape the experiences of these newcomers as they become adults. Rumbaut and Komaie point out that immigrant groups experience gaps in social, economic, and legal status that are even greater than the gaps between native whites and blacks. By far the most-educated (Indians) and the least-educated (Mexicans) groups in the United States today are first-generation immigrants, as are the groups with the lowest poverty rate (Filipinos) and the highest poverty rate (Dominicans). These social and economic divides reflect three very different ways immigrants enter the country: through regular immigration channels, without legal authorization, or as state-sponsored refugees. For many ethnic groups, significant progress takes place from the first to the second generation. But, say the authors, for millions of young immigrants, a lack of legal permanent residency status blocks their prospects for social mobility. Having an undocumented status has become all the more consequential with the failure of Congress to pass comprehensive federal immigration reforms. In the coming two decades, as the U.S. native-parentage labor force continues to shrink, immigrants and their children are expected to account for most of the growth of the nation's labor force, with the fastest-growing occupations requiring college degrees. Rumbaut and Komaie stress that one key to the nation's future will be how it incorporates young adults of immigrant origin in its

  14. Adult Transition Program without Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Best practices in adult transition special education for moderate to severe students suggest student-centered planning that maximizes independence in adult life. Based on the above sources, school districts and governing boards would best serve moderate to severe transition special education students with increasing integration into the community…

  15. The Role of the Community in Transition to the Adult World for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Community activities can be an important part of the transition to adulthood, but many students with disabilities miss those experiences because they are not offered in their community or high school. This lack of opportunities in schools may account for the discrepancy that is found after high school graduation between the employment rates of…

  16. Social class and body weight among Chinese urban adults: the role of the middle classes in the nutrition transition.

    PubMed

    Bonnefond, Céline; Clément, Matthieu

    2014-07-01

    While a plethoric empirical literature addresses the relationship between socio-economic status and body weight, little is known about the influence of social class on nutritional outcomes, particularly in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the social determinants of adult body weight in urban China by taking into account the influence of social class. More specifically, we propose to analyse the position of the Chinese urban middle class in terms of being overweight or obese. The empirical investigations conducted as part of this research are based on a sample of 1320 households and 2841 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 2009. For the first step, we combine an economic approach and a sociological approach to identify social classes at household level. First, households with an annual per capita income between 10,000 Yuan and the 95th income percentile are considered as members of the middle class. Second, we strengthen the characterization of the middle class using information on education and employment. By applying clustering methods, we identify four groups: the elderly and inactive middle class, the old middle class, the lower middle class and the new middle class. For the second step, we implement an econometric analysis to assess the influence of social class on adult body mass index and on the probability of being overweight or obese. We use multinomial treatment regressions to deal with the endogeneity of the social class variable. Our results show that among the four subgroups of the urban middle class, the new middle class is the only one to be relatively well-protected against obesity. We suggest that this group plays a special role in adopting healthier food consumption habits and seems to be at a more advanced stage of the nutrition transition.

  17. Role of Physical Therapists in Reducing Hospital Readmissions: Optimizing Outcomes for Older Adults During Care Transitions From Hospital to Community

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Robert E.; Malone, Daniel; Ridgeway, Kyle J.; McManus, Beth M.; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Hospital readmissions in older adult populations are an emerging quality indicator for acute care hospitals. Recent evidence has linked functional decline during and after hospitalization with an elevated risk of hospital readmission. However, models of care that have been developed to reduce hospital readmission rates do not adequately address functional deficits. Physical therapists, as experts in optimizing physical function, have a strong opportunity to contribute meaningfully to care transition models and demonstrate the value of physical therapy interventions in reducing readmissions. Thus, the purposes of this perspective article are: (1) to describe the need for physical therapist input during care transitions for older adults and (2) to outline strategies for expanding physical therapy participation in care transitions for older adults, with an overall goal of reducing avoidable 30-day hospital readmissions. PMID:26939601

  18. The Role of Health Advocacy in Transitions from Pediatric to Adult Care for Children with Special Health Care Needs: Bridging Families, Provider and Community Services

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Megumi; Saunders, Mara; Rehm, Roberta S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Youth and young adults with special healthcare needs (YASHCN) experience challenges during transition from pediatric to adult care. Prior studies have not examined how community and healthcare resources can work together to assist YASHCN in transitioning from child-focused care and services to adult-oriented providers. Objective To develop a theoretical understanding of how family, healthcare providers and community supports can assist YASHCN during the transition from pediatric to adult healthcare and services. Design/Methods We conducted 41 semi-structured interviews with YASHCN aged 16-25, their family members and healthcare and community providers. We focused our interviews on support mechanisms, both within the traditional healthcare system, and those available in the community. Using grounded theory methods, we performed a multi-step analysis process. Results The theoretical code “Transition Advocacy” was developed from the data. This theoretical perspective arose from three major categories, which were developed in the analysis: “Fighting for healthcare”, “Obtaining resources”, and “Getting ready to transition”. Transition Advocacy consists of the presence of, or need for, a healthcare ”advocate”’ who did or can assist the YASHCN with the healthcare transition, particularly to navigate complex health or community services. The ”advocate” role was performed by family members, healthcare or agency professionals, or sometimes the YASHCN themselves. If advocates were identified, youth were more likely to obtain needed services. Conclusions Parents, health providers, and community agencies are potentially well-poised to assist transitioning YASHCN. Efforts to encourage development of strong advocacy skills will facilitate better transitions for YASHCN. PMID:26228309

  19. Adults Role in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  20. Role Transitions and Young Adult Maturing Out of Heavy Drinking: Evidence for Larger Effects of Marriage among More Severe Pre-Marriage Problem Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew R.; Chassin, Laurie; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown a developmental process of “maturing out” of problem drinking beginning in young adulthood. Perhaps surprisingly, past studies suggests that young adult drinking reductions may be particularly pronounced among those exhibiting relatively severe forms of problem drinking earlier in emerging adulthood. This may occur because more severe problem drinkers experience stronger ameliorative effects of normative young adult role transitions like marriage. Methods The hypothesis of stronger marriage effects among more severe problem drinkers was tested using three waves of data from a large ongoing study of familial alcohol disorder (Chassin et al., 1992; N=844; 51% children of alcoholics). Results Longitudinal growth models characterized (1) the curvilinear trajectory of drinking quantity from ages 17-40, (2) effects of marriage on altering this age-related trajectory, and moderation of this effect by pre-marriage problem drinking levels (alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms). Results confirmed the hypothesis that protective marriage effects on drinking quantity trajectories would be stronger among more severe pre-marriage problem drinkers. Supplemental analyses showed that results were robust to alternative construct operationalizations and modeling approaches. Conclusions Consistent with role incompatibility theory, findings support the view of role conflict as a key mechanism of role-driven behavior change, as greater problem drinking likely conflicts more with demands of roles like marriage. This is also consistent with the developmental psychopathology view of transitions and turning points. Role transitions among already low-severity drinkers may merely represent developmental continuity of a low-risk trajectory, whereas role transitions among higher-severity problem drinkers may represent developmentally discontinuous “turning points” that divert individuals from a higher- to a lower-risk trajectory. Practically

  1. Adolescents and young adults with life-threatening illness: special considerations, transitions in care, and the role of pediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Linebarger, Jennifer S; Ajayi, Toluwalase A; Jones, Barbara L

    2014-08-01

    This article will cover the special considerations, challenges, and opportunities presented by caring for adolescents and young adults with life-threatening illnesses when the possibility of transition to an adult care setting arises.

  2. Adult care transitioning for adolescents with special health care needs: a pivotal role for family centered care.

    PubMed

    Duke, Naomi N; Scal, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    To examine the relationship between having a usual source of care, family centered care, and transition counseling for adolescents with special health care needs. Data are from 18,198 parents/guardians, of youth aged 12-17 years, who participated in the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs. Linear and logistic regression models were used to define relationships between parent report of identification of a usual place and provider of medical care for their child and counseling on four transition issues: transfer to adult providers, review of future health needs, maintaining health insurance in adulthood, and youth taking responsibility for care. The direct mediating effect of family centered care was evaluated. Youth having a usual source of care (vs. not) were more likely to receive counseling on future health needs (47.4 vs. 33.6%, P < 0.001) and taking responsibility for their own care (79.3 vs. 64.4%, P < 0.001). Having a high level of family centered care (vs. low) was also associated with high rates of discussing future health needs (56.3 vs. 39.6%, P < 0.001) and encouragement to take responsibility for care (91.2 vs. 70.3%, P < 0.001). Family centered care mediated 39.1% of the effect of a usual source of care on discussion of future health needs and 94.9% of the effect of a usual source of care on encouragement to take responsibility for care. Study findings support the development of health care delivery models focusing on family centered care to the same degree as other health care access issues.

  3. Psychologists and the transition from pediatrics to adult healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Wendy N.; Monaghan, Maureen C.; Marchak, Jordan Gilleland; Driscoll, Kimberly A.; Hilliard, Marisa E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Guidelines for optimal transition call for multidisciplinary teams, including psychologists, to address youth and young adults’ multifactorial needs. This study aimed to characterize psychologists’ roles in and barriers to involvement in transition from pediatric to adult healthcare. Methods Psychologists were invited via professional listservs to complete an online survey about practice settings, roles in transition programming, barriers to involvement, and funding sources. Participants also responded to open-ended questions about their experiences in transition programs. Results One hundred participants responded to the survey. Involvement in transition was reported at multiple levels from individual patient care to institutional transition programming, and 65% reported more than one level of involvement. Direct clinical care (88%), transition-related research (50%) and/or leadership (44%) involvement were reported, with 59% reporting more than one role. Respondents often described advocating for their involvement on transition teams. Various sources of funding were reported, yet 23% reported no funding for their work. Barriers to work in transition were common and included healthcare systems issues such as poor coordination among providers or lack of a clear transition plan within the clinic/institution. Conclusions Psychologists assume numerous roles in the transition of adolescents from pediatric to adult healthcare. With training in healthcare transition-related issues, psychologists are ideally positioned to partner with other health professionals to develop and implement transition programs in multi-disciplinary settings, provided healthcare system barriers can be overcome. PMID:26499856

  4. Cytoskeletal role in the transition from compensated to decompensated hypertrophy during adult canine left ventricular pressure overloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tagawa, H.; Koide, M.; Sato, H.; Zile, M. R.; Carabello, B. A.; Cooper, G. 4th

    1998-01-01

    Increased microtubule density causes cardiocyte contractile dysfunction in right ventricular (RV) pressure-overload hypertrophy, and these linked phenotypic and contractile abnormalities persist and progress during the transition to failure. Although more severe in cells from failing than hypertrophied RVs, the mechanical defects are normalized in each case by microtubule depolymerization. To define the role of increased microtubule density in left ventricular (LV) pressure-overload hypertrophy and failure, in a given LV we examined ventricular mechanics, sarcomere mechanics, and free tubulin and microtubule levels in control dogs and in dogs with aortic stenosis both with LV hypertrophy alone and with initially compensated hypertrophy that had progressed to LV muscle failure. In comparing initial values with those at study 8 weeks later, dogs with hypertrophy alone had a very substantial increase in LV mass but preservation of a normal ejection fraction and mean systolic wall stress. Dogs with hypertrophy and associated failure had a substantial but lesser increase in LV mass and a reduction in ejection fraction, as well as a marked increase in mean systolic wall stress. Cardiocyte contractile function was equivalent, and unaffected by microtubule depolymerization, in cells from control LVs and those with compensated hypertrophy. In contrast, cardiocyte contractile function in cells from failing LVs was quite depressed but was normalized by microtubule depolymerization. Microtubules were increased only in failing LVs. These contractile and cytoskeletal changes, when assayed longitudinally in a given dog by biopsy, appeared in failing ventricles only when wall stress began to increase and function began to decrease. Thus, the microtubule-based cardiocyte contractile dysfunction characteristic of pressure-hypertrophied myocardium, originally described in the RV, obtains equally in the LV but is shown here to have a specific association with increased wall stress.

  5. Role Transitions in Small Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreland, Richard L.; Levine, John M.

    This paper analyzes role transitions in small groups within the context of a more general model of group socialization that is based on the psychological processes of evaluation, commitment, and decision making. The major advantage of such an approach is that it specifies why role transitions in small groups occur. According to the model, groups…

  6. Noncredit to Credit Transitions: The Role of Cultural Capital and Habitus for Adult Immigrant Learners in the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Liza A.

    2010-01-01

    Adults who immigrate to the United States recognize the value of fluency in the dominant language as a bridge to social mobility in their new homeland. In California, many of them invest time and energy in noncredit English as a Second Language (ESL) programs offered within the community college system to gain communicative competence and enhance…

  7. Parental Divorce and Couples' Adjustment during the Transition to Parenthood: The Role of Parent-Adult Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Genevieve; Doucet, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the associations between parental divorce, quality of relationships with parents, and dyadic adjustment during transition of 114 couples to parenthood. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 9 months postpartum. As predicted, the authors found that women from divorced families…

  8. Health Care Transition Experiences of Young Adults With Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Ellen McLaughlin

    2015-01-01

    Health care transition (HCT) describes the purposeful, planned movement of adolescents from child to adult-orientated care. The purpose of this qualitative study is to uncover the meaning of transition to adult-centered care as experienced by young adults with cerebral palsy (YA-CP) through the research question: What are the lived experiences of young adults with cerebral palsy transitioning from pediatric to adult healthcare? Six females and 3 males, aged 19-25 years of age, who identified as carrying the diagnosis of cerebral palsy without cognitive impairment, were interviewed. Giorgi's (1985) method for analysis of phenomenology was the framework for the study and guided the phenomenological reduction. The meaning of the lived experiences of YA-CPs transition to adult health care is expert novices with evidence and experience-based expectations, negotiating new systems interdependently and accepting less than was expected. More information and support is needed for the YA-CP during transition to ensure a well-organized move to appropriate adult-oriented health care that is considerate of the lifelong impact of the disorder. The nurses' role as advocate, mentor and guide can optimize the individual's response to the transition process.

  9. Nursing Role Transition Preceptorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batory, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The preceptorship clinical experience in a practical nursing (PN) program at a Midwestern community college is considered crucial to the PN students' transition from novice nurse to professional nurse. However, no research has been available to determine whether the preceptorship clinical accomplishes its purpose. A case study was conducted to…

  10. Youth in Transition: Are They Adult Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Lester H.; Conti, Gary J.; Shaw, Brenda S.

    2013-01-01

    Since at-risk youth are in transition to adulthood, major adult learning concepts can be applied to them. The purpose of this study was to describe the learning strategies of youth in transition to adulthood in the urban life skills program of A Pocket Full of Hope®. Both qualitative and quantitative data collecting methods were used. Assessing…

  11. Counseling Adults for Life Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.; Benjamin, Libby

    Adult counseling is assuming increasing importance in counselor education and training. Most important is the developmental aspect of growth all through life, since adulthood is not a static period but can be as fraught with conflict and choice as childhood or adolescence. Outlines describe some important differences between young people and…

  12. The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…

  13. Residential Transitions among Adults with Intellectual Disability across 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses critical gaps in the literature by examining residential transitions among 303 adults with intellectual disability (ID) over 10 years (Part 1) and 75 adults with Down syndrome over 20 years (Part 2). All adults lived at home at the start of the study, but many moved to a variety of settings. Several characteristics of…

  14. Adult Students in Higher Education: A Portrait of Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Carlette Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Adult students, whether new or returning to higher education, experience a unique set of transition challenges. This chapter highlights the barriers facing adult students and offers ways to overcome them. For many adult students, returning to college and fulfilling their goals is much like building a house of cards. In order to be successful, each…

  15. Exploring Adult Care Experiences and Barriers to Transition in Adult Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bemrich-Stolz, CJ; Halanych, JH; Howard, TH; Hilliard, LM; Lebensburger, JD

    2015-01-01

    Background Young adults with sickle cell anemia are at high risk for increased hospitalization and death at the time of transition to adult care. This may be related to failure of the transition system to prepare young adults for the adult healthcare system. This qualitative study was designed to identify factors related to transition that may affect the health of adults with sickle cell anemia. Procedure Ten patients currently treated in an adult hematology clinic participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews to describe their experience transitioning from pediatric to adult care and differences in adult and pediatric healthcare systems. Results Participants were generally unprepared for the adult healthcare system. Negative issues experienced by participants included physician mistrust, difficulty with employers, keeping insurance, and stress in personal relationships. Positive issues experienced by participants included improved self efficacy with improved self care and autonomy. Conclusions In the absence of a formalized transition program, adults with sickle cell anemia experience significant barriers to adult care. In addition to medical history review and identification of an adult provider, transition programs should incorporate strategies to navigate the adult medical system, insurance and relationships as well as encouraging self efficacy. PMID:26900602

  16. A Workbook for: Transition from School to the Adult World. A Module for Transitioning from School to the Adult World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Eileen R.

    This workbook pulls together materials intended to help train individuals who are deaf-blind or have other severe disabilities with the transition from school to the adult world. Topics covered in the main body are: legislation concerned with transition services; appropriate procedures and getting started; transition planning process; questions to…

  17. Changing Occupational Therapists' Knowledge of Their Role in Secondary Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Barbara L.; Provident, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities need to effectively transition to adult occupations after secondary school. Occupational therapists are uniquely qualified to support this transition to adulthood; however, school-based occupational therapists report a lack of understanding of their role in transition planning (Kardos & White, 2005; Mankey, 2011).…

  18. Literacy Development and Language Expression for Adult Learners in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrotta, Clarena; Moon, Ji Yoon Christine

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides examples of transitions that learners face connected to their participation in adult education and English literacy instruction. It describes their efforts to attain relevant language expression skills.

  19. Transition to Adult-Oriented Health Care: Perspectives of Youth and Adults with Complex Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Nancy L.; Barden, Wendy S.; Mills, Wendy A.; Burke, Tricia A.; Law, Mary; Boydell, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The transition to adulthood is extremely difficult for individuals with disabilities. We sought to explore the specific issue of transition to adult-oriented health care in a Canadian context. Methods: We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 15 youth and 15 adults with cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and acquired brain…

  20. Older Adult Women Learners in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Alice

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the potential for personal growth, development, and learning of older adult women who will have many productive years in the workforce. What implications are there for adult education communities who will interact with these older women? How do they adapt to the educational environment, and what social support will enable…

  1. Epilepsy: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult care

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Seetha; Iyer, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of rapid change, both physical and psychosocial for any young person. It can be challenging when they have ongoing health problems and when their care needs to be transitioned to the adult health care system. Transition should be a planned process of addressing the medical and associated comorbid conditions from pediatric to adult care in a coordinated manner. In most cases, the young person and their family are well known to the pediatrics services and have built a relationship based on trust and often friendship over many years. Understandably, there is significant apprehension about moving from this familiar setting to the unknown adult services. Apart from having a sound knowledge of specific childhood epileptic conditions and associated comorbid disorders, it is important that both the pediatric and adult epilepsy teams are motivated to provide a successful and safe transition for these patients. It is essential that transition is seen as a continual process and not as a single event, and good preparation is the key to its success. It is also important that general practitioners are closely engaged to ensure successful transition. An overview of how to effectively address transition in epilepsy, different models of transition, transition of relevant epilepsies, and their management is discussed. PMID:27390536

  2. Treatment issues for children with epilepsy transitioning to adult care.

    PubMed

    Nabbout, Rima; Camfield, Carol S; Andrade, Danielle M; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Chiron, Catherine; Cramer, Joyce A; French, Jacqueline A; Kossoff, Eric; Mula, Marco; Camfield, Peter R

    2017-02-07

    This is the third of three papers that summarize the second symposium on Transition in Epilepsies held in Paris in June 2016. This paper focuses on treatment issues that arise during the course of childhood epilepsy and make the process of transition to adult care more complicated. Some AEDs used during childhood, such as stiripentol, vigabatrin, and cannabidiol, are unfamiliar to adult epilepsy specialists. In addition, new drugs are being developed for treatment of specific childhood onset epilepsy syndromes and have no indication yet for adults. The ketogenic diet may be effective during childhood but is difficult to continue in adult care. Regional adult epilepsy diet clinics could be helpful. Polytherapy is common for patients transitioning to adult care. Although these complex AED regimes are difficult, they are often possible to simplify. AEDs used in childhood may need to be reconsidered in adulthood. Rescue medications to stop prolonged seizures and clusters of seizures are in wide home use in children and can be continued in adulthood. Adherence/compliance is notoriously difficult for adolescents, but there are simple clinical approaches that should be helpful. Mental health issues including depression and anxiety are not always diagnosed and treated in children and young adults even though effective treatments are available. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and aggressive behavior disorders may interfere with transition and successful adulthood but these can be treated. For the majority, the adult social outcome of children with epilepsy is unsatisfactory with few proven interventions. The interface between pediatric and adult care for children with epilepsy is becoming increasingly complicated with a need for more comprehensive transition programs and adult epileptologists who are knowledgeable about special treatments that benefit this group of patients.

  3. Transition of care from paediatric to adult rheumatology

    PubMed Central

    McDonagh, Janet E

    2007-01-01

    The origin of paediatric rheumatology in the UK mainly lies in adult rheumatology and this has proved invaluable in terms of transition provision, education and training, and collaborative research. The last 5 years have seen adolescent rheumatology gather momentum with the creation of an objective evidence base, a sound foundation for future work addressing the many unanswered questions and hypotheses in the area of transitional care. The aim of this paper is to review the evidence supporting the recent developments in transitional care within rheumatology. Acknowledging the non‐categorical nature of transition, the author will also refer to evidence from other chronic illnesses which has informed these developments. PMID:17715444

  4. Transition of care from paediatric to adult rheumatology.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Janet E

    2007-09-01

    The origin of paediatric rheumatology in the UK mainly lies in adult rheumatology and this has proved invaluable in terms of transition provision, education and training, and collaborative research. The last 5 years have seen adolescent rheumatology gather momentum with the creation of an objective evidence base, a sound foundation for future work addressing the many unanswered questions and hypotheses in the area of transitional care. The aim of this paper is to review the evidence supporting the recent developments in transitional care within rheumatology. Acknowledging the non-categorical nature of transition, the author will also refer to evidence from other chronic illnesses which has informed these developments.

  5. The Role of Higher Education in Their Life: Emerging Adults on the Crossroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Shu-Chen; Hawley, Josh

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the experience of younger, so called "emerging" adults, as they transition to full-time work, focusing specifically on the role of education in this process. When leaving their family-of-origin, emerging adults re-center themselves to settle down in permanent identity and different role commitments. Our findings show…

  6. Transitioning to Adulthood: How Do Young Adults Fare and What Characteristics Are Associated with a Lower-Risk Transition? Research Brief. Publication #2014-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Mary A.; Moore, Kristin A.; Constance, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Youth must navigate various developmental tasks as they transition to adulthood, and during this period of "emerging adulthood," young people explore roles and relationships before committing to the ones they will fill as adults. This brief seeks to identify patterns and transitions during emerging adulthood to obtain a better…

  7. Transitioning from pediatric care to adult care for adolescents with special health care needs: dentist perspectives (part 2)

    PubMed Central

    Bayarsaikhan, Zoljargal; Cruz, Stephanie; Neff, John; Chi, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To understand dental care transitions for adolescents with special health care needs (ASHCN) from the dentist perspective. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 dentists (seven pediatric dentists and six general dentists) to learn about the dental transition process for ASHCN. Results Most dentists believed transitions from child-centered to adult-centered dental care were important for ASHCN. Dentists reported two main barriers to transitions: low dental reimbursements by Medicaid and a shortage of general dentists qualified or willing to treat ASHCN. Pediatric and general dentists reported playing complimentary roles in facilitating transitions for ASHCN and their families. Conclusions Dentists acknowledged the challenges that ASHCN and their families face in transitioning to adult-centered care and believed in the importance of ASHCN maintaining a dental home. Pediatric dentists and general dentists play a key role in working together to implement dental transition plans for the ASHCN and to ensure successful dental transitions. PMID:26531088

  8. Transition to adult life in the monogenic epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Ingrid E; Dravet, Charlotte

    2014-08-01

    There are many monogenic disorders associated with epilepsy that begin in childhood and persist into adult life. Each of these disorders raises specific issues for transition, in addition to common issues facing this group of patients as they move from pediatric to adult care. Such comorbidities include psychiatric and movement disorders. Epileptic encephalopathies may be caused by monogenic disorders, with Dravet syndrome being the best characterized. Although some patients have a relatively good adult outcome, others have persisting severe epilepsy complicated by autistic spectrum disorder and problems with gait. When reevaluating a patient as they transition to adult care, a thorough reconsideration of the genetic etiology of their epilepsy should be performed. This should be followed by genetic counseling for the patient and their family members.

  9. Residential Transitions among Adults with Intellectual Disability across 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses critical gaps in the literature by examining residential transitions among 303 adults with intellectual disability over 10 years (Part 1) and 75 adults with Down syndrome over 20 years (Part 2). All adults lived at home at the start of the study, but many moved to a variety of settings. Several characteristics of the adults with intellectual disability differed across settings, most notably adaptive behavior and the number of residential transitions, while characteristics such as age, type of disability, and behavior problems were less predictive of residential placements. The number of moves over the course of the study varied widely, with critical links to earlier family dynamics, social relationships, and health and adaptive behavior. PMID:25354121

  10. Parents' Role in Transition for Handicapped Youth. Overview. ERIC Digest No. 62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Parents have a major influence on their children's attitudes toward work and life. Handicapped youth, who have more difficulty than other youth in making the transition from school to work and adult life, have a special need for parental guidance. Parents can play key roles in transition, especially in the areas of career exploration, job search…

  11. Adult attachment to transitional objects and borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hooley, Jill M; Wilson-Murphy, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by tumultuous, unstable personal relationships, difficulty being alone, and an inability to self-soothe. This may explain why patients with BPD tend to develop strong attachments to transitional objects such as stuffed animals. Research in hospital settings has linked the use of transitional objects to the presence of BPD. Using a nonclinical community sample (N = 80) we explored the link between attachments to transitional objects and various aspects of personality pathology, as well as to childhood trauma, and parental rearing styles. People who reported intense current attachments to transitional objects were significantly more likely to meet criteria for a BPD diagnosis than those who did not; they also reported more childhood trauma, rated their early caregivers as less supportive, and had more attachment problems as adults. Heavy emotional reliance on transitional objects in adulthood may be an indicator of underlying pathology, particularly BPD.

  12. Child to adult: transitional care for young adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Yateem, Nabeel

    Managing the transitional care needs of young adults with a complex chronic illness such as cystic fibrosis (CF) as they move from a child-orientated to adult setting has been reported in the literature as challenging and stressful, and may impart additional risks to the young person's health. However, in the Republic of Ireland, which has the highest incidence of CF in the world, the current services provided for children during this transitional period are still reported as underdeveloped. The aim of the author's research was to explore and understand the experience of young people before and after their transitional care, and the factors that both contribute to and hinder that experience. A qualitative approach guided by phenomenological tradition, and using in-depth interviews. The findings suggest that there are a range of needs required for patients during this transitional period, including the need for information, interventions that decrease the negative feelings associated with transition (e.g. distress, anxiety, uncertainty), structured service, and an approach to care that focuses on young adults. The author concludes that health professionals in the clinical setting who have responsibility for young adults in transitional care should focus on these needs to provide a more relevant and effective transition service.

  13. The role of cannabinoids in adult neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Prenderville, Jack A; Kelly, Áine M; Downer, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    The processes underpinning post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain continue to be defined. Such processes involve the proliferation of neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells (NPCs), neuronal migration, differentiation and integration into a network of functional synapses within the brain. Both intrinsic (cell signalling cascades) and extrinsic (neurotrophins, neurotransmitters, cytokines, hormones) signalling molecules are intimately associated with adult neurogenesis and largely dictate the proliferative activity and differentiation capacity of neural cells. Cannabinoids are a unique class of chemical compounds incorporating plant-derived cannabinoids (the active components of Cannabis sativa), the endogenous cannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoid ligands, and these compounds are becoming increasingly recognized for their roles in neural developmental processes. Indeed, cannabinoids have clear modulatory roles in adult neurogenesis, probably through activation of both CB1 and CB2 receptors. In recent years, a large body of literature has deciphered the signalling networks involved in cannabinoid-mediated regulation of neurogenesis. This timely review summarizes the evidence that the cannabinoid system is intricately associated with neuronal differentiation and maturation of NPCs and highlights intrinsic/extrinsic signalling mechanisms that are cannabinoid targets. Overall, these findings identify the central role of the cannabinoid system in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and the lateral ventricles and hence provide insight into the processes underlying post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. PMID:25951750

  14. Exploring the Factors that Influence Nurse Practitioner Role Transition

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    The transition from registered nurse (RN) to nurse practitioner (NP) is often a stressful career change. Data are lacking on the factors affecting NP role transition. This study examined the relationships between NP role transition, prior RN experience, and a formal orientation. From a sample of 352 NPs, only a formal orientation contributed significantly to the regression model indicating a positive relationship with NP role transition (b = 6.24, p < .001). Knowledge of the factors that explain NP role transition is important to inform the discipline how best to support NPs during entry into practice. PMID:25685113

  15. Exploring the Factors that Influence Nurse Practitioner Role Transition.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Hilary

    2015-02-01

    The transition from registered nurse (RN) to nurse practitioner (NP) is often a stressful career change. Data are lacking on the factors affecting NP role transition. This study examined the relationships between NP role transition, prior RN experience, and a formal orientation. From a sample of 352 NPs, only a formal orientation contributed significantly to the regression model indicating a positive relationship with NP role transition (b = 6.24, p < .001). Knowledge of the factors that explain NP role transition is important to inform the discipline how best to support NPs during entry into practice.

  16. Adult social roles and alcohol use among American Indians.

    PubMed

    Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-09-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians.

  17. Transition to Sarcopenia and Determinants of Transitions in Older Adults: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Edward H.; Zhang, Qiang; Boudreau, Robert M.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Newman, Anne B.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Visser, Marjolein; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Harris, Tamara B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia from appendicular lean mass (ALM), strength, and performance have been proposed, but little is known regarding the progression of sarcopenia. We examined the time course of sarcopenia and determinants of transitioning toward and away from sarcopenia. Methods. ALM, gait speed, and grip strength were assessed seven times over 9 years in 2,928 initially well-functioning adults aged 70–79. Low ALM was defined as less than 7.95 kg/m2 (men) or less than 6.24 kg/m2 (women), low performance as gait speed less than 1.0 m/s, low strength as grip strength less than 30 kg (men) or less than 20 kg (women). Presarcopenia was defined as low ALM and sarcopenia as low ALM with low performance or low strength. Hidden Markov modeling was used to characterize states of ALM, strength, and performance and model transitions leading to sarcopenia and death. Determinants of transitioning toward and away from sarcopenia were examined with logistic regression. Results. Initially, 54% of participants had normal ALM, strength, and performance; 21% had presarcopenia; 5% had sarcopenia; and 20% had intermediate characteristics. Of participants with normal ALM, strength, and performance, 1% transitioned to presarcopenia and none transitioned to sarcopenia. The greatest transition to sarcopenia (7%) was in presarcopenic individuals. Low-functioning and sarcopenia states were more likely to lead to death (12% and 13%). Higher body mass index (p < .001) and pain (p = .05) predicted transition toward sarcopenia, whereas moderate activity predicted transition from presarcopenia to more normal states (p = .02). Conclusions. Pain, physical activity, and body mass index, potentially modifiable factors, are determinants of transitions. Promotion of health approaching old age is important as few individuals transition away from their initial state. PMID:24013673

  18. Transition to Adulthood: Validation of the Rotterdam Transition Profile for Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy and Normal Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkervoort, Mireille; Wiegerink, Diana J. H. G.; van Meeteren, Jetty; Stam, Henk J.; Roebroeck, Marij E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Rotterdam Transition Profile (RTP) to describe the transition process from childhood to adulthood in young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants were recruited from rehabilitation centres and hospital departments of rehabilitation. In total, 81 young adults (47 males, 34 females)…

  19. Evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in adult liver cells.

    PubMed

    Sicklick, Jason K; Choi, Steve S; Bustamante, Marcia; McCall, Shannon J; Pérez, Elizabeth Hernández; Huang, Jiawen; Li, Yin-Xiong; Rojkind, Marcos; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2006-10-01

    Both myofibroblastic hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and hepatic epithelial progenitors accumulate in damaged livers. In some injured organs, the ability to distinguish between fibroblastic and epithelial cells is sometimes difficult because cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). During EMT, cells coexpress epithelial and mesenchymal cell markers. To determine whether EMT occurs in adult liver cells, we analyzed the expression profile of primary HSC, two HSC lines, and hepatic epithelial progenitors. As expected, all HSC expressed HSC markers. Surprisingly, these markers were also expressed by epithelial progenitors. In addition, one HSC line expressed typical epithelial progenitor mRNAs, and these epithelial markers were inducible in the second HSC line. In normal and damaged livers, small ductular-type cells stained positive for an HSC marker. In conclusion, HSC and hepatic epithelial progenitors both coexpress epithelial and mesenchymal markers, providing evidence that EMT occurs in adult liver cells.

  20. Role Transitions in Emerging Adulthood Are Associated With Smoking Among Hispanics in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking initiation seldom occurs after emerging adulthood, making prevention critical during this phase of the life course. Among emerging adults, Hispanics have an especially high risk for cigarette use. Emerging adulthood scholars suggest role transitions commonly experienced by this age group may lead to substance use including cigarette experimentation and/or progression, contributing to the high smoking rates exhibited by Hispanics. Methods: Hispanic emerging adults (aged 18–24) completed surveys indicating which of a comprehensive list of role transitions they had experienced in the past year. Separate logistic regression models explored the association between each individual role transition and smoking in the past 30 days, controlling for age and gender and using a Bonferonni correction. Results: Among the sample of emerging adults (n = 1,390), 41% were male, the average age was 21, and about 21% reported cigarette use in the past 30 days. Losing a job, becoming a family member’s caregiver, starting to date someone new, experiencing a breakup, being arrested, and becoming addicted to illicit drugs and/or alcohol were all associated with smoking. Conclusions: The stress associated with navigating through changes in critical periods of the life course may lead some emerging adults to smoke. Future research should be directed toward determining what specific mechanisms make these transitional processes risk factors for smoking. These determinations could prove critical if effective prevention programs are to be designed that lead to a decrease in the smoking prevalence among Hispanic emerging adults. PMID:23811010

  1. Stress and coping among children of alcoholic parents through the young adult transition.

    PubMed

    Hussong, Andrea M; Chassin, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    The transition to young adulthood is both a time when risky health behaviors such as substance misuse peak and a time of opportunity for growth and development through the acquisition of adult roles. In this transition, coping styles include responses to the stressors and opportunities associated with the emergence of adulthood. The extent to which such coping styles are skillfully employed in part determines adjustment into adulthood. The current study used a high-risk, longitudinal design to examine the development of coping styles over adolescence, continuity in these coping styles from adolescence to adulthood, the impact of coping on adult stress and substance misuse, the ability of coping to buffer effects of stress on substance use, and differences in coping between at-risk youth (i.e., children of alcoholics [COAs]) and their peers. A sample of 340 adolescents completed four assessments over ages 11-23. We used latent trajectory models to examine interindividual and intraindividual change in coping over time. Evidence for both change and continuity in the development of coping from adolescence to adulthood was found, although adolescent coping had limited impact on stress and substance use in adulthood. Support was also found for complex stress-buffering and stress-exacerbating effects of coping on the relations between major life events and adult drug use and between stress associated with the new roles of adulthood and heavy alcohol use. Implications of these findings for development and adjustment in the transition to adulthood are discussed.

  2. The Gender Gap in Alcohol Consumption during Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Gendered Attitudes and Adult Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Peralta, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We utilize data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth young adult sample (N = 1,488) to investigate whether gender role attitudes and the occupation of and transition to three adult roles (i.e., employment, marriage, and parenthood) contribute to the maintenance of the gender gap in the frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Our results…

  3. Managing Transition with Support: Experiences of Transition from Child and Adolescent Psychiatry to General Adult Psychiatry Narrated by Young Adults and Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Söderberg, Siv; Skär, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Young adults with mental illness who need continuing care when they turn 18 are referred from child and adolescent psychiatry to general adult psychiatry. During this process, young adults are undergoing multiple transitions as they come of age while they transfer to another unit in healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore expectations and experiences of transition from child and adolescent psychiatry to general adult psychiatry as narrated by young adults and relatives. Individual interviews were conducted with three young adults and six relatives and analysed according to grounded theory. The analysis resulted in a core category: managing transition with support, and three categories: being of age but not mature, walking out of security and into uncertainty, and feeling omitted and handling concerns. The young adults' and relatives' main concerns were that they might be left out and feel uncertainty about the new situation during the transition process. To facilitate the transition process, individual care planning is needed. It is essential that young adults and relatives are participating in the process to be prepared for the changes and achieve a successful transition. Knowledge about the simultaneous processes seems to be an important issue for facilitating transition. PMID:24829900

  4. Silencing of Two Insulin Receptor Genes Disrupts Nymph-Adult Transition of Alate Brown Citrus Aphid

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bi-Yue; Shang, Feng; Zhang, Qiang; Xiong, Ying; Yang, Qun; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Insulin receptors play key roles in growth, development, and polymorphism in insects. Here, we report two insulin receptor genes (AcInR1 and AcInR2) from the brown citrus aphid, Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus. Transcriptional analyses showed that AcInR1 increased during the nymph–adult transition in alate aphids, while AcInR2 had the highest expression level in second instar nymphs. AcInR1 is important in aphid development from fourth instar nymphs to adults as verified by dsRNA feeding mediated RNAi. The silencing of AcInR1 or/and AcInR2 produced a variety of phenotypes including adults with normal wings, malformed wings, under-developed wings, and aphids failing to develop beyond the nymphal stages. Silencing of AcInR1 or AcInR2 alone, and co-silencing of both genes, resulted in 73% or 60%, and 87% of aphids with problems in the transition from nymph to normal adult. The co-silencing of AcInR1 and AcInR2 resulted in 62% dead nymphs, but no mortality occurred by silencing of AcInR1 or AcInR2 alone. Phenotypes of adults in the dsInR1 and dsInR2 were similar. The results demonstrate that AcInR1 and AcInR2 are essential for successful nymph–adult transition in alate aphids and show that RNAi methods may be useful for the management of this pest. PMID:28230772

  5. Parents in transition: Experiences of parents of young people with a liver transplant transferring to adult services.

    PubMed

    Wright, J; Elwell, L; McDonagh, J E; Kelly, D A; Wray, J

    2017-02-01

    Predictors of successful transition from pediatric to adult services include ability to self-manage and engage with healthcare services. Parents have a key role in healthcare management throughout childhood and adolescence including encouraging development of self-management skills in their children. Transition to adult services can be challenging for parents and young people, yet parents' views regarding transition remain largely unexplored. Nine parents of pediatric liver transplant recipients (15.2-25.1 yr) participated in semistructured interviews. Interviews were analyzed using IPA. Analysis revealed three key themes: "emotional impact of transplantation," "protection vs. independence," and "ending relationships and changing roles." Parents expressed the dichotomous nature of the desire to promote independence in their child while still maintaining control and protection, and discussed how changing roles and relationships were difficult to navigate. Parents are important facilitators of young people's development of self-management skills for successful transfer to adult services. Parents should be supported to move from a "managerial" to a "supervisory" role during transition to help young people engage independently with the healthcare team. Findings support the development of interventions for parents to emphasize their role in transition and guide the transfer of self-management skills from parent to young person.

  6. Learning through Transitions: The Role of Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zittoun, Tania

    2008-01-01

    In this paper two models are proposed for analysing transitions in education. Firstly, transitions are the processes that follow ruptures perceived by people. They include learning, identity change, and meaning making processes. Secondly, processes of change are observed through a semiotic prism, articulating self-other-object-sense of the object…

  7. The Role of Transitions in ESL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Transitions in ESL contexts generally refer to those linking words placed between sentences and between paragraphs. Transitions in writing (and in speaking) are helpful; they facilitate coherence and cohesion when used correctly. Understanding them when reading allows us to join the writer in seeing why and how idea B follows idea A. In this…

  8. Improving the Transition from Pediatric to Adult Diabetes Healthcare: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Wafa, Sarah; Nakhla, Meranda

    2015-12-01

    Effective transition to adult care is a significant component of an emerging adult's diabetes care. Poor transition places them at risk for disengagement with the health care system and for poor diabetes-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper was to review the literature to date on existing methods of transition care delivery for emerging adults with diabetes. We conducted a literature review using MEDLINE via OvidSP and searching the grey literature. Papers published in English between January 1, 2000 and March 25, 2015 that evaluated transition care programs for emerging adults with diabetes were included. 16 original studies, 1 study protocol and 1 technical brief describing transition programs were reviewed. Common components of care included transition care coordination, young adult clinics, transition preparation, familiarity with adult health care providers and support groups. Overall, when emerging adults are supported during the transition period, clinic attendance and glycemic control can be maintained or improved, and diabetes-related complications reduced. Despite widespread support in the literature for the need for structured transition care delivery, methodologically strong research evaluating transition care services remains limited. The literature to date encompasses a variety of care models that lack consistency in outcome measurements as well as lacking frameworks describing the interventions, which impedes comparison across studies. Further research, using a consistent framework for transition care program design, delivery and evaluation as well as reporting of outcomes, is needed to inform how best to deliver transition care services to this vulnerable population.

  9. Voices of the Forgotten Half: The Role of Social Class in the School-to-Work Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustein, David L.; Chaves, Anna P.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Gallagher, Laura A.; Marshall, Kevin G.; Sirin, Selcuk; Bhati, Kuldhir S.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the impact of social class on the school-to-work (STW) transitions of young adults in working-class occupations. Using an exploratory, qualitative research methodology, interviews were conducted with 10 men and 10 women to examine the role of social class in the STW transition. All participants were working in low-skilled jobs…

  10. Transition to Adult Life for People with Disabilities. Bulletin No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, John

    This document describes and discusses aspects of the transition to adult life for people with disabilities in Great Britain and sets it in an international context. The first three sections describe the transition process, the difficulties of implementing a framework for transition, and the aims of the transition process. The aims are the…

  11. Transitive inference in adults with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Marjorie; Frank, Michael J.; Smith, Anne C.; Ly, Stanford; Carter, Cameron S.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) exhibit intact rote learning with impaired generalization. A transitive inference paradigm, involving training on four sequentially presented stimulus pairs containing overlapping items, with subsequent testing on two novel pairs, was used to investigate this pattern of learning in 27 young adults with ASDs and 31 matched neurotypical individuals (TYPs). On the basis of findings about memory and neuropathology, we hypothesized that individuals with ASDs would use a relational flexibility/conjunctive strategy reliant on an intact hippocampus, versus an associative strength/value transfer strategy requiring intact interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Hypotheses were largely confirmed. ASDs demonstrated reduced interference from intervening pairs in early training; only TYPs formed a serial position curve by test; and ASDs exhibited impairments on the novel test pair consisting of end items with intact performance on the inner test pair. However, comparable serial position curves formed for both groups by the end of the first block. PMID:21656344

  12. Youth with special health care needs: transition to adult health care services.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Donald P; Gilles, Donna L; Cannady, Mariel S; Wenzel, Donna B; Willis, Janet H; Bodurtha, Joann N

    2013-12-01

    Transition to adult services for children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN) has emerged as an important event in the life course of individuals with disabilities. Issues that interfere with efficient transition to adult health care include the perspectives of stakeholders, age limits on pediatric service, complexity of health conditions, a lack of experienced healthcare professionals in the adult arena, and health care financing for chronic and complex conditions. The purposes of this study were to develop a definition of successful transition and to identify determinants that were associated with a successful transition. The 2007 Survey of Adult Transition and Health dataset was used to select variables to be considered for defining success and for identifying predictors of success. The results showed that a small percentage of young adults who participated in the 2007 survey had experienced a successful transition from their pediatric care.

  13. Resources for Educators of Adults. Continuing Education for Educators of Adults: The Roles of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N.

    The author states that the coming of age of adult and continuing education has brought the role of research into focus. Two aspects of the research role are explored: What research has been done on the continuing education of adult educators, and what should be the roles of research? The major portion of this report is devoted to a review of the…

  14. The Role of Diverse Institutions in Framing Adult Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Ellu; Ure, Odd Bjorn; Desjardins, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the role of diverse institutions in framing adult learning systems. The focus is on institutional characteristics and configurations in different countries and their potential impact on the extent of adult learning, as well as on inequalities in access to adult learning. Typologies of education and training systems as well…

  15. Transitions and Pathways: Self-Help Reading and Informal Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Vermeylen, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Through presenting empirical research exploring the connections between popular culture and informal learning, we argue that, as predicted by concepts such as self-directed learning and transformational learning, the experience of transition has a meaningful impact on adult learning. Specifically, transitions encourage adults to engage in learning…

  16. RN to FNP: a qualitative study of role transition.

    PubMed

    Heitz, Laura J; Steiner, Susan H; Burman, Mary E

    2004-09-01

    Registered nurses who return to school in a nurse practitioner program undergo role transition throughout the educational process and into the postgraduate period. This study examined the role transition that occurs in family nurse practitioner (FNP) students. A descriptive, qualitative design was used with in-depth telephone interviews of 9 female FNPs who had recently graduated. A conceptual model was generated that described the role transition from RN to FNP. Two phases of role transition occurred and were depicted by the central categories that emerged: extrinsic obstacles, intrinsic obstacles, turbulence, positive extrinsic forces, positive intrinsic forces, and role development. Although the central categories were found to be the same in Phase I and Phase II, the defining characteristics differed. This study has implications for FNPs, students, and educators regarding role transition. It presents new findings not identified in prior research: personal commitments and sacrifices were identified as specific obstacles encountered during the educational process, and differences were found between inexperienced and experienced RNs in relation to the FNP role transition during the educational period.

  17. Transition Needs of Parents of Adolescents and Emerging Adults With Special Health Care Needs and Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Betz, Cecily L; Nehring, Wendy M; Lobo, Marie L

    2015-08-01

    The period of health care transition (HCT) for adolescents and emerging adults with special health care needs and disabilities involves a complex realignment of the parent-child relationship, including alterations in role responsibilities and decision making. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the research designs, methodology, and findings reported in studies of parents during this transition period to provide new insights for research and clinical practice. Results showed that parents were unable to clearly envision what the future held for their children and were not well prepared by the service system to anticipate future prospects. These parents have a myriad of needs that are not yet fully understood, as HCT research is in the early stages of development.

  18. Resident Transitions to Assisted Living: A Role for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Noelle LeCrone; Koenig, Terry; Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly

    2012-01-01

    This study explored key aspects of resident transitions to assisted living (AL), including the frequency and importance of preadmission resident education and the potential role of social workers in this setting. To examine the factors that may help or hinder resident transitions to AL, a written survey was administered to a statewide,…

  19. Glossy15 Controls the Epidermal Juvenile-to-Adult Phase Transition in Maize.

    PubMed Central

    Moose, S. P.; Sisco, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations at the maize Glossy15 (Gl15) locus alter the normal transition from juvenile-to-adult growth by conditioning the abbreviated expression of juvenile epidermal cell traits and the coordinate precocious expression of adult epidermal cell features. These include epicuticular wax composition, cell wall characteristics, and the presence or absence of differentiated epidermal cell types (e.g., epidermal macrohairs and bulliform cells). A transposon-induced mutable allele of Glossy15 (gl15-m1) was isolated and employed in both phenotypic and genetic analyses to characterize the role of Gl15 in the maize juvenile-to-adult phase transition. Comparisons between Gl15-active and Gl15-inactive somatic sectors in the leaves of variegated plants demonstrated that the Gl15 gene product acts in a cell-autonomous manner to direct juvenile epidermal differentiation but does not affect factors that regulate the overall process of phase change. Examination of the gl15-m1 phenotype in the Corngrass1, Teopod1, and Teopod2 mutant backgrounds showed that the prolonged expression of juvenile epidermal traits associated with these mutations also required Gl15 activity. These results support a model whereby the cell-autonomous Gl15 gene product responds to a juvenility program that operates throughout the vegetative shoot to condition the juvenile differentiation of maize leaf epidermal cells. PMID:12244224

  20. Transitioning between Work and Family Roles as a Function of Boundary Flexibility and Role Salience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Doan E.; Clayton, Russell W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the manner in which people separate their work and family roles and how they manage the boundaries of these two important roles. Specifically, we focus on how role flexibility and salience influence transitions between roles. Results indicate that the ability and willingness to flex a role boundary and role salience are…

  1. Transitioning Adolescents and Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease From Pediatric to Adult Health Care: Provider Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stollon, Natalie B; Paine, Christine W; Lucas, Matthew S; Brumley, Lauren D; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    The transition from pediatric to adult health care is often challenging for adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our study aimed to identify (1) measures of success for the transition to adult health care; and (2) barriers and facilitators to this process. We interviewed 13 SCD experts and asked them about their experiences caring for adolescents and young adults with SCD. Our interview guide was developed based on Social-Ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework, and interviews were coded using the constant comparative method. Our results showed that transition success was measured by health care utilization, quality of life, and continuation on a stable disease trajectory. We also found that barriers to transition include negative experiences in the emergency department, sociodemographic factors, and adolescent skills. Facilitators include a positive relationship with the provider, family support, and developmental maturity. Success in SCD transition is primarily determined by the patients' quality of relationships with their parents and providers and their developmental maturity and skills. Understanding these concepts will aid in the development of future evidence-based transition care models.

  2. A Preliminary Validation on Strategies that Support the Transition from School to Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carolyn; Hwang, Bogseon; Kim, Jim-Ho; Killian, Daniel J.; Harmer, Melinda L.; Alcantara, Paulo R.

    1997-01-01

    A study that reviewed 113 transition articles, developed a candidate list of all support strategies, conducted a survey of 54 transition researchers, and corroborated multiple strategies that support students with disabilities in transition to adult life, including family and peer support, student choice and preference, and student…

  3. Understanding age-based transition needs: Perspectives from adolescents and adults with congenital heart disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to explore the transition process in congenital heart disease (CHD) care through the perceived needs and concerns of adolescents (pretransition) and the experiential insight from adults (post-transition), in order to inform future transition initiatives and information ...

  4. Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandy, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on transition from school to adult life for persons with disabilities. Included are "success stories," brief program descriptions, and a list of resources. Individual articles include the following titles and authors: "Transition: An Energizing Concept" (Paul Bates); "Transition…

  5. Adult Education in Transition: Three Cases and Periods Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engesbak, Heidi; Tonseth, Christin; Fragoso, Antonio; Lucio-Villegas, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is the development of adult education. As Kjell Rubenson maintains, adult education has gone through three eras of development: the humanistic, the strong economic period and a softer version of the economic period. Based on this model, we examine whether the development of adult education has similarities across…

  6. Transition Implementation Guide. Instructor Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer-Stephens, Arden, Ed.

    This transition model, called Guiding Education toward Adult Roles for Success (GEARS), provides a comprehensive framework from which transition services and programs can evolve. Three components of transition services are considered: transition partners, the transition process, and adult outcomes. After an introduction, the report's second…

  7. More Than Just the Heart: Transition and Psychosocial Issues in Adult Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Adrienne H; Utens, Elisabeth M

    2015-11-01

    Most infants born with congenital heart disease (CHD) are now expected to reach adulthood. However, adults with CHD of moderate or great complexity remain at elevated risk of heart failure, arrhythmias, additional surgeries and interventional procedures, and premature mortality. This creates a need for lifelong specialized cardiac care and leads to 2 sets of potential challenges: (1) the transition from pediatric to adult care and (2) the psychosocial implications of coping with a chronic and often life-shortening medical condition. Many adolescents struggle with the transition to adult care, and mood and anxiety disorders are not uncommon in the adult setting.

  8. Role transition during RN-to-FNP education.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Susan H; McLaughlin, Diana G; Hyde, Roberta S; Brown, Rosemary H; Burman, Mary E

    2008-10-01

    This study examines the role transition that occurs during RN-to-family nurse practitioner (FNP) education, described in an earlier qualitative study that identified a role transition framework of influential positive forces and obstacles. The purposes of the study were to validate the educational phase of the original framework and explore other role transition issues. The study used a descriptive correlational design by asking all FNPs in two rural western states to participate by answering a questionnaire. Findings evidenced a stronger level of agreement with the positive forces than with the obstacles. In addition, two significant relationships were found between the positive forces and obstacles and personal life circumstances. These included personal support systems, which were significant for those who had to travel to class, and personal sacrifices, which were significant for those who had children at home. Further research will focus on testing across nurse practitioner specialties nationally.

  9. A Spectrographic Investigation of Consonant-Vowel Transitions in the Speech of Deaf Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Howard B.

    1976-01-01

    A spectrographic investigation was carried out on the speech of normal hearing and deaf speakers; the research attempted to answer questions concerning formant transitions, coarticulation and neutralization of vowels in the speech of the deaf adults. (Author/RM)

  10. Transition to adult endocrine services: What is achievable? The diabetes perspective.

    PubMed

    White, Mary; O'Connell, Michele A; Cameron, Fergus J

    2015-06-01

    Transition is defined as the 'purposeful, planned movement of adolescents and young adults with chronic physical and medical conditions from child-centred to adult-oriented health care systems' by Blum RW, (2002). The primary goal of transition is to ensure an uninterrupted process in healthcare delivery between the paediatric and adult settings; however, losses to follow up and decreased engagement with specialist services are common during this time. The current transition literature specifically pertaining to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is often limited by incomplete data, the absence of control data and lack of follow up data spanning both the paediatric and adult years. This paper serves to review the current transition literature base, highlighting areas which warrant further study.

  11. Transitions between child and adult mental health services: service design, philosophy and meaning at uncertain times.

    PubMed

    Murcott, W J

    2014-09-01

    A young person's transition of care from child and adolescent mental health services to adult mental health services can be an uncertain and distressing event that can have serious ramifications for their recovery. Recognition of this across many countries and recent UK media interest in the dangers of mental health services failing young people has led practitioners to question the existing processes. This paper reviews the current theories and research into potential failings of services and encourages exploration for a deeper understanding of when and how care should be managed in the transition process for young people. Mental health nurses can play a vital role in this process and, by adopting the assumptions of this paradigm, look at transition from this unique perspective. By reviewing the current ideas related to age boundaries, service thresholds, service philosophy and service design, it is argued that the importance of the therapeutic relationship, the understanding of the cultural context of the young person and the placing of the young person in a position of autonomy and control should be central to any decision and process of transfer between two mental health services.

  12. Transition From Pediatric to Adult Epilepsy Care: A Difficult Process Marked by Medical and Social Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol; Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    When epilepsy does not remit in childhood, transition and transfer to adult care is eventually required. Youth must leave the family-centered approach of pediatric care for the individual focus of adult medicine. Evidence from population-based studies indicates that many of those with childhood-onset epilepsy have major social difficulties in adulthood even if their epilepsy has resolved. Epilepsy may have major effects on normal adolescent development, and societal attitudes confound this difficult period in the lives of young people with epilepsy. Very little objective data are available to assist in the designing of models of care for youth with epilepsy; however, based on our clinical experience and the limited available literature, it appears that a transition program to prepare children for adult care is best started during childhood and adolescence. The formal transfer to adult services may be assisted by a transition clinic jointly attended by pediatric and adult epilepsy specialists. PMID:23476118

  13. Transitioning from pediatric to adult dental care for adolescents with special health care needs: adolescent and parent perspectives (Part I)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Stephanie; Neff, John; Chi, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to understand transitions from pediatric dental care to adult dental care for adolescents with special health care needs (ASHCN) from the parent and adolescent perspectives. Methods We conducted focus groups and interviews with 59 parents and 13 adolescent-parent dyads to identify factors associated with transitions to adult-centered dental care for ASHCN. Results Most parents believed ASHCN were at-risk for caries, but ASHCN were not concerned about tooth decay. Parents of adolescents with complex SHCN believed it would be acceptable to continue seeing a pediatric dentist. Parents of Medicaid-enrolled ASHCN reported lower efficacy in transitioning. ASHCN desired personalized, adolescent-centered care and were motivated to transition when they felt out of place at the pediatric dentist office. Parents believed pediatric dentists have an important role in initiating and facilitating transitions. Conclusions Pediatric dentists are well-positioned to implement family- and adolescent-centered policies to ensure dental transitions for ASHCN and their families. PMID:26531087

  14. In Transition...Opening Your Classroom to the Adult Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedhamer-Tenan, Julie; And Others

    This manual is intended specifically for new teachers who will be working with reentry or "hard-to-serve" adults. Introductory materials include general information for high school teachers who will incorporate this new, diverse population into the secondary classroom, descriptions of who these new adult students will be, and a discussion of…

  15. Transitions and Loss: Illuminating Parameters of Young Adults' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowling, Louise; Weber, Zita; Scanlon, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Different disciplinary groups are increasingly questioning current conceptualisations of young adults' educational, social and personal lives after compulsory schooling. New perspectives are being advanced on the life trajectories of choice and complexity now experienced by school leavers. A consistent theme is the changed nature of young adults'…

  16. Illinois Adult Education Bridges: Promising Practices. Transition Highlights. Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra; Oertle, Kathleen Marie; Kim, Sujung; Kirby, Catherine; Taylor, Jason; Harmon, Tim; Liss, Loralea

    2011-01-01

    To enhance state-level adult education and employment policy, in 2007 the Joyce Foundation began the Shifting Gears (SG) initiative to assist six states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin) to integrate adult education, workforce development and postsecondary education policies and improve job opportunities for low-skilled…

  17. Policy to Performance Toolkit: Transitioning Adults to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamprese, Judith A.; Limardo, Chrys

    2012-01-01

    The "Policy to Performance Toolkit" is designed to provide state adult education staff and key stakeholders with guidance and tools to use in developing, implementing, and monitoring state policies and their associated practices that support an effective state adult basic education (ABE) to postsecondary education and training transition…

  18. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Carina; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F.; Rocha, Susana; Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Salas-Pacheco, José; García-García, Fabio; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called adult neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of adult neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and adult neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory, and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on adult neurogenesis. PMID:25926773

  19. Characteristics of Adult Students Transitioning to a Traditional University and Perceptions of Student Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Dani J.

    2012-01-01

    Limited research is devoted to the transitional process of adult students to the traditional university environment. Considering the incredible numbers of adults projected to return to higher education and/or entering a college or university program for the first time, it behooves institutions of higher learning to invest in the success of adult…

  20. Young Adult Couples Transitioning to Work: The Intersection of Career and Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domene, Jose F.; Nee, Jessica J.; Cavanaugh, Ashley K.; McLelland, Serita; Stewart, Becky; Stephenson, Michelle; Kauffman, Bradley; Tse, Christopher K.; Young, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Contextual action theory was used to frame an exploratory qualitative study of young adult couples' experiences of transitioning from post-secondary education into the labor force, addressing the specific research question ''What kinds of projects for future work and life together do young adult couples jointly construct and pursue as they…

  1. Assessing the Transition Skills of Adolescents and Young Adults Who Are Deaf through Video Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Research, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue describes a programmatic line of research to develop and standardize a test battery of transition skills (employment and independent living skills) for adolescents and young adults (ages 14 to 25) who are deaf. The newsletter first discusses the importance of assessment data to the transition process for persons who are deaf.…

  2. Barriers to Successful Transition for Young Adults Who Receive SSI and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Jennifer L.; Timmons, Jaime Ciulla; Moloney, Mairead

    2003-01-01

    A study examined barriers to transition faced by 12 young adults with disabilities receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and their families. Obstacles to transition planning that were associated with SSI included difficulties managing the receipt of SSI and unawareness of the supports available through the SSI system. (Contains references.)…

  3. Cystic fibrosis: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult-oriented health care.

    PubMed

    Kreindler, James L; Miller, Victoria A

    2013-12-11

    Survival for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) increased to nearly 40 years in 2012 from the early childhood years in the 1940s. Therefore, patients are living long enough to require transition from pediatric CF centers to adult CF centers. The goal of transition is for the young adult to be engaged in the adult health care system in ways that optimize health, maximize potential, and increase quality of life. A successful transition promotes autonomy and responsibility with respect to one's own health. Currently, there is an information gap in the literature with respect to psychological models that can help guide informed transition processes. In this review, we establish the framework in which transition exists in CF; we review some of the published literature from the last 20 years of experience with transition in CF centers around the world; and we discuss psychological models of pediatric illness that can help to explain the current state of transition to adult-oriented care from pediatric-oriented care and help to formulate new models of ascertaining readiness for transition. Finally, we look at our current knowledge gaps and opportunities for future research endeavors.

  4. The "Reverse Commute": Adult Students and the Transition from Professional to Academic Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaud, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The notion of "transporting literacy" across spheres or cultures is a useful way to imagine the transition many of today's adult students make as writers from the literate sphere of the workplace to that of the school--a transition the author refers to in this article as the "reverse commute." By the time such students reach (or rereach) the…

  5. Solid-organ transplantation in childhood: transitioning to adult health care.

    PubMed

    LaRosa, Christopher; Glah, Caryle; Baluarte, H Jorge; Meyers, Kevin E C

    2011-04-01

    Pediatric solid-organ transplantation is an increasingly successful treatment for solid-organ failure. With dramatic improvements in patient survival rates over the last several decades, there has been a corresponding emergence of complications attributable to pretransplant factors, transplantation itself, and the management of transplantation with effective immunosuppression. The predominant solid-organ transplantation sequelae are medical and psychosocial. These sequelae have a substantial effect on transition to adult care; as such, hurdles to successful transition of care arise from the patients, their families, and pediatric and adult health care providers. Crucial to successful transitioning is the ongoing development of a sense of autonomy and responsibility for one's own care. In this article we address the barriers to transitioning that occur with long-term survival in pediatric solid-organ transplantation. Although a particular transitioning model is not promoted, practical tools and strategies that contribute to successful transitioning of pediatric patients who have received a transplant are suggested.

  6. The Lived Experiences of Nurses Transitioning to a Preceptor Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Janice Ampil

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the lived experiences of nurses who have transitioned to a nurse preceptor role and provides examples of how individuals learn in the workplace. Historically, nurses who agreed to become preceptors were chosen based on their availability and experience, not necessarily their teaching and learning abilities. Nursing research has…

  7. The Influence of Role Status on Risky Sexual Behavior among African Americans during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Murry, Velma McBride; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined the links between role status changes during the transition to adulthood and sexual behaviors that place African Americans at risk for sexually transmitted infections. Moreover, the mediating processes that explain these links, or protective factors that may buffer young adults from risky sexual behavior, are unknown.…

  8. Transitions in Care among Older Adults with Dementia in a Nationally Representative Sample of Older Americans

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Christopher M.; Tu, Wanzhu; Unroe, Kathleen T.; LaMantia, Michael A.; Stump, Timothy E.; Clark, Daniel O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Older adults with dementia experience frequent transitions in care Objectives To describe transitions in care among older adults with dementia identified from a nationally representative cohort and to describe transition rates among subjects with more severe levels of cognitive and functional impairment Design Longitudinal cohort study Setting Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Participants 16,186 HRS respondents aged 65 years or over whose survey data were linked with Medicare claims from 1999-2008 Measurements Transitions in care between home, home with formal services, hospital, and nursing facility care, as well as cognitive function, activities of daily living, and mortality. Results The 3,447 (21.3%) HRS subjects who were ever diagnosed with dementia experienced frequent transitions. Among subjects transitioning from a hospital stay, 52.2% returned home without home care services while 33.8% transitioned to a nursing facility. Among subjects transitioning from a nursing facility, 59.2% transitioned to the hospital while 25.3% returned home without services. There were 2,139 transitions to death and 58.7% of HRS subjects with dementia died at home. Even among persons with moderate to severe dementia, we documented multiple transitions in care, including transitions from the hospital to home and back to the hospital. Conclusion In this nationally representative sample of older adults, subjects diagnosed with dementia experience frequent transitions. Those persons with dementia who are cared for at home and who transition back to home often have moderate to severe impairments in both function and cognition. PMID:26200764

  9. Congenital causes of neurogenic bladder and the transition to adult care

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The population of patients with congenital genitourinary disorders has unique healthcare demands that require an additional interpersonal and medical skillset. Adults with congenital neurogenic bladder may have complex urinary anatomy, abnormal bladder function and atypical voiding mechanisms. While initial surgery and care of these patients is typically managed by a pediatric urologist, growth and development into adulthood necessitates transition of care to an adult care team. Failure of transition to adult care has been demonstrated to result in lower quality healthcare and increased risk of developing preventable complications. PMID:26904411

  10. Views of Young People With Chronic Conditions on Transition From Pediatric to Adult Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, Jenni; Mason, Helen; Parr, Jeremy R.; Vale, Luke; Colver, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study sought to identify and describe the views of young people with chronic conditions about the transition from pediatric to adult services. Methods Q methodology was used to identify young people’s views on transition. A set of 39 statements about transition was developed from an existing literature review and refined in consultation with local groups of young people. Statements were printed onto cards and a purposive sample of 44 young people with chronic health conditions was recruited, 41 remaining in the study. The young people were asked to sort the statement cards onto a Q-sort grid, according to their opinions from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree.” Factor analysis was used to identify shared points of view (patterns of similarity between individual’s Q-sorts). Results Four distinct views on transition were identified from young people: (1) “a laid-back view of transition;” (2) “anxiety about transition;” (3) “wanting independence and autonomy during transition;” and (4) “valuing social interaction with family, peers, and professionals to assist transition.” Conclusions Successful transition is likely to be influenced by how young people view the process. Discussing and understanding young people’s views and preferences about transition should help clinicians and young people develop personalized planning for transition as a whole, and more specifically the point of transfer, leading to effective and efficient engagement with adult care. PMID:27287962

  11. Transitioning the Adolescent with IBD from Pediatric to Adult Care: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), has increased in pediatric populations over the last decade. Patients diagnosed during childhood often survive well into adulthood, and therefore their healthcare requires transfer to an adult gastroenterologist, usually at age 18 years. Transition has been defined in the literature as the “purposeful planned movement of adolescents and young adults with chronic conditions from child-centered to adult-oriented health care systems” (Blum et al., 1993). The purpose of this review is to establish the current state of knowledge regarding the transition from pediatric to adult care in IBD. This review highlights that developmentally appropriate transitional care is now recognized as a healthcare priority and thoughtful targeted intervention is needed. PMID:26064100

  12. The microtubule destabilizing protein stathmin controls the transition from dividing neuronal precursors to postmitotic neurons during adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Boekhoorn, Karin; van Dis, Vera; Goedknegt, Erika; Sobel, André; Lucassen, Paul J; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2014-12-01

    The hippocampus is one of the two areas in the mammalian brain where adult neurogenesis occurs. Adult neurogenesis is well known to be involved in hippocampal physiological functions as well as pathophysiological conditions. Microtubules (MTs), providing intracellular transport, stability, and transmitting force, are indispensable for neurogenesis by facilitating cell division, migration, growth, and differentiation. Although there are several examples of MT-stabilizing proteins regulating different aspects of adult neurogenesis, relatively little is known about the function of MT-destabilizing proteins. Stathmin is such a MT-destabilizing protein largely restricted to the CNS, and in contrast to its developmental family members, stathmin is also expressed at significant levels in the adult brain, notably in areas involved in adult neurogenesis. Here, we show an important role for stathmin during adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the mouse hippocampus. After carefully mapping stathmin expression in the adult dentate gyrus (DG), we investigated its role in hippocampal neurogenesis making use of stathmin knockout mice. Although hippocampus development appears normal in these animals, different aspects of adult neurogenesis are affected. First, the number of proliferating Ki-67+ cells is decreased in stathmin knockout mice, as well as the expression of the immature markers Nestin and PSA-NCAM. However, newborn cells that do survive express more frequently the adult marker NeuN and have a more mature morphology. Furthermore, our data suggest that migration in the DG might be affected. We propose a model in which stathmin controls the transition from neuronal precursors to early postmitotic neurons.

  13. Management issues of congenital adrenal hyperplasia during the transition from pediatric to adult care

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Han-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most prevalent form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), accounting for approximately 95% of cases. With the advent of newborn screening and hormone replacement therapy, most children with CAH survive into adulthood. Adolescents and adults with CAH experience a number of complications, including short stature, obesity, infertility, tumor, osteoporosis, and reduced quality of life. Transition from pediatric to adult care and management of long-term complications are challenging for both patients and health-care providers. Psychosocial issues frequently affect adherence to glucocorticoid treatment. Therefore, the safe transition of adolescents to adult care requires regular follow-up of patients by a multidisciplinary team including pediatric and adult endocrinologists. The major goals for management of adults with 21-hydroxylase deficiency are to minimize the long-term complications of glucocorticoid therapy, reduce hyperandrogenism, prevent adrenal or testicular adrenal rest tumors, maintain fertility, and improve quality of life. Optimized medical or surgical treatment strategies should be developed through coordinated care, both during transition periods and throughout patients' lifetimes. This review will summarize current knowledge on the management of adults with CAH, and suggested appropriate approaches to the transition from pediatric to adult care. PMID:28289431

  14. Role of Allergen Sensitization in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Ravi K.; Mathur, Sameer K.

    2012-01-01

    There is a common perception among physicians and patients that allergic diseases are not relevant in older adults. There is recognition that both innate and adaptive immune functions decline with aging. It is the function of a variety of immune cells in the form of allergic inflammation that is a hallmark of allergic diseases. In fact, there is a fairly consistent observation that measures of allergic sensitization, such as skin prick testing, specific IgE or total IgE decline with age. Nonetheless, the association between allergic sensitization and allergic diseases, particularly asthma and allergic rhinitis, remains robust in the elderly population. Consequently, an appropriate evaluation of allergic sensitivities is warranted and indicated in older asthma and rhinitis patients in order to provide optimal care for the individual and minimize any resultant morbidity and mortality. PMID:21667198

  15. The Role of Age and Social Motivation in Developmental Transitions in Young and Old Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Nikitin, Jana; Burgermeister, Lea C.; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2012-01-01

    Two diary studies investigated the role of social approach and avoidance motivation in important developmental transitions in young and old adulthood. Study 1 comprised a sample of young adults (N = 93, M = 21.5 years) who moved out of their parental homes. The sample of Study 2 consisted of older adults (N = 69, M = 76.95 years) who moved into senior housing. In both studies, participants reported their habitual social approach and avoidance motives as well as their daily social experience and subjective well-being over the course of 2 weeks. In line with the literature, social approach motives and age were related to higher subjective well-being, whereas social avoidance motives were negatively associated with subjective well-being. Time since the transition was an important moderator of the association between social avoidance motives and negative outcomes. With increasing time from the transition, the negative effects of social avoidance motives decreased. The positive effects of social approach motives remained fairly stable over time. Importantly, age did not moderate any of the associations between social motivation and outcomes. Results are discussed in terms of transition-related instability and age-related stability. PMID:23060835

  16. Transitioning Adults to College: Adult Basic Education Program Models. NCSALL Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafft, Cynthia; Kallenbach, Silja; Spohn, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    While the majority of adults who take the General Educational Development (GED) test do so in order to continue their education, few go on to enter postsecondary education. Yet, these same adults stand to make substantial economic and personal gains when they use their adult secondary credential to move from the ranks of high school dropout to…

  17. Palliative care answers the challenges of transitioning serious illness of childhood to adult medicine.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Toluwalase A; Edmonds, Kyle P

    2014-04-01

    Advances in the field of medicine have improved the overall life expectancy in children. Consequently, many children with previously lethal diseases now live into adulthood. There is an urgent need to develop approaches that assist with the transition of care from pediatrics to adult medicine. Palliative care, by virtue of its unique skills, is ideally positioned to play a part in this transition. This report will summarize the urgency for proper transition modalities and then introduce palliative care as a proposed solution for current challenges in transition. Along the way, it will touch on financial and workforce obstacles to this solution and will offer a potential funding option.

  18. Adult Education Transition Programs: A Return to Community College Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpherys, Bryce; Acker-Hocevar, Michele

    2012-01-01

    As community colleges face increasingly tight budgets and calls for a renewed focus on improving student outcomes in the form of graduation rates, colleges must address the concept of access. How much access to higher education can they continue to provide low-skilled students in adult education and similar programs? One way to ensure access to…

  19. The role of microglia in adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gemma, Carmelina; Bachstetter, Adam D

    2013-11-22

    Our view of microglia has dramatically changed in the last decade. From cells being "silent" in the healthy brain, microglia have emerged to be actively involved in several brain physiological functions including adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and cognitive and behavioral function. In light of recent discoveries revealing a role of microglia as important effectors of neuronal circuit reorganization, considerable attention has been focused on how microglia and hippocampal neurogenesis could be an interdependent phenomenon. In this review the role of microglia in the adult hippocampal neurogenesis under physiological condition is discussed.

  20. Transition of Patients with Esophageal Atresia to Adult Care: Results of a Transition-Specific Education Program.

    PubMed

    Dingemann, Jens; Szczepanski, Rüdiger; Ernst, Gundula; Thyen, Ute; Ure, Benno; Goll, Melanie; Menrath, Ingo

    2017-02-01

    Aim of the Study A history of esophageal atresia (EA) may result in chronic morbidity. The transition of patients from pediatric to adult care has been recognized as an important factor to maintain disease-specific follow-up and prevent exacerbation of chronic disease. Patient education is recognized as a necessary part of transition programs for children with chronic diseases. Structured education programs for patients with EA have not yet been developed. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a transition-specific educational program in adolescents with a history of EA. Methods An ethical approval was obtained. Patients with a history of EA (age 14-21 years) and their parents were invited to participate in a 2-day transition-specific educational program. Overall, 29 patients and 25 parents were recruited out of whom 10/7 were allocated to the intervention group (program) and 19/18 to the control group (no program). Subjective satisfaction (ZUF-8) and expected effects of the program on the future course of the disease, transition-specific knowledge (standardized questionnaire addressing organizational and health-related aspects of transition), health-related quality of life (DISABKIDS), and confidence for self-management (Patient Activation Measure-13) were measured with appropriate psychological instruments. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Main Results Subjects participating were highly satisfied with the program (patients 26/32 points, parents 25/32; ZUF-8). Overall, 90% of the patients and 67% of the parents anticipated a positive effect on the future course of the disease. Patient's transition-specific knowledge was low before the program (36% correct answers). It improved by 18% after the intervention (56% correct answers; p = 0.004). It did not change in the control group (54 vs. 52%; n.s.). Parent's transition-specific knowledge did not change after the intervention (66 vs. 67% correct answers; ns). In patients, there were no

  1. Adult Agencies: Linkages for Adolescents in Transition. PRO-ED Series on Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozzens, Gary; Dowdy, Carol A.; Smith, Tom E. C.

    This book is intended to be a practical reference for accessing agencies that provide transition services for students with disabilities after they exit school and for including those agencies in the transition planning process while the student is still in public school. Emphasis throughout is on interagency collaboration and the various…

  2. Transition from pediatric to adult health care in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Escher, Johanna C

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a lifelong disease that has great psychosocial impact on the adolescent patient and his/her family. Starting around age 12-14 years, many changes take place related to school, work, and sexual development. At some point, usually around the age of 16-18 years, these patients need to move from the pediatric clinic to the adult caregivers. A stepwise program for transition of care, aimed at coaching the adolescent patient into self-management will benefit patients, parents, and the 'adult gastroenterologist' who will take over the care from the pediatric gastroenterologist. Differences in pediatric and adult health care, transition goals, tips and tools for successful transition will be discussed.

  3. Makorin ortholog LEP-2 regulates LIN-28 stability to promote the juvenile-to-adult transition in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Herrera, R Antonio; Kiontke, Karin; Fitch, David H A

    2016-03-01

    The heterochronic genes lin-28, let-7 and lin-41 regulate fundamental developmental transitions in animals, such as stemness versus differentiation and juvenile versus adult states. We identify a new heterochronic gene, lep-2, in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mutations in lep-2 cause a delay in the juvenile-to-adult transition, with adult males retaining pointed, juvenile tail tips, and displaying defective sexual behaviors. In both sexes, lep-2 mutants fail to cease molting or produce an adult cuticle. We find that LEP-2 post-translationally regulates LIN-28 by promoting LIN-28 protein degradation. lep-2 encodes the sole C. elegans ortholog of the Makorin (Mkrn) family of proteins. Like lin-28 and other heterochronic pathway members, vertebrate Mkrns are involved in developmental switches, including the timing of pubertal onset in humans. Based on shared roles, conservation and the interaction between lep-2 and lin-28 shown here, we propose that Mkrns, together with other heterochronic genes, constitute an evolutionarily ancient conserved module regulating switches in development.

  4. Makorin ortholog LEP-2 regulates LIN-28 stability to promote the juvenile-to-adult transition in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, R. Antonio; Kiontke, Karin; Fitch, David H. A.

    2016-01-01

    The heterochronic genes lin-28, let-7 and lin-41 regulate fundamental developmental transitions in animals, such as stemness versus differentiation and juvenile versus adult states. We identify a new heterochronic gene, lep-2, in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mutations in lep-2 cause a delay in the juvenile-to-adult transition, with adult males retaining pointed, juvenile tail tips, and displaying defective sexual behaviors. In both sexes, lep-2 mutants fail to cease molting or produce an adult cuticle. We find that LEP-2 post-translationally regulates LIN-28 by promoting LIN-28 protein degradation. lep-2 encodes the sole C. elegans ortholog of the Makorin (Mkrn) family of proteins. Like lin-28 and other heterochronic pathway members, vertebrate Mkrns are involved in developmental switches, including the timing of pubertal onset in humans. Based on shared roles, conservation and the interaction between lep-2 and lin-28 shown here, we propose that Mkrns, together with other heterochronic genes, constitute an evolutionarily ancient conserved module regulating switches in development. PMID:26811380

  5. Management of adults with paediatric-onset chronic liver disease: strategic issues for transition care.

    PubMed

    Vajro, Pietro; Ferrante, Lorenza; Lenta, Selvaggia; Mandato, Claudia; Persico, Marcello

    2014-04-01

    Advances in the management of children with chronic liver disease have enabled many to survive into adulthood with or without their native livers, so that the most common of these conditions are becoming increasingly common in adult hepatology practice. Because the aetiologies of chronic liver disease in children may vary significantly from those in adulthood, adults with paediatric-onset chronic liver disease may often present with clinical manifestations unfamiliar to their adulthood physician. Transition of medical care to adult practice requires that the adulthood medical staff (primary physicians and subspecialists) have a comprehensive knowledge of childhood liver disease and their implications, and of the differences in caring for these patients. Pending still unavailable Scientific Society guidelines, this article examines causes, presentation modes, evaluation, management, and complications of the main paediatric-onset chronic liver diseases, and discusses key issues to aid in planning a program of transition from paediatric to adult patients.

  6. Bridges and barriers to successful transitioning as perceived by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Giarelli, Ellen; Ruttenberg, Jean; Segal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this thematic content analysis we examined the expectations, and perceived facilitators of (referred to as bridges) and barriers to transition to community as reported by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome. Participants were adolescents/young adults, ages 18-23 years were from the East Coast of the United States. Seventy percent of adolescents hoped for employment (n = 10). Thirty percent desired to find a partner and raise a family. Perceived barriers were: self-assessed behavioral problems, self-assessed associated features, other personal factors, and institutional factors. Bridges to facilitate transition were: accommodations in the community, cognitive abilities, personal qualities/strengths, and mentor's qualities.

  7. Transition of Care for Young Adult Survivors of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer: Rationale and Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Freyer, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Young adult survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer are an ever-growing population of patients, many of whom remain at lifelong risk for potentially serious complications of their cancer therapy. Yet research shows that many of these older survivors have deficient health-related knowledge and are not engaging in recommended health promotion and screening practices that could improve their long-term outcomes. The purpose of this review is to address these disparities by discussing how formal transition of care from pediatric to adult-focused survivorship services may help meet the unique medical, developmental, and psychosocial challenges of these young adults. Design Literature review and discussion. Results This article summarizes current research documenting the medical needs of young adult survivors, their suboptimal compliance with recommended follow-up, and the rationale, essential functions, current models, and innovative approaches for transition of follow-up care. Conclusion Systematic health care transition constitutes the standard of care for young adult survivors of childhood cancer. In developing a transitional care program, it is necessary to consider the scope of services to be provided, available resources, and other local exigencies that help determine the optimal model for use. Additional research is needed to improve health services delivery to this population. Effective advocacy is needed, particularly in the United States, to ensure the availability of uninterrupted health insurance coverage for survivorship services in young adulthood. PMID:20351333

  8. Jump Start: The Federal Role in Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A study examined the Federal Government's role in adult literacy. A far-reaching plan of action for the Federal Government was proposed that was based on an understanding of national literacy need and the structure and politics of Federal Government. The focus of the current national literacy movement was found to be seriously flawed in…

  9. The role of transition metal ions chemistry on multiphase chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguillaume, L.; Leriche, M.; Monod, A.; Chaumerliac, N.

    2003-04-01

    A modelling study of the role of transition metal ions chemistry on cloud chemistry is presented. First, new developments of the Model of Multiphase Cloud Chemistry (M2C2) are described: the transition metal ions reactivity and variable photolysis in the aqueous phase. Secondly, three summertime scenarios describing urban, remote and marine conditions are simulated. First, comparisons between results from M2C2 and from CAPRAM2.3 models for the same scenarios (Herrmann et al., 2000) show a good agreement between the two models with respect to their different chemical mechanisms. Secondly, chemical regimes in cloud are analysed to understand the role of transition metal ions chemistry on cloud chemistry. This study focuses on HOx chemistry, which afterwards influences the sulphur and the VOCs chemistry in droplets. The ratio of Fe(II)/Fe(III) exhibits a diurnal variation with values in agreement with the few measurements of Fe speciation available. In the polluted case, sensitivity tests with and without TMI chemistry, show an enhancement of OH concentration in the aqueous phase when TMI chemistry is considered. This implies a more important oxidation of VOCs in droplets, which produces the HO2 radical, the hydrogen peroxide precursor. In fact, the HO2 radical is mainly converted into hydrogen peroxide by reactions between HO2/O2- radicals with Fe(II). This production of hydrogen peroxide leads to a rapid conversion of S(IV) into S(VI) at the beginning of the simulation.

  10. Transition to Adult-Oriented Health Care: Perspectives of Youth and Adults with Complex Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorter, Jan Willem

    2009-01-01

    In their qualitative study, Young and colleagues (2009) found that youth and adults with cerebral palsy (CP), spina bifida, and acquired brain injuries of childhood in the province of Ontario, Canada, perceive or have perceived their transfer from pediatric to adult-oriented health care services as a struggle. Although publications on transition…

  11. A course on the transition to adult care of patients with childhood-onset chronic illnesses.

    PubMed

    Hagood, James S; Lenker, Claire V; Thrasher, Staci

    2005-04-01

    Children with special health care needs born today have a 90% chance of surviving into adulthood, making their transition to adult systems of care an issue that will affect almost all physicians. However, many adult generalists and specialists are not familiar with the management of chronic diseases that begin in childhood. While the public health system has made transition to appropriate adult care a priority, and many specialty organizations have endorsed this concept, there are no published studies addressing how the concept of transition can be taught to medical students or residents. The authors describe a one-week course for medical students, begun in 2001 at their institution, that addresses the transition for youth with special health care needs, emphasizing patient and family-centered care, cultural competence, and decision making in end-of-life issues. Cystic fibrosis, a common genetic disease with increasing life expectancy, is used as the model for the course. Involvement of interdisciplinary faculty, interviews with youth with special health care needs and family caregivers, readings from academic and nonacademic literature, and group discussions are presented as teaching methods. Key insights based on experience with the course are the need to include the voices of patients and families, the use of faculty from various professions and specialties to model interdisciplinary care, and the insight that problems specific to transition offer into contemporary health care financing. Future studies should measure the impact of such courses on students' knowledge of transition issues, and determine essential information required for physicians in practice.

  12. Sirtuins and Cancer: Role in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Della-Morte, David; Capuani, Barbara; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The human sirtuins (SIRT1–SIRT7) enzymes are a highly conserved family of NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases, which play a critical role in the regulation of a large number of metabolic pathways involved in stress response and aging. Cancer is an age-associated disease, and sirtuins may have a considerable impact on a plethora of processes that regulate tumorigenesis. In particular, growing evidence suggests that sirtuins may modulate epithelial plasticity by inducing transcriptional reprogramming leading to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, and metastases. Though commonly regarded as EMT inducers, sirtuins may also suppress this process, and their functional properties seem to largely depend on the cellular context, stage of cancer development, tissue of origin, and microenvironment architecture. Here, we review the role of sirtuins in cancer biology with particular emphasis on their role in EMT. PMID:27379175

  13. Linkage to and retention in care following healthcare transition from pediatric to adult HIV care.

    PubMed

    Ryscavage, Patrick; Macharia, Thomas; Patel, Devang; Palmeiro, Robyn; Tepper, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Outcomes following healthcare transition (HCT) from pediatric to adult HIV care are not well described. We sought to describe clinical outcomes following HCT within our institution among young adults with behavioral-acquired (N = 31) and perinatally-acquired (N = 19) HIV. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among HIV-infected adults who attempted transition from pediatric to adult HIV care within our institution. The primary end point was retention in care, defined as the completion of at least two visits over 12 months following linkage to adult care. Additional end points include time to linkage to adult care, and changes in CD4 + T cell count and HIV RNA across time. Outcomes were compared between perinatal and behavioral HIV cohorts. Binary data were analyzed using the Fisher exact test and continuous data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Forty-three (86%) of 50 patients were successfully linked to adult care. The median time to linkage was 98 days. Fifty percent of patients achieved full retention in care at 12 months post-linkage. Though those with behavioral-acquired HIV attempted transfer at an older age, the groups did not differ in rates of linkage and retention in adult care. CD4 + T cell counts and rates of viral suppression did not differ between pre- and post-HCT periods. Despite high rates of successful linkage to adult care in our study population, rates of retention in adult HIV care following HCT were low. These results imply that challenges remain in the adult HIV care setting toward improving the HCT process.

  14. Healthcare transitions of older adults: an overview for the general practitioner.

    PubMed

    Vognar, Lidia; Mujahid, Nadia

    2014-04-01

    Healthcare transition refers to the care "hand-off" of a patient among providers and treatment settings. Older adults experience more frequent care transitions than younger patients due to the presence of co-morbidities, cognitive impairment, increased dependence and medication use. Hospitalization and subsequent readmission after discharge to a nursing home represents a unique care transition situation. It is estimated that as many as 60% of readmissions from nursing homes can be avoided. Poor communication between hospital and nursing home staff; delayed, inaccurate, or missing discharge summaries; lack of accurate medication reconciliation; pending test results; inappropriate follow-up; and poor education of patient and families all contribute to poor care transition quality, and increase the probability of rehospitalization. Interventions for improved care transitions are suggested. They focus on patient and family-centered care effectiveness, minimizing adverse events, and increasing timely, accurate and complete communication.

  15. MET: roles in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stemness

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hye-Min

    2017-01-01

    In a number of cancers, deregulated MET pathway leads to aberrantly activated proliferative and invasive signaling programs that promote malignant transformation, cell motility and migration, angiogenesis, survival in hypoxia, and invasion. A better understanding of oncogenic MET signaling will help us to discover effective therapeutic approaches and to identify which tumors are likely to respond to MET-targeted cancer therapy. In this review, we will summarize the roles of MET signaling in cancer, with particular focus on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stemness. Then, we will provide update on MET targeting agents and discuss the challenges that should be overcome for the development of an effective therapy. PMID:28164090

  16. Transition Strategies for Adolescents and Young Adults Who Use AAC. AAC Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, David B., Ed.; Beukelman, David R., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    To make a smooth transition to a fulfilling, self-determined adult life, young people who use Augmentative-Alternative Communication (AAC) need effective services that meet their individual needs and make the most of advances in technology. Professionals will provide these critical supports with the help of this book, the first complete guide to…

  17. The Ticking of the Social Clock: Adults' Beliefs about the Timing of Transition Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    1996-01-01

    Two studies regarding beliefs about descriptive and prescriptive age norms for adults in developmental transitions were examined in a sample of 214 Australian university students ages 17 to 50. Discusses research methodology. The probable consequences for self-esteem, mental health, and life planning are discussed in the context of the research…

  18. Transition of Youth and Young Adults with Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties: An Evidence-Supported Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Hewitt B., Ed.; Unruh, Deanne K., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive professional handbook will help transition specialists, general and special educators, school psychologists, and administrators support youth and young adults in setting goals and achieving positive outcomes across employment, education, and community settings. Through up-to-date research and in-depth analyses of five successful…

  19. A Review of the Approaches Investigating the Post-16 Transition of Young Adults with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into the lives and transition from compulsory schooling of young adults with a disability, including a learning difficulty (LD), are increasing. The emerging consensus is one which points to this group of young people experiencing greater difficulties and poorer outcomes compared to the general population. How these investigations…

  20. A Transition-to-College Course for Adult Learners: Effects on GPA and Time to Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help fill the knowledge gap on stand-alone transition-to-college courses for adult students in an institutional setting where such courses have been extensively utilized via different delivery mediums. The ultimate goal was to use the knowledge obtained to aid personnel who work with nontraditional degree programs…

  1. A Key to Evaluation: The Transition Competence Battery for Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cheryl; Leonard, Annette

    2007-01-01

    Guiding deaf and hard of hearing students in making important decisions about their adult careers can be a difficult task. Twenty years after its inception, the TCB, as adapted for deaf and hard of hearing students, may help. The TCB is a unique assessment tool designed to measure the transition skills of deaf high school adolescents and young…

  2. State Strategies to Facilitate Adult Learners' Transitions to Postsecondary Opportunities. REL 2017-223

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hector-Mason, Anestine; Narlock, Jason; Muhisani, Helen; Bhatt, Monica P.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has classified strategies to facilitate adult learners' transitions to postsecondary opportunities into five broad categories: advising, General Educational Development-plus (GED-plus), English as a second language, career pathways, and college preparatory (Zafft, Kallenbach, & Spohn, 2006). This two-part study relied on…

  3. Examining Emerging-Adults' and Parents' Expectations about Autonomy during the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Koerner, Susan Silverberg

    2009-01-01

    Our research goals were to document levels and examine the potential discrepancies of emerging-adults' and parents' expectations for autonomous behavior during the transition to college. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 204 incoming college freshmen (n = 150 females, n = 54 males) and 226 parents (n = 173 mothers, n = 53…

  4. Transitioning an Adult-Serving University to a Blended Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korr, Jeremy; Derwin, Ellen Baker; Greene, Kimberly; Sokoloff, William

    2012-01-01

    While many institutions deliver some classes in blended format, Brandman University transitioned all of its face-to-face classes to blended delivery, using a model tailored to the needs of adult learners. This article provides research supporting the ways that blended learning principles align with key principles of andragogy. The article provides…

  5. Developing Character Identity: A New Framework for Counseling Adults in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott E.

    2006-01-01

    Counselors working with adults in transition can integrate the principles of character development with talk therapy, creating a framework for dialogue about the relationship between clients' character identity and their personal struggles and successes. Intervention strategies are proposed focusing on developing character identity for more…

  6. Role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in stress resilience

    PubMed Central

    Levone, Brunno R.; Cryan, John F.; O'Leary, Olivia F.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in emotional and cognitive processes related to psychiatric disorders. Although many studies have investigated the effects of stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, most have not focused on whether stress-induced changes in neurogenesis occur specifically in animals that are more resilient or more susceptible to the behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of stress. Thus, in the present review we explore whether there is a clear relationship between stress-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, stress resilience and antidepressant-induced recovery from stress-induced changes in behaviour. Exposure to different stressors is known to reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but some stressors have also been shown to exert opposite effects. Ablation of neurogenesis does not lead to a depressive phenotype, but it can enhance responsiveness to stress and affect stress susceptibility. Monoaminergic-targeted antidepressants, environmental enrichment and adrenalectomy are beneficial for reversing stress-induced changes in behaviour and have been shown to do so in a neurogenesis-dependant manner. In addition, stress and antidepressants can affect hippocampal neurogenesis, preferentially in the ventral hippocampus. Together, these data show that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in the neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress, although it is not yet fully clear under which circumstances neurogenesis promotes resilience or susceptibility to stress. It will be important that future studies carefully examine how adult hippocampal neurogenesis can contribute to stress resilience/susceptibility so that it may be appropriately exploited for the development of new and more effective treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:27589664

  7. Provision of Transition Education and Referral Patterns from Pediatric Cardiology to Adult Cardiac Care.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Anna L; Grady, Stafford; Chi, Kevin; Fernandes, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    ACC/AHA guidelines recommend a structured preparation for and transfer to adult-oriented cardiac care for adult survivors of pediatric onset heart disease (POHD). Given this, we sought to describe the transition and transfer practices for a cohort of young adults with POHD and to determine factors associated with successful transfer to adult-oriented cardiac care. We performed a single-center, retrospective chart review on patients ≥18 years of age, with POHD likely to require lifelong cardiac care, who were seen in outpatient pediatric cardiology (PC) between 2008 and 2011. Successful transfer was defined as the subsequent attendance at adult cardiology (AC) within 2 years of PC visit. We identified 118 patients who met study criteria. Mean age 22.4 ± 2.0 years, 59 % male, 64 % white and 40 % Hispanic. Mean transition education topics noted was 3.3 ± 1.8 out of 20 and covered the underlying cardiac disease (89 %), follow-up and current medications (56 %) and exercise limitations (34 %). Recommendations for follow-up were AC (57 %) and PC (33 %). Of those told to transfer to AC, 79 % successfully transferred. Characteristics of successful transfer included: prior cardiac surgery (p = 0.008), cardiac medication use (p = 0.006) and frequency of follow-up ≤1 year (p = 0.037). One-quarter of all subjects did not follow-up within at least 2 years. Despite published guidelines, transition education appears lacking and the approach to transfer to adult cardiac care is not consistent. Given the increased risk of morbidity and mortality in this patient population, standardization of transition education and transfer processes appear warranted.

  8. Sedentary behavior among adults: The role of community belonging.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Scott; Currie, Cheryl L; Copeland, Jennifer L

    2016-12-01

    Sedentary behavior is a modifiable determinant of health. Little is known about the ways in which contextual factors may influence this behavior. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the association between community belonging and adult sedentary behavior during leisure; (2) determine if this association was explained by perceived health. Data were derived from the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 11,494 adults). Multinomial regression models and 99% confidence intervals were used to examine associations between sense of community belonging and sedentary behavior, adjusting for sociodemographic variables and perceived health. On average, adults were sedentary for 20-24 h per week during leisure. More than a third of the sample reported low sedentary behavior (≤ 19 h a week). In a fully adjusted model participants who were female, in middle adulthood, married, and/or living in higher income households were less sedentary during leisure. Adults with a strong sense of community belonging were also significantly less sedentary during leisure; this association remained significant after adjustment for perceived mental and overall health. Most efforts to address sedentary behavior have focused on individual-level interventions. The present finding highlights the role that larger contextual factors may play in sedentary behavior. Sense of community belonging is a contextual determinant of health that may serve as a useful target for interventions designed to reduce adult sedentary behavior during leisure.

  9. Reconsidering adulthood: Relative constructions of adult identity during the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Panagakis, Christina

    2015-03-01

    This article explores how peers influence the process of adult identity development during the transition to adulthood. The influence of peers leads to similar individuals adopting differing definitions of adulthood. Utilizing data from interviews with 60 young adults who are all exactly 30 years old, findings indicate that peer groups can partly explain variation in self-perceived definitions of adulthood. Respondents described how peers influence the transition to adulthood in two ways. First, they measure the timing of their transitions relative to their peers. Second, they assess the nature of their transitions relative to what they perceive to be the normative nature of that transition within their peer group. While this process was reported by respondents across gender and education level, the outcomes varied between individuals who are demographically similar. Variation in self-perceived status is due in part to the differences between peer groups, as the reference point for each individual varies from one peer group to another. These findings suggest that norms about adulthood are perceived at the group level, which can explain why differing feelings of adulthood exist among individuals who have completed comparable transitions and share similar status characteristics. As previous research has focused on adulthood norms that exist primarily at the societal level, this study expands on that work by suggesting that salient adulthood norms may be developed and referenced at multiple levels.

  10. Siblings of Adults With Schizophrenia: Expectations About Future Caregiving Roles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew J.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2008-01-01

    Sibling expectations to provide future instrumental or emotional support for a brother or sister with schizophrenia when parents became disabled or died were examined. Data came from a sample of 137 siblings participating in a longitudinal study of aging families of adults with schizophrenia. Early socialization experiences, the quality of the sibling relationship, and personal caregiver gains propel siblings toward a future caregiving role, whereas geographic distance and beliefs about the controllability of psychiatric symptoms reduce expectations of future involvement. PMID:17352582

  11. Transition Services for DHH Adolescents and Young Adults With Disabilities: Challenges and Theoretical Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Luft, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) adolescents and young adults with disabilities (DWD) are a highly diverse group who may also demonstrate a range of functional limitations. These present unique challenges to professional efforts to provide high-quality transition services. Despite these issues, a majority of this population has cognitive abilities within the typical range, and therefore, their transition expectations should be commensurately high in comparison to those of their DHH peers. Research-based transition practices offer a range of interventions, and although none have been validated with DHH or DWD students, several provide important foundational learning opportunities. Yet their implementation will require modifications with programming and expertise beyond what is available in most school districts. Use of a multilevel, ecological framework and person-centered planning offers systematic strategies for increasing access to transition resources and supports to address these unique needs and lead to successful adulthood.

  12. The transition experience of developmentally impaired young adults living in a structured apartment setting.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Geraldine S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to identify the lived experience of young adults with a history of pervasive developmental disorder and associated difficulties with aggressive behavior transitioning into independent living through a transitional apartment program. Nine men and 1 woman, aged 18 to 24 years, were interviewed. Nine were interviewed in their apartment, and 1 was interviewed in an adjacent staff office. Individuals were dealing with normative transition issues of adolescence compounded by significant developmental and psychiatric impairments that tended to delay their developmental trajectories. Themes of poor physical health and loss were identified. The research emphasized the need for individually tailored transition services based on needs and level of disability.

  13. Unhealthy lifestyles among older adults: exploring transitions in Mexico and the US.

    PubMed

    Wong, Rebeca; Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Yount, Kathryn; Agree, Emily M

    2008-12-01

    Lifestyle risk factors are important precursors of old age disease and disability, and the population level impact of these factors likely differs across countries that vary in their economic growth and the attributes of the populations that adopt and abandon unhealthy lifestyles. This paper describes the stage of "lifestyle transition" among older adults in two countries with vastly different trajectories of socio-economic development. A series of hypotheses are proposed on the socioeconomic patterns of health risk factors that would be expected in the two countries, given their economic circumstances and the historical timing of policy interventions that were initiated to mitigate lifestyle risks in these populations. The paper compares the prevalence of smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, obesity, and lack of physical exercise, as well as the socioeconomic and demographic covariates of these risk factors, among adults aged 55 and older in Mexico and the United States. The findings indicate that smoking- and physical-activity-related transitions toward healthier lifestyles are well under way among older adults in the United States but not in Mexico, whereas a trend toward reduced levels of obesity has just begun in the United States but not in Mexico. There is no evidence of a transition in heavy alcohol drinking in either country among older adults.

  14. Attitudes of rheumatology practitioners toward transition and transfer from pediatric to adult healthcare.

    PubMed

    Hilderson, Deborah; Moons, Philip; Westhovens, Rene; Wouters, Carine

    2012-12-01

    We explored the attitudes of rheumatology practitioners toward the transition and transfer of adolescents with a rheumatic disorder from pediatric to adult healthcare. Rheumatology practitioners attending the Pediatric Rheumatology European Society (PRES) Congress in 2010 were asked to complete the Questionnaire about Attitudes of Rheumatology Practitioners Toward Transfer and Transition (QUARTT), an instrument that was specifically devised for this study. Overall, 138 healthcare professionals participated (response rate, 55.2%). Participants believed that when patients with an active rheumatic disorder reach adulthood, they should receive medical follow-up from an adult rheumatologist (87%). Only 19% thought that patients should remain under the surveillance of a pediatric rheumatologist. Several initiating factors for transfer were marked as important: readiness of the patient according to the caregiver (62%), age (61%), and psychosocial maturity (49%). A transfer meeting with the patient (76%), a referral letter (73%), and a medical transfer file (64%) were the most preferred transfer communication methods. Joint outpatient clinics, phone calls, and transfer meetings without the patient were considered to be less useful. Pediatric (94%) or adult (83%) rheumatologists, parents (81%), and nurse specialists (74%) were stated as the most important active participants in the transition process. Responders favored essential transition components because young people should be assisted on how to become independent (96%), how to deal with fatigue (91%), and how to establish medication adherence (90%). In conclusion, this study emphasized the importance of transfer to specialized rheumatology care of adolescents with an active rheumatic disease and highlighted transfer initiators and transfer communication tools.

  15. Partners in the Process: A Handbook on Transition for School and Community Programs Serving Learning Disabled Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern Maine, Portland. Human Services Development Inst.

    The handbook is intended for school and community programs helping learning disabled young adults make the transition from school to work. The first chapter describes development of the Transition Project by York County (Maine) and project components including referral, assessment, membership on the Transitional Pupil Evaluation Team, the…

  16. Roles for oestrogen receptor β in adult brain function.

    PubMed

    Handa, R J; Ogawa, S; Wang, J M; Herbison, A E

    2012-01-01

    Oestradiol exerts a profound influence upon multiple brain circuits. For the most part, these effects are mediated by oestrogen receptor (ER)α. We review here the roles of ERβ, the other ER isoform, in mediating rodent oestradiol-regulated anxiety, aggressive and sexual behaviours, the control of gonadotrophin secretion, and adult neurogenesis. Evidence exists for: (i) ERβ located in the paraventricular nucleus underpinning the suppressive influence of oestradiol on the stress axis and anxiety-like behaviour; (ii) ERβ expressed in gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones contributing to oestrogen negative-feedback control of gonadotrophin secretion; (iii) ERβ controlling the offset of lordosis behaviour; (iv) ERβ suppressing aggressive behaviour in males; (v) ERβ modulating responses to social stimuli; and (vi) ERβ in controlling adult neurogenesis. This review highlights two major themes; first, ERβ and ERα are usually tightly inter-related in the oestradiol-dependent control of a particular brain function. For example, even though oestradiol feedback to control reproduction occurs principally through ERα-dependent mechanisms, modulatory roles for ERβ also exist. Second, the roles of ERα and ERβ within a particular neural network may be synergistic or antagonistic. Examples of the latter include the role of ERα to enhance, and ERβ to suppress, anxiety-like and aggressive behaviours. Splice variants such as ERβ2, acting as dominant negative receptors, are of further particular interest because their expression levels may reflect preceeding oestradiol exposure of relevance to oestradiol replacement therapy. Together, this review highlights the predominant modulatory, but nonetheless important, roles of ERβ in mediating the many effects of oestradiol upon adult brain function.

  17. Adolescents growing with HIV/AIDS: experiences of the transition from pediatrics to adult care.

    PubMed

    Machado, Daisy Maria; Galano, Eliana; de Menezes Succi, Regina Célia; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to describe the formation of the Transition Adolescent Clinic (TAC) and understand the process of transitioning adolescents with HIV/AIDS from pediatric to adult care, from the vantage point of individuals subjected to this process. A qualitative method and an intentional sample selected by criteria were adopted for this investigation, which was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. An in-depth semi-structured interview was conducted with sixteen HIV-infected adolescents who had been part of a transitioning protocol. Adolescents expressed the need for more time to become adapted in the transition process. Having grown up under the care of a team of health care providers made many participants have reluctance toward transitioning. Concerns in moving away from their pediatricians and feelings of disruption, abandonment, or rejection were mentioned. Participants also expressed confidence in the pediatric team. At the same time they showed interest in the new team and expected to have close relationships with them. They also ask to have previous contacts with the adult health care team before the transition. Their talks suggest that they require slightly more time, not the time measured in days or months, but the time measured by constitutive experiences capable of building an expectation of future. This study examines the way in which the adolescents feel, and help to transform the health care transition model used at a public university. Listening to the adolescents' voices is crucial to a better understanding of their needs. They are those who can help the professionals reaching alternatives for a smooth and successful health care transition.

  18. Recommendations for the transition of patients with ADHD from child to adult healthcare services: a consensus statement from the UK adult ADHD network.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan; Adamou, Marios; Asherson, Philip; Coghill, David; Colley, Bill; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Hollis, Chris; McCarthy, Jane; Müller, Ulrich; Paul, Moli; Pitts, Mark; Arif, Muhammad

    2016-08-26

    The aim of this consensus statement was to discuss transition of patients with ADHD from child to adult healthcare services, and formulate recommendations to facilitate successful transition. An expert workshop was convened in June 2012 by the UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN), attended by a multidisciplinary team of mental health professionals, allied professionals and patients. It was concluded that transitions must be planned through joint meetings involving referring/receiving services, patients and their families. Negotiation may be required to balance parental desire for continued involvement in their child's care, and the child's growing autonomy. Clear transition protocols can maintain standards of care, detailing relevant timeframes, responsibilities of agencies and preparing contingencies. Transition should be viewed as a process not an event, and should normally occur by the age of 18, however flexibility is required to accommodate individual needs. Transition is often poorly experienced, and adherence to clear recommendations is necessary to ensure effective transition and prevent drop-out from services.

  19. The role of the hippocampus in transitive inference

    PubMed Central

    Zalesak, Martin; Heckers, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Transitive inference (TI) is the ability to infer the relationship between items (e.g., A>C) after having learned a set of premise pairs (e.g., A>B and B>C). Previous studies in humans have identified a distributed neural network, including cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus, during TI judgments. We studied two aspects of TI using fMRI of subjects who had acquired the 6-item sequence (A>B>C>D>E>F) of visual stimuli. First, the identification of novel pairs not containing end items (i.e., B>D, C>E, B>E) was associated with greater left hippocampal activation when compared to the identification of novel pairs containing end items A and F. This demonstrates that the identification of stimulus pairs requiring the flexible representation of a sequence is associated with hippocampal activation. Second, for the three novel pairs devoid of end items we found greater right hippocampal activation for pairs B>D and C>E compared with pair B>E. This indicates that TI decisions on pairs derived from more adjacent items in the sequence are associated with greater hippocampal activation. Hippocampal activation thus scales with the degree of relational processing necessary for TI judgments. Both findings confirm a role of the hippocampus in transitive inference in humans. PMID:19216061

  20. The role of goals and alcohol behavior during the transition out of college.

    PubMed

    Radomski, Sharon A; Read, Jennifer P; Bowker, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    Personal goals are desired outcomes that guide behavior (Palfai, Ralston, & Wright, 2011), and are typically oriented around age-appropriate developmental tasks (e.g., college graduation, employment). Goals and their pursuit take on much salience during senior year of college as individuals prepare for the transition into adult roles. This also is a time during which naturalistic changes in alcohol consumption are occurring. These changes may impact the relationship between age-related goals and their attainment, thus compromising the likelihood of a successful transition out of college. The present study examined whether and how changes in drinking over senior year moderate the association between achievement goals and related developmental task attainment as students move toward transitioning out of college. Alcohol-involved college seniors (N = 437; 62.5% female) were assessed via web survey in September of their senior year and again 1 year later (T4). Results of multinomial logistic regression revealed that greater achievement goals were predictive of college graduation (vs. remaining a continuing undergraduate), but only for those whose drinking decreased during senior year. Among those graduated by T4 (n = 307), achievement goals predicted pursuing graduate education (vs. being unemployed), but only for students whose drinking increased during senior year. Thus, achievement goals are important predictors of goal attainment as students prepare to transition out of college, and these goals can interact with drinking in complex ways during this time. Findings suggest that interventions aimed at bolstering personal goals and reducing drinking during senior year may increase the likelihood of successful transitions out of the college environment.

  1. The role of olfactory stimulus in adult mammalian neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Arisi, Gabriel M; Foresti, Maira L; Mukherjee, Sanjib; Shapiro, Lee A

    2012-02-14

    Neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian brain in discrete regions related to olfactory sensory signaling and integration. The olfactory receptor cell population is in constant turn-over through local progenitor cells. Also, newborn neurons are added to the olfactory bulbs through a major migratory route from the subventricular zone, the rostral migratory stream. The olfactory bulbs project to different brain structures, including: piriform cortex, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, striatum and hippocampus. These structures play important roles in odor identification, feeding behavior, social interactions, reproductive behavior, behavioral reinforcement, emotional responses, learning and memory. In all of these regions neurogenesis has been described in normal and in manipulated mammalian brain. These data are reviewed in the context of a sensory-behavioral hypothesis on adult neurogenesis that olfactory input modulates neurogenesis in many different regions of the brain.

  2. Adult Attachment and Dyadic Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Shame.

    PubMed

    Martins, Teresa C; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moreira, Helena

    2016-07-03

    Although it is widely recognized that adult attachment is associated with romantic relationship quality, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of external and internal shame on the association between attachment and dyadic adjustment. A battery of self-report measures was completed by 228 Portuguese participants and a serial multiple mediation model was tested. Data showed that, in the population under study, attachment dimensions were associated with worse dyadic adjustment through high external and internal shame. Internal shame alone also mediated the association between attachment avoidance and dyadic adjustment. This study identifies a new putative mechanism linking adult attachment and intimate relationship functioning that may be targeted in couples therapy to promote a better dyadic adjustment and relationship functioning.

  3. An essential and evolutionarily conserved role of protein arginine methyltransferase 1 for adult intestinal stem cells during postembryonic development.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hiroki; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2010-11-01

    Organ-specific adult stem cells are critical for the homeostasis of adult organs and organ repair and regeneration. Unfortunately, it has been difficult to investigate the origins of these stem cells and the mechanisms of their development, especially in mammals. Intestinal remodeling during frog metamorphosis offers a unique opportunity for such studies. During the transition from an herbivorous tadpole to a carnivorous frog, the intestine is completely remodeled as the larval epithelial cells undergo apoptotic degeneration and are replaced by adult epithelial cells developed de novo. The entire metamorphic process is under the control of thyroid hormone, making it possible to control the development of the adult intestinal stem cells. Here, we show that the thyroid hormone receptor-coactivator protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is upregulated in a small number of larval epithelial cells and that these cells dedifferentiate to become the adult stem cells. More importantly, transgenic overexpression of PRMT1 leads to increased adult stem cells in the intestine, and conversely, knocking down the expression of endogenous PRMT1 reduces the adult stem cell population. In addition, PRMT1 expression pattern during zebrafish and mouse development suggests that PRMT1 may play an evolutionally conserved role in the development of adult intestinal stem cells throughout vertebrates. These findings are not only important for the understanding of organ-specific adult stem cell development but also have important implications in regenerative medicine of the digestive tract.

  4. Factors Influencing Changes in Eating Patterns Among Hong Kong Young Adults Transitioning to Tertiary Education.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sin Tung; Capra, Sandra; Leveritt, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Transitioning to tertiary education is a significant life course event that has the potential to influence lifelong eating patterns. This study used a theoretic model developed from a life course perspective to examine factors influencing the change of food choices among 31 young adults in Hong Kong after they moved on to tertiary education. Qualitative analysis of transcripts based on the constant comparative method revealed that present life course experiences, especially increased autonomy, and social-environmental factors strongly influenced young adults' present food choices. A model was developed from life course theory and social-ecological theory to reflect the factors that led to change of food choices among participants. The model provides unique insights on food choices of the future adult population. It could also be used as a reference for the development of nutrition education interventions targeting tertiary students as they experience increased autonomy. In conclusion, food choices of young adults on transitioning to tertiary education are strongly influenced by increased autonomy and change of social and environmental factors.

  5. Unhealthy lifestyles among older adults: exploring transitions in Mexico and the US

    PubMed Central

    Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Yount, Kathryn; Agree, Emily M.

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle risk factors are important precursors of old age disease and disability, and the population level impact of these factors likely differs across countries that vary in their economic growth and the attributes of the populations that adopt and abandon unhealthy lifestyles. This paper describes the stage of “lifestyle transition” among older adults in two countries with vastly different trajectories of socio-economic development. A series of hypotheses are proposed on the socioeconomic patterns of health risk factors that would be expected in the two countries, given their economic circumstances and the historical timing of policy interventions that were initiated to mitigate lifestyle risks in these populations. The paper compares the prevalence of smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, obesity, and lack of physical exercise, as well as the socioeconomic and demographic covariates of these risk factors, among adults aged 55 and older in Mexico and the United States. The findings indicate that smoking- and physical-activity-related transitions toward healthier lifestyles are well under way among older adults in the United States but not in Mexico, whereas a trend toward reduced levels of obesity has just begun in the United States but not in Mexico. There is no evidence of a transition in heavy alcohol drinking in either country among older adults. PMID:25419206

  6. Perturbation of upper gastrointestinal transit and antroduodenal motility by experimentally applied stress: the role of beta-adrenoreceptor mediated pathways.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J D; Thompson, D G; Day, S J; Burnham, W R; Walker, E

    1989-11-01

    A series of three experiments were performed on healthy adult volunteers to investigate the possible role played by beta-adrenoreceptor mediated pathways in the disturbance of human upper intestinal motor function by hand immersion in cold water. In the first experiment, (an extended pilot study on one individual), orocaecal transit of a standard meal was measured on 36 occasions with and without cold water stimulation and with and without a series of alpha and beta blocking drugs. Cold water stimulation consistently delayed transit in this individual, an effect which was attenuated by prior beta-blockade. In a double blind trial of the effect of beta-blocker atenolol v placebo on transit in nine individuals, a consistent reduction in the cold water induced transit delay was observed (p less than 0.01) independent of any direct effect of beta-blockade. In the third experiment seven individuals underwent repeated studies of antroduodenal pressure activity comparing the effects of cold and warm water stimulation with and without beta blockade to determine whether the observed transit effect could be related to an action on gastrointestinal motility. Cold water stimulation reduced antroduodenal motility, but no consistent effects of previous beta blockade were noted. These studies indicate the presence of a beta-adrenoreceptor mediated pathway in the cold water induced delay of orocaecal transit but not in the inhibition of gastroduodenal motility. Further studies are indicated to determine the site and mode of action of this transit effect more precisely.

  7. Emerging Adult Identity Development, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems During the Transition out of College

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Jonathan R.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as “maturing out,” are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (wave 1) and the two following years (waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of “maturing out” and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. PMID:27077443

  8. Emerging adult identity development, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems during the transition out of college.

    PubMed

    Gates, Jonathan R; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early 20s and declines with age. These declines, referred to as "maturing out," are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g., marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g., personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (Wave 1) and the 2 following years (Waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time-varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of maturing out and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Apkarian, A Vania; Mutso, Amelia A; Centeno, Maria V; Kan, Lixin; Wu, Melody; Levinstein, Marjorie; Banisadr, Ghazal; Gobeske, Kevin T; Miller, Richard J; Radulovic, Jelena; Hen, René; Kessler, John A

    2016-02-01

    The full role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) remains to be determined, yet it is implicated in learning and emotional functions, and is disrupted in negative mood disorders. Recent evidence indicates that AHN is decreased in persistent pain consistent with the idea that chronic pain is a major stressor, associated with negative moods and abnormal memories. Yet, the role of AHN in development of persistent pain has remained unexplored. In this study, we test the influence of AHN in postinjury inflammatory and neuropathic persistent pain-like behaviors by manipulating neurogenesis: pharmacologically through intracerebroventricular infusion of the antimitotic AraC; ablation of AHN by x-irradiation; and using transgenic mice with increased or decreased AHN. Downregulating neurogenesis reversibly diminished or blocked persistent pain; oppositely, upregulating neurogenesis led to prolonged persistent pain. Moreover, we could dissociate negative mood from persistent pain. These results suggest that AHN-mediated hippocampal learning mechanisms are involved in the emergence of persistent pain.

  10. Role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in persistent pain

    PubMed Central

    Apkarian, A. Vania; Mutso, Amelia A.; Centeno, Maria V.; Kan, Lixin; Wu, Melody; Levinstein, Marjorie; Banisadr, Ghazal; Gobeske, Kevin T.; Miller, Richard J.; Radulovic, Jelena; Hen, René; Kessler, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The full role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) remains to be determined, yet it is implicated in learning and emotional functions, and is disrupted in negative mood disorders. Recent evidence indicates that AHN is decreased in persistent pain consistent with the idea that chronic pain is a major stressor, associated with negative moods and abnormal memories. Yet, the role of AHN in development of persistent pain has remained unexplored. In this study, we test the influence of AHN in postinjury inflammatory and neuropathic persistent pain-like behaviors by manipulating neurogenesis: pharmacologically through intracerebroventricular infusion of the antimitotic AraC; ablation of AHN by x-irradiation; and using transgenic mice with increased or decreased AHN. Downregulating neurogenesis reversibly diminished or blocked persistent pain; oppositely, upregulating neurogenesis led to prolonged persistent pain. Moreover, we could dissociate negative mood from persistent pain. These results suggest that AHN-mediated hippocampal learning mechanisms are involved in the emergence of persistent pain. PMID:26313405

  11. [The definition of the medical clown's role with adult patients].

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Rachel; Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit; Ziyoni, Herzel

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the healthcare system has grown increasingly aware of the need to develop and adopt new models and intervention methods aimed at improving patients' quality of life. As part of this perception, medical clowns have been integrated into hospitals, primarily in work with children. Recently, there have been attempts to integrate clowns into work with adult patients in emergency rooms, but this intervention method has not yet been systematically implemented and studied. This article describes and examines the definition of the medical clown's role as an intervention strategy with adult outpatients suffering from chronic and life-threatening illnesses. The study is qualitative and based on a content analysis of the documentation of the work of two medical clowns over two years. The dominant theme arising from this analysis involves the definition of the clown's role within the medical space of the hospital and includes perspectives on his integration into the hospital's multidisciplinary medical staff and his impact on the staff and on patients and their families. The findings indicate that, from the clowns' point of view, integrated medical clowns as part of the medical team, would contribute to the functioning of both patients and staff. This is in accord with additional studies conducted recently in medical centers around the world. Since this is a pioneering study, there is room to further probe and research the medical clown's contribution to assisting and improving patients' and staff's quality of life and to develop ways of increasing his integration and professionalism.

  12. Symposium 6: Young people, artificial nutrition and transitional care. The nutritional challenges of the young adult with cystic fibrosis: transition.

    PubMed

    Morton, Alison M

    2009-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex multisystem disorder affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. Intestinal malabsorption occurs in approximately 90% of patients. In the past, malnutrition was an inevitable consequence of disease progression, leading to poor growth, impaired respiratory muscle function, decreased exercise tolerance and immunological impairment. A positive association between body weight and height and survival has been widely reported. The energy requirements of patients with CF vary widely and generally increase with age and disease severity. For many young adults requirements will be 120-150% of the age-related estimated average requirement. To meet these energy needs patients are encouraged to eat a high-fat high-energy diet with appropriate pancreatic enzyme supplements. Many patients are unable to achieve an adequate intake as a result of a variety of factors including chronic poor appetite, infection-related anorexia, gastro-oesophageal reflux and abdominal pain. Oral energy supplements and enteral tube feeding are widely used. Nutritional support has been shown to improve nutritional status and stabilise or slow the rate of decline in lung function. With such emphasis on nutritional intake and nutritional status throughout life, poor adherence to therapies and issues relating to body image are emerging. The median survival of patients with CF is increasing. CF is now considered a life-limiting disease of adulthood rather than a terminal childhood illness. With increased longevity new challenges are emerging that include the transition of young adults with CF to adult services, CF-related diabetes, disordered eating, osteoporosis, liver disease and transplantation.

  13. Role of plastic deformation in shock-induced phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Punam; Germann, T. C.; Ravelo, R.

    2015-06-01

    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations of shock-wave propagation in fcc single crystals exhibit high elastic limits and large anisotropies in the yield strength. They can be used to explore the role of plastic deformation in the morphology and kinetics of solid-solid phase transformations. We report on large-scale atomistic simulations of defect-mediated phase transformations under shock and quasi-isentropic compression (QIC). An analytical embedded atom method (EAM) description is used to model a fcc-bcc phase transition (PT) boundary fitted to occur below or above the elastic-plastic threshold in order to model systems undergoing a PT with and without plasticity. For cases where plastic deformation precedes the phase transformation, the defect-mediated PT proceeds at faster rates than the defect-free ones. The bcc fraction growth rate can be correlated with a sharp decrease in the dislocation densities originally present in the parent phase. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under AFOSR Award FA9550-12-1-0476. Work at Los Alamos was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  14. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition: possible role in meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Pecina-Slaus, Nives; Cicvara-Pecina, Tatjana; Kafka, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchimal transition (EMT) is a process involved in invasion and metastasis of tumors. The occurrence of EMT during tumor progression resembles the developmental scenario and sheds light on important mechanisms for the initial step of metastasis - invasion where noninvasive tumor cells acquire motility and ultimately disseminate to distant organs. The hallmark of EMT is the loss of expression of the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. The numerous reports by many authors as well as our own results indicate that E-cadherin plays a role in CNS tumors - meningiomas. Our studies showed that 73 % of meningiomas had downregulation of E-cadherin. Moreover, loss of heterozygosity of E-cadherin was observed in 32 % of meningiomas. Bound to E-cadherin in adherens junctions is beta-catenin, whose translocation to the nucleus is yet another molecular event involved in EMT. In our study beta-catenin was progressively upregulated from meningothelial to atypical, while 60 % of anaplastic meningiomas showed upregulation and nuclear localization of the protein. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms that govern EMT will offer new approaches and targets to restrain metastasis.

  15. Transitional Care and Adherence of Adolescents and Young Adults After Kidney Transplantation in Germany and Austria

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Martin; Prüfe, Jenny; Oldhafer, Martina; Bethe, Dirk; Dierks, Marie-Luise; Müther, Silvia; Thumfart, Julia; Hoppe, Bernd; Büscher, Anja; Rascher, Wolfgang; Hansen, Matthias; Pohl, Martin; Kemper, Markus J.; Drube, Jens; Rieger, Susanne; John, Ulrike; Taylan, Christina; Dittrich, Katalin; Hollenbach, Sabine; Klaus, Günter; Fehrenbach, Henry; Kranz, Birgitta; Montoya, Carmen; Lange-Sperandio, Bärbel; Ruckenbrodt, Bettina; Billing, Heiko; Staude, Hagen; Heindl-Rusai, Krisztina; Brunkhorst, Reinhard; Pape, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Transition from child to adult-oriented care is widely regarded a challenging period for young people with kidney transplants and is associated with a high risk of graft failure. We analyzed the existing transition structures in Germany and Austria using a questionnaire and retrospective data of 119 patients transferred in 2011 to 2012. Most centers (73%) confirmed agreements on the transition procedure. Patients’ age at transfer was subject to regulation in 73% (18 years). Median age at transition was 18.3 years (16.5–36.7). Median serum creatinine increased from 123 to 132 μmol/L over the 12 month observation period before transfer (P = 0.002). A total of 25/119 patients showed increased creatinine ≥20% just before transfer. Biopsy proven rejection was found in 10/119 patients. Three patients lost their graft due to chronic graft nephropathy. Mean coefficient of variation (CoV%) of immunosuppression levels was 0.20 ± 0.1. Increased creatinine levels ≥20% just before transfer were less frequently seen in patients with CoV < 0.20 (P = 0.007). The majority of pediatric nephrology centers have internal agreements on transitional care. More than half of the patients had CoV of immunosuppression trough levels consistent with good adherence. Although, 20% of the patients showed increase in serum creatinine close to transfer. PMID:26632907

  16. The Role of Independent Therapy Providers in the Transition to Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeters-Myers, C.

    2007-01-01

    The complexity of the early intervention to preschool transition process has been highlighted in the early childhood literature; however, the role of independent therapy providers in transition planning has not been described specifically. The present study used survey research methods to gather information about the transition practices of 103…

  17. The Role and Meaning of Vocations in the Transition from Education to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore current patterns of transition from education to work in the Dual System of VET in Denmark. First it will explore some of the significant changes that have taken place in the transition process. Then it will discuss two dimensions of the role of vocations and occupations in the transition process. One…

  18. Family Histories and Multiple Transitions Among Homeless Young Adults: Pathways to Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of these young people opted to leave home in search of an alternative living situation. The current findings also reveal that while some young adults ran away from home as adolescents, others were “pushed out” (i.e., told to leave), or removed by state agencies. Current study findings illustrate that young adults’ trajectories are marked by multiple living arrangements such as home, foster care, detention facility, and drug rehabilitation. Overall, study results show that young adults’ family histories place them on trajectories for early independence marked by multiple transitions and numerous living situations, culminating in a lack of a permanent residence to call home. PMID:24151346

  19. Employment Outcomes of Transition-Aged Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A State of the States Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Sloane; Cimera, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the employment outcomes of transition-aged adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) served by vocational rehabilitation services (VR) over the last 10 years by state. A secondary purpose was to compare employment outcomes of individuals with ASD to those of the overall transition-aged population…

  20. Better Health, Less Spending: Redesigning the Transition From Pediatric to Adult Healthcare for Youth with Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Vaks, Yana; Bensen, Rachel; Steidtmann, Dana; Wang, Thomas D.; Platchek, Terry S.; Zulman, Donna M.; Malcolm, Elizabeth; Milstein, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with serious chronic illnesses face costly and dangerous gaps in care as they transition from pediatric to adult health systems. New, financially sustainable approaches to transition are needed to close these gaps. We designed a new transition model for adolescents and young adults with a variety of serious chronic conditions. Our explicit goal was to build a model that would improve the value of care for youth 15–25 years of age undergoing this transition. The design process incorporated a review, analysis, and synthesis of relevant clinical and health services research; stakeholder interviews; and observations of high-performing healthcare systems. We identified three major categories of solutions for a safer and lower cost transition to adult care: (1) Building and supporting self-management during the critical transition; (2) Engaging receiving care; and (3) Providing checklist-driven guide services during the transition. We propose that implementation of a program with these interventions would have a positive impact on all three domains of the triple aim – improving health, improving the experience of care, and reducing per capita healthcare cost. The transition model provides a general framework as well as suggestions for specific interventions. Pilot tests to assess the model’s ease of implementation, clinical effects, and financial impact are currently underway. PMID:27001100

  1. Role and prognostic significance of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition factor ZEB2 in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Prislei, Silvia; Martinelli, Enrica; Zannoni, Gian Franco; Petrillo, Marco; Filippetti, Flavia; Mariani, Marisa; Mozzetti, Simona; Raspaglio, Giuseppina; Scambia, Giovanni; Ferlini, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    ZEB2 is a key factor in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a program controlling cell migration in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. We demonstrated a role of ZEB2 in migration and anchorage-independent cell growth in ovarian cancer, as shown by ZEB2 silencing. We found that the RNA-binding protein HuR bound the 3′UTR of ZEB2 mRNA, acting as a positive regulator of ZEB2 protein expression. In Hey ovarian cell line, HuR silencing decreased ZEB2 and ZEB1 nuclear expression and impaired migration. In hypoglycemic conditions ZEB2 expression decreased, along with ZEB1, vimentin and cytoplasmic HuR, and a reduced cellular migration ability was observed. Analysis of ZEB2 and HuR expression in ovarian cancers revealed that nuclear ZEB2 is localized in tumor leading edge and co-localizes with cytoplasmic HuR. In a series of 143 ovarian cancer patients high expression of ZEB2 mRNA significantly correlated with a poor prognosis in term of both overall survival and progression- free survival. Moreover, at immunohistochemical evaluation, we found that prognostic significance of ZEB2 protein relies on its nuclear expression and co-localization with cytoplasmic HuR. In conclusion our findings indicated that nuclear ZEB2 may enhance progression of EMT transition and acquisition of an aggressive phenotype in ovarian cancer. PMID:26136338

  2. Barriers and facilitators to successful transition from pediatric to adult inflammatory bowel disease care from the perspectives of providers

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Christine Weirich; Stollon, Natalie B.; Lucas, Matthew S.; Brumley, Lauren D.; Poole, Erika S.; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W.; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Mamula, Petar; Bonafide, Christopher P.; Schwartz, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background For adolescents and young adults (AYA) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the transition from pediatric to adult care is often challenging and associated with gaps in care. Our study objectives were to (1) identify outcomes for evaluating transition success and (2) elicit the major barriers and facilitators of successful transition. Methods We interviewed pediatric and adult IBD providers from across the United States with experience caring for AYAs with IBD until thematic saturation was reached after 12 interviews. We elicited the participants' backgrounds, examples of successful and unsuccessful transition of AYAs for whom they cared, and recommendations for improving transition using the Social-ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework. We coded interview transcripts using the constant comparative method and identified major themes. Results Participants reported evaluating transition success and failure using healthcare utilization outcomes (e.g. maintaining continuity with adult providers), health outcomes (e.g. stable symptoms), and quality of life outcomes (e.g. attending school). The patients' level of developmental maturity (i.e. ownership of care) was the most prominent determinant of transition outcomes. The style of parental involvement (i.e. helicopter parent vs. optimally-involved parent) also influenced outcomes as well as the degree of support by providers (e.g. care coordination). Conclusion IBD transition success is influenced by a complex interplay of patient developmental maturity, parenting style, and provider support. Multidisciplinary IBD care teams should aim to optimize these factors for each patient to increase the likelihood of a smooth transfer to adult care. PMID:25137417

  3. Parental Perceptions and the Counselor Role in Kindergarten Transition Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Jessica J.

    2012-01-01

    Successful transition practices are essential in moving students forward into new facets of learning and life. Noteworthy is the transition into kindergarten, as students experience a new environment, with new academic, social, and behavioral expectations. Research has reviewed teacher and student perceptions on this topic, but has traditionally…

  4. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its role in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yangling; Gage, Fred H

    2011-12-22

    The hippocampus, a brain area critical for learning and memory, is especially vulnerable to damage at early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Emerging evidence has indicated that altered neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus represents an early critical event in the course of AD. Although causal links have not been established, a variety of key molecules involved in AD pathogenesis have been shown to impact new neuron generation, either positively or negatively. From a functional point of view, hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in structural plasticity and network maintenance. Therefore, dysfunctional neurogenesis resulting from early subtle disease manifestations may in turn exacerbate neuronal vulnerability to AD and contribute to memory impairment, whereas enhanced neurogenesis may be a compensatory response and represent an endogenous brain repair mechanism. Here we review recent findings on alterations of neurogenesis associated with pathogenesis of AD, and we discuss the potential of neurogenesis-based diagnostics and therapeutic strategies for AD.

  5. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its role in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus, a brain area critical for learning and memory, is especially vulnerable to damage at early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Emerging evidence has indicated that altered neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus represents an early critical event in the course of AD. Although causal links have not been established, a variety of key molecules involved in AD pathogenesis have been shown to impact new neuron generation, either positively or negatively. From a functional point of view, hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in structural plasticity and network maintenance. Therefore, dysfunctional neurogenesis resulting from early subtle disease manifestations may in turn exacerbate neuronal vulnerability to AD and contribute to memory impairment, whereas enhanced neurogenesis may be a compensatory response and represent an endogenous brain repair mechanism. Here we review recent findings on alterations of neurogenesis associated with pathogenesis of AD, and we discuss the potential of neurogenesis-based diagnostics and therapeutic strategies for AD. PMID:22192775

  6. The Neural Representation of Consonant-Vowel Transitions in Adults Who Wear Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Kelly L.; Kalstein, Laura; Billings, Cuttis J.; Souza, Pamela E.

    2006-01-01

    Hearing aids help compensate for disorders of the ear by amplifying sound; however, their effectiveness also depends on the central auditory system's ability to represent and integrate spectral and temporal information delivered by the hearing aid. The authors report that the neural detection of time-varying acoustic cues contained in speech can be recorded in adult hearing aid users using the acoustic change complex (ACC). Seven adults (50–76 years) with mild to severe sensorineural hearing participated in the study. When presented with 2 identifiable consonant-vowel (CV) syllables (“shee” and “see”), the neural detection of CV transitions (as indicated by the presence of a P1-N1-P2 response) was different for each speech sound. More specifically, the latency of the evoked neural response coincided in time with the onset of the vowel, similar to the latency patterns the authors previously reported in normal-hearing listeners. PMID:16959736

  7. Lost in transition: child to adult cancer services for young people.

    PubMed

    McInally, Wendy

    Cancer nursing care across the UK has dramatically improved for children and young people with cancer over the past 20 years (Department of Health, 2007). Around 70% of young people diagnosed with cancer survive into adulthood, albeit with long-term health complications (Scottish Government, 2012). This raises the contemporary concern of how best to transition these patients to an adult-focused care regime (National Cancer Survivorship Initiative, 2012). With support from a Florence Nightingale Foundation Travel Scholarship in 2012, this study compared the various transition models currently in use across the UK, Finland and the USA with a clear focus on individual patient choice, staff education and preparation to care for this group of patients and their families. The findings revealed wide discrepancy in current nursing practices across the globe. This article presents a series of findings and recommendations to improve further the overall cancer experience for young people living with and beyond a cancer diagnosis.

  8. Preparing Adolescents With Chronic Disease for Transition to Adult Care: A Technology Program

    PubMed Central

    Terrones, Laura; Tompane, Trevor; Dillon, Lindsay; Pian, Mark; Gottschalk, Michael; Norman, Gregory J.; Bartholomew, L. Kay

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescents with chronic disease (ACD) must develop independent disease self-management and learn to communicate effectively with their health care team to transition from pediatric to adult-oriented health care systems. Disease-specific interventions have been implemented to aid specific ACD groups through transition. A generic approach might be effective and cost-saving. METHODS: Eighty-one ACD, aged 12 to 20 years, were recruited for a randomized clinical trial evaluating an 8-month transition intervention (MD2Me). MD2Me recipients received a 2-month intensive Web-based and text-delivered disease management and skill-based intervention followed by a 6-month review period. MD2Me recipients also had access to a texting algorithm for disease assessment and health care team contact. The intervention was applicable to adolescents with diverse chronic illnesses. Controls received mailed materials on general health topics. Disease management, health-related self-efficacy, and health assessments were performed at baseline and at 2 and 8 months. Frequency of patient-initiated communications was recorded over the study period. Outcomes were analyzed according to assigned treatment group over time. RESULTS: MD2Me recipients demonstrated significant improvements in performance of disease management tasks, health-related self-efficacy, and patient-initiated communications compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes in ACD improved significantly among recipients of a generic, technology-based intervention. Technology can deliver transition interventions to adolescents with diverse chronic illnesses, and a generic approach offers a cost-effective means of positively influencing transition outcomes. Further research is needed to determine whether improved short-term outcomes translate into an improved transition for ACD. PMID:24843066

  9. Eat to reproduce: a key role for the insulin signaling pathway in adult insects

    PubMed Central

    Badisco, Liesbeth; Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Insects, like all heterotrophic organisms, acquire from their food the nutrients that are essential for anabolic processes that lead to growth (larval stages) or reproduction (adult stage). In adult females, this nutritional input is processed and results in a very specific output, i.e., the production of fully developed eggs ready for fertilization and deposition. An important role in this input-output transition is attributed to the insulin signaling pathway (ISP). The ISP is considered to act as a sensor of the organism's nutritional status and to stimulate the progression of anabolic events when the status is positive. In several insect species belonging to different orders, the ISP has been demonstrated to positively control vitellogenesis and oocyte growth. Whether or not ISP acts herein via a mediator action of lipophilic insect hormones (ecdysteroids and juvenile hormone) remains debatable and might be differently controlled in different insect orders. Most likely, insulin-related peptides, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormone are involved in a complex regulatory network, in which they mutually influence each other and in which the insect's nutritional status is a crucial determinant of the network's output. The current review will present an overview of the regulatory role of the ISP in female insect reproduction and its interaction with other pathways involving nutrients, lipophilic hormones and neuropeptides. PMID:23966944

  10. Rethinking Healthcare Transitions and Policies: Changing and Expanding Roles in Transitional Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreño, Patricienn K.

    2014-01-01

    The breakdown of care transitions between various healthcare facilities, providers, and services is a major issue in healthcare, and accounts for over US$15 billion in healthcare expenditures annually. The transition between inpatient care and home care is a very delicate period where, too often, chronically ill patients get worse and wind up back…

  11. Role of phonons in the metal-insulator phase transition.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review, for the transition series oxides, of the Mattis and Lander model, which is one of electrons interacting with lattice vibrations (electron and phonon interaction). The model displays superconducting, insulating, and metallic phases. Its basic properties evolve from a finite crystallographic distortion associated with a dominant phonon mode and the splitting of the Brillouin zone into two subzones, a property of simple cubic and body centered cubic lattices. The order of the metal-insulator phase transition is examined. The basic model has a second-order phase transition and the effects of additional mechanisms on the model are calculated. The way in which these mechanisms affect the magnetically ordered transition series oxides as described by the Hubbard model is discussed.

  12. Integrating Social-Contextual and Intrapersonal Mechanisms of “Maturing Out”: Joint Influences of Familial-Role Transitions and Personality Maturation on Problem-Drinking Reductions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew R.; Ellingson, Jarrod M.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Maturing out” of problem drinking is associated with both role transitions (e.g., getting married) and personality development. However, little is known concerning how these two mechanisms jointly influence problem-drinking desistance. This study investigated whether salutary effects of role transitions and personality occur at different points in young-adult development and whether they mediate one another’s effects. Methods Participants were initially recruited as first-year undergraduates, with family history of alcoholism overrepresented by design (N=489; Sher et al., 1991). Using four waves of data at roughly ages 21, 25, 29, and 34, cross-lagged panel models estimated prospective relations among familial-role transitions (marriage or parenthood), personality (disinhibition, conscientiousness, and neuroticism), and problem drinking. Results Mixed support was found for the prediction of roles being more strongly associated with earlier maturing out of problem drinking and personality being more strongly associated with later maturing out. Regarding mediation, no evidence was found for the expectation that role effects would be mediated by personality. However, results did support mediation of personality effects by role transitions. Specifically, lower disinhibition and higher conscientiousness in emerging adulthood predicted role adoption, which, in turn, predicted later problem-drinking reductions. Family history of alcoholism also distally influenced these mediation processes. Conclusions The differential timing of role and personality effects is consistent with the notion of decreasing contextual influences and increasing intrapersonal influences across development. In light of role incompatibility theory, results suggest that, over the course of development, the association of familial roles with problem drinking may increasingly reflect problem-drinking effects on role entry (i.e., role selection) and decreasingly reflect role entry

  13. Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease: Self-Efficacy as a Factor in Readiness to Transition from Pediatric to Adult Medical Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Dabney

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) must develop self-efficacy and disease-management skills to transition successfully to adult medical care. This quantitative study explored whether self-efficacy, age, and gender were predictive of transition readiness of adolescents with SCD from pediatric to adult medical care.…

  14. Pediatric Provider's Perspectives on the Transition to Adult Health Care for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Current Strategies and Promising New Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Karen A.; Warfield, Marji E.; Hurson, Jill; Delahaye, Jennifer; Crossman, Morgan K.

    2015-01-01

    Few youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) nationally report receiving services to help them transition from the pediatric health care system to the adult health care system. For example, only one-fifth (21.1%) of youth with ASD receive any transition planning services. To better understand why the transition from pediatric to adult health care…

  15. Nutrition transition and obesity among teenagers and young adults in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Ranil; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Wijayabandara, Maheshi; Hills, Andrew P; Misra, Anoop

    2016-08-08

    Introduction Obesity among teenagers/adolescents and young adults is associated with significant adverse short and longer-term effects on health. To date, no narrative reviews have evaluated nutrition transition and its contribution to the obesity epidemic among adolescents and young adults in the South Asian (SA) region. Methods Data were retrieved by a four-stage systematic search process. A search of the online PubMed/Medline, SciVerse Scopus and Web of Science databases was performed. The age groups were defined as follows; teenage:13-19 years, adolescence:10-18 years and young adult:19-24 years. Results Among teenagers/adolescents, the prevalence of overweight ranged from 11.0% (Sri Lanka) to 19.0% (India), while obesity ranged from 2.4% (Sri Lanka) to 11.0% (Pakistan). In young adults, prevalence of overweight ranged between 7.9% (Nepal) to 15.0% (Pakistan), while obesity showed a much wider variation (0.005%[Nepal] - 22.8%[India]). Nutritional risk factors associated with overweight/obesity among SAs of this age group included reduced fruit and vegetable consumption, a total vegetarian diet, consumption of fast food and soft drinks, and skipping breakfast. Other contributing factors identified were: adding extra salt to meals, eating meals outside of the home, frequently visiting restaurants and eating while watching television. Daily milk/yoghurt consumption and a family supper have shown a protective effect against overweight/obesity. Conclusions Overweight and obesity are common amongst teenagers/adolescents and young adults of the SA region. Several food types and habits were identified as being associated with overweight/obesity in this population. Identifying common protective and contributory factors is very important for the development of a shared regional preventive strategy.

  16. Administrative Roles in Helping Faculty Adapt to Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Keith A.

    Since the number of adult students engaging in higher education activities is growing rapidly and is expected to continue to climb, this paper is intended to help administrators develop a perspective from which to view adult learners on college campuses and craft programs to help faculty work more effectively with adult students. The first section…

  17. Rehabilitation Professionals' Participation Intensity and Expectations of Transition Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oertle, Kathleen Marie

    2009-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, an on-line survey and interviews were utilized to gather data regarding the level of participation and expectations rehabilitation professionals have of teachers, youth with disabilities, parents, and themselves during the transition process. The survey response rate was 73.0% (N = 46). Six were selected for interviews…

  18. Changes in Transitions: The Role of Mobility, Class and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of changing patterns of transition from before the second world to the end of the twentieth century. It examines the longer term changes in the occupational structure and the consequential transformation of the patterns of labour market entry for young people. It links labour market entry to subsequent early…

  19. The Role of "Creative Transfer" in Professional Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triantafyllaki, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of "knowledge transfer" in terms of expansion of prior knowledge, creativity and approaches to generating new knowledge. It explores professional transitions in which knowledge restructuring and identity reformation are pathways into greater work flexibility and adjustment. Two studies, exploring…

  20. State Transitions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The Role of the Mehler Reaction in State 2-to-State 1 Transition1

    PubMed Central

    Forti, Giorgio; Caldiroli, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    The light intensity-dependent transition to state 1 of dark-adapted anaerobic state 2 Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells is stimulated by oxygen and by other electron acceptors for photosystem I, such as oxaloacetate and methylviologen. This suggests that the transition to state 1 requires the oxidation of the intersystem chain by photosystem I photochemistry. On the other hand, the mere oxidation in the dark of the chain—by addition of O2—leads only to a slow and incomplete transition. The light-driven stimulation by O2 of the state 1 transition is saturated at an O2 concentration of 15 to 20 μm, definitely higher than that of respiration. We suggest that this may represent the affinity for oxygen of the Mehler reaction, a conclusion that is confirmed by the observations that mitochondrial respiration is apparently not involved in modulating state 2-to-state 1 transition. The catalysis of the state 2-to-state 1 transition upon illumination of anaerobically adapted algae might represent, therefore, a relevant physiological role of this process in C. reinhardtii. PMID:15591440

  1. Mothers' and Fathers' Roles in Caring for an Adult Child with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, Michelle; Carroll, Annemaree; Cuskelly, Monica

    2011-01-01

    To date, there have been few studies of mothers' and fathers' roles in caring for their adult children with intellectual disabilities. The present study investigated the care-giving roles of mother and father couples caring for their adult offspring with an intellectual disability, their psychological health, and the demands and satisfaction of…

  2. Promotion of the Transition of Adult Patients with Childhood-Onset Chronic Diseases among Pediatricians in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Yuko; Higashino, Hirohiko; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    The transition of adult patients with childhood-onset chronic diseases (APCCD) from pediatric to adult health-care systems has recently received worldwide attention. However, Japan is lagging behind European countries and North America as this concept of health-care transition was introduced only 10 years ago. In Japan, before the introduction of this concept, APCCD were referred to as "carryover patients," who were often considered a burden in pediatric practice. In the late 1990s, groups composed of pediatric nephrologists, developmental and behavioral pediatricians, pediatric nurses, and special education teachers researching the quality of life of adult patients with chronic kidney disease began to discuss the physical and psychosocial problems of APCCD. In 2006, a group of pediatricians first introduced the term "transition" in a Japanese journal. By 2010, a group of adolescent nurses had begun a specialized training program aimed at supporting patients during the transitional period. In 2013, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan convened a research committee, focusing on issues related to social, educational, and medical support for APCCD, and the Japan Pediatric Society established a committee for the health-care transition of APCCD and summarized their statements. Moreover, in 2013, the Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center initiated ambulatory services for APCCD managed by specialized nurses. The concept of health-care transition has rapidly spread over these past 10 years. The purpose of this article is to describe how this concept of health-care transition has advanced in Japan, such that APCCD now experience a positive pediatric to adult health-care transition.

  3. A Study on the Role of Computers in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannoukos, Georgios; Besas, Georgios; Hioctour, Vasilios; Georgas, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how knowledge of computers can affect our daily personal life as well as in the workplace in Greece. Our research is concerned with how useful the knowledge of computers is in the everyday life and work of adults and attempts to investigate the interest of adults for learning computer programmes and different subjects via…

  4. Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents: Their Roles and Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucowski, Richard; Hayden, Robert R.

    When children are raised in an environment where alcoholism is prominent, certain dysfunctional responses are learned as a way to cope with the challenge of that environment. This study was conducted to examine the learning styles of adult children of alcoholics. Subjects were college freshmen and self-identified adult children of alcoholics…

  5. Adult Caregiving among American Indians: The Role of Cultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; McGuire, Lisa C.; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: With a sample of American Indian adults, we estimated the prevalence of adult caregiving, assessed the demographic and cultural profile of caregivers, and examined the association between cultural factors and being a caregiver. This is the first such study conducted with American Indians. Design and Methods: Data came from a…

  6. The role of chiropractic care in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There are a rising number of older adults; in the US alone nearly 20% of the population will be 65 or older by 2030. Chiropractic is one of the most frequently utilized types of complementary and alternative care by older adults, used by an estimated 5% of older adults in the U.S. annually. Chiropractic care involves many different types of interventions, including preventive strategies. This commentary by experts in the field of geriatrics, discusses the evidence for the use of spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture, nutritional counseling and fall prevention strategies as delivered by doctors of chiropractic. Given the utilization of chiropractic services by the older adult, it is imperative that providers be familiar with the evidence for and the prudent use of different management strategies for older adults. PMID:22348431

  7. Steroid hormone inactivation is required during the juvenile-adult transition in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Rewitz, Kim F; Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B

    2010-12-14

    Steroid hormones are systemic signaling molecules that regulate juvenile-adult transitions in both insects and mammals. In insects, pulses of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) are generated by increased biosynthesis followed by inactivation/clearance. Although mechanisms that control 20E synthesis have received considerable recent attention, the physiological significance of 20E inactivation remains largely unknown. We show that the cytochrome P450 Cyp18a1 lowers 20E titer during the Drosophila prepupal to pupal transition. Furthermore, this reduction of 20E levels is a prerequisite to induce βFTZ-F1, a key factor in the genetic hierarchy that controls early metamorphosis. Resupplying βFTZ-F1 rescues Cyp18a1-deficient prepupae. Because Cyp18a1 is 20E-inducible, it appears that the increased production of steroid is responsible for its eventual decline, thereby generating the regulatory pulse required for proper temporal progression of metamorphosis. The coupling of hormone clearance to βFTZ-F1 expression suggests a general mechanism by which transient signaling drives unidirectional progression through a multistep process.

  8. Role of Quantum Effects in the GlassTransition.

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, Vladimir; Sokolov, Alexei P

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that quantum effects lead to a significant decrease of the glass transition temperature Tg with respect to the melting temperature Tm, so that the ratio Tg=Tm can be much smaller than the typical value of 2=3 in materials where Tg is near or below 60 K. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the viscosity or structural relaxation time in such low temperature glass formers should exhibit highly unusual temperature dependence, namely a decrease of the apparent activation energy upon approaching Tg (instead of traditional increase).

  9. Identification of transcription factors potentially involved in the juvenile to adult phase transition in Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Mari-Cruz; Forment, Javier; Gadea, José; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Juarez, José; Navarro, Luís; Ancillo, Gema

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The juvenile to adult transition (JAT) in higher plants is required for them to reach reproductive competence. However, it is a poorly understood process in woody plants, where only a few genes have been definitely identified as being involved in this transition. This work aims at increasing our understanding of the mechanisms regulating the JAT in citrus. Methods Juvenile and adult plants from Pineapple sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Rough lemon (C. jambhiri) were used to screen for differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) using a 1·15K microarray developed on the basis of the CitrusTF database. Murcott tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and Duncan grapefruit (C. paradisi) were incorporated into the quantitative real-time reverse transcription–PCR validation in order to select those genes whose phase-specific regulation was common to the four species. Key Results A browsable web database has been created with information about the structural and functional annotation related to 1152 unigenes of putative citrus TFs (CTFs). This database constitutes a valuable resource for research on transcriptional regulation and comparative genomics. Moreover, a microarray has been developed and used that contains these putative CTFs, in order to identify eight genes that showed differential expression in juvenile and adult meristems of four different species of citrus. Those genes have been characterized, and their expression pattern in vegetative and reproductive tissues has been analysed. Four of them are MADS-box genes, a family of TFs involved in developmental processes, whereas another one resembles MADS-box genes but lacks the MADS box itself. The other three showed high partial sequence similarity restricted to specific Arabidopsis protein domains but negligible outside those domains. Conclusions The work presented here indicates that the JAT in citrus could be controlled by mechanisms that are in part common to those of

  10. The role of temporal and dynamic signal components in the perception of syllable-final stop voicing by children and adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, Susan

    2004-04-01

    Adults whose native languages permit syllable-final obstruents, and show a vocalic length distinction based on the voicing of those obstruents, consistently weight vocalic duration strongly in their perceptual decisions about the voicing of final stops, at least in laboratory studies using synthetic speech. Children, on the other hand, generally disregard such signal properties in their speech perception, favoring formant transitions instead. These age-related differences led to the prediction that children learning English as a native language would weight vocalic duration less than adults, but weight syllable-final transitions more in decisions of final-consonant voicing. This study tested that prediction. In the first experiment, adults and children (eight and six years olds) labeled synthetic and natural CVC words with voiced or voiceless stops in final C position. Predictions were strictly supported for synthetic stimuli only. With natural stimuli it appeared that adults and children alike weighted syllable-offset transitions strongly in their voicing decisions. The predicted age-related difference in the weighting of vocalic duration was seen for these natural stimuli almost exclusively when syllable-final transitions signaled a voiced final stop. A second experiment with adults and children (seven and five years old) replicated these results for natural stimuli with four new sets of natural stimuli. It was concluded that acoustic properties other than vocalic duration might play more important roles in voicing decisions for final stops than commonly asserted, sometimes even taking precedence over vocalic duration.

  11. Role of transit amenities and vehicle characteristics in building transit ridership: Amenities for transit handbook and the transit design game workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    This report consists of a Handbook and a Workbook. The Handbook identifies and describes passenger amenities and transit vehicle characteristics that attract ridership and explores how amenities may affect ridership. The Workbook includes information gathered from passenger surveys, focus groups, discussion sessions, and transit agency staff on the effect of a recently implemented transit amenities on passengers. As a companion to the Workbook, a disk. The Transit Design Game, enables transit agencies to survey their customers about their priorities for enhancements and estimate the potential effect of enhancements on ridership. The intended audience includes transit planners, designers, general managers, and project managers; transportation policy makers; city and regional planners; and suppliers; vendors, and manufacturers.

  12. Role of transit amenities and vehicle characteristics in building transit ridership: Amenities for transit handbook and the transit design game workbook

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    This report consists of a Handbook and a Workbook. The Handbook identifies and describes passenger amenities and transit vehicle characteristics that attract ridership and explores how amenities may affect ridership. The Workbook includes information gathered from passenger surveys, focus groups, discussion sessions, and transit agency staff on the effect of a recently implemented transit amenities on passengers. As a companion to the Workbook, a disk. The Transit Design Game, enables transit agencies to survey their customers about their priorities for enhancements and estimate the potential effect of enhancements on ridership. The intended audience includes transit planners, designers, general managers, and project managers; transportation policy makers; city and regional planners; and suppliers; vendors, and manufacturers.

  13. Promotion of the Transition of Adult Patients with Childhood-Onset Chronic Diseases among Pediatricians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ishizaki, Yuko; Higashino, Hirohiko; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    The transition of adult patients with childhood-onset chronic diseases (APCCD) from pediatric to adult health-care systems has recently received worldwide attention. However, Japan is lagging behind European countries and North America as this concept of health-care transition was introduced only 10 years ago. In Japan, before the introduction of this concept, APCCD were referred to as “carryover patients,” who were often considered a burden in pediatric practice. In the late 1990s, groups composed of pediatric nephrologists, developmental and behavioral pediatricians, pediatric nurses, and special education teachers researching the quality of life of adult patients with chronic kidney disease began to discuss the physical and psychosocial problems of APCCD. In 2006, a group of pediatricians first introduced the term “transition” in a Japanese journal. By 2010, a group of adolescent nurses had begun a specialized training program aimed at supporting patients during the transitional period. In 2013, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan convened a research committee, focusing on issues related to social, educational, and medical support for APCCD, and the Japan Pediatric Society established a committee for the health-care transition of APCCD and summarized their statements. Moreover, in 2013, the Tokyo Metropolitan Children’s Medical Center initiated ambulatory services for APCCD managed by specialized nurses. The concept of health-care transition has rapidly spread over these past 10 years. The purpose of this article is to describe how this concept of health-care transition has advanced in Japan, such that APCCD now experience a positive pediatric to adult health-care transition. PMID:27803894

  14. Transition of gastroenterological patients from paediatric to adult care: A position statement by the Italian Societies of Gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Elli, Luca; Maieron, Roberto; Martelossi, Stefano; Guariso, Graziella; Buscarini, Elisabetta; Conte, Dario; di Giulio, Emilio; Staiano, Annamaria; Barp, Jacopo; Bassotti, Gabrio; Bianco, Maria Antonia; Buri, Luigi; Carrara, Maurizio; Ghidini, Benedetta; Giannini, Olivia; Knafelz, Daniela; Miele, Erasmo; Peralta, Sergio; Riccio, Elisabetta; Tomba, Carolina; Zilli, Maurizio; Guadagnini, Tiziana

    2015-09-01

    In 2013, four Italian Gastroenterological Societies (the Italian Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, the Italian Society of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists, the Italian Society of Endoscopy, and the Italian Society of Gastroenterology) formed a joint panel of experts with the aim of preparing an official statement on transition medicine in Gastroenterology. The transition of adolescents from paediatric to adult care is a crucial moment in managing chronic diseases such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disease and liver transplantation. Improved medical treatment and availability of new drugs and surgical techniques have improved the prognosis of many paediatric disorders, prolonging survival, thus making the transition to adulthood possible and necessary. An inappropriate transition or the incomplete transmission of data from the paediatrician to the adult Gastroenterologist can dramatically decrease compliance to treatment and prognosis of a young patient, particularly in the case of severe disorders. For these reasons, the Italian gastroenterological societies decided to develop an official shared transition protocol. The resulting document discusses the factors influencing the transition process and highlights the main points to accomplish to optimize compliance and prognosis of gastroenterological patients during the difficult transition from childhood to adolescence and adulthood.

  15. Welcome to College? Developing a Richer Understanding of the Transition Process for Adult First Year Students Using Reflective Written Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risquez, Angelica; Moore, Sarah; Morley, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the process of adjustment among adult learners by focusing on their own perceptions as they make the transition to higher education in an Irish setting, in order to gain a richer understanding about early university experience. The analysis of the journal-based reflections confirms existing insights about the complexity of…

  16. The Transition from School to Supported Employment: Information for Teachers about Supported Employment and the Adult Service System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Christine; Christ, Susan; Heartfield, Scott; Carpenter, Ciela; Sheffler, Gary; Simonson, Peter; Lowes, Bonnie; Brown, Pat

    This guide is designed to provide teachers in King County, Washington, with a single resource for much of the information needed to help students with disabilities transition from school to adult life and to make informed employment decisions. It begins by providing an overview of federal and state regulations that affect students with…

  17. Using Information To Improve Services to Minnesota Youth with Disabilities in Transition from School to Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James R.

    This report summarizes the discussion and recommendations of a symposium which focused on issues addressing the collection, sharing, and use of information to improve transition services and supports to youth and young adults with disabilities. Participants included representatives from state agencies, advocates, family members, and Community…

  18. Transition between segregation and aggregation: the role of environmental constraints

    PubMed Central

    Nicolis, Stamatios C.; Halloy, José; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between sub-groups (species, strains) have been reported in many species among many taxae. We propose a generic model based on earlier experiments accounting for both conspecific (or between individuals of the same strains) and heterospecific (or between strains) interactions. The model predicts different collective behaviours without any change of individuals’ algorithm as some key generic parameters such as the carrying capacity, the number of individuals involved and the strength of inter-attraction between sub-groups are varied. A key result is the possibility for sub-groups to segregate between patches and for transition between different patterns, even in absence of active agonistic behaviour. The model can be viewed as a network of feedbacks that is independent of the signals or cues involved in mixed groups interactions. Its predictions are therefore applicable to a wide spectrum of situations including social insects (inter castes interaction) and provides insights on possible mechanisms that can be at work. PMID:27599636

  19. The role of prior knowledge in error correction for younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Sitzman, Danielle M; Rhodes, Matthew G; Tauber, Sarah K; Liceralde, Van Rynald T

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that, when given feedback, younger adults are more likely to correct high-confidence errors compared with low-confidence errors, a finding termed the hypercorrection effect. Research examining the hypercorrection effect in both older and younger adults has demonstrated that the relationship between confidence and error correction was stronger for younger adults compared with older adults. Their results demonstrated that the relationship between confidence and error correction was stronger for younger adults compared with older adults. However, recent work suggests that error correction is largely related to prior knowledge, while confidence may primarily serve as a proxy for prior knowledge. Prior knowledge generally remains stable or increases with age; thus, the current experiment explored how both confidence and prior knowledge contributed to error correction in younger and older adults. Participants answered general knowledge questions, rated how confident they were that their response was correct, received correct answer feedback, and rated their prior knowledge of the correct response. Overall, confidence was related to error correction for younger adults, but this relationship was much smaller for older adults. However, prior knowledge was strongly related to error correction for both younger and older adults. Confidence alone played little unique role in error correction after controlling for the role of prior knowledge. These data demonstrate that prior knowledge largely predicts error correction and suggests that both older and younger adults can use their prior knowledge to effectively correct errors in memory.

  20. Family Roles in Transition. In a Changing Military.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-18

    Dobrofsky, 1977). She is instructed in rules of con- duct, etiquette , and protocol. Her activities of socializing and socialization are directly linked... workplace , and the in- L 17 flationary trends which have made the two-paycheck family a necess- ity for many couples. As women have taken on larger roles

  1. Using Web-Based Supports To Transition Students to Professional Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooster, Donna

    This paper reports on a course, offered at the University of South Alabama, that was designed to assist occupational therapy students with the transition from student role in an academic environment to entry-level professional role in the work environment by providing World Wide Web-based support to students who leave campus to complete two…

  2. A Role Model Approach to Job Transition for Disadvantaged Cooperative Home Economics Students. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestle, Ruth

    A pilot project implemented a role-model approach to job transition for disadvantaged cooperative home economics students in Tulsa and Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. From 1974 through 1976, 21 students in four urban high schools were matched with role models on the job. Sixteen of these students retained their jobs. The matches included many different…

  3. "Are these adult doctors gonna know me?" Experiences of transition for young people with a liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Wright, J; Elwell, L; McDonagh, J E; Kelly, D A; Wray, J

    2016-11-01

    Excellent survival rates in paediatric LTx have resulted in increasing numbers of young people transferring from paediatric to adult care. Understanding the mechanisms of successful transition is imperative for ensuring good long-term outcomes and developing services for young people. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 young people (10 females; age range: 15.2-25.1 years). Eight were within 1 year of transferring to adult services; nine had transferred. Interviews were analysed using IPA. Analysis revealed two major themes in both pre- and post-transfer groups: "relationships with healthcare professionals" and "continuity of care." Young people experienced difficulty ending relationships with paediatric clinicians and forming new relationships with adult clinicians. They expressed frustrations over a perceived lack of continuity of care after transfer and a fear of the unknown nature of adult services. The importance of a holistic approach to care was emphasized. Interventions are needed to support young people in transition, particularly in ending relationships in paediatric care and forming new relationships in adult care. Young people need help to develop strategies to cope with the different approaches in adult services. Interventions to provide clinicians with skills to communicate and engage with young people are imperative.

  4. Mothers of Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Multiple Roles, Ethnicity and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, A.; Blacher, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Two opposing perspectives--role strain and role enhancement--were considered as predictive of women's psychological and physical health. The authors examined the relation between multiple role occupancy (parenting, employment, marriage) and well-being (depression and health) among mothers of young adults with intellectual disability…

  5. Thermoelectricity in transition metal compounds: the role of spin disorder.

    PubMed

    Gorai, Prashun; Toberer, Eric S; Stevanović, Vladan

    2016-11-23

    At room temperature and above, most magnetic materials adopt a spin-disordered (paramagnetic) state whose electronic properties can differ significantly from their low-temperature, spin-ordered counterparts. Yet computational searches for new functional materials usually assume some type of magnetic order. In the present work, we demonstrate a methodology to incorporate spin disorder in computational searches and predict the electronic properties of the paramagnetic phase. We implement this method in a high-throughput framework to assess the potential for thermoelectric performance of 1350 transition-metal sulfides and find that all magnetic systems we identify as promising in the spin-ordered ground state cease to be promising in the paramagnetic phase due to disorder-induced deterioration of the charge carrier transport properties. We also identify promising non-magnetic candidates that do not suffer from these spin disorder effects. In addition to identifying promising materials, our results offer insights into the apparent scarcity of magnetic systems among known thermoelectrics and highlight the importance of including spin disorder in computational searches.

  6. Thermoelectricity in transition metal compounds: the role of spin disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Gorai, Prashun; Toberer, Eric S.; Stevanović, Vladan

    2016-01-01

    At room temperature and above, most magnetic materials adopt a spin-disordered (paramagnetic) state whose electronic properties can differ significantly from their low-temperature, spin-ordered counterparts. Yet computational searches for new functional materials usually assume some type of magnetic order. In the present work, we demonstrate a methodology to incorporate spin disorder in computational searches and predict the electronic properties of the paramagnetic phase. We implement this method in a high-throughput framework to assess the potential for thermoelectric performance of 1350 transition-metal sulfides and find that all magnetic systems we identify as promising in the spin-ordered ground state cease to be promising in the paramagnetic phase due to disorder-induced deterioration of the charge carrier transport properties. We also identify promising non-magnetic candidates that do not suffer from these spin disorder effects. In addition to identifying promising materials, our results offer insights into the apparent scarcity of magnetic systems among known thermoelectrics and highlight the importance of including spin disorder in computational searches.

  7. The Role of Avocados in Complementary and Transitional Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, Kevin B.; Ayoob, Keith T.; Murray, Robert D.; Atkinson, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Infant dietary patterns tend to be insufficient sources of fruits, vegetables, and fiber, as well as excessive in salt, added sugars, and overall energy. Despite the serious long-term health risks associated with suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake, a large percentage of infants and toddlers in the U.S. do not consume any fruits or vegetables on a daily basis. Since not all fruits and vegetables are nutritionally similar, guidance on the optimal selection of fruits and vegetables should emphasize those with the greatest potential for nutrition and health benefits. A challenge is that the most popularly consumed fruits for this age group (i.e., apples, pears, bananas, grapes, strawberries) do not closely fit the current general recommendations since they tend to be overly sweet and/or high in sugar. Unsaturated oil-containing fruits such as avocados are nutritionally unique among fruits in that they are lower in sugar and higher in fiber and monounsaturated fatty acids than most other fruits, and they also have the proper consistency and texture for first foods with a neutral flavor spectrum. Taken together, avocados show promise for helping to meet the dietary needs of infants and toddlers, and should be considered for inclusion in future dietary recommendations for complementary and transitional feeding. PMID:27213450

  8. Physiological roles of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    PubMed Central

    Mnatsakanyan, Nelli; Beutner, Gisela; Porter, George A.; Alavian, Kambiz N.

    2016-01-01

    Neurons experience high metabolic demand during such processes as synaptic vesicle recycling, membrane potential maintenance and Ca2+ exchange/extrusion. The energy needs of these events are met in large part by mitochondrial production of ATP through the process of oxidative phosphorylation. The job of ATP production by the mitochondria is performed by the F1FO ATP synthase, a multi-protein enzyme that contains a membrane-inserted portion, an extra-membranous enzymatic portion and an extensive regulatory complex. Although required for ATP production by mitochondria, recent findings have confirmed that the membrane-confined portion of the c-subunit of the ATP synthase also houses a large conductance uncoupling channel, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), the persistent opening of which produces osmotic dysregulation of the inner mitochondrial membrane, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and cell death. Recent advances in understanding the molecular components of mPTP and its regulatory mechanisms have determined that decreased uncoupling occurs in states of enhanced mitochondrial efficiency; relative closure of mPTP therefore contributes to cellular functions as diverse as cardiac development and synaptic efficacy. PMID:26868013

  9. How is nutrition transition affecting dietary adequacy in Eeyouch (Cree) adults of Northern Quebec, Canada?

    PubMed

    Johnson-Down, Louise M; Egeland, Grace M

    2013-03-01

    Rapid development, including the building of hydroelectric projects and roads in remote areas of Northern Quebec, Canada, has led to concerns about the contamination of traditional foods (TF) and a transition to a diet characterized by increased commercial food intake. A cross-sectional study of 850 Cree adults, aged ≥19 years, from 7 of the 9 Eeyouch communities was conducted during the spring and summer seasons of 2005-2008. Anthropometric measures were collected. TF and dietary intake were assessed using food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-h recalls. Obesity was high, with 77% of the women and 64% of the men classified as obese. Past-year TF consumption was 100%, and 41% of participants reported eating TF on the 24-h recall. TF intake as reported on both the FFQs and the 24-h recalls was higher in individuals aged >50 years of age and in men, relative to younger adults and women, respectively. TF consumption increased protein, vitamin D, iron, and magnesium in all individuals, and energy, cholesterol, magnesium, sodium, and zinc in men aged 19-50 years; it decreased vitamin C in men and women aged ≥51 years. Participants reported drinking a mean daily 0.78 ± 1.34 cans of soft drinks or other high-sugar beverages per day or 5.28% ± 8.92% of total energy. It is important to identify behaviours that are contributing to obesity and its health consequences in this population and to find culturally appropriate ways to promote the consumption of TF and to reduce the consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor beverages and food items.

  10. Negative Adult Influences and the Protective Effects of Role Models: A Study with Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Xue, Yange

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether role models (individuals adolescents look up to) contributed to the resilience of adolescents who were exposed to negative nonparental adult influences. Our sample included 659 African American, ninth-grade adolescents. We found that adolescents' exposure to negative adult behavior was associated with increased…

  11. Group Dynamics in a Discussion Group for Older Adults: Does Gender Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Medeiros, Kate; Harris-Trovato, Dana; Bradley, Evelyn; Gaines, Jean; Parrish, John

    2007-01-01

    Lifelong learning programs continue to grow in span and scope. Few studies, however, have investigated how older adults themselves participate in group learning. The central question explored in our study was as follows: Does gender play a role in group dynamics for older adults? Two groups of volunteers (age 62 to 96 years) enrolled in a 16-week…

  12. The Role of Religiosity in Influencing Adolescent and Adult Alcohol Use in Trinidad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollocks, Steve C. T.; Dass, Natasha; Seepersad, Randy; Mohammed, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of religiosity among adolescents' and adults' alcohol use in Trinidad. A stratified random sample design of 369 adolescents and 210 adult parents belonging to the various religious groups in Trinidad was employed. Participants were randomly selected from various educational districts across Trinidad. Adolescent…

  13. Health Literacy and Social Capital: What Role for Adult Literacy Partnerships and Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen; Balatti, Jo; Falk, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes the case for adult literacy (including numeracy) practitioners to play a greater role in health literacy initiatives in Australia. The paper draws on data from a national research project that investigated adult literacy partnerships and pedagogy viewed from a social capital perspective. The primary purpose of the project was to…

  14. Coping Styles and Gender-Role: Some Implications for Mexican American Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephanie; Crockett, Stanley

    Passive coping behavior and traditional role-gender definitions affect learning needs of segments of the Mexican American adult community and may affect the behavioral development of younger family members. Networking within the community is useful in defining and meeting learning needs of adult Mexican Americans by creating cooperative,…

  15. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory.

    PubMed

    Elwyn, Laura; Smith, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between prospective reports of maltreatment and alcohol problems, and an important link in the path between prospective reports and illegal drug use. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.

  16. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory

    PubMed Central

    ELWYN, LAURA; SMITH, CAROLYN

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between prospective reports of maltreatment and alcohol problems, and an important link in the path between prospective reports and illegal drug use. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:24319347

  17. Role of thermal heating on the voltage induced insulator-metal transition in VO2.

    PubMed

    Zimmers, A; Aigouy, L; Mortier, M; Sharoni, A; Wang, Siming; West, K G; Ramirez, J G; Schuller, Ivan K

    2013-02-01

    We show that the main mechanism for the dc voltage or dc current induced insulator-metal transition in vanadium dioxide VO(2) is due to local Joule heating and not a purely electronic effect. This "tour de force" experiment was accomplished by using the fluorescence spectra of rare-earth doped micron sized particles as local temperature sensors. As the insulator-metal transition is induced by a dc voltage or dc current, the local temperature reaches the transition temperature indicating that Joule heating plays a predominant role. This has critical implications for the understanding of the dc voltage or dc current induced insulator-metal transition and has a direct impact on applications which use dc voltage or dc current to externally drive the transition.

  18. Nonstandard transitions in the Kuramoto model: a role of asymmetry in natural frequency distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Yu; Ito, Keigo; Aoyagi, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y.

    2017-01-01

    We study transitions in the Kuramoto model by shedding light on asymmetry in the natural frequency distribution, which has been assumed to be symmetric in many previous studies. The asymmetry brings two nonstandard bifurcation diagrams, with the aid of bimodality. The first diagram consists of stationary states, and has the standard continuous synchronization transition and a subsequent discontinuous transition as the coupling strength increases. Such a bifurcation diagram has been also reported in a variant model, which breaks the odd symmetry of the coupling function by introducing the phase lag. The second diagram includes the oscillatory state emerging from the partially synchronized state and followed by a discontinuous transition. This diagram is firstly revealed in this study. The two bifurcation diagrams are obtained by employing the Ott-Antonsen ansatz, and are verified by direct N-body simulations. We conclude that the asymmetry in distribution, with the bimodality, plays a similar role to the phase lag, and diversifies the transitions.

  19. Supplement for Adult Service Providers: A Curricular Approach To Support the Transition to Adulthood of Adolescents with Visual or Dual Sensory Impairments and Cognitive Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, John; And Others

    This handbook supplement, for adult service providers, is part of a packet intended to aid educators, families, and adult service providers to facilitate the transition from school to adult life in the community for students with both cognitive disabilities and visual or dual sensory impairments. Emphasis is on preparation of students for adult…

  20. Resocializing Adults for Their New Role as Consumer-Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnane, Jennifer Aden

    2008-01-01

    Adults today have been submerged in a consumer society from a very young age and face decisions as consumers on a daily basis. Realizing and understanding the impact of these decisions are vital to functioning in a consumer society in order to achieve the greatest benefit for one's family, the environment, and society as a whole. Given that the…

  1. The transition process of spina bifida patients to adult-centred care: An assessment of the Canadian urology landscape

    PubMed Central

    Wajchendler, Amy; Anderson, Peter; Koyle, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Due to medical advances over the past three decades, the vast majority of children with spina bifida (SB) now survive into adulthood. As a result, there is a need to implement a well-defined urological transition process for these patients from the pediatric to adult environment. The objective of this study was to identify and analyze the current medical practices employed and the attitudes regarding transition by Canadian pediatric urologists caring for the SB population. Methods: A survey consisting of 14 questions pertaining to physician demographics, current practice, and attitudes towards the transition process of SB patients was distributed at the 2015 annual Pediatric Urologists of Canada (PUC) conference. The survey respondents remained anonymous, and the data were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 28 surveys were collected from urologists across Canada (25 full-time pediatric, three also providing adult care), representing a >75% response rate. The transition process was suggested to begin at the age of 18 or older by 43% (12/28) of pediatric urologists. The majority, 86% (24/28), do not currently use a questionnaire or a checklist to determine transition readiness of patients. Forty-six percent (13/28) of pediatric urologists do not provide ongoing urological care to their patients after referral has been made to adult-centred care. In the province of Ontario, in which 39% (11/28) of the pediatric urologists practice, 82% (9/11) are full-time pediatric urologists and 78% (7/9) do not provide ongoing care to SB patients after the age of 18. Conclusions: A significant minority of Canadian pediatric urologists perceive that the transition process should begin at the age of 18 or older. As such, it can be inferred that transfer of care and transition are synonymous, not independent. Simplistically, this suggests that transition represents an event rather than a longitudinal process. The fact there is no defined ongoing urological care

  2. Transition of adolescents with HIV to adult care: characteristics and current practices of the adolescent trials network for HIV/AIDS interventions.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Patricia P; Ellen, Jonathan M; Leonard, Lori; Kinsman, Sara; Jevitt, Cecilia M; Straub, Diane M

    2011-01-01

    The transition process from pediatric to adult health care for adolescents with chronic diseases is always challenging and can be even more so for adolescents with HIV disease. The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics and current practices surrounding the transition of adolescents from the clinics of the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions to adult medical care. This report focuses on the processes of transition, perceived barriers and facilitators, and anecdotal reports of successes and failures. Practice models used to assist adolescents during transition to adult medical care are described. Interviews were conducted with 19 key informants from 14 Adolescent Trials Network clinics. Findings revealed no consistent definition of "successful" transition, little consensus among the sites regarding specific elements of a transition program, and a lack of mechanisms to assess outcomes. Sites that viewed transition as a process rather than an event consistently described more structured program elements.

  3. A biopsychosocial model for the management of patients with sickle-cell disease transitioning to adult medical care.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Lori E; Quinn, Charles T; Kalinyak, Karen A

    2015-04-01

    The lifespan of patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD) continues to increase, and most affected individuals in high-resource countries now live into adulthood. This necessitates a successful transition from pediatric to adult health care. Care for transitioning patients with SCD often falls to primary care providers who may not be fully aware of the many challenges and issues faced by patients and the current management strategies for SCD. In this review, we aim to close the knowledge gap between primary care providers and specialists who treat transitioning patients with SCD. We describe the challenges and issues encountered by these patients, and we propose a biopsychosocial multidisciplinary approach to the management of the identified issues. Examples of this approach, such as transition-focused integrated care models and quality improvement collaboratives, with the potential to improve health outcomes in adulthood are also described.

  4. Transitioning issues in adolescent to young adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors: an approach for a growing population.

    PubMed

    Young, Guy

    2010-09-01

    The major adverse effect of factor replacement therapy in patients with hemophilia is the development of neutralizing antibodies termed inhibitors. This complication renders standard factor replacement therapy ineffective resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Until recently, the population of adults with inhibitors was relatively small due to the death of many of the patients from HIV that they contracted from contaminated factor in the early 1980s. With the advent of factor products with reduced risks for deadly infections in the mid-1980s to early 1990s, a cohort of inhibitor patients is now beginning to enter adulthood thus raising the issues regarding the transition of these patients into adulthood. It is, therefore, expected that adult hematologists will be seeing more inhibitor patients and that pediatric hematologists will be faced with managing this transition process, which may not necessarily include transition to an adult facility or adult hematologist. This review will discuss the various issues ranging from choice of medical provider to a discussion of psychosocial and financial issues facing this specific patient population.

  5. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Igietseme, Joseph U.; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S.; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O.; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV

  6. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV

  7. Sexual orientation of trans adults is not linked to outcome of transition-related health care, but worth asking.

    PubMed

    Nieder, Timo O; Elaut, Els; Richards, Christina; Dekker, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of contemporary transition-related care at the outset of the 20th century, sexual orientation has ben considered to be closely connected with gender identity and the developmental trajectories of trans people. Specifically, health professionals have regarded the anticipated post-transitional heterosexual behaviour of trans adults as predictive of a good outcome of cross-sex hormones and gender-confirming surgeries. This article reviews the current literature according to the question of whether the sexual orientation of trans people is linked to outcome measures following transition-related interventions. A comprehensive review was undertaken using the Medline database, searching for empirical studies published between 2010 and 2015. Out of a total of 474 studies, only 10 studies reported a follow-up of trans adults and assessed sexual orientation in the study protocol at all. Sexual orientation was predominantly assessed as homosexual versus non-homosexual related to sex assigned at birth. Only one 1 of 10 follow-up studies found a significant association according to the outcome between groups differentiated by sexual orientation. Empirically there is no link between sexual orientation and outcome of transition-related health care for trans adults. In order to provide comprehensive health care, we recommend asking for sexual behaviours, attractions and identities, as well as for gender experiences and expressions; however, this knowledge should not drive, but simply inform, such comprehensive care.

  8. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. PMID:25750611

  9. Transition into adult healthcare services in Scotland: findings from a study concerning service users at the Scottish Spina Bifida Association

    PubMed Central

    Wynd, Andrew HD; Carachi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Literature on interventions that enable young people with spina bifida and/or hydrocephalus to have smooth transition, into adult healthcare services, stress the need for the process to start early and to include all family members. The study reported here was set to quantify and articulate the experiences of service users who are or due to be going through the transition process in Scotland today. Methods and Results Focus group sessions, in the North of Scotland and in the ‘Central Belt’, captured rich qualitative data. A survey, sent to eligible participants on the Spina Bifida National database, offered complimentary data source. Despite the fact that the number of returned questionnaires was low (n = 20), data analysis identified a number of core recurring themes. These include issues concerning Communications, Respect, Choice and Control. Findings suggest that there is a significant chasm between the political rhetoric and the reality faced by young people with spina bifida moving to adult healthcare services. Conclusion A possible way to facilitate successful transition of young people is using personal healthcare information as the locus for needed change. More research is needed to ascertain whether a ‘Person-Centred Record’, which is set to empower young people on their transition pathway, is an appropriate transition tool. PMID:25358489

  10. Alcohol Advertising on Boston's Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Transit System: An Assessment of Youths' and Adults' Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Nyborn, Justin A.; Wukitsch, Kimberly; Nhean, Siphannay

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the frequency with which alcohol advertisements appeared on Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) transit lines in Boston, MA, and we calculated adult and youths' exposure to the ads. Methods. We measured the nature and extent of alcohol advertisements on 4 Boston transit lines on 2 separate weekdays 1 month apart in June and July of 2008. We calculated weekday ad exposure for all passengers (all ages) and for Boston Public School student passengers (aged 11–18 years). Results. Alcohol ads were viewed an estimated 1 212 960 times across all Boston-area transit passengers during an average weekday, reaching the equivalent of 42.7% of that population. Alcohol ads were viewed an estimated 18 269 times by Boston Public School student transit passengers during an average weekday, reaching the equivalent of 54.1% of that population. Conclusions. Advertisers reached the equivalent of half of all Boston Public School transit passengers aged 11 to 18 years and the equivalent of nearly half of all transit passengers in the Boston area with an alcohol advertisement each day. Because of the high exposure of underage youths to alcohol advertisements, we recommend that the MBTA prohibit alcohol advertising on the Boston transit system. PMID:19890170

  11. The role of visual spatial attention in adult developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Collis, Nathan L; Kohnen, Saskia; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the nature of visual spatial attention deficits in adults with developmental dyslexia, using a partial report task with five-letter, digit, and symbol strings. Participants responded by a manual key press to one of nine alternatives, which included other characters in the string, allowing an assessment of position errors as well as intrusion errors. The results showed that the dyslexic adults performed significantly worse than age-matched controls with letter and digit strings but not with symbol strings. Both groups produced W-shaped serial position functions with letter and digit strings. The dyslexics' deficits with letter string stimuli were limited to position errors, specifically at the string-interior positions 2 and 4. These errors correlated with letter transposition reading errors (e.g., reading slat as "salt"), but not with the Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) task. Overall, these results suggest that the dyslexic adults have a visual spatial attention deficit; however, the deficit does not reflect a reduced span in visual-spatial attention, but a deficit in processing a string of letters in parallel, probably due to difficulty in the coding of letter position.

  12. Work-role transition: from staff nurse to clinical nurse educator.

    PubMed

    Manning, Liz; Neville, Stephen

    2009-07-01

    This article presents the findings of a study describing Clinical Nurse Educators' experiences, as they recall their transition from staff nurse to the Clinical Nurse Educator role, within a New Zealand District Health Board. Nurse Educator roles influence clinical practice and professional development of nurses, and although designated as a senior role nationally, the complexities and size of the role are poorly understood. A qualitative descriptive methodology utilising transition theory as a conceptual framework underpinned the study. A sample of eight Clinical Nurse Educators from a New Zealand District Health Board were interviewed about their transition from experienced staff nurse to inexperienced senior nurse. Data were analysed using a general inductive approach. Participants found the Clinical Nurse Educator role was more complex than anticipated, with no preparation for the role and sub-optimal orientation periods being provided by the District Health Board. As a result, signs of stress were evident as the enormity of the role became apparent. Consequently, employers need to ensure that appropriate orientation programmes and mentorship are inherent in health care organisations.

  13. Developmental change in the function of movement systems: transition of the pectoral fins between respiratory and locomotor roles in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hale, Melina E

    2014-07-01

    An animal may experience strikingly different functional demands on its body's systems through development. One way of meeting those demands is with temporary, stage-specific adaptations. This strategy requires the animal to develop appropriate morphological states or physiological pathways that address transient functional demands as well as processes that transition morphology, physiology, and function to that of the mature form. Recent research on ray-finned (actinopterygian) fishes is a developmental transition in function of the pectoral fin, thereby providing an opportunity to examine how an organism copes with changes in the roles of its morphology between stages of its life history. As larvae, zebrafish alternate their pectoral fins in coordination with the body axis during slow swimming. The movements of their fins do not appear to contribute to the production of thrust or to stability but instead exchange fluid near the body for cutaneous respiration. The morphology of the larval fin includes a simple stage-specific endoskeletal disc overlaid by fan-shaped adductor and abductor muscles. In contrast, the musculoskeletal system of the mature fin consists of a suite of muscles and bones. Fins are extended laterally during slow swimming of the adult, without the distinct, high-amplitude left-right fin alternation of the larval fin. The morphological and functional transition of the pectoral fin occurs through juvenile development. Early in this period, at about 3 weeks post-fertilization, the gills take over respiratory function, presumably freeing the fins for other roles. Kinematic data suggest that the loss of respiratory function does not lead to a rapid switch in patterns of fin movement but rather that both morphology and movement transition gradually through the juvenile stage of development. Studies relating structure to function often focus on stable systems that are arguably well adapted for the roles they play. Examining how animals navigate

  14. Developmental Change in the Function of Movement Systems: Transition of the Pectoral Fins between Respiratory and Locomotor Roles in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Melina E.

    2014-01-01

    An animal may experience strikingly different functional demands on its body’s systems through development. One way of meeting those demands is with temporary, stage-specific adaptations. This strategy requires the animal to develop appropriate morphological states or physiological pathways that address transient functional demands as well as processes that transition morphology, physiology, and function to that of the mature form. Recent research on ray-finned (actinopterygian) fishes is a developmental transition in function of the pectoral fin, thereby providing an opportunity to examine how an organism copes with changes in the roles of its morphology between stages of its life history. As larvae, zebrafish alternate their pectoral fins in coordination with the body axis during slow swimming. The movements of their fins do not appear to contribute to the production of thrust or to stability but instead exchange fluid near the body for cutaneous respiration. The morphology of the larval fin includes a simple stage-specific endoskeletal disc overlaid by fan-shaped adductor and abductor muscles. In contrast, the musculoskeletal system of the mature fin consists of a suite of muscles and bones. Fins are extended laterally during slow swimming of the adult, without the distinct, high-amplitude left-right fin alternation of the larval fin. The morphological and functional transition of the pectoral fin occurs through juvenile development. Early in this period, at about 3 weeks post-fertilization, the gills take over respiratory function, presumably freeing the fins for other roles. Kinematic data suggest that the loss of respiratory function does not lead to a rapid switch in patterns of fin movement but rather that both morphology and movement transition gradually through the juvenile stage of development. Studies relating structure to function often focus on stable systems that are arguably well adapted for the roles they play. Examining how animals navigate

  15. Transitions during cephalopod life history: the role of habitat, environment, functional morphology and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Robin, Jean-Paul; Roberts, Michael; Zeidberg, Lou; Bloor, Isobel; Rodriguez, Almendra; Briceño, Felipe; Downey, Nicola; Mascaró, Maite; Navarro, Mike; Guerra, Angel; Hofmeister, Jennifer; Barcellos, Diogo D; Lourenço, Silvia A P; Roper, Clyde F E; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Green, Corey P; Mather, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Cephalopod life cycles generally share a set of stages that take place in different habitats and are adapted to specific, though variable, environmental conditions. Throughout the lifespan, individuals undertake a series of brief transitions from one stage to the next. Four transitions were identified: fertilisation of eggs to their release from the female (1), from eggs to paralarvae (2), from paralarvae to subadults (3) and from subadults to adults (4). An analysis of each transition identified that the changes can be radical (i.e. involving a range of morphological, physiological and behavioural phenomena and shifts in habitats) and critical (i.e. depending on environmental conditions essential for cohort survival). This analysis underlines that transitions from eggs to paralarvae (2) and from paralarvae to subadults (3) present major risk of mortality, while changes in the other transitions can have evolutionary significance. This synthesis suggests that more accurate evaluation of the sensitivity of cephalopod populations to environmental variation could be achieved by taking into account the ontogeny of the organisms. The comparison of most described species advocates for studies linking development and ecology in this particular group.

  16. THE ROLE OF METASTABLE STATES IN POLYMER PHASE TRANSITIONS: Concepts, Principles, and Experimental Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Stephen Z. D.; Keller, Andrew

    1998-08-01

    Polymer phases can be described in the same way as phases in other condensed matter using a number density operator and its correlation functions. This description requires the understanding of symmetry operations and order at different atomic and molecular levels. Statistical mechanics provides a link between the microscopic description of the structure and motion and the macroscopic thermodynamic properties. Within the limits of the laws of thermodynamics, polymers exhibit a rich variety of phase transition behaviors. By definition, a first-order phase transition describes a transformation that involves a sudden change of thermodynamic properties at its transition temperature, whereas higher-order phase transitions are classified as critical phenomena. Of special interest is the role of metastability in phase and phase transition behaviors. Although a metastable state possesses a local free energy minimum, it is not at the global equilibrium. Furthermore, metastable states can also be associated with phase sizes. Metastable behavior is also observed in phase transformations that are impeded by kinetic limitations along the pathway to thermodynamic equilibrium. This is illustrated in structural and morphological investigations of crystallization and mesophase transitions, liquid-liquid phase separation, vitrification, and gel formation, as well as combinations of transformation processes. In these cases, the metastable state often becomes the dominant state for the entire system and is observed over a range of time and size scales. This review describes the general principles of metastability in polymer phases and phase transitions and provides illustrations from current experimental works in selected areas.

  17. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  18. The Role of Hope in an Adult Career Decision Making Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schemmel, Todd Aaron

    The primary purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Hope Scale scores would play a significant role in predicting the effectiveness of a five-session career planning workshop for 61 adults. The results of three hierarchical regressions suggest that the trait hope does not play a significant role in predicting participants' career…

  19. Role Salience and Anticipated Work-Family Relations among Young Adults with and without Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Most, Tova; Michael, Rinat

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of hearing status on role salience and anticipated work-family relations among 101 unmarried young adults aged 20-33 years: 35 with hearing loss (19 hard of hearing and 16 deaf) and 66 hearing. Participants completed the Life Role Salience scale, anticipated conflictual relations scale, anticipated facilitory…

  20. Food Security in Older Adults: Community Service Provider Perceptions of Their Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Heather H.; Dwyer, John J. M.; Edwards, Vicki; Senson, Christine; Edward, H. Gayle

    2007-01-01

    Food insecurity in older adults is influenced by financial constraints, functional disability, and isolation. Twenty-eight social- and community-service providers participated in four focus groups to report (a) perceptions and experiences with food insecurity in their older clients, (b) beliefs about their potential role(s) in promoting food…

  1. Young Adults' Attitudes toward Multiple Role Planning: The Influence of Gender, Career Traditionality, and Marriage Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peake, Amy; Harris, Karen L.

    2002-01-01

    For 66 young adult couples, marriage plans were positively related to knowledge and certainty about multiple role planning. Men with more nontraditional career partners had more commitment to and involvement in multiple role planning. Women with marriage plans and nontraditional career expectations had substantially higher commitment and…

  2. Swedish Adult Education in Transition? Implications of the Work First Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Eva; Warvik, Gun-Britt

    2012-01-01

    The Swedish government recently launched a number of short-term initiatives within the framework of formal adult education. These initiatives are: vocational adult education, education for commercial drivers and apprenticeship education for adults. The new initiatives can be seen as education for the short-term needs of the world of work and we…

  3. Adult Transitions to Learning in the USA: What Do PIAAC Survey Results Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Margaret Becker; Paulson, Usha G.

    2016-01-01

    The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) assessed literacy, numeracy, and technology-related skills of adults and found skill levels of US adults are well below the international average. In a world where advanced skills are requisite to workplace competitiveness, low skills are a danger sign. An initial PIAAC…

  4. Contriving transitive conditioned establishing operations to establish derived manding skills in adults with severe developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Rocio; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate derived manding skills in 2 adults with severe developmental disabilities and language deficits by contriving transitive conditioned establishing operations. Specifically, we evaluated whether a history of reinforced conditional discrimination learning would ultimately result in a derived mand repertoire, in which participants manded for items that were needed to complete chained tasks. After mastering the first three phases of the picture exchange communication system (PECS), participants were taught to mand for the needed items by exchanging pictures of the items for the items themselves. They were then taught to conditionally relate the dictated names of the items to the corresponding pictures of the items and to relate the dictated names to the corresponding printed words. We then tested, in the absence of reinforcement, whether participants would mand for the items needed to complete the chained tasks using text rather than pictures. Both participants showed the emergence of derived mands and some derived stimulus relations as a result of this instruction. Some of the derived relations were shown to be intact at 1-month follow-up, and scores on derived mand probes were higher at follow-up than before training. In addition, the 2 participants vocally requested the needed items on maintenance test probes, a skill that was never trained and was not previously in their repertoires. These results suggest that a history of reinforced relational responding may facilitate the expansion of a number of verbal skills and emphasize the possibility of a synthesis of Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior and derived stimulus relations into language-training efforts for persons with significant disabilities.

  5. Gender-Role Attitudes and Behavior across the Transition to Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Priess, Heather A.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of social structural theory and identity theory, the current study examined changes in gender-role attitudes and behavior across the first-time transition to parenthood and following the birth of a second child for experienced mothers and fathers. Data were analyzed from the ongoing longitudinal Wisconsin Study of Families and Work.…

  6. Between Gate-Keeping and Support: Teachers' Perception of Their Role in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuconato, Morena; du Bois-Reymond, Manuela; Lunabba, Harry

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers perceive their role in supporting and guiding students in transitions. Do teachers see themselves more as gatekeepers or as supporters? The analysis draws upon qualitative data collected in Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, and Finland. Based on the analysis of teachers' interviews, we developed three…

  7. Social Identity and the Transition to Entrepreneurship: The Role of Group Identification with Workplace Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obschonka, Martin; Goethner, Maximilian; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Cantner, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    What role does social identity play in the transition from employed work to entrepreneurship? It was expected that social identity affects the cognitive processes that, according to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), underlie the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Focusing on academic scientists' intentions to commercialize research…

  8. Journeys of Transition: The Role of Narrative within the Stoneleigh Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loynes, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of narrative in the Stoneleigh Project, an outdoor retreat approach to supporting marginalised young people in becoming agents of personal and social change. The metaphor of a journey, developed by sociological writers, is applied to the transition of young people to adulthood. Undertaken as a narrative enquiry, the…

  9. Novel word learning in older adults: A role for sleep?

    PubMed

    Kurdziel, Laura B F; Mantua, Janna; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2017-04-01

    Sleep is an offline period during which newly acquired semantic information is transformed into longer-lasting memories. Language acquisition, which requires new word learning and semantic integration, is preferentially benefitted by a period of sleep in children and young adults. Specific features of sleep (e.g., sleep stage characteristics) have been associated with enhanced language acquisition and generalization. However, with increasing age, even in healthy individuals, sleep quality and quantity decrease. Simultaneously, deficits in word retrieval and new word learning emerge. Yet it is unknown whether age-related alterations in language ability are linked with alterations in sleep. The goal of this review is to examine changes in language learning and sleep across the lifespan. We consider how sleep detriments that occur with aging could affect abilities to learn novel words and semantic generalization and propose hypotheses to motivate future research in this area.

  10. The Role of Preschool Relational and Physical Aggression in the Transition to Kindergarten: Links with Social-Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gower, Amy L.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The transition to kindergarten has important ramifications for future achievement and psychosocial outcomes. Research suggests that physical aggression may be related to difficulty during school transitions, yet no studies to date have examined the role of relational aggression in these transitions. This article examines how…

  11. Role of Topological Defects in the Phase Transition of the Three-Dimensional Heisenberg Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Manhot

    The role of topological point defects (hedgehogs) in the phase transition of the classical Heisenberg model in three dimensions is investigated by using Monte Carlo simulations. Simulations of the behavior of the defects near the phase transition show that the number density of defects increases sharply and defect pairs with separations comparable to the sample size begin to appear as the temperature is increased through the transition temperature. In simulations in a restricted ensemble in which spin configurations containing defects are not allowed, the system appears to remain ordered at all temperatures. Simulations in which the spin-spin interaction is set equal to zero and the number density of defects is controlled by varying a 'chemical potential' term indicate that the system is ordered if the number density of defect pairs is sufficiently small. These results show that topological defects play a crucial role in the three-dimensional Heisenberg transition in the sense that configurations containing defect pairs are necessary for the transition from the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase to occur. Such a conclusion is also consistent with a Renormalization Group study of the O(n) model, which suggests that topological defects should be explicitly taken into account for a correct description of the critical behavior in models including the three-dimensional Heisenberg model.

  12. Numerical investigation of the role of topological defects in the three-dimensional Heisenberg transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Man-Hot; Dasgupta, Chandan

    1989-04-01

    The role of topological point defects (hedgehogs) in the phase transition of the classical Heisenberg model in three dimensions is investigated by using Monte Carlo simulations. Simulations of the behavior of the defects near the phase transition show that the number density of defects increases sharply and defect pairs with separations comparable to the sample size begin to appear as the temperature is increased through the transition temperature. In simulations in a restricted ensemble in which spin configurations containing defects are not allowed, the system appears to remain ordered at all temperatures. Simulations in which the spin-spin interaction is set equal to zero and the number density of defects is controlled by varying a ``chemical potential'' term indicate that the system is ordered if the number density of defect pairs is sufficiently small. These results show that topological defects play a crucial role in the three-dimensional Heisenberg transition in the sense that configurations containing defect pairs are necessary for the transition from the ferromagnetic to the paramagnetic phase to occur.

  13. The History and Role of Libraries in Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horning, Alice

    2010-01-01

    Illiteracy is a huge problem, socially, economically and educationally. This study of the history and current practices of American public libraries examines their role in supporting the development of human literate abilities and in helping all Americans to be critically literate in order to participate fully and successfully in our society. This…

  14. The role of the physical therapist in the care of the older adult.

    PubMed

    Richards, Shana; Cristian, Adrian

    2006-05-01

    Physical therapists play an important role in the care of older adults who have physical disabilities. Proper patient selection, a thorough medical, social, and functional history, and a physical examination emphasizing the neuromusculoskeletal system are the cornerstones of the evaluation process. Treatment is individualized and goal driven, with appropriate precautions being followed. Gait training is an integral part of the treatment process for many older adults with disabilities, and various assistive devices may be used to ensure safe mobility.

  15. Gender role attitudes across the transition to adolescent motherhood in Mexican-origin families.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2015-06-01

    Using longitudinal data collected at four time points from 191 dyads of Mexican-origin adolescent first-time mothers and their mother figures, we examined changes in and socialization of traditional gender role attitudes across the transition to parenthood using latent growth curve modeling and actor-partner interdependence modeling. Longitudinal growth models indicated that, regardless of nativity status, adolescent mothers' and their foreign-born mother figures' gender role attitudes became more egalitarian across adolescents' transition to parenthood, spanning from the 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. Furthermore, actor-partner interdependence modeling suggested that adolescents' and their mother figures' gender role attitudes during adolescents' third trimester of pregnancy equally contributed to subsequent increases in one another's gender role attitudes at 10 months postpartum. Importantly, this reciprocal socialization process was not moderated by adolescent mothers' nor by their mother figures' nativity status. Findings suggest that it is important to understand the cultural and intergenerational family processes that contribute to the development of gender role attitudes during the transition to parenthood for adolescent mothers and their mother figures in Mexican-origin families.

  16. Acquiring the transitive construction in English: the role of animacy and pronouns.

    PubMed

    Dodson, K; Tomasello, M

    1998-10-01

    Twenty-four children between 2;5 and 3;1 were taught two nonce verbs. Each verb was used multiple times by an adult experimenter to refer to a highly transitive action involving a mostly animate agent (including the child herself) and a patient of varying animacy. One of the verbs was modelled in the Two-Participants condition in which the experimenter said: 'Look. Big Bird is dopping the boat'. The other verb was modelled in the No-Participant condition in which the experimenter named the Two-Participants but did not use them as arguments of the novel verb: 'Look what Big Bird is doing to the boat. It's called keefing'. It was found that whereas many children produced transitive sentences with the Two-Participants verb, only children close to 3;0 produced transitive sentences with the No-Participant verb. This age is somewhat younger than previous studies in which young children were asked to produce transitive sentences with two lexical nouns for the two animate participants. Also, re-analyses of previously published studies in which children learned novel verbs in sentence frames without arguments found that the few transitive sentences produced by children under 2;6 involved either I or me as subject. One hypothesis is thus that as young children in the third year of life begin to construct a more abstract and verb-general transitive construction, this construction initially contains only certain types of participants expressed in only certain kinds of linguistic forms.

  17. "Just take your medicine and everything will be fine": Responsibilisation narratives in accounts of transitioning young people with HIV into adult care services in Australia.

    PubMed

    Newman, Christy E; Persson, Asha; Miller, Angela; Brown, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    Young people who have grown up with perinatally acquired HIV in wealthy nations are increasingly transitioning into adult care settings which expect more independence and self-regulation than paediatric care. Drawing on the first qualitative study on growing up with HIV in Australia, this paper examines "responsibilisation" narratives in semi-structured interviews conducted with young people with HIV and their paediatric and adult care providers. Three dominant narratives were identified: responsibilisation as imperative, practice and contest. This suggests that while young people growing up with HIV in an advanced liberal setting such as Australia may value the independence of adult care, and appreciate the need to take responsibility for their health, the practices involved in becoming a responsible health citizen are shaped by individual histories and circumstances, and in some cases, can lead to serious contestation and conflict with care providers. Placing a stronger emphasis on what young people can gain from taking an active role in managing their health may more successfully foster responsibilisation, rather than focusing on what they will lose. Clinicians could benefit from greater support regarding how to engage young people with the elements of responsibilisation likely to resonate more meaningfully at different points in their lives.

  18. Roles of Engineering Correlations in Hypersonic Entry Boundary Layer Transition Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.; King, Rudolph A.; Kergerise, Michael A.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to design and operate hypersonic entry vehicles are constrained by many considerations that involve all aspects of an entry vehicle system. One of the more significant physical phenomenon that affect entry trajectory and thermal protection system design is the occurrence of boundary layer transition from a laminar to turbulent state. During the Space Shuttle Return To Flight activity following the loss of Columbia and her crew of seven, NASA's entry aerothermodynamics community implemented an engineering correlation based framework for the prediction of boundary layer transition on the Orbiter. The methodology for this implementation relies upon the framework of correlation techniques that have been in use for several decades. What makes the Orbiter boundary layer transition correlation implementation unique is that a statistically significant data set was acquired in multiple ground test facilities, flight data exists to assist in establishing a better correlation and the framework was founded upon state of the art chemical nonequilibrium Navier Stokes flow field simulations. The basic tenets that guided the formulation and implementation of the Orbiter Return To Flight boundary layer transition prediction capability will be reviewed as a recommended format for future empirical correlation efforts. The validity of this approach has since been demonstrated by very favorable comparison of recent entry flight testing performed with the Orbiter Discovery, which will be graphically summarized. These flight data can provide a means to validate discrete protuberance engineering correlation approaches as well as high fidelity prediction methods to higher confidence. The results of these Orbiter engineering and flight test activities only serve to reinforce the essential role that engineering correlations currently exercise in the design and operation of entry vehicles. The framework of information-related to the Orbiter empirical boundary layer transition

  19. Roles of neural stem cells and adult neurogenesis in adolescent alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Kimberly; Morris, Stephanie A; Liput, Daniel J; Kelso, Matthew L

    2010-02-01

    This review discusses the contributions of a newly considered form of plasticity, the ongoing production of new neurons from neural stem cells, or adult neurogenesis, within the context of neuropathologies that occur with excessive alcohol intake in the adolescents. Neural stem cells and adult neurogenesis are now thought to contribute to the structural integrity of the hippocampus, a limbic system region involved in learning, memory, behavioral control, and mood. In adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), the hippocampus appears to be particularly vulnerable to the neurodegenerative effects of alcohol, but the role of neural stem cells and adult neurogenesis in alcoholic neuropathology has only recently been considered. This review encompasses a brief overview of neural stem cells and the processes involved in adult neurogenesis, how neural stem cells are affected by alcohol, and possible differences in the neurogenic niche between adults and adolescents. Specifically, what is known about developmental differences in adult neurogenesis between the adult and adolescent is gleaned from the literature, as well as how alcohol affects this process differently among the age groups. Finally, this review suggests differences that may exist in the neurogenic niche between adults and adolescents and how these differences may contribute to the susceptibility of the adolescent hippocampus to damage. However, many more studies are needed to discern whether these developmental differences contribute to the vulnerability of the adolescent to developing an AUD.

  20. Experiences of Habitual Physical Activity in Maintaining Roles and Functioning among Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Svantesson, Ulla; Willén, Carin

    2016-01-01

    Physically active older adults have reduced risk of functional restrictions and role limitations. Several aspects may interrelate and influence habitual physical activity (PA). However, older adults' own perspectives towards their PA need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of habitual physical activity in maintaining roles and functioning among older adult Palestinians ≥60 years. Data were collected through in-depth interviews based on a narrative approach. Seventeen participants were recruited (aged 64–84 years). Data were analyzed using a narrative interpretative method. Findings. Three central narratives were identified, “keep moving, stay healthy,” “social connectedness, a motive to stay active,” and “adapting strategies to age-related changes.” Conclusion. Habitual physical activity was perceived as an important factor to maintain functioning and to preserve active roles in older adults. Walking was the most prominent pattern of physical activity and it was viewed as a vital tool to maintain functioning among the older adults. Social connectedness was considered as a contributing factor to the status of staying active. To adapt the process of age-related changes in a context to stay active, the participants have used different adapting strategies, including protective strategy, awareness of own capabilities, and modifying or adopting new roles. PMID:28078141

  1. Abusive Drinking in Young Adults: Personality Type and Family Role as Moderators of Family-of-Origin Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Judith L.; Wampler, Richard S.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationship between roles in the family and individual personality types and abusive drinking among young adults (n=674). Family roles and personality type were found to moderate effects of family-of-origin variables on abusive drinking: family role of hero acted as buffer between family of origin and young adult's drinking behaviors;…

  2. Methodology used in comparative studies assessing programmes of transition from paediatrics to adult care programmes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Le Roux, E; Mellerio, H; Guilmin-Crépon, S; Gottot, S; Jacquin, P; Boulkedid, R; Alberti, C

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore the methodologies employed in studies assessing transition of care interventions, with the aim of defining goals for the improvement of future studies. Design Systematic review of comparative studies assessing transition to adult care interventions for young people with chronic conditions. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrial.gov. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies 2 reviewers screened comparative studies with experimental and quasi-experimental designs, published or registered before July 2015. Eligible studies evaluate transition interventions at least in part after transfer to adult care of young people with chronic conditions with at least one outcome assessed quantitatively. Results 39 studies were reviewed, 26/39 (67%) published their final results and 13/39 (33%) were in progress. In 9 studies (9/39, 23%) comparisons were made between preintervention and postintervention in a single group. Randomised control groups were used in 9/39 (23%) studies. 2 (2/39, 5%) reported blinding strategies. Use of validated questionnaires was reported in 28% (11/39) of studies. In terms of reporting in published studies 15/26 (58%) did not report age at transfer, and 6/26 (23%) did not report the time of collection of each outcome. Conclusions Few evaluative studies exist and their level of methodological quality is variable. The complexity of interventions, multiplicity of outcomes, difficulty of blinding and the small groups of patients have consequences on concluding on the effectiveness of interventions. The evaluation of the transition interventions requires an appropriate and common methodology which will provide access to a better level of evidence. We identified areas for improvement in terms of randomisation, recruitment and external validity, blinding, measurement validity, standardised assessment and reporting. Improvements will increase our capacity to determine effective interventions for transition care. PMID:28131998

  3. Young adults with spina bifida transitioned to a medical home: a survey of medical care in Jacksonville, Florida.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Antonio M; Wood, David L; Keeley, Cortney; James, Hector E; Aldana, Philipp R

    2015-10-23

    OBJECT The transition of the young adult with spina bifida (YASB) from pediatric to adult health care is considered a priority by organized pediatrics. There is a paucity of transition programs and related studies. Jacksonville Health and Transition Services (JaxHATS) is one such transition program in Jacksonville, Florida. This study's purpose was to evaluate the health care access, utilization, and quality of life (QOL) of a group of YASBs who have transitioned from pediatric care. METHODS A survey tool addressing access to health care and quality of health and life was developed based on an established survey. Records of the Spinal Defects Clinic held at Wolfson Children's Hospital and JaxHATS Clinic were reviewed and YASBs (> 18 and < 30 years old) were identified. RESULTS Ten of the 12 invited YASBs in the Jacksonville area completed the surveys. The mean age of respondents was 25.1 years. All reported regular medical home visits, 8 with JaxHATS and 2 with other family care groups. All reported easy access to medical care and routine visits to spina bifida (SB) specialists; none reported difficulty or delays in obtaining health care. Only 2 patients required emergent care in the last year for an SB-related medical problem. Seven respondents reported very good to excellent QOL. Family, lifestyle, and environmental factors were also examined. CONCLUSIONS In this small group of YASBs with a medical home, easy access to care for medical conditions was the norm, with few individuals having recent emergency visits and almost all reporting at least a good overall QOL. Larger studies of YASBs are needed to evaluate the positive effects of medical homes on health and QOL in this population.

  4. The transition of adult patients with childhood-onset chronic diseases from pediatric to adult healthcare systems: a survey of the perceptions of Japanese pediatricians and child health nurses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Advances in medical science have enabled many children with chronic diseases to survive to adulthood. The transition of adult patients with childhood-onset chronic diseases from pediatric to adult healthcare systems has received attention in Europe and the United States. We conducted a questionnaire survey among 41 pediatricians at pediatric hospitals and 24 nurses specializing in adolescent care to compare the perception of transition of care from pediatric to adult healthcare services for such patients. Findings Three-fourths of the pediatricians and all of the nurses reported that transition programs were necessary. A higher proportion of the nurses realized the necessity of transition and had already developed such programs. Both pediatricians and nurses reported that a network covering the transition from pediatric to adult healthcare services has not been established to date. Conclusions It has been suggested that spreading the importance of a transition program among pediatricians and developing a pediatric-adult healthcare network would contribute to the biopsychosocial well-being of adult patients with childhood-onset chronic disease. PMID:22433283

  5. Prebiotic coordination chemistry: The potential role of transition-metal complexes in the chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, M.

    1979-01-01

    In approaching the extremely involved and complex problem of the origin of life, consideration of the coordination chemistry appeared not only as a possibility but as a necessity. The first model experiments appear to be promising because of prebiotic-type synthesis by means of transition-metal complexes. It is especially significant that in some instances various types of vitally important substances (nucleic bases, amino acids) are formed simultaneously. There is ground to hope that systematic studies in this field will clarify the role of transition-metal complexes in the organizatorial phase of chemical evolution. It is obvious that researchers working in the fields of the chemistry of cyano and carbonyl complexes, and of the catalytic effect of transition-metal complexes are best suited to study these aspects of the attractive and interesting problem of the origin of life.

  6. Being a (Good) Student: Conceptions of Identity of Adult Basic Education Participants Transitioning to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Mina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of identity of a category of students that has rarely been studied in the context of higher education. These are adults who have participated in GED preparation or English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) courses in Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs. A college education is increasingly necessary for…

  7. Adults Must Be College-Ready Too: ABE-to-College Transition Project Inspires Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Blenda J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the voices of adults whose lives have been changed by their enrollment in a set of innovative college readiness programs geared toward adults. These women and men have overcome obstacles between them and college that they believed were insurmountable--fear, inadequate academic preparation, lack of information…

  8. An exploratory study of future plans and extracurricular activities of transition-age youth and young adults.

    PubMed

    Betz, Cecily L; Redcay, Gay

    2005-01-01

    A descriptive profile of the health related concerns, school-related and extracurricular activities, employment-related activities, social relationships and future plans of 25 transition-aged youth and young adults (ages 14 to 21 years) were conducted. The findings of this exploratory study provide insight on the impact their chronic condition had upon all aspects of their lives. Sixty percent of respondents indicated they had missed school due to their condition and a third of the respondents had not completed high school. Health care professionals usually were not identified as participatory in youth transition planning. The majority of these transition-aged youth and young adults had positive feelings towards their school experience, although most of the respondents were not involved in school projects or clubs, which suggests their participation in school-related extra-curricular activities was limited. Nearly all of the respondents had some form of employment experience. Most of their work experiences were nonpaying jobs such as serving as a volunteer and participating in school-based employment training. Nearly all of the respondents expressed desires for sustainable employment and fiscal and social independence. Most of the respondents reported having social relationships with just less than half reporting seeing friends outside of school.

  9. Order of selection in vocational rehabilitation: implications for the transition from school to adult outcomes for youths with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bellini, James; Royce-Davis, Joanna

    1999-01-01

    Interagency cooperation between special education and vocational rehabilitation (VR) is central to ensuring the continuity of services to young adults with disabilities who are in transition from school to adult living. However, the interface between special education and VR may be complicated by order of selection, an equally binding mandate in federal VR policy to provide priority services to individuals with the most severe disabilities. Because students with learning disabilities are typically perceived as having mild rather than severe disabilities, these youths are most at risk for falling through the cracks in the service landscape once they leave the school setting in states where the VR agency is implementing an order of selection procedure. This article identifies and discusses common impediments to collaborative transition planning for students with learning disabilities that may be intensified when the state VR agency is operating under an order of selection plan. Recommendations are provided to facilitate greater interagency cooperation among schools and VR agencies so that transition planning and implementation for students with learning disabilities is not subverted as a result of the order of selection mandate.

  10. Best Practices in Transition to Adult Life for Youth with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, Clare K.; Bambara, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    A number of best practices are recommended by researchers and professionals in the field of transition to improve postschool outcomes for youth with intellectual disabilities. This study analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to examine whether best practices are predictive of postschool outcomes. The combination of five…

  11. Becoming Adults: One-Year Impact Findings from the Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Erin Jacobs; Skemer, Melanie; Courtney, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The "Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation" is testing whether the "Transitional Living" program, operated by the social service organization Youth Villages, makes a difference in the lives of young people with histories of foster care or juvenile justice custody. The program, which was renamed "YVLifeSet" in…

  12. Services for young people with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder transitioning from child to adult mental health services: a national survey of mental health trusts in England.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charlotte L; Newell, Karen; Taylor, John; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Transition from child to adult mental health services is considered to be a difficult process, particularly for individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article presents results from a national survey of 36 mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts across England, the findings indicate a lack of accurate data on the number of young people with ADHD transitioning to, and being seen by, adult services. Less than half of the trusts had a specialist adult ADHD service and in only a third of the trusts were there specific commissioning arrangements for adult ADHD. Half of the trusts reported that young people with ADHD were prematurely discharged from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) because there were no suitable adult services. There was also a lack of written transition protocols, care pathways, commissioned services for adults with ADHD and inadequate information sharing between services. The findings advocate the need to provide a better transition service underpinned by clear, structured guidelines and protocols, routine data collection and information sharing across child and adult services. An increase in the commission of specialist adult ADHD clinics is needed to ensure individuals have access to appropriate support and care.

  13. Role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cognition in physiology and disease: pharmacological targets and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Costa, Veronica; Lugert, Sebastian; Jagasia, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a remarkable form of brain structural plasticity by which new functional neurons are generated from adult neural stem cells/precursors. Although the precise role of this process remains elusive, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is important for learning and memory and it is affected in disease conditions associated with cognitive impairment, depression, and anxiety. Immature neurons in the adult brain exhibit an enhanced structural and synaptic plasticity during their maturation representing a unique population of neurons to mediate specific hippocampal function. Compelling preclinical evidence suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis is modulated by a broad range of physiological stimuli which are relevant in cognitive and emotional states. Moreover, multiple pharmacological interventions targeting cognition modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition, recent genetic approaches have shown that promoting neurogenesis can positively modulate cognition associated with both physiology and disease. Thus the discovery of signaling pathways that enhance adult neurogenesis may lead to therapeutic strategies for improving memory loss due to aging or disease. This chapter endeavors to review the literature in the field, with particular focus on (1) the role of hippocampal neurogenesis in cognition in physiology and disease; (2) extrinsic and intrinsic signals that modulate hippocampal neurogenesis with a focus on pharmacological targets; and (3) efforts toward novel strategies pharmacologically targeting neurogenesis and identification of biomarkers of human neurogenesis.

  14. The roles of users in shaping transitions to new energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schot, Johan; Kanger, Laur; Verbong, Geert

    2016-05-01

    Current government information policies and market-based instruments aimed at influencing the energy choices of consumers often ignore the fact that consumer behaviour is not fully reducible to individuals making rational conscious decisions all the time. The decisions of consumers are largely configured by shared routines embedded in socio-technical systems. To achieve a transition towards a decarbonized and energy-efficient system, an approach that goes beyond individual consumer choice and puts shared routines and system change at its centre is needed. Here, adopting a transitions perspective, we argue that consumers should be reconceptualized as users who are important stakeholders in the innovation process shaping new routines and enacting system change. We review the role of users in shifts to new decarbonized and energy-efficient systems and provide a typology of user roles.

  15. The Role of Age-Friendly Environments on Quality of Life among Thai Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tiraphat, Sariyamon; Peltzer, Karl; Thamma-Aphiphol, Kriengsak; Suthisukon, Kawinarat

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the significance of age-friendly environments towards quality of life among older adults have been limited. This study aimed to examine the association between age-friendly environments and quality of life among Thai older adults. Cross-sectional interview survey data were collected from 4183 older adults (≥60 years) using multistage stratified systematic sampling from all four regions in Thailand. The outcome variable was the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) scale, while independent variables included sociodemographic factors, having a health problem, and neighbourhood age-friendly environment variables. In multivariable logistic regression, significant age-friendly environments predictors of quality of life included walkable neighbourhood, neighbourhood aesthetics, neighbourhood service accessibility, neighbourhood criminal safety, neighbourhood social trust, neighbourhood social support, and neighbourhood social cohesion. The present study confirms the important role of age-friendly neighbourhoods in terms of physical and social environments towards the quality of life of older adults. PMID:28282942

  16. Adult neurogenesis and its role in neuropsychiatric disease, brain repair and normal brain function.

    PubMed

    Braun, S M G; Jessberger, S

    2014-02-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the mammalian brain retain the ability to generate new neurones throughout life in discrete brain regions, through a process called adult neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis, a dramatic form of adult brain circuitry plasticity, has been implicated in physiological brain function and appears to be of pivotal importance for certain forms of learning and memory. In addition, failing or altered neurogenesis has been associated with a variety of brain diseases such as major depression, epilepsy and age-related cognitive decline. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the basic biology underlying the neurogenic process in the adult brain, focusing on mechanisms that regulate quiescence, proliferation and differentiation of NSPCs. In addition, we discuss how neurogenesis influences normal brain function, and in particular its role in memory formation, as well as its contribution to neuropsychiatric diseases. Finally, we evaluate the potential of targeting endogenous NSPCs for brain repair.

  17. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor.

  18. Identifying a Transition Competency Domain Structure: Assisting Transition Planning Teams to Understand Roles and Responsibilities of Community Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotner, Anthony; Trach, John; Shogren, Karrie

    2012-01-01

    The special education and rehabilitation literature is replete with articles examining transition planning, services and supports; however, transition models have typically been developed for the school context and not focused on other transition team members. These school-based models are important; however, models developed from the perspectives…

  19. Role of ketamine for analgesia in adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Schermer, Erika; Kodumudi, Vijay; Belani, Kumar; Urman, Richard D; Kaye, Alan David

    2016-01-01

    Ketamine an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocking agent and a dissociative anesthetic with neurostimulatory side effects. In recent years, multiple research trials as well as systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest the usefulness of ketamine as a strong analgesic used in subanesthetic intravenous doses, and also as a sedative. In addition, ketamine was noted to possess properties of anti-tolerance, anti-hyperalgesia and anti-allodynia most likely secondary to inhibition of the NMDA receptors. Tolerance, hyperalgesia and allodynia phenomena are the main components of opioid resistance, and pathological pain is often seen in the clinical conditions involving neuropathic pain, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and central sensitization with allodynia or hyperalgesia. All these conditions are challenging to treat. In low doses, ketamine does not have major adverse dysphoric effects and also has the favorable effects of reduced incidence of opioid-induced nausea and vomiting. Therefore, ketamine can be a useful adjunct for pain control after surgery. Additional studies are required to determine the role of ketamine in the immediate postoperative period after surgical interventions known to produce severe pain and in the prevention and treatment of chronic pain. PMID:27625475

  20. The Role of Language in Adult Education and Poverty Reduction in Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagwasi, Mompoloki

    2006-05-01

    This study examines the role of language in reducing poverty in Botswana through adult-education programs. Because language is the medium through which human beings communicate and grow intellectually and socially, it should form the basis of any discussion involving the relation between development and education. In order best to respond to societal changes and bridge the gap between the less privileged and the more privileged, adult-education programs should be guided by language policies that are sensitive to this pivotal role that language plays. Language is important in any discussion of poverty reduction because it determines who has access to educational, political and economic resources. The author recommends that adult-education programs in Botswana take account of the multilingual nature of society and so allow learners to participate freely, make use of their indigenous knowledge, and enhance their self-esteem and identity.

  1. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males.

  2. Is older adult care mediated by caregivers’ cultural stereotypes? The role of competence and warmth attribution

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Bustillos, Antonio; Santacreu, Marta; Schettini, Rocio; Díaz-Veiga, Pura; Huici, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine, from the stereotype content model (SCM) perspective, the role of the competence and warmth stereotypes of older adults held by professional caregivers. Methods A quasi-experimental design, ex post facto with observational analyses, was used in this study. The cultural view on competence and warmth was assessed in 100 caregivers working in a set of six residential geriatric care units (three of them organized following a person-centered care approach and the other three providing standard geriatric care). In order to assess caregivers’ cultural stereotypical views, the SCM questionnaire was administered. To evaluate the role of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes in their professional performance as well as in older adult functioning, two observational scales from the Sistema de Evaluación de Residencias de Ancianos (assessment system for older adults residences)-RS (staff functioning and residents’ functioning) were applied. Results Caregivers’ cultural views of older adults (compared to young people) are characterized by low competence and high warmth, replicating the data obtained elsewhere from the SCM. Most importantly, the person-centered units predict better staff performance and better resident functioning than standard units. Moreover, cultural stereotyping of older adult competence moderates the effects of staff performance on resident functioning, in line with the findings of previous research. Conclusion Our results underline the influence of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes on the type of care, as well as on their professional behaviors and on older adult functioning. Caregivers’ cultural stereotypes could be considered as a central issue in older adult care since they mediate the triangle of care: caregivers/older adults/type of care; therefore, much more attention should be paid to this psychosocial care component. PMID:27217736

  3. Histology and Ultrastructure of Transitional Changes in Skin Morphology in the Juvenile and Adult Four-Striped Mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Eranée; Ajao, Moyosore Salihu

    2013-01-01

    The four-striped mouse has a grey to brown coloured coat with four characteristic dark stripes interspersed with three lighter stripes running along its back. The histological differences in the skin of the juvenile and adult mouse were investigated by Haematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichrome staining, while melanocytes in the skin were studied through melanin-specific Ferro-ferricyanide staining. The ultrastructure of the juvenile skin, hair follicles, and melanocytes was also explored. In both the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse, pigment-containing cells were observed in the dermis and were homogeneously dispersed throughout this layer. Apart from these cells, the histology of the skin of the adult four-striped mouse was similar to normal mammalian skin. In the juvenile four-striped mouse, abundant hair follicles of varying sizes were observed in the dermis and hypodermis, while hair follicles of similar size were only present in the dermis of adult four-striped mouse. Ultrastructural analysis of juvenile hair follicles revealed that the arrangement and differentiation of cellular layers were typical of a mammal. This study therefore provides unique transition pattern in the four-striped mouse skin morphology different from the textbook description of the normal mammalian skin. PMID:24288469

  4. Histology and ultrastructure of transitional changes in skin morphology in the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio).

    PubMed

    Stewart, Eranée; Ajao, Moyosore Salihu; Ihunwo, Amadi Ogonda

    2013-01-01

    The four-striped mouse has a grey to brown coloured coat with four characteristic dark stripes interspersed with three lighter stripes running along its back. The histological differences in the skin of the juvenile and adult mouse were investigated by Haematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichrome staining, while melanocytes in the skin were studied through melanin-specific Ferro-ferricyanide staining. The ultrastructure of the juvenile skin, hair follicles, and melanocytes was also explored. In both the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse, pigment-containing cells were observed in the dermis and were homogeneously dispersed throughout this layer. Apart from these cells, the histology of the skin of the adult four-striped mouse was similar to normal mammalian skin. In the juvenile four-striped mouse, abundant hair follicles of varying sizes were observed in the dermis and hypodermis, while hair follicles of similar size were only present in the dermis of adult four-striped mouse. Ultrastructural analysis of juvenile hair follicles revealed that the arrangement and differentiation of cellular layers were typical of a mammal. This study therefore provides unique transition pattern in the four-striped mouse skin morphology different from the textbook description of the normal mammalian skin.

  5. Transition from home care to nursing home: unmet needs in a home- and community-based program for older adults.

    PubMed

    Robison, Julie; Shugrue, Noreen; Porter, Martha; Fortinsky, Richard H; Curry, Leslie A

    2012-01-01

    A major effort is under way nationally to shift long-term care services from institutional to home- and community-based settings. This article employs quantitative and qualitative methods to identify unmet needs of consumers who transition from a statewide home- and community-based service program for older adults to long-term nursing home residence. Administrative data, care manager notes, and focus group discussions identified program service gaps that inadequately accommodated acute health problems, mental health issues, and stressed family caregivers; additional unmet needs highlighted an inadequate workforce, transportation barriers, and limited supportive housing options. National and state-level policy implications are considered.

  6. New Skills for a New Economy: Adult Education's Key Role in Sustaining Economic Growth and Expanding Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John; Sum, Andrew; Uvin, Johan

    The role of adult education in sustaining economic growth and expanding opportunity in Massachusetts was explored. The analysis focused on the new basic skills needed for a new economy, groups lacking the new basic skills, the demand for adult basic education (ABE), funding for ABE, building basic skills through adult education, ABE's costs and…

  7. Verbal Working Memory in Older Adults: The Roles of Phonological Capacities and Processing Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Wucinich, Taylor; Moberly, Aaron C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the potential roles of phonological sensitivity and processing speed in age-related declines of verbal working memory. Method: Twenty younger and 25 older adults with age-normal hearing participated. Two measures of verbal working memory were collected: digit span and serial recall of words. Processing speed was…

  8. The Role of Shifting, Updating, and Inhibition in Prospective Memory Performance in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M.; Stahl, Christoph; Zeintl, Melanie; Kaller, Christoph P.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory performance shows a decline in late adulthood. The present article examines the role of 3 main executive function facets (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition) as possible developmental mechanisms associated with these age effects. One hundred seventy-five young and 110 older adults performed a battery of cognitive tests…

  9. Building Future Sustainability and Democratic Practices: The Role of Adult Education in Post-Conflict Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaght, Georgia; Kell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents and analyses a range of literature and policy statements that identifies issues and looks at the role which adult education plays in building communities and peace in post-conflict states. This paper explores and documents these developments in countries in close proximity to Australia which have been viewed by the former…

  10. Quieting the Cacophony of the Mind: The Role of Mindfulness in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Kay Annette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role between mindfulness practice and adult learning. The participants were full-time students enrolled in a two-year radiography program at a Midwestern community college. Critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential to students' success and to healthcare professionals. The main…

  11. Adolescent and Adult Reasoning about Gender Roles and Fairness in Benin, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conry-Murray, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This study examined reasoning about gender roles in a traditional society in Benin, West Africa. Ninety-seven male and female adolescents and adults evaluated conflicts between a husband and a wife over gender norms to determine whether gender norms, are judged to be moral or conventional. Although most attributed decision-making power to the…

  12. Fostering Social Ties through a Volunteer Role: Implications for Older-Adults' Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rook, Karen S.; Sorkin, Dara H.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects on older adults' psychological health of participation in a volunteer role that afforded opportunities to form friendships with age peers and to express nurturance toward another person. Access to these important social provisions was expected, in turn, to contribute to greater self-esteem, less loneliness, and less…

  13. The Role of Administrators in Enabling Youth-Adult Partnerships in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Dana L.

    2007-01-01

    School leaders play a crucial role in enabling and sustaining student voice initiatives. This article identifies three specific ways in which administrators can spark and encourage a focus on increasing student voice in school decision making and in classroom practice, including (a) fostering youth-adult partnerships within the context of a…

  14. Men's Changing Roles. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 27. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, discusses men's changing roles. It is designed to provide a framework for exploring how differences in language, laws, and ways for participating in the community and differences in the way…

  15. The Role of Online Games in Promoting Young Adults' Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Themistokleous, Sotiris; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we present an argument for the need to support young adult's civic engagement and we explore the role of online games in supporting such engagement. In doing so, in the first section of the paper, we offer a definition for civic education and citizenship alongside a discussion for the pedagogical frameworks that better support…

  16. Secondary Traumatization among Adult Children of PTSD Veterans: The Role of Mother-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinshtein, Yula; Dekel, Rachel; Polliack, Miki

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the level of secondary traumatization among adult children of Israeli war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as manifested in emotional distress, stress resulting from terrorist attacks, and capacity for intimacy. In addition, the role of the mother-child relationship as a moderator of these manifestations of…

  17. Adolescents' and Young Adults' Reasoning about Career Choice and the Role of Parental Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregman, George; Killen, Melanie

    1999-01-01

    Examined adolescents' and young adults' evaluations of reasons for career decisions, and the role of parental influence. Found that subjects supported career choices for reasons of personal growth and rejected choices when decisions were based on interpersonal relationships or hedonism. Parental influence was judged most important when…

  18. Memory Failures Appraisal in Younger and Older Adults: Role of Individual Difference and Event Outcome Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brigman, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the role of individual difference and event outcome variables in younger and older adults' memory failures appraisal. Participants read vignettes that described fictitious younger characters (in their 20s-30s) or older characters (in their 60s-70s) who had experienced a minor or severe consequence of their forgetfulness. The…

  19. A Role-Based Approach to Adult Development: The Triple-Helix Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    1989-01-01

    Presents triple-helix model of adult development which incorporates three major roles: family, work, and self, each powered by drive for self-esteem. Asserts that this approach accommodates wide range of possible patterns and varied timing of life events relative to career options, family and relationship choices, and emphasis on self-development.…

  20. Identity Diffusion as a Function of Sex-Roles in Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabury, Donald Eugene

    This study sought to demonstrate that the relative degree of adult female identity diffusion, as well as certain personality correlates, would be a function of specific sex roles and their combinations. Three groups of 32 women each were selected as married and noncareer, married and career, or unmarried and career women. They were administered a…

  1. Meeting the Psychological and Social Needs of Older Adults: The Library's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Wendy

    1979-01-01

    Psychological and physical segregation are not conditions intrinsic to the aging process--they are created and propagated by society's response to it. Eradication or reduction of older adults' role loss, collective stereotyped treatment, and physical separation require the awareness and application of gerontological concepts in public library…

  2. Prevention Activities for Older Adults: Social Structures and Personal Competencies That Maintain Useful Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    Presents conceptual reorientation for providing responsive psychological services to older adults, focusing on need to develop prevention programs that encourage maintenance of social roles. Discusses changes in social structures that encourage more active social engagement, with examples from housing options, part-time employment, and ways to…

  3. Adolescent Girls' ADHD Symptoms and Young Adult Driving: The Role of Perceived Deviant Peer Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoos, Stephanie L.; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with…

  4. The Role of Nonlinear Interactions in Causing Transitions into Edge Transport-Barrier Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cziegler, Istvan

    2015-11-01

    Transitions of tokamak confinement regimes are studied with a focus on interactions between turbulence and zonal flows (ZF) or geodesic-acoustic modes (GAM). Results show that access to im-proved confinement regimes is profoundly affected by these interactions and clarify the role of GAM and ZF in different types of transitions. In order to understand the underlying dynamics of these transitions, both their trigger mechanism and the parametric dependence of nonlinear transfer processes are studied using gas-puff-imaging. For the L-to-H transition, this work shows that the stress mediated transfer rate of kinetic energy from turbulence into ZF leads in the changes, the turbulence collapses, and finally the pressure gradient forms - establishing the trigger as flow organization. For the I-mode, turbulence is studied with the aim of understanding /emphaccess to the improved confinement regime, which exhibits an edge temperature pedestal, but a relaxed density profile. L-to-I and I-to-H transitions are analyzed in a time-resolved manner analogous to the L-H transition. For the L-to-I transition there is a difference between the scaling of the regime's typical edge fluctuation, the Weakly Coherent Mode (WCM), and GAM, known to be essential in shaping the WCM. Both the WCM and the GAM are necessary for the regime, and regime access is found to be sensitive to the GAM drive and damping. Parametric dependences of nonlinearities are examined in steady state discharges from a range of toroidal field, plasma current, and density; and interactions between flows and turbulence in both L-mode and I-mode are estimated using bispectral methods. The ZF drive increases monotonically with cross-field heat flux, i.e. approaches a transition, while GAM follow more complicated trends. These results advance our progress toward predicting the parametric dependences of transition conditions. Work supported by USDoE, Office of Science, Award Numbers DE-SC-0008689 and DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  5. Role of Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in adult morphogenesis and in adult ecdysis of Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Jesus; Belles, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile Hormone (JH) represses metamorphosis of young instars in insects. One of the main players in hormonal signalling is Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which plays the role of JH receptor. Using the Polyneopteran insect Blattella germanica as the model and RNAi for transcript depletion, we have confirmed that Met transduces the antimetamorphic signal of JH in young nymphs and plays a role in the last nymphal instar moult in this species. Previously, the function of Met as the JH receptor had been demonstrated in the Eumetabola clade, with experiments in Holometabola (in the beetle Tribolium castaneum) and in their sister group Paraneoptera (in the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus). Our result shows that the function of Met as JH receptor is also conserved in the more basal Polyneoptera. The function of Met as JH transducer might thus predate the evolutionary innovation of metamorphosis. Moreover, expression of Met was also found in last nymphal instar of B. germanica, when JH is absent. Depletion of Met in this stage provoked deficiencies in wing growth and ecdysis problems in the imaginal moult. Down-regulation of the ecdysone-inducible gene E75A and Insulin-Like-Peptide 1 in these Met-depleted specimens suggest that Met is involved in the ecdysone and insulin signalling pathways in last nymphal instar, when JH is virtually absent.

  6. Adult Education School to Work. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Molly

    A project identified and established components related to adult basic education's role in school-to-work (STW) transition. It focused on developing a cognitive framework for competency-based adult employability classes, integrating adult basic and literacy education (ABLE)-funded programs into the Erie Area STW partnership, and establishing a…

  7. Professional’s Perspectives on Care Management of Young People with Perinatally Acquired HIV during Transition: A Qualitative Study in Adult Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Le Roux, Enora; Gottot, Serge; Aupiais, Camille; Girard, Thomas; Teixeira, Maria; Alberti, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of young people with perinatally acquired HIV are surviving to adulthood. When they come of age, they leave pediatric services in which they were followed and have to be transferred to the adult health care system. Difficulties in adaptation to adult care and the numbers of young people lost to follow up after transfer to adult care have been reported. This transition phase and their retention in adult care are crucial in maintaining the clinical status of these young with HIV in adulthood. Our study aimed to explore how HIV professionals working in adult care perceive and adapt their practices to young people in transition. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 health and social services professionals in hospitals or patient associations in France. A thematic analysis was conducted. Results Adult care professionals were found to be making a distinction between these young people and their patients who were infected during adulthood. On the basis of the healthcare teams’ experience, a simplified categorization of these young people into four levels can be used: those “who have everything good”; those who have some deficiencies that must be addressed; those “who have everything bad”; and those lost to follow up. Professionals interviewed highlighted the difficulties they encountered with young people in transition. Three types of problematic situations were identified: problems of acceptance of the disease; communication problems; and problems of disorientation in the new care environment. Conclusions Despite the lack of specific training or national policy recommendations for the integration of young people with perinatally acquired HIV into adult services, all the adult healthcare teams interviewed tried to adapt their practice to this population. The results suggested that professional involvement during transition should depend on the characteristics of the patient, not be limited to a single transition

  8. The Role of Adult-Born Neurons in the Constantly Changing Olfactory Bulb Network

    PubMed Central

    Malvaut, Sarah; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    The adult mammalian brain is remarkably plastic and constantly undergoes structurofunctional modifications in response to environmental stimuli. In many regions plasticity is manifested by modifications in the efficacy of existing synaptic connections or synapse formation and elimination. In a few regions, however, plasticity is brought by the addition of new neurons that integrate into established neuronal networks. This type of neuronal plasticity is particularly prominent in the olfactory bulb (OB) where thousands of neuronal progenitors are produced on a daily basis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the OB. In the OB, these neuronal precursors differentiate into local interneurons, mature, and functionally integrate into the bulbar network by establishing output synapses with principal neurons. Despite continuous progress, it is still not well understood how normal functioning of the OB is preserved in the constantly remodelling bulbar network and what role adult-born neurons play in odor behaviour. In this review we will discuss different levels of morphofunctional plasticity effected by adult-born neurons and their functional role in the adult OB and also highlight the possibility that different subpopulations of adult-born cells may fulfill distinct functions in the OB neuronal network and odor behaviour. PMID:26839709

  9. The Role of Adult-Born Neurons in the Constantly Changing Olfactory Bulb Network.

    PubMed

    Malvaut, Sarah; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    The adult mammalian brain is remarkably plastic and constantly undergoes structurofunctional modifications in response to environmental stimuli. In many regions plasticity is manifested by modifications in the efficacy of existing synaptic connections or synapse formation and elimination. In a few regions, however, plasticity is brought by the addition of new neurons that integrate into established neuronal networks. This type of neuronal plasticity is particularly prominent in the olfactory bulb (OB) where thousands of neuronal progenitors are produced on a daily basis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the OB. In the OB, these neuronal precursors differentiate into local interneurons, mature, and functionally integrate into the bulbar network by establishing output synapses with principal neurons. Despite continuous progress, it is still not well understood how normal functioning of the OB is preserved in the constantly remodelling bulbar network and what role adult-born neurons play in odor behaviour. In this review we will discuss different levels of morphofunctional plasticity effected by adult-born neurons and their functional role in the adult OB and also highlight the possibility that different subpopulations of adult-born cells may fulfill distinct functions in the OB neuronal network and odor behaviour.

  10. Gender-role attitudes and behavior across the transition to parenthood.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Priess, Heather A; Hyde, Janet S

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of social structural theory and identity theory, the current study examined changes in gender-role attitudes and behavior across the first-time transition to parenthood and following the birth of a second child for experienced mothers and fathers. Data were analyzed from the ongoing longitudinal Wisconsin Study of Families and Work. Gender-role attitudes, work and family identity salience, and division of household labor were measured for 205 first-time and 198 experienced mothers and fathers across 4 time points from 5 months pregnant to 12 months postpartum. Multilevel latent growth curve analysis was used to analyze the data. In general, parents became more traditional in their gender-role attitudes and behavior following the birth of a child, women changed more than men, and first-time parents changed more than experienced parents. Findings suggest that changes in gender-role attitudes and behavior following the birth of a child may be attributed to both the process of transitioning to parenthood for the first time and that of negotiating the demands of having a new baby in the family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Roles of GasderminA3 in catagen- telogen transition during hair cycling

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiufeng; Lei, Mingxing; Shi, Jiazhong; Yu, Yu; Qiu, Weiming; Lai, Xiangdong; Liu, Yingxin; Yang, Tian; Yang, Li; Widelitz, Randall Bruce; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Lian, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles undergo cyclic behavior through regression (catagen), rest (telogen) and regeneration (anagen) during postnatal life. The hair cycle transition is strictly regulated by the autonomous and extrinsic molecular environment. However, whether there is a switch controlling catagen-telogen transition remains largely unknown. Here we show that hair follicles cycle from catagen to the next anagen without transitioning through a morphologically typical telogen after Gsdma3 mutation. This leaves an ESLS (epithelial strand-like structure) during the time period corresponding to telogen phase in WT mice. Molecularly, Wnt10b is upregulated in Gsdma3 mutant mice. Restoration of Gsdma3 expression in AE (alopecia and excoriation) mouse skin rescues hair follicle telogen entry and significantly decreases the Wnt10b-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Overexpression of Wnt10b inhibits telogen entry by increasing epithelial strand cell proliferation. Subsequently, hair follicles with a Gsdma3 mutation enter the second anagen simultaneously as WT mice. Hair follicles cannot enter the second anagen with ectopic WT Gsdma3 overexpression. A luciferase reporter assay proves Gsdma3 directly suppresses Wnt signaling. Our findings suggest Gsdma3 plays an important role in catagen-telogen transition by balancing the Wnt signaling pathway, and that morphologically typical telogen is not essential for the initiation of a new hair cycle. PMID:25860385

  12. The Role of Proximity Effects in Transition-Edge Sensor Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters and bolometers are under development by numerous groups worldwide for a variety of applications involving the measurement of particle and photon radiation. Recent experimental and theoretical progress has led to the realization that the fundamental physics of some TES systems involves the longitudinal proximity effect between the electrical bias contacts and the TES. As such, these devices are described as SS'S (or SN'S) weak-links exhibiting Fraunhofer-like magnetic field dependence, and exponential temperature dependence, of the critical current. These discoveries, for the first time, provide a realistic theoretical framework for predicting the resistive transition as a function of temperature, current and magnetic field. In this contribution, we review the latest theoretical and experimental results and investigate how proximity effects play an important role in determining the resistive transition characteristics, which ultimately determines the dynamic range and energy resolution of TES detectors. We investigate how these effects could be utilized in device design to engineer desired transition characteristics for a given application.

  13. The role of electrostatics in the B to A transition of DNA: from solution to assembly.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Laura; Lee, Dominic J; Kornyshev, Alexei A

    2007-10-17

    On the basis of a wealth of published experimental data and computer simulations, we build a simple physical model that allows us to rationalize the A to B transition of DNA in solution and in aggregates. In both cases we find that the electrostatic interactions are strong enough, alone, to induce the transition independently of other energetic contributions, e.g. those related to hydration. On the basis of this analysis we conclude that in ethanol/water mixtures, the effect responsible for the transition is the reduction of dielectric constant in the mixture. This is manifested in electrostatic self-energy terms that include the interaction of phosphate charges with condensed counterions. But in dense aggregates, electrostatics plays a dual role, giving rise to two competing effects. In the absence of groove localized counterions the electrostatic self-energy favours the B form, and the electrostatic interaction energy between neighbouring DNA favours the A form. However, the addition of enough counterions localized in the narrow groove reverses this. In dry aggregates of DNA both terms, in most cases, conspire to keep DNA in the A form. The analysis gives a broad picture of the B to A transition and sets a number of new research goals, particularly concerning simulations that may test our simple model for aggregates.

  14. The role of prescriptive norms and knowledge in children's and adults' causal selection.

    PubMed

    Samland, Jana; Josephs, Marina; Waldmann, Michael R; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2016-02-01

    A widely discussed discovery has been the influence of norms on causal selection. Confronted with scenarios in which 2 agents contribute equally to an effect, adult participants tend to choose the agent who is violating a norm over an agent who is conforming to a norm as the cause of the outcome. To date, this effect has been established only in adult populations, so its developmental course is unknown. In 2 experiments, we investigated the influence of norm violations on causal selection in both 5-year-old children and adults. In particular, we focused on the role of mental state ascription and blame evaluation as potential mediating factors in this process. To this end, the knowledge status of the agent in question was varied such that she either was or was not aware of her norm transgression. Results revealed that children and adults assigned blame differently: Only adults were sensitive to the knowledge of the agent about norms as a mitigating factor. Crucially, however, despite its different sensitivity to knowledge ascription in children and adults, blame assignment in both age groups affected causal selection in the same ways. The relevance of these findings for alternative theories of causal selection is discussed.

  15. The Changing Roles of Adult and Continuing Education Practitioners in Hong Kong: Analysis from a Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Benjamin Tak-Yuen

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the role of adult and continuing education practitioners in Hong Kong as a function of contexts and conceptions of practice. A historical evolutionary approach is used to analyze how roles of practitioners differ in three periods--adult education, continuing education, and lifelong learning. It is revealed that practitioners…

  16. An Exploratory Investigation of the Role of Openness in Relationship Quality among Emerging Adult Chinese Couples

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yixin; Wang, Kexin; Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Jianxin; Zhou, Mingjie

    2017-01-01

    This study tested emerging adult couples’ openness and its fit effect on their romantic relationship quality using quadratic polynomial regression and response surface analysis. Participants were 260 emerging adult dyads. Both dyads’ openness and relationship quality were measured. The result showed that (1) female and male openness contribute differently to relationship quality; (2) couples with similar high openness could experience better relationship quality than those with similar low openness traits; and (3) when dyadic openness is dissimilar, it is better to be either relatively high or relatively low than to be moderate. These findings highlight the role of openness in emerging adults’ romantic relationships from a dyadic angle. PMID:28360875

  17. Transformation and Transition: DARPA’s Role in Fostering an Emerging Revolution in Military Affairs. Volume 2- Detailed Assessments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-01

    hence to an emerging RMA. It is a complement to the previously published Transformation and Transition : DARPA’s Role in Fostering An Emerging...effort: Praeire and Calere. In 1977, DARPA Director George Heilmeier reported to Congress that DARPA had developed RPVs sufficiently for transition ...stealth aircraft “technology limited” as opposed to funding limited. The DARPA stealth program was immediately transitioned to a Service

  18. Implementing the chronic care model for frail older adults in the Netherlands: study protocol of ACT (frail older adults: care in transition)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    . We will investigate the level of implementation, barriers and facilitators to successful implementation and the extent to which the intervention manages to achieve the transition necessary to overcome challenges in elderly care. Discussion This is one of the first studies assessing the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and implementation process of the chronic care model for frail community-dwelling older adults. Trial registration The Netherlands National Trial Register NTR2160. PMID:22545816

  19. The role of space telescopes in the characterization of transiting exoplanets.

    PubMed

    Hatzes, Artie P

    2014-09-18

    Characterization studies now have a dominant role in the field of exoplanets. Such studies include the measurement of an exoplanet's bulk density, its brightness temperature and the chemical composition of its atmosphere. The use of space telescopes has played a key part in the characterization of transiting exoplanets. These facilities offer astronomers data of exquisite precision and temporal sampling as well as access to wavelength regions of the electromagnetic spectrum that are inaccessible from the ground. Space missions such as the Hubble Space Telescope, Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars (MOST), Spitzer Space Telescope, Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits (CoRoT), and Kepler have rapidly advanced our knowledge of the physical properties of exoplanets and have blazed a trail for a series of future space missions that will help us to understand the observed diversity of exoplanets.

  20. Skills Training for Young Adults with Special Educational Needs for Transition into Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankardas, Sulata Ajit; Rajanahally, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    The research reported here was conducted to investigate the perception that people with disabilities find it a challenge to seek employment (Hernandez et?al., 2007). It is suggested that this situation could be due to a lack of specific employment-based training. Hence young adults with special educational needs (SEN) may require job-specific…

  1. Transition from School to Young Adulthood: Four Case Studies of Young Adults Labelled Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Stephen; Michaelides, Nike

    1993-01-01

    These 4 case studies examine the last years of high school and postschool experiences of 4 21-year-olds labeled mentally retarded. Issues discussed include school compliance with legislation concerning Individualized Education Programs, influence of parental involvement, adult services, and necessary employment supports. (JDD)

  2. Project SEARCH: Work-Based Transition Program for Young Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Teresa D.

    2013-01-01

    Historically people with significant disabilities were restricted to places such as adult activity centers, sheltered workshops, nursing homes, and institutions. Studies have shown the high school drop-out rate for this population is higher than those who are non-disabled. Policy makers concluded that these individuals needed to be better prepared…

  3. Transitions between School and Work: Some New Understandings and Questions about Adult Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, King

    There is dissonance between the lives of adult students in rural Nepal in a subsistence-level agrarian community and their participation in school. The concept of "transfer" has several shortcomings from the standpoint of understanding relations between mathematical reasoning in the classroom and in the workplace. It is more helpful to…

  4. Age, Crime, and Sanctions: The Transition from Juvenile to Adult Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Peter W.; And Others

    This document, the final report resulting from a two-year study of the use of juvenile records in adult court proceedings and the relationship between age and sanction severity, is of interest to researchers and policymakers concerned with sanction policies for youthful offenders. The introductory chapter provides an overview of the controversy…

  5. Residential Characteristics, Social Factors, and Mortality among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Transitions out of Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Kelly; Heller, Tamar; Freels, Sally

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which residential characteristics and social factors are associated with mortality, after controlling for personal characteristics, among adults with intellectual disabilities who have resided in nursing homes (facilities providing skilled care and related services) at baseline in the Chicago area. Initial…

  6. Correlates of Young Adult Tobacco Use: Application of a Transition Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Brenda K.

    2003-01-01

    Anticipatory guidance is a traditional nursing intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify factors to serve as targets for anticipatory guidance prior to high school graduation to reduce tobacco initiation among young adults after graduation. A sample of 203 randomly selected freshmen and sophomore students at a major midwestern…

  7. Adults with Learning Disabilities in the Workforce: Lessons for Secondary Transition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madaus, Joseph W.; Gerber, Paul J.; Price, Lynda A.

    2008-01-01

    Now almost 15 years after the implementation of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) data are emerging in the literature related to job entry and employment outcomes of adults with learning disabilities (LD). Although these data are derived from varying methodologies, they converge in three critical areas: Knowledge of the ADA, realities of…

  8. Transforming Causal Logics in Finnish Adult Education: Historical and Moral Transitions Rewritten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Leena; Filander, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the historical representations of adulthood, citizenship and the ideal social bonds of an individual and the society in the transforming moral orders of Finnish adult education. The research is based on a thematic reading of data, which consist of texts written during the past 150 years by theorists of adult…

  9. Interagency Collaboration for Young Adults with Deaf-Blindness: Toward a Common Transition Goal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Jane M.; And Others

    This monograph is a compilation of the knowledge gained by the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) of the Helen Keller National Center, from training and technical assistance activities conducted with state interagency teams serving youth and young adults with deaf-blindness. The book views interagency collaboration as essential in achieving…

  10. College men's intimate partner violence attitudes: contributions of adult attachment and gender role stress.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Ryon C; Lopez, Frederick G

    2013-01-01

    Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence in relationships are key risk factors for IPV perpetration; however, comparatively few studies have examined the social and relational variables related to IPV acceptance attitudes. In the present study, we proposed and tested a structural model examining the combined contributions of adult attachment dimensions (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and masculine gender role stress in the prediction of IPV acceptance attitudes in a large sample of college men (N = 419). We hypothesized that the relationship between attachment insecurity and IPV acceptance attitudes would be partially mediated by men's gender role stress. A partially mediated model produced the best indices of model fit, accounting for 31% of the variance in an IPV acceptance attitudes latent variable. A bootstrapping procedure confirmed the significance of mediation effects. These results suggest that aspects of adult attachment insecurity are associated with tendencies to experience stress from violations of rigidly internalized traditional male role norms, which, in turn, are associated with acceptance of IPV. Findings are further discussed in relation to adult attachment theory (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007), gender role strain theory (Pleck, 1995), and their implications for IPV prevention in college student populations.

  11. Transition and Students with Learning Disabilities: Facilitating the Movement from School to Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, James R., Ed.; Blalock, Ginger, Ed.

    Eleven chapters provide in-depth perspectives on outcomes and issues of youth with learning disabilities as they move from high school to adulthood. Stressed throughout is the importance of comprehensive transition planning and the educational, employment, social, and living options available to persons with learning disabilities. Chapter titles…

  12. Household Income during Childhood and Young Adult Weight Status: Evidence from a Nutrition Transition Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether household income at different stages of childhood is associated with weight status in early adulthood in a nutrition transition setting (a developing country with both underweight and overweight populations). I use multinomial logistic regression to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from Cebu, Philippines.…

  13. "Things Have Gotten Better": Developmental Changes among Emerging Adults after the Transition to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2005-01-01

    Emerging adulthood involves a number of developmental changes, including in the areas of interpersonal relations, religious views, and sexuality. The current study examined individuals' perceptions of changes in these areas as a result of the transition to university. Participants (N = 205, 61% female, age range 18 to 25) responded to open-ended…

  14. Compromise, Well-Being, and Action Behaviors in Young Adults in Career Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Blume, Kellie

    2013-01-01

    The authors surveyed 186 first-year university students and assessed their level of career compromise associated with making the transition to university. Compromise was operationalized as the discrepancy between the job characteristics of ideal and expected occupations. The authors also assessed career well-being (satisfaction, distress), action…

  15. Social Capital during the Postsecondary Transition for Young Adults with High Incidence Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.; Morningstar, Mary; Murray, Angela; Kim, Hyejung

    2013-01-01

    Social capital, relationships, and networks among people who share resources with one another, is essential to the successful transition into adulthood for all individuals--with or without disabilities. Social capital is particularly valuable for youth with disabilities because it has the potential to create access to other forms of capital as…

  16. Timing of Parenthood in Relation to Other Life Transitions and Adult Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea; Mesiainen, Paivi

    2009-01-01

    The timing of having one's first child, in relation to the timing of other transitions into adulthood and to social functioning, was investigated based on the Finnish Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, conducted from age 8 (173 females and 196 males) to 42. Results showed that in women, relatively early (less than…

  17. Provision of Mental Health Services for Care Leavers: Transition to Adult Services. LGA Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Emily; Harland, Jennie; Atkinson, Mary; White, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The Children (Leaving Care) Act 2000 was designed to address the wide variation in local authority provision for care leavers and to promote a more multi-dimensional approach to the process of leaving care. Care leavers are likely to be at greater risk of mental health difficulties than other young people and the transitional period from leaving…

  18. Understanding Social Positioning in the Context of Learning and Participation Experienced by Adult Transitional Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, E. Beverly

    2010-01-01

    There are two dimensions of positioning: self-identity (reflexive) and, events and interaction between people (discursive). Positioning may become socially restrictive when disruptive discursive episodes have a negative impact on individual self-identity. An interpretive biographical study of 11 participants in a transitional residency (temporary…

  19. Transitional care interventions prevent hospital readmissions for adults with chronic illnesses.

    PubMed

    Verhaegh, Kim J; MacNeil-Vroomen, Janet L; Eslami, Saeid; Geerlings, Suzanne E; de Rooij, Sophia E; Buurman, Bianca M

    2014-09-01

    Transitional care interventions aim to improve care transitions from hospital to home and to reduce hospital readmissions for chronically ill patients. The objective of our study was to examine if these interventions were associated with a reduction of readmission rates in the short (30 days or less), intermediate (31-180 days), and long terms (181-365 days). We systematically reviewed twenty-six randomized controlled trials conducted in a variety of countries whose results were published in the period January 1, 1980-May 29, 2013. Our analysis showed that transitional care was effective in reducing all-cause intermediate-term and long-term readmissions. Only high-intensity interventions seemed to be effective in reducing short-term readmissions. Our findings suggest that to reduce short-term readmissions, transitional care should consist of high-intensity interventions that include care coordination by a nurse, communication between the primary care provider and the hospital, and a home visit within three days after discharge.

  20. Sex role identity in young adults: its parental antecedents and relation to ego development.

    PubMed

    Costos, D

    1986-03-01

    This study, inspired by Block's (1973) work, was designed to enable one to examine how ego development and socialization experience interact in relation to sex role identity. Sex role identity was measured via the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and socialization practices were measured via the Block Child-Rearing Practices Report. Both measures were scaled so as to yield scores on agency, communion, and androgyny. Ego development was assessed via Loevinger's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development. The sample consisted of 120 young adult men and women, married and single. Analyses revealed that the predictive power of the variables differed by sex. Ego development was predictive of sex role identity in men but not women, whereas socialization practices were predictive of sex role identity in women but not men. The results were seen as supporting Chodorow's (1974) position regarding the differing socialization experiences of men and women.

  1. The role of CD44 in fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cell regulation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huimin; Heazlewood, Shen Y; Williams, Brenda; Cardozo, Daniela; Nigro, Julie; Oteiza, Ana; Nilsson, Susan K

    2016-01-01

    Throughout development, hematopoietic stem cells migrate to specific microenvironments, where their fate is, in part, extrinsically controlled. CD44 standard as a member of the cell adhesion molecule family is extensively expressed within adult bone marrow and has been previously reported to play important roles in adult hematopoietic regulation via CD44 standard-ligand interactions. In this manuscript, CD44 expression and function are further assessed and characterized on both fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells. Using a CD44(-/-) mouse model, conserved functional roles of CD44 are revealed throughout development. CD44 is critical in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor pools, as well as in hematopoietic stem cell migration. CD44 expression on hematopoietic stem cells as well as other hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow microenvironment is important in the homing and lodgment of adult hematopoietic stem cells isolated from the bone/bone marrow interface. CD44 is also involved in fetal hematopoietic stem cell migration out of the liver, via a process involving stromal cell-derived factor-1α. The absence of CD44 in neonatal bone marrow has no impact on the size of the long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cell pool, but results in an enhanced long-term engraftment potential of hematopoietic stem cells.

  2. The role of CD44 in fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cell regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huimin; Heazlewood, Shen Y.; Williams, Brenda; Cardozo, Daniela; Nigro, Julie; Oteiza, Ana; Nilsson, Susan K.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout development, hematopoietic stem cells migrate to specific microenvironments, where their fate is, in part, extrinsically controlled. CD44 standard as a member of the cell adhesion molecule family is extensively expressed within adult bone marrow and has been previously reported to play important roles in adult hematopoietic regulation via CD44 standard-ligand interactions. In this manuscript, CD44 expression and function are further assessed and characterized on both fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells. Using a CD44−/− mouse model, conserved functional roles of CD44 are revealed throughout development. CD44 is critical in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor pools, as well as in hematopoietic stem cell migration. CD44 expression on hematopoietic stem cells as well as other hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow microenvironment is important in the homing and lodgment of adult hematopoietic stem cells isolated from the bone/bone marrow interface. CD44 is also involved in fetal hematopoietic stem cell migration out of the liver, via a process involving stromal cell-derived factor-1α. The absence of CD44 in neonatal bone marrow has no impact on the size of the long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cell pool, but results in an enhanced long-term engraftment potential of hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:26546504

  3. Implicit Attitude Toward Caregiving: The Moderating Role of Adult Attachment Styles

    PubMed Central

    De Carli, Pietro; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; Santona, Alessandra; Parolin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Attachment and caregiving are separate motivational systems that share the common evolutionary purpose of favoring child security. In the goal of studying the processes underlying the transmission of attachment styles, this study focused on the role of adult attachment styles in shaping preferences toward particular styles of caregiving. We hypothesized a correspondence between attachment and caregiving styles: we expect an individual to show a preference for a caregiving behavior coherent with his/her own attachment style, in order to increase the chance of passing it on to offspring. We activated different representations of specific caregiving modalities in females, by using three videos in which mothers with different Adult Attachment states of mind played with their infants. Participants' facial expressions while watching were recorded and analyzed with FaceReader software. After each video, participants' attitudes toward the category “mother” were measured, both explicitly (semantic differential) and implicitly (single target-implicit association task, ST-IAT). Participants' adult attachment styles (experiences in close relationships revised) predicted attitudes scores, but only when measured implicitly. Participants scored higher on the ST-IAT after watching a video coherent with their attachment style. No effect was found on the facial expressions of disgust. These findings suggest a role of adult attachment styles in shaping implicit attitudes related to the caregiving system. PMID:26779060

  4. The role of sleep continuity and total sleep time in executive function across the adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Wilckens, Kristine A.; Woo, Sarah G.; Kirk, Afton R.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Wheeler, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of sleep for cognition in young adults is well established, but the role of habitual sleep behavior in cognition across the adult lifespan remains unknown. We examined the relationship between sleep continuity and total sleep time assessed with a sleep detection device and cognitive performance using a battery of tasks in young (n = 59, mean age = 23.05) and older (n = 53, mean age = 62.68) adults. Across age groups, higher sleep continuity was associated with better cognitive performance. In the younger group, higher sleep continuity was associated with better working memory and inhibitory control. In the older group, higher sleep continuity was associated with better inhibitory control, memory recall, and verbal fluency. Very short and very long total sleep time was associated with poorer working memory and verbal fluency, specifically in the younger group. Total sleep time was not associated with cognitive performance in any domains for the older group. These findings reveal that sleep continuity is important for executive function in both young and older adults, but total sleep time may be more important for cognition in young adults. PMID:25244484

  5. Longitudinal predictors of adult socioeconomic attainment: the roles of socioeconomic status, academic competence, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-02-01

    Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment.

  6. Implementation of a Positive Development, Evidence-Supported Practice for Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions: The Transition to Independence Process (TIP) Model.

    PubMed

    Dresser, Karyn; Clark, Hewitt B; Deschênes, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Transition into adulthood represents a particularly challenging period for youth and young adults with serious mental health conditions and related needs. The Transition to Independence Process (TIP) model is based on a positive development approach and has been demonstrated to be an evidence-supported practice for preparing emerging adults in their movement into employment/career, education, living situation, personal effectiveness/well-being, and community-life functioning--and to be responsive to their families. This article describes the TIP model from a positive youth development framework, its empirical underpinnings, and the fidelity and outcome tracking tools that have been developed for use with transition sites for implementation and sustainability. A research study on the fidelity tools showed their reliability and validity and a second study presents progress and outcome findings for youth and young adults at a new TIP model site. The implications of the TIP model and these findings are discussed.

  7. Promoting and maintaining physical activity in the transition to retirement: a systematic review of interventions for adults around retirement age.

    PubMed

    Baxter, S; Johnson, M; Payne, N; Buckley-Woods, H; Blank, L; Hock, E; Daley, A; Taylor, A; Pavey, T; Mountain, G; Goyder, E

    2016-02-01

    It has been argued that transition points in life, such as the approach towards, and early years of retirement present key opportunities for interventions to improve the health of the population. Research has also highlighted inequalities in health status in the retired population and in response to interventions which should be addressed. We aimed to conduct a systematic review to synthesise international evidence on the types and effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity among people around the time of retirement. A systematic review of literature was carried out between February 2014 and April 2015. Searches were not limited by language or location, but were restricted by date to studies published from 1990 onwards. Methods for identification of relevant studies included electronic database searching, reference list checking, and citation searching. Systematic search of the literature identified 104 papers which described study populations as being older adults. However, we found only one paper which specifically referred to their participants as being around the time of retirement. The intervention approaches for older adults encompassed: training of health care professionals; counselling and advice giving; group sessions; individual training sessions; in-home exercise programmes; in-home computer-delivered programmes; in-home telephone support; in-home diet and exercise programmes; and community-wide initiatives. The majority of papers reported some intervention effect, with evidence of positive outcomes for all types of programmes. A wide range of different measures were used to evaluate effectiveness, many were self-reported and few studies included evaluation of sedentary time. While the retirement transition is considered a significant point of life change, little research has been conducted to assess whether physical activity interventions at this time may be effective in promoting or maintaining activity, or reducing health

  8. Role of Halides in the Ordered Structure Transitions of Heated Gold Nanocrystal Superlattices

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Dodecanethiol-capped gold (Au) nanocrystal superlattices can undergo a surprisingly diverse series of ordered structure transitions when heated (Goodfellow, B. W.; Rasch, M. R.; Hessel, C. M.; Patel, R. N.; Smilgies, D.-M.; Korgel, B. A. Nano Lett.2013, 13, 5710–5714). These are the result of highly uniform changes in nanocrystal size, which subsequently force a spontaneous rearrangement of superlattice structure. Here, we show that halide-containing surfactants play an essential role in these transitions. In the absence of any halide-containing surfactant, superlattices of dodecanethiol-capped (1.9-nm-diameter) Au nanocrystals do not change size until reaching about 190–205 °C, at which point the gold cores coalesce. In the presence of halide-containing surfactant, such as tetraoctylphosphonium bromide (TOPB) or tetraoctylammounium bromide (TOAB), the nanocrystals ripen at much lower temperature and superlattices undergo various ordered structure transitions upon heating. Chloride- and iodide-containing surfactants induce similar behavior, destabilizing the Au–thiol bond and reducing the thermal stability of the nanocrystals. PMID:26013597

  9. Roles of Engineering Correlations in Hypersonic Entry Boundary Layer Transition Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Anderson, Brian P.; King, Rudolph A.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to design and operate hypersonic entry vehicles are constrained by many considerations that involve all aspects of an entry vehicle system. One of the more significant physical phenomenon that affect entry trajectory and thermal protection system design is the occurrence of boundary layer transition from a laminar to turbulent state. During the Space Shuttle Return To Flight activity following the loss of Columbia and her crew of seven, NASA's entry aerothermodynamics community implemented an engineering correlation based framework for the prediction of boundary layer transition on the Orbiter. The methodology for this implementation relies upon similar correlation techniques that have been is use for several decades. What makes the Orbiter boundary layer transition correlation implementation unique is that a statistically significant data set was acquired in multiple ground test facilities, flight data exists to assist in establishing a better correlation and the framework was founded upon state of the art chemical nonequilibrium Navier Stokes flow field simulations. Recent entry flight testing performed with the Orbiter Discovery now provides a means to validate this engineering correlation approach to higher confidence. These results only serve to reinforce the essential role that engineering correlations currently exercise in the design and operation of entry vehicles. The framework of information related to the Orbiter empirical boundary layer transition prediction capability will be utilized to establish a fresh perspective on this role, and to discuss the characteristics which are desirable in a next generation advancement. The details of the paper will review the experimental facilities and techniques that were utilized to perform the implementation of the Orbiter RTF BLT Vsn 2 prediction capability. Statistically significant results for multiple engineering correlations from a ground testing campaign will be reviewed in order to describe why only

  10. Role of Hydration Layer in Dynamical Transition in Proteins: Insights from Translational Self-Diffusivity.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Prithwish K; English, Niall J

    2016-12-01

    Elucidation of the role of hydration water underpinning dynamical crossover in proteins has proven challenging. Indeed, many contradictory findings in the literature seek to establish either causal or correlative links between water and protein behavior. Here, via molecular dynamics, we compute the temperature dependence of mean-square displacement and translational self-diffusivities for both hen egg white lysozyme and its hydration layer from 190 to 300 K. We find that the protein's mobility increases sharply at ∼230 K, indicating dynamical onset; concerted motion with hydration-water molecules is evident up to ∼285 K, confirming dynamical correlation between them. Exploring underlying mechanisms of such concerted motion, we scrutinize the water-protein hydrogen-bonding network as a function of temperature, noting sharp deviation from linearity of the hydrogen bond number's profile with temperature originating near the protein dynamical transition. Our studies reveal a common temperature profile/dependence of self-diffusivity values of the protein, hydration water, and the bulk solvent, originating from a common dependence on the bulk solvent viscosity, ηS. The key mechanistic role adopted by the protein-water hydrogen bond network in relation to the onset of proteins' dynamical transition is also discussed.

  11. Roles of Energy Dissipation in a Liquid-Solid Transition of Out-of-Equilibrium Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Yuta; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-07-01

    Self-organization of active matter as well as driven granular matter in nonequilibrium dynamical states has attracted considerable attention not only from the fundamental and application viewpoints but also as a model to understand the occurrence of such phenomena in nature. These systems share common features originating from their intrinsically out-of-equilibrium nature, and how energy dissipation affects the state selection in such nonequilibrium states remains elusive. As a simple model system, we consider a nonequilibrium stationary state maintained by continuous energy input, relevant to industrial processing of granular materials by vibration and/or flow. More specifically, we experimentally study roles of dissipation in self-organization of a driven granular particle monolayer. We find that the introduction of strong inelasticity entirely changes the nature of the liquid-solid transition from two-step (nearly) continuous transitions (liquid-hexatic-solid) to a strongly discontinuous first-order-like one (liquid-solid), where the two phases with different effective temperatures can coexist, unlike thermal systems, under a balance between energy input and dissipation. Our finding indicates a pivotal role of energy dissipation and suggests a novel principle in the self-organization of systems far from equilibrium. A similar principle may apply to active matter, which is another important class of out-of-equilibrium systems. On noting that interaction forces in active matter, and particularly in living systems, are often nonconservative and dissipative, our finding may also shed new light on the state selection in these systems.

  12. Depression, Sex and Gender Roles in Older Adult Populations: The International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS)

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Afshin; Ahmed, Tamer; Freire, Aline do N. Falcão; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression. Methods International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967). Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions. Results Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55–0.93). In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated. Conclusions Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman. PMID:26771828

  13. Development and validation of rear impact computer simulation model of an adult manual transit wheelchair with a seated occupant.

    PubMed

    Salipur, Zdravko; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that ANSI WC19 transit wheelchairs that are crashworthy in frontal impact exhibit catastrophic failures in rear impact and may not be able to provide stable seating support and thus occupant protection for the wheelchair occupant. Thus far only limited sled test and computer simulation data have been available to study rear impact wheelchair safety. Computer modeling can be used as an economic and comprehensive tool to gain critical knowledge regarding wheelchair integrity and occupant safety. This study describes the development and validation of a computer model simulating an adult wheelchair-seated occupant subjected to a rear impact event. The model was developed in MADYMO and validated rigorously using the results of three similar sled tests conducted to specifications provided in the draft ISO/TC 173 standard. Outcomes from the model can provide critical wheelchair loading information to wheelchair and tiedown manufacturers, resulting in safer wheelchair designs for rear impact conditions.

  14. Gender roles and binge drinking among Latino emerging adults: a latent class regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Ellen L; Wong, Y Joel; Middendorf, Katharine G

    2014-09-01

    Gender roles are often cited as a culturally specific predictor of drinking among Latino populations. This study used latent class regression to test the relationships between gender roles and binge drinking in a sample of Latino emerging adults. Participants were Latino emerging adults who participated in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,442). A subsample of these participants (n = 660) completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory--Short. We conducted latent class regression using 3 dimensions of gender roles (femininity, social masculinity, and personal masculinity) to predict binge drinking. Results indicated a 3-class solution. In Class 1, the protective personal masculinity class, personal masculinity (e.g., being a leader, defending one's own beliefs) was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking. In Class 2, the nonsignificant class, gender roles were not related to binge drinking. In Class 3, the mixed masculinity class, personal masculinity was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking, whereas social masculinity (e.g., forceful, dominant) was associated with an increase in the odds of binge drinking. Post hoc analyses found that females, those born outside the United States, and those with greater English language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 1 (vs. Class 2). Males, those born outside the United States, and those with greater Spanish language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 3 (vs. Class 2). Directions for future research and implications for practice with Latino emerging adults are discussed.

  15. Are expectations too high for transitioning adolescents with IBD? Examining adult medication knowledge and self-management skills

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Laurie N.; Mitchell, Paul D.; Lakin, Paul R.; Masciarelli, Lisa; Flier, Sarah N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Transition readiness assessment has focused attention on adolescent knowledge and skills, but data-driven benchmarks have not been established. Methods Patients with IBD, aged 25–55 years, attending an outpatient gastroenterology clinic, were recruited to complete a voluntary, confidential survey asking patients to recall medications and potential side effects, and to rate their degree of independence performing health maintenance tasks. Results The 141 respondents (48% response rate) had mean age of 36 years with median disease duration of 11 years. They were 60% female, 54% had Crohn’s disease, and 23% were diagnosed before age 18. Nearly all patients were fully independent answering doctor’s questions during the visit (93%) and scheduling office visits (92%). Excluding pharmacy pick up, full independence seen in only 57%, while 16% significantly delegated tasks. No differences by gender, disease type, medication class, age at disease onset, or disease duration were found across levels of self-management. Almost all (97%) respondents could recall medication name, while fewer were able to recall dose (63%) or frequency (65%). Side effect knowledge was poor; among 81 patients on a biologic or immunomodulator, only 17 (21%) cited cancer and 22 (27%) cited infection. Conclusions Adolescent IBD transition programs now have empiric data from this study about adult benchmarks for independence in self-management skills. Further research can establish which skills correlate with medication adherence and active collaboration with the medical team. This study also exposes important gaps in medication risk knowledge and may allow improved patient education for subgroups of adult IBD patients. PMID:27280748

  16. Adult-child differences in acoustic cue weighting are influenced by segmental context: Children are not always perceptually biased toward transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Catherine; Turk, Alice

    2004-06-01

    It has been proposed that young children may have a perceptual preference for transitional cues [Nittrouer, S. (2002). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 711-719]. According to this proposal, this preference can manifest itself either as heavier weighting of transitional cues by children than by adults, or as heavier weighting of transitional cues than of other, more static, cues by children. This study tested this hypothesis by examining adults' and children's cue weighting for the contrasts /ess,aye,smcapi/-/sh,aye,smcapi/, /de/-/be/, /ta/-/da/, and /ti/-/di/. Children were found to weight transitions more heavily than did adults for the fricative contrast /ess,aye,smcapi/-/sh,aye,smcapi/, and were found to weight transitional cues more heavily than nontransitional cues for the voice-onset-time contrast /ta/-/da/. However, these two patterns of cue weighting were not found to hold for the contrasts /de/-/be/ and /ti/-/di/. Consistent with several studies in the literature, results suggest that children do not always show a bias towards vowel-formant transitions, but that cue weighting can differ according to segmental context, and possibly the physical distinctiveness of available acoustic cues.

  17. Substance use changes and social role transitions: proximal developmental effects on ongoing trajectories from late adolescence through early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E; Maslowsky, Julie; Bachman, Jerald G; O'Malley, Patrick M; Maggs, Jennifer L; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2010-11-01

    Substance use changes rapidly during late adolescence and early adulthood. This time in the life course is also dense with social role changes, as role changes provide dynamic context for individual developmental change. Using nationally representative, multiwave longitudinal data from age 18 to 28, we examine proximal links between changes in social roles and changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood. We find that changes in family roles, such as marriage, divorce, and parenthood, have clear and consistent associations with changes in substance use. With some notable exceptions, changes in school and work roles have weaker effects on changes in substance use compared to family roles. Changes in socializing (i.e., nights out for fun and recreation) and in religiosity were found to mediate the relationship of social role transitions to substance use. Two time-invariant covariates, socioeconomic background and heavy adolescent substance use, predicted social role status, but did not moderate associations, as within-person links between social roles and substance use were largely equivalent across groups. This paper adds to the cascading effects literature by considering how, within individuals, more proximal variations in school, work, and family roles relate to variations in substance use, and which roles appear to be most influential in precipitating changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood.

  18. Transience during midlife as an adult psychic organizer: the midlife transition and crisis continuum.

    PubMed

    Colarusso, Calvin A; Montero, Guillermo Julio

    2007-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to add to the psychoanalytic understanding of midlife by exploring the relationships among transience, uncertainty and time limitation; and their effect on intra-psychic conflict and change. After a presentation of definitions and relevant midlife development tasks, the focus shifts to a discussion of two of Freud's papers, "On Transience" (1916 [1915]) and "The Uncanny" (1919) in which Freud introduced important concepts that provide a foundation for psychoanalytic exploration of attitudes toward transience, uncertainty and death. A major focus of the paper is a conceptualization of a developmental continuum from midlife transition to midlife crisis, rather than dichotomizing the midlife developmental process as either transition or crisis, followed by a discussion of three basic ways of processing the continuum and six common ways in which midlife pathology and/or more normative developmental progression are expressed. Two detailed, clinical examples illustrate the theoretical concepts and focus, in particular on clinical presentation and transference and counter-transference. The intention is to link theory with clinical understanding and technique.

  19. TGFβ-Dependent Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Is Required to Generate Cardiospheres from Human Adult Heart Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Elvira; Miraldi, Fabio; Chimenti, Isotta; Angelini, Francesco; Zeuner, Ann; Giacomello, Alessandro; Mercola, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Autologous cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) isolated as cardiospheres (CSps) represent a promising candidate for cardiac regenerative therapy. A better understanding of the origin and mechanisms underlying human CSps formation and maturation is undoubtedly required to enhance their cardiomyogenic potential. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key morphogenetic process that is implicated in the acquisition of stem cell-like properties in different adult tissues, and it is activated in the epicardium after ischemic injury to the heart. We investigated whether EMT is involved in the formation and differentiation of human CSps, revealing that an up-regulation of the expression of EMT-related genes accompanies CSps formation that is relative to primary explant-derived cells and CSp-derived cells grown in a monolayer. EMT and CSps formation is enhanced in the presence of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and drastically blocked by the type I TGFβ-receptor inhibitor SB431452, indicating that TGFβ-dependent EMT is essential for the formation of these niche-like 3D-multicellular clusters. Since TGFβ is activated in the myocardium in response to injury, our data suggest that CSps formation mimics an adaptive mechanism that could potentially be enhanced to increase in vivo or ex vivo regenerative potential of adult CPCs. PMID:22765842

  20. Validation of transition analysis as a method of adult age estimation in a modern South African sample.

    PubMed

    Jooste, N; L'Abbé, E N; Pretorius, S; Steyn, M

    2016-09-01

    The use of advanced statistical methods, such as transition analysis, has transformed adult age estimation into a systematically and statistically appropriate practice. The method developed by Boldsen and colleagues (2002) uses 36 features from the cranial sutures, pubic symphysis and auricular surface to calculate maximum likelihood point estimates and 95% confidence intervals, using the ADBOU computer software. However, when using the method in a geographically and contextually distinct sample, such as South Africa, accuracy and precision is of concern. This study aimed to test the repeatability, accuracy and precision of the transition analysis method, using the ADBOU computer software, on a South African sample. Age estimations were generated, for 149 black individuals from the Pretoria Bone Collection, using three individual components as well as different combinations of components and prior distributions (uniform and informative). The informative prior distributions represented both an archaeological and a forensic context. Cohen's kappa statistic uncovered some failings in the scoring procedure. While the accuracy compared favourably with existing methods, the method lacked satisfactory precision. Although combining the components improved accuracy and precision, removing the cranium from the combination was beneficial in some instances. The influence of population variation was observed in the scoring procedure, reference sample and the prior distributions. Validity may be improved for a South African sample by adding age-related components that have been developed on a relevant population. A prior distribution based on South African mortality rates might also be beneficial.

  1. The Impact of Body Mass Index and Weight Changes on Disability Transitions and Mortality in Brazilian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Drumond Andrade, Flávia Cristina; Mohd Nazan, Ahmad Iqmer Nashriq; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between body mass index and weight changes on disability transitions and mortality among Brazilian older adults. Longitudinal data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil (2000 and 2006), were used to examine the impact of obesity on disability and mortality and of weight changes on health transitions related to disability. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used in the analyses. Individuals who were obese were more likely than those of normal weight to have limitations on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activity of daily living (IADL), and Nagi's limitations. Obesity was associated with higher incidence of ADL and IADL limitations and with lower recovery from Nagi's limitations. Compared to those who maintained their weight, those who gained weight experienced higher incidence of ADL and Nagi's limitations, even after controlling for initial body mass index. Higher mortality among overweight individuals was only found when the reference category was “remaining free of Nagi limitations.” The findings of the study underline the importance of maintaining normal weight for preventing disability at older ages. PMID:23691319

  2. Role of the Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Naser, Rayan; Vandenbosch, Renaud; Omais, Saad; Hayek, Dayana; Jaafar, Carine; Al Lafi, Sawsan; Saliba, Afaf; Baghdadi, Maarouf; Skaf, Larissa; Ghanem, Noël

    2016-01-01

    Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) are relatively quiescent populations that give rise to distinct neuronal subtypes throughout life, yet, at a very low rate and restricted differentiation potential. Thus, identifying the molecular mechanisms that control their cellular expansion is critical for regeneration after brain injury. Loss of the Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, leads to several defects in cell cycle as well as neuronal differentiation and migration during brain development. Here, we investigated the role of Rb during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb (OB) by inducing its temporal deletion in aNSCs and progenitors. Loss of Rb was associated with increased proliferation of adult progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS) but did not alter self-renewal of aNSCs or neuroblasts subsequent migration and terminal differentiation. Hence, one month after their birth, Rb-null neuroblasts were able to differentiate into distinct subtypes of GABAergic OB interneurons but were gradually lost after 3 months. Similarly, Rb controlled aNSCs/progenitors proliferation in vitro without affecting their differentiation capacity. This enhanced SVZ/OB neurogenesis associated with loss of Rb was only transient and negatively affected by increased apoptosis indicating a critical requirement for Rb in the long-term survival of adult-born OB interneurons. PMID:26847607

  3. Role of the Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Naser, Rayan; Vandenbosch, Renaud; Omais, Saad; Hayek, Dayana; Jaafar, Carine; Al Lafi, Sawsan; Saliba, Afaf; Baghdadi, Maarouf; Skaf, Larissa; Ghanem, Noël

    2016-02-05

    Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) are relatively quiescent populations that give rise to distinct neuronal subtypes throughout life, yet, at a very low rate and restricted differentiation potential. Thus, identifying the molecular mechanisms that control their cellular expansion is critical for regeneration after brain injury. Loss of the Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, leads to several defects in cell cycle as well as neuronal differentiation and migration during brain development. Here, we investigated the role of Rb during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb (OB) by inducing its temporal deletion in aNSCs and progenitors. Loss of Rb was associated with increased proliferation of adult progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS) but did not alter self-renewal of aNSCs or neuroblasts subsequent migration and terminal differentiation. Hence, one month after their birth, Rb-null neuroblasts were able to differentiate into distinct subtypes of GABAergic OB interneurons but were gradually lost after 3 months. Similarly, Rb controlled aNSCs/progenitors proliferation in vitro without affecting their differentiation capacity. This enhanced SVZ/OB neurogenesis associated with loss of Rb was only transient and negatively affected by increased apoptosis indicating a critical requirement for Rb in the long-term survival of adult-born OB interneurons.

  4. The Role of the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Purchase Intent Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Koestner, Bryan P.; Hedgcock, William; Halfmann, Kameko; Denburg, Natalie L.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults are frequently the targets of scams and deception, with millions of individuals being affected each year in the United States alone. Previous research has shown that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) may play a role in vulnerability to fraud. The current study examined brain activation patterns in relation to susceptibility to scams and fraud using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-eight healthy, community-dwelling older adults were subdivided into groups of impaired and unimpaired decision makers as determined by their performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). While in the scanner, the participants viewed advertisements that were created directly from cases deemed deceptive by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). We then obtained behavioral measures involving comprehension of claims and purchase intention of the product in each advertisement. Contrasts show brain activity in the vmPFC was less correlated with purchase intention in impaired vs. unimpaired older adult decision makers. Our results have important implications for both future research and recognizing the possible causes of fraud susceptibility among older adults. PMID:27536238

  5. The Role of the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Purchase Intent Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Koestner, Bryan P; Hedgcock, William; Halfmann, Kameko; Denburg, Natalie L

    2016-01-01

    Older adults are frequently the targets of scams and deception, with millions of individuals being affected each year in the United States alone. Previous research has shown that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) may play a role in vulnerability to fraud. The current study examined brain activation patterns in relation to susceptibility to scams and fraud using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-eight healthy, community-dwelling older adults were subdivided into groups of impaired and unimpaired decision makers as determined by their performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). While in the scanner, the participants viewed advertisements that were created directly from cases deemed deceptive by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). We then obtained behavioral measures involving comprehension of claims and purchase intention of the product in each advertisement. Contrasts show brain activity in the vmPFC was less correlated with purchase intention in impaired vs. unimpaired older adult decision makers. Our results have important implications for both future research and recognizing the possible causes of fraud susceptibility among older adults.

  6. Transition from embryonic to adult epidermis in reptiles occurs by the production of corneous beta-proteins.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The adaptation of the epidermis in amniote vertebrates to life on land took place by a drastic change from an embryonic epidermis made of two-four periderm layers to a terrestrial-proof epidermis. This transition occurred by the increase in types and number of specialized corneous proteins coded by genes of the Epidermal Differentiation Complex. The prevalent types of corneous proteins produced in the reptilian epidermis contain a beta-sheet region of high amino acid homology which allows their polymerization into a meshwork of filaments forming the hard corneous material of scales and claws. The present immunogold ultrastructural study shows that this transition occurs with the synthesis of glycine-rich corneous beta-proteins (formerly indicated as beta-keratins) that are added to the initial framework of acidic intermediate filaments produced in the embryonic epidermis of lizards, snake, alligator and turtle. These corneous beta-proteins are accumulated in the transitional and definitive layers of reptilian epidermis formed underneath the transitory two-four layered embryonic epidermis. In the more specialized reptiles capable of shedding the epidermis as a single unit, such as lizards and snakes, special glycine-cysteine rich beta-proteins are initially produced in a single layer immediately formed beneath the embryonic epidermis, the oberhautchen. The latter layer allows the in ovo shedding of the embryonic epidermis in preparation for hatching, and in the following shedding cycles of the adult epidermis. The production of specialized corneous-specific beta-proteins in addition to intermediate filament keratins was probably an essential addition for terrestrial life during the evolution of reptiles into different lineages, including birds. The increase of glycine and cysteine in epidermal proteins enhanced the hydrophobicity, insolubility and mechanical strength of the stratum corneum in these amniotes.

  7. Role of Vitamin A/Retinoic Acid in Regulation of Embryonic and Adult Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Cañete, Ana; Cano, Elena; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón; Carmona, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient throughout life. Its physiologically active metabolite retinoic acid (RA), acting through nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs), is a potent regulator of patterning during embryonic development, as well as being necessary for adult tissue homeostasis. Vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy increases risk of maternal night blindness and anemia and may be a cause of congenital malformations. Childhood Vitamin A deficiency can cause xerophthalmia, lower resistance to infection and increased risk of mortality. RA signaling appears to be essential for expression of genes involved in developmental hematopoiesis, regulating the endothelial/blood cells balance in the yolk sac, promoting the hemogenic program in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros area and stimulating eryrthropoiesis in fetal liver by activating the expression of erythropoietin. In adults, RA signaling regulates differentiation of granulocytes and enhances erythropoiesis. Vitamin A may facilitate iron absorption and metabolism to prevent anemia and plays a key role in mucosal immune responses, modulating the function of regulatory T cells. Furthermore, defective RA/RARα signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia due to a failure in differentiation of promyelocytes. This review focuses on the different roles played by vitamin A/RA signaling in physiological and pathological mouse hematopoiesis duddurring both, embryonic and adult life, and the consequences of vitamin A deficiency for the blood system. PMID:28230720

  8. Depressive Symptoms of Older Adults Living Alone: The Role of Community Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongmo; Lee, Minhong

    2015-03-01

    Although some evidence suggests that community characteristics may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms among older adults, current literature has not attended to the role of community characteristics in depression in South Korea. This study begins to address this gap in the literature by examining the relationship of community characteristics and depressive symptoms, controlling for individual characteristics. Using a cross-sectional design and probability sampling, we surveyed 949 older adults living alone in 70 communities in the Busan metropolitan area in South Korea in 2012. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis that community characteristics are predictive of depressive symptoms. We find that both the proportion of older adults and the number of senior citizen facilities in a community are associated with depressive symptoms, whereas community poverty is not related to depressive symptoms. Men with lower income, with lower levels of functional abilities, and without stronger family and friend social networks have a higher risk of depressive symptoms. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.

  9. The Role of International Non-Governmental Organisations in Promoting Adult Education for Social Change: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Lutz; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role of International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs) in adult education as one instrument of global civil society to effect social change. Postcolonial theory is utilized to explore the complex relationships between the concepts of "globalisation", "global civil, society", and "adult education for social change". In…

  10. Emotional health across the transition to first and second unions among emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Mernitz, Sara E; Dush, Claire Kamp

    2016-03-01

    The link between romantic relationships and emotional health has been extensively examined and suggests that marriage provides more emotional health benefits than cohabiting or dating relationships. However, the contemporary context of intimate relationships has changed and these associations warrant reexamination among emerging adults in the 2000s. We examined the change in emotional health across the entrance into first and second unions, including cohabiting unions, direct marriage (marriage without premarital cohabitation), and marriage preceded by cohabitation. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997, a nationally representative panel study of youth born between 1980 and 1984 in the United States, pooled fixed-effects regression models indicated that entrance into first cohabiting unions and direct marriages, and all second unions, were significantly associated with reduced emotional distress. Gender differences were found for first unions only; for men, only direct marriage was associated with an emotional health benefit, while both direct marriage and cohabitation benefited women's emotional health.

  11. Change of shoot architecture during juvenile-to-adult phase transition in soybean.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Takanori; Ozawa, Suguru; Sentoku, Naoki; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nagato, Yasuo; Yokoi, Shuji

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile-to-adult phase change is an indispensable event which guarantees a successful life cycle. Phase change has been studied in maize, Arabidopsis and rice, but is mostly unknown in other species. Soybean/Fabaceae plants undergo drastic changes of shoot architecture at the early vegetative stage including phyllotactic change and leaf type alteration from simple to compound. These characteristics make soybean/Fabaceae plants an interesting taxon for investigating vegetative phase change. Following the expansion of two cotyledons, two simple leaves simultaneously emerge in opposite phyllotaxy. The phyllotaxy of the third and fourth leaves is not fixed; both opposite and distichous phyllotaxis are observed within the same population. Leaves were compound from the third leaf. But the third leaf was rarely simple. Morphological and quantitative changes in early vegetative phase were recognized in leaf size, leaf shape, number of trichomes, stipule size and shape, and shoot meristem shape. Two microRNA genes, miR156 and miR172, are known to be associated with vegetative phase change. Examination of the expression level revealed that miR156 expression was high in the first two leaves and subsequently down-regulated, and that of miR172 showed the inverse expression pattern. These expression patterns coincided with the case of other species. Taken all data together, the first and second leaves represent juvenile phase, the fifth and upper leaves adult phase, and the third and fourth leaves intermediate stage. Further investigation of soybean phase change would give fruitful understandings on plant development.

  12. Young Adults' Roles as Partners and Parents in a Context of Family Complexity.

    PubMed

    Berger, Lawrence M; Bzostek, Sharon H

    2014-07-01

    This article uses data from the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate the proportions of young men and women who will take on a variety of partner and parent roles by age 30, as well as to describe how these estimates have changed across cohorts. It then draws from identity theory and related theoretical work to consider how the multiple family roles which young adults are likely to occupy-both over their life course and at a single point in time-may influence inter- and intra-family (unit) relationships in light of current trends in family complexity. This discussion highlights four key implications of identity theory as it relates to family complexity, and proposes several hypotheses for future empirical research to explore, such as the greater likelihood of role conflict in families with greater complexity and limited resources. Implications for public policy are also discussed.

  13. Childhood cancer camps: their role in adults surviving childhood cancers lives.

    PubMed

    Beckwitt, Asher E

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the role that childhood cancer camps continue to play in the lives of adults surviving childhood cancers (ASCCs). Specifically, the purpose of this study is to understand the roles these camps play in enhancing ASCCs' psychosocial and emotional well-being and access to information. Twenty-three ASCCs participated in this study. Illness narratives were used to understand ASCCs' camp experiences. Three themes emerged from the data analysis to reflect ASCCs' experiences: (1) normalcy, (2) meaningful camp experiences, and (3) access to information. Results show that in the years following camp participation, childhood cancer camps continue to play an important role in ASCCs' lives, providing them with ongoing social and emotional support and access to resources.

  14. Youth Transitions and Interdependent Adult-Child Relations in Rural Bolivia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punch, Samantha

    2002-01-01

    Draws on ethnographic fieldwork in southern Bolivia to explore how rural Bolivian youth negotiate structural constraints on choices of work versus secondary education, including local versus urban location, economic resources, parental attitudes, gender, family characteristics, social networks and support, and peer role models. Suggests the notion…

  15. Anxiety symptomatology and perceived health in African American adults: Moderating role of emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Sierra E.; Walker, Rheeda L.

    2014-01-01

    Though emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. PMID:25045943

  16. History of child abuse and severity of adult depression: the mediating role of cognitive schema.

    PubMed

    Cukor, Daniel; McGinn, Lata K

    2006-01-01

    The link between childhood abuse, adult depression, and anxiety has been well studied, but few studies have empirically explored the mechanism of that link. Using a clinical sample of women, this study examined the relationship between retrospectively measured childhood abuse and neglect and current adult symptoms of anxiety and depression, via the mediating effects of cognitive style. This study found that women who reported a positive abuse history were significantly more depressed and exhibited more maladaptive schemas than women who did not report a history of abuse. Specifically, it would appear that cognitive styles marked by interpersonal disconnection and rejection are particularly pathogenic. These findings contribute to the growing literature by providing support for the role of cognitions in mediating the link between childhood abuse and psychopathology.

  17. The Drosophila BTB Domain Protein Jim Lovell Has Roles in Multiple Larval and Adult Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bjorum, Sonia M.; Simonette, Rebecca A.; Alanis, Raul; Wang, Jennifer E.; Lewis, Benjamin M.; Trejo, Michael H.; Hanson, Keith A.; Beckingham, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Innate behaviors have their origins in the specification of neural fates during development. Within Drosophila, BTB (Bric-a-brac,Tramtrack, Broad) domain proteins such as Fruitless are known to play key roles in the neural differentiation underlying such responses. We previously identified a gene, which we have termed jim lovell (lov), encoding a BTB protein with a role in gravity responses. To understand more fully the behavioral roles of this gene we have investigated its function through several approaches. Transcript and protein expression patterns have been examined and behavioral phenotypes of new lov mutations have been characterized. Lov is a nuclear protein, suggesting a role as a transcriptional regulator, as for other BTB proteins. In late embryogenesis, Lov is expressed in many CNS and PNS neurons. An examination of the PNS expression indicates that lov functions in the late specification of several classes of sensory neurons. In particular, only two of the five abdominal lateral chordotonal neurons express Lov, predicting functional variation within this highly similar group. Surprisingly, Lov is also expressed very early in embryogenesis in ways that suggests roles in morphogenetic movements, amnioserosa function and head neurogenesis. The phenotypes of two new lov mutations that delete adjacent non-coding DNA regions are strikingly different suggesting removal of different regulatory elements. In lov47, Lov expression is lost in many embryonic neurons including the two lateral chordotonal neurons. lov47 mutant larvae show feeding and locomotor defects including spontaneous backward movement. Adult lov47 males perform aberrant courtship behavior distinguished by courtship displays that are not directed at the female. lov47 adults also show more defective negative gravitaxis than the previously isolated lov91Y mutant. In contrast, lov66 produces largely normal behavior but severe female sterility associated with ectopic lov expression in the ovary. We

  18. Understanding motivation for substance use treatment: the role of social pressure during the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Ilana; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Henderson, Joanna

    2011-06-01

    Research has shown that social pressure is related to treatment motivation and plays an important role in treatment engagement in adults with problematic substance use. Despite the shifts in autonomy and decision-making in emerging adulthood, the factors affecting treatment motivation (e.g., readiness to comply with treatment) during this period have been largely ignored. In this cross sectional study, 134 youth (83 males and 51 females) presenting to an outpatient substance abuse program completed questionnaires regarding substance use history, mental health, social pressure to reduce use and enter treatment, and treatment motivation. Age was positively related to identification of internal reasons for seeking treatment and negatively related to external coercive social pressures as a motivator for treatment. Peer pressure accounted for significant variance in Identified (e.g., personal choice and commitment to the program) and Introjected (e.g., guilt about continued substance use) treatment motivation. Family pressure was related only to External treatment motivation when peer pressure was considered in the regression model. These results highlight the importance of emerging adult peers as motivators of youths' treatment seeking. Limitations, directions for future research and treatment implications are discussed.

  19. Viscosity undulations in the lower mantle: The dynamical role of iron spin transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justo, J. F.; Morra, G.; Yuen, D. A.

    2015-07-01

    A proper determination of the lower-mantle viscosity profile is fundamental to understanding Earth geodynamics. Based on results coming from different sources, several models have been proposed to constrain the variations of viscosity as a function of pressure, stress and temperature. While some models have proposed a relatively modest viscosity variation across the lower mantle, others have proposed variations of several orders of magnitude. Here, we have determined the viscosity of ferropericlase, a major mantle mineral, and explored the role of the iron high-to-low spin transition. Viscosity was described within the elastic strain energy model, in which the activation parameters are obtained from the bulk and shear wave velocities. Those velocities were computed combining first principles total energy calculations and the quasi-harmonic approximation. As a result of a strong elasticity softening across the spin transition, there is a large reduction in the activation free energies of the materials creep properties, leading to viscosity undulations. These results suggest that the variations of the viscosity across the lower mantle, resulting from geoid inversion and postglacial rebound studies, may be caused by the iron spin transition in mantle minerals. Implications of the undulated lower mantle viscosity profile exist for both, down- and up-wellings in the mantle. We find that a viscosity profile characterized by an activation free energy of G* (z0) ˜ 300- 400 kJ /mol based on diffusion creep and dilation factor δ = 0.5 better fits the observed high velocity layer at mid mantle depths, which can be explained by the stagnation and mixing of mantle material. Our model also accounts for the growth of mantle plume heads up to the size necessary to explain the Large Igneous Provinces that characterize the start of most plume tracks.

  20. Role of fucosyltransferase IV in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Liu, S; Yan, Q

    2013-07-25

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial step in tumor progression and has an important role during cancer invasion and metastasis. Although fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) has been implicated in the modulation of cell migration, invasion and cancer metastasis, its role during EMT is unclear. This study explores the molecular mechanisms of the involvement of FUT4 in EMT in breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cell lines display increased expression of FUT4, which is accompanied by enhanced appearance of the mesenchymal phenotype and which can be reversed by knockdown of endogenous FUT4. Moreover, FUT4 induced activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and inactivation of GSK3β and nuclear translocation of NF-κB, resulting in increased Snail and MMP-9 expression and greater cell motility. Taken together, these findings indicate that FUT4 has a role in EMT through activation of the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signaling systems, which induce the key mediators Snail and MMP-9 and facilitate the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype. Our findings support the possibility that FUT4 is a novel regulator of EMT in breast cancer cells and a promising target for cancer therapy.

  1. Educating adult females for leadership roles in an informal science program for girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreedy, Dale

    The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of and an evidentiary warrant for, how a community of practice focused on informal science learning, can engage and promote active participation that offers adult female members and the community opportunities for legitimacy and transformation. This study is a qualitative, ethnographic research study that documents how adult female volunteers, historically inexperienced and/or excluded from traditional practices of science, come to engage in science activities through an informal, community-based context that helps them to appreciate science connections in their lives that are ultimately empowering and agentic. I begin to understand the ways in which such informal contexts, often thought to be marginal to dominant educational beliefs and practices, can offer adults outside of the field of science, education, or both, an entree into science learning and teaching that facilitate female's participation in legitimate and empowering ways. Using descriptive analyses, I first identify the characteristics of peripheral and active program participants. Through phenomenological analyses, I then develop an understanding of participation in an informal science program by focusing on three adult female members' unique trajectories of participation leading to core member status. Each draws on different aspects of the program that they find most salient, illustrating how different elements can serve as motivators for participation, and support continuation along the trajectory of participation reflecting personal and political agency. Through a purposeful ethnographic case-study analysis, I then explore one core member's transformation, evidenced by her developing identities as someone who enjoys science, engages in science activities, and, enacts a role as community old timer and door opener to science learning. This study: (1) contributes to the limited knowledge base in fields of informal learning, science education, and

  2. The Evolution of Work Values during the School-to-Work Transition: The Case of Young Adults in the "Missing Middle"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masdonati, Jonas; Fournier, Geneviève; Pinault, Mathieu; Lahrizi, Imane Z.

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a mixed method design, this paper explores the configuration and evolution of work values of 64 young adults in transition from education to employment. Qualitative analyses point out the existence of four categories of work values: interesting tasks, good relationships, self-fulfillment, and attractive work conditions. Quantitative…

  3. Risk Factors, Protective Factors, Vulnerability, and Resilience: A Framework for Understanding and Supporting the Adult Transitions of Youth with High-Incidence Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    This article examines how the related concepts of risk factors, protective factors, and resilience relate to postschool outcomes for youth with disabilities, especially the adult transitions of youth with high-incidence disabilities. Issues related to research and practice are identified, including building resilience through support at the…

  4. Roles of Proton-Sensing Receptors in the Transition from Acute to Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Sun, W H; Chen, C C

    2016-02-01

    Chronic pain, when not effectively treated, is a leading health and socioeconomic problem and has a harmful effect on all aspects of health-related quality of life. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanism of how pain transitions from the acute to chronic phase is essential for developing effective novel analgesics. Accumulated evidence has shown that the transition from acute to chronic pain is determined by a cellular signaling switch called hyperalgesic priming, which occurs in primary nociceptive afferents. The hyperalgesic priming is triggered by inflammatory mediators and is involved in a signal switch from protein kinase A (PKA) to protein kinase Cε (PKCε) located in both isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive (nonpeptidergic) and IB4-negative (peptidergic) nociceptors. Acidosis may be the decisive factor regulating the PKA-to-PKCε signal switch in a proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptor-dependent manner. Protons can also induce the hyperalgesic priming in IB4-negative muscle nociceptors in a PKCε-independent manner. Acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) and transient receptor potential/vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV1) are 2 major acid sensors involved in the proton-induced hyperalgesic priming. The proton-induced hyperalgesic priming in muscle afferents can be prevented by a substance P-mediated signaling pathway. In this review, we summarize the factors that modulate hyperalgesic priming in both IB4-positive and IB4-negative nociceptors and discuss the role of acid signaling in inflammatory and noninflammatory pain as well as orofacial muscle pain.

  5. The role of fire during the Eocene-Oligocene transition in southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömberg, C. A. E.; Selkin, P. A.; Boyle, J.; Carlini, A. A.; Davies-Vollum, K. S.; Dunn, R. E.; Kohn, M. J.; Madden, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    The geological record of wildfire, particularly across climate transitions, can help elucidate the complex relationships between climate, vegetation, and fire at long temporal scales. Across Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT), previous workers have proposed climate changes (drying and changes in seasonality) contemporaneous with the growth of the Antarctic ice sheet that would have changed the likelihood of wildfires in terrestrial ecosystems. We document short-lived changes in fire regime and plant community in Patagonia near the time of the EOT. Specifically, the concentration of magnetic oxide minerals in Eocene-Oligocene loessites from the Sarmiento Formation correlates with the fraction of burnt palm phytoliths as well as with the fraction of non-palm phytoliths. We interpret the magnetic mineral assemblage magnetite + maghemite ± hematite as pyrogenic, forming in reducing conditions at temperatures between 300 and 600°C. The disappearance of fire-related characteristics near the EOT is possible if seasonal drought was suppressed due to a northward shift in the westerlies - a process consistent with changes in modal particle sizes in the Vera Member. Although the transitory nature of the changes in fire regime remains a puzzle, these results imply a more important role for fire in structuring Eocene-Oligocene landscapes than previously thought.

  6. Transitioning from a faculty to an administrative role: part 1, moving from individual to collective accountability.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cesarina M

    2011-01-01

    Many new nursing leaders assuming deanships, assistant, or interim deanships have limited education, experience, or background to prepare them for the job. To assist new deans and those aspiring to be deans, Jana L. Pressler, PhD, RN, and Carole A. Kenner, PhD, RNC-NIC, FAAN, the editors of this department, address common issues, challenges, and opportunities that face academic executive teams, such as negotiating an executive contract, obtaining faculty lines, building effective work teams, managing difficult employees, and creating nimble organizational structure to respond to changing consumer, healthcare delivery, and community needs. In this article, the editors asked guest author, Dr Cesarina Thompson, to discuss the transition process from faculty to administrative role.

  7. The essential roles of transition fibers in the context of cilia.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing; Ling, Kun; Hu, Jinghua

    2015-08-01

    Once thought of as a vestigial organelle, the primary cilium is now recognized as a signaling hub for key cellular pathways in vertebrate development. The recent renaissance in cilia studies significantly improved our understanding of how cilia form and function, but little is known about how ciliogenesis is initiated and how ciliary proteins enter cilia. These important ciliary events require transition fibers (TFs) that are positioned at the ciliary base as symmetric nine-bladed propeller fibrous structures. Up until recently, TFs have been the most underappreciated ciliary structures due to limited knowledge about their molecular composition and function. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of TF composition and the indispensable roles of TFs in regulating the initiation of ciliogenesis and the selective import of ciliary proteins.

  8. Role of transition metal exporters in virulence: the example of Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Guilhen, Cyril; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Veyrier, Frédéric J

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals such as iron, manganese, and zinc are essential micronutrients for bacteria. However, at high concentration, they can generate non-functional proteins or toxic compounds. Metal metabolism is therefore regulated to prevent shortage or overload, both of which can impair cell survival. In addition, equilibrium among these metals has to be tightly controlled to avoid molecular replacement in the active site of enzymes. Bacteria must actively maintain intracellular metal concentrations to meet physiological needs within the context of the local environment. When intracellular buffering capacity is reached, they rely primarily on membrane-localized exporters to maintain metal homeostasis. Recently, several groups have characterized new export systems and emphasized their importance in the virulence of several pathogens. This article discusses the role of export systems as general virulence determinants. Furthermore, it highlights the contribution of these exporters in pathogens emergence with emphasis on the human nasopharyngeal colonizer Neisseria meningitidis.

  9. On the role of mechanics in driving mesenchymal-to-epithelial transitions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Young; Jackson, Timothy R; Davidson, Lance A

    2016-05-18

    The mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) is an intrinsically mechanical process describing a multi-step progression where autonomous mesenchymal cells gradually become tightly linked, polarized epithelial cells. METs are fundamental to a wide range of biological processes, including the evolution of multicellular organisms, generation of primary and secondary epithelia during development and organogenesis, and the progression of diseases including cancer. In these cases, there is an interplay between the establishment of cell polarity and the mechanics of neighboring cells and microenvironment. In this review, we highlight a spectrum of METs found in normal development as well as in pathological lesions, and provide insight into the critical role mechanics play at each step. We define MET as an independent process, distinct from a reverse-EMT, and propose questions to further explore the cellular and physical mechanisms of MET.

  10. Role Confusion and Disorientation in Young Adult-Parent Interaction Among Individuals With Borderline Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Brumariu, Laura E; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Hennighausen, Katherine; Holmes, Bjarne

    2015-10-01

    Borderline symptoms are thought to emerge from the interaction of temperamental factors and environmental stressors. Both parental invalidation and attachment disorganization have been hypothesized to play an etiological role. However, to date the quality of parent-child interaction has not been observed directly. In this study, 120 young adults were assessed for features of borderline personality disorder on the SCID II, for severity of childhood maltreatment on interview and self-report measures, and for disturbance in parent-child interaction during a videotaped conflict discussion task. Borderline traits, as well as suicidality/self-injury specifically, were associated with more role confusion and more disoriented behavior in interaction with the parent. Among young adults with recurrent suicidality/self-injury, 40% displayed high levels of role confusion compared to 16% of those who were not suicidal. Neither form of disturbed interaction mediated the independent effect of childhood abuse on borderline symptoms. A parent-child transactional model is proposed to account for the findings.

  11. Contrasting roles for parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons in two forms of adult visual cortical plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Eitan S; Cooke, Sam F; Komorowski, Robert W; Chubykin, Alexander A; Thomazeau, Aurore; Khibnik, Lena A; Gavornik, Jeffrey P; Bear, Mark F

    2016-01-01

    The roles played by cortical inhibitory neurons in experience-dependent plasticity are not well understood. Here we evaluate the participation of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) GABAergic neurons in two forms of experience-dependent modification of primary visual cortex (V1) in adult mice: ocular dominance (OD) plasticity resulting from monocular deprivation and stimulus-selective response potentiation (SRP) resulting from enriched visual experience. These two forms of plasticity are triggered by different events but lead to a similar increase in visual cortical response. Both also require the NMDA class of glutamate receptor (NMDAR). However, we find that PV+ inhibitory neurons in V1 play a critical role in the expression of SRP and its behavioral correlate of familiarity recognition, but not in the expression of OD plasticity. Furthermore, NMDARs expressed within PV+ cells, reversibly inhibited by the psychotomimetic drug ketamine, play a critical role in SRP, but not in the induction or expression of adult OD plasticity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11450.001 PMID:26943618

  12. Transition of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma clones during clinical progression.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Sakura; Firouzi, Sanaz; López, Yosvany; Yamochi, Tadanori; Nakano, Kazumi; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Utusnomiya, Atae; Iwanaga, Masako; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2016-09-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a peripheral T-cell neoplasm caused by the transformation of HTLV-1-infected T cells. ATLL, especially its aggressive form, is known for its poor prognosis, even with intensive chemotherapy. ATLL cells are considered to be monoclonal; however, multiclonal proliferation or emergence of a new clone over time has been reported based on Southern blot analysis, although direct molecular evidence remains elusive. Furthermore, it is thought that clonal change may be a cause of early drug resistance in ATLL. To directly analyze potential clonal changes in ATLL during its clinical course, we used inverse PCR to detect integration sites in combination with a newly developed method using next-generation sequencing, and compared ATLL cell clonality at different time points. The results of inverse PCR indicated that the major clone was altered in three of 19 patients. Together with results from five patients, using this new method, we found direct evidence of clonal change occurring during the clinical course or in response to chemotherapy in ATLL. These results also highlight the importance of clonality analysis for understanding the mechanisms of ATLL development and drug resistance.

  13. The physical activity transition among adults in China: 1991-2011.

    PubMed

    Ng, S W; Howard, A-G; Wang, H J; Su, C; Zhang, B

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have linked work, home production, travel activities and inactivity with weight and health outcomes. However, these focused on average physical activity (PA) over time rather than changes in PA and associated sociodemographic and economic factors and urbanicity. Using the 1991-2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey data, we estimated the metabolic equivalent of task hours per week for individuals in occupational, domestic, travel and active leisure domains and sedentary hours per week. We present the distributions among adult men and women (aged 18-60), and use quantile regression models to explore factors associated with these trends. Trend analyses on the distribution of PA show declines along the whole distribution of occupational PA for men and women and domestic PA for women in China. These patterns remain consistent after adjusting for individual- and household-level factors. Controlling for urbanicity mitigated the decrease in occupational PA, particularly for men, but not the decrease in domestic PA. Given China's rapid urbanization and its association with occupational PA declines and the strong time trend in domestic PA, there is a need to invest in interventions and policies that promote PA during leisure and travel times.

  14. Experiences and Outcomes of Transition from Pediatric to Adult Health Care Services for Young People with Congenital Heart Disease: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Heery, Emily; Sheehan, Aisling M; While, Alison E; Coyne, Imelda

    2015-01-01

    This review synthesizes the empirical literature on outcomes and experiences of transfer and transition from pediatric to adult care for young people with congenital heart disease. A systematic review of papers published between January 2001 and May 2013 that examined outcomes or experiences of transfer and transition among young people with congenital heart disease was conducted. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers with the outcomes data combined using narrative synthesis and the experiences data integrated using thematic synthesis. Thirteen papers were included in the review: six reported outcomes following transfer, six reported experiences of transfer and transition, and one reported both outcomes and experiences. The review data indicate that high proportions of young people were lost to follow-up or experienced long gaps in care after leaving pediatric cardiology. Factors that protected against loss to follow-up or lapse in care included: beliefs that specialized adult care was necessary; poorer health status; attendance at pediatric appointments without parents; and pediatric referral to an adult congenital heart disease center. Data on experiences highlighted that many young people were unconcerned about transition, but lacked knowledge about their condition and were insufficiently prepared for transfer. In terms of adult services, many young people desired continuity in the quality of care, youth-oriented facilities, a personalized approach, and for their parents to remain involved in their care, but in a secondary, supportive capacity. In conclusion, the high proportions of young people lost to follow-up highlight the need for formal transition programs, which ensure a planned and coordinated transfer. Patients with congenital heart disease need education throughout adolescence about the implications of their condition, the differences between pediatric and adult services, and self-care management.

  15. Transition to Adult Care in Persons With Disorders of Sexual Development: The Role of the Gynecologist

    PubMed Central

    Oelschlager, Anne-Marie Amies; Muscarella, Miriam; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of sexual development (DSD) are a spectrum of conditions diagnosed in infancy due to atypical development of the external genitalia, in adolescence due to atypical pubertal development, or in adulthood due to infertility. Obstetricians may be the first providers to identify a DSD in the fetus or newborn, and should be part of the interdisciplinary team assembled to best care for these patients. Gynecologists must be familiar with the diagnosis and management of these conditions in late adolescence and adulthood. The creation of DSD “centers of excellence” may provide optimal care for individuals with these conditions but many will live too far from such centers and need to be followed by local gynecologists. The purpose of this commentary is to emphasize important medical and psychological issues so gynecologists can provide optimal care for their patients with DSD conditions. PMID:26348185

  16. "Hit the ground running": perspectives of new nurses and nurse managers on role transition and integration of new graduates.

    PubMed

    Chernomas, Wanda M; Care, W Dean; McKenzie, Jo-Ann Lapointe; Guse, Lorna; Currie, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The workplace for new graduates must be a constructive learning environment to facilitate their development. Nurse managers need new graduates who can "hit the ground running." Conflict between the needs of new nurses and the realities of the workplace often creates role confusion and tension in new graduates and threatens employers' ability to retain them. As part of a larger study that examined the effectiveness of a new strategy on new nurse retention and workplace integration, we conducted focus groups with new nurses and nurse managers. This paper discusses the perspectives of new nurses on their role transition from graduates to practising professionals and the perspectives of nurse managers on the workplace integration of new nurses. The thematic findings integrate new nurses' perspectives on their needs during role transition with the perspectives of nurse managers in meeting those needs. The discussion includes strategies to facilitate successful transition and integration of new nurses into the workplace within the context of recruitment and retention.

  17. Social Support and Housing Transitions Among Homeless Adults With Serious Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gabrielian, Sonya; Young, Alexander S; Greenberg, Jared M; Bromley, Elizabeth

    2016-08-22

    Objective: Research suggests that social supports are associated with housing retention among adults who have experienced homelessness. Yet, we know very little about the social support context in consumers find and retain housing. We examined the ways and identified the junctures in which consumers' skills and deficits in accessing and mobilizing social supports influenced their longitudinal housing status. Method: We performed semi-structured qualitative interviews with VA Greater Los Angeles consumers (n = 19) with serious mental illness, substance use disorders, and a history of homelessness; interviews explored associations between longitudinal housing status (categorized as: stable, independent housing; sheltered housing, continually engaged in structured housing programs; and unstable housing) and social supports. We compared data from consumers in these 3 mutually exclusive categories. Results: All participants described social support as important for finding and maintaining housing. However, participants used formal (provider/case managers) and informal (family/friends) supports in different ways. Participants in stable housing relied on formal and informal supports to obtain/maintain housing. Participants in sheltered housing primarily used formal supports, for example, case management staff. Unstably housed participants used formal and informal supports, but some of these relationships were superficial or of negative valence. Interpersonal problems were prevalent across longitudinal housing status categories. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Social context, including patterns of formal and informal support, was associated with participants' longitudinal housing status. Within interventions to end homelessness, these findings suggest the value of future research to identify, tailor, and implement practices that can help consumers improve their social resources. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Anxiety and Depression during Transition from Hospital to Community in Older Adults: Concepts of a Study to Explain Late Age Onset Depression

    PubMed Central

    Lalor, Aislinn F.; Brown, Ted; Robins, Lauren; Lee, Den-Ching Angel; O’Connor, Daniel; Russell, Grant; Stolwyk, Rene; McDermott, Fiona; Johnson, Christina; Haines, Terry P.

    2015-01-01

    The transition between extended hospitalization and discharge home to community-living contexts for older adults is a critical time period. This transition can have an impact on the health outcomes of older adults such as increasing the risk for health outcomes like falls, functional decline and depression and anxiety. The aim of this work is to identify and understand why older adults experience symptoms of depression and anxiety post-discharge and what factors are associated with this. This is a mixed methods study of adults aged 65 years and over who experienced a period of hospitalization longer than two weeks and return to community-living post-discharge. Participants will complete a questionnaire at baseline and additional monthly follow-up questionnaires for six months. Anxiety and depression and their resulting behaviors are major public health concerns and are significant determinants of health and wellbeing among the ageing population. There is a critical need for research into the impact of an extended period of hospitalization on the health status of older adults post-discharge from hospital. This research will provide evidence that will inform interventions and services provided for older adults after they have been discharged home from hospital care. PMID:27417775

  19. Morphological Awareness and Its Role in Compensation in Adults with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Law, Jeremy M; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the role of morphological awareness (MA) in literacy achievement and compensation in word reading of adults with dyslexia through an exploration of three questions: (1) Do adult dyslexics demonstrate a deficit in MA, and how is this potential deficit related to phonological awareness (PA)? (2) Does MA contribute independently to literacy skills equally in dyslexics and control readers? and (3) Do MA and PA skills differ in compensated and noncompensated dyslexics? A group of dyslexic and normal reading university students matched for age, education and IQ participated in this study. Group analysis demonstrated an MA deficit in dyslexics; as well, MA was found to significantly predict a greater proportion of word reading and spelling within the dyslexic group compared with the controls. Compensated dyslexics were also found to perform significantly better on the morphological task than noncompensated dyslexics. Additionally, no statistical difference was observed in MA between the normal reading controls and the compensated group (independent of PA and vocabulary). Results suggest that intact and strong MA skills contribute to the achieved compensation of this group of adults with dyslexia. Implications for MA based intervention strategies for people with dyslexia are discussed.

  20. Early-life origin of adult insomnia: does prenatal-early-life stress play a role?

    PubMed

    Palagini, Laura; Drake, Christopher L; Gehrman, Philip; Meerlo, Peter; Riemann, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is very common in the adult population and it includes a wide spectrum of sequelae, that is, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular alterations as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. According to the conceptualization of insomnia in the context of the 3-P model, the importance of predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors has been stressed. Predisposing factors are present before insomnia is manifested and they are hypothesized to interact with precipitating factors, such as environmental stressful events, contributing to the onset of insomnia. Understanding the early-life origins of insomnia may be particularly useful in order to prevent and treat this costly phenomenon. Based on recent evidence, prenatal-early-life stress exposure results in a series of responses that involve the stress system in the child and could persist into adulthood. This may encompass an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis accompanied by long-lasting modifications in stress reactivity. Furthermore, early-life stress exposure might play an important role in predisposing to a vulnerability to hyperarousal reactions to negative life events in the adult contributing to the development of chronic insomnia. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be involved in the development of maladaptive stress responses in the newborn, ultimately predisposing to develop a variety of (psycho-) pathological states in adult life.

  1. Knowledge about aging and worry in older adults: Testing the mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Nuevo, Roberto; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Montorio, Ignacio; Ruiz, Miguel A.; Cabrera, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the relationship between knowledge about aging and severity of worry in older adults, and to test the potential mediational role of intolerance of uncertainty. Method The sample was composed of 120 community-dwelling older adults, with a mean of age of 71.0 years (SD = 6.3). Mediational analyses and structural equation modeling were used to analyze and compare different models. Results Greater knowledge about aging was negatively related to both intolerance of uncertainty and worry, and its effect on worry was partially mediated by intolerance of uncertainty. The mediational model obtained an excellent fit to the data (i.e. Goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.995) and clearly had a better fit than alternative models. Conclusion These results suggest that a good knowledge of the aging process could help decrease aversive uncertainty and thus reduce the level of worry among older adults. Thus, educational programs to increase knowledge about aging could serve as one preventive strategy for anxiety in old age. PMID:19197699

  2. Role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adult patients with Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dhédin, Nathalie; Huynh, Anne; Maury, Sébastien; Tabrizi, Reza; Beldjord, Kheira; Asnafi, Vahid; Thomas, Xavier; Chevallier, Patrice; Nguyen, Stéphanie; Coiteux, Valérie; Bourhis, Jean-Henri; Hichri, Yosr; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Reman, Oumedaly; Graux, Carlos; Chalandon, Yves; Blaise, Didier; Schanz, Urs; Lhéritier, Véronique; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Dombret, Hervé; Ifrah, Norbert

    2015-04-16

    Because a pediatric-inspired Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL) protocol yielded a markedly improved outcome in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL, we aimed to reassess the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients treated in the GRAALL-2003 and GRAALL-2005 trials. In all, 522 patients age 15 to 55 years old and presenting with at least 1 conventional high-risk factor were candidates for SCT in first complete remission. Among these, 282 (54%) received a transplant in first complete remission. At 3 years, posttransplant cumulative incidences of relapse, nonrelapse mortality, and relapse-free survival (RFS) were estimated at 19.5%, 15.5%, and 64.7%, respectively. Time-dependent analysis did not reveal a significant difference in RFS between SCT and no-SCT cohorts. However, SCT was associated with longer RFS in patients with postinduction minimal residual disease (MRD) ≥10(-3) (hazard ratio, 0.40) but not in good MRD responders. In B-cell precursor ALL, SCT also benefitted patients with focal IKZF1 gene deletion (hazard ratio, 0.42). This article shows that poor early MRD response, in contrast to conventional ALL risk factors, is an excellent tool to identify patients who may benefit from allogeneic SCT in the context of intensified adult ALL therapy. Trial GRAALL-2003 was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00222027; GRAALL-2005 was registered as #NCT00327678.

  3. Understanding the relationship transitions and associated end of life clinical needs of young adults with life-limiting illnesses: A triangulated longitudinal qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Bridget; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Pringle, Jan; Gold, Libby; Grant, Jayne; Dempsey, Raymond; Scott, Ros; Carragher, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Care of young adults with life-limiting illnesses can often be complex due to the fact that they are growing and developing within the continuing presence of their illness. There is little research conducted nationally and internationally, which has examined the life issues of young adults or taken a longitudinal approach to understand such issues over a period of time. Aim: To gain clear understanding of one particular and pertinent life issue—relationship transition—occurring in the context of being a young adult with a life-limiting illness and the clinical needs arising from this. Design: This was a triangulated, longitudinal, qualitative study involving young adults with life-limiting illnesses and their significant others, namely, family members and healthcare professionals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and analysed using thematic analysis. Clinical case note reviews were also carried out. Setting/participants: A total of 12 young adults (aged between 17 and 23 years) from 2 hospices and 22 nominated significant others participated in a total of 58 interviews. Results: Thematic analysis revealed 4 main themes and 11 subthemes. The main themes were ‘Dependence dichotomy’, ‘In it together’, ‘Biographical uncertainty’, and ‘Conserving integrity’. These themes helped to establish the nature of relationship transitions that the young adult participants from the study experienced and additionally allowed insight into their possible needs at their end of life. Conclusion: This study has identified the nature of relationship transitions pertinent to young adults and has highlighted associated end of life clinical needs. This study can influence further research into the transitions and end of life needs of this particular patient group receiving palliative care, while informing the lacking evidence base which exists internationally. PMID:27781097

  4. Self-Reported Sitting Time in New York City Adults, The Physical Activity and Transit Survey, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, Katherine F.; Firestone, Melanie J.; Lee, Karen K.; Eisenhower, Donna L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies have demonstrated the negative health consequences associated with extended sitting time, including metabolic disturbances and decreased life expectancy. The objectives of this study were to characterize sitting time in an urban adult population and assess the validity of a 2-question method of self-reported sitting time. Methods The New York City Health Department conducted the 2010–2011 Physical Activity and Transit Survey (N = 3,597); a subset of participants wore accelerometers for 1 week (n = 667). Self-reported sitting time was assessed from 2 questions on time spent sitting (daytime and evening hours). Sedentary time was defined as accelerometer minutes with less than 100 counts on valid days. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of sitting time by demographic characteristics. Validity of sitting time with accelerometer-measured sedentary time was assessed using Spearman’s correlation and Bland-Altman techniques. All data were weighted to be representative of the New York City adult population based on the 2006–2008 American Community Survey. Results Mean daily self-reported sitting time was 423 minutes; mean accelerometer-measured sedentary time was 490 minutes per day (r = 0.32, P < .001). The mean difference was 49 minutes per day (limits of agreement: −441 to 343). Sitting time was higher in respondents at lower poverty and higher education levels and lower in Hispanics and people who were foreign-born. Conclusion Participants of higher socioeconomic status, who are not typically the focus of health disparities–related research, had the highest sitting times; Hispanics had the lowest levels. Sitting time may be accurately assessed by self-report with the 2-question method for population surveillance but may be limited in accurately characterizing individual-level behavior. PMID:26020549

  5. Towards quantifying the role of exact exchange in predictions of transition metal complex properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidis, Efthymios I.; Kulik, Heather J.

    2015-07-01

    We estimate the prediction sensitivity with respect to Hartree-Fock exchange in approximate density functionals for representative Fe(II) and Fe(III) octahedral complexes. Based on the observation that the range of parameters spanned by the most widely employed functionals is relatively narrow, we compute electronic structure property and spin-state orderings across a relatively broad range of Hartree-Fock exchange (0%-50%) ratios. For the entire range considered, we consistently observe linear relationships between spin-state ordering that differ only based on the element of the direct ligand and thus may be broadly employed as measures of functional sensitivity in predictions of organometallic compounds. The role Hartree-Fock exchange in hybrid functionals is often assumed to play is to correct self-interaction error-driven electron delocalization (e.g., from transition metal centers to neighboring ligands). Surprisingly, we instead observe that increasing Hartree-Fock exchange reduces charge on iron centers, corresponding to effective delocalization of charge to ligands, thus challenging notions of the role of Hartree-Fock exchange in shifting predictions of spin-state ordering.

  6. Role of mitochondrial permeability transition in human renal tubular epithelial cell death induced by aristolochic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Qi Xinming; Cai Yan; Gong Likun; Liu Linlin; Chen Fangping; Xiao Ying; Wu Xiongfei; Li Yan; Xue Xiang |; Ren Jin . E-mail: cdser_simm@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2007-07-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA), a natural nephrotoxin and carcinogen, can induce a progressive tubulointerstitial nephropathy. However, the mechanism by which AA causes renal injury remains largely unknown. Here we reported that the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) plays an important role in the renal injury induced by aristolochic acid I (AAI). We found that in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}, AAI caused mitochondrial swelling, leakage of Ca{sup 2+}, membrane depolarization, and release of cytochrome c in isolated kidney mitochondria. These alterations were suppressed by cyclosporin A (CsA), an agent known to inhibit MPT. Culture of HK-2 cell, a human renal tubular epithelial cell line for 24 h with AAI caused a decrease in cellular ATP, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, and increase of caspase 3 activity. These toxic effects of AAI were attenuated by CsA and bongkrekic acid (BA), another specific MPT inhibitor. Furthermore, AAI greatly inhibited the activity of mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) in isolated mitochondria. We suggested that ANT may mediate, at least in part, the AAI-induced MPT. Taken together, these results suggested that MPT plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of HK-2 cell injury induced by AAI and implied that MPT might contribute to human nephrotoxicity of aristolochic acid.

  7. Possible role of mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, Rodrigo A; Tapia, Cheril; Pérez, María José

    2017-02-19

    Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating neurological disorder that affects the striatum and cortex of patients. HD patients develop progressive motor dysfunction and psychiatric disturbances with gradual dementia. HD is caused by a pathological expansion of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene that codifies for a protein called huntingtin (Htt), which principal function is not completely understood. Accumulative evidence shows that this pathological expansion modifies Htt function affecting different neuronal targets, including mitochondrial function which is an important factor that contributes to HD. Interestingly, several groups have shown mitochondrial disturbances including calcium handling defects, depolarization, decrease of mitochondrial transport, ATP reduction, and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cellular and murine HD models. Systematic analysis of this evidence indicates that a mitochondrial structure, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), could be responsible for these changes that affect mitochondria. The mPTP plays an important role in apoptosis and neurodegeneration. It has also been reported to have some physiological functions in heart development and synaptic communication. In HD, the presence of mutant huntingtin (mHtt) activates this mechanism producing a significant compromise of mitochondrial metabolism and bioenergetics. Considering these findings this review explores the evidence that suggests the important role of mPTP in the mitochondrial impairment induced by mHtt, which leads to calcium derangement and contributes to neuronal dysfunction in HD.

  8. Role of galectin-3 in the pathogenesis of bladder transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zeinali, Masoud; Adelinik, Armin; Papian, Shaghayegh; Khorramdelazad, Hossein; Abedinzadeh, Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    Galectins constitute an evolutionary conserved family that binds to β-galactosides. There is growing evidence that galectins are implicated in essential biological processes such as cellular communication, inflammation, differentiation and apoptosis. Galectin-3 is one of the best-known galectins, which is found in vertebrates. Galectin-3 has been shown to be expressed in some cell lines and plays important roles in several physiological and pathological processes, including cell adhesion, cell activation and chemoattraction, cell cycle, apoptosis, cell growth, and differentiation. Moreover, this galectin is of interest due to its involvement in regulation of cancer. Changes in galectin-3 expression are commonly seen in cancerous and pre-cancerous conditions and galectin-3 may be involved in the regulation of cancer cell activities that contribute to tumourigenesis, cancer progression and metastasis. Finally, galectin-3 seems to be involved in cell events in tumor microenvironment, and therefore it could be considered as a target in transitional cell carcinoma therapies. This review aims to describe recent progress in understanding the role of galectin-3 in cancer biology, with emphasis on bladder tumor progression and metastasis.

  9. Personality trait changes among young Finns: the role of life events and transitions.

    PubMed

    Leikas, Sointu; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has shown that personality traits continue to develop throughout the life span, but most profound changes are typically found during young adulthood. Increasing evidence suggests that life events play a significant role in many of these changes. The present longitudinal study examined the role of work, education, social, and health-related life events in the development of the Big Five traits among young Finns. Participants were originally recruited in 2004 through elementary schools in a middle-sized Finnish city. Participants' Big Five traits and life events were measured via self-reports at ages 20 and 23 (Ns = 597 and 588, respectively). Entering work life, beginning a relationship, and studying in university predicted increases in Conscientiousness, trying drugs predicted increases in Neuroticism, and onset of a chronic disease predicted increases in Neuroticism and Conscientiousness between ages 20 and 23. The results suggest that mature life transitions relate to stronger increases in Conscientiousness in young adulthood, and that non-normative life choices and events may predict increases in Neuroticism.

  10. Role of the recirculation region in the transition of a laminar separation bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, O.; Diwan, Sourabh

    2009-11-01

    The role of the recirculating region in the transition of a laminar separation bubble is explored in this work. The primary instability of a separation is convective and this inflexional mode is active along the mean inflection point locus located outside the mean dividing streamline. The region inside the dividing streamline and close to the wall -- called the wall mode- however is seen to display a small region of negative production of turbulent kinetic energy. This has an interesting stabilizing role on the bubble dynamics. The negative production region is seen to increase in extent with increased values of maximum reversed flow velocity of the bubble. This is shown by doing a linear stability analysis of a mean velocity distribution of a model separation bubble. This negative production region is shown to have two important implications for the separation bubble: (a) The upper branch dynamics of the neutral stability curve is significantly affected by the negative production (b) while there is onset of absolute instability in the bubble with increased values of maximum reversed flow, it is seen that relatively higher values of reversed flow required for this onset are necessitated by the presence of the negative production region.

  11. Towards quantifying the role of exact exchange in predictions of transition metal complex properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ioannidis, Efthymios I.; Kulik, Heather J.

    2015-07-21

    We estimate the prediction sensitivity with respect to Hartree-Fock exchange in approximate density functionals for representative Fe(II) and Fe(III) octahedral complexes. Based on the observation that the range of parameters spanned by the most widely employed functionals is relatively narrow, we compute electronic structure property and spin-state orderings across a relatively broad range of Hartree-Fock exchange (0%-50%) ratios. For the entire range considered, we consistently observe linear relationships between spin-state ordering that differ only based on the element of the direct ligand and thus may be broadly employed as measures of functional sensitivity in predictions of organometallic compounds. The role Hartree-Fock exchange in hybrid functionals is often assumed to play is to correct self-interaction error-driven electron delocalization (e.g., from transition metal centers to neighboring ligands). Surprisingly, we instead observe that increasing Hartree-Fock exchange reduces charge on iron centers, corresponding to effective delocalization of charge to ligands, thus challenging notions of the role of Hartree-Fock exchange in shifting predictions of spin-state ordering.

  12. Racial and ethnic differences in leaving and returning to the parental home: The role of life course transitions, socioeconomic resources, and family connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; South, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although Black and Hispanic young adults in the U.S. are less likely than Whites to move out of the parental home and more likely than Whites to return, reasons for these differences have not been clearly identified. OBJECTIVE This study examines the ability of racial/ethnic disparities in life course transitions, socioeconomic resources, and family connectivity to account for racial/ethnic differences in leaving and returning home. METHODS Using data from the 2005–2011 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics’ Transition into Adulthood study (N=1,491, age 18 to 26), we estimated discrete-time event history models predicting the timing of moving out of and back into the parental home. RESULTS Although no single factor completely explained racial-ethnic differences in the timing of leaving and returning to the parental home, the bulk of the Black-White differences in both home-leaving and home-returning was explained by group differences in transitions into adult roles, the ability to afford independent living, and connections to the origin family. These factors also explained most of the Mexican-White difference in home-leaving. However, only a small portion of the Hispanic-White difference in returning home was attributable to the proposed explanatory variables. CONCLUSION Explanations for racial and ethnic differences in the timing of leaving and returning to the parental home need to consider a broad array of life course characteristics in which Black, Hispanic, and White youth differ. The factors that explain Black-White differences in home-leaving and home-returning may differ from those that explain Hispanic-White differences in these behaviors. PMID:27110219

  13. The addicted brain craves new neurons: putative role for adult-born progenitors in promoting recovery.

    PubMed

    Mandyam, Chitra D; Koob, George F

    2012-04-01

    Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder associated with compulsive drug taking, drug seeking and a loss of control in limiting intake, reflected in three stages of a recurrent cycle: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation ("craving"). This review discusses the role of adult-born neural and glial progenitors in drug seeking associated with the different stages of the addiction cycle. A review of the current literature suggests that the loss of newly born progenitors, particularly in hippocampal and cortical regions, plays a role in determining vulnerability to relapse in rodent models of drug addiction. The normalization of drug-impaired neurogenesis or gliogenesis may help reverse neuroplasticity during abstinence and, thus, may help reduce the vulnerability to relapse and aid recovery.

  14. The role of interpersonal sensitivity, social support, and quality of life in rural older adults.

    PubMed

    Wedgeworth, Monika; LaRocca, Michael A; Chaplin, William F; Scogin, Forrest

    The mental health of elderly individuals in rural areas is increasingly relevant as populations age and social structures change. While social support satisfaction is a well-established predictor of quality of life, interpersonal sensitivity symptoms may diminish this relation. The current study extends the findings of Scogin et al by investigating the relationship among interpersonal sensitivity, social support satisfaction, and quality of life among rural older adults and exploring the mediating role of social support in the relation between interpersonal sensitivity and quality of life (N = 128). Hierarchical regression revealed that interpersonal sensitivity and social support satisfaction predicted quality of life. In addition, bootstrapping resampling supported the role of social support satisfaction as a mediator between interpersonal sensitivity symptoms and quality of life. These results underscore the importance of nurses and allied health providers in assessing and attending to negative self-perceptions of clients, as well as the perceived quality of their social networks.

  15. Long-term care services and support systems for older adults: The role of technology.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Sara J

    2016-01-01

    The aging of the population, especially the increase in the "oldest old," is a remarkable achievement that presents both opportunities and challenges for policymakers, researchers, and society. Although many older adults enjoy relatively good health into their later years, many have one or more chronic conditions or diseases and need help with disease management activities or activities important to independent living. Technology is playing an increasingly important role in the health care arena and is becoming ubiquitous in health management activities. There are a variety of technology applications that can be used to enhance the mobility and quality of life of people who have limitations and help to foster the ability of those with chronic conditions to remain at home. Technology applications can also provide a central role in providing support to family caregivers in terms of enhancing access to information and community resources and connections to formal and informal support services. Monitoring technologies may also allow caregivers to check on the status or activities of their loved one while they are at work or at a distant location. Furthermore, telemedicine applications can aid the ability of care providers to monitor patients and deliver health services. The objective of this article is to highlight the potential role that technology can play in the provision of long-term support for older adults and their families. Challenges and barriers that currently limit the full potential of technology to be realized for these populations will also be discussed. Finally the role of psychological science toward maximizing the potential of technology applications in enhancing long term care and support services will be highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. What Makes an Adult? Examining Descriptions from Adolescents of Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Rankin, Lela A.; Koerner, Susan Silverberg; Dennison, Renee Peltz

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined conceptions of "what makes an adult" within a sample of adolescents (13-19 years) from divorced families. Arnett's (2003) seven criteria-of-adulthood categories (independence, interdependence, role transitions, norm compliance, biological transitions, chronological transitions, and family capacities) were used as an…

  17. A place for the hippocampus in the cocaine addiction circuit: Potential roles for adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Serrano, Antonia; Blanco, Eduardo; Araos, Pedro; Suárez, Juan; Pavón, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J

    2016-07-01

    Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease in which the drug seeking habits and profound cognitive, emotional and motivational alterations emerge from drug-induced neuroadaptations on a vulnerable brain. Therefore, a 'cocaine addiction brain circuit' has been described to explain this disorder. Studies in both cocaine patients and rodents reveal the hippocampus as a main node in the cocaine addiction circuit. The contribution of the hippocampus to cocaine craving and the associated memories is essential to understand the chronic relapsing nature of addiction, which is the main obstacle for the recovery. Interestingly, the hippocampus holds a particular form of plasticity that is rare in the adult brain: the ability to generate new functional neurons. There is an active scientific debate on the contributions of these new neurons to the addicted brain. This review focuses on the potential role(s) of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in cocaine addiction. Although the current evidence primarily originates from animal research, these preclinical studies support AHN as a relevant component for the hippocampal effects of cocaine.

  18. Generation Validation: The Role of Social Comparison in Use of Instagram Among Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Peta; Luiz, Gabriella; Chatwin, Hannah

    2017-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) provide emerging adults with extreme and unprecedented transparency, exposing them to a plethora of opportunities for social comparison. In light of the growing use of the popular SNS, Instagram, among emerging adults, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of exposure to social media-based social comparison information on self-esteem. The study recruited 237 participants through social media. The sample was narrowed to young adults aged 18-29 years. The study used a correlational nonexperimental approach to investigate two mediation models proposed in the literature. First, the study investigated the mediating role of social comparison on Instagram in the relationship between intensity of Instagram use and self-esteem. Second, the study examined the mediating role of social comparison in the relationship between self-worth contingent on approval from others and self-esteem. Although the first model was found to be nonsignificant, results observed a significant indirect pathway that confirmed the second model. Thus, social comparison on Instagram mediated the relationship between contingent self-worth and self-esteem. Furthermore, moderation analyses found that self-worth contingent on approval from others moderated the relationship between intensity of Instagram use and social comparison on Instagram. Thus, although Instagram did not directly affect self-esteem, the significant moderation suggested that intensity of Instagram use is influential when the young person's self-worth is contingent on approval from others. Overall, the findings are consistent with previous research and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms that link SNS use to low self-esteem.

  19. The Role of Career and Technical Education in Facilitating Student Transitions to Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dare, Donna E.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines recent attempts to promote students' transitions into postsecondary education. In particular, it focuses on the evolution of career and technical education (CTE) to promote student transition by coupling more rigorous academic preparation with CTE programs.

  20. Role of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in Repair of the Lacrimal Gland after Experimentally Induced Injury

    PubMed Central

    You, Samantha; Avidan, Orna; Tariq, Ayesha; Ahluwalia, Ivy; Stark, Paul C.; Kublin, Claire L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Ongoing studies demonstrate that the murine lacrimal gland is capable of repair after experimentally induced injury. It was recently reported that repair of the lacrimal gland involved the mobilization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). These cells expressed the type VI intermediate filament protein nestin whose expression was upregulated during the repair phase. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of vimentin, a type III intermediate filament protein and a marker of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in repair of the lacrimal gland. Methods. Injury was induced by direct injection of interleukin (IL)-1 into the exorbital lacrimal gland. MSCs were prepared from injured glands using tissue explants. Expression of vimentin and the transcription factor Snai1, a master regulator of EMT, was determined by RT-PCR, Western blotting analysis, and immunofluorescence. Results. These data show that vimentin expression, at both the mRNA and the protein levels, was upregulated during the repair phase (2–3 days postinjury) and returned to the control level when repair ended. Temporal expression of Snai1 mirrored that of vimentin and was localized in cell nuclei. Cultured MSCs isolated from injured lacrimal glands expressed Snai1 and vimentin alongside nestin and alpha smooth muscle actin (another biomarker of EMT). There was a strong positive correlation between Snai1 expression and vimentin expression. Conclusions. It was found that EMT is induced during repair of the lacrimal gland to generate MSCs to initiate repair, and that mesenchymal–epithelial transition is then activated to form acinar and ductal epithelial cells. PMID:22025566

  1. Female Adult Learners in Rural Community Colleges: A Case Study of Role Perception and Navigation for Student Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tara Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Female adult learners, the fastest growing subpopulation in community colleges, face challenges navigating domestic, professional, and academic roles and take time off from school to reconcile issues with multiple role navigation; thus, their education is disjointed and staggered, creating barriers to persistence. This interpretive design…

  2. The Role of Relationships between Adults and Their Canine Companions: The Impact on Personal Growth and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Lorie Renee

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study used narrative analysis to explore the role of relationships between adults and their canine companions and the role of this relationship in personal growth and well-being. The theoretical frameworks to inform the study consisted of attachment theory and a blend of relational theory and connected knowing. The study focused…

  3. Socio-technical transition as a co-evolutionary process: Innovation and the role of niche markets in the transition to motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birky, Alicia K.

    2008-10-01

    Significant reductions in greenhouse emissions from personal transportation will require a transition to an alternative technology regime based on renewable energy sources. Two bodies of research, the quasi-evolutionary (QE) model and the multi-level perspective (MLP) assert that processes within niches play a fundamental role in such transitions. This research asks whether the description of transitions based on this niche hypothesis and its underlying assumptions is consistent with the historical U.S. transition to motor vehicles at the beginning of the 20th century. Unique to this dissertation is the combination of the perspective of the entrepreneur with co-evolutionary approaches to socio-technical transitions. This approach is augmented with concepts from the industry life-cycle model and with a taxonomy of mechanisms of learning. Using this analytic framework, I examine specifically the role of entrepreneurial behavior and processes within and among firms in the co-evolution of technologies and institutions during the transition to motor vehicles. I find that niche markets played an important role in the development of the technology, institutions, and the industry. However, I also find that the diffusion of the automobile is not consistent with the niche hypothesis in the following ways: (1) product improvements and cost reductions were not realized in niche markets, but were achieved simultaneously with diffusion into mass markets; (2) in addition to learning-by-doing and learning-by-interacting with users, knowledge spillovers and interacting with suppliers were critical in this process; (3) cost reductions were not automatic results of expanding markets, but rather arose from the strategies of entrepreneurs based on personal perspectives and values. This finding supports the use of a behavioral approach with a micro-focus in the analysis of socio-technical change. I also find that the emergence and diffusion of the motor vehicle can only be understood by

  4. The role of Bgl2p in the transition to filamentous cells during biofilm formation by Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyue; Zhang, Ruoyu; Takada, Ayako; Iwatani, Shun; Oka, Chiemi; Kitamoto, Toshitaka; Kajiwara, Susumu

    2017-02-01

    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a transition from yeast cells to filamentous cells that is related to its pathogenicity. The complex multicellular processes involved in biofilm formation by this fungus also include this transition. In this work, we investigated the morphological role of the Bgl2 protein (Bgl2p) in the transition to filamentous cells during biofilm formation by C. albicans. Bgl2p has been identified as a β-1, 3-glucosyltransferase, and transcription of the CaBGL2 gene is upregulated during biofilm formation. We used scanning electron microscopy to observe the microstructure of a bgl2 null mutant during biofilm formation and found a delay in the transition to filamentous cells in the premature phase (24 hours) of biofilm formation. Deletion of the CaBGL2 gene led to a decrease in the expression of CPH2 and TEC1, which encode transcription factors required for the transition to the filamentous form. These findings indicate that Bgl2p plays a role in the transition to filamentous cells during biofilm formation by C. albicans.

  5. Two-Arm Randomized Pilot Intervention Trial to Decrease Sitting Time and Increase Sit-To-Stand Transitions in Working and Non-Working Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Takemoto, Michelle; Bolling, Khalisa; Atkin, Andrew; Carlson, Jordan; Rosenberg, Dori; Crist, Katie; Godbole, Suneeta; Lewars, Brittany; Pena, Claudia; Merchant, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive sitting has been linked to poor health. It is unknown whether reducing total sitting time or increasing brief sit-to-stand transitions is more beneficial. We conducted a randomized pilot study to assess whether it is feasible for working and non-working older adults to reduce these two different behavioral targets. Methods Thirty adults (15 workers and 15 non-workers) age 50–70 years were randomized to one of two conditions (a 2-hour reduction in daily sitting or accumulating 30 additional brief sit-to-stand transitions per day). Sitting time, standing time, sit-to-stand transitions and stepping were assessed by a thigh worn inclinometer (activPAL). Participants were assessed for 7 days at baseline and followed while the intervention was delivered (2 weeks). Mixed effects regression analyses adjusted for days within participants, device wear time, and employment status. Time by condition interactions were investigated. Results Recruitment, assessments, and intervention delivery were feasible. The ‘reduce sitting’ group reduced their sitting by two hours, the ‘increase sit-to-stand’ group had no change in sitting time (p < .001). The sit-to-stand transition group increased their sit-to-stand transitions, the sitting group did not (p < .001). Conclusions This study was the first to demonstrate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of specific sedentary behavioral goals. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT02544867 PMID:26735919

  6. The Role of Developmental Relationships in the Transition to Entrepreneurship: A Qualitative Study and Agenda for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terjesen, Siri; Sullivan, Sherry E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the under-researched subject of the role of mentoring relationships within and outside of organizational boundaries as individuals make the career transition from being a corporate employee to becoming an entrepreneur. Design/methodology/approach: Using structured interviews, the authors collected…

  7. Perceptions of School Counselors Regarding Their Roles in Transition Services for Students with Learning Disabilities towards Post Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Molly

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the perceptions of secondary school counselors regarding their roles in the postsecondary transition process for individuals with learning disabilities. Five research areas were discussed knowledge, advocacy, collaboration, self determination, and parent/student involvement with regard to transition…

  8. Roles of Dietary Phytoestrogens on the Regulation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Diverse Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Geum-A.; Hwang, Kyung-A.; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in tumor progression. The cells undergoing EMT upregulate the expression of cell motility-related proteins and show enhanced migration and invasion. The hallmarks of EMT in cancer cells include changed cell morphology and increased metastatic capabilities in cell migration and invasion. Therefore, prevention of EMT is an important tool for the inhibition of tumor metastasis. A novel preventive therapy is needed, such as treatment of natural dietary substances that are nontoxic to normal human cells, but effective in inhibiting cancer cells. Phytoestrogens, such as genistein, resveratrol, kaempferol and 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), can be raised as possible candidates. They are plant-derived dietary estrogens, which are found in tea, vegetables and fruits, and are known to have various biological efficacies, including chemopreventive activity against cancers. Specifically, these phytoestrogens may induce not only anti-proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, but also anti-metastasis by inhibiting the EMT process in various cancer cells. There have been several signaling pathways found to be associated with the induction of the EMT process in cancer cells. Phytoestrogens were demonstrated to have chemopreventive effects on cancer metastasis by inhibiting EMT-associated pathways, such as Notch-1 and TGF-beta signaling. As a result, phytoestrogens can inhibit or reverse the EMT process by upregulating the expression of epithelial phenotypes, including E-cadherin, and downregulating the expression of mesenchymal phenotypes, including N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, and vimentin. In this review, we focused on the important roles of phytoestrogens in inhibiting EMT in many types of cancer and suggested phytoestrogens as prominent alternative compounds to chemotherapy. PMID:27231938

  9. The pivotal role of abscisic acid signaling during transition from seed maturation to germination.

    PubMed

    Yan, An; Chen, Zhong

    2016-11-23

    Seed maturation and germination are two continuous developmental processes that link two distinct generations in spermatophytes; the precise genetic control of these two processes is, therefore, crucially important for the survival of the next generation. Pieces of experimental evidence accumulated so far indicate that a concerted action of endogenous signals and environmental cues is required to govern these processes. Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a predominant role in directing seed maturation and maintaining seed dormancy under unfavorable environmental conditions until antagonized by gibberellins (GA) and certain environmental cues to allow the commencement of seed germination when environmental conditions are favorable; therefore, the balance of ABA and GA is a major determinant of the timing of seed germination. Due to the advent of new technologies and system biology approaches, molecular studies are beginning to draw a picture of the sophisticated genetic network that drives seed maturation during the past decade, though the picture is still incomplete and many details are missing. In this review, we summarize recent advances in ABA signaling pathway in the regulation of seed maturation as well as the transition from seed maturation to germination, and highlight the importance of system biology approaches in the study of seed maturation.

  10. Granular-flow rheology: Role of shear-rate number in transition regime

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, C.-L.; Ling, C.-H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale behind the semiempirical formulation of a generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model in the light of the Reiner-Rivlin constitutive theory and the viscoplastic theory, thereby identifying the parameters that control the rheology of granular flow. The shear-rate number (N) proves to be among the most significant parameters identified from the GVF model. As N ??? 0 and N ??? ???, the GVF model can reduce asymptotically to the theoretical stress versus shear-rate relations in the macroviscous and graininertia regimes, respectively, where the grain concentration (C) also plays a major role in the rheology of granular flow. Using available data obtained from the rotating-cylinder experiments of neutrally buoyant solid spheres dispersing in an interstitial fluid, the shear stress for granular flow in transition between the two regimes proves dependent on N and C in addition to some material constants, such as the coefficient of restitution. The insufficiency of data on rotating-cylinder experiments cannot presently allow the GVF model to predict how a granular flow may behave in the entire range of N; however, the analyzed data provide an insight on the interrelation among the relevant dimensionless parameters.

  11. Role of Chemical Reactivity and Transition State Modeling for Virtual Screening.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Vyas, Renu; Tambe, Sanjeev S; Radhamohan, Deepthi; Kulkarni, Bhaskar D

    2015-01-01

    Every drug discovery research program involves synthesis of a novel and potential drug molecule utilizing atom efficient, economical and environment friendly synthetic strategies. The current work focuses on the role of the reactivity based fingerprints of compounds as filters for virtual screening using a tool ChemScore. A reactant-like (RLS) and a product- like (PLS) score can be predicted for a given compound using the binary fingerprints derived from the numerous known organic reactions which capture the molecule-molecule interactions in the form of addition, substitution, rearrangement, elimination and isomerization reactions. The reaction fingerprints were applied to large databases in biology and chemistry, namely ChEMBL, KEGG, HMDB, DSSTox, and the Drug Bank database. A large network of 1113 synthetic reactions was constructed to visualize and ascertain the reactant product mappings in the chemical reaction space. The cumulative reaction fingerprints were computed for 4000 molecules belonging to 29 therapeutic classes of compounds, and these were found capable of discriminating between the cognition disorder related and anti-allergy compounds with reasonable accuracy of 75% and AUC 0.8. In this study, the transition state based fingerprints were also developed and used effectively for virtual screening in drug related databases. The methodology presented here provides an efficient handle for the rapid scoring of molecular libraries for virtual screening.

  12. Transition to skilled birth attendance: is there a future role for trained traditional birth attendants?

    PubMed

    Sibley, Lynn M; Sipe, Theresa Ann

    2006-12-01

    A brief history of training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs), summary of evidence for effectiveness of TBA training, and consideration of the future role of trained TBAs in an environment that emphasizes transition to skilled birth attendance are provided. Evidence of the effectiveness of TBA training, based on 60 studies and standard meta-analytic procedures, includes moderate-to-large improvements in behaviours of TBAs relating to selected intrapartum and postnatal care practices, small significant increases in women's use of antenatal care and emergency obstetric care, and small significant decreases in perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality due to birth asphyxia and pneumonia. Such findings are consistent with the historical focus of TBA training on extending the reach of primary healthcare and a few programmes that have included home-based management of complications of births and the newborns, such as birth asphyxia and pneumonia. Evidence suggests that, in settings characterized by high mortality and weak health systems, trained TBAs can contribute to the Millennium Development Goal 4--a two-thirds reduction in the rate of mortality of children aged less than 14 years by 2015--through participation in key evidence-based interventions.

  13. Pathways from Childhood Abuse and Other Adversities to Adult Health Risks: The Role of Adult Socioeconomic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks – depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions— marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status—mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15–20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact. PMID:26059537

  14. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.

  15. Social Inequalities and Depressive Symptoms in Adults: The Role of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Maske, Ulrike E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Lampert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that lower objective socioeconomic status (SES)—as measured by education, occupation, and income—is associated with a higher risk of depression. Less is known, however, about associations between perceptions of social status and the prevalence of depression. This study investigated associations of both objective SES and subjective social status (SSS) with depressive symptoms among adults in Germany. Methods Data were obtained from the 2013 special wave of the German Health Update study, a national health survey of the adult population in Germany. Objective SES was determined using a composite index based on education, occupation, and income. The three single dimensions of the index were also used individually. SSS was measured using the MacArthur Scale, which asks respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung ‘social ladder’. Regression models were employed to examine associations of objective SES and SSS with current depressive symptoms, as assessed with the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-8 sum score ≥10). Results After mutual adjustment, lower objective SES and lower SSS were independently associated with current depressive symptoms. The associations were found in both sexes and persisted after further adjustment for sociodemographic factors, long-term chronic conditions, and functional limitations. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms through SSS. When the three individual dimensions of objective SES were mutually adjusted, occupation and income were independently associated with depressive symptoms. After additional adjustment for SSS, these associations attenuated but remained significant. Conclusions The findings suggest that perceptions of low social status in adults may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression and play a mediating role in the relationship between objective SES and depressive symptoms

  16. Thermal nociception in adult Drosophila: behavioral characterization and the role of the painless gene.

    PubMed

    Xu, S Y; Cang, C L; Liu, X F; Peng, Y Q; Ye, Y Z; Zhao, Z Q; Guo, A K

    2006-11-01

    Nociception, warning of injury that should be avoided, serves an important protective function in animals. In this study, we show that adult Drosophila avoids noxious heat by a jump response. To quantitatively analyze this nociceptive behavior, we developed two assays. In the CO2 laser beam assay, flies exhibit this behavior when a laser beam heats their abdomens. The consistency of the jump latency in this assay meets an important criterion for a good nociceptive assay. In the hot plate assay, flies jump quickly to escape from a hot copper plate (>45 degrees C). Our results demonstrate that, as in mammals, the latency of the jump response is inversely related to stimulus intensity, and innoxious thermosensation does not elicit this nociceptive behavior. To explore the genetic mechanisms of nociception, we examined several mutants in both assays. Abnormal nociceptive behavior of a mutant, painless, indicates that painless, a gene essential for nociception in Drosophila larvae, is also required for thermal nociception in adult flies. painless is expressed in certain neurons of the peripheral nervous system and thoracic ganglia, as well as in the definite brain structures, the mushroom bodies. However, chemical or genetic insults to the mushroom bodies do not influence the nociceptive behavior, suggesting that different painless-expressing neurons play diverse roles in thermal nociception. Additionally, no-bridge(KS49), a mutant that has a structural defect in the protocerebral bridge, shows defective response to noxious heat. Thus, our results validate adult Drosophila as a useful model to study the genetic mechanisms of thermal nociception.

  17. Role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adult respiratory failure: an overview.

    PubMed

    Anand, Suneesh; Jayakumar, Divya; Aronow, Wilbert S; Chandy, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides complete or partial support of the heart and lungs. Ever since its inception in the 1960s, it has been used across all age groups in the management of refractory respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock. While it has gained widespread acceptance in the neonatal and pediatric physician community, ECMO remains a controversial therapy for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in adults. Its popularity was revived during the swine flu (H1N1) pandemic and advancements in technology have contributed to its increasing usage. ARDS continues to be a potentially devastating condition with significant mortality rates. Despite gaining more insights into this entity over the years, mechanical ventilation remains the only life-saving, yet potentially harmful intervention available for ARDS. ECMO shows promise in this regard by offering less dependence on mechanical ventilation, thereby potentially reducing ventilator-induced injury. However, the lack of rigorous clinical data has prevented ECMO from becoming the standard of care in the management of ARDS. Therefore, the results of two large ongoing randomized trials, which will hopefully throw more light on the role of ECMO in the management of this disease entity, are keenly awaited. In this article we will provide a basic overview of the development of ECMO, the types of ECMO, the pathogenesis of ARDS, different ventilation strategies for ARDS, the role of ECMO in ARDS and the role of ECMO as a bridge to lung transplantation.

  18. Anxiety symptomatology and perceived health in African American adults: moderating role of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Carter, Sierra E; Walker, Rheeda L

    2014-07-01

    Although emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The role of adult education and learning policy in fostering societal sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle; Holford, John

    2016-10-01

    The idea of "sustainability" as a core value has slowly permeated policy and practice at governmental and institutional levels, in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have revealed the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important to consider how sustainability is - and could be - integrated into educational policies. In this theoretical contribution to a special issue on "Societal sustainability", the authors draw on available literature and knowledge. They begin their paper by summarising the conditions under which the concept of "sustainability" entered political discourse in the early 1970s and outline how it has influenced educational research. They then introduce the longstanding debate about the relative role of tradition (in terms of traditional cultural and social order) and change (in terms of efforts to provide learning opportunities for everyone) in adult education. Finally, they argue for a rethinking of the ontology of sustainability: this, they suggest, can shed new light on its relationships with adult education and learning and social justice.

  20. Epigenetic gene regulation in the adult mammalian brain: multiple roles in memory formation.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Farah D

    2011-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) is one of numerous gene products necessary for long-term memory formation and dysregulation of bdnf has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cognitive and mental disorders. Recent work indicates that epigenetic-regulatory mechanisms including the markings of histone proteins and associated DNA remain labile throughout the life-span and represent an attractive molecular process contributing to gene regulation in the brain. In this review, important information will be discussed on epigenetics as a set of newly identified dynamic transcriptional mechanisms serving to regulate gene expression changes in the adult brain with particular emphasis on bdnf transcriptional readout in learning and memory formation. This review will also highlight evidence for the role of epigenetics in aberrant bdnf gene regulation in the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction associated with seizure disorders, Rett syndrome, Schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Such research offers novel concepts for understanding epigenetic transcriptional mechanisms subserving adult cognition and mental health, and furthermore promises novel avenues for therapeutic approach in the clinic.

  1. The key role of a transition course in preparing medical students for internship.

    PubMed

    Teo, Alan R; Harleman, Elizabeth; O'sullivan, Patricia S; Maa, John

    2011-07-01

    Among the core transitions in medical education is the one from medical school to residency. Despite this challenging transition, the final year of medical school is known as lacking structure and clarity. The authors examine the preparation of medical students for the professional and personal challenges of internship in the context of transition courses. They first describe the development of a residency transition course, offered since 2001 at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine (UCSF), exploring aspects of a needs assessment, course goals and content, core competencies, and course implementation. They then critically analyze the course, judging it successful based on high subjective satisfaction scores and increased perceived preparedness data. Next, the authors discuss the national context of transition courses, perspectives of various stakeholders, and lessons learned from the UCSF experience. Finally, they consider future directions, suggesting that internship transition courses be a standard part of the medical school curriculum.

  2. Learning to Be Illegal: Undocumented Youth and Shifting Legal Contexts in the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Roberto G.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the transition to adulthood among 1.5-generation undocumented Latino young adults. For them, the transition to adulthood involves exiting the legally protected status of K to 12 students and entering into adult roles that require legal status as the basis for participation. This collision among contexts makes for a turbulent…

  3. The role of mechanical forces in the planar-to-bulk transition in growing Escherichia coli microcolonies

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Matthew A. A.; Wacław, Bartłomiej; Allen, Rosalind J.; Cicuta, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces are obviously important in the assembly of three-dimensional multicellular structures, but their detailed role is often unclear. We have used growing microcolonies of the bacterium Escherichia coli to investigate the role of mechanical forces in the transition from two-dimensional growth (on the interface between a hard surface and a soft agarose pad) to three-dimensional growth (invasion of the agarose). We measure the position within the colony where the invasion transition happens, the cell density within the colony and the colony size at the transition as functions of the concentration of the agarose. We use a phenomenological theory, combined with individual-based computer simulations, to show how mechanical forces acting between the bacterial cells, and between the bacteria and the surrounding matrix, lead to the complex phenomena observed in our experiments—in particular the observation that agarose concentration non-trivially affects the colony size at transition. Matching these approaches leads to a prediction for how the friction between the bacteria and the agarose should vary with agarose concentration. Our experimental conditions mimic numerous clinical and environmental scenarios in which bacteria invade soft matrices, as well as shedding more general light on the transition between two- and three-dimensional growth in multicellular assemblies. PMID:24920113

  4. Effective process or dangerous precipice: qualitative comparative embedded case study with young people with epilepsy and their parents during transition from children’s to adult services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transition from children’s to adult epilepsy services is known to be challenging. Some young people partially or completely disengage from contact with services, thereby risking their health and wellbeing. We conducted a mixed-method systematic review that showed current epilepsy transition models enabling information exchange and developing self-care skills were not working well. We used synthesised evidence to develop a theoretical framework to inform this qualitative study. The aim was to address a critical research gap by exploring communication, information needs, and experiences of knowledge exchange in clinical settings by young people and their parents, during transition from children’s to adult epilepsy services. Method Qualitative comparative embedded Case study with 2 'transition’ cases (epilepsy services) in two hospitals. Fifty-eight participants: 30 young people (13–19 years) and 28 parents were interviewed in-depth (individual or focus group). Clinical documents/guidelines were collated. 'Framework’ thematic analysis was used. The theoretical framework was tested using themes, pattern matching and replication logic. Theory-based evaluation methods were used to understand how and why different models of service delivery worked. Results A joint epilepsy clinic for young people 14–17 years coordinated by children’s and adult services was more likely to influence young people’s behaviour by facilitating more positive engagement with adult healthcare professionals and retention of epilepsy-related self-care information. Critical success factors were continuity of care, on-going and consistent age-appropriate and person centred communication and repeated information exchange. Three young people who experienced a single handover clinic disengaged from services. Psychosocial care was generally inadequate and healthcare professionals lacked awareness of memory impairment. Parents lacked knowledge, skills and support to enable their

  5. Chronic sinusitis in children and adults: role of bacteria and antimicrobial management.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2005-11-01

    The nasopharynx serves as the reservoir for anaerobic bacteria as well as pathogenic bacteria that can cause respiratory infections including sinusitis. Some of these organisms possess the ability to interfere with the growth of potential pathogens and may play a role in preventing infections. Anaerobic bacteria emerge as pathogens as the infection becomes chronic. This may result from the selective pressure of antimicrobial agents that enable resistant anaerobic organisms to survive, and from the development of conditions appropriate for anaerobic growth, which include the reduction in oxygen tension and an increase in acidity within the sinus. Anaerobes were identified in chronic sinusitis in adults and children whenever techniques for their cultivation were employed. The predominant isolates were pigmented Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Peptostreptococcus spp. The choice of antimicrobial agent in chronic sinusitis should provide coverage for the usual pathogens in acute sinusitis as well as beta-lactamase-producing aerobic and anaerobic organisms.

  6. A ventral view on antidepressant action: roles for adult hippocampal neurogenesis along the dorsoventral axis.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F

    2014-12-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is implicated in antidepressant action, stress responses, and cognitive functioning. The hippocampus is functionally segregated along its longitudinal axis into dorsal (dHi) and ventral (vHi) regions in rodents, and analogous posterior and anterior regions in primates, whereby the vHi preferentially regulates stress and anxiety, while the dHi preferentially regulates spatial learning and memory. Given the role of neurogenesis in functions preferentially regulated by the dHi or vHi, it is plausible that neurogenesis is preferentially regulated in either the dHi or vHi depending upon the stimulus. We appraise here the literature on the effects of stress and antidepressants on neurogenesis along the hippocampal longitudinal axis and explore whether preferential regulation of neurogenesis in the vHi/anterior hippocampus contributes to stress resilience and antidepressant action.

  7. The role of the radial electric field for the transition to high confinement regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, D.; Garzotti, L.; Giroud, C.; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2006-05-01

    The radial electric field Er(x, t), and particularly its gradient, has been invoked by various theories and empirical models as a crucial parameter 'per se' for determining the transition to high confinement regimes, such as the onset of an internal transport barrier (ITB) in the plasma core and of the H-mode pedestal at the plasma edge. This idea, however, does not consider the basic fact that in most experiments the transition to a steady-state higher confinement regimes is produced by applying sufficient additional heating onto a given target density and current profile. In order to test this ansatz on a more routine basis, we have developed here an analytical approximation to the neoclassical calculation of the radial electric field, adapted for the 2D toroidal geometry of JET to describe all collisionality regimes (banana, banana-plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter) and to include averaging over the potato orbits. An analytic calculation of the error bars on Er(x, t) has also been developed, which has allowed us to compare and successfully benchmark our calculations with the results of neoclassical codes such as JETTO and NCLASS. We are then able to demonstrate a striking similarity in the shape of Er(x, t) in steady-state L-mode, H-mode and ITB plasmas when normalizing Er(x, t) with respect to the total heating power flux. This clearly indicates that, experimentally, there is no direct causality relation between changes in Er(x, t) and steady-state improved confinement, as these are brought about together by changes in the power deposition profile. Only two cases do not satisfy this general rule. First, localized and rapid transients (i.e. occurring on time scales much shorter than the momentum and energy confinement time) could be linked to non-neoclassical changes in Er(x, t), possibly due to turbulence suppression mechanisms. Second, when comparing H-mode plasmas with forward and reversed ion ∇B-drift direction, we demonstrate the role of prompt fast ion losses

  8. Child Maltreatment Severity and Adult Trauma Symptoms: Does Perceived Social Support Play a Buffering Role?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Sarah E.; Steel, Anne; DiLillo, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The current study investigates the moderating effect of perceived social support on associations between child maltreatment severity and adult trauma symptoms. We extend the existing literature by examining the roles of severity of multiple maltreatment types (i.e., sexual, physical, and emotional abuse; physical and emotional neglect) and gender in this process. Methods The sample included 372 newlywed individuals recruited from marriage license records. Participants completed a number of self-report questionnaires measuring the nature and severity of child maltreatment history, perceived social support from friends and family, and trauma-related symptoms. These questionnaires were part of a larger study, investigating marital and intrapersonal functioning. We conducted separate, two-step hierarchical multiple regression models for perceived social support from family and perceived social support from friends. In each of these models, total trauma symptomatology was predicted from each child maltreatment severity variable, perceived social support, and the product of the two variables. In order to examine the role of gender, we conducted separate analyses for women and men. Results As hypothesized, increased severity of several maltreatment types (sexual abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect) predicted greater trauma symptoms for both women and men, and increased physical abuse severity predicted greater trauma symptoms for women. Perceived social support from both family and friends predicted lower trauma symptoms across all levels of maltreatment for men. For women, greater perceived social support from friends, but not from family, predicted decreased trauma symptoms. Finally, among women, perceived social support from family interacted with child maltreatment such that, as the severity of maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse, emotional neglect) increased, the buffering effect of perceived social support from family on

  9. Insulin and bone health in young adults: The mediator role of lean mass

    PubMed Central

    Pozuelo-Carrascosa, Diana P.; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Ferri-Morales, Asunción; Miota Ibarra, Jose; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Background The positive relationship between lean mass (LM) and bone health is well known, but a positive association between insulin and LM has also been described. Insulin has some anabolic properties on bone through the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation, yet the role of LM as a confounder or mediator in this relationship remains uncertain. Objective To examine whether the association between insulin levels and bone health is mediated by LM. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Castilla La Mancha University (Spain) involving 466 young adults (113 young men; 19.5±2.3 years). LM and total-body bone mineral content (BMC) were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and insulin was measured in fasting serum samples. Results Young adults with high total LM had higher values of total-body BMC than their peers after controlling for age and sex, this relationship persisted after adjusting for insulin levels (p<0.001). In mediation analyses, insulin levels were positively associated with total-body BMC (b = 0.05; p<0.001) and total LM acted as an intermediate variable, attenuating the association between insulin levels and total-body BMC (b = -31.98; p>0.05) as indicated by Sobel test values for indirect effect (z = 4.43; p<0.001). Conclusions LM plays an important role in the relationship between insulin levels and bone health, in such a way that while increases in LM have a positive influence on bone health, they are also negatively associated with insulin levels. PMID:28323845

  10. Role of zonal flow predator-prey oscillations in triggering the transition to H-mode confinement.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, L; Zeng, L; Rhodes, T L; Hillesheim, J C; Doyle, E J; Groebner, R J; Peebles, W A; Burrell, K H; Wang, G

    2012-04-13

    Direct evidence of zonal flow (ZF) predator-prey oscillations and the synergistic roles of ZF- and equilibrium E×B flow shear in triggering the low- to high-confinement (L- to H-mode) transition in the DIII-D tokamak is presented. Periodic turbulence suppression is first observed in a narrow layer at and just inside the separatrix when the shearing rate transiently exceeds the turbulence decorrelation rate. The final transition to H mode with sustained turbulence and transport reduction is controlled by equilibrium E×B shear due to the increasing ion pressure gradient.

  11. Mind how you cross the gap! Outcomes for young people who failed to make the transition from child to adult services: the TRACK study

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Zoebia; Ford, Tamsin; Kramer, Tami; Paul, Moli; Parsons, Helen; Harley, Katherine; Weaver, Tim; McLaren, Susan; Singh, Swaran P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method The Transitions of Care from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services to Adult Mental Health Services (TRACK) study was a multistage, multicentre study of adolescents' transitions between child and adult mental health services undertaken in England. We conducted a secondary analysis of the TRACK study data to investigate healthcare provision for young people (n = 64) with ongoing mental health needs, who were not transferred from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health services mental health services (AMHS). Results The most common outcomes were discharge to a general practitioner (GP; n = 29) and ongoing care with CAMHS (n = 13), with little indication of use of third-sector organisations. Most of these young people had emotional/neurotic disorders (n = 31, 48.4%) and neurodevelopmental disorders (n = 15, 23.4%). Clinical implications GPs and CAMHS are left with the responsibility for the continuing care of young people for whom no adult mental health service could be identified. GPs may not be able to offer the skilled ongoing care that these young people need. Equally, the inability to move them decreases the capacity of CAMHS to respond to new referrals and may leave some young people with only minimal support. PMID:27280035

  12. Transitional Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Mary; Keating, Stacen A.

    2008-01-01

    Transitional care encompasses a broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of health care and across care settings. High-quality transitional care is especially important for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and complex therapeutic regimens, as well as for their…

  13. FGFR4 role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and its therapeutic value in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Peláez-García, Alberto; Barderas, Rodrigo; Torres, Sofía; Hernández-Varas, Pablo; Teixidó, Joaquín; Bonilla, Félix; de Herreros, Antonio Garcia; Casal, J Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is vital in early development and tissue repair. FGFR4 expression levels are very restricted in adult tissues, except in several solid tumors including colorectal cancer, which showed overexpression of FGFR4. Here, FGFR4 mutation analysis discarded the presence of activating mutations, other than Arg(388), in different colorectal cancer cell lines and tumoral samples. Stable shRNA FGFR4-silencing in SW480 and SW48 cell lines resulted in a significant decrease in cell proliferation, adhesion, cell migration and invasion. This decrease in the tumorigenic and invasive capabilities of colorectal cancer cells was accompanied by a decrease of Snail, Twist and TGFβ gene expression levels and an increase of E-cadherin, causing a reversion to a more epithelial phenotype, in three different cell lines. In addition, FGFR4-signaling activated the oncogenic SRC, ERK1/2 and AKT pathways in colon cancer cells and promoted an increase in cell survival. The relevance of FGFR4 in tumor growth was supported by two different strategies. Kinase inhibitors abrogated FGFR4-related cell growth and signaling pathways at the same extent than FGFR4-silenced cells. Specific FGFR4-targeting using antibodies provoked a similar reduction in cell growth. Moreover, FGFR4 knock-down cells displayed a reduced capacity for in vivo tumor formation and angiogenesis in nude mice. Collectively, our data support a crucial role for FGFR4 in tumorigenesis, invasion and survival in colorectal cancer. In addition, FGFR4 targeting demonstrated its applicability for colorectal cancer therapy.

  14. Reactive oxygen species, but not Ca2+ overloading, trigger pH- and mitochondrial permeability transition-dependent death of adult rat myocytes after ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Jin, Yingai; Lemasters, John J

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the role of pH, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ca2+, and the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in pH-dependent ischemia-reperfusion injury to adult rat myocytes. Myocytes were incubated in anoxic Krebs-Ringer-HEPES buffer at pH 6.2 for 3 h to simulate ischemia. To simulate reperfusion, myocytes were reoxygenated at pH 6.2 or 7.4 for 2 h. Some myocytes were treated with MPT blockers (cyclosporin A and N-methyl-4-isoleucine cyclosporin) and antioxidants (desferal, diphenylphenylene diamine, and 2-mercaptopropionyl glycine). Mitochondrial membrane potential, inner membrane permeabilization, and ROS formation were imaged with tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester, calcein, and chloromethyldichlorofluorescein diacetate, respectively. For Ca2+ imaging, myocytes were coloaded with rhod-2 and fluo-4 to evaluate mitochondrial and cytosolic Ca2+, respectively. After 10 min of reperfusion at pH 7.4, calcein redistributed across the mitochondrial inner membrane, an event preceded by mitochondrial ROS formation and accompanied by hypercontracture, mitochondrial depolarization, and then cell death. Acidotic reperfusion, antioxidants, and MPT blockers each prevented the MPT, depolarization, hypercontraction, and cell killing. Antioxidants, but neither MPT blockers nor acidotic reperfusion, inhibited ROS formation after reperfusion. Furthermore, anoxic reperfusion at pH 7.4 prevented cell death. Both mitochondrial and cytosolic Ca2+ increased during ischemia but recovered in the first minutes of reperfusion. Mitochondrial and cytosolic Ca2+ overloading again occurred late after reperfusion. This late Ca2+ overloading was blocked by MPT inhibition. Intramitochondrial Ca2+ chelation by cold loading/warm incubation of BAPTA did not prevent cell death after reperfusion. In conclusion, mitochondrial ROS, together with normalization of pH, promote MPT onset and subsequent myocyte death after reperfusion. In contrast, Ca2+ overloading appears to be the consequence

  15. A Review of the Role of Information Communication Technology and Course Design in Transitional Education Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienties, Bart; Kaper, Wolter; Struyven, Katrien; Tempelaar, Dirk; van Gastel, Leendert; Vrancken, Sanne; Jasinska, Magdalena; Virgailaite-Meckauskaite, Egle

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of higher educational institutes are offering remedial, bridging, preparatory or transitional courses in a blended and online format to remediate and enhance students' knowledge and skills. This article addresses how teachers and institutes design and implement these courses. The descriptions of transitional courses were…

  16. Transitioning Children from Psychiatric Hospitals to Schools: The Role of the Special Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Joan B.; Savina, Elena A.

    2010-01-01

    Over a quarter of a million U.S. students each year reside for a period of time in a psychiatric inpatient hospital setting to receive mental health treatment. Following inpatient treatment, most children are transitioned from the hospital into a regular school setting. Little is known about how these transitions are managed by hospital or school…

  17. Role of Transitional Care Measures in the Prevention of Readmission After Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jessica S

    2017-02-01

    Transitioning from the critical care unit to the medical-surgical care area is vital to patients' recovery and resolution of critical illness. Such transitions are necessary to optimize use of available hospital resources to meet patient care needs. One in 10 patients discharged from the intensive care unit are readmitted to the unit during their hospitalization. Critical care readmission is associated with significant increases in illness acuity, overall length of stay, and health care costs as well as a potential 4-fold increased risk of mortality. Patients with complex illness, multiple comorbid conditions, and a prolonged initial stay in the critical care unit are at an increased risk of being readmitted to the critical care unit and experiencing poor outcomes. Implementing nurse-driven measures that support continuity of care and consistent communication practices such as critical care outreach services, transitional communication tools, discharge planning, and transitional care units improves transitions of patients from the critical care environment and reduces readmission rates.

  18. Risk factors associated with the transition from heroin sniffing to heroin injection: a street addict role perspective.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jesús; Chitwood, Dale D; Koo, Dixie J

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify characteristics of heroin sniffers likely to shift to injection by evaluating the street addict role theory as an informing theoretical framework to explain transition from heroin sniffing to injection. A nested case-control research design was used to identify 142 heroin sniffers who never had injected a drug (controls) and 146 recently transitioned injection drug users (cases) from a larger study of 600 African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white men and women who were street recruited from multiple communities known for high drug use. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the proposed hypotheses derived from the street addict role theory. Our findings partially support the utility of the street addict role perspective as an explanatory framework for understanding the role played by sociocultural factors in the transition to injection. This perspective can help contextualize this HIV-related behavior within the high risk social environment of heroin users. The development of effective prevention strategies for this group should be guided by a comprehensive understanding of the social environment where HIV-related risk behaviors occur.

  19. Facilitating Transition from High School and Special Education to Adult Life: Focus on Youth with Learning Disorders, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Speech/Language Impairments.

    PubMed

    Ascherman, Lee I; Shaftel, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Youth with learning disorders, speech/language disorders, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may experience significant struggles during the transition from high school to postsecondary education and employment. These disorders often occur in combination or concurrently with behavioral and emotional difficulties. Incomplete evaluation may not fully identify the factors underlying academic and personal challenges. This article reviews these disorders, the role of special education law for transitional age youth in public schools, and the Americans with Disabilities Act in postsecondary educational and employment settings. The role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist and the importance of advocacy for these youth are presented.

  20. Influence of adult attachment insecurities on parenting self-esteem: the mediating role of dyadic adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Vincenzo; Bianco, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent–child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem. Methods: The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects) of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0–6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. Results: Path analysis was used to design and test a theoretical integrative model, achieving a good fit with the data. Findings showed that dyadic adjustment mediates the negative influence on parenting self-efficacy of both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Parenting satisfaction is positively influenced by parenting self-efficacy and negatively affected by child’s age. Attachment anxiety negatively influences parenting satisfaction. Conclusion: Our findings are in line with the theoretical expectations and have promising implications for future research and intervention programs designed to improve parenting self-esteem. PMID:26441811

  1. An exploration of role model influence on adult nursing students' professional development: A phenomenological research study.

    PubMed

    Felstead, Ian S; Springett, Kate

    2016-02-01

    Patients' expectations of being cared for by a nurse who is caring, competent, and professional are particularly pertinent in current health and social care practice. The current drive for NHS values-based recruitment serves to strengthen this. How nursing students' development of professionalism is shaped is not fully known, though it is acknowledged that their practice experience strongly shapes behaviour. This study (in 2013-14) explored twelve adult nursing students' lived experiences of role modelling through an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach, aiming to understand the impact on their development as professional practitioners. Clinical nurses influenced student development consistently. Some students reported that their experiences allowed them to learn how not to behave in practice; a productive learning experience despite content. Students also felt senior staff influence on their development to be strong, citing 'leading by example.' The impact of patients on student professional development was also a key finding. Through analysing information gained, identifying and educating practice-based mentors who are ready, willing, and able to role model professional attributes appear crucial to developing professionalism in nursing students. Those involved in nurse education, whether service providers or universities, may wish to acknowledge the influence of clinical nurse behaviour observed by students both independent of and in direct relation to care delivery and the impact on student nurse professional development. A corollary relates to how students should be guided and briefed/debriefed to work with a staff to ensure their exposure to a variety of practice behaviours.

  2. The Role of Pharmacists in Preventing Falls among America’s Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Karani, Mamta V.; Haddad, Yara; Lee, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of both fatal and non-fatal injuries in people aged 65 years and older and can lead to significant costs, injuries, functional decline, and reduced quality of life. While certain medications are known to increase fall risk, medication use is a modifiable risk factor. Pharmacists have specialized training in medication management and can play an important role in fall prevention. Working in a patient-centered team-based approach, pharmacists can collaborate with the primary care providers to reduce fall risk. They can screen for fall risk, review and optimize medication therapy, recommend vitamin D, and educate patients and caregivers about ways to prevent falls. To help health-care providers implement fall prevention, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries (STEADI) initiative. Based on the established clinical guidelines, STEADI provides members of the health-care team, including pharmacists, with the tools and resources they need to manage their older patients’ fall risk. These tools are being adapted to specifically advance the roles of pharmacists in reviewing medications, identifying those that increase fall risk, and communicating those risks with patients’ primary care providers. Through a multidisciplinary approach, pharmacists along with other members of the health-care team can better meet the needs of America’s growing older adult population and reduce falls. PMID:27882314

  3. Evo-devo of Child Growth: The Role of Weaning in the Transition from Infancy to Childhood.

    PubMed

    Shaoul, Ron; Tiosano, Dov; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2016-01-01

    Homo sapiens are unique in having a life history phase of childhood, which follows infancy, as defined by breastfeeding. This review uses evolutionary life history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies for transition from infancy to childhood. We have previously shown that a delayed infancy-childhood transition has a lifelong impact on stature. Feeding practices during infancy are fundamental elements of nutrition as they program for future growth and body composition. A relationship between the duration of breastfeeding and the nature of weaning has been suggested as a possible cause for later obesity and growth patterns. This review highlights the role that breast milk feeding and variations in the weaning age have on transition to childhood, growth, and body composition.

  4. The Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore: Channel Formation by F-ATP Synthase, Integration in Signal Transduction, and Role in Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Paolo; Rasola, Andrea; Forte, Michael; Lippe, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) is a permeability increase of the inner mitochondrial membrane mediated by a channel, the permeability transition pore (PTP). After a brief historical introduction, we cover the key regulatory features of the PTP and provide a critical assessment of putative protein components that have been tested by genetic analysis. The discovery that under conditions of oxidative stress the F-ATP synthases of mammals, yeast, and Drosophila can be turned into Ca2+-dependent channels, whose electrophysiological properties match those of the corresponding PTPs, opens new perspectives to the field. We discuss structural and functional features of F-ATP synthases that may provide clues to its transition from an energy-conserving into an energy-dissipating device as well as recent advances on signal transduction to the PTP and on its role in cellular pathophysiology. PMID:26269524

  5. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Du, Fengxia; Zhang, Minjie; Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun; Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang; Xu, Ye; Price, Brendan; Sun, Yingli

    2014-10-03

    The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair.

  6. Motif-role-fingerprints: the building-blocks of motifs, clustering-coefficients and transitivities in directed networks.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Mark D; Yaveroğlu, Ömer Nebil; Schmerl, Brett A; Iannella, Nicolangelo; Ward, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Complex networks are frequently characterized by metrics for which particular subgraphs are counted. One statistic from this category, which we refer to as motif-role fingerprints, differs from global subgraph counts in that the number of subgraphs in which each node participates is counted. As with global subgraph counts, it can be important to distinguish between motif-role fingerprints that are 'structural' (induced subgraphs) and 'functional' (partial subgraphs). Here we show mathematically that a vector of all functional motif-role fingerprints can readily be obtained from an arbitrary directed adjacency matrix, and then converted to structural motif-role fingerprints by multiplying that vector by a specific invertible conversion matrix. This result demonstrates that a unique structural motif-role fingerprint exists for any given functional motif-role fingerprint. We demonstrate a similar result for the cases of functional and structural motif-fingerprints without node roles, and global subgraph counts that form the basis of standard motif analysis. We also explicitly highlight that motif-role fingerprints are elemental to several popular metrics for quantifying the subgraph structure of directed complex networks, including motif distributions, directed clustering coefficient, and transitivity. The relationships between each of these metrics and motif-role fingerprints also suggest new subtypes of directed clustering coefficients and transitivities. Our results have potential utility in analyzing directed synaptic networks constructed from neuronal connectome data, such as in terms of centrality. Other potential applications include anomaly detection in networks, identification of similar networks and identification of similar nodes within networks. Matlab code for calculating all stated metrics following calculation of functional motif-role fingerprints is provided as S1 Matlab File.

  7. Motif-Role-Fingerprints: The Building-Blocks of Motifs, Clustering-Coefficients and Transitivities in Directed Networks

    PubMed Central

    McDonnell, Mark D.; Yaveroğlu, Ömer Nebil; Schmerl, Brett A.; Iannella, Nicolangelo; Ward, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Complex networks are frequently characterized by metrics for which particular subgraphs are counted. One statistic from this category, which we refer to as motif-role fingerprints, differs from global subgraph counts in that the number of subgraphs in which each node participates is counted. As with global subgraph counts, it can be important to distinguish between motif-role fingerprints that are ‘structural’ (induced subgraphs) and ‘functional’ (partial subgraphs). Here we show mathematically that a vector of all functional motif-role fingerprints can readily be obtained from an arbitrary directed adjacency matrix, and then converted to structural motif-role fingerprints by multiplying that vector by a specific invertible conversion matrix. This result demonstrates that a unique structural motif-role fingerprint exists for any given functional motif-role fingerprint. We demonstrate a similar result for the cases of functional and structural motif-fingerprints without node roles, and global subgraph counts that form the basis of standard motif analysis. We also explicitly highlight that motif-role fingerprints are elemental to several popular metrics for quantifying the subgraph structure of directed complex networks, including motif distributions, directed clustering coefficient, and transitivity. The relationships between each of these metrics and motif-role fingerprints also suggest new subtypes of directed clustering coefficients and transitivities. Our results have potential utility in analyzing directed synaptic networks constructed from neuronal connectome data, such as in terms of centrality. Other potential applications include anomaly detection in networks, identification of similar networks and identification of similar nodes within networks. Matlab code for calculating all stated metrics following calculation of functional motif-role fingerprints is provided as S1 Matlab File. PMID:25486535

  8. [Adult].

    PubMed

    Milke-García, María Del Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Adulthood starts after youth and is characterized by the completion of growth and the achievement of organic and psychological maturity. Obesity and other preventable diseases related to lifestyle are common at this age. A complete, balanced and sufficient diet, together with exercise are important in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Several studies have brought about the mechanisms by which the incorporation of milk and dairy products to diet is beneficial in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Milk also contributes to the improvement of dental, bone and intestinal health, theoretically helps in body weight control, has a definite role on the muscular and bone mass maintenance and is an option for hydration during exercise, this being as important as diet for overweight, obesity, diabetes, dislipidemias and hypertension control.

  9. The role of hillslopes in stream flow response: connectivity, flow path, and transit time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, K. J.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2006-12-01

    Subsurface flow from hillslopes is widely recognized as an important contributor to stream flow generation; however, processes that control how and when hillslopes connect to streams remain unclear. Much of the difficulty in deciphering hillslope response in the stream is due to riparian zone modulation of these inputs. We investigated stream and hillslope runoff dynamics in a 10 ha catchment in the western Cascades of Oregon where the riparian zone has been removed by debris flows, providing an unambiguous hillslope hydrologic signal to the stream channel. Water transit time was used as a framework to develop a conceptual stream flow generation model for the small basin. We based our conceptualization on observations of hydrometric, stable isotope, and applied tracer responses and computed transit times for multiple runoff components using a simple linear systems model. Event water mean transit times (8 to 34 h) and rapid breakthrough from applied hillslope tracer additions, demonstrated that contributing areas extend far upslope during events. Despite rapid hillslope transport processes during events, vadose zone water and runoff mean transit times during non-storm conditions were greater than the timescale of storm events. Vadose zone water mean transit times ranged between 10 and 25 days. Hillslope seepage and catchment baseflow mean transit times were between 1 and 2 years. We describe a conceptual model that captures variable physical flow pathways and transit times through changing antecedent wetness conditions that illustrate the different stages of hillslope and stream connectivity.

  10. The role of religion in shaping sexual frequency and satisfaction: evidence from married and unmarried older adults.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Uecker, Jeremy E; Regnerus, Mark D

    2011-03-01

    This study assesses the role of religion in influencing sexual frequency and satisfaction among older married adults and sexual activity among older unmarried adults. The study proposes and tests several hypotheses about the relationship between religion and sex among these two groups of older Americans, using nationally representative data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Results suggest that among married older adults, religion is largely unrelated with sexual frequency and satisfaction, although religious integration in daily life shares a weak, but positive, association with pleasure from sex. For unmarried adults, such religious integration exhibits a negative association with having had sex in the last year among women, but not among men.

  11. Changes in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions: Role of Positive and Negative Social Support.

    PubMed

    Ahn, SangNam; Kim, Seonghoon; Zhang, Hongmei

    2016-12-26

    Depression severely affects older adults in the United States. As part of the social environment, significant social support was suggested to ameliorate depression among older adults. We investigate how varying forms of social support moderate depressive symptomatology among older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC). Data were analyzed using a sample of 11,400 adults, aged 65 years or older, from the 2006-2012 Health and Retirement Study. The current study investigated the moderating effects of positive or negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends on the association between MCC and depression. A linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to estimate the effect of MCC on depression and its interactions with positive and negative social support in explaining depression among older adults. Varying forms of social support played different moderating roles in depressive symptomatology among older adults with MCC. Positive spousal support significantly weakened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Conversely, all negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends significantly strengthened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Minimizing negative social support and maximizing positive spousal support can reduce depression caused by MCC and lead to successful aging among older adults.

  12. Changes in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions: Role of Positive and Negative Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SangNam; Kim, Seonghoon; Zhang, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Depression severely affects older adults in the United States. As part of the social environment, significant social support was suggested to ameliorate depression among older adults. We investigate how varying forms of social support moderate depressive symptomatology among older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC). Data were analyzed using a sample of 11,400 adults, aged 65 years or older, from the 2006–2012 Health and Retirement Study. The current study investigated the moderating effects of positive or negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends on the association between MCC and depression. A linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to estimate the effect of MCC on depression and its interactions with positive and negative social support in explaining depression among older adults. Varying forms of social support played different moderating roles in depressive symptomatology among older adults with MCC. Positive spousal support significantly weakened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Conversely, all negative social support from spouse, children, other family, and friends significantly strengthened the deleterious effect of MCC on depression. Minimizing negative social support and maximizing positive spousal support can reduce depression caused by MCC and lead to successful aging among older adults. PMID:28035968

  13. Pulse laser induced graphite-to-diamond phase transition: the role of quantum electronic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, ZhengFei; Liu, Feng

    2017-02-01

    First-principles calculations show that the pulse laser induced graphite-to-diamond phase transition is related to the lattice stress generated by the excited carriers, termed as "quantum electronic stress (QES)". We found that the excited carriers in graphite generate a large anisotropic QES that increases linearly with the increasing carrier density. Using the QES as a guiding parameter, structural relaxation spontaneously transforms the graphite phase into the diamond phase, as the QES is reduced and minimized. Our results suggest that the concept of QES can be generally applied as a good measure to characterize the pulse laser induced phase transitions, in analogy to pressure induced phase transitions.

  14. Novel mechanism for temperature-independent transitions in flexible molecules: role of thermodynamic fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Teslenko, V I; Petrov, E G; Verkhratsky, A; Krishtal, O A

    2010-04-30

    A novel physical mechanism is proposed to explain the temperature-independent transition reactions in molecular systems. The mechanism becomes effective in the case of conformation transitions between quasi-isoenergetic molecular states. It is shown that at room temperatures, stochastic broadening of molecular energy levels predominates the energy of low-frequency vibrations accompanying the transition. This leads to a cancellation of temperature dependence in the stochastically averaged rate constants. As an example, a physical interpretation of temperature-independent onset of P2X{3} receptor desensitization in neuronal membranes is provided.

  15. The essential role of GATA transcription factors in adult murine prostate

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lijuan; Feng, Qin; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Fen; Lydon, John P.; Ittmann, Michael M.; Xin, Li; Mitsiades, Nicholas; He, Bin

    2016-01-01

    GATA transcription factors are essential in mammalian cell lineage determination and have a critical role in cancer development. In cultured prostate cancer cells, GATA2 coordinates with androgen receptor (AR) to regulate gene transcription. In the murine prostate, among six GATA members, GATA2 and GATA3 are expressed. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that both GATA factors predominantly localize in the nuclei of luminal epithelial cells. The pioneer factor FoxA1 is exclusively detected in the luminal cells, whereas AR is detected in both luminal and basal cells. Using genetic engineering, we generated prostate-specific GATA2 and GATA3 knockout (KO) mice. Ablation of single GATA gene had marginal effect on prostate morphology and AR target gene expression, likely due to their genetic compensation. Double KO mice exhibited PIN III to IV lesions, but decreased prostate to body weight ratio, altered AR target gene expression, and expansion of p63-positive basal cells. However, deletion of GATA2 and GATA3 did not reduce the mRNA or protein levels of AR or FoxA1, indicating that GATA factors are not required for AR or FoxA1 expression in adult prostate. Surprisingly, GATA2 and GATA3 exhibit minimal expression in the ventral prostatic (VP) lobe. In contrast, FoxA1 and AR expression levels in VP are at least as high as those in anterior prostatic (AP) and dorsal-lateral prostatic (DLP) lobes. Together, our results indicate that GATA2 and GATA3 are essential for adult murine prostate function and in vivo AR signaling, and the lack of the GATA factor expression in the VP suggests a fundamental difference between VP and other prostatic lobes. PMID:27374105

  16. Gender role across development in adult women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Long, Dominique N; Wisniewski, Amy B; Migeon, Claude J

    2004-10-01

    This study evaluated the degree of femininity and masculinity at different developmental stages in a group of adult women, some of whom were exposed to elevated prenatal adrenal androgens as a result of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21 hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency. Women who had presented to the Johns Hopkins Hospital Pediatric Endocrine Clinic for treatment of CAH due to 21-OH deficiency were included. The control group consisted of sisters of CAH participants and women referred for evaluation of polycystic ovary syndrome. Study participants were given a questionnaire asking them to indicate their degree of masculinity and femininity during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. In addition, participants were asked questions related to their play behavior during childhood, including playmate preferences, toy preferences, and admiration of male or female characters during fantasy play. Across participant groups, self-reported femininity decreased in a dose response manner, according to prenatal androgen exposure. For all groups, femininity increased through developmental stages. Women with salt-losing CAH remained less feminine than controls into adulthood. Conversely, self-reported masculinity increased in a dose-response manner, according to prenatal androgen exposure, across participant groups. Women with CAH showed a decrease in masculinity across developmental stages, such that by adulthood, there were no significant differences in masculinity between controls and the women with CAH. Women with salt-losing CAH were more likely to recall preferences for boy playmates, male-typical toys, and admiration for male characters during childhood than other study participants. Our data support the effect of both prenatal androgen exposure and socialization on gender role behavior in adult women with CAH due to 21-OH deficiency.

  17. Muscle organizers in Drosophila: the role of persistent larval fibers in adult flight muscle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, E. R.; Fernandes, J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    In many organisms muscle formation depends on specialized cells that prefigure the pattern of the musculature and serve as templates for myoblast organization and fusion. These include muscle pioneers in insects and muscle organizing cells in leech. In Drosophila, muscle founder cells have been proposed to play a similar role in organizing larval muscle development during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, following histolysis of most of the larval musculature, there is a second round of myogenesis that gives rise to the adult muscles. It is not known whether muscle founder cells organize the development of these muscles. However, in the thorax specific larval muscle fibers do not histolyze at the onset of metamorphosis, but instead serve as templates for the formation of a subset of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Because these persistent larval muscle fibers appear to be functioning in many respects like muscle founder cells, we investigated whether they were necessary for DLM development by using a microbeam laser to ablate them singly and in combination. We found that, in the absence of the larval muscle fibers, DLMs nonetheless develop. Our results show that the persistent larval muscle fibers are not required to initiate myoblast fusion, to determine DLM identity, to locate the DLMs in the thorax, or to specify the total DLM fiber volume. However, they are required to regulate the number of DLM fibers generated. Thus, while the persistent larval muscle fibers are not obligatory for DLM fiber formation and differentiation, they are necessary to ensure the development of the correct number of fibers.

  18. Roles of long-range electrostatic domain interactions and K+ in phosphoenzyme transition of Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Kazuo; Daiho, Takashi; Danko, Stefania; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2013-07-12

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase couples the motions and rearrangements of three cytoplasmic domains (A, P, and N) with Ca(2+) transport. We explored the role of electrostatic force in the domain dynamics in a rate-limiting phosphoenzyme (EP) transition by a systematic approach combining electrostatic screening with salts, computer analysis of electric fields in crystal structures, and mutations. Low KCl concentration activated and increasing salt above 0.1 m inhibited the EP transition. A plot of the logarithm of the transition rate versus the square of the mean activity coefficient of the protein gave a linear relationship allowing division of the activation energy into an electrostatic component and a non-electrostatic component in which the screenable electrostatic forces are shielded by salt. Results show that the structural change in the transition is sterically restricted, but that strong electrostatic forces, when K(+) is specifically bound at the P domain, come into play to accelerate the reaction. Electric field analysis revealed long-range electrostatic interactions between the N and P domains around their hinge. Mutations of the residues directly involved and other charged residues at the hinge disrupted in parallel the electric field and the structural transition. Favorable electrostatics evidently provides a low energy path for the critical N domain motion toward the P domain, overcoming steric restriction. The systematic approach employed here is, in general, a powerful tool for understanding the structural mechanisms of enzymes.

  19. The Role of Healthcare Providers and Caregivers in Educating Older Adults about Foodborne Illness Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlgenant, Kelly C.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Godwin, Sandria L.; Speller-Henderson, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Adults aged 60 or older are more likely than younger adults to experience severe complications or even death as a result of foodborne infections. This study investigated which specific groups of healthcare providers or other caregivers are most receptive to providing food safety information to older adults. Telephone-based focus groups were…

  20. Four Lay-of-the-Land Papers on the Federal Role in Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLendon, Lennox L.; Murphy, Garrett W.; Parker, James

    2006-01-01

    The four papers in this series were commissioned for the first meeting of the National Commission on Adult Literacy, which met in Nashville on November 14, 2006. The first paper, "Adult Education and Literacy Legislation and Its Effects on the Field," provides the basic provisions of the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA,…