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Sample records for adult role transitions

  1. 'Everybody's business': transition and the role of adult physicians.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Helena; McCartney, Sara; Lidstone, Victoria

    2012-12-01

    The outcome of transition from paediatric to adult care is often judged by what happens after transfer. Young people at the point of transfer are reported to have low levels of knowledge and independence. These observations could be interpreted in one of two ways: either that the transition process before transfer is inadequate or that the transition process needs to continue into young adulthood and therefore adult care. The second interpretation is further supported by brain development continuing into the third decade. There is also growing evidence for the effectiveness of young adult clinics in the process of transition. To optimise transition, adult physicians need not only to work with paediatricians to achieve continuity during transfer, but also to look critically at their service as to how it can be changed to meet the needs of young people. In addition, they need to develop knowledge, skills and attitudes to communicate effectively and address a young person's developmental and health needs.

  2. Adolescents' Changing Future Expectations Predict the Timing of Adult Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Sarah J.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Peugh, James

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the transition to adulthood are well established. This study examines the extent to which heterogeneity in pathways to adulthood that have been observed in the broader U.S. population are mirrored in adolescents' expectations regarding when they will experience key adult role transitions (e.g., marriage). Patterns of…

  3. The neurologist's role in supporting transition to adult health care: A consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence W; Camfield, Peter; Capers, Melissa; Cascino, Greg; Ciccarelli, Mary; de Gusmao, Claudio M; Downs, Stephen M; Majnemer, Annette; Miller, Amy Brin; SanInocencio, Christina; Schultz, Rebecca; Tilton, Anne; Winokur, Annick; Zupanc, Mary

    2016-08-23

    The child neurologist has a critical role in planning and coordinating the successful transition from the pediatric to adult health care system for youth with neurologic conditions. Leadership in appropriately planning a youth's transition and in care coordination among health care, educational, vocational, and community services providers may assist in preventing gaps in care, delayed entry into the adult care system, and/or health crises for their adolescent patients. Youth whose neurologic conditions result in cognitive or physical disability and their families may need additional support during this transition, given the legal and financial considerations that may be required. Eight common principles that define the child neurologist's role in a successful transition process have been outlined by a multidisciplinary panel convened by the Child Neurology Foundation are introduced and described. The authors of this consensus statement recognize the current paucity of evidence for successful transition models and outline areas for future consideration. PMID:27466477

  4. The Life Course in the Making: Gender and the Development of Adolescents' Expected Timing of Adult Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Lisa J.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' expectations about the timing of adult role transitions have the potential to shape their actual transitions, setting the stage for their adult lives. Although expectations about timing emerge by early adolescence, little is known about how these expectations develop across adolescence. This longitudinal study examined developmental…

  5. Transition from pediatric to adult care in sickle cell disease: perspectives on the family role.

    PubMed

    Porter, Jerlym S; Graff, J Carolyn; Lopez, Alana D; Hankins, Jane S

    2014-01-01

    Transition from pediatric to adult care poses challenges for adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). This study explored the transition perspectives of adolescents with SCD, their siblings, and caregivers. Focus groups were conducted with 12 African American families. Adolescents, siblings, and caregivers demonstrated awareness of transition and need for disease management responsibility. Siblings' and caregivers' concerns included adolescent medication adherence. Family concerns included leaving the pediatric environment and adult providers' lack of knowledge. Families recommended more transition preparation opportunities. Family members' perspectives are valuable in informing transition planning. Family-focused interventions designed to prepare and support families during transition are necessary.

  6. The Relationship Between the Accumulated Number of Role Transitions and Hard Drug Use among Hispanic Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) who experience multiple role transitions in a short period of time may engage in hard drug use as a maladaptive coping strategy to avoid negative emotions from stress. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, they may experience additional role transitions due to their group-oriented cultural paradigm. This study examined whether those who experience many role transitions are at greater risk for hard drug use compared to those who experience few transitions among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants completed surveys indicating their hard drug use in emerging adulthood, role transitions in the past year of emerging adulthood, age, gender, and hard drug use in high school. Simulation analyses indicated that an increase in the number of role transitions, from 0 to 13, was associated with a 14% (95% CI, 4 to 29) higher probability of hard drug use. Specific role transitions were found to be associated with hard drug use, such as starting to date or experiencing a breakup. Intervention/prevention programs may benefit from acknowledging individual reactions to transitions in emerging adulthood, as these processes may be catalysts for personal growth where identities are consolidated and decisions regarding hard drug use are formed.

  7. The Relationship Between the Accumulated Number of Role Transitions and Hard Drug Use Among Hispanic Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Unger, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) who experience multiple role transitions in a short period of time may engage in hard drug use as a maladaptive coping strategy to avoid negative emotions from stress. Given the collectivistic values Hispanics encounter growing up, they may experience additional role transitions due to their group oriented cultural paradigm. This study examined whether those who experience many role transitions are at greater risk for hard drug use compared to those who experience few transitions among Hispanic emerging adults. Participants completed surveys indicating their hard drug use in emerging adulthood, role transitions in the past year of emerging adulthood, age, gender, and hard drug use in high school. Simulation analyses indicated that an increase in the number of role transitions, from 0 to 13, was associated with a 14% (95% CI, 4 to 29) higher probability of hard drug use. Specific role transitions were found to be associated with hard drug use, such as starting to date or experiencing a breakup. Intervention/prevention programs may benefit from acknowledging individual reactions to transitions in emerging adulthood, as these processes may be catalysts for personal growth where identities are consolidated, and decisions regarding hard drug use are formed. PMID:25715073

  8. Youths Transitioning as Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, C. Amelia

    2014-01-01

    This chapter considers how transitions to adulthood have been historically represented and presents alternative ways of thinking about transitions to adulthood through the context of adult basic education programs.

  9. ROLE TRANSITION IN CAREER DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOMENT, DAVID

    ROLE TRANSITIONS IN ADULT CAREER DEVELOPMENT IS PRESENTED IN TERMS OF THE TECHNICAL, SOCIAL, AND DIRECTIVE ROLE ELEMENTS FOUND IN TWO STUDIES OF MANAGERIAL BEHAVIOR AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT. THE INDIVIDUAL'S LIFE SPACE IS THE BASIC FORMULATION OF THIS IDEA. THAT IS, MAJOR CHANGES IN THE CONFIGURATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL'S INTERPERSONAL NETWORK…

  10. Tree Changes or Wholesale Changes: The Role of Adult Education in Transitions in Regional Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Robert; Delves, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Regional adult education and training providers have been required in recent decades to adapt to funding structures rather than engage with their local communities. This has meant providing education programs that are funded based on national or State and Territory based policy frameworks, often linked to human capital development. Adult education…

  11. Immigration and adult transitions.

    PubMed

    Rumbaut, Rubén G; Komaie, Golnaz

    2010-01-01

    Almost 30 percent of the more than 68 million young adults aged eighteen to thirty-four in the United States today are either foreign born or of foreign parentage. As these newcomers make their transitions to adulthood, say Rubén Rumbaut and Golnaz Komaie, they differ significantly not only from one another but also from their native-parentage counterparts, including blacks and whites. The authors document the demographic changes in the United States over the past forty years and describe the ways in which generation and national origin shape the experiences of these newcomers as they become adults. Rumbaut and Komaie point out that immigrant groups experience gaps in social, economic, and legal status that are even greater than the gaps between native whites and blacks. By far the most-educated (Indians) and the least-educated (Mexicans) groups in the United States today are first-generation immigrants, as are the groups with the lowest poverty rate (Filipinos) and the highest poverty rate (Dominicans). These social and economic divides reflect three very different ways immigrants enter the country: through regular immigration channels, without legal authorization, or as state-sponsored refugees. For many ethnic groups, significant progress takes place from the first to the second generation. But, say the authors, for millions of young immigrants, a lack of legal permanent residency status blocks their prospects for social mobility. Having an undocumented status has become all the more consequential with the failure of Congress to pass comprehensive federal immigration reforms. In the coming two decades, as the U.S. native-parentage labor force continues to shrink, immigrants and their children are expected to account for most of the growth of the nation's labor force, with the fastest-growing occupations requiring college degrees. Rumbaut and Komaie stress that one key to the nation's future will be how it incorporates young adults of immigrant origin in its

  12. Adult Transition Program without Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Best practices in adult transition special education for moderate to severe students suggest student-centered planning that maximizes independence in adult life. Based on the above sources, school districts and governing boards would best serve moderate to severe transition special education students with increasing integration into the community…

  13. The Role of the Community in Transition to the Adult World for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Community activities can be an important part of the transition to adulthood, but many students with disabilities miss those experiences because they are not offered in their community or high school. This lack of opportunities in schools may account for the discrepancy that is found after high school graduation between the employment rates of…

  14. Social class and body weight among Chinese urban adults: the role of the middle classes in the nutrition transition.

    PubMed

    Bonnefond, Céline; Clément, Matthieu

    2014-07-01

    While a plethoric empirical literature addresses the relationship between socio-economic status and body weight, little is known about the influence of social class on nutritional outcomes, particularly in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the social determinants of adult body weight in urban China by taking into account the influence of social class. More specifically, we propose to analyse the position of the Chinese urban middle class in terms of being overweight or obese. The empirical investigations conducted as part of this research are based on a sample of 1320 households and 2841 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 2009. For the first step, we combine an economic approach and a sociological approach to identify social classes at household level. First, households with an annual per capita income between 10,000 Yuan and the 95th income percentile are considered as members of the middle class. Second, we strengthen the characterization of the middle class using information on education and employment. By applying clustering methods, we identify four groups: the elderly and inactive middle class, the old middle class, the lower middle class and the new middle class. For the second step, we implement an econometric analysis to assess the influence of social class on adult body mass index and on the probability of being overweight or obese. We use multinomial treatment regressions to deal with the endogeneity of the social class variable. Our results show that among the four subgroups of the urban middle class, the new middle class is the only one to be relatively well-protected against obesity. We suggest that this group plays a special role in adopting healthier food consumption habits and seems to be at a more advanced stage of the nutrition transition.

  15. Role of Physical Therapists in Reducing Hospital Readmissions: Optimizing Outcomes for Older Adults During Care Transitions From Hospital to Community.

    PubMed

    Falvey, Jason R; Burke, Robert E; Malone, Daniel; Ridgeway, Kyle J; McManus, Beth M; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E

    2016-08-01

    Hospital readmissions in older adult populations are an emerging quality indicator for acute care hospitals. Recent evidence has linked functional decline during and after hospitalization with an elevated risk of hospital readmission. However, models of care that have been developed to reduce hospital readmission rates do not adequately address functional deficits. Physical therapists, as experts in optimizing physical function, have a strong opportunity to contribute meaningfully to care transition models and demonstrate the value of physical therapy interventions in reducing readmissions. Thus, the purposes of this perspective article are: (1) to describe the need for physical therapist input during care transitions for older adults and (2) to outline strategies for expanding physical therapy participation in care transitions for older adults, with an overall goal of reducing avoidable 30-day hospital readmissions. PMID:26939601

  16. Role of Physical Therapists in Reducing Hospital Readmissions: Optimizing Outcomes for Older Adults During Care Transitions From Hospital to Community.

    PubMed

    Falvey, Jason R; Burke, Robert E; Malone, Daniel; Ridgeway, Kyle J; McManus, Beth M; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E

    2016-08-01

    Hospital readmissions in older adult populations are an emerging quality indicator for acute care hospitals. Recent evidence has linked functional decline during and after hospitalization with an elevated risk of hospital readmission. However, models of care that have been developed to reduce hospital readmission rates do not adequately address functional deficits. Physical therapists, as experts in optimizing physical function, have a strong opportunity to contribute meaningfully to care transition models and demonstrate the value of physical therapy interventions in reducing readmissions. Thus, the purposes of this perspective article are: (1) to describe the need for physical therapist input during care transitions for older adults and (2) to outline strategies for expanding physical therapy participation in care transitions for older adults, with an overall goal of reducing avoidable 30-day hospital readmissions.

  17. ADULTS IN TRANSITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHLOSSBERG, NANCY K.

    THERE IS A LACK OF THEORY AND EMPIRICAL KNOWLEDGE CONCERNING ADULT DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN THE AGES OF 30 TO 60. THE POSTULATE THAT THIS PERIOD IS CHARACTERIZED BY STABILITY IS QUESTIONED. EXPLORATION TAKES PLACE ALL THROUGH LIFE. ITS QUALITY AND FOCUS MIGHT CHANGE, BUT THE PROCESS IS THE SAME. DEVELOPMENTAL MODELS COULD PROVIDE A MORE COMPREHENSIVE…

  18. Adults Role in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  19. Role Transitions and Young Adult Maturing Out of Heavy Drinking: Evidence for Larger Effects of Marriage among More Severe Pre-Marriage Problem Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew R.; Chassin, Laurie; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown a developmental process of “maturing out” of problem drinking beginning in young adulthood. Perhaps surprisingly, past studies suggests that young adult drinking reductions may be particularly pronounced among those exhibiting relatively severe forms of problem drinking earlier in emerging adulthood. This may occur because more severe problem drinkers experience stronger ameliorative effects of normative young adult role transitions like marriage. Methods The hypothesis of stronger marriage effects among more severe problem drinkers was tested using three waves of data from a large ongoing study of familial alcohol disorder (Chassin et al., 1992; N=844; 51% children of alcoholics). Results Longitudinal growth models characterized (1) the curvilinear trajectory of drinking quantity from ages 17-40, (2) effects of marriage on altering this age-related trajectory, and moderation of this effect by pre-marriage problem drinking levels (alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms). Results confirmed the hypothesis that protective marriage effects on drinking quantity trajectories would be stronger among more severe pre-marriage problem drinkers. Supplemental analyses showed that results were robust to alternative construct operationalizations and modeling approaches. Conclusions Consistent with role incompatibility theory, findings support the view of role conflict as a key mechanism of role-driven behavior change, as greater problem drinking likely conflicts more with demands of roles like marriage. This is also consistent with the developmental psychopathology view of transitions and turning points. Role transitions among already low-severity drinkers may merely represent developmental continuity of a low-risk trajectory, whereas role transitions among higher-severity problem drinkers may represent developmentally discontinuous “turning points” that divert individuals from a higher- to a lower-risk trajectory. Practically

  20. Cytoskeletal role in the transition from compensated to decompensated hypertrophy during adult canine left ventricular pressure overloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tagawa, H.; Koide, M.; Sato, H.; Zile, M. R.; Carabello, B. A.; Cooper, G. 4th

    1998-01-01

    Increased microtubule density causes cardiocyte contractile dysfunction in right ventricular (RV) pressure-overload hypertrophy, and these linked phenotypic and contractile abnormalities persist and progress during the transition to failure. Although more severe in cells from failing than hypertrophied RVs, the mechanical defects are normalized in each case by microtubule depolymerization. To define the role of increased microtubule density in left ventricular (LV) pressure-overload hypertrophy and failure, in a given LV we examined ventricular mechanics, sarcomere mechanics, and free tubulin and microtubule levels in control dogs and in dogs with aortic stenosis both with LV hypertrophy alone and with initially compensated hypertrophy that had progressed to LV muscle failure. In comparing initial values with those at study 8 weeks later, dogs with hypertrophy alone had a very substantial increase in LV mass but preservation of a normal ejection fraction and mean systolic wall stress. Dogs with hypertrophy and associated failure had a substantial but lesser increase in LV mass and a reduction in ejection fraction, as well as a marked increase in mean systolic wall stress. Cardiocyte contractile function was equivalent, and unaffected by microtubule depolymerization, in cells from control LVs and those with compensated hypertrophy. In contrast, cardiocyte contractile function in cells from failing LVs was quite depressed but was normalized by microtubule depolymerization. Microtubules were increased only in failing LVs. These contractile and cytoskeletal changes, when assayed longitudinally in a given dog by biopsy, appeared in failing ventricles only when wall stress began to increase and function began to decrease. Thus, the microtubule-based cardiocyte contractile dysfunction characteristic of pressure-hypertrophied myocardium, originally described in the RV, obtains equally in the LV but is shown here to have a specific association with increased wall stress.

  1. Noncredit to Credit Transitions: The Role of Cultural Capital and Habitus for Adult Immigrant Learners in the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Liza A.

    2010-01-01

    Adults who immigrate to the United States recognize the value of fluency in the dominant language as a bridge to social mobility in their new homeland. In California, many of them invest time and energy in noncredit English as a Second Language (ESL) programs offered within the community college system to gain communicative competence and enhance…

  2. Parental Divorce and Couples' Adjustment during the Transition to Parenthood: The Role of Parent-Adult Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Genevieve; Doucet, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the associations between parental divorce, quality of relationships with parents, and dyadic adjustment during transition of 114 couples to parenthood. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 9 months postpartum. As predicted, the authors found that women from divorced families…

  3. Nursing Role Transition Preceptorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batory, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The preceptorship clinical experience in a practical nursing (PN) program at a Midwestern community college is considered crucial to the PN students' transition from novice nurse to professional nurse. However, no research has been available to determine whether the preceptorship clinical accomplishes its purpose. A case study was conducted to…

  4. Youth in Transition: Are They Adult Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Lester H.; Conti, Gary J.; Shaw, Brenda S.

    2013-01-01

    Since at-risk youth are in transition to adulthood, major adult learning concepts can be applied to them. The purpose of this study was to describe the learning strategies of youth in transition to adulthood in the urban life skills program of A Pocket Full of Hope®. Both qualitative and quantitative data collecting methods were used. Assessing…

  5. Counseling Adults for Life Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.; Benjamin, Libby

    Adult counseling is assuming increasing importance in counselor education and training. Most important is the developmental aspect of growth all through life, since adulthood is not a static period but can be as fraught with conflict and choice as childhood or adolescence. Outlines describe some important differences between young people and…

  6. Transitions in nursing leadership roles.

    PubMed

    Jobes, M; Steinbinder, A

    1996-01-01

    Today's turbulent, chaotic health care environment necessitates dramatic changes in the roles of nurse executives. These role changes are rapidly being cast upon individuals who are pressured to react, accept, and adapt quickly. Previously successful leadership styles no longer serve nurse executives as they assume nonoperational roles without line authority and power. No prescriptive strategies will be effective to assist nurse leaders in their new roles. One nurse executive's story of her own journey will be shared to illustrate how she is creating a successful transition.

  7. The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…

  8. Jasmonate regulates juvenile-to-adult phase transition in rice.

    PubMed

    Hibara, Ken-Ichiro; Isono, Miyako; Mimura, Manaki; Sentoku, Naoki; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitomi, Yuka; Yoshikawa, Takanori; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nagato, Yasuo

    2016-09-15

    Juvenile-to-adult phase transition is an important shift for the acquisition of adult vegetative characteristics and subsequent reproductive competence. We identified a recessive precocious (pre) mutant exhibiting a long leaf phenotype in rice. The long leaf phenotype is conspicuous in the second to the fourth leaves, which are juvenile and juvenile-to-adult transition leaves. We found that morphological and physiological traits, such as midrib formation, shoot meristem size, photosynthetic rate and plastochron, in juvenile and juvenile-to-adult transition stages of the pre mutant have precociously acquired adult characteristics. In agreement with these results, expression patterns of miR156 and miR172, which are microRNAs regulating phase change, support the accelerated juvenile-to-adult phase change in the pre mutant. The mutated gene encodes an allene oxide synthase (OsAOS1), which is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid (JA). The pre mutant showed a low level of JA and enhanced sensitivity to gibberellic acid, which promotes the phase change in some plant species. We also show that prolonged plastochron in the pre mutant is caused by accelerated PLASTOCHRON1 (PLA1) function. The present study reveals a substantial role of JA as a negative regulator of vegetative phase change. PMID:27578792

  9. Transitions: Issues for the Adult Learner with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Belinda, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue of "Linkages" addresses the need for adult literacy programs to go beyond teaching basic academic skills to adults with learning disabilities to teaching skills in goal setting, problem solving, and self-advocacy that will assist adult learners in their transition into the workforce. Articles include: "Transition: Adult Literacy and…

  10. Transformative Learning in Managerial Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of learning in work role transitions from specialist roles to managerial roles in a context of a large international technology organisation. Prior theorisation of learning in role transitions has been based on quantitative, psychologically-oriented studies prescribing different role and…

  11. The early adult transition and friendships: mechanisms of support.

    PubMed

    Tokuno, K A

    1986-01-01

    The early adult transition is a neglected but increasingly important stage in the human life cycle. Research indicates that friends are a primary choice of support for young adults faced with developmental tasks such as choice of careers, consolidation of personal identity, and formation of long-term intimate relationships. This study sought to describe and categorize the specific processes by which friends serve to influence the emerging life structures of early adulthood. Five categories were developed from open-ended interviews of 34 young adults ranging from 20 to 28 years of age. These categories describe friends in the roles of models, active agents for change, reactors, interactors, and passive influences. Further specificity is gained through the descriptions of 13 subcategories. Implications of preliminary findings using these categories are discussed. PMID:3812066

  12. Adult Children of Dysfunctional Families: Childhood Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Stephen J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used retrospective accounts to compare adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), adults who experienced stressful events in childhood not involving parental alcoholism (A-D+), and adults with no reported dysfunction in family of origin (A-D-) with regard to dysfunctional roles adopted as children. Dysfunctional role adoption was more frequent in ACOA…

  13. Transition Planning Guide: From School to Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandra Jespersen

    The guide is intended to assist disabled students, their families, and professionals working with them to become familiar with the variety of adult services available and to create a systematic plan for transition from school to adult life. The first section considers the logistics of transition planning and includes a description of the planning…

  14. Transitioning Adult Education Students into Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpherys, Bryce Ralph

    2012-01-01

    At both a national and state level there is a growing need for skilled workers in the labor force. Educating low skilled adults is one way to address this need. Adult education programs teach low skilled adults basic academic skills to prepare them for work and life in U.S. society. Until recently little attention was paid to transitioning…

  15. The Chancellor's Role in a Presidential Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, James R.; Dorsey, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Successful transitions involving a formal role for the former president, such as chancellor, are rare enough that the authors think theirs is an exceptional experience and is worth sharing, especially given the bulge of presidential retirements anticipated over the next decade. The authors believe that this model of transition can be successful,…

  16. Literacy Development and Language Expression for Adult Learners in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrotta, Clarena; Moon, Ji Yoon Christine

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides examples of transitions that learners face connected to their participation in adult education and English literacy instruction. It describes their efforts to attain relevant language expression skills.

  17. Transition to Adult-Oriented Health Care: Perspectives of Youth and Adults with Complex Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Nancy L.; Barden, Wendy S.; Mills, Wendy A.; Burke, Tricia A.; Law, Mary; Boydell, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The transition to adulthood is extremely difficult for individuals with disabilities. We sought to explore the specific issue of transition to adult-oriented health care in a Canadian context. Methods: We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 15 youth and 15 adults with cerebral palsy, spina bifida, and acquired brain…

  18. Older Adult Women Learners in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Alice

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the potential for personal growth, development, and learning of older adult women who will have many productive years in the workforce. What implications are there for adult education communities who will interact with these older women? How do they adapt to the educational environment, and what social support will enable…

  19. Epilepsy: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult care

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Seetha; Iyer, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of rapid change, both physical and psychosocial for any young person. It can be challenging when they have ongoing health problems and when their care needs to be transitioned to the adult health care system. Transition should be a planned process of addressing the medical and associated comorbid conditions from pediatric to adult care in a coordinated manner. In most cases, the young person and their family are well known to the pediatrics services and have built a relationship based on trust and often friendship over many years. Understandably, there is significant apprehension about moving from this familiar setting to the unknown adult services. Apart from having a sound knowledge of specific childhood epileptic conditions and associated comorbid disorders, it is important that both the pediatric and adult epilepsy teams are motivated to provide a successful and safe transition for these patients. It is essential that transition is seen as a continual process and not as a single event, and good preparation is the key to its success. It is also important that general practitioners are closely engaged to ensure successful transition. An overview of how to effectively address transition in epilepsy, different models of transition, transition of relevant epilepsies, and their management is discussed. PMID:27390536

  20. Epilepsy: addressing the transition from pediatric to adult care.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Seetha; Iyer, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of rapid change, both physical and psychosocial for any young person. It can be challenging when they have ongoing health problems and when their care needs to be transitioned to the adult health care system. Transition should be a planned process of addressing the medical and associated comorbid conditions from pediatric to adult care in a coordinated manner. In most cases, the young person and their family are well known to the pediatrics services and have built a relationship based on trust and often friendship over many years. Understandably, there is significant apprehension about moving from this familiar setting to the unknown adult services. Apart from having a sound knowledge of specific childhood epileptic conditions and associated comorbid disorders, it is important that both the pediatric and adult epilepsy teams are motivated to provide a successful and safe transition for these patients. It is essential that transition is seen as a continual process and not as a single event, and good preparation is the key to its success. It is also important that general practitioners are closely engaged to ensure successful transition. An overview of how to effectively address transition in epilepsy, different models of transition, transition of relevant epilepsies, and their management is discussed. PMID:27390536

  1. Transition from Pediatric to Adult OI Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... what OI is and the medical and life style issues involved. • Being comfortable speaking directly to doctors ... the adult years especially if there is good communication between the center and the hometown primary care ...

  2. Transitioning adolescents and young adults with a chronic health condition to adult healthcare - an exemplar program.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann Rauen, Karen; Sawin, Kathleen J; Bartelt, Tera; Waring, William P; Orr, Merle; Corey O'Connor, R

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric specialists have successfully improved the longevity and quality of life of many children with chronic health conditions. As these children reach adolescence and young adulthood, the scope of their concomitant medical problems often include those typically seen in older patients. As a result, these individuals need continuing quality health care in focused adult healthcare facilities. This article describes the effective partnership between pediatric and adult healthcare providers to create and implement an exemplar Spina Bifida Transition Program. The processes, strategies and tools discussed are likely to be useful to other healthcare professionals interested in developing pediatric to adult transition programs for adolescents and young adults with chronic health conditions.

  3. The Role of Higher Education in Their Life: Emerging Adults on the Crossroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Shu-Chen; Hawley, Josh

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the experience of younger, so called "emerging" adults, as they transition to full-time work, focusing specifically on the role of education in this process. When leaving their family-of-origin, emerging adults re-center themselves to settle down in permanent identity and different role commitments. Our findings show…

  4. Policy to Performance: State ABE Transition Systems Report. Transitioning Adults to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamprese, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Policy to Performance project was funded in 2009 to build the capacity of state adult basic education (ABE) staff to develop and implement policies and practices that would support an ABE transition system. Policy to Performance states were selected though a competitive process. State adult education…

  5. Transitioning to Adulthood: How Do Young Adults Fare and What Characteristics Are Associated with a Lower-Risk Transition? Research Brief. Publication #2014-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzian, Mary A.; Moore, Kristin A.; Constance, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Youth must navigate various developmental tasks as they transition to adulthood, and during this period of "emerging adulthood," young people explore roles and relationships before committing to the ones they will fill as adults. This brief seeks to identify patterns and transitions during emerging adulthood to obtain a better…

  6. Young Adults With Headaches: The Transition From Adolescents to Adults.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Hope L; Cohen, Joshua M

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a common condition that for many begins in childhood and may progress over the course of one's life. The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a critical time for those who suffer from migraine and can be marked by a variety of important considerations for the patient and practitioner. Medication choices may be a challenge during adolescent years as Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved options are few and many more studies are needed to understand the benefits and risks of use of these agents in adolescents. However, as patients transition to adulthood, FDA approved options and the level of evidence improve significantly. Late adolescents may also struggle with a variety of psychiatric comorbidities that may simultaneously create challenges in determining treatment but also open opportunities to manage multiple comorbidities and address underlying depression, anxiety, and behavioral issues. For late adolescent girls, the beginning of sexual activity, onset of gynecologic conditions, or presence of irregular or painful menses may raise questions regarding the use of oral contraceptives (OCs). Given data on the risks of these medications in women with migraine, especially those with aura or those who smoke, important conversations between physicians and their migraine patients can help risk stratify and determine the risk/benefit profile for the potential use of these agents. Much more data are needed to fully understand the transition from adolescence to adulthood for those suffering with migraine and this article seeks to shed light on the limited understanding currently available in established literature. PMID:26518150

  7. Residential Transitions among Adults with Intellectual Disability across 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses critical gaps in the literature by examining residential transitions among 303 adults with intellectual disability over 10 years (Part 1) and 75 adults with Down syndrome over 20 years (Part 2). All adults lived at home at the start of the study, but many moved to a variety of settings. Several characteristics of the adults with intellectual disability differed across settings, most notably adaptive behavior and the number of residential transitions, while characteristics such as age, type of disability, and behavior problems were less predictive of residential placements. The number of moves over the course of the study varied widely, with critical links to earlier family dynamics, social relationships, and health and adaptive behavior. PMID:25354121

  8. Personal growth in adults' stories of life transitions.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P

    2004-06-01

    Abstract This study identified four themes of personal growth (integrative, intrinsic, agentic, and communal) in adults' stories of life transitions in careers and religions. Specific themes were expected to relate differentially to two forms of personality development (social-cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being) and to transition satisfaction. Integrative themes correlated primarily with social-cognitive maturity (ego development; Loevinger, 1976), whereas intrinsic themes correlated primarily with social-emotional well-being. Agentic-growth themes correlated primarily with transition satisfaction, whereas communal-growth themes correlated primarily with global well-being. Themes of agentic and communal growth also differentiated the two types of transitions studied-changes in careers and changes in religions-in ways that both supported and contradicted traditional notions of those transitions. We discuss these findings in terms of narrative meaning making, the mature and happy person, and intentional self-development via life transitions. PMID:15102039

  9. Transitions from Pediatric to Adult Care: Programs and Resources.

    PubMed

    Schlucter, Juliette; Dokken, Deborah; Ahmann, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This third article in a series on the critical issue of the transition from pediatric to adult care for young adults with complex chronic conditions offers resources, including information about exemplary programs, to pediatric nurses. Three hospital-based programs are highlighted, four key Internet resources are identified, and five relevant articles are annotated. This information can support pediatric nurses in considering transition support options for individual teens and their families as well as in developing resources and designing programs in their own settings.

  10. Outcomes and patients’ perspectives of transition from paediatric to adult care in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Alice L; Moore, David; Bampton, Peter A; Bryant, Robert V; Andrews, Jane M

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the disease and psychosocial outcomes of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) transition cohort and their perspectives. METHODS: Patients with IBD, aged > 18 years, who had moved from paediatric to adult care within 10 years were identified through IBD databases at three tertiary hospitals. Participants were surveyed regarding demographic and disease specific data and their perspectives on the transition process. Survey response data were compared to contemporaneously recorded information in paediatric service case notes. Data were compared to a similar age cohort who had never received paediatric IBD care and therefore who had not undergone a transition process. RESULTS: There were 81 returned surveys from 46 transition and 35 non-transition patients. No statistically significant differences were found in disease burden, disease outcomes or adult roles and responsibilities between cohorts. Despite a high prevalence of mood disturbance (35%), there was a very low usage (5%) of psychological services in both cohorts. In the transition cohort, knowledge of their transition plan was reported by only 25/46 patients and the majority (54%) felt they were not strongly prepared. A high rate (78%) of discussion about work/study plans was recorded prior to transition, but a near complete absence of discussion regarding sex (8%), and other adult issues was recorded. Both cohorts agreed that their preferred method of future transition practices (of the options offered) was a shared clinic appointment with all key stakeholders. CONCLUSION: Transition did not appear to adversely affect disease or psychosocial outcomes. Current transition care processes could be optimised, with better psychosocial preparation and agreed transition plans. PMID:26937149

  11. Parents' Role in Transition for Handicapped Youth. Overview. ERIC Digest No. 62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Parents have a major influence on their children's attitudes toward work and life. Handicapped youth, who have more difficulty than other youth in making the transition from school to work and adult life, have a special need for parental guidance. Parents can play key roles in transition, especially in the areas of career exploration, job search…

  12. Perspectives of young adults with cerebral palsy on transitioning from pediatric to adult healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Larivière-Bastien, Danaë; Bell, Emily; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Racine, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Transition from pediatric to adult healthcare is a well-established challenge for individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders like cerebral palsy. With regard to ethics, some of the key aspects to explore include the following: if and how individuals feel respected during the transition process; if and how their values and preferences are developed and integrated within transition; and if and how young patients are prepared to participate in decision making (to be autonomous) within the transition. We carried out a qualitative study on 14 young adults with cerebral palsy. Some participants reported positive experiences. However, several tension points were identified, including before the transition (eg, transition envisaged with fear and apprehension); during the transition (eg, lack of cooperation or communication between providers in the pediatric and adult healthcare systems); and after the transition (eg, feelings of abandonment). We discuss the clinical influence and ethical significance of better capturing ethical values within the transition process and preparing young individuals to engage in discussions about their health and disease management. PMID:23948690

  13. Adults in Career Transition. Overview: ERIC Fact Sheet No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denniston, Denie; Imel, Susan

    Changing careers during adulthood has been recognized only recently as a natural part of the development of adult life. A study estimated that 36 percent of all Americans are in some stage of the career transition process. Career changes are becoming increasingly common for women, for workers whose skills have become obsolete, for individuals…

  14. Adult Attitudes about School Counselor Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yockey, Karen S.

    In a time of financial difficulties for schools, few counselors use accountability practices--practices which are necessary in order to justify the expense of school counseling and guidance programs. This descriptive study examines opinions of adults about school counselors. Following a review of literature concerning the role of the counselor, a…

  15. Theory to reality: the role of the transition nurse coordinator.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Debbie

    Transition from children's to adult services has long been recognised as challenging. Yet many young people and their families continue to have poor experiences, with a lack of collaboration and communication between the different agencies involved in the transition process. This article highlights the complexities of transition and how it is addressed for young people with complex health needs in Hertfordshire with a dedicated transition nurse coordinator providing support for the young people on the caseload; bridging the gaps between children's and adult services; and providing continuity until the young person is established in adult services.

  16. The role of cannabinoids in adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Prenderville, Jack A; Kelly, Áine M; Downer, Eric J

    2015-08-01

    The processes underpinning post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain continue to be defined. Such processes involve the proliferation of neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells (NPCs), neuronal migration, differentiation and integration into a network of functional synapses within the brain. Both intrinsic (cell signalling cascades) and extrinsic (neurotrophins, neurotransmitters, cytokines, hormones) signalling molecules are intimately associated with adult neurogenesis and largely dictate the proliferative activity and differentiation capacity of neural cells. Cannabinoids are a unique class of chemical compounds incorporating plant-derived cannabinoids (the active components of Cannabis sativa), the endogenous cannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoid ligands, and these compounds are becoming increasingly recognized for their roles in neural developmental processes. Indeed, cannabinoids have clear modulatory roles in adult neurogenesis, probably through activation of both CB1 and CB2 receptors. In recent years, a large body of literature has deciphered the signalling networks involved in cannabinoid-mediated regulation of neurogenesis. This timely review summarizes the evidence that the cannabinoid system is intricately associated with neuronal differentiation and maturation of NPCs and highlights intrinsic/extrinsic signalling mechanisms that are cannabinoid targets. Overall, these findings identify the central role of the cannabinoid system in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and the lateral ventricles and hence provide insight into the processes underlying post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain.

  17. The role of cannabinoids in adult neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Prenderville, Jack A; Kelly, Áine M; Downer, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    The processes underpinning post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain continue to be defined. Such processes involve the proliferation of neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells (NPCs), neuronal migration, differentiation and integration into a network of functional synapses within the brain. Both intrinsic (cell signalling cascades) and extrinsic (neurotrophins, neurotransmitters, cytokines, hormones) signalling molecules are intimately associated with adult neurogenesis and largely dictate the proliferative activity and differentiation capacity of neural cells. Cannabinoids are a unique class of chemical compounds incorporating plant-derived cannabinoids (the active components of Cannabis sativa), the endogenous cannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoid ligands, and these compounds are becoming increasingly recognized for their roles in neural developmental processes. Indeed, cannabinoids have clear modulatory roles in adult neurogenesis, probably through activation of both CB1 and CB2 receptors. In recent years, a large body of literature has deciphered the signalling networks involved in cannabinoid-mediated regulation of neurogenesis. This timely review summarizes the evidence that the cannabinoid system is intricately associated with neuronal differentiation and maturation of NPCs and highlights intrinsic/extrinsic signalling mechanisms that are cannabinoid targets. Overall, these findings identify the central role of the cannabinoid system in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and the lateral ventricles and hence provide insight into the processes underlying post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. PMID:25951750

  18. Adult Social Roles and Alcohol Use among American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kaylin M.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-01-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  19. Counseling Issues for Adult Women in Career Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronzio, Cynthia R.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses current psychosocial issues facing women in career transition and the implications of those issues for career counselors. Specifically, psychosocial developmental trajectories, the roles of family and relationships, the importance of underlying physical and mental health issues, and sociocultural and contextual stressors are…

  20. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure, Adaptive Function, and Entry into Adult Roles in a Prospective Study of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although many studies have demonstrated effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on physical, cognitive, and behavioral development in children, few have focused on the long term effects on adults. In this study, data are presented on adaptive function and entry into adult roles in a community sample of young adults with PAE. The expectation was that prenatally exposed adults would show lower adaptive functioning and more difficulty with entry into adult roles than the non-exposed control group and that these effects would be related to the severity of PAE effects. Method The predominantly African-American, low income sample included adults with a wide range of prenatal exposure (n = 123) as well as control groups for socioeconomic (SES) (n = 59) and disability (n = 54) status. The mothers of the alcohol-exposed and SES-control group participants were recruited before birth and offspring have been followed up periodically. The disability control group was recruited in adolescence. The adults were interviewed about adaptive function in day-to-day life and adult role entry. Collateral adults who were well-acquainted with each participant were interviewed concerning adaptive function. Results Results showed that adults who were dysmorphic and/or cognitively affected by PAE had difficulty with adaptive function and entry into adult roles. Males showing cognitive effects with no physical effects were the most severely affected. Results for exposed adults not showing physical or cognitive effects were similar to or more positive than those of the control group for most outcomes. Conclusion PAE has long-term effects on adaptive outcomes in early adulthood. Additional research should focus on possible interventions at this transition and on factors contributing to the adjustment of the exposed, but unaffected participants. PMID:26247662

  1. Transition to Adulthood: Validation of the Rotterdam Transition Profile for Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy and Normal Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkervoort, Mireille; Wiegerink, Diana J. H. G.; van Meeteren, Jetty; Stam, Henk J.; Roebroeck, Marij E.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Rotterdam Transition Profile (RTP) to describe the transition process from childhood to adulthood in young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants were recruited from rehabilitation centres and hospital departments of rehabilitation. In total, 81 young adults (47 males, 34 females)…

  2. Union transitions and changes in BMI among adults in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Kammi K

    2012-01-01

    This study utilizes nationally representative, longitudinal data from the Mexico Family Life Survey to examine the associations between union transitions and changes in body mass index (BMI) among adults in Mexico. Results from change score regression models (N = 11,339) indicate larger BMI gains for those entering a union than for those remaining single, net of baseline weight status and socioeconomic controls. Further, a significant moderating effect of baseline weight status suggests that overweight individuals entering a union gain almost two BMI points more than overweight single individuals during this three-year period. Individuals experiencing a union dissolution gain less BMI than those entering a union, but are predicted to lose BMI (as found in the United States) only if they are overweight before the transition. PMID:22660828

  3. Transition of care from paediatric to adult services in haematology

    PubMed Central

    Bolton‐Maggs, Paula H B

    2007-01-01

    The need for adequate preparation for transition for young people with health care needs who require long term follow‐up in the adult sector has long been recognised and is a required part of the national service framework for children. The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health and the Royal College of Nursing have endorsed this need for improvement in services for adolescents. In 2006 the Department of Health launched guidelines with a wealth of recommendations. Despite these initiatives only slow progress has been made (usually by enthusiasts) and much work is needed to develop good programmes in many specialties, including non‐malignant haematology. PMID:17715443

  4. The Gender Gap in Alcohol Consumption during Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Gendered Attitudes and Adult Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Peralta, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We utilize data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth young adult sample (N = 1,488) to investigate whether gender role attitudes and the occupation of and transition to three adult roles (i.e., employment, marriage, and parenthood) contribute to the maintenance of the gender gap in the frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Our results…

  5. Evaluation of the Utility of a Transition Workbook in Preparing Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors for Transition to Adult Services: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Bashore, Lisa; Bender, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    Transition to adult care for adolescent and young adult survivors is challenging and is inclusive of several factors like knowledge and developmental, emotional, and social status of survivors and parents. This pilot study addressed the feasibility of a transition workbook, a method of preparing adolescent and young adults to transition to adult care. Using a mixed methods design, investigators also measured transition worry and readiness in 30 survivors. Support was provided throughout a 6-month period as survivors and parents completed the workbook. The workbook included sections about the treatment history of survivors, when and who to call for worrisome symptoms, prescriptions and insurance, educational goals for health practices and how to get there, and independent living. Twenty survivors completed the study and reported greater worry about leaving pediatric oncology but indicated the need to make changes to transition to adult care. Ambiguity and intimidation about transitioning to adult providers and comfort in pediatric setting were themes expressed by survivors. Results indicate the need for adult/pediatric collaborative transition programs using various standardized methods of addressing transition readiness and evaluation.

  6. The Role of Transitions in ESL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Transitions in ESL contexts generally refer to those linking words placed between sentences and between paragraphs. Transitions in writing (and in speaking) are helpful; they facilitate coherence and cohesion when used correctly. Understanding them when reading allows us to join the writer in seeing why and how idea B follows idea A. In this…

  7. Learning through Transitions: The Role of Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zittoun, Tania

    2008-01-01

    In this paper two models are proposed for analysing transitions in education. Firstly, transitions are the processes that follow ruptures perceived by people. They include learning, identity change, and meaning making processes. Secondly, processes of change are observed through a semiotic prism, articulating self-other-object-sense of the object…

  8. Voices of the Forgotten Half: The Role of Social Class in the School-to-Work Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustein, David L.; Chaves, Anna P.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Gallagher, Laura A.; Marshall, Kevin G.; Sirin, Selcuk; Bhati, Kuldhir S.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the impact of social class on the school-to-work (STW) transitions of young adults in working-class occupations. Using an exploratory, qualitative research methodology, interviews were conducted with 10 men and 10 women to examine the role of social class in the STW transition. All participants were working in low-skilled jobs…

  9. The Role of Diverse Institutions in Framing Adult Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Ellu; Ure, Odd Bjorn; Desjardins, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the role of diverse institutions in framing adult learning systems. The focus is on institutional characteristics and configurations in different countries and their potential impact on the extent of adult learning, as well as on inequalities in access to adult learning. Typologies of education and training systems as well…

  10. Transition to Employment: Role of the Family in Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Lauren; Doren, Bonnie; Metheny, Jennifer; Johnson, Pam; Zane, Claire

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the role of the family in career development and postschool employment outcomes for young adults with learning disabilities. Using a multiple-case study design, the authors examined a set of family structural and process variables. Fifty-nine in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults, parents, and school staff…

  11. Transitions and Pathways: Self-Help Reading and Informal Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Vermeylen, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Through presenting empirical research exploring the connections between popular culture and informal learning, we argue that, as predicted by concepts such as self-directed learning and transformational learning, the experience of transition has a meaningful impact on adult learning. Specifically, transitions encourage adults to engage in learning…

  12. Transitions from School for Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Parental Perspectives on "Life as an Adjustment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Michael D.; Beamish, Wendi

    2009-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated transition programs and outcomes for young adults with disabilities as viewed from the parent perspective. The current Australian study provided a voice for parents to report on the experiences of and outcomes for young adults following their recent transition from school into post-school life. Method: A…

  13. UK Public Libraries: Roles in Adult Literacy Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Carla; Morris, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Reported here are the results of a research project that examined the role of UK public libraries in addressing adult literacy including approaches and issues. Eight public libraries were selected as case studies and adult literacy provision was investigated using staff interviews. The interviews provided support for the role of public libraries…

  14. Transition Needs of Parents of Adolescents and Emerging Adults With Special Health Care Needs and Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Betz, Cecily L; Nehring, Wendy M; Lobo, Marie L

    2015-08-01

    The period of health care transition (HCT) for adolescents and emerging adults with special health care needs and disabilities involves a complex realignment of the parent-child relationship, including alterations in role responsibilities and decision making. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the research designs, methodology, and findings reported in studies of parents during this transition period to provide new insights for research and clinical practice. Results showed that parents were unable to clearly envision what the future held for their children and were not well prepared by the service system to anticipate future prospects. These parents have a myriad of needs that are not yet fully understood, as HCT research is in the early stages of development. PMID:26283056

  15. The School-to-Work Transition: A Role Identity Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2007-01-01

    The current article provides an extension of the conceptual literature on the school-to-work transition (STWT). Specifically, we attempt to integrate this diverse literature by proposing a role identity approach to studying STWTs. Here, we suggest that an individual's work role identity plays three roles in understanding the outcomes of STWTs: as…

  16. RN to FNP: a qualitative study of role transition.

    PubMed

    Heitz, Laura J; Steiner, Susan H; Burman, Mary E

    2004-09-01

    Registered nurses who return to school in a nurse practitioner program undergo role transition throughout the educational process and into the postgraduate period. This study examined the role transition that occurs in family nurse practitioner (FNP) students. A descriptive, qualitative design was used with in-depth telephone interviews of 9 female FNPs who had recently graduated. A conceptual model was generated that described the role transition from RN to FNP. Two phases of role transition occurred and were depicted by the central categories that emerged: extrinsic obstacles, intrinsic obstacles, turbulence, positive extrinsic forces, positive intrinsic forces, and role development. Although the central categories were found to be the same in Phase I and Phase II, the defining characteristics differed. This study has implications for FNPs, students, and educators regarding role transition. It presents new findings not identified in prior research: personal commitments and sacrifices were identified as specific obstacles encountered during the educational process, and differences were found between inexperienced and experienced RNs in relation to the FNP role transition during the educational period.

  17. Transitioning Adolescents and Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease From Pediatric to Adult Health Care: Provider Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stollon, Natalie B; Paine, Christine W; Lucas, Matthew S; Brumley, Lauren D; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    The transition from pediatric to adult health care is often challenging for adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our study aimed to identify (1) measures of success for the transition to adult health care; and (2) barriers and facilitators to this process. We interviewed 13 SCD experts and asked them about their experiences caring for adolescents and young adults with SCD. Our interview guide was developed based on Social-Ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework, and interviews were coded using the constant comparative method. Our results showed that transition success was measured by health care utilization, quality of life, and continuation on a stable disease trajectory. We also found that barriers to transition include negative experiences in the emergency department, sociodemographic factors, and adolescent skills. Facilitators include a positive relationship with the provider, family support, and developmental maturity. Success in SCD transition is primarily determined by the patients' quality of relationships with their parents and providers and their developmental maturity and skills. Understanding these concepts will aid in the development of future evidence-based transition care models.

  18. Transitioning Adolescents and Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease From Pediatric to Adult Health Care: Provider Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stollon, Natalie B; Paine, Christine W; Lucas, Matthew S; Brumley, Lauren D; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    The transition from pediatric to adult health care is often challenging for adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our study aimed to identify (1) measures of success for the transition to adult health care; and (2) barriers and facilitators to this process. We interviewed 13 SCD experts and asked them about their experiences caring for adolescents and young adults with SCD. Our interview guide was developed based on Social-Ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework, and interviews were coded using the constant comparative method. Our results showed that transition success was measured by health care utilization, quality of life, and continuation on a stable disease trajectory. We also found that barriers to transition include negative experiences in the emergency department, sociodemographic factors, and adolescent skills. Facilitators include a positive relationship with the provider, family support, and developmental maturity. Success in SCD transition is primarily determined by the patients' quality of relationships with their parents and providers and their developmental maturity and skills. Understanding these concepts will aid in the development of future evidence-based transition care models. PMID:26492583

  19. Resident Transitions to Assisted Living: A Role for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Noelle LeCrone; Koenig, Terry; Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly

    2012-01-01

    This study explored key aspects of resident transitions to assisted living (AL), including the frequency and importance of preadmission resident education and the potential role of social workers in this setting. To examine the factors that may help or hinder resident transitions to AL, a written survey was administered to a statewide,…

  20. Shift Work, Role Overload, and the Transition to Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Pierce, Courtney P.; Sayer, Aline G.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how the work hours, work schedules, and role overload of working-class couples are related to depressive symptoms and relationship conflict across the transition to parenthood. Data are from 132 dual-earner couples interviewed 5 times across the transition. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that working evening or night…

  1. Transitioning between Work and Family Roles as a Function of Boundary Flexibility and Role Salience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Doan E.; Clayton, Russell W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the manner in which people separate their work and family roles and how they manage the boundaries of these two important roles. Specifically, we focus on how role flexibility and salience influence transitions between roles. Results indicate that the ability and willingness to flex a role boundary and role salience are…

  2. Understanding age-based transition needs: Perspectives from adolescents and adults with congenital heart disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to explore the transition process in congenital heart disease (CHD) care through the perceived needs and concerns of adolescents (pretransition) and the experiential insight from adults (post-transition), in order to inform future transition initiatives and information ...

  3. A Preliminary Validation on Strategies that Support the Transition from School to Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carolyn; Hwang, Bogseon; Kim, Jim-Ho; Killian, Daniel J.; Harmer, Melinda L.; Alcantara, Paulo R.

    1997-01-01

    A study that reviewed 113 transition articles, developed a candidate list of all support strategies, conducted a survey of 54 transition researchers, and corroborated multiple strategies that support students with disabilities in transition to adult life, including family and peer support, student choice and preference, and student…

  4. Adult Education in Transition: Three Cases and Periods Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engesbak, Heidi; Tonseth, Christin; Fragoso, Antonio; Lucio-Villegas, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is the development of adult education. As Kjell Rubenson maintains, adult education has gone through three eras of development: the humanistic, the strong economic period and a softer version of the economic period. Based on this model, we examine whether the development of adult education has similarities across…

  5. Transitioning Children, Youths, and Young Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folsom-Meek, Sherry L.; Nearing, Ruth J.; Bock, Renae E.

    2007-01-01

    Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act mandate that transition services be provided for students with disabilities who are 16 years and older. Although the current emphasis in the transition process tends to focus primarily on vocational opportunities, another important component of transition services is community…

  6. Transitioning adolescents with HIV to adult care: Lessons learned from twelve adolescent medicine clinics

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Amanda E.; Philbin, Morgan M.; DuVal, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan; Kapogiannis, Bill; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To maximize positive health outcomes for youth with HIV as they transition from youth to adult care, clinical staff need strategies and protocols to help youth maintain clinic engagement and medication adherence. Accordingly, this paper describe transition processes across twelve clinics within the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) to provide lessons learned and inform the development of transition protocols to improve health outcomes as youth shift from adolescent to adult HIV care. Design and Methods During a large multi-method Care Initiative program evaluation, three annual visits were completed at each site from 2010–2012 and conducted 174 semi-structured interviews with clinical and program staff (Baseline n=64, Year 1 n=56, Year 2=54). Results The results underscore the value of adhering to recent American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) transition recommendations, including: developing formal transition protocols, preparing youth for transition, facilitating youth’s connection to the adult clinic, and identifying necessary strategies for transition evaluation. Conclusions Transitioning youth with HIV involves targeting individual-, provider-, and system-level factors. Acknowledging and addressing key barriers is essential for developing streamlined, comprehensive, and context-specific transition protocols. Practice Implications Adolescent and adult clinic involvement in transition is essential to reduce service fragmentation, provide coordinated and continuous care, and support individual and community level health. PMID:27133767

  7. More Than Just the Heart: Transition and Psychosocial Issues in Adult Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Adrienne H; Utens, Elisabeth M

    2015-11-01

    Most infants born with congenital heart disease (CHD) are now expected to reach adulthood. However, adults with CHD of moderate or great complexity remain at elevated risk of heart failure, arrhythmias, additional surgeries and interventional procedures, and premature mortality. This creates a need for lifelong specialized cardiac care and leads to 2 sets of potential challenges: (1) the transition from pediatric to adult care and (2) the psychosocial implications of coping with a chronic and often life-shortening medical condition. Many adolescents struggle with the transition to adult care, and mood and anxiety disorders are not uncommon in the adult setting.

  8. [Transition from paediatric to adult care: management of adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease].

    PubMed

    van den Brink, G; van der Woude, C J; de Ridder, L; van Gaalen, M A C; Escher, J C

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of adolescent patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to adult gastroenterology services is often troublesome. Failed transition can have adverse effects on the course of disease. We present two cases of adolescent IBD patients and their transition process. We identify requirements for successful transition and discuss potential barriers. We illustrate and emphasise that the medical teams on each side (paediatric and adult), as well as the patient and the parents should actively participate in the process of transition. The medical team should, preferably during a local transition clinic, regularly evaluate disease knowledge and self-management skills of the patient and make an individual transition plan to fill the gaps in knowledge and/or skills. Patients should be willing to learn to become more independent and parents should be stimulated to create an environment so that their child can actually try to become more independent. Lastly, we present the Rotterdam model for transition of IBD patients.

  9. [Transition from paediatric to adult care: management of adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease].

    PubMed

    van den Brink, G; van der Woude, C J; de Ridder, L; van Gaalen, M A C; Escher, J C

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of adolescent patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to adult gastroenterology services is often troublesome. Failed transition can have adverse effects on the course of disease. We present two cases of adolescent IBD patients and their transition process. We identify requirements for successful transition and discuss potential barriers. We illustrate and emphasise that the medical teams on each side (paediatric and adult), as well as the patient and the parents should actively participate in the process of transition. The medical team should, preferably during a local transition clinic, regularly evaluate disease knowledge and self-management skills of the patient and make an individual transition plan to fill the gaps in knowledge and/or skills. Patients should be willing to learn to become more independent and parents should be stimulated to create an environment so that their child can actually try to become more independent. Lastly, we present the Rotterdam model for transition of IBD patients. PMID:27581867

  10. Role transition during RN-to-FNP education.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Susan H; McLaughlin, Diana G; Hyde, Roberta S; Brown, Rosemary H; Burman, Mary E

    2008-10-01

    This study examines the role transition that occurs during RN-to-family nurse practitioner (FNP) education, described in an earlier qualitative study that identified a role transition framework of influential positive forces and obstacles. The purposes of the study were to validate the educational phase of the original framework and explore other role transition issues. The study used a descriptive correlational design by asking all FNPs in two rural western states to participate by answering a questionnaire. Findings evidenced a stronger level of agreement with the positive forces than with the obstacles. In addition, two significant relationships were found between the positive forces and obstacles and personal life circumstances. These included personal support systems, which were significant for those who had to travel to class, and personal sacrifices, which were significant for those who had children at home. Further research will focus on testing across nurse practitioner specialties nationally.

  11. Transition to adult endocrine services: What is achievable? The diabetes perspective.

    PubMed

    White, Mary; O'Connell, Michele A; Cameron, Fergus J

    2015-06-01

    Transition is defined as the 'purposeful, planned movement of adolescents and young adults with chronic physical and medical conditions from child-centred to adult-oriented health care systems' by Blum RW, (2002). The primary goal of transition is to ensure an uninterrupted process in healthcare delivery between the paediatric and adult settings; however, losses to follow up and decreased engagement with specialist services are common during this time. The current transition literature specifically pertaining to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is often limited by incomplete data, the absence of control data and lack of follow up data spanning both the paediatric and adult years. This paper serves to review the current transition literature base, highlighting areas which warrant further study. PMID:26051305

  12. A Spectrographic Investigation of Consonant-Vowel Transitions in the Speech of Deaf Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Howard B.

    1976-01-01

    A spectrographic investigation was carried out on the speech of normal hearing and deaf speakers; the research attempted to answer questions concerning formant transitions, coarticulation and neutralization of vowels in the speech of the deaf adults. (Author/RM)

  13. Transition to adult endocrine services: What is achievable? The diabetes perspective.

    PubMed

    White, Mary; O'Connell, Michele A; Cameron, Fergus J

    2015-06-01

    Transition is defined as the 'purposeful, planned movement of adolescents and young adults with chronic physical and medical conditions from child-centred to adult-oriented health care systems' by Blum RW, (2002). The primary goal of transition is to ensure an uninterrupted process in healthcare delivery between the paediatric and adult settings; however, losses to follow up and decreased engagement with specialist services are common during this time. The current transition literature specifically pertaining to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is often limited by incomplete data, the absence of control data and lack of follow up data spanning both the paediatric and adult years. This paper serves to review the current transition literature base, highlighting areas which warrant further study.

  14. Transition From Pediatric to Adult Epilepsy Care: A Difficult Process Marked by Medical and Social Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol; Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    When epilepsy does not remit in childhood, transition and transfer to adult care is eventually required. Youth must leave the family-centered approach of pediatric care for the individual focus of adult medicine. Evidence from population-based studies indicates that many of those with childhood-onset epilepsy have major social difficulties in adulthood even if their epilepsy has resolved. Epilepsy may have major effects on normal adolescent development, and societal attitudes confound this difficult period in the lives of young people with epilepsy. Very little objective data are available to assist in the designing of models of care for youth with epilepsy; however, based on our clinical experience and the limited available literature, it appears that a transition program to prepare children for adult care is best started during childhood and adolescence. The formal transfer to adult services may be assisted by a transition clinic jointly attended by pediatric and adult epilepsy specialists. PMID:23476118

  15. Transitions between child and adult mental health services: service design, philosophy and meaning at uncertain times.

    PubMed

    Murcott, W J

    2014-09-01

    A young person's transition of care from child and adolescent mental health services to adult mental health services can be an uncertain and distressing event that can have serious ramifications for their recovery. Recognition of this across many countries and recent UK media interest in the dangers of mental health services failing young people has led practitioners to question the existing processes. This paper reviews the current theories and research into potential failings of services and encourages exploration for a deeper understanding of when and how care should be managed in the transition process for young people. Mental health nurses can play a vital role in this process and, by adopting the assumptions of this paradigm, look at transition from this unique perspective. By reviewing the current ideas related to age boundaries, service thresholds, service philosophy and service design, it is argued that the importance of the therapeutic relationship, the understanding of the cultural context of the young person and the placing of the young person in a position of autonomy and control should be central to any decision and process of transfer between two mental health services.

  16. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Carina; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F.; Rocha, Susana; Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Salas-Pacheco, José; García-García, Fabio; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called adult neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of adult neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and adult neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory, and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on adult neurogenesis. PMID:25926773

  17. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carina; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F; Rocha, Susana; Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Salas-Pacheco, José; García-García, Fabio; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called adult neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of adult neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and adult neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory, and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on adult neurogenesis. PMID:25926773

  18. Transitioning from pediatric to adult dental care for adolescents with special health care needs: adolescent and parent perspectives (Part I)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Stephanie; Neff, John; Chi, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to understand transitions from pediatric dental care to adult dental care for adolescents with special health care needs (ASHCN) from the parent and adolescent perspectives. Methods We conducted focus groups and interviews with 59 parents and 13 adolescent-parent dyads to identify factors associated with transitions to adult-centered dental care for ASHCN. Results Most parents believed ASHCN were at-risk for caries, but ASHCN were not concerned about tooth decay. Parents of adolescents with complex SHCN believed it would be acceptable to continue seeing a pediatric dentist. Parents of Medicaid-enrolled ASHCN reported lower efficacy in transitioning. ASHCN desired personalized, adolescent-centered care and were motivated to transition when they felt out of place at the pediatric dentist office. Parents believed pediatric dentists have an important role in initiating and facilitating transitions. Conclusions Pediatric dentists are well-positioned to implement family- and adolescent-centered policies to ensure dental transitions for ASHCN and their families. PMID:26531087

  19. Policy to Performance Toolkit: Transitioning Adults to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamprese, Judith A.; Limardo, Chrys

    2012-01-01

    The "Policy to Performance Toolkit" is designed to provide state adult education staff and key stakeholders with guidance and tools to use in developing, implementing, and monitoring state policies and their associated practices that support an effective state adult basic education (ABE) to postsecondary education and training transition…

  20. Illinois Adult Education Bridges: Promising Practices. Transition Highlights. Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra; Oertle, Kathleen Marie; Kim, Sujung; Kirby, Catherine; Taylor, Jason; Harmon, Tim; Liss, Loralea

    2011-01-01

    To enhance state-level adult education and employment policy, in 2007 the Joyce Foundation began the Shifting Gears (SG) initiative to assist six states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin) to integrate adult education, workforce development and postsecondary education policies and improve job opportunities for low-skilled…

  1. Transitions and Loss: Illuminating Parameters of Young Adults' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowling, Louise; Weber, Zita; Scanlon, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Different disciplinary groups are increasingly questioning current conceptualisations of young adults' educational, social and personal lives after compulsory schooling. New perspectives are being advanced on the life trajectories of choice and complexity now experienced by school leavers. A consistent theme is the changed nature of young adults'…

  2. Young Adult Couples Transitioning to Work: The Intersection of Career and Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domene, Jose F.; Nee, Jessica J.; Cavanaugh, Ashley K.; McLelland, Serita; Stewart, Becky; Stephenson, Michelle; Kauffman, Bradley; Tse, Christopher K.; Young, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Contextual action theory was used to frame an exploratory qualitative study of young adult couples' experiences of transitioning from post-secondary education into the labor force, addressing the specific research question ''What kinds of projects for future work and life together do young adult couples jointly construct and pursue as they…

  3. Characteristics of Adult Students Transitioning to a Traditional University and Perceptions of Student Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Dani J.

    2012-01-01

    Limited research is devoted to the transitional process of adult students to the traditional university environment. Considering the incredible numbers of adults projected to return to higher education and/or entering a college or university program for the first time, it behooves institutions of higher learning to invest in the success of adult…

  4. The Influence of Union Transitions on White Adults' Attitudes toward Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Mick; Thornton, Arland

    2005-01-01

    Data from the Intergenerational Panel Study of Parents and Children are used to identify the influences of adult union transitions on changes in attitudes toward cohabitation among a sample of 794 young adults. The analysis examines the extent to which attitudes about cohabitation change as a result of entry into and exit from cohabitation and…

  5. Assessing the Transition Skills of Adolescents and Young Adults Who Are Deaf through Video Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Research, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue describes a programmatic line of research to develop and standardize a test battery of transition skills (employment and independent living skills) for adolescents and young adults (ages 14 to 25) who are deaf. The newsletter first discusses the importance of assessment data to the transition process for persons who are deaf.…

  6. The "Reverse Commute": Adult Students and the Transition from Professional to Academic Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaud, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The notion of "transporting literacy" across spheres or cultures is a useful way to imagine the transition many of today's adult students make as writers from the literate sphere of the workplace to that of the school--a transition the author refers to in this article as the "reverse commute." By the time such students reach (or rereach) the…

  7. Transition Satisfaction and Family Well Being among Parents of Young Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neece, Cameron L.; Kraemer, Bonnie R.; Blacher, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The transition from high school to adulthood is a critical life stage that entails many changes, especially for youth with severe intellectual disability. The transition period may be especially stressful for the families of these young adults, who often experience a sudden change, or decrease, in services. However, little research has examined…

  8. Barriers to Successful Transition for Young Adults Who Receive SSI and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Jennifer L.; Timmons, Jaime Ciulla; Moloney, Mairead

    2003-01-01

    A study examined barriers to transition faced by 12 young adults with disabilities receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and their families. Obstacles to transition planning that were associated with SSI included difficulties managing the receipt of SSI and unawareness of the supports available through the SSI system. (Contains references.)…

  9. Congenital causes of neurogenic bladder and the transition to adult care

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The population of patients with congenital genitourinary disorders has unique healthcare demands that require an additional interpersonal and medical skillset. Adults with congenital neurogenic bladder may have complex urinary anatomy, abnormal bladder function and atypical voiding mechanisms. While initial surgery and care of these patients is typically managed by a pediatric urologist, growth and development into adulthood necessitates transition of care to an adult care team. Failure of transition to adult care has been demonstrated to result in lower quality healthcare and increased risk of developing preventable complications. PMID:26904411

  10. The microtubule destabilizing protein stathmin controls the transition from dividing neuronal precursors to postmitotic neurons during adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Boekhoorn, Karin; van Dis, Vera; Goedknegt, Erika; Sobel, André; Lucassen, Paul J; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2014-12-01

    The hippocampus is one of the two areas in the mammalian brain where adult neurogenesis occurs. Adult neurogenesis is well known to be involved in hippocampal physiological functions as well as pathophysiological conditions. Microtubules (MTs), providing intracellular transport, stability, and transmitting force, are indispensable for neurogenesis by facilitating cell division, migration, growth, and differentiation. Although there are several examples of MT-stabilizing proteins regulating different aspects of adult neurogenesis, relatively little is known about the function of MT-destabilizing proteins. Stathmin is such a MT-destabilizing protein largely restricted to the CNS, and in contrast to its developmental family members, stathmin is also expressed at significant levels in the adult brain, notably in areas involved in adult neurogenesis. Here, we show an important role for stathmin during adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the mouse hippocampus. After carefully mapping stathmin expression in the adult dentate gyrus (DG), we investigated its role in hippocampal neurogenesis making use of stathmin knockout mice. Although hippocampus development appears normal in these animals, different aspects of adult neurogenesis are affected. First, the number of proliferating Ki-67+ cells is decreased in stathmin knockout mice, as well as the expression of the immature markers Nestin and PSA-NCAM. However, newborn cells that do survive express more frequently the adult marker NeuN and have a more mature morphology. Furthermore, our data suggest that migration in the DG might be affected. We propose a model in which stathmin controls the transition from neuronal precursors to early postmitotic neurons.

  11. The microtubule destabilizing protein stathmin controls the transition from dividing neuronal precursors to postmitotic neurons during adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Boekhoorn, Karin; van Dis, Vera; Goedknegt, Erika; Sobel, André; Lucassen, Paul J; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2014-12-01

    The hippocampus is one of the two areas in the mammalian brain where adult neurogenesis occurs. Adult neurogenesis is well known to be involved in hippocampal physiological functions as well as pathophysiological conditions. Microtubules (MTs), providing intracellular transport, stability, and transmitting force, are indispensable for neurogenesis by facilitating cell division, migration, growth, and differentiation. Although there are several examples of MT-stabilizing proteins regulating different aspects of adult neurogenesis, relatively little is known about the function of MT-destabilizing proteins. Stathmin is such a MT-destabilizing protein largely restricted to the CNS, and in contrast to its developmental family members, stathmin is also expressed at significant levels in the adult brain, notably in areas involved in adult neurogenesis. Here, we show an important role for stathmin during adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the mouse hippocampus. After carefully mapping stathmin expression in the adult dentate gyrus (DG), we investigated its role in hippocampal neurogenesis making use of stathmin knockout mice. Although hippocampus development appears normal in these animals, different aspects of adult neurogenesis are affected. First, the number of proliferating Ki-67+ cells is decreased in stathmin knockout mice, as well as the expression of the immature markers Nestin and PSA-NCAM. However, newborn cells that do survive express more frequently the adult marker NeuN and have a more mature morphology. Furthermore, our data suggest that migration in the DG might be affected. We propose a model in which stathmin controls the transition from neuronal precursors to early postmitotic neurons. PMID:24909416

  12. Primary care interventions to improve transition of youth with chronic health conditions from paediatric to adult healthcare: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bhawra, Jasmin; Toulany, Alene; Cohen, Eyal; Moore Hepburn, Charlotte; Guttmann, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine effective interventions to improve primary care provider involvement in transitioning youth with chronic conditions from paediatric to adult care. Design Systematic review. Multiple electronic databases were searched including Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science (from 1 January 1947 to 5 August 2015). Evidence quality was assessed using a 36-point scoring system for disparate study designs. Setting Studies with paediatric-to-adult transition programmes and interventions involving primary care providers or in primary care settings. Participants Youth aged 16 years and over. Outcomes Relevant outcomes were grouped into 3 main domains based on the Triple Aim Framework: experience of care, population health, cost. Results A total of 1888 unique citations were identified, yielding 3 studies for inclusion. Overall, primary care provider roles were not well defined. 2 studies used case managers to facilitate referrals to primary care, and the remaining study was the only 1 situated in a primary care setting. None of the studies examined transition in all 3 Triple Aim Framework domains. The most commonly reported outcomes were in the cost domain. Conclusions There is limited empiric evidence to guide primary care interventions to improve transition outcomes for youth with chronic conditions. Future research and policy should focus on developing and evaluating coordinated transition interventions to better integrate primary care for high need populations. PMID:27150188

  13. Suicide in Older Adults: The Role of Emotions and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Szanto, Katalin; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2014-01-01

    Suicide in older adults is a significant clinical concern. In this review of recent findings, we concentrate on the role of emotions and cognition in suicide risk and behavior in older adults. We discuss the epidemiology of suicide in older adults, integrate recent findings on non-psychotic major depression, schizophrenia and suicidal ideation, explore the relationship of emotion regulation with suicide, present recent advances on suicide in demented patients, and describe the latest developments on cognition and decision processes in suicide. PMID:25226883

  14. The role of thickness transitions in convective assembly.

    PubMed

    Meng, Linli; Wei, Hong; Nagel, Anthony; Wiley, Benjamin J; Scriven, L E; Norris, David J

    2006-10-01

    Here we examine the microscopic details of convective assembly, a process in which thin colloidal crystals are deposited on a substrate from suspensions of nearly monodisperse spheres. Previously, such crystals have been shown to exhibit a strong tendency toward the face-centered cubic structure, which is difficult to explain on thermodynamic grounds. Using real-time microscopic visualization, electron microscopy, and scanning confocal microscopy, we obtain clues about the crystallization mechanism. Our results indicate that the regions at which a growing crystal transitions from n to n + 1 layers can play an important and previously unrecognized role in the crystallization. For thin crystals, we show both from experiment and through simple modeling that these transition regions can generate specific crystal structures. In thicker crystals, the crystallization is more complicated, but the transition regions must still be considered before a complete understanding of convective assembly can be obtained.

  15. The mid-life transition: a period in adult psychosocial development.

    PubMed

    Levinson, D J

    1977-05-01

    For the past nine years my colleagues and I have been working on a theory of adult psychosocial development in men (Levinson et al., 1974, 1977; Levinson, 1977). We have started some research on women (Stewart, 1977), but it is too early yet to report definitive theory or findings. Our aim is to encompass the many components of a man's life-all of his relationships with individuals, groups, and institutions that have significance for him. The components of life include his occupation and its evolution over the years, his love relationships, marriage, and family life, his various other roles and careers in numerous social contexts. This psychosocial approach includes the man's personality and the ways in which it influences and is influenced by the evolution of his careers in occupation, family, and other systems. The resulting theory is not a theory of personality development, nor of occupational development, nor of development in any single aspect of living. It deals, rather, with the development of the individual life in the broadest sense, encompassing all of these segments. This theory provides a context within which we can study in more detail the development of personality and of particular careers. I shall briefly describe the developmental periods we discovered in early and middle adulthood, giving major emphasis to one period, the Mid-life Transition. Like childhood and adolescence, these periods are found in the lives of all men. Of ourse, men traverse them in myriad ways, as a result of differences in class, ethnicity, personality, and other factors. My primary aim is to present some of our major concepts, hypotheses, findings, and ways of thinking about adult development. None of them have been fully validated. Together, they comprise a framework for the analysis of adult development. No doubt the theory will be modified an extended as a result of further investigation. PMID:870922

  16. Roles for Hedgehog signaling in adult organ homeostasis and repair

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Ralitsa; Joyner, Alexandra L.

    2014-01-01

    The hedgehog (HH) pathway is well known for its mitogenic and morphogenic functions during development, and HH signaling continues in discrete populations of cells within many adult mammalian tissues. Growing evidence indicates that HH regulates diverse quiescent stem cell populations, but the exact roles that HH signaling plays in adult organ homeostasis and regeneration remain poorly understood. Here, we review recently identified functions of HH in modulating the behavior of tissue-specific adult stem and progenitor cells during homeostasis, regeneration and disease. We conclude that HH signaling is a key factor in the regulation of adult tissue homeostasis and repair, acting via multiple different routes to regulate distinct cellular outcomes, including maintenance of plasticity, in a context-dependent manner. PMID:25183867

  17. Emerging role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Go J

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the phenomenon of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) plays a fundamental role in the tumor development. Several research articles have been published from Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research (JECCR) which have investigated into the molecular machineries underlying the importance of EMT for hepatic cancer. Given those recent publications by JECCR, this commentary focuses on the pathological significance of EMT for liver tumor. PMID:27619936

  18. Role modeling clinical judgment for an unfolding older adult simulation.

    PubMed

    Lasater, Kathie; Johnson, Elizabeth A; Ravert, Patricia; Rink, Doris

    2014-05-01

    Nurse educators must foster development of clinical judgment in students to help them provide the best care for the increasing population of older adult patients. This article reports qualitative findings from a mixed-methods study that focused on clinical judgment in the simulated perioperative care of an older adult. The sample was composed of treatment and control groups of prelicensure students (N = 275) at five sites. The treatment group watched a video of an expert nurse role model caring for a patient similar to the simulation patient, whereas the control group did not watch the video. Four weeks after simulation, participants cared for real-life, older adult perioperative patients. After the simulated and real-life care experiences, participants completed questionnaires related to clinical judgment dimensions. These two data sets revealed rich findings about the students' simulation learning, affirming the value of expert role models. Transferability of simulation learning to practice was also explored. PMID:24716674

  19. The Meaning and Role of Emotions in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkx, John M.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes different ways of understanding emotions and their role in adult learning. The author suggests that people's understanding of emotions is shifting from one where they are viewed as an obstacle to reason and knowing to more holistic and integral ways of knowing one's self and the world. In this article, he provides a…

  20. Makorin ortholog LEP-2 regulates LIN-28 stability to promote the juvenile-to-adult transition in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Herrera, R Antonio; Kiontke, Karin; Fitch, David H A

    2016-03-01

    The heterochronic genes lin-28, let-7 and lin-41 regulate fundamental developmental transitions in animals, such as stemness versus differentiation and juvenile versus adult states. We identify a new heterochronic gene, lep-2, in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mutations in lep-2 cause a delay in the juvenile-to-adult transition, with adult males retaining pointed, juvenile tail tips, and displaying defective sexual behaviors. In both sexes, lep-2 mutants fail to cease molting or produce an adult cuticle. We find that LEP-2 post-translationally regulates LIN-28 by promoting LIN-28 protein degradation. lep-2 encodes the sole C. elegans ortholog of the Makorin (Mkrn) family of proteins. Like lin-28 and other heterochronic pathway members, vertebrate Mkrns are involved in developmental switches, including the timing of pubertal onset in humans. Based on shared roles, conservation and the interaction between lep-2 and lin-28 shown here, we propose that Mkrns, together with other heterochronic genes, constitute an evolutionarily ancient conserved module regulating switches in development.

  1. Management of adults with paediatric-onset chronic liver disease: strategic issues for transition care.

    PubMed

    Vajro, Pietro; Ferrante, Lorenza; Lenta, Selvaggia; Mandato, Claudia; Persico, Marcello

    2014-04-01

    Advances in the management of children with chronic liver disease have enabled many to survive into adulthood with or without their native livers, so that the most common of these conditions are becoming increasingly common in adult hepatology practice. Because the aetiologies of chronic liver disease in children may vary significantly from those in adulthood, adults with paediatric-onset chronic liver disease may often present with clinical manifestations unfamiliar to their adulthood physician. Transition of medical care to adult practice requires that the adulthood medical staff (primary physicians and subspecialists) have a comprehensive knowledge of childhood liver disease and their implications, and of the differences in caring for these patients. Pending still unavailable Scientific Society guidelines, this article examines causes, presentation modes, evaluation, management, and complications of the main paediatric-onset chronic liver diseases, and discusses key issues to aid in planning a program of transition from paediatric to adult patients.

  2. Transitional care of older adults in skilled nursing facilities: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Toles, Mark; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; Asafu-Adjei, Josephine; Moreton, Elizabeth; Hanson, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    Transitional care may be an effective strategy for preparing older adults for transitions from skilled nursing facilities (SNF) to home. In this systematic review, studies of patients discharged from SNFs to home were reviewed. Study findings were assessed (1) to identify whether transitional care interventions, as compared to usual care, improved clinical outcomes such as mortality, readmission rates, quality of life or functional status; and (2) to describe intervention characteristics, resources needed for implementation, and methodologic challenges. Of 1082 unique studies identified in a systematic search, the full texts of six studies meeting criteria for inclusion were reviewed. Although the risk for bias was high across studies, the findings suggest that there is promising but limited evidence that transitional care improves clinical outcomes for SNF patients. Evidence in the review identifies needs for further study, such as the need for randomized studies of transitional care in SNFs, and methodological challenges to studying transitional care for SNF patients. PMID:27207303

  3. Up against the System: A Case Study of Young Adult Perspectives Transitioning from Pediatric Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Karen; Jack, Susan; Thabane, Lehana; Browne, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Advances in pediatric care have not provided the interdisciplinary support services required by those young adults with pediatric life-threatening conditions (pedLTCs) who live beyond childhood but have limited expectations to live past early adulthood. These young adults, the first generation to live into adulthood, face multiple challenges transitioning from a plethora of pediatric palliative services to scant adult health services. In a case study, using an innovative bulletin board focus group, we describe the complex interplay of the health, education, and social service sectors in this transition. Our descriptions include system deficits and strengths and the young adults' resilience and coping strategies to overcome those deficits and move forward with their lives. Young adults with pedLTC need knowledgeable providers, coordinated and accessible services, being respected and valued, and services and supports that promote independence. We recommend implementation of multidisciplinary solutions that are focused on young adult priorities to ensure seamless access to resources to support these young adults' health, educational, vocational, and social goals. The input and voice of young adults in the development of these services are imperative to ensure that multisystem services support their needs and life goals. PMID:23997951

  4. Bridges and barriers to successful transitioning as perceived by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Giarelli, Ellen; Ruttenberg, Jean; Segal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this thematic content analysis we examined the expectations, and perceived facilitators of (referred to as bridges) and barriers to transition to community as reported by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome. Participants were adolescents/young adults, ages 18-23 years were from the East Coast of the United States. Seventy percent of adolescents hoped for employment (n = 10). Thirty percent desired to find a partner and raise a family. Perceived barriers were: self-assessed behavioral problems, self-assessed associated features, other personal factors, and institutional factors. Bridges to facilitate transition were: accommodations in the community, cognitive abilities, personal qualities/strengths, and mentor's qualities.

  5. Quality Improvement Targeting Adherence During the Transition from a Pediatric to Adult Liver Transplant Clinic.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Emily M; Magee, John C; Eder, Sally J; Sevecke, Jessica R; Dore-Stites, Dawn; Shieck, Victoria; Lopez, M James

    2015-09-01

    The transition from pediatric to adult transplant care is a high risk period for non-adherence and poor health outcomes. This article describes a quality improvement initiative integrated into a pediatric liver transplant program that focused on improving outcomes following the transfer from pediatric to adult liver transplant care. Using improvement science methodology, we evaluated the impact of our center's transition readiness skills (TRS) program by conducting a chart review of 45 pediatric liver transplant recipients who transferred to adult transplant care. Medication adherence, clinic attendance, and health status variables were examined for the year pre-transfer and first year post-transfer. 19 recipients transferred without participating in the TRS program (control group) and 26 recipients participated in the program prior to transferring to the adult clinic (TRS group). The TRS group was significantly older at the time of transfer, more adherent with medications, and more likely to attend their first adult clinic visit compared to the control group. Among the TRS group, better adolescent and parent regimen knowledge were associated with greater adherence to post-transfer clinic appointments. Transition planning should focus on the gradual shift in responsibility for health management tasks, including clinic attendance, from parent to adolescent. There may be support for extending transition support for at least 1 year post-transfer to promote adherence.

  6. Transition to Adult-Oriented Health Care: Perspectives of Youth and Adults with Complex Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorter, Jan Willem

    2009-01-01

    In their qualitative study, Young and colleagues (2009) found that youth and adults with cerebral palsy (CP), spina bifida, and acquired brain injuries of childhood in the province of Ontario, Canada, perceive or have perceived their transfer from pediatric to adult-oriented health care services as a struggle. Although publications on transition…

  7. The role of migration in the urban transition: a demonstration from Albania.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Mathias

    2014-08-01

    Although natural increase has been recognized as the main driver of postwar urban growth in developing countries, urban transition theory predicts a dominant role for population mobility in the early and late phases of the process. To account for this discrepancy between theory and empirical evidence, I demonstrate the complex role played by internal and international migration in the pattern of urban growth. Using a combination of indirect demographic estimations for postwar Albania, I show that the dominant contribution of natural increase from the 1960s to the 1990s was induced by a limited urban in-migration; this was due to the restrictions on leaving the countryside imposed under communist rule and, thereafter, to the redirection abroad of rural out-migrants. Although young adults in cities also engaged in international movements and significantly reduced their fertility, the indirect effects of rural-to-urban migration attenuated the fall in urban birth rates and postponed demographic aging. In-migrants swelled urban cohorts of reproductive age and delayed the urban fertility transition. Despite a high level of urban natural increase in Albania, I thus conclude that the role of population mobility dominated in the early and most recent phases of urban growth. The results also have implications for our understanding of demographic processes during the second urban transition in developing countries.

  8. Sirtuins and Cancer: Role in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Della-Morte, David; Capuani, Barbara; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The human sirtuins (SIRT1–SIRT7) enzymes are a highly conserved family of NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases, which play a critical role in the regulation of a large number of metabolic pathways involved in stress response and aging. Cancer is an age-associated disease, and sirtuins may have a considerable impact on a plethora of processes that regulate tumorigenesis. In particular, growing evidence suggests that sirtuins may modulate epithelial plasticity by inducing transcriptional reprogramming leading to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, and metastases. Though commonly regarded as EMT inducers, sirtuins may also suppress this process, and their functional properties seem to largely depend on the cellular context, stage of cancer development, tissue of origin, and microenvironment architecture. Here, we review the role of sirtuins in cancer biology with particular emphasis on their role in EMT. PMID:27379175

  9. The role of transients in weather regimes and transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhold, B.; Yang, Shuting )

    1993-05-01

    Transition of weather regimes is examined in a highly simplified model. Two completely distinct internal methods of transition are identified. The first is a synoptically triggered large-scale instability, while the second is an energy inconsistency between the large-scale and synoptic scales that does not allow the two scales to equilibrate. In the atmosphere, the first case appears as a sudden propagation and damping (or vice versa) of the large-scale pattern with no obvious warning, while the second is consistent with the synoptician's description of a regime being disrupted by a single catastrophic event such as explosive cyclogenesis. The first method is always fast (on a synoptic time scale), while the second does not have to be, though often is. By examining what causes the regimes to fail, one can better understand the role of the transients during all phases of weather regimes. 27 refs., 5 figs.

  10. The Role of Vitamin D in the Aging Adult

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Meghan; Penckofer, Sue

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals aged 65 and older is expected to more than double from 2012 to 2060. The role of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with aging has not been well studied. Traditionally, the role of vitamin D focused on the maintenance of skeletal health in the older adult. With the discovery of vitamin D receptors in the nervous, cardiovascular and endocrine systems, the role of vitamin D and its impact on these systems has become an important area of research. Older adults are at risk for lower levels of vitamin D as a result of decreased cutaneous synthesis and dietary intake of vitamin D. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between low levels of vitamin D and diseases associated with aging such as cognitive decline, depression, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Clinical trials to determine the benefit of vitamin D supplementation in preventing and treating such diseases are in progress. This paper highlights current evidence regarding the role that vitamin D may play in diseases associated with aging and addresses the need for well-designed randomized trials to examine its benefit on health outcomes in the older adult. PMID:25893188

  11. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its role in cognition

    PubMed Central

    Oomen, Charlotte A.; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Kent, Brianne A.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) has intrigued neuroscientists for decades. Several lines of evidence show that adult-born neurons in the hippocampus are functionally integrated and contribute to cognitive function, in particular learning and memory processes. Biological properties of immature hippocampal neurons indicate that these cells are more easily excitable compared to mature neurons, and demonstrate enhanced structural plasticity. The structure in which adult-born hippocampal neurons are situated -the dentate gyrus- is thought to contribute to hippocampus function by disambiguating similar input patterns, a process referred to as pattern separation. Several ideas about AHN function have been put forward; currently there is good evidence in favour of a role for AHN in pattern separation. This function of AHN may be understood within a ‘representational-hierarchical’ view of brain organisation. PMID:26308746

  12. Role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in stress resilience.

    PubMed

    Levone, Brunno R; Cryan, John F; O'Leary, Olivia F

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in emotional and cognitive processes related to psychiatric disorders. Although many studies have investigated the effects of stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, most have not focused on whether stress-induced changes in neurogenesis occur specifically in animals that are more resilient or more susceptible to the behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of stress. Thus, in the present review we explore whether there is a clear relationship between stress-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, stress resilience and antidepressant-induced recovery from stress-induced changes in behaviour. Exposure to different stressors is known to reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but some stressors have also been shown to exert opposite effects. Ablation of neurogenesis does not lead to a depressive phenotype, but it can enhance responsiveness to stress and affect stress susceptibility. Monoaminergic-targeted antidepressants, environmental enrichment and adrenalectomy are beneficial for reversing stress-induced changes in behaviour and have been shown to do so in a neurogenesis-dependant manner. In addition, stress and antidepressants can affect hippocampal neurogenesis, preferentially in the ventral hippocampus. Together, these data show that adult hippocampal neurogenesis may play a role in the neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress, although it is not yet fully clear under which circumstances neurogenesis promotes resilience or susceptibility to stress. It will be important that future studies carefully examine how adult hippocampal neurogenesis can contribute to stress resilience/susceptibility so that it may be appropriately exploited for the development of new and more effective treatments for stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:27589664

  13. A Transition-to-College Course for Adult Learners: Effects on GPA and Time to Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help fill the knowledge gap on stand-alone transition-to-college courses for adult students in an institutional setting where such courses have been extensively utilized via different delivery mediums. The ultimate goal was to use the knowledge obtained to aid personnel who work with nontraditional degree programs…

  14. The Ticking of the Social Clock: Adults' Beliefs about the Timing of Transition Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    1996-01-01

    Two studies regarding beliefs about descriptive and prescriptive age norms for adults in developmental transitions were examined in a sample of 214 Australian university students ages 17 to 50. Discusses research methodology. The probable consequences for self-esteem, mental health, and life planning are discussed in the context of the research…

  15. Examining Emerging-Adults' and Parents' Expectations about Autonomy during the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Koerner, Susan Silverberg

    2009-01-01

    Our research goals were to document levels and examine the potential discrepancies of emerging-adults' and parents' expectations for autonomous behavior during the transition to college. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 204 incoming college freshmen (n = 150 females, n = 54 males) and 226 parents (n = 173 mothers, n = 53…

  16. Contriving Transitive Conditioned Establishing Operations to Establish Derived Manding Skills in Adults with Severe Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosales, Rocio; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate derived manding skills in 2 adults with severe developmental disabilities and language deficits by contriving transitive conditioned establishing operations. Specifically, we evaluated whether a history of reinforced conditional discrimination learning would ultimately result in a derived mand…

  17. Transitioning an Adult-Serving University to a Blended Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korr, Jeremy; Derwin, Ellen Baker; Greene, Kimberly; Sokoloff, William

    2012-01-01

    While many institutions deliver some classes in blended format, Brandman University transitioned all of its face-to-face classes to blended delivery, using a model tailored to the needs of adult learners. This article provides research supporting the ways that blended learning principles align with key principles of andragogy. The article provides…

  18. Transition Strategies for Adolescents and Young Adults Who Use AAC. AAC Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, David B., Ed.; Beukelman, David R., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    To make a smooth transition to a fulfilling, self-determined adult life, young people who use Augmentative-Alternative Communication (AAC) need effective services that meet their individual needs and make the most of advances in technology. Professionals will provide these critical supports with the help of this book, the first complete guide to…

  19. A Key to Evaluation: The Transition Competence Battery for Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cheryl; Leonard, Annette

    2007-01-01

    Guiding deaf and hard of hearing students in making important decisions about their adult careers can be a difficult task. Twenty years after its inception, the TCB, as adapted for deaf and hard of hearing students, may help. The TCB is a unique assessment tool designed to measure the transition skills of deaf high school adolescents and young…

  20. Economic Transition and New Patterns of Parent-Adult Child Coresidence in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest Zhang, Qian

    2004-01-01

    This study uses national data from the 1996 Life History and Social Change in Contemporary China survey (N= 3,087) to gauge the effect of the economic transition on parent-adult child coresidence in urban China. Previous studies find that, thanks to state actions, traditional patterns in co-residence persisted in post-Mao urban China. This study…

  1. Transition of Youth and Young Adults with Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties: An Evidence-Supported Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Hewitt B., Ed.; Unruh, Deanne K., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive professional handbook will help transition specialists, general and special educators, school psychologists, and administrators support youth and young adults in setting goals and achieving positive outcomes across employment, education, and community settings. Through up-to-date research and in-depth analyses of five successful…

  2. A Review of the Approaches Investigating the Post-16 Transition of Young Adults with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Investigations into the lives and transition from compulsory schooling of young adults with a disability, including a learning difficulty (LD), are increasing. The emerging consensus is one which points to this group of young people experiencing greater difficulties and poorer outcomes compared to the general population. How these investigations…

  3. Easing the Transition of HIV-Infected Adolescents to Adult Care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The past two decades have witnessed dramatic reductions in HIV-related morbidity and mortality following the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for infants and children. Improved therapeutic outcomes have changed the face of the HIV epidemic and with it the needs of patients and families. Consequently, many perinatally- and behaviorally-infected adolescents are now transitioning to adult care. What follows is a brief review and commentary concerning original research, reviews, and clinical guidelines describing challenges and best practices in facilitating care transitions for HIV-infected youth to adult care. Over 25,000 HIV-infected US youth aged 13–24 years will require transition to adult care within the next decade. Transition planning must address issues of cognitive development and mental health, medication adherence, sexuality, reproductive, and gender identity, socioeconomic and health insurance status, stigma and disclosure, disrupted relationships with pediatric care providers, and communication. Clinical experience with HIV and other chronic illnesses supports a multidisciplinary, developmentally-sensitive approach to meeting the challenges inherent in care transition that begins early and is monitored with regular evaluation and revision. Specific clinical recommendations have been made by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute. PMID:24073595

  4. Provision of Transition Education and Referral Patterns from Pediatric Cardiology to Adult Cardiac Care.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Anna L; Grady, Stafford; Chi, Kevin; Fernandes, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    ACC/AHA guidelines recommend a structured preparation for and transfer to adult-oriented cardiac care for adult survivors of pediatric onset heart disease (POHD). Given this, we sought to describe the transition and transfer practices for a cohort of young adults with POHD and to determine factors associated with successful transfer to adult-oriented cardiac care. We performed a single-center, retrospective chart review on patients ≥18 years of age, with POHD likely to require lifelong cardiac care, who were seen in outpatient pediatric cardiology (PC) between 2008 and 2011. Successful transfer was defined as the subsequent attendance at adult cardiology (AC) within 2 years of PC visit. We identified 118 patients who met study criteria. Mean age 22.4 ± 2.0 years, 59 % male, 64 % white and 40 % Hispanic. Mean transition education topics noted was 3.3 ± 1.8 out of 20 and covered the underlying cardiac disease (89 %), follow-up and current medications (56 %) and exercise limitations (34 %). Recommendations for follow-up were AC (57 %) and PC (33 %). Of those told to transfer to AC, 79 % successfully transferred. Characteristics of successful transfer included: prior cardiac surgery (p = 0.008), cardiac medication use (p = 0.006) and frequency of follow-up ≤1 year (p = 0.037). One-quarter of all subjects did not follow-up within at least 2 years. Despite published guidelines, transition education appears lacking and the approach to transfer to adult cardiac care is not consistent. Given the increased risk of morbidity and mortality in this patient population, standardization of transition education and transfer processes appear warranted. PMID:26385471

  5. Partners in the Process: A Handbook on Transition for School and Community Programs Serving Learning Disabled Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern Maine, Portland. Human Services Development Inst.

    The handbook is intended for school and community programs helping learning disabled young adults make the transition from school to work. The first chapter describes development of the Transition Project by York County (Maine) and project components including referral, assessment, membership on the Transitional Pupil Evaluation Team, the…

  6. The role of hope in psychotherapy with older adults.

    PubMed

    Bergin, L; Walsh, S

    2005-01-01

    The positive impact of psychotherapy upon the mental health problems of older people is increasingly accepted. However little attention has been paid to the role of hope in working therapeutically with older adults. Three relevant bodies of literature, namely adult psychotherapy, hope in older adulthood, and coping with chronic and terminal illness, provide a starting point for examining the therapeutic uses of hope. However, it is argued that these literatures cannot provide a sufficiently comprehensive conceptualisation of hope in psychotherapy with elders. Firstly, it is considered that hope in therapy is directly affected by key experiences of ageing, namely: facing physical and/or cognitive deterioration and facing death. Also, these three bodies of literature have tended to dichotomise hope as either beneficial and adaptive or dysfunctional and maladaptive. A developmental perspective is used to critique this dichotomy and a clinical framework is provided which examines the role and utility of hope in older adult psychotherapy from a more integrated viewpoint embedded in the client's life history. The framework is comprised of three types of 'hope work': 'facilitating realistic hope,' 'the work of despair' and 'surviving not thriving'. Suggestions are made about how this work may be carried out and with whom.

  7. Transitioning the young adult with congenital heart disease for life-long medical care.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Susan M; Landzberg, Michael J

    2004-12-01

    Guidelines for the successful orchestration of transitioning of the adolescent and young and older adult patient with congenital heart disease to a health care system appropriate for their long-term congenital heart disease care and counseling appear necessary to improve patient and family confidence, education, therapy, life quality, and survival outcomes. Schema for care organization and delivery for adult patients with congenital heart disease remain primitive and largely unimplemented. The presence of a strong central care oversight organization and the establishment of a multi-institutional database to assist in assessment of care outcomes and guidelines appears requisite to these needs and for the establishment of transitioning guidelines for these patients as they assume a greater and deeper shared control of their futures with their caregivers.

  8. The role of goals and alcohol behavior during the transition out of college.

    PubMed

    Radomski, Sharon A; Read, Jennifer P; Bowker, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    Personal goals are desired outcomes that guide behavior (Palfai, Ralston, & Wright, 2011), and are typically oriented around age-appropriate developmental tasks (e.g., college graduation, employment). Goals and their pursuit take on much salience during senior year of college as individuals prepare for the transition into adult roles. This also is a time during which naturalistic changes in alcohol consumption are occurring. These changes may impact the relationship between age-related goals and their attainment, thus compromising the likelihood of a successful transition out of college. The present study examined whether and how changes in drinking over senior year moderate the association between achievement goals and related developmental task attainment as students move toward transitioning out of college. Alcohol-involved college seniors (N = 437; 62.5% female) were assessed via web survey in September of their senior year and again 1 year later (T4). Results of multinomial logistic regression revealed that greater achievement goals were predictive of college graduation (vs. remaining a continuing undergraduate), but only for those whose drinking decreased during senior year. Among those graduated by T4 (n = 307), achievement goals predicted pursuing graduate education (vs. being unemployed), but only for students whose drinking increased during senior year. Thus, achievement goals are important predictors of goal attainment as students prepare to transition out of college, and these goals can interact with drinking in complex ways during this time. Findings suggest that interventions aimed at bolstering personal goals and reducing drinking during senior year may increase the likelihood of successful transitions out of the college environment.

  9. Long Term Non-Invasive Ventilation in Children: Impact on Survival and Transition to Adult Care

    PubMed Central

    Chatwin, Michelle; Tan, Hui-Leng; Bush, Andrew; Rosenthal, Mark; Simonds, Anita Kay

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of children receiving domiciliary ventilatory support has grown over the last few decades driven largely by the introduction and widening applications of non-invasive ventilation. Ventilatory support may be used with the intention of increasing survival, or to facilitate discharge home and/or to palliate symptoms. However, the outcome of this intervention and the number of children transitioning to adult care as a consequence of longer survival is not yet clear. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we analysed the outcome in children (<17 years) started on home NIV at Royal Brompton Hospital over an 18 year period 1993-2011. The aim was to establish for different diagnostic groups: survival rate, likelihood of early death depending on diagnosis or discontinuation of ventilation, and the proportion transitioning to adult care. Results 496 children were commenced on home non invasive ventilation; follow-up data were available in 449 (91%). Fifty six per cent (n=254) had neuromuscular disease. Ventilation was started at a median age (IQR) 10 (3-15) years. Thirteen percent (n=59) were less than 1 year old. Forty percent (n=181) have transitioned to adult care. Twenty four percent (n=109) of patients have died, and nine percent (n=42) were able to discontinue ventilatory support. Conclusion Long term ventilation is associated with an increase in survival in a range of conditions leading to ventilatory failure in children, resulting in increasing numbers surviving to adulthood. This has significant implications for planning transition and adult care facilities. PMID:25933065

  10. Factors Influencing Changes in Eating Patterns Among Hong Kong Young Adults Transitioning to Tertiary Education.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sin Tung; Capra, Sandra; Leveritt, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Transitioning to tertiary education is a significant life course event that has the potential to influence lifelong eating patterns. This study used a theoretic model developed from a life course perspective to examine factors influencing the change of food choices among 31 young adults in Hong Kong after they moved on to tertiary education. Qualitative analysis of transcripts based on the constant comparative method revealed that present life course experiences, especially increased autonomy, and social-environmental factors strongly influenced young adults' present food choices. A model was developed from life course theory and social-ecological theory to reflect the factors that led to change of food choices among participants. The model provides unique insights on food choices of the future adult population. It could also be used as a reference for the development of nutrition education interventions targeting tertiary students as they experience increased autonomy. In conclusion, food choices of young adults on transitioning to tertiary education are strongly influenced by increased autonomy and change of social and environmental factors. PMID:27052300

  11. Unhealthy lifestyles among older adults: exploring transitions in Mexico and the US

    PubMed Central

    Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Yount, Kathryn; Agree, Emily M.

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle risk factors are important precursors of old age disease and disability, and the population level impact of these factors likely differs across countries that vary in their economic growth and the attributes of the populations that adopt and abandon unhealthy lifestyles. This paper describes the stage of “lifestyle transition” among older adults in two countries with vastly different trajectories of socio-economic development. A series of hypotheses are proposed on the socioeconomic patterns of health risk factors that would be expected in the two countries, given their economic circumstances and the historical timing of policy interventions that were initiated to mitigate lifestyle risks in these populations. The paper compares the prevalence of smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, obesity, and lack of physical exercise, as well as the socioeconomic and demographic covariates of these risk factors, among adults aged 55 and older in Mexico and the United States. The findings indicate that smoking- and physical-activity-related transitions toward healthier lifestyles are well under way among older adults in the United States but not in Mexico, whereas a trend toward reduced levels of obesity has just begun in the United States but not in Mexico. There is no evidence of a transition in heavy alcohol drinking in either country among older adults. PMID:25419206

  12. Role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Apkarian, A Vania; Mutso, Amelia A; Centeno, Maria V; Kan, Lixin; Wu, Melody; Levinstein, Marjorie; Banisadr, Ghazal; Gobeske, Kevin T; Miller, Richard J; Radulovic, Jelena; Hen, René; Kessler, John A

    2016-02-01

    The full role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) remains to be determined, yet it is implicated in learning and emotional functions, and is disrupted in negative mood disorders. Recent evidence indicates that AHN is decreased in persistent pain consistent with the idea that chronic pain is a major stressor, associated with negative moods and abnormal memories. Yet, the role of AHN in development of persistent pain has remained unexplored. In this study, we test the influence of AHN in postinjury inflammatory and neuropathic persistent pain-like behaviors by manipulating neurogenesis: pharmacologically through intracerebroventricular infusion of the antimitotic AraC; ablation of AHN by x-irradiation; and using transgenic mice with increased or decreased AHN. Downregulating neurogenesis reversibly diminished or blocked persistent pain; oppositely, upregulating neurogenesis led to prolonged persistent pain. Moreover, we could dissociate negative mood from persistent pain. These results suggest that AHN-mediated hippocampal learning mechanisms are involved in the emergence of persistent pain.

  13. Switching roles: the functional plasticity of adult tissue stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wabik, Agnieszka; Jones, Philip H

    2015-01-01

    Adult organisms have to adapt to survive, and the same is true for their tissues. Rates and types of cell production must be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to meet tissue demands in response to both local and systemic challenges. Recent work reveals how stem cell (SC) populations meet these requirements by switching between functional states tuned to homoeostasis or regeneration. This plasticity extends to differentiating cells, which are capable of reverting to SCs after injury. The concept of the niche, the micro-environment that sustains and regulates stem cells, is broadening, with a new appreciation of the role of physical factors and hormonal signals. Here, we review different functions of SCs, the cellular mechanisms that underlie them and the signals that bias the fate of SCs as they switch between roles. PMID:25812989

  14. Transitions in care among older adults receiving long-term services and supports.

    PubMed

    Toles, Mark P; Abbott, Katherine M; Hirschman, Karen B; Naylor, Mary D

    2012-11-01

    Recipients of long-term services and supports (LTSS) frequently transition between LTSS settings (e.g., assisted living facilities, nursing homes) and hospitals for acute changes in health. In this qualitative study, we analyzed findings from interviews with 57 recently hospitalized LTSS recipients and their family caregivers and described barriers and facilitators to high-quality care to support older adults through these care transitions. The themes that emerged strongly suggest that LTSS recipients and family caregivers do not receive needed information about the reasons for their transfers to hospitals, medical diagnoses, and planned treatments to address acute changes in health. Our findings indicate an urgent need for nurses and other health care team members to talk with LTSS recipients (and family caregivers) and ensure they are engaged and informed participants in care. We also found the need for research to test evidence-based transitional care for high-risk LTSS recipients and their family caregivers.

  15. Employment outcomes of transition-aged adults with autism spectrum disorders: a state of the States report.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Sloane; Cimera, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the employment outcomes of transition-aged adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) served by vocational rehabilitation services (VR) over the last 10 years by state. A secondary purpose was to compare employment outcomes of individuals with ASD to those of the overall transition-aged population served by VR for the same time period. Although there was variability both within and among states, the results of this study indicate that, over time, the number of young adults with ASD seeking VR services has increased; however, employment outcomes including the percent of adults with ASD achieving employment, the number of hours worked, and wages earned have not improved for this group. The cost to provide VR services to transition-aged adults with ASD was relatively stable over time. Transition-aged adults with ASD were more likely to become successfully employed as a result of receiving VR services than the overall population of transition-aged adults served by VR. However, the employed transition-aged adults consistently worked fewer hours and earned lower wages than those in the overall population. Factors that may influence variability within and among states, and between groups, and implications for research and practice are discussed.

  16. The role of WNT signaling in adult ovarian folliculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez Gifford, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site (WNT) signaling molecules are locally secreted glycoproteins that play a role in a number of physiological and pathological developmental processes. Components of the WNT signaling pathway have been demonstrated to impact reproductive functions including embryonic development of the sex organs, and regulation of follicle maturation controlling steroidogenesis in the postnatal ovary. Emerging evidence underscores the complexity of WNT signaling molecules in regulation of dynamic changes that occur in the ovary during the reproductive cycle. While disruption in the WNT signaling cascade has been recognized to have deleterious consequences to normal sexual development, more recent studies are beginning to highlight the importance of these molecules in adult ovarian function related to follicle development, corpus luteum formation, steroid production and fertility. Hormonal regulation of WNT genes and expression of members of the WNT signaling network, including WNT ligands, frizzled receptors and downstream signaling components that are expressed in the postnatal ovary at distinct stages of the estrous cycle, suggest a crucial role in normal ovarian function. Similarly, FSH stimulation of T cell factor-dependent gene expression requires input from β-catenin, a lynchpin molecule in canonical WNT signaling, further indicating β-catenin participation in regulation of follicle maturation. This review will focus on the multiple functions of WNT signaling in folliculogenesis in the adult ovary. PMID:26130815

  17. Perspectives From Before and After the Pediatric to Adult Care Transition: A Mixed-Methods Study in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, Marisa E.; Perlus, Jessamyn G.; Clark, Loretta M.; Haynie, Denise L.; Plotnick, Leslie P.; Guttmann-Bauman, Ines; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Among the many milestones of adolescence and young adulthood, transferring from pediatric to adult care is a significant transition for those with type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to understand the concerns, expectations, preferences, and experiences of pretransition adolescents and parents and posttransition young adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants completed questionnaires and responded to open-ended qualitative questions regarding self-management, self-efficacy, and their expectations and experiences with pediatric and adult care providers across the transition process. RESULTS At a mean age of 16.1 years, most pretransition adolescents had not yet discussed transferring care with their parents or doctors. Although many posttransition young adults reported positive, supportive interactions, several described challenges locating or establishing a relationship with an adult diabetes care provider. Qualitative themes emerged related to the anticipated timing of transfer, early preparation for transition, the desire for developmentally appropriate interactions with providers, the maintenance of family and social support, and strategies for coordinating care between pediatric and adult care providers. CONCLUSIONS Standardizing transition preparation programs in pediatric care and introducing transition-oriented clinics for late adolescents and young adults prior to adult care may help address patients’ preferences and common transfer-related challenges. PMID:24089544

  18. Emerging Adult Identity Development, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems During the Transition out of College

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Jonathan R.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as “maturing out,” are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (wave 1) and the two following years (waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of “maturing out” and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. PMID:27077443

  19. Symposium 6: Young people, artificial nutrition and transitional care. The nutritional challenges of the young adult with cystic fibrosis: transition.

    PubMed

    Morton, Alison M

    2009-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex multisystem disorder affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. Intestinal malabsorption occurs in approximately 90% of patients. In the past, malnutrition was an inevitable consequence of disease progression, leading to poor growth, impaired respiratory muscle function, decreased exercise tolerance and immunological impairment. A positive association between body weight and height and survival has been widely reported. The energy requirements of patients with CF vary widely and generally increase with age and disease severity. For many young adults requirements will be 120-150% of the age-related estimated average requirement. To meet these energy needs patients are encouraged to eat a high-fat high-energy diet with appropriate pancreatic enzyme supplements. Many patients are unable to achieve an adequate intake as a result of a variety of factors including chronic poor appetite, infection-related anorexia, gastro-oesophageal reflux and abdominal pain. Oral energy supplements and enteral tube feeding are widely used. Nutritional support has been shown to improve nutritional status and stabilise or slow the rate of decline in lung function. With such emphasis on nutritional intake and nutritional status throughout life, poor adherence to therapies and issues relating to body image are emerging. The median survival of patients with CF is increasing. CF is now considered a life-limiting disease of adulthood rather than a terminal childhood illness. With increased longevity new challenges are emerging that include the transition of young adults with CF to adult services, CF-related diabetes, disordered eating, osteoporosis, liver disease and transplantation. PMID:19698200

  20. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition: possible role in meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Pecina-Slaus, Nives; Cicvara-Pecina, Tatjana; Kafka, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchimal transition (EMT) is a process involved in invasion and metastasis of tumors. The occurrence of EMT during tumor progression resembles the developmental scenario and sheds light on important mechanisms for the initial step of metastasis - invasion where noninvasive tumor cells acquire motility and ultimately disseminate to distant organs. The hallmark of EMT is the loss of expression of the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. The numerous reports by many authors as well as our own results indicate that E-cadherin plays a role in CNS tumors - meningiomas. Our studies showed that 73 % of meningiomas had downregulation of E-cadherin. Moreover, loss of heterozygosity of E-cadherin was observed in 32 % of meningiomas. Bound to E-cadherin in adherens junctions is beta-catenin, whose translocation to the nucleus is yet another molecular event involved in EMT. In our study beta-catenin was progressively upregulated from meningothelial to atypical, while 60 % of anaplastic meningiomas showed upregulation and nuclear localization of the protein. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms that govern EMT will offer new approaches and targets to restrain metastasis.

  1. Role of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in Prostate Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Imran; Hamid, Abid; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Lall, Rahul K; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Globally, the cancer associated deaths are generally attributed to the spread of cancerous cells or their features to the nearby or distant secondary organs by a process known as metastasis. Among other factors, the metastatic dissemination of cancer cells is attributed to the reactivation of an evolutionary conserved developmental program known as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). During EMT, fully differentiated epithelial cells undergo a series of dramatic changes in their morphology, along with loss of cell to cell contact and matrix remodeling into less differentiated and invasive mesenchymal cells. Many studies provide evidence for the existence of EMT like states in prostate cancer (PCa) and suggest its possible involvement in PCa progression and metastasis. At the same time, the lack of conclusive evidence regarding the presence of full EMT in human PCa samples has somewhat dampened the interest in the field. However, ongoing EMT research provides new perspectives and unveils the enormous potential of this field in tailoring new therapeutic regimens for PCa management. This review summarizes the role of many transcription factors and other molecules that drive EMT during prostate tumorigenesis. PMID:25506896

  2. Sugar is an endogenous cue for juvenile-to-adult phase transition in plants

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sha; Cao, Li; Zhou, Chuan-Miao; Zhang, Tian-Qi; Lian, Heng; Sun, Yue; Wu, Jianqiang; Huang, Jirong; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Jia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    The transition from the juvenile to adult phase in plants is controlled by diverse exogenous and endogenous cues such as age, day length, light, nutrients, and temperature. Previous studies have shown that the gradual decline in microRNA156 (miR156) with age promotes the expression of adult traits. However, how age temporally regulates the abundance of miR156 is poorly understood. We show here that the expression of miR156 responds to sugar. Sugar represses miR156 expression at both the transcriptional level and post-transcriptional level through the degradation of miR156 primary transcripts. Defoliation and photosynthetic mutant assays further demonstrate that sugar from the pre-existing leaves acts as a mobile signal to repress miR156, and subsequently triggers the juvenile-to-adult phase transition in young leaf primordia. We propose that the gradual increase in sugar after seed germination serves as an endogenous cue for developmental timing in plants. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00269.001 PMID:23543845

  3. Family Histories and Multiple Transitions Among Homeless Young Adults: Pathways to Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the early family histories of homeless young adults, the types and number of transitions they experienced, and their pathways to the street. Intensive qualitative interviews were audio taped and transcribed with 40 homeless young adults 19 to 21 years of age in the Midwest. Findings show that family backgrounds were generally characterized by substance use, child maltreatment, and witnessing violence, all of which provide social context for understanding why so many of these young people opted to leave home in search of an alternative living situation. The current findings also reveal that while some young adults ran away from home as adolescents, others were “pushed out” (i.e., told to leave), or removed by state agencies. Current study findings illustrate that young adults’ trajectories are marked by multiple living arrangements such as home, foster care, detention facility, and drug rehabilitation. Overall, study results show that young adults’ family histories place them on trajectories for early independence marked by multiple transitions and numerous living situations, culminating in a lack of a permanent residence to call home. PMID:24151346

  4. Cytoskeletal disease: a role in the etiology of adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Binderman, I; Gadban, N; Yaffe, A

    2014-01-01

    All cells and organisms across the evolutionary spectrum, from the most primitive to the most complex, are mechanosensitive. As the cytoskeleton is a key in controlling the normal basal prestress of cells and therefore is involved in virtually all physiological cellular processes, abnormalities in this essential cellular characteristic may result in diseases. Indeed, many diseases have now been associated with abnormalities in cytoskeletal and nucleoskeletal proteins. We propose that adult periodontitis is, at least in part, such a cytoskeletal disease. It is well established that adult periodontitis starts by bacterial invasion at the interface between the tooth surface and marginal gingiva that induces a local inflammatory response. The inflammatory cells release metalloproteinases which degrade gingival collagenous fibrous tissue and loss of local tissue integrity that reduces the normal prestressed cell-extracellular matrix network. This is a major signaling trigger that induces a local and rapid release of ATP, which then activates P2X receptors and stimulates a calcium influx, further activating osteoclastic resorption of the alveolar bone. As periodontitis is a chronic disease, it seems reasonable to suggest that agents that maintain cytoskeletal tensegrity, for example, inhibitors of ATP receptors, may diminish the bone loss and may have a role in future periodontal therapy. PMID:23679579

  5. The Role of Personality Characteristics in Young Adult Driving

    PubMed Central

    PATIL, SUJATA M.; SHOPE, JEAN THATCHER; RAGHUNATHAN, TRIVELLORE E.; BINGHAM, C. RAYMOND

    2007-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle injury is the major cause of mortality among young adults. Information about the individual characteristics of those who drive dangerously could enhance traffic safety programs. The goal of this research was to examine the association between various personality-related characteristics and risky driving behaviors. Methods Young adults in Michigan, USA (n = 5,362) were surveyed by telephone regarding several personality factors (risk-taking, hostility, aggression, tolerance of deviance, achievement expectations) and driving behaviors (competitive driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, aggressive driving, and drink/driving). Michigan driver records were obtained to examine offenses, serious offenses, driving offense points, crashes and serious crashes in the three pre-interview years. Multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for age, race, and marital status were conducted separately by sex to identify personality factors related to driving. Results For men and women, greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and tolerance of deviance were significant predictors of a competitive attitude toward driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, driving aggression, and drink/driving. Greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and to a small degree, expectations for achievement predicted higher numbers of offenses, serious offenses, and points. Conclusion Traffic safety policies and programs could be enhanced through recognition of the role personality factors play in driving behavior and the incorporation of this knowledge into the design and implementation of interventions that modify the behaviors associated with them. PMID:17114089

  6. Employment Outcomes of Transition-Aged Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A State of the States Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Sloane; Cimera, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the employment outcomes of transition-aged adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) served by vocational rehabilitation services (VR) over the last 10 years by state. A secondary purpose was to compare employment outcomes of individuals with ASD to those of the overall transition-aged population…

  7. Students with Reading and Writing Challenges: Using Informal Assessment to Assist in Planning for the Transition to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitlington, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to adult life for students with reading and writing challenges is an area that is not often addressed. The purpose of this article is to relate the informal assessment process to the broader context of high stakes assessment, high school exit exams, diploma options, and transition planning; identify the competencies needed for a…

  8. Barriers and facilitators to successful transition from pediatric to adult inflammatory bowel disease care from the perspectives of providers

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Christine Weirich; Stollon, Natalie B.; Lucas, Matthew S.; Brumley, Lauren D.; Poole, Erika S.; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W.; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Mamula, Petar; Bonafide, Christopher P.; Schwartz, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background For adolescents and young adults (AYA) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the transition from pediatric to adult care is often challenging and associated with gaps in care. Our study objectives were to (1) identify outcomes for evaluating transition success and (2) elicit the major barriers and facilitators of successful transition. Methods We interviewed pediatric and adult IBD providers from across the United States with experience caring for AYAs with IBD until thematic saturation was reached after 12 interviews. We elicited the participants' backgrounds, examples of successful and unsuccessful transition of AYAs for whom they cared, and recommendations for improving transition using the Social-ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework. We coded interview transcripts using the constant comparative method and identified major themes. Results Participants reported evaluating transition success and failure using healthcare utilization outcomes (e.g. maintaining continuity with adult providers), health outcomes (e.g. stable symptoms), and quality of life outcomes (e.g. attending school). The patients' level of developmental maturity (i.e. ownership of care) was the most prominent determinant of transition outcomes. The style of parental involvement (i.e. helicopter parent vs. optimally-involved parent) also influenced outcomes as well as the degree of support by providers (e.g. care coordination). Conclusion IBD transition success is influenced by a complex interplay of patient developmental maturity, parenting style, and provider support. Multidisciplinary IBD care teams should aim to optimize these factors for each patient to increase the likelihood of a smooth transfer to adult care. PMID:25137417

  9. Occupational dream, relation to parents and depression in the early adult transition.

    PubMed

    Gooden, W; Toye, R

    1984-07-01

    Assessed the impact of difficulty forming an occupational dream and relating to parents on depression among college students in their late teens and early twenties. Becoming independent of parents and forming an occupational dream are seen as two central issues during this period of life. Results from 64 students suggest that having to give up a valued dream, viewing one's relation to mother as authority-obeyer, and doing little exploring of occupational choices are related significantly to depression (p less than .0004). The significance of these results is discussed in light of theories of depression and the possible importance of different parenting styles for young adults who are facing the early adult transition.

  10. Eat to reproduce: a key role for the insulin signaling pathway in adult insects

    PubMed Central

    Badisco, Liesbeth; Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Insects, like all heterotrophic organisms, acquire from their food the nutrients that are essential for anabolic processes that lead to growth (larval stages) or reproduction (adult stage). In adult females, this nutritional input is processed and results in a very specific output, i.e., the production of fully developed eggs ready for fertilization and deposition. An important role in this input-output transition is attributed to the insulin signaling pathway (ISP). The ISP is considered to act as a sensor of the organism's nutritional status and to stimulate the progression of anabolic events when the status is positive. In several insect species belonging to different orders, the ISP has been demonstrated to positively control vitellogenesis and oocyte growth. Whether or not ISP acts herein via a mediator action of lipophilic insect hormones (ecdysteroids and juvenile hormone) remains debatable and might be differently controlled in different insect orders. Most likely, insulin-related peptides, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormone are involved in a complex regulatory network, in which they mutually influence each other and in which the insect's nutritional status is a crucial determinant of the network's output. The current review will present an overview of the regulatory role of the ISP in female insect reproduction and its interaction with other pathways involving nutrients, lipophilic hormones and neuropeptides. PMID:23966944

  11. Care Transitions: A Leverage Point for Safe and Effective Medication Use in Older Adults – A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Mixon, Amanda S.; Neal, Erin; Bell, Susan; Powers, James S.; Kripalani, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Older adults often face challenges as they transition out of the acute care hospital, especially with regard to adhering to their medications. In this narrative review, we discuss medication adherence in older adults across the continuum of care, describing reasons for nonadherence, methods to assess adherence and tools to improve adherence, with particular focus on emerging techniques and technologies. Taking steps at care transitions to assess medications and foster adherence to the medication regimen can increase the safety of older adults following hospitalization. PMID:25277280

  12. The Role of Nigerian Public Libraries in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enwonwu, Rita C.

    1973-01-01

    To help the people in villages and rural areas in their efforts to become literate, librarians should, if necessary, conduct adult education classes, employ audio-visual aids, and even sell adult education materials in the library. (2 references) (Author)

  13. The role of very weak gamma-ray transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, W. David

    2007-04-01

    The success of a nuclear model is generally judged with respect to how well the model reproduces the experimental excitation spectrum and the transition strengths of the strongest γ-ray transitions. When many models apparently describe the same nucleus, measuring the weakest transitions very well can provide insight into which models are preferred and can lead to new physics when a simple model appears to break down. Gamma rays at the limits of detection are presented and the implications of these measurements for nuclear models are discussed.

  14. The Role of Person-Environment Interactions in Increased Alcohol Use in the Transition to College

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Aims Even among those at risk for problematic alcohol use, there is variability in developmental trajectories of drinking and related problems. This prospective study examined the role of person-environment interactions in increased drinking during the transition to college. Design The authors followed a sample of recent high school graduates to test whether protective environmental factors could delay increases in drinking among those high in trait-level risk factors. Setting Participants completed Web-based surveys. Participants A sample of 1,784 students in the incoming class of 2004 at a large public United States university completed high-school and first-semester-of-college assessments. Measurements Participants completed self-report measures of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, perceived awareness and caring from parents and other adults, sensation seeking, and impulsivity. Findings In the transition to college, high sensation seekers from more protective high school parental environments increased their alcohol use and problems more than did other students. Increases in alcohol problems were also high among more impulsive students from less protective environments. Whereas high sensation seekers drank equivalently in college regardless of high school perceived awareness and caring, those who had greater high school perceived awareness and caring did not experience as many alcohol-related problems in college. Conclusions Differences in drinking trajectories may be a function of person-environment interactions. Risk associated with high sensation seeking may be masked among adolescents in protective environments, but its emergence in the college transition predicts increases in alcohol use and related problems. PMID:21338432

  15. Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease: Self-Efficacy as a Factor in Readiness to Transition from Pediatric to Adult Medical Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Dabney

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) must develop self-efficacy and disease-management skills to transition successfully to adult medical care. This quantitative study explored whether self-efficacy, age, and gender were predictive of transition readiness of adolescents with SCD from pediatric to adult medical care.…

  16. Rethinking Healthcare Transitions and Policies: Changing and Expanding Roles in Transitional Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreño, Patricienn K.

    2014-01-01

    The breakdown of care transitions between various healthcare facilities, providers, and services is a major issue in healthcare, and accounts for over US$15 billion in healthcare expenditures annually. The transition between inpatient care and home care is a very delicate period where, too often, chronically ill patients get worse and wind up back…

  17. Dropout Prevention and the Role of Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Martin G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines New York State's initiative to address high school dropout rates, finding that few of the 12 pilot sites had explicit links to adult education. Suggests that adult basic education can be a driving force in a community to educate, assemble, organize, and facilitate discourse to support dropout prevention strategies. Urges adult educators…

  18. Integrating Social-Contextual and Intrapersonal Mechanisms of “Maturing Out”: Joint Influences of Familial-Role Transitions and Personality Maturation on Problem-Drinking Reductions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matthew R.; Ellingson, Jarrod M.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Maturing out” of problem drinking is associated with both role transitions (e.g., getting married) and personality development. However, little is known concerning how these two mechanisms jointly influence problem-drinking desistance. This study investigated whether salutary effects of role transitions and personality occur at different points in young-adult development and whether they mediate one another’s effects. Methods Participants were initially recruited as first-year undergraduates, with family history of alcoholism overrepresented by design (N=489; Sher et al., 1991). Using four waves of data at roughly ages 21, 25, 29, and 34, cross-lagged panel models estimated prospective relations among familial-role transitions (marriage or parenthood), personality (disinhibition, conscientiousness, and neuroticism), and problem drinking. Results Mixed support was found for the prediction of roles being more strongly associated with earlier maturing out of problem drinking and personality being more strongly associated with later maturing out. Regarding mediation, no evidence was found for the expectation that role effects would be mediated by personality. However, results did support mediation of personality effects by role transitions. Specifically, lower disinhibition and higher conscientiousness in emerging adulthood predicted role adoption, which, in turn, predicted later problem-drinking reductions. Family history of alcoholism also distally influenced these mediation processes. Conclusions The differential timing of role and personality effects is consistent with the notion of decreasing contextual influences and increasing intrapersonal influences across development. In light of role incompatibility theory, results suggest that, over the course of development, the association of familial roles with problem drinking may increasingly reflect problem-drinking effects on role entry (i.e., role selection) and decreasingly reflect role entry

  19. Pediatric Provider's Perspectives on the Transition to Adult Health Care for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Current Strategies and Promising New Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Karen A.; Warfield, Marji E.; Hurson, Jill; Delahaye, Jennifer; Crossman, Morgan K.

    2015-01-01

    Few youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) nationally report receiving services to help them transition from the pediatric health care system to the adult health care system. For example, only one-fifth (21.1%) of youth with ASD receive any transition planning services. To better understand why the transition from pediatric to adult health care…

  20. Connection and Caring: The Role of Educational Leadership in Adult Jewish Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lisa D.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores how the role of educational leadership can significantly enhance adult Jewish learning experiences through an in-depth examination of the position of site director at the Florence Melton Adult Mini-School, a two-year program of adult Jewish learning operating at more than sixty sites across North America. Applying the…

  1. Adult Children of Alcoholics and Their Family Roles: A Comparison of Incarcerated and Non-Incarcerated Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer Fay; And Others

    This study was conducted to empirically investigate the specific suggestion that, without help, children who play the scapegoat role in the alcoholic family may later end up in prison. Family roles assumed by incarcerated and non-incarcerated male and female Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) were compared. The incarcerated subjects were drawn…

  2. Let’s Empower and Prepare (LEAP): Evaluation of a Structured Transition Program for Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Vigen, Cheryl P.; Wood, Jamie R.; Ruelas, Valerie; Montoya, Lucy; Cohen, Marisa; Speer, Heather; Clark, Susan; Peters, Anne L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of a structured transition program compared with usual care in improving routine follow-up, clinical, and psychosocial outcomes among young adults with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eighty-one young adults in their last year of pediatric care were recruited from three clinics. Intervention group (IG) participants (n = 51) received a structured transition program incorporating tailored diabetes education, case management, group education classes, and access to a newly developed young adult diabetes clinic and transition website. Control group (CG) participants (n = 30) received usual care. The primary outcome was the number of routine clinic visits. Secondary outcomes included glycemic control, hypoglycemia, health care use, and psychosocial well-being. Assessments were conducted at baseline, and 6 and 12 months. RESULTS Limitations in CG follow-up prevented direct comparisons of adult care visits; however, at the 12-month follow-up among IG participants discharged from pediatric care (n = 32), 78% had one or more adult visits. Among IG participants, the total number of clinic visits did not differ between those who transitioned and those who remained in pediatric care (3.0 ± 1.24 vs. 3.11 ± 0.94, P = 0.74). IG compared with CG participants had improved glycemic control (−0.40 ± 1.16% vs. 0.42 ± 1.51% [4.4 ± 12.7 mmol/mol vs. 4.6 ± 16.5 mmol/mol], P = 0.01), incidence of severe hypoglycemia (0.0% vs. 16%, P = 0.02), and global well-being (P = 0.02) at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS A structured transition program was successful in facilitating transition to adult care without a decrease in clinical follow-up. Compared with usual care, the transition program facilitated improvements in glycemic control, hypoglycemia, and psychosocial well-being. PMID:25906787

  3. Is there a role for telemedicine in adult allergy services?

    PubMed

    Krishna, M T; Knibb, R C; Huissoon, A P

    2016-05-01

    Telemedicine refers to the application of telecommunication and information technology (IT) in the delivery of health and clinical care at a distance or remotely and can be broadly considered in two modalities: store-and-forward and real-time interactive services. Preliminary studies have shown promising results in radiology, dermatology, intensive care, diabetes, rheumatology and primary care. However, the evidence is limited and hampered by small sample sizes, paucity of randomized control studies and lack of data relating to cost-effectiveness, health-related quality of life and patient and clinician satisfaction. This review appraises the evidence from studies that have employed telemedicine tools in other disciplines and makes suggestions for its potential applications in specific clinical scenarios in adult allergy services. Possible examples include: triaging patients to determine the need for allergy tests; pre-assessment for specialized treatments such as allergen immunotherapy, follow-up to assess treatment response and side effects; and education in self-management plan including training updates for self-injectable adrenaline and nasal spray use. This approach might improve access for those with limited mobility or living far away from regional centres, as well as bringing convenience and cost savings for the patient and service provider. These potential benefits need to be carefully weighed against evidence of service safety and quality. Keys to success include delineation of appropriate clinical scenarios, patient selection, training, IT support and robust information governance framework. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to evaluate its role. PMID:26742680

  4. Role tuning between caregiver and care receiver during discharge transition: an illustration of role function mode in Roy's adaptation theory.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Y I

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a conceptual framework to explain the interaction between the caregiver and the care receiver during the discharge transition. Data from face-to-face interviews with 12 care receivers and 16 caregivers were subjected to constant comparative analysis. Findings revealed that role tuning was the process used by caregivers and care receivers to achieve a harmonious pattern of caregiving and care receiving during the transition from hospital to home. This empirical finding can illustrate the concept of role function mode in the Roy adaptation theory and sensitize healthcare providers to the needs of the families during the discharge transition.

  5. Early Entries into Adult Roles: Associations with Aggressive Behavior from Early Adolescence into Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Poduska, Jeanne M.; Kellam, Sheppard G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how early entries into adult roles are associated with aggressive and violent behavior occurring from early adolescence to young adulthood among 499 males and 578 females living in low-income, central-city neighborhoods. Among males, engagement in adult roles accounted for the relationship between higher levels of aggressive…

  6. Implications of an Advice-Giving and Teacher Role on Language Production in Adults with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Bourgeois, Michelle; Youmans, Gina; Hancock, Adrienne

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the two studies described in this paper was to assess whether adults with dementia could assume an advice-giving role (Study 1) and a teacher role (Study 2) despite their cognitive impairments. So far, no research on adults with dementia has compared language production in a social conversation condition with that in an…

  7. Mothers' and Fathers' Roles in Caring for an Adult Child with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, Michelle; Carroll, Annemaree; Cuskelly, Monica

    2011-01-01

    To date, there have been few studies of mothers' and fathers' roles in caring for their adult children with intellectual disabilities. The present study investigated the care-giving roles of mother and father couples caring for their adult offspring with an intellectual disability, their psychological health, and the demands and satisfaction of…

  8. Recommendations for the transition of patients with ADHD from child to adult healthcare services: a consensus statement from the UK adult ADHD network.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan; Adamou, Marios; Asherson, Philip; Coghill, David; Colley, Bill; Gudjonsson, Gisli; Hollis, Chris; McCarthy, Jane; Müller, Ulrich; Paul, Moli; Pitts, Mark; Arif, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this consensus statement was to discuss transition of patients with ADHD from child to adult healthcare services, and formulate recommendations to facilitate successful transition. An expert workshop was convened in June 2012 by the UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN), attended by a multidisciplinary team of mental health professionals, allied professionals and patients. It was concluded that transitions must be planned through joint meetings involving referring/receiving services, patients and their families. Negotiation may be required to balance parental desire for continued involvement in their child's care, and the child's growing autonomy. Clear transition protocols can maintain standards of care, detailing relevant timeframes, responsibilities of agencies and preparing contingencies. Transition should be viewed as a process not an event, and should normally occur by the age of 18, however flexibility is required to accommodate individual needs. Transition is often poorly experienced, and adherence to clear recommendations is necessary to ensure effective transition and prevent drop-out from services. PMID:27561259

  9. Social Networks and Health Among Older Adults in Lebanon: The Mediating Role of Support and Trust

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Toni C.; Ajrouch, Kristine J.; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Despite a growing body of literature documenting the influence of social networks on health, less is known in other parts of the world. The current study investigates this link by clustering characteristics of network members nominated by older adults in Lebanon. We then identify the degree to which various types of people exist within the networks. This study further examines how network composition as measured by the proportion of each type (i.e., type proportions) is related to health; and the mediating role of positive support and trust in this process. Method. Data are from the Family Ties and Aging Study (2009). Respondents aged ≥60 were selected (N = 195) for analysis. Results. Three types of people within the networks were identified: Geographically Distant Male Youth, Geographically Close/Emotionally Distant Family, and Close Family. Having more Geographically Distant Male Youth in one’s network was associated with health limitations, whereas more Close Family was associated with no health limitations. Positive support mediated the link between type proportions and health limitations, whereas trust mediated the link between type proportions and depressive symptoms. Discussion. Results document links between the social networks and health of older adults in Lebanon within the context of ongoing demographic transitions. PMID:25324295

  10. Young adults with risk factors for chronic disease: transition needs for survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Bashore, Lisa M

    2011-06-01

    This article includes a definition of transition, the current state of transition, a review of transition research, an overview of chronic disease in survivors of childhood cancer (SCC), and the transition of SCC. In addition, models of transition are discussed, and the barriers to transition as well as principles for successful transition are identified.

  11. The Role of "Creative Transfer" in Professional Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triantafyllaki, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of "knowledge transfer" in terms of expansion of prior knowledge, creativity and approaches to generating new knowledge. It explores professional transitions in which knowledge restructuring and identity reformation are pathways into greater work flexibility and adjustment. Two studies, exploring…

  12. Adolescents' Perceptions of Transition Importance, Readiness, and Likelihood of Future Success: The Role of Anticipatory Guidance.

    PubMed

    Syverson, Erin Phillips; McCarter, Robert; He, Jianping; D'Angelo, Lawrence; Tuchman, Lisa K

    2016-10-01

    Expert consensus supports anticipatory guidance around health care transition (HCT), but little is known about its impact on adolescents' perceptions of HCT. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of HCT anticipatory guidance delivery and the effect it had on participants' perceptions of HCT. Adolescents (n = 209) with special health care needs were administered National Survey for Children with Special Health Care Needs transition assessment questions, then reported perceptions of transition importance, readiness, and likely future success. Over half of the participants reported no history of discussion about transition to an adult provider (64%) or insurance needs (67%); just under half (43%) had not discussed their changing health care needs. In participants reporting receipt of anticipatory guidance, ratings of transition readiness and future success were significantly higher than those who received no anticipatory guidance, supporting that HCT anticipatory guidance has a significantly positive impact on adolescents' perceptions of the HCT process. PMID:27582491

  13. Transition to adult care in adolescent obesity: a systematic review and why it is a neglected topic.

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, V A; Baur, L A; Nguyen, B; Steinbeck, K S

    2014-04-01

    Transition in pediatric health care involves the purposeful, planned movement of patients from pediatric to adult services. Following the significant increases in long-term survival of chronic childhood diseases in the 1980s, transition has taken on an increasing importance in the management of these chronic diseases. In Australia, there is a conspicuous lack of programs/guidelines for transitioning adolescents with obesity. The authors sought to determine if this is an international phenomenon that should be addressed. This study aimed to identify what formal transition services or guidelines exist internationally for adolescents with overweight/obesity. Two systematic reviews of the published and 'gray' literature were implemented via searches of relevant databases, search engines and websites. The primary review eligibility criteria were documents published between 1982 and 2012 including any aspect of transitioning adolescents with overweight/obesity from pediatric to adult weight management services. The secondary review included current clinical practice guidelines/statements on pediatric obesity management published between 1992 and 2012, and transition recommendations contained within. Non-English language documents were excluded. Relevant text from eligible documents was systematically identified and extracted, and a qualitative synthesis of the data was prepared. Overall, 2272 unique records were identified from the literature searches. Three eligible articles were identified by the primary review. The secondary review identified 24 eligible guidelines/statements. In total, six of the identified documents contained information on transition in adolescent obesity-the most detailed documents provided only a brief statement recommending that transition from pediatric to adult weight management services should take place. In conclusion, internationally there is an absence of published intervention programs/policies, and brevity of clinical guidance and expert

  14. Adult Caregiving among American Indians: The Role of Cultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; McGuire, Lisa C.; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: With a sample of American Indian adults, we estimated the prevalence of adult caregiving, assessed the demographic and cultural profile of caregivers, and examined the association between cultural factors and being a caregiver. This is the first such study conducted with American Indians. Design and Methods: Data came from a…

  15. A Study on the Role of Computers in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannoukos, Georgios; Besas, Georgios; Hioctour, Vasilios; Georgas, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how knowledge of computers can affect our daily personal life as well as in the workplace in Greece. Our research is concerned with how useful the knowledge of computers is in the everyday life and work of adults and attempts to investigate the interest of adults for learning computer programmes and different subjects via…

  16. Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents: Their Roles and Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucowski, Richard; Hayden, Robert R.

    When children are raised in an environment where alcoholism is prominent, certain dysfunctional responses are learned as a way to cope with the challenge of that environment. This study was conducted to examine the learning styles of adult children of alcoholics. Subjects were college freshmen and self-identified adult children of alcoholics…

  17. The role of chiropractic care in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There are a rising number of older adults; in the US alone nearly 20% of the population will be 65 or older by 2030. Chiropractic is one of the most frequently utilized types of complementary and alternative care by older adults, used by an estimated 5% of older adults in the U.S. annually. Chiropractic care involves many different types of interventions, including preventive strategies. This commentary by experts in the field of geriatrics, discusses the evidence for the use of spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture, nutritional counseling and fall prevention strategies as delivered by doctors of chiropractic. Given the utilization of chiropractic services by the older adult, it is imperative that providers be familiar with the evidence for and the prudent use of different management strategies for older adults. PMID:22348431

  18. Prefrontal Cortex: Role in Acquisition of Overlapping Associations and Transitive Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Loren M.; Lykken, Christine; Kanter, Benjamin R.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-01-01

    "Transitive inference" refers to the ability to judge from memory the relationships between indirectly related items that compose a hierarchically organized series, and this capacity is considered a fundamental feature of relational memory. Here we explored the role of the prefrontal cortex in transitive inference by examining the performance of…

  19. The Role of School Psychologists in Partial Hospitalization Program-to-School Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechberger, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents transitioning from partial hospitalization programs-to-schools have both mental health and educational needs. As the leading mental health experts in schools, school psychologists are uniquely suited to address the needs of these students. However, their role in this transition process has yet to be explored. This study…

  20. Effects of Consonant-Vowel Transitions in Speech Stimuli on Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Doellinger, Michael; Burger, Martin; Hoppe, Ulrich; Bosco, Enrico; Eysholdt, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    We examined the neural activation to consonant-vowel transitions by cortical auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). The aim was to show whether cortical response patterns to speech stimuli contain components due to one of the temporal features, the voice-onset time (VOT). In seven normal-hearing adults, the cortical responses to four different monosyllabic words were opposed to the cortical responses to noise stimuli with the same temporal envelope as the speech stimuli. Significant hemispheric asymmetries were found for speech but not in noise evoked potentials. The difference signals between the AEPs to speech and corresponding noise stimuli revealed a significant negative component, which correlated with the VOT. The hemispheric asymmetries can be referred to rapid spectral changes. The correlation with the VOT indicates that the significant component in the difference signal reflects the perception of the acoustic change within the consonant-vowel transition. Thus, at the level of automatic processing, the characteristics of speech evoked potentials appear to be determined primarily by temporal aspects of the eliciting stimuli. PMID:21643536

  1. The role of temporal and dynamic signal components in the perception of syllable-final stop voicing by children and adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, Susan

    2004-04-01

    Adults whose native languages permit syllable-final obstruents, and show a vocalic length distinction based on the voicing of those obstruents, consistently weight vocalic duration strongly in their perceptual decisions about the voicing of final stops, at least in laboratory studies using synthetic speech. Children, on the other hand, generally disregard such signal properties in their speech perception, favoring formant transitions instead. These age-related differences led to the prediction that children learning English as a native language would weight vocalic duration less than adults, but weight syllable-final transitions more in decisions of final-consonant voicing. This study tested that prediction. In the first experiment, adults and children (eight and six years olds) labeled synthetic and natural CVC words with voiced or voiceless stops in final C position. Predictions were strictly supported for synthetic stimuli only. With natural stimuli it appeared that adults and children alike weighted syllable-offset transitions strongly in their voicing decisions. The predicted age-related difference in the weighting of vocalic duration was seen for these natural stimuli almost exclusively when syllable-final transitions signaled a voiced final stop. A second experiment with adults and children (seven and five years old) replicated these results for natural stimuli with four new sets of natural stimuli. It was concluded that acoustic properties other than vocalic duration might play more important roles in voicing decisions for final stops than commonly asserted, sometimes even taking precedence over vocalic duration.

  2. Role of Adult Education in the Green Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathur, J. C.

    1970-01-01

    Rural and agricultural extension, functional literacy education, preparation of agricultural experts, education of urban dwellers concerning agricultural matters, and other forms of adult education can contribute to modernization in India. (LY)

  3. Promotion of the Transition of Adult Patients with Childhood-Onset Chronic Diseases among Pediatricians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ishizaki, Yuko; Higashino, Hirohiko; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    The transition of adult patients with childhood-onset chronic diseases (APCCD) from pediatric to adult health-care systems has recently received worldwide attention. However, Japan is lagging behind European countries and North America as this concept of health-care transition was introduced only 10 years ago. In Japan, before the introduction of this concept, APCCD were referred to as “carryover patients,” who were often considered a burden in pediatric practice. In the late 1990s, groups composed of pediatric nephrologists, developmental and behavioral pediatricians, pediatric nurses, and special education teachers researching the quality of life of adult patients with chronic kidney disease began to discuss the physical and psychosocial problems of APCCD. In 2006, a group of pediatricians first introduced the term “transition” in a Japanese journal. By 2010, a group of adolescent nurses had begun a specialized training program aimed at supporting patients during the transitional period. In 2013, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan convened a research committee, focusing on issues related to social, educational, and medical support for APCCD, and the Japan Pediatric Society established a committee for the health-care transition of APCCD and summarized their statements. Moreover, in 2013, the Tokyo Metropolitan Children’s Medical Center initiated ambulatory services for APCCD managed by specialized nurses. The concept of health-care transition has rapidly spread over these past 10 years. The purpose of this article is to describe how this concept of health-care transition has advanced in Japan, such that APCCD now experience a positive pediatric to adult health-care transition. PMID:27803894

  4. Secondary Education Transition Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins.

    The Secondary Education Transition Model project at Colorado State University-Fort Collins represents a local and state commitment to serve students with severe handicaps who are moving into community work and living roles. These comprehensive transition services begin at the secondary education level and extend into the adult service system. The…

  5. Transition of gastroenterological patients from paediatric to adult care: A position statement by the Italian Societies of Gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Elli, Luca; Maieron, Roberto; Martelossi, Stefano; Guariso, Graziella; Buscarini, Elisabetta; Conte, Dario; di Giulio, Emilio; Staiano, Annamaria; Barp, Jacopo; Bassotti, Gabrio; Bianco, Maria Antonia; Buri, Luigi; Carrara, Maurizio; Ghidini, Benedetta; Giannini, Olivia; Knafelz, Daniela; Miele, Erasmo; Peralta, Sergio; Riccio, Elisabetta; Tomba, Carolina; Zilli, Maurizio; Guadagnini, Tiziana

    2015-09-01

    In 2013, four Italian Gastroenterological Societies (the Italian Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, the Italian Society of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists, the Italian Society of Endoscopy, and the Italian Society of Gastroenterology) formed a joint panel of experts with the aim of preparing an official statement on transition medicine in Gastroenterology. The transition of adolescents from paediatric to adult care is a crucial moment in managing chronic diseases such as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disease and liver transplantation. Improved medical treatment and availability of new drugs and surgical techniques have improved the prognosis of many paediatric disorders, prolonging survival, thus making the transition to adulthood possible and necessary. An inappropriate transition or the incomplete transmission of data from the paediatrician to the adult Gastroenterologist can dramatically decrease compliance to treatment and prognosis of a young patient, particularly in the case of severe disorders. For these reasons, the Italian gastroenterological societies decided to develop an official shared transition protocol. The resulting document discusses the factors influencing the transition process and highlights the main points to accomplish to optimize compliance and prognosis of gastroenterological patients during the difficult transition from childhood to adolescence and adulthood.

  6. "Kids Who Smoke Think that They Can Be Adults as Well": Children's Smoking and Transitions to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Beth S.; Dugdill, Lindsey; Porcellato, Lorna A.; Springett, R. Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to explore the ways in which preadolescents associate smoking with transitions to adulthood, in the context of sociological theories of childhood, using data from the Liverpool Longitudinal Study of Smoking. The research found that at age 9 many of the cohort argued that smoking was more acceptable for adults because they had…

  7. Interim Report 1985. Working Document. European Community Action Programme. Transition of Young People from Education to Adult and Working Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IFAPLAN, Brussels (Belgium). Programme Information Office.

    This document provides an interim report on 30 pilot projects that make up the European Community's second Programme on the Transition from Education to Adult and Working Life. The main part of the report consists of 10 sections reviewing activities in the 10 thematic or policy areas adopted, in consultation with national authorities, to…

  8. Welcome to College? Developing a Richer Understanding of the Transition Process for Adult First Year Students Using Reflective Written Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risquez, Angelica; Moore, Sarah; Morley, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the process of adjustment among adult learners by focusing on their own perceptions as they make the transition to higher education in an Irish setting, in order to gain a richer understanding about early university experience. The analysis of the journal-based reflections confirms existing insights about the complexity of…

  9. Systematic Review of the Impact of Transition Interventions for Adolescents With Chronic Illness on Transfer From Pediatric to Adult Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Chu, Patricia Y; Maslow, Gary R; von Isenburg, Megan; Chung, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Transfer from pediatric to adult care is a critical component of a high-quality transition experience for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with chronic illness. To examine the current evidence regarding the effect of transition interventions on care transfer, we performed a systematic review of studies that evaluated the effect of transition interventions on the specific health services outcome of transfer. The Medline, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases were searched for studies that evaluated 1) a discrete transition intervention for AYA, 2) included a comparison group, and 3) reported on the outcome of transfer from pediatric to adult healthcare. References were screened and reviewed separately by authors, and relevant study details were abstracted during the review process. Five studies from five different countries were included in the final analysis. All five studies were conducted in specialty care clinics, with three interventions involving a nurse practitioner or systems navigator and two interventions involving physicians. Four studies were retrospective observational studies, and one was a pilot randomized controlled trial. Three of the five studies found that the transition intervention was associated with increased rates of transfer while the other two showed no statistically significant effects. Overall, evaluation of transfer appears to be hindered by methodological challenges. Establishing clearer definitions and metrics of transfer and creating the infrastructure needed to monitor the transfer of patients more consistently are important goals. PMID:26209872

  10. Role of transition metal ferrocyanides (II) in chemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaluddin; Nath, Mala; Deopujari, Sushama W.; Sharma, Archana

    1990-05-01

    Due to ease of formation of cyanide under prebiotic conditions, cyanide ion might have formed stable complexes with transition metal ions on the primitive earth. In the course of chemical evolution insoluble metal cyano complexes, which settled at the bottom of primeval sea could have formed peptide and metal amino acid complexes through adsorption processes of amino acids onto these metal cyano complexes. Adsorption of amino acids such as glycine, aspartic acid, and histidine on copper ferrocyanide and zinc ferrocyanide have been studied over a wide pH range of 3.6 8.5. Amino acids were adsorbed on the metal ferrocyanide complexes for different time periods. The progress of the adsorption was followed spectro-photometrically using ninhydrin reagent. Histidine was found to show maximum adsorption on both the adsorbents at neutral pH. Zinc ferrocyanide exhibits good sorption behaviour for all the three amino acids used in these investigations.

  11. Transition between segregation and aggregation: the role of environmental constraints.

    PubMed

    Nicolis, Stamatios C; Halloy, José; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between sub-groups (species, strains) have been reported in many species among many taxae. We propose a generic model based on earlier experiments accounting for both conspecific (or between individuals of the same strains) and heterospecific (or between strains) interactions. The model predicts different collective behaviours without any change of individuals' algorithm as some key generic parameters such as the carrying capacity, the number of individuals involved and the strength of inter-attraction between sub-groups are varied. A key result is the possibility for sub-groups to segregate between patches and for transition between different patterns, even in absence of active agonistic behaviour. The model can be viewed as a network of feedbacks that is independent of the signals or cues involved in mixed groups interactions. Its predictions are therefore applicable to a wide spectrum of situations including social insects (inter castes interaction) and provides insights on possible mechanisms that can be at work. PMID:27599636

  12. Transition between segregation and aggregation: the role of environmental constraints

    PubMed Central

    Nicolis, Stamatios C.; Halloy, José; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between sub-groups (species, strains) have been reported in many species among many taxae. We propose a generic model based on earlier experiments accounting for both conspecific (or between individuals of the same strains) and heterospecific (or between strains) interactions. The model predicts different collective behaviours without any change of individuals’ algorithm as some key generic parameters such as the carrying capacity, the number of individuals involved and the strength of inter-attraction between sub-groups are varied. A key result is the possibility for sub-groups to segregate between patches and for transition between different patterns, even in absence of active agonistic behaviour. The model can be viewed as a network of feedbacks that is independent of the signals or cues involved in mixed groups interactions. Its predictions are therefore applicable to a wide spectrum of situations including social insects (inter castes interaction) and provides insights on possible mechanisms that can be at work. PMID:27599636

  13. The Role of Carbon in Catalytically Stabilized Transition Metal Sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Kelty,S.; Berhault, G.; Chianelli, R.

    2007-01-01

    Since WWII considerable progress has been made in understanding the basis for the activity and the selectivity of molybdenum and tungsten based hydrotreating catalysts. Recently, the focus of investigation has turned to the structure of the catalytically stabilized active catalyst. The surface of the catalytically stabilized MoS2 has been shown to be carbided with the formula MoSxCy under hydrotreating conditions. In this paper we review the basis for this finding and present new data extending the concept to the promoted TMS (transition metal sulfides) systems CoMoC and NiMoC. Freshly sulfided CoMoS and NiMoS catalyst have a strong tendency to form the carbided surface phases from any available carbon source.

  14. Mothers of Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Multiple Roles, Ethnicity and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhower, A.; Blacher, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Two opposing perspectives--role strain and role enhancement--were considered as predictive of women's psychological and physical health. The authors examined the relation between multiple role occupancy (parenting, employment, marriage) and well-being (depression and health) among mothers of young adults with intellectual disability…

  15. Health Literacy and Social Capital: What Role for Adult Literacy Partnerships and Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen; Balatti, Jo; Falk, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes the case for adult literacy (including numeracy) practitioners to play a greater role in health literacy initiatives in Australia. The paper draws on data from a national research project that investigated adult literacy partnerships and pedagogy viewed from a social capital perspective. The primary purpose of the project was to…

  16. Adolescent Urology and Transitional Care.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Babies with the major congenital anomalies of the genito-urinary tract have all-embracing holistic care during childhood. They require the same level of care in adult life. This is the role of transition and adolescent urology.

  17. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  18. How is nutrition transition affecting dietary adequacy in Eeyouch (Cree) adults of Northern Quebec, Canada?

    PubMed

    Johnson-Down, Louise M; Egeland, Grace M

    2013-03-01

    Rapid development, including the building of hydroelectric projects and roads in remote areas of Northern Quebec, Canada, has led to concerns about the contamination of traditional foods (TF) and a transition to a diet characterized by increased commercial food intake. A cross-sectional study of 850 Cree adults, aged ≥19 years, from 7 of the 9 Eeyouch communities was conducted during the spring and summer seasons of 2005-2008. Anthropometric measures were collected. TF and dietary intake were assessed using food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-h recalls. Obesity was high, with 77% of the women and 64% of the men classified as obese. Past-year TF consumption was 100%, and 41% of participants reported eating TF on the 24-h recall. TF intake as reported on both the FFQs and the 24-h recalls was higher in individuals aged >50 years of age and in men, relative to younger adults and women, respectively. TF consumption increased protein, vitamin D, iron, and magnesium in all individuals, and energy, cholesterol, magnesium, sodium, and zinc in men aged 19-50 years; it decreased vitamin C in men and women aged ≥51 years. Participants reported drinking a mean daily 0.78 ± 1.34 cans of soft drinks or other high-sugar beverages per day or 5.28% ± 8.92% of total energy. It is important to identify behaviours that are contributing to obesity and its health consequences in this population and to find culturally appropriate ways to promote the consumption of TF and to reduce the consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor beverages and food items.

  19. Speed-Dependent Modulation of the Locomotor Behavior in Adult Mice Reveals Attractor and Transitional Gaits

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Maxime; Josset, Nicolas; Roussel, Marie; Couraud, Sébastien; Bretzner, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Locomotion results from an interplay between biomechanical constraints of the muscles attached to the skeleton and the neuronal circuits controlling and coordinating muscle activities. Quadrupeds exhibit a wide range of locomotor gaits. Given our advances in the genetic identification of spinal and supraspinal circuits important to locomotion in the mouse, it is now important to get a better understanding of the full repertoire of gaits in the freely walking mouse. To assess this range, young adult C57BL/6J mice were trained to walk and run on a treadmill at different locomotor speeds. Instead of using the classical paradigm defining gaits according to their footfall pattern, we combined the inter-limb coupling and the duty cycle of the stance phase, thus identifying several types of gaits: lateral walk, trot, out-of-phase walk, rotary gallop, transverse gallop, hop, half-bound, and full-bound. Out-of-phase walk, trot, and full-bound were robust and appeared to function as attractor gaits (i.e., a state to which the network flows and stabilizes) at low, intermediate, and high speeds respectively. In contrast, lateral walk, hop, transverse gallop, rotary gallop, and half-bound were more transient and therefore considered transitional gaits (i.e., a labile state of the network from which it flows to the attractor state). Surprisingly, lateral walk was less frequently observed. Using graph analysis, we demonstrated that transitions between gaits were predictable, not random. In summary, the wild-type mouse exhibits a wider repertoire of locomotor gaits than expected. Future locomotor studies should benefit from this paradigm in assessing transgenic mice or wild-type mice with neurotraumatic injury or neurodegenerative disease affecting gait. PMID:26941592

  20. Resocializing Adults for Their New Role as Consumer-Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnane, Jennifer Aden

    2008-01-01

    Adults today have been submerged in a consumer society from a very young age and face decisions as consumers on a daily basis. Realizing and understanding the impact of these decisions are vital to functioning in a consumer society in order to achieve the greatest benefit for one's family, the environment, and society as a whole. Given that the…

  1. Administering Adult Literacy Programs: The Role of Strategic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Steve Olu

    In an era of rising public criticism of education and decreasing resources, strategic planning can be a major tool for educational administrators who wish to respond to the increasing challenges their adult literacy programs face. Strategic planning can be defined as a disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and…

  2. Police Role in Removing Juveniles from Adult Jails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    The detention of juveniles in adult jails and lockups has long been a moral issue characterized by sporadic public concern and minimal action towards its resolution. Approximately 500,000 or more juveniles are held in jails each year. Rationales for keeping children in jails have included public safety, protection of children from themselves or…

  3. The Role of Avocados in Complementary and Transitional Feeding.

    PubMed

    Comerford, Kevin B; Ayoob, Keith T; Murray, Robert D; Atkinson, Stephanie A

    2016-01-01

    Infant dietary patterns tend to be insufficient sources of fruits, vegetables, and fiber, as well as excessive in salt, added sugars, and overall energy. Despite the serious long-term health risks associated with suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake, a large percentage of infants and toddlers in the U.S. do not consume any fruits or vegetables on a daily basis. Since not all fruits and vegetables are nutritionally similar, guidance on the optimal selection of fruits and vegetables should emphasize those with the greatest potential for nutrition and health benefits. A challenge is that the most popularly consumed fruits for this age group (i.e., apples, pears, bananas, grapes, strawberries) do not closely fit the current general recommendations since they tend to be overly sweet and/or high in sugar. Unsaturated oil-containing fruits such as avocados are nutritionally unique among fruits in that they are lower in sugar and higher in fiber and monounsaturated fatty acids than most other fruits, and they also have the proper consistency and texture for first foods with a neutral flavor spectrum. Taken together, avocados show promise for helping to meet the dietary needs of infants and toddlers, and should be considered for inclusion in future dietary recommendations for complementary and transitional feeding. PMID:27213450

  4. The Role of Avocados in Complementary and Transitional Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, Kevin B.; Ayoob, Keith T.; Murray, Robert D.; Atkinson, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Infant dietary patterns tend to be insufficient sources of fruits, vegetables, and fiber, as well as excessive in salt, added sugars, and overall energy. Despite the serious long-term health risks associated with suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake, a large percentage of infants and toddlers in the U.S. do not consume any fruits or vegetables on a daily basis. Since not all fruits and vegetables are nutritionally similar, guidance on the optimal selection of fruits and vegetables should emphasize those with the greatest potential for nutrition and health benefits. A challenge is that the most popularly consumed fruits for this age group (i.e., apples, pears, bananas, grapes, strawberries) do not closely fit the current general recommendations since they tend to be overly sweet and/or high in sugar. Unsaturated oil-containing fruits such as avocados are nutritionally unique among fruits in that they are lower in sugar and higher in fiber and monounsaturated fatty acids than most other fruits, and they also have the proper consistency and texture for first foods with a neutral flavor spectrum. Taken together, avocados show promise for helping to meet the dietary needs of infants and toddlers, and should be considered for inclusion in future dietary recommendations for complementary and transitional feeding. PMID:27213450

  5. Role of the tuning parameter at magnetic quantum phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, V.; Stockert, O.; Huang, C.-L.; Bagrets, N.; Kittler, W.; Taubenheim, C.; Pilawa, B.; Woitschach, S.; Huesges, Z.; Lucas, S.; Schneidewind, A.; Grube, K.; Löhneysen, H. v.

    2015-07-01

    Heavy-fermion systems, with their competition between Kondo and RKKY interactions, offer a rich variety of materials that may be driven to a magnetic quantum phase transition. Quite often, a quantum critical point can be approached by chemical substitution, notably of isoelectric ligands of Ce, as in CeCu6- x Au x and CePd1- x Ni x Al. While in the former we compare pressure and concentration tuning of the magnetic structure, the latter has the additional feature of geometric frustration due to the distorted kagomé sublattice of Ce atoms in the basal plane. We further present the system CeAu2Ge2 where minor structural differences between crystals grown from Sn or Au-Ge flux lead to pronounced differences in the magnetic structure, with several field-induced phases in samples grown from Au-Ge flux. Finally, non-isoelectronic substitution of Ti by V is studied in CeTi1- x V x Ge3 where CeTiGe3 is a ferromagnet, thus allowing the study of ferromagnetic quantum criticality, a rare case for heavy-fermion systems.

  6. The Role of Avocados in Complementary and Transitional Feeding.

    PubMed

    Comerford, Kevin B; Ayoob, Keith T; Murray, Robert D; Atkinson, Stephanie A

    2016-01-01

    Infant dietary patterns tend to be insufficient sources of fruits, vegetables, and fiber, as well as excessive in salt, added sugars, and overall energy. Despite the serious long-term health risks associated with suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake, a large percentage of infants and toddlers in the U.S. do not consume any fruits or vegetables on a daily basis. Since not all fruits and vegetables are nutritionally similar, guidance on the optimal selection of fruits and vegetables should emphasize those with the greatest potential for nutrition and health benefits. A challenge is that the most popularly consumed fruits for this age group (i.e., apples, pears, bananas, grapes, strawberries) do not closely fit the current general recommendations since they tend to be overly sweet and/or high in sugar. Unsaturated oil-containing fruits such as avocados are nutritionally unique among fruits in that they are lower in sugar and higher in fiber and monounsaturated fatty acids than most other fruits, and they also have the proper consistency and texture for first foods with a neutral flavor spectrum. Taken together, avocados show promise for helping to meet the dietary needs of infants and toddlers, and should be considered for inclusion in future dietary recommendations for complementary and transitional feeding.

  7. Adult roles in community-based youth empowerment programs: implications for best practices.

    PubMed

    Messias, Deanne K Hilfinger; Fore, Elizabeth M; McLoughlin, Kerry; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Current literature on community-based youth empowerment programs provides few specific operational descriptions of adult roles. This research addressed that gap by exploring the perspectives and experiences of adults actively engaged with youth empowerment programs. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews, field observations, and interactive group discussions with adult program leaders. The following dimensions of adults' work were identified: putting youth first; raising the bar for youth performance; creating the space and making things happen; being in relationships; exerting influence, control, and authority; and communicating and connecting with the broader community. These findings provide guidance for the development of best practices in community-based youth empowerment programs.

  8. Employment and post-secondary educational activities for young adults with autism spectrum disorders during the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the post-high school educational and occupational activities for 66 young adults with autism spectrum disorders who had recently exited the secondary school system. Analyses indicated low rates of employment in the community, with the majority of young adults (56%) spending time in sheltered workshops or day activity centers. Young adults with ASD without an intellectual disability were three times more likely to have no daytime activities compared to adults with ASD who had an intellectual disability. Differences in behavioral functioning were observed by employment/day activity group. Our findings suggest that the current service system may be inadequate to accommodate the needs of youths with ASD who do not have intellectual disabilities during the transition to adulthood.

  9. Supplement for Adult Service Providers: A Curricular Approach To Support the Transition to Adulthood of Adolescents with Visual or Dual Sensory Impairments and Cognitive Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, John; And Others

    This handbook supplement, for adult service providers, is part of a packet intended to aid educators, families, and adult service providers to facilitate the transition from school to adult life in the community for students with both cognitive disabilities and visual or dual sensory impairments. Emphasis is on preparation of students for adult…

  10. Transitioning issues in adolescent to young adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors: an approach for a growing population.

    PubMed

    Young, Guy

    2010-09-01

    The major adverse effect of factor replacement therapy in patients with hemophilia is the development of neutralizing antibodies termed inhibitors. This complication renders standard factor replacement therapy ineffective resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Until recently, the population of adults with inhibitors was relatively small due to the death of many of the patients from HIV that they contracted from contaminated factor in the early 1980s. With the advent of factor products with reduced risks for deadly infections in the mid-1980s to early 1990s, a cohort of inhibitor patients is now beginning to enter adulthood thus raising the issues regarding the transition of these patients into adulthood. It is, therefore, expected that adult hematologists will be seeing more inhibitor patients and that pediatric hematologists will be faced with managing this transition process, which may not necessarily include transition to an adult facility or adult hematologist. This review will discuss the various issues ranging from choice of medical provider to a discussion of psychosocial and financial issues facing this specific patient population.

  11. Role of thermal heating on the voltage induced insulator-metal transition in VO2.

    PubMed

    Zimmers, A; Aigouy, L; Mortier, M; Sharoni, A; Wang, Siming; West, K G; Ramirez, J G; Schuller, Ivan K

    2013-02-01

    We show that the main mechanism for the dc voltage or dc current induced insulator-metal transition in vanadium dioxide VO(2) is due to local Joule heating and not a purely electronic effect. This "tour de force" experiment was accomplished by using the fluorescence spectra of rare-earth doped micron sized particles as local temperature sensors. As the insulator-metal transition is induced by a dc voltage or dc current, the local temperature reaches the transition temperature indicating that Joule heating plays a predominant role. This has critical implications for the understanding of the dc voltage or dc current induced insulator-metal transition and has a direct impact on applications which use dc voltage or dc current to externally drive the transition. PMID:23414038

  12. A biopsychosocial model for the management of patients with sickle-cell disease transitioning to adult medical care.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Lori E; Quinn, Charles T; Kalinyak, Karen A

    2015-04-01

    The lifespan of patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD) continues to increase, and most affected individuals in high-resource countries now live into adulthood. This necessitates a successful transition from pediatric to adult health care. Care for transitioning patients with SCD often falls to primary care providers who may not be fully aware of the many challenges and issues faced by patients and the current management strategies for SCD. In this review, we aim to close the knowledge gap between primary care providers and specialists who treat transitioning patients with SCD. We describe the challenges and issues encountered by these patients, and we propose a biopsychosocial multidisciplinary approach to the management of the identified issues. Examples of this approach, such as transition-focused integrated care models and quality improvement collaboratives, with the potential to improve health outcomes in adulthood are also described. PMID:25832469

  13. A biopsychosocial model for the management of patients with sickle-cell disease transitioning to adult medical care.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Lori E; Quinn, Charles T; Kalinyak, Karen A

    2015-04-01

    The lifespan of patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD) continues to increase, and most affected individuals in high-resource countries now live into adulthood. This necessitates a successful transition from pediatric to adult health care. Care for transitioning patients with SCD often falls to primary care providers who may not be fully aware of the many challenges and issues faced by patients and the current management strategies for SCD. In this review, we aim to close the knowledge gap between primary care providers and specialists who treat transitioning patients with SCD. We describe the challenges and issues encountered by these patients, and we propose a biopsychosocial multidisciplinary approach to the management of the identified issues. Examples of this approach, such as transition-focused integrated care models and quality improvement collaboratives, with the potential to improve health outcomes in adulthood are also described.

  14. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. PMID:25750611

  15. The role and significance of nurses in managing transitions to palliative care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Emma; Broom, Alex; Good, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Nurses are generally present, and often influential, in supporting patient and family acceptance of medical futility and in assisting doctors in negotiating referral to palliative care. Yet the specificities of the nursing role and how nurses may contribute to timely and effective referrals is not well understood. This study aimed to systematically explore hospital-based nurses’ accounts of the transition to palliative care, and the potential role of nurses in facilitating more effective palliative care transitions. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Setting Two health services with public as well as private clinical environments in a major metropolitan area of Australia. Participants Hospital-based nurses (n=20) who regularly work with patients at the point of referral and in managing transitions to palliative care. Results Four significant themes emerged from thematic analysis. These include: (1) professional dynamics and the roles played by nurses in initiating the transition to palliative care; (2) the value of nurses’ informal interactions in timely and effective transitions; (3) the emerging challenge of managing task-oriented nursing versus intense emotional nursing work at the point of medical futility and (4) the emotional burden experienced by nurses within this clinical context. Nurses self-reported occupying critical albeit complex roles in the management of medical futility and the transition to palliative care. They reported experiencing significant emotional burden in balancing interpersonal and interprofessional relationships during this time. Conclusions The results suggest that nurses may be utilised in a more formalised and systematic fashion in the context of managing medical futility and the need to topicalise the transition, with the focus shifted away from medical referrals towards more team-based and patient-centred timely transitions. Further research focused on the experiences of doctors, allied health

  16. [The nurse's role in a residential facility for disabled adults].

    PubMed

    Hadid, Karine; Galiano, Béatrice; Eynard, Nathalie; Pascual, Marie

    2013-12-01

    The nurse's main mission in a medical-social support centre for disabled adults is to promote the health of the mentally disabled person, offering them a care approach which respects the framework of their life project. To do that, it is essential to support the person in a global care approach, the pillars of which are regained awareness of the forgotten body and a positioning as a player in their own health. PMID:24427914

  17. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV

  18. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV

  19. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Igietseme, Joseph U.; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S.; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O.; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV

  20. The Role of the Nurse and the Preoperative Assessment in Patient Transitions

    PubMed Central

    MALLEY, ANN; KENNER, CAROLE; KIM, TIFFANY; BLAKENEY, BARBARA

    2015-01-01

    Transitions in care in the perioperative environment are numerous and should be considered high-risk endeavors. The preoperative area is the first transition in care for a surgical patient and should be considered a critical dimension of care transition. The purposes of this study were to identify nursing’s contributions to transitions in care in the perioperative environment and to identify the role of the preoperative assessment in this transition. Qualitative descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with 24 nurses in a 975-bed medical center. The themes that arose in the focus groups were: (1) understanding patient vulnerabilities, (2) multidimensional communication, (3) managing patients’ expectations, and (4) nursing’s role in compensating for gaps. We conclude that the nurse’s role in the preoperative assessment during the transition of preoperative care is that of advocate who identifies the patient’s needs and risk factors that may be affected by the surgical experience. This study suggests that the nursing preoperative assessment can be useful in identifying and defining patients’ risk factors not just for surgery, but for the entire perioperative care trajectory. PMID:26227526

  1. Sex Role Orientation Across the Adult Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaks, Peggy M.; And Others

    It was hypothesized that four different "life lines" would affect sex role orientations, specifically intimacy, parenting, grandparenting, and work. Subjects were 74 men and 43 women, white, upper middle class with a mean education level of 14 years. Each participant completed a demographic questionnaire, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, a Life Events…

  2. The Role of Spirituality in Transition to Parenthood: Qualitative Research Using Transformative Learning Theory.

    PubMed

    Klobučar, Nataša Rijavec

    2016-08-01

    This article presents results of a qualitative study of 12 adult couples making transition to parenthood. The aim of the study was to research the meaning of transition to parenthood through the lens of transformative learning theory. Transformative learning theory explains learning through meaning-making of that life experience. In this paper, the spiritual dimension of learning is emphasized. An important part of research methodology included biographical method, using semi-structured interviews before and after the birth of the first child. The research showed that transformative learning occurs in different spheres of life during transition to parenthood. This paper discusses the spiritual dimension of learning, meaning-making and presents results of the research.

  3. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  4. Food Security in Older Adults: Community Service Provider Perceptions of Their Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Heather H.; Dwyer, John J. M.; Edwards, Vicki; Senson, Christine; Edward, H. Gayle

    2007-01-01

    Food insecurity in older adults is influenced by financial constraints, functional disability, and isolation. Twenty-eight social- and community-service providers participated in four focus groups to report (a) perceptions and experiences with food insecurity in their older clients, (b) beliefs about their potential role(s) in promoting food…

  5. Crafts Marketing Programs for Older Adults: A Role for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; Smith, Judy L.

    1984-01-01

    Examines various values of crafts programs for older persons, including the potential economic returns of such programs. Discusses some problems related to the production and marketing of crafts along with the role of education in income-producing programs. (BH)

  6. Study protocol: longitudinal study of the transition of young people with complex health needs from child to adult health services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young people with complex health needs have impairments that can limit their ability to carry out day-to-day activities. As well as coping with other developmental transitions, these young people must negotiate the transfer of their clinical care from child to adult services. The process of transition may not be smooth and both health and social outcomes may suffer. Increasingly, policy-makers have recognised the need to ensure a smoother transition between children’s and adult services, with processes that are holistic, individualised, and person-centred; however, there is little outcome data to support proposed models of care. This study aims to identify the features of transitional care that are potentially effective and efficient for young people with complex health needs making their transition. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study. 450 young people aged 14 years to 18 years 11 months (with autism spectrum disorder and an additional mental health problem, cerebral palsy or diabetes) will be followed through their transition from child to adult services and will contribute data at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 months. We will collect data on: health and wellbeing outcomes (participation, quality of life, satisfaction with services, generic health status (EQ-5D-Y) and condition specific measure of disease control or management); exposure to proposed beneficial features of services (such as having a key worker, appropriate involvement of parents); socio-economic characteristics of the sample; use of condition-related health and personal social services; preferences for the characteristics of transitional care. We will us regression techniques to explore how outcomes vary by exposure to service features and by characteristics of the young people. These data will populate a decision-analytic model comparing the costs and benefits of potential alternative ways of organising transition services. In order to better understand mechanisms and aid

  7. Work-role transition: from staff nurse to clinical nurse educator.

    PubMed

    Manning, Liz; Neville, Stephen

    2009-07-01

    This article presents the findings of a study describing Clinical Nurse Educators' experiences, as they recall their transition from staff nurse to the Clinical Nurse Educator role, within a New Zealand District Health Board. Nurse Educator roles influence clinical practice and professional development of nurses, and although designated as a senior role nationally, the complexities and size of the role are poorly understood. A qualitative descriptive methodology utilising transition theory as a conceptual framework underpinned the study. A sample of eight Clinical Nurse Educators from a New Zealand District Health Board were interviewed about their transition from experienced staff nurse to inexperienced senior nurse. Data were analysed using a general inductive approach. Participants found the Clinical Nurse Educator role was more complex than anticipated, with no preparation for the role and sub-optimal orientation periods being provided by the District Health Board. As a result, signs of stress were evident as the enormity of the role became apparent. Consequently, employers need to ensure that appropriate orientation programmes and mentorship are inherent in health care organisations.

  8. Promoting Post-School Success for All: The Role of Collaboration in Person-Centered Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Craig A.; Ferrara, Denise L.

    2006-01-01

    Successful collaboration and problem solving are the foundational processes on which meaningful transition plans are constructed. This article discusses the process of planning for the transition from school to adult life for students with disabilities and suggests that person-centered planning is an ideal vehicle for promoting collaboration and…

  9. Swedish Adult Education in Transition? Implications of the Work First Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Eva; Warvik, Gun-Britt

    2012-01-01

    The Swedish government recently launched a number of short-term initiatives within the framework of formal adult education. These initiatives are: vocational adult education, education for commercial drivers and apprenticeship education for adults. The new initiatives can be seen as education for the short-term needs of the world of work and we…

  10. Adult Transitions to Learning in the USA: What Do PIAAC Survey Results Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Margaret Becker; Paulson, Usha G.

    2016-01-01

    The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) assessed literacy, numeracy, and technology-related skills of adults and found skill levels of US adults are well below the international average. In a world where advanced skills are requisite to workplace competitiveness, low skills are a danger sign. An initial PIAAC…

  11. Developmental Change in the Function of Movement Systems: Transition of the Pectoral Fins between Respiratory and Locomotor Roles in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Melina E.

    2014-01-01

    An animal may experience strikingly different functional demands on its body’s systems through development. One way of meeting those demands is with temporary, stage-specific adaptations. This strategy requires the animal to develop appropriate morphological states or physiological pathways that address transient functional demands as well as processes that transition morphology, physiology, and function to that of the mature form. Recent research on ray-finned (actinopterygian) fishes is a developmental transition in function of the pectoral fin, thereby providing an opportunity to examine how an organism copes with changes in the roles of its morphology between stages of its life history. As larvae, zebrafish alternate their pectoral fins in coordination with the body axis during slow swimming. The movements of their fins do not appear to contribute to the production of thrust or to stability but instead exchange fluid near the body for cutaneous respiration. The morphology of the larval fin includes a simple stage-specific endoskeletal disc overlaid by fan-shaped adductor and abductor muscles. In contrast, the musculoskeletal system of the mature fin consists of a suite of muscles and bones. Fins are extended laterally during slow swimming of the adult, without the distinct, high-amplitude left-right fin alternation of the larval fin. The morphological and functional transition of the pectoral fin occurs through juvenile development. Early in this period, at about 3 weeks post-fertilization, the gills take over respiratory function, presumably freeing the fins for other roles. Kinematic data suggest that the loss of respiratory function does not lead to a rapid switch in patterns of fin movement but rather that both morphology and movement transition gradually through the juvenile stage of development. Studies relating structure to function often focus on stable systems that are arguably well adapted for the roles they play. Examining how animals navigate

  12. Comparison of role conception and role deprivation in LPN-transition students and traditional ADN students in a specially designed associate program.

    PubMed

    Lengacher, C A; Keller, R

    1992-02-01

    This study compared differences in role orientation and role deprivation between 41 LPN-transition students and 123 basic traditional associate degree nursing (ADN) students upon entry and exit to a specially designed ADN program. The Corwin Role Conception Scale was used to assess role conception and deprivation. Statistically significant differences were noted upon entry between LPN-transition students and traditional ADN students in professional and service role conceptions and in role deprivation, upon exit in professional role conception and role deprivation between LPN-transition and traditional ADN students, and in professional role conception within the LPN-transition students. No differences were found within traditional ADN students from entry to exit of the program.

  13. Transitions during cephalopod life history: the role of habitat, environment, functional morphology and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Robin, Jean-Paul; Roberts, Michael; Zeidberg, Lou; Bloor, Isobel; Rodriguez, Almendra; Briceño, Felipe; Downey, Nicola; Mascaró, Maite; Navarro, Mike; Guerra, Angel; Hofmeister, Jennifer; Barcellos, Diogo D; Lourenço, Silvia A P; Roper, Clyde F E; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Green, Corey P; Mather, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Cephalopod life cycles generally share a set of stages that take place in different habitats and are adapted to specific, though variable, environmental conditions. Throughout the lifespan, individuals undertake a series of brief transitions from one stage to the next. Four transitions were identified: fertilisation of eggs to their release from the female (1), from eggs to paralarvae (2), from paralarvae to subadults (3) and from subadults to adults (4). An analysis of each transition identified that the changes can be radical (i.e. involving a range of morphological, physiological and behavioural phenomena and shifts in habitats) and critical (i.e. depending on environmental conditions essential for cohort survival). This analysis underlines that transitions from eggs to paralarvae (2) and from paralarvae to subadults (3) present major risk of mortality, while changes in the other transitions can have evolutionary significance. This synthesis suggests that more accurate evaluation of the sensitivity of cephalopod populations to environmental variation could be achieved by taking into account the ontogeny of the organisms. The comparison of most described species advocates for studies linking development and ecology in this particular group.

  14. Transitions during cephalopod life history: the role of habitat, environment, functional morphology and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Robin, Jean-Paul; Roberts, Michael; Zeidberg, Lou; Bloor, Isobel; Rodriguez, Almendra; Briceño, Felipe; Downey, Nicola; Mascaró, Maite; Navarro, Mike; Guerra, Angel; Hofmeister, Jennifer; Barcellos, Diogo D; Lourenço, Silvia A P; Roper, Clyde F E; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Green, Corey P; Mather, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Cephalopod life cycles generally share a set of stages that take place in different habitats and are adapted to specific, though variable, environmental conditions. Throughout the lifespan, individuals undertake a series of brief transitions from one stage to the next. Four transitions were identified: fertilisation of eggs to their release from the female (1), from eggs to paralarvae (2), from paralarvae to subadults (3) and from subadults to adults (4). An analysis of each transition identified that the changes can be radical (i.e. involving a range of morphological, physiological and behavioural phenomena and shifts in habitats) and critical (i.e. depending on environmental conditions essential for cohort survival). This analysis underlines that transitions from eggs to paralarvae (2) and from paralarvae to subadults (3) present major risk of mortality, while changes in the other transitions can have evolutionary significance. This synthesis suggests that more accurate evaluation of the sensitivity of cephalopod populations to environmental variation could be achieved by taking into account the ontogeny of the organisms. The comparison of most described species advocates for studies linking development and ecology in this particular group. PMID:24880797

  15. Role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal-cortical memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Takashi; Inokuchi, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Acquired memory is initially dependent on the hippocampus (HPC) for permanent memory formation. This hippocampal dependency of memory recall progressively decays with time, a process that is associated with a gradual increase in dependency upon cortical structures. This process is commonly referred to as systems consolidation theory. In this paper, we first review how memory becomes hippocampal dependent to cortical dependent with an emphasis on the interactions that occur between the HPC and cortex during systems consolidation. We also review the mechanisms underlying the gradual decay of HPC dependency during systems consolidation from the perspective of memory erasures by adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Finally, we discuss the relationship between systems consolidation and memory precision. PMID:24552281

  16. Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliland, Ronald L.

    Transits of the planets Mercury and especially Venus have been exciting events in the development of astronomy over the past few hundred years. Just two years ago the first transiting extra-solar planet, HD 209458b, was discovered, and subsequent studies during transit have contributed fundamental new knowledge. From the photometric light curve during transit one obtains a basic confirmation that the radial velocity detected object is indeed a planet by allowing precise determination of its mass and radius relative to these stellar quantities. From study of spectroscopic changes during transit it has been possible to probe for individual components of the transiting planets atmosphere. Planet transits are likely to become a primary tool for detection of new planets, especially other Earth-like planets with the Kepler Discovery Mission. Looking ahead, the additional aperture of the James Webb Space Space Telescope promises to allow the first possibility of studying the atmosphere of extra-solar Earth-analogue planets, perhaps even providing the first evidence of direct relevance to the search for signs of life on other planets.

  17. Essential role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adult hippocampal function

    PubMed Central

    Monteggia, Lisa M.; Barrot, Michel; Powell, Craig M.; Berton, Olivier; Galanis, Victor; Gemelli, Terry; Meuth, Sven; Nagy, Andreas; Greene, Robert W.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2004-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates neuronal development and function. However, it has been difficult to discern its role in the adult brain in influencing complex behavior. Here, we use a recently developed inducible knockout system to show that deleting BDNF in broad forebrain regions of adult mice impairs hippocampal-dependent learning and long-term potentiation. We use the inducible nature of this system to show that the loss of BDNF during earlier stages of development causes hyperactivity and more pronounced hippocampal-dependent learning deficits. We also demonstrate that the loss of forebrain BDNF attenuates the actions of desipramine, an antidepressant, in the forced swim test, suggesting the involvement of BDNF in antidepressant efficacy. These results establish roles for BDNF in the adult, and demonstrate the strength of this inducible knockout system in studying gene function in the adult brain. PMID:15249684

  18. Age-dependent role for Ras-GRF1 in the late stages of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Michael J; Trouche, Stéphanie; Jin, Shan-Xue; Feig, Larry A

    2014-03-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus plays a pivotal role in pattern separation, a process required for the behavioral task of contextual discrimination. One unique feature of the dentate gyrus that contributes to pattern separation is adult neurogenesis, where newly born neurons play a distinct role in neuronal circuitry. Moreover,the function of neurogenesis in this brain region differs in adolescent and adult mice. The signaling mechanisms that differentially regulate the distinct steps of adult neurogenesis in adolescence and adulthood remain poorly understood. We used mice lacking RASGRF1(GRF1), a calcium-dependent exchange factor that regulates synaptic plasticity and participates in contextual discrimination performed by mice, to test whether GRF1 plays a role in adult neurogenesis.We show Grf1 knockout mice begin to display a defect in neurogenesis at the onset of adulthood (~2 months of age), when wild-type mice first acquire the ability to distinguish between closely related contexts. At this age, young hippocampal neurons in Grf1 knockout mice display severely reduced dendritic arborization. By 3 months of age, new neuron survival is also impaired. BrdU labeling of new neurons in 2-month-old Grf1 knockout mice shows they begin to display reduced survival between 2 and 3 weeks after birth, just as new neurons begin to develop complex dendritic morphology and transition into using glutamatergic excitatory input. Interestingly, GRF1 expression appears in new neurons at the developmental stage when GRF1 loss begins to effect neuronal function. In addition, we induced a similar loss of new hippocampal neurons by knocking down expression of GRF1 solely in new neurons by injecting retrovirus that express shRNA against GRF1 into the dentate gyrus. Together, these findings show that GRF1 expressed in new neurons promotes late stages of adult neurogenesis. Overall our findings show GRF1 to be an age-dependent regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which

  19. Social Identity and the Transition to Entrepreneurship: The Role of Group Identification with Workplace Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obschonka, Martin; Goethner, Maximilian; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Cantner, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    What role does social identity play in the transition from employed work to entrepreneurship? It was expected that social identity affects the cognitive processes that, according to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), underlie the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Focusing on academic scientists' intentions to commercialize research…

  20. Between Gate-Keeping and Support: Teachers' Perception of Their Role in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuconato, Morena; du Bois-Reymond, Manuela; Lunabba, Harry

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers perceive their role in supporting and guiding students in transitions. Do teachers see themselves more as gatekeepers or as supporters? The analysis draws upon qualitative data collected in Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, and Finland. Based on the analysis of teachers' interviews, we developed three…

  1. Gender-Role Attitudes and Behavior across the Transition to Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Priess, Heather A.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of social structural theory and identity theory, the current study examined changes in gender-role attitudes and behavior across the first-time transition to parenthood and following the birth of a second child for experienced mothers and fathers. Data were analyzed from the ongoing longitudinal Wisconsin Study of Families and Work.…

  2. Peer Selection and Socialization in Adolescent Depression: The Role of School Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Natalie P.; Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated homophily in depressive symptoms among adolescent friends, resulting from both peer selection and socialization processes. However, developmental differences and the role of school transitions in these processes have not been elucidated. A sample of 367 (51% female) adolescents was followed from 6th to 11th grade to…

  3. The History and Role of Libraries in Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horning, Alice

    2010-01-01

    Illiteracy is a huge problem, socially, economically and educationally. This study of the history and current practices of American public libraries examines their role in supporting the development of human literate abilities and in helping all Americans to be critically literate in order to participate fully and successfully in our society. This…

  4. Effectiveness of Health System Services and Programs for Youth to Adult Transitions in Mental Health Care: A Systematic Review of Academic Literature.

    PubMed

    Embrett, Mark G; Randall, Glen E; Longo, Christopher J; Nguyen, Tram; Mulvale, Gillian

    2016-03-01

    Youth shifting to adult mental health services often report experiencing frustrations with accessing care that adequately replaces the youth services they had received. This systematic review assesses the peer reviewed evidence on services/programs aimed at addressing youth to adult transitions in mental health services. Findings suggest little data exists on the effectiveness of transition services/programs. While the available evidence supports meetings between youth and youth caseworkers prior to transitions occurring, it also verifies that this is not common practice. Other identified barriers to effective transitions were categorized as logistical (ineffective system communication), organizational (negative incentives), and related to clinical governance.

  5. Identifying process and outcome indicators of successful transitions from child to adult mental health services: protocol for a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Cleverley, Kristin; Bennett, Kathryn; Jeffs, Lianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A significant proportion of youth need to transition from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health services (AMHS); however, the transition process is not well understood and often experienced poorly by youth. In the effort to design and evaluate standards of practice for transitions, there is a need to identify key elements of a successful transition. The objectives of this scoping review are to: (1) identify definitions of successful transitions from CAMHS to AMHS; and (2) identify indicators that have been used to measure CAMHS–AMHS transition care processes and quality, and outcomes. Methods We will search 8 electronic bibliographic databases from 1980 to 2016 (eg, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO), professional associations, policy documents, and other grey literature to identify relevant material. We will include experimental, quasi-experimental, observational studies, and non-research studies (guidelines, narrative reviews, policy documents) examining the transition from CAMHS to AMHS. 2 raters will independently screen each retrieved title and abstract for eligibility using the study inclusion criteria (level 1), and then will independently assess full-text articles to determine if these meet the inclusion criteria (level 2). Data extraction will be completed and results will be synthesised both quantitatively and qualitatively. Ethics and dissemination The results of the scoping review will be used to develop a set of indicators that will be prioritised and evaluated in a Delphi consensus study. This will serve as a foundation for the development of the first instrument to assess the quality and success of CAMHS–AMHS transitions. Ethics approval is not required for this scoping study. PMID:27381213

  6. The Role of Preschool Relational and Physical Aggression in the Transition to Kindergarten: Links with Social-Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gower, Amy L.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The transition to kindergarten has important ramifications for future achievement and psychosocial outcomes. Research suggests that physical aggression may be related to difficulty during school transitions, yet no studies to date have examined the role of relational aggression in these transitions. This article examines how…

  7. "Just take your medicine and everything will be fine": Responsibilisation narratives in accounts of transitioning young people with HIV into adult care services in Australia.

    PubMed

    Newman, Christy E; Persson, Asha; Miller, Angela; Brown, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    Young people who have grown up with perinatally acquired HIV in wealthy nations are increasingly transitioning into adult care settings which expect more independence and self-regulation than paediatric care. Drawing on the first qualitative study on growing up with HIV in Australia, this paper examines "responsibilisation" narratives in semi-structured interviews conducted with young people with HIV and their paediatric and adult care providers. Three dominant narratives were identified: responsibilisation as imperative, practice and contest. This suggests that while young people growing up with HIV in an advanced liberal setting such as Australia may value the independence of adult care, and appreciate the need to take responsibility for their health, the practices involved in becoming a responsible health citizen are shaped by individual histories and circumstances, and in some cases, can lead to serious contestation and conflict with care providers. Placing a stronger emphasis on what young people can gain from taking an active role in managing their health may more successfully foster responsibilisation, rather than focusing on what they will lose. Clinicians could benefit from greater support regarding how to engage young people with the elements of responsibilisation likely to resonate more meaningfully at different points in their lives.

  8. Gender role attitudes across the transition to adolescent motherhood in Mexican-origin families.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2015-06-01

    Using longitudinal data collected at four time points from 191 dyads of Mexican-origin adolescent first-time mothers and their mother figures, we examined changes in and socialization of traditional gender role attitudes across the transition to parenthood using latent growth curve modeling and actor-partner interdependence modeling. Longitudinal growth models indicated that, regardless of nativity status, adolescent mothers' and their foreign-born mother figures' gender role attitudes became more egalitarian across adolescents' transition to parenthood, spanning from the 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. Furthermore, actor-partner interdependence modeling suggested that adolescents' and their mother figures' gender role attitudes during adolescents' third trimester of pregnancy equally contributed to subsequent increases in one another's gender role attitudes at 10 months postpartum. Importantly, this reciprocal socialization process was not moderated by adolescent mothers' nor by their mother figures' nativity status. Findings suggest that it is important to understand the cultural and intergenerational family processes that contribute to the development of gender role attitudes during the transition to parenthood for adolescent mothers and their mother figures in Mexican-origin families.

  9. A system-wide innovation in transition services: transforming the home care liaison role.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Carl A; Fraser, Julie; Camus, Susann; Henderson, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    This article describes how a provincial health authority in Canada improved patient care and staff satisfaction by transforming the role of home care (HC) liaison. The transformation focused on clearly defining the role, function and reporting structure, and identifying which healthcare providers could fill the liaison role. The transformation included adoption of transition best practices, leveraging an electronic referral system, creation of an interprofessional team, standardization of tools/orientation, and strong evaluation metrics, centralizing decision making, and developing a process for streaming referrals. The authors identify key success factors that made the transformation possible, as well as challenges and work that remains to sustain the change. PMID:24492265

  10. A system-wide innovation in transition services: transforming the home care liaison role.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Carl A; Fraser, Julie; Camus, Susann; Henderson, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    This article describes how a provincial health authority in Canada improved patient care and staff satisfaction by transforming the role of home care (HC) liaison. The transformation focused on clearly defining the role, function and reporting structure, and identifying which healthcare providers could fill the liaison role. The transformation included adoption of transition best practices, leveraging an electronic referral system, creation of an interprofessional team, standardization of tools/orientation, and strong evaluation metrics, centralizing decision making, and developing a process for streaming referrals. The authors identify key success factors that made the transformation possible, as well as challenges and work that remains to sustain the change.

  11. Physiological and pathological roles of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Jennifer Q; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2015-01-01

    Summary Prolonged mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening results in mitochondrial energetic dysfunction, organelle swelling, rupture and typically a type of necrotic cell death. However, acute opening of the MPTP has a critical physiologic role in regulating mitochondrial Ca2+ handling and metabolism. Despite the physiological and pathological roles that the MPTP orchestrates, the proteins that comprise the pore itself remain an area of ongoing investigation. Here, we will discuss the molecular composition of the MPTP and its role in regulating cardiac physiology and disease. A better understanding of MPTP structure and function will likely suggest novel cardioprotective therapeutic approaches. PMID:25651175

  12. Roles of Engineering Correlations in Hypersonic Entry Boundary Layer Transition Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.; King, Rudolph A.; Kergerise, Michael A.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to design and operate hypersonic entry vehicles are constrained by many considerations that involve all aspects of an entry vehicle system. One of the more significant physical phenomenon that affect entry trajectory and thermal protection system design is the occurrence of boundary layer transition from a laminar to turbulent state. During the Space Shuttle Return To Flight activity following the loss of Columbia and her crew of seven, NASA's entry aerothermodynamics community implemented an engineering correlation based framework for the prediction of boundary layer transition on the Orbiter. The methodology for this implementation relies upon the framework of correlation techniques that have been in use for several decades. What makes the Orbiter boundary layer transition correlation implementation unique is that a statistically significant data set was acquired in multiple ground test facilities, flight data exists to assist in establishing a better correlation and the framework was founded upon state of the art chemical nonequilibrium Navier Stokes flow field simulations. The basic tenets that guided the formulation and implementation of the Orbiter Return To Flight boundary layer transition prediction capability will be reviewed as a recommended format for future empirical correlation efforts. The validity of this approach has since been demonstrated by very favorable comparison of recent entry flight testing performed with the Orbiter Discovery, which will be graphically summarized. These flight data can provide a means to validate discrete protuberance engineering correlation approaches as well as high fidelity prediction methods to higher confidence. The results of these Orbiter engineering and flight test activities only serve to reinforce the essential role that engineering correlations currently exercise in the design and operation of entry vehicles. The framework of information-related to the Orbiter empirical boundary layer transition

  13. Bread type intake is associated with lifestyle and diet quality transition among Bedouin Arab adults.

    PubMed

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Shai, Iris; Kaufman-Shriqui, Vered; German, Larissa; Vardi, Hillel; Fraser, Drora

    2009-11-01

    The traditionally semi-nomadic Bedouin Arabs in Israel are undergoing urbanisation with concurrent lifestyle changes, including a shift to using unfortified white-flour bread instead of wholewheat bread as the main dietary staple. We explored associations between the transition from wholewheat to white-flour bread and (1) lifestyle factors, (2) overall diet quality, and (3) health status. We conducted a nutrition survey among 451 Bedouin adults, using a modified 24 h recall questionnaire. Bread intake accounted for 32.7 % of the total energy intake. Those consuming predominantly white bread (PWB) (n 327) were more likely to be urban (OR 2.79; 95 % CI 1.70, 4.58), eating store-bought rather than homemade bread (OR 8.18; 95 % CI 4.34, 15.41) and currently dieting (OR 4.67; 95 % CI 1.28, 17.11) than those consuming predominantly wholewheat bread (PWWB) (n 124). PWB consumption was associated with a lower intake of dietary fibre (23.3 (se 0.6) v. 41.8 (se 1.0) g/d; P < or = 0.001), a higher intake of saturated fats (26.9 v. 24.6 % of total fat; P = 0.013) and lower intakes of Fe (11.0 (se 0.3) v. 16.7 (se 0.4) mg/d), Mg (262.2 (se 5.9) v. 490.3 (se 9.8) mg/d), vitamin E (6.5 (se 0.2) v. 8.6 (se 0.3) mg/d) and most B vitamins than PWWB consumption (P < 0.001 for all), after adjusting for total energy intake. Among those aged > or = 40 years, PWB consumption was associated with a 9.85-fold risk (95 % CI 2.64, 36.71; P = 0.001) of having one or more chronic conditions, as compared with PWWB consumption, after controlling for other risk factors. White bread intake was associated with a less traditional lifestyle and poorer diet quality, and may constitute a useful marker for at-risk subgroups to target for nutritional interventions.

  14. Role of childhood food patterns on adult cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Kaikkonen, Jari E; Mikkilä, Vera; Raitakari, Olli T

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that childhood nutrition plays a role in the adulthood cardiovascular health. A lifelong tracking of dietary habits, following a long-term exposure to unhealthy dietary patterns or independent effects, is a potential effect-mediating mechanism. Dietary patterns have been studied by data-driven and hypothesis-based approaches. Typically, either data-driven healthy or prudent childhood dietary patterns have been characterized and found to be associated with lower adulthood cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the published cohort studies. With regard to the individual food groups or food quality indices, intakes particularly of vegetables and fruits (or fiber indicating plant food intake) and polyunsaturated fatty acids have shown protective effects. The evidence which could confirm the long-term healthiness of a hypothesis-based Mediterranean diet is limited, requiring further investigation. Overall, the recent literature strengthens the view that a healthy childhood diet is associated with lowered adulthood CVD risk.

  15. Role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cognition in physiology and disease: pharmacological targets and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Costa, Veronica; Lugert, Sebastian; Jagasia, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a remarkable form of brain structural plasticity by which new functional neurons are generated from adult neural stem cells/precursors. Although the precise role of this process remains elusive, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is important for learning and memory and it is affected in disease conditions associated with cognitive impairment, depression, and anxiety. Immature neurons in the adult brain exhibit an enhanced structural and synaptic plasticity during their maturation representing a unique population of neurons to mediate specific hippocampal function. Compelling preclinical evidence suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis is modulated by a broad range of physiological stimuli which are relevant in cognitive and emotional states. Moreover, multiple pharmacological interventions targeting cognition modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition, recent genetic approaches have shown that promoting neurogenesis can positively modulate cognition associated with both physiology and disease. Thus the discovery of signaling pathways that enhance adult neurogenesis may lead to therapeutic strategies for improving memory loss due to aging or disease. This chapter endeavors to review the literature in the field, with particular focus on (1) the role of hippocampal neurogenesis in cognition in physiology and disease; (2) extrinsic and intrinsic signals that modulate hippocampal neurogenesis with a focus on pharmacological targets; and (3) efforts toward novel strategies pharmacologically targeting neurogenesis and identification of biomarkers of human neurogenesis.

  16. Role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cognition in physiology and disease: pharmacological targets and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Costa, Veronica; Lugert, Sebastian; Jagasia, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a remarkable form of brain structural plasticity by which new functional neurons are generated from adult neural stem cells/precursors. Although the precise role of this process remains elusive, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is important for learning and memory and it is affected in disease conditions associated with cognitive impairment, depression, and anxiety. Immature neurons in the adult brain exhibit an enhanced structural and synaptic plasticity during their maturation representing a unique population of neurons to mediate specific hippocampal function. Compelling preclinical evidence suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis is modulated by a broad range of physiological stimuli which are relevant in cognitive and emotional states. Moreover, multiple pharmacological interventions targeting cognition modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition, recent genetic approaches have shown that promoting neurogenesis can positively modulate cognition associated with both physiology and disease. Thus the discovery of signaling pathways that enhance adult neurogenesis may lead to therapeutic strategies for improving memory loss due to aging or disease. This chapter endeavors to review the literature in the field, with particular focus on (1) the role of hippocampal neurogenesis in cognition in physiology and disease; (2) extrinsic and intrinsic signals that modulate hippocampal neurogenesis with a focus on pharmacological targets; and (3) efforts toward novel strategies pharmacologically targeting neurogenesis and identification of biomarkers of human neurogenesis. PMID:25977081

  17. Being a (Good) Student: Conceptions of Identity of Adult Basic Education Participants Transitioning to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Mina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of identity of a category of students that has rarely been studied in the context of higher education. These are adults who have participated in GED preparation or English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) courses in Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs. A college education is increasingly necessary for…

  18. [Transition to adult care for children with chronic neurological disorders; which is the best way to make it?].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villares, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Chronic neurological disorders in children have significant effects on adult medical and social function. Transition from pediatric to adult services is a complex process. No objective data are available to inform physicians about the most effective approach. Nevertheless the most recommended approach is a joint pediatric/adult transition clinic. Malnutrition, either under or overnutrition, is a common condition among neurologically impaired children. Undernutrition is most prevalent, and its causes are diverse: insufficient caloric intake, excessive nutrient losses and abnormal energy metabolism. Malnutrition is associated with significant morbidity, while nutritional rehabilitation improves overall health as well as quality of life. It is not easy to determine which the nutritional needs in these patients are. Besides, they often present difficulties for oral feeding, mainly due to oromotor dysfunction. Gastrointestinal symptoms, gastro esophageal reflux and constipation, as well as spasticity, scoliosis and joint deformities contribute to these difficulties. Because of that, an assessment of nutritional status should be performed periodically, and to assess efficacy and security of oral intake. If modifying oral diet we cannot confirm an adequate support, a nasogastric tube or a gastrostomy need to be considered. Often, a fundoplication is associated to the placement of a gastrostomy. Although the outcomes in a better nutritional status and quality of life are often obtained, it is not an easy decision for families. PMID:25077342

  19. Functional role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a therapeutic strategy for mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Jun, Heechul; Mohammed Qasim Hussaini, Syed; Rigby, Michael J; Jang, Mi-Hyeon

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the process of generating new neurons from neural stem cells, plays significant roles in synaptic plasticity, memory, and mood regulation. In the mammalian brain, it continues to occur well into adulthood in discrete regions, namely, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its role in the etiology of mental disorders. In addition, adult hippocampal neurogenesis is highly correlated with the remission of the antidepressant effect. In this paper, we discuss three major psychiatric disorders, depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction, in light of preclinical evidence used in establishing the neurobiological significance of adult neurogenesis. We interpret the significance of these results and pose questions that remain unanswered. Potential treatments which include electroconvulsive therapy, deep brain stimulation, chemical antidepressants, and exercise therapy are discussed. While consensus lacks on specific mechanisms, we highlight evidence which indicates that these treatments may function via an increase in neural progenitor proliferation and changes to the hippocampal circuitry. Establishing a significant role of adult neurogenesis in the pathogenicity of psychiatric disorders may hold the key to potential strategies toward effective treatment.

  20. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor. PMID:26319254

  1. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor.

  2. Services for young people with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder transitioning from child to adult mental health services: a national survey of mental health trusts in England.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charlotte L; Newell, Karen; Taylor, John; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Transition from child to adult mental health services is considered to be a difficult process, particularly for individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article presents results from a national survey of 36 mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts across England, the findings indicate a lack of accurate data on the number of young people with ADHD transitioning to, and being seen by, adult services. Less than half of the trusts had a specialist adult ADHD service and in only a third of the trusts were there specific commissioning arrangements for adult ADHD. Half of the trusts reported that young people with ADHD were prematurely discharged from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) because there were no suitable adult services. There was also a lack of written transition protocols, care pathways, commissioned services for adults with ADHD and inadequate information sharing between services. The findings advocate the need to provide a better transition service underpinned by clear, structured guidelines and protocols, routine data collection and information sharing across child and adult services. An increase in the commission of specialist adult ADHD clinics is needed to ensure individuals have access to appropriate support and care.

  3. Prefrontal cortex: role in acquisition of overlapping associations and transitive inference.

    PubMed

    DeVito, Loren M; Lykken, Christine; Kanter, Benjamin R; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-03-01

    "Transitive inference" refers to the ability to judge from memory the relationships between indirectly related items that compose a hierarchically organized series, and this capacity is considered a fundamental feature of relational memory. Here we explored the role of the prefrontal cortex in transitive inference by examining the performance of mice with selective damage to the medial prefrontal cortex. Damage to the infralimbic and prelimbic regions resulted in significant impairment in the acquisition of a series of overlapping odor discrimination problems, such that animals with prefrontal lesions required twice as many trials to learn compared to sham-operated controls. Following eventually successful acquisition, animals with medial prefrontal lesions were severely impaired on a transitive inference probe test, whereas they performed as well as controls on a test that involved a nontransitive judgment from a novel odor pairing. These results suggest that the prefrontal cortex is part of an integral hippocampal-cortical network essential for relational memory organization.

  4. Prebiotic coordination chemistry: The potential role of transition-metal complexes in the chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, M.

    1979-01-01

    In approaching the extremely involved and complex problem of the origin of life, consideration of the coordination chemistry appeared not only as a possibility but as a necessity. The first model experiments appear to be promising because of prebiotic-type synthesis by means of transition-metal complexes. It is especially significant that in some instances various types of vitally important substances (nucleic bases, amino acids) are formed simultaneously. There is ground to hope that systematic studies in this field will clarify the role of transition-metal complexes in the organizatorial phase of chemical evolution. It is obvious that researchers working in the fields of the chemistry of cyano and carbonyl complexes, and of the catalytic effect of transition-metal complexes are best suited to study these aspects of the attractive and interesting problem of the origin of life.

  5. Peer selection and socialization in adolescent depression: the role of school transitions.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Natalie P; Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated homophily in depressive symptoms among adolescent friends, resulting from both peer selection and socialization processes. However, developmental differences and the role of school transitions in these processes have not been elucidated. A sample of 367 (51% female) adolescents was followed from 6th to 11th grade to investigate prospective relationships between adolescents' and their friends' depressive symptoms in middle school and in high school. Results revealed that students selected friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms after each school transition. Additionally, friends appeared to socialize adolescents to become more similar in depressive affect in late middle school years. These findings suggest normative selection effects after school transitions, followed by socialization effects in middle school, but not high school.

  6. Becoming Adults: One-Year Impact Findings from the Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Erin Jacobs; Skemer, Melanie; Courtney, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The "Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation" is testing whether the "Transitional Living" program, operated by the social service organization Youth Villages, makes a difference in the lives of young people with histories of foster care or juvenile justice custody. The program, which was renamed "YVLifeSet" in…

  7. Digging Deeper: Enriching Transition to Adult Life Outcome Research through Life-Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Post-secondary outcomes for students with and without disabilities have been documented in transition research for over three decades. However, despite efforts to improve outcomes by the field of transition, former students with disabilities outcomes have remain lower than their non-disabled peers. Historically, the data, which has been collected…

  8. Best Practices in Transition to Adult Life for Youth with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, Clare K.; Bambara, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    A number of best practices are recommended by researchers and professionals in the field of transition to improve postschool outcomes for youth with intellectual disabilities. This study analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to examine whether best practices are predictive of postschool outcomes. The combination of five…

  9. Role of ketamine for analgesia in adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Schermer, Erika; Kodumudi, Vijay; Belani, Kumar; Urman, Richard D; Kaye, Alan David

    2016-01-01

    Ketamine an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocking agent and a dissociative anesthetic with neurostimulatory side effects. In recent years, multiple research trials as well as systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest the usefulness of ketamine as a strong analgesic used in subanesthetic intravenous doses, and also as a sedative. In addition, ketamine was noted to possess properties of anti-tolerance, anti-hyperalgesia and anti-allodynia most likely secondary to inhibition of the NMDA receptors. Tolerance, hyperalgesia and allodynia phenomena are the main components of opioid resistance, and pathological pain is often seen in the clinical conditions involving neuropathic pain, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and central sensitization with allodynia or hyperalgesia. All these conditions are challenging to treat. In low doses, ketamine does not have major adverse dysphoric effects and also has the favorable effects of reduced incidence of opioid-induced nausea and vomiting. Therefore, ketamine can be a useful adjunct for pain control after surgery. Additional studies are required to determine the role of ketamine in the immediate postoperative period after surgical interventions known to produce severe pain and in the prevention and treatment of chronic pain. PMID:27625475

  10. Role of ketamine for analgesia in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Schermer, Erika; Kodumudi, Vijay; Belani, Kumar; Urman, Richard D; Kaye, Alan David

    2016-01-01

    Ketamine an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocking agent and a dissociative anesthetic with neurostimulatory side effects. In recent years, multiple research trials as well as systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest the usefulness of ketamine as a strong analgesic used in subanesthetic intravenous doses, and also as a sedative. In addition, ketamine was noted to possess properties of anti-tolerance, anti-hyperalgesia and anti-allodynia most likely secondary to inhibition of the NMDA receptors. Tolerance, hyperalgesia and allodynia phenomena are the main components of opioid resistance, and pathological pain is often seen in the clinical conditions involving neuropathic pain, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and central sensitization with allodynia or hyperalgesia. All these conditions are challenging to treat. In low doses, ketamine does not have major adverse dysphoric effects and also has the favorable effects of reduced incidence of opioid-induced nausea and vomiting. Therefore, ketamine can be a useful adjunct for pain control after surgery. Additional studies are required to determine the role of ketamine in the immediate postoperative period after surgical interventions known to produce severe pain and in the prevention and treatment of chronic pain. PMID:27625475

  11. Role of ketamine for analgesia in adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Schermer, Erika; Kodumudi, Vijay; Belani, Kumar; Urman, Richard D; Kaye, Alan David

    2016-01-01

    Ketamine an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocking agent and a dissociative anesthetic with neurostimulatory side effects. In recent years, multiple research trials as well as systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest the usefulness of ketamine as a strong analgesic used in subanesthetic intravenous doses, and also as a sedative. In addition, ketamine was noted to possess properties of anti-tolerance, anti-hyperalgesia and anti-allodynia most likely secondary to inhibition of the NMDA receptors. Tolerance, hyperalgesia and allodynia phenomena are the main components of opioid resistance, and pathological pain is often seen in the clinical conditions involving neuropathic pain, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and central sensitization with allodynia or hyperalgesia. All these conditions are challenging to treat. In low doses, ketamine does not have major adverse dysphoric effects and also has the favorable effects of reduced incidence of opioid-induced nausea and vomiting. Therefore, ketamine can be a useful adjunct for pain control after surgery. Additional studies are required to determine the role of ketamine in the immediate postoperative period after surgical interventions known to produce severe pain and in the prevention and treatment of chronic pain.

  12. Role of media and peers on body change strategies among adult men: is body size important?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; McGreevy, Shauna J

    2011-01-01

    There has been limited previous research that has examined the role of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult men. The current study investigated the role of specific types of messages (encouragement, teasing and modelling) from peers and the media on the strategies to change weight among adult men. Differences were evaluated between 526 men aged from 18 to 60 years from three groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) on body image, body change strategies and messages about their body received from peers and the media. Men were primarily drawn from United States, Australia and Europe. Results showed that messages received by men regarding losing weight or increasing muscle size differed according to weight. Body image and media messages were the strongest predictors of losing weight, whereas body image importance and messages from peers were the strongest predictors of increasing muscles. These findings highlight the importance of sociocultural influences on body change strategies among adult males.

  13. The Role of Language in Adult Education and Poverty Reduction in Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagwasi, Mompoloki

    2006-05-01

    This study examines the role of language in reducing poverty in Botswana through adult-education programs. Because language is the medium through which human beings communicate and grow intellectually and socially, it should form the basis of any discussion involving the relation between development and education. In order best to respond to societal changes and bridge the gap between the less privileged and the more privileged, adult-education programs should be guided by language policies that are sensitive to this pivotal role that language plays. Language is important in any discussion of poverty reduction because it determines who has access to educational, political and economic resources. The author recommends that adult-education programs in Botswana take account of the multilingual nature of society and so allow learners to participate freely, make use of their indigenous knowledge, and enhance their self-esteem and identity.

  14. Is older adult care mediated by caregivers’ cultural stereotypes? The role of competence and warmth attribution

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Bustillos, Antonio; Santacreu, Marta; Schettini, Rocio; Díaz-Veiga, Pura; Huici, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine, from the stereotype content model (SCM) perspective, the role of the competence and warmth stereotypes of older adults held by professional caregivers. Methods A quasi-experimental design, ex post facto with observational analyses, was used in this study. The cultural view on competence and warmth was assessed in 100 caregivers working in a set of six residential geriatric care units (three of them organized following a person-centered care approach and the other three providing standard geriatric care). In order to assess caregivers’ cultural stereotypical views, the SCM questionnaire was administered. To evaluate the role of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes in their professional performance as well as in older adult functioning, two observational scales from the Sistema de Evaluación de Residencias de Ancianos (assessment system for older adults residences)-RS (staff functioning and residents’ functioning) were applied. Results Caregivers’ cultural views of older adults (compared to young people) are characterized by low competence and high warmth, replicating the data obtained elsewhere from the SCM. Most importantly, the person-centered units predict better staff performance and better resident functioning than standard units. Moreover, cultural stereotyping of older adult competence moderates the effects of staff performance on resident functioning, in line with the findings of previous research. Conclusion Our results underline the influence of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes on the type of care, as well as on their professional behaviors and on older adult functioning. Caregivers’ cultural stereotypes could be considered as a central issue in older adult care since they mediate the triangle of care: caregivers/older adults/type of care; therefore, much more attention should be paid to this psychosocial care component. PMID:27217736

  15. New Skills for a New Economy: Adult Education's Key Role in Sustaining Economic Growth and Expanding Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John; Sum, Andrew; Uvin, Johan

    The role of adult education in sustaining economic growth and expanding opportunity in Massachusetts was explored. The analysis focused on the new basic skills needed for a new economy, groups lacking the new basic skills, the demand for adult basic education (ABE), funding for ABE, building basic skills through adult education, ABE's costs and…

  16. Role of Special Olympics for Mothers of Adult Athletes with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2008-01-01

    The role of Special Olympics in the lives of mothers of adult athletes was examined. Forty-six mothers participated in a longitudinal study, completing a parenting stress questionnaire, a measure of their child's maladaptive behavior, and a survey of athlete involvement in Special Olympics at two time periods, 42 months apart. Results confirm that…

  17. The Role of Shifting, Updating, and Inhibition in Prospective Memory Performance in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M.; Stahl, Christoph; Zeintl, Melanie; Kaller, Christoph P.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory performance shows a decline in late adulthood. The present article examines the role of 3 main executive function facets (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition) as possible developmental mechanisms associated with these age effects. One hundred seventy-five young and 110 older adults performed a battery of cognitive tests…

  18. Building Future Sustainability and Democratic Practices: The Role of Adult Education in Post-Conflict Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaght, Georgia; Kell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents and analyses a range of literature and policy statements that identifies issues and looks at the role which adult education plays in building communities and peace in post-conflict states. This paper explores and documents these developments in countries in close proximity to Australia which have been viewed by the former…

  19. Quieting the Cacophony of the Mind: The Role of Mindfulness in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Kay Annette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role between mindfulness practice and adult learning. The participants were full-time students enrolled in a two-year radiography program at a Midwestern community college. Critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential to students' success and to healthcare professionals. The main…

  20. The Role of Language in Adult Education and Poverty Reduction in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwasi, Mompoloki

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the role of language in reducing poverty in Botswana through adult-education programs. Because language is the medium through which human beings communicate and grow intellectually and socially, it should form the basis of any discussion involving the relation between development and education. In order best to respond to…

  1. Adult Education for Social Change: The Role of a Grassroots Organization in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the role of adult education in bringing about social change through community development initiatives at a grassroots organisation called SUCCESS (United Chinese Community Enrichment Services Society), an immigrant community organisation in Vancouver, Canada. It adopts a case study approach. The study focuses on the historical…

  2. Identity Diffusion as a Function of Sex-Roles in Adult Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabury, Donald Eugene

    This study sought to demonstrate that the relative degree of adult female identity diffusion, as well as certain personality correlates, would be a function of specific sex roles and their combinations. Three groups of 32 women each were selected as married and noncareer, married and career, or unmarried and career women. They were administered a…

  3. The Role of Online Games in Promoting Young Adults' Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Themistokleous, Sotiris; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we present an argument for the need to support young adult's civic engagement and we explore the role of online games in supporting such engagement. In doing so, in the first section of the paper, we offer a definition for civic education and citizenship alongside a discussion for the pedagogical frameworks that better support…

  4. Secondary Traumatization among Adult Children of PTSD Veterans: The Role of Mother-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinshtein, Yula; Dekel, Rachel; Polliack, Miki

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the level of secondary traumatization among adult children of Israeli war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as manifested in emotional distress, stress resulting from terrorist attacks, and capacity for intimacy. In addition, the role of the mother-child relationship as a moderator of these manifestations of…

  5. Emerging New Service Roles for Older Adults on College and University Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, David C.; Tomb, Karyl

    1981-01-01

    Explored number of programs initiated to involve older adults in meaningful volunteer tasks, responsibilities, and roles on university campuses. Data demonstrate the feasibility of these programs and positive outcomes include improvement of intergenerational communication, reduction of ageism, provision of services to educational institutions, and…

  6. Adolescent and Adult Reasoning about Gender Roles and Fairness in Benin, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conry-Murray, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This study examined reasoning about gender roles in a traditional society in Benin, West Africa. Ninety-seven male and female adolescents and adults evaluated conflicts between a husband and a wife over gender norms to determine whether gender norms, are judged to be moral or conventional. Although most attributed decision-making power to the…

  7. The roles of users in shaping transitions to new energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schot, Johan; Kanger, Laur; Verbong, Geert

    2016-05-01

    Current government information policies and market-based instruments aimed at influencing the energy choices of consumers often ignore the fact that consumer behaviour is not fully reducible to individuals making rational conscious decisions all the time. The decisions of consumers are largely configured by shared routines embedded in socio-technical systems. To achieve a transition towards a decarbonized and energy-efficient system, an approach that goes beyond individual consumer choice and puts shared routines and system change at its centre is needed. Here, adopting a transitions perspective, we argue that consumers should be reconceptualized as users who are important stakeholders in the innovation process shaping new routines and enacting system change. We review the role of users in shifts to new decarbonized and energy-efficient systems and provide a typology of user roles.

  8. Individuation in Slovene emerging adults: its associations with demographics, transitional markers, achieved criteria for adulthood, and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Maja; Komidar, Luka; Levpušček, Melita Puklek

    2014-12-01

    The study investigated associations of Slovene emerging adults' age, gender, living situation, romantic relationship, and employment status with aspects of individuation in relation to mother and father. Controlling for demographic variables and transitional markers of adulthood, we further explored the contribution of individuation measures to individuals' perceptions of achieved criteria for adulthood and life satisfaction. The participants provided self-reports on the Individuation Test for Emerging Adults, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the list of Achieved Criteria for Adulthood. Age and living out of parental home were positively associated with self-reliance in relation to both parents, whereas female gender was related to higher levels of connectedness and seeking parental support. Along with age and involvement in a romantic relationship, connectedness and self-reliance predicted adulthood criteria attainment and life satisfaction. The results support the models of individuation that emphasize growing autonomy and retaining connectedness to parents as pathways towards personal adjustments.

  9. Histology and Ultrastructure of Transitional Changes in Skin Morphology in the Juvenile and Adult Four-Striped Mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Eranée; Ajao, Moyosore Salihu

    2013-01-01

    The four-striped mouse has a grey to brown coloured coat with four characteristic dark stripes interspersed with three lighter stripes running along its back. The histological differences in the skin of the juvenile and adult mouse were investigated by Haematoxylin and Eosin and Masson Trichrome staining, while melanocytes in the skin were studied through melanin-specific Ferro-ferricyanide staining. The ultrastructure of the juvenile skin, hair follicles, and melanocytes was also explored. In both the juvenile and adult four-striped mouse, pigment-containing cells were observed in the dermis and were homogeneously dispersed throughout this layer. Apart from these cells, the histology of the skin of the adult four-striped mouse was similar to normal mammalian skin. In the juvenile four-striped mouse, abundant hair follicles of varying sizes were observed in the dermis and hypodermis, while hair follicles of similar size were only present in the dermis of adult four-striped mouse. Ultrastructural analysis of juvenile hair follicles revealed that the arrangement and differentiation of cellular layers were typical of a mammal. This study therefore provides unique transition pattern in the four-striped mouse skin morphology different from the textbook description of the normal mammalian skin. PMID:24288469

  10. Transitioning New Board of Directors Members from Peripheral Roles to Active Leadership Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostos, Ray A.

    2013-01-01

    The National Association of Community College Teacher Education Programs (NACCTEP) was established to promote the community college role in the recruitment, preparation, retention, and renewal of teachers. NACCTEP is led by a 13-member executive board consisting of community college teacher education administrators and faculty members from across…

  11. ALFIN, An Experiment in Adult Literacy Training in a Society in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizarzaburu, Alfonso E.

    1976-01-01

    The author reviews an adult literacy training program designed to go beyond status quo maintenance and to develop productive critical consciousness in individuals. Objectives, structure, personnel, and implementation details are discussed. (AV)

  12. Adult Education School to Work. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Molly

    A project identified and established components related to adult basic education's role in school-to-work (STW) transition. It focused on developing a cognitive framework for competency-based adult employability classes, integrating adult basic and literacy education (ABLE)-funded programs into the Erie Area STW partnership, and establishing a…

  13. RNs' Transitions into Director of Nursing Positions in Nursing Homes: Hiring Practices and Role Development.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Elena O; Sikma, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    The current paper discusses RNs' transitions into their first nursing home director of nursing (DON) position, including hiring practice and role development. A convenience sample of 29 current and previous DONs and nursing home administrators completed semistructured interviews for the current qualitative, descriptive study. Using thematic analysis, the finding revealed three primary themes: (a) DON hiring criteria are not necessarily matched to role demands; (b) various pathways to developing DON expertise suggest an undervaluing of the competencies needed to effectively enact this nursing leadership position; and (c) although limited formal training for the DON position was well-acknowledged, concerns or reports of the consequences varied, and there is no consensus as to the optimal route to preparation. Overall, the current study findings highlight gaps across practice, policy, and research, emphasizing the consequences of limited attention to gathering evidence of the breadth and depth of DON role demands and related role qualifications.

  14. The Role of Adult-Born Neurons in the Constantly Changing Olfactory Bulb Network

    PubMed Central

    Malvaut, Sarah; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    The adult mammalian brain is remarkably plastic and constantly undergoes structurofunctional modifications in response to environmental stimuli. In many regions plasticity is manifested by modifications in the efficacy of existing synaptic connections or synapse formation and elimination. In a few regions, however, plasticity is brought by the addition of new neurons that integrate into established neuronal networks. This type of neuronal plasticity is particularly prominent in the olfactory bulb (OB) where thousands of neuronal progenitors are produced on a daily basis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the OB. In the OB, these neuronal precursors differentiate into local interneurons, mature, and functionally integrate into the bulbar network by establishing output synapses with principal neurons. Despite continuous progress, it is still not well understood how normal functioning of the OB is preserved in the constantly remodelling bulbar network and what role adult-born neurons play in odor behaviour. In this review we will discuss different levels of morphofunctional plasticity effected by adult-born neurons and their functional role in the adult OB and also highlight the possibility that different subpopulations of adult-born cells may fulfill distinct functions in the OB neuronal network and odor behaviour. PMID:26839709

  15. The role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in neonatal uterine smooth muscle: enhanced role compared to adult rat

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Karen; Wray, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about contractile activity, response to agonists or excitation-contraction coupling in neonatal smooth muscle. We have therefore investigated 10-day rat uterus to better understand these processes, and compared it to adult uterus to elucidate how control of contractility develops. Spontaneous contractions are present in the 10-day neonatal uterus, although they are not as large or as regular as those present in adult tissues. External Ca2+ entry via L-type Ca2+ channels is the sole source of Ca2+ and is essential for the spontaneous activity. The neonatal uterus was responsive to carbachol or prostaglandin F2α application; it showed a marked stimulation and a clear dissociation between the force and Ca2+ changes. Such sensitization was not apparent in adult rat myometrium. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) had more releasable Ca2+ and contributed more to the response to agonists in neonatal compared to adult tissues. Thus, Ca2+ entry as opposed to SR Ca2+ release contributed much less to the uterine response to agonists in the neonatal, compared to adult tissues. Inhibition of the SR by cyclopiazonic acid also caused a more vigorous increase in Ca2+ and contractile activity, particularly frequency, in the neonatal compared to the adult uterus. Taken together these data suggest that: (1) spontaneous activity is already present by day 10, (2) receptor-coupling and excitation-contraction signalling pathways are functional, (3) the SR and Ca2+ sensitization mechanisms play a more prominent role in the neonate, and (4) there is a shift to a greater reliance on Ca2+ entry and excitability with development of the myometrium. PMID:12456834

  16. Moderating role of marital quality in older adults' depressed affect: beyond the main-effects model.

    PubMed

    Bookwala, Jamila; Franks, Melissa M

    2005-11-01

    We examine the role of three indicators of marital quality (marital disagreement, marital happiness, and time spent together) as moderators of the association between physical disability and depressed affect among married older individuals (N=1,044). We found support for the moderating role of marital disagreement wherein the detrimental effect of disability on depressed affect was significantly heightened among older adults with more disagreements with their spouse; a moderating effect was not detected for marital happiness or time spent together. We conclude that, in addition to its main effect on older adults' depressed affect, marital quality (as indicated by marital disagreement) plays a significant stress-moderating role in the physical disability-depressed affect link.

  17. Critical desertification transition in semi-arid ecosystems: The role of local facilitation and colonization rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrado, Raffaele; Cherubini, Anna Maria; Pennetta, Cecilia

    2015-05-01

    In this work we study the effect of two different ecological mechanisms on the desertification transition in arid or semi-arid ecosystems, modeled by a stochastic cellular automaton. Namely we consider the role of the facilitation mechanism, i.e. the local positive effects of plants on their neighborhood and of colonization factors, such as seed production, survival and germination probabilities. Within the model, the strength of these two mechanisms is determined by the parameters f and b, respectively controlling the rates of the recovery and colonization processes. In particular we focus on the full desertification transition occurring at increasing value of the mortality rate m and we discuss how the values of f and b affect the critical mortality mc , the critical exponents β and γσ‧, determining the power-law scaling of the average vegetation density and of the root-mean-square deviation of the density fluctuations, and the character of the transition: continuous or abrupt. We show that mc strongly depends on both f and b, a dependence which accounts for the higher resilience of the ecosystems to external stresses as a consequence of an increased effectiveness of positive feedback effects. On the other hand, concerning the value of the exponents and the character of the transition, our results point out that both these features are unaffected by changes in the strength of the local facilitation. Viceversa, we show that an increase of the colonization factor b significantly modifies the values of the exponents and the order of the transition, changing a continuous transition into an abrupt one. We explain these results in terms of the different range of the interactions characterizing facilitation and colonization mechanisms.

  18. Roles of GasderminA3 in Catagen-Telogen Transition During Hair Cycling.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiufeng; Lei, Mingxing; Shi, Jiazhong; Yu, Yu; Qiu, Weiming; Lai, Xiangdong; Liu, Yingxin; Yang, Tian; Yang, Li; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Lian, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Hair follicles undergo cyclic behavior through regression (catagen), rest (telogen), and regeneration (anagen) during postnatal life. The hair cycle transition is strictly regulated by the autonomous and extrinsic molecular environment. However, whether there is a switch controlling catagen-telogen transition remains largely unknown. Here we show that hair follicles cycle from catagen to the next anagen without transitioning through a morphologically typical telogen after Gsdma3 mutation. This leaves an ESLS (epithelial strand-like structure) during the time period corresponding to telogen phase in WT mice. Molecularly, Wnt10b is upregulated in Gsdma3 mutant mice. Restoration of Gsdma3 expression in AE (alopecia and excoriation) mouse skin rescues hair follicle telogen entry and significantly decreases the Wnt10b-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Overexpression of Wnt10b inhibits telogen entry by increasing epithelial strand cell proliferation. Subsequently, hair follicles with a Gsdma3 mutation enter the second anagen simultaneously as WT mice. Hair follicles cannot enter the second anagen with ectopic WT Gsdma3 overexpression. A luciferase reporter assay proves that Gsdma3 directly suppresses Wnt signaling. Our findings suggest that Gsdma3 has an important role in catagen-telogen transition by balancing the Wnt signaling pathway and that morphologically typical telogen is not essential for the initiation of a new hair cycle. PMID:25860385

  19. The Role of Proximity Effects in Transition-Edge Sensor Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters and bolometers are under development by numerous groups worldwide for a variety of applications involving the measurement of particle and photon radiation. Recent experimental and theoretical progress has led to the realization that the fundamental physics of some TES systems involves the longitudinal proximity effect between the electrical bias contacts and the TES. As such, these devices are described as SS'S (or SN'S) weak-links exhibiting Fraunhofer-like magnetic field dependence, and exponential temperature dependence, of the critical current. These discoveries, for the first time, provide a realistic theoretical framework for predicting the resistive transition as a function of temperature, current and magnetic field. In this contribution, we review the latest theoretical and experimental results and investigate how proximity effects play an important role in determining the resistive transition characteristics, which ultimately determines the dynamic range and energy resolution of TES detectors. We investigate how these effects could be utilized in device design to engineer desired transition characteristics for a given application.

  20. Roles of GasderminA3 in Catagen-Telogen Transition During Hair Cycling.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiufeng; Lei, Mingxing; Shi, Jiazhong; Yu, Yu; Qiu, Weiming; Lai, Xiangdong; Liu, Yingxin; Yang, Tian; Yang, Li; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Lian, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Hair follicles undergo cyclic behavior through regression (catagen), rest (telogen), and regeneration (anagen) during postnatal life. The hair cycle transition is strictly regulated by the autonomous and extrinsic molecular environment. However, whether there is a switch controlling catagen-telogen transition remains largely unknown. Here we show that hair follicles cycle from catagen to the next anagen without transitioning through a morphologically typical telogen after Gsdma3 mutation. This leaves an ESLS (epithelial strand-like structure) during the time period corresponding to telogen phase in WT mice. Molecularly, Wnt10b is upregulated in Gsdma3 mutant mice. Restoration of Gsdma3 expression in AE (alopecia and excoriation) mouse skin rescues hair follicle telogen entry and significantly decreases the Wnt10b-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Overexpression of Wnt10b inhibits telogen entry by increasing epithelial strand cell proliferation. Subsequently, hair follicles with a Gsdma3 mutation enter the second anagen simultaneously as WT mice. Hair follicles cannot enter the second anagen with ectopic WT Gsdma3 overexpression. A luciferase reporter assay proves that Gsdma3 directly suppresses Wnt signaling. Our findings suggest that Gsdma3 has an important role in catagen-telogen transition by balancing the Wnt signaling pathway and that morphologically typical telogen is not essential for the initiation of a new hair cycle.

  1. A role for hip position in initiating the swing-to-stance transition in walking cats.

    PubMed

    McVea, D A; Donelan, J M; Tachibana, A; Pearson, K G

    2005-11-01

    In this investigation, we obtained data that support the hypothesis that afferent signals associated with hip flexion play a role in initiating the swing-to-stance transition of the hind legs in walking cats. Direct evidence came from observations in walking decerebrate cats. Assisting the flexion of the hip joint during swing advanced the onset of activity in ankle extensor muscles, and this advance was strongly correlated with a reduction in the duration of hip flexor muscle activity. The hip angle at the time of onset of the flexion to extension transition was similar during assisted and unassisted steps. Additional evidence for the hypothesis that sensory signals related to hip flexion are important in regulating the swing-to-stance transition came from four normal animals trained to walk in a variety of situations designed to alter the coordination of movements at the hip, knee, and ankle joints during the swing phase. Although there were exceptions in some tasks and preparations, the angle of the hip joint at the time of onset of extensor activity was generally less variable than that of the knee and ankle joints. We also found no clear relationships between the angle of the limb and body axes, or the length of the limb axis, and the time of onset of extensor activity. Finally, there were no indications that the stretching of ankle extensor muscles during swing was a factor in regulating the transition from swing-to-stance.

  2. College men's intimate partner violence attitudes: contributions of adult attachment and gender role stress.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Ryon C; Lopez, Frederick G

    2013-01-01

    Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence in relationships are key risk factors for IPV perpetration; however, comparatively few studies have examined the social and relational variables related to IPV acceptance attitudes. In the present study, we proposed and tested a structural model examining the combined contributions of adult attachment dimensions (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and masculine gender role stress in the prediction of IPV acceptance attitudes in a large sample of college men (N = 419). We hypothesized that the relationship between attachment insecurity and IPV acceptance attitudes would be partially mediated by men's gender role stress. A partially mediated model produced the best indices of model fit, accounting for 31% of the variance in an IPV acceptance attitudes latent variable. A bootstrapping procedure confirmed the significance of mediation effects. These results suggest that aspects of adult attachment insecurity are associated with tendencies to experience stress from violations of rigidly internalized traditional male role norms, which, in turn, are associated with acceptance of IPV. Findings are further discussed in relation to adult attachment theory (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007), gender role strain theory (Pleck, 1995), and their implications for IPV prevention in college student populations.

  3. Homing in on the role of transition metals in the HNH motif of colicin endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Pommer, A J; Kühlmann, U C; Cooper, A; Hemmings, A M; Moore, G R; James, R; Kleanthous, C

    1999-09-17

    The cytotoxic domain of the bacteriocin colicin E9 (the E9 DNase) is a nonspecific endonuclease that must traverse two membranes to reach its cellular target, bacterial DNA. Recent structural studies revealed that the active site of colicin DNases encompasses the HNH motif found in homing endonucleases, and bound within this motif a single transition metal ion (either Zn(2+) or Ni(2+)) the role of which is unknown. In the present work we find that neither Zn(2+) nor Ni(2+) is required for DNase activity, which instead requires Mg(2+) ions, but binding transition metals to the E9 DNase causes subtle changes to both secondary and tertiary structure. Spectroscopic, proteolytic, and calorimetric data show that, accompanying the binding of 1 eq of Zn(2+), Ni(2+), or Co(2+), the thermodynamic stability of the domain increased substantially, and that the equilibrium dissociation constant for Zn(2+) was less than or equal to nanomolar, while that for Co(2+) and Ni (2+) was micromolar. Our data demonstrate that the transition metal is not essential for colicin DNase activity but rather serves a structural role. We speculate that the HNH motif has been adapted for use by endonuclease colicins because of its involvement in DNA recognition and because removal of the bound metal ion destabilizes the DNase domain, a likely prerequisite for its translocation across bacterial membranes.

  4. Children's Impact on Adults' Substance Use Problem Awareness and Treatment Optimism: The Role of Harm.

    PubMed

    Droege, Jocelyn R; Stevens, Edward B; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is associated with a host of harmful consequences to the substance user as well as other individuals and society as a whole. Although harm is an integral component of substance abuse, there is a dearth of research that investigates the relationship between harm and substance use problems. The goal of this study was to explore recovering substance users' retrospective perceptions of harm caused to self and others during periods of substance abuse and the resulting association with the development of problem awareness and treatment perspectives. The present study found that perceptions of harming children demonstrated a significant impact on adults' substance use problem awareness and treatment optimism. Perceived harm caused to a child during periods of substance abuse was associated with increased substance use problem awareness and treatment optimism. Findings suggest that harming children as a consequence of adult substance abuse may play an impactful role on adults' recovery process. Implications for future research are discussed.

  5. [Transition - how adolescents with cystic fibrosis their parents experience the change from paediatric to adult care].

    PubMed

    Becher, Christine; Regamey, Nicolas; Spichiger, Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    Hintergrund: Cystische Fibrose (CF) ist die häufigste autosomal-rezessiv vererbte Erkrankung in der europäischen Bevölkerung. Die mittlere Überlebenszeit von CF-Betroffenen steigt und liegt heute bei über 40 Jahren. Deshalb ist die Betreuung in der Adoleszenz während des Übergangs von der Pädiatrie in die Erwachsenenmedizin, in der Fachsprache Transition genannt, ein wichtiges Thema. Ziel: Mit dieser Studie wurde exploriert, wie Jugendliche mit CF und ihre Eltern die Transition erlebten. Methode: Die Studie wurde an einem universitären CF Zentrum durchgeführt. Sechs Jugendliche und ihre Mütter erzählten in zwölf Interviews, wie sie die Phase der Transition erlebten. Die Auswertung der transkribierten Interviews erfolgte nach der Methode der hermeneutischen Phänomenologie. Ergebnisse: Positive und negative Erfahrungen während der langjährigen Behandlung in der Kinderklinik, die Adoleszenz als Lebensphase und die Zusammenarbeit mit den Ärzten während der Transition beeinflussten das Erleben der Betroffenen. Für die Mütter könnte eine unsensible Eröffnung der CF Diagnose Auswirkungen auf die Transition gehabt haben. Die Jugendlichen begrüßten eine individualisierte, ihrer Entwicklung angepasste Begleitung. Kontinuität in der ärztlichen Betreuung, die Ankündigung des Übertritts und der Einbezug in dessen Planung erleichterten die Transition. Besonders geschätzt wurde die zeitliche Anpassung an individuelle Bedürfnisse. Schlussfolgerung: Flexibilität und die enge Zusammenarbeit zwischen dem pädiatrischen und adulten CF-Team sind zentral für die Betreuung der Familien.

  6. Sex role identity in young adults: its parental antecedents and relation to ego development.

    PubMed

    Costos, D

    1986-03-01

    This study, inspired by Block's (1973) work, was designed to enable one to examine how ego development and socialization experience interact in relation to sex role identity. Sex role identity was measured via the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and socialization practices were measured via the Block Child-Rearing Practices Report. Both measures were scaled so as to yield scores on agency, communion, and androgyny. Ego development was assessed via Loevinger's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development. The sample consisted of 120 young adult men and women, married and single. Analyses revealed that the predictive power of the variables differed by sex. Ego development was predictive of sex role identity in men but not women, whereas socialization practices were predictive of sex role identity in women but not men. The results were seen as supporting Chodorow's (1974) position regarding the differing socialization experiences of men and women. PMID:3701594

  7. Sex role identity in young adults: its parental antecedents and relation to ego development.

    PubMed

    Costos, D

    1986-03-01

    This study, inspired by Block's (1973) work, was designed to enable one to examine how ego development and socialization experience interact in relation to sex role identity. Sex role identity was measured via the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and socialization practices were measured via the Block Child-Rearing Practices Report. Both measures were scaled so as to yield scores on agency, communion, and androgyny. Ego development was assessed via Loevinger's Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development. The sample consisted of 120 young adult men and women, married and single. Analyses revealed that the predictive power of the variables differed by sex. Ego development was predictive of sex role identity in men but not women, whereas socialization practices were predictive of sex role identity in women but not men. The results were seen as supporting Chodorow's (1974) position regarding the differing socialization experiences of men and women.

  8. Perceptions of the Transition to Adulthood among Chinese and American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Sarah; Nelson, Larry J.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara

    2006-01-01

    This study explored cultural differences in the criteria young people have for becoming an adult. Specifically, the study sought (a) to compare Chinese and American responses concerning whether they believe they have reached adulthood; (b) to examine whether adulthood criteria could fit a common statistical model for both cultures; and (c) after…

  9. Project SEARCH: Work-Based Transition Program for Young Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Teresa D.

    2013-01-01

    Historically people with significant disabilities were restricted to places such as adult activity centers, sheltered workshops, nursing homes, and institutions. Studies have shown the high school drop-out rate for this population is higher than those who are non-disabled. Policy makers concluded that these individuals needed to be better prepared…

  10. Skills Training for Young Adults with Special Educational Needs for Transition into Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankardas, Sulata Ajit; Rajanahally, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    The research reported here was conducted to investigate the perception that people with disabilities find it a challenge to seek employment (Hernandez et?al., 2007). It is suggested that this situation could be due to a lack of specific employment-based training. Hence young adults with special educational needs (SEN) may require job-specific…

  11. Transition from School to Young Adulthood: Four Case Studies of Young Adults Labelled Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Stephen; Michaelides, Nike

    1993-01-01

    These 4 case studies examine the last years of high school and postschool experiences of 4 21-year-olds labeled mentally retarded. Issues discussed include school compliance with legislation concerning Individualized Education Programs, influence of parental involvement, adult services, and necessary employment supports. (JDD)

  12. Adults with Learning Disabilities in the Workforce: Lessons for Secondary Transition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madaus, Joseph W.; Gerber, Paul J.; Price, Lynda A.

    2008-01-01

    Now almost 15 years after the implementation of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) data are emerging in the literature related to job entry and employment outcomes of adults with learning disabilities (LD). Although these data are derived from varying methodologies, they converge in three critical areas: Knowledge of the ADA, realities of…

  13. Residential Characteristics, Social Factors, and Mortality among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Transitions out of Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Kelly; Heller, Tamar; Freels, Sally

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which residential characteristics and social factors are associated with mortality, after controlling for personal characteristics, among adults with intellectual disabilities who have resided in nursing homes (facilities providing skilled care and related services) at baseline in the Chicago area. Initial…

  14. Transitions between School and Work: Some New Understandings and Questions about Adult Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, King

    There is dissonance between the lives of adult students in rural Nepal in a subsistence-level agrarian community and their participation in school. The concept of "transfer" has several shortcomings from the standpoint of understanding relations between mathematical reasoning in the classroom and in the workplace. It is more helpful to use the…

  15. Transforming Causal Logics in Finnish Adult Education: Historical and Moral Transitions Rewritten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Leena; Filander, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the historical representations of adulthood, citizenship and the ideal social bonds of an individual and the society in the transforming moral orders of Finnish adult education. The research is based on a thematic reading of data, which consist of texts written during the past 150 years by theorists of adult…

  16. Correlates of Young Adult Tobacco Use: Application of a Transition Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Brenda K.

    2003-01-01

    Anticipatory guidance is a traditional nursing intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify factors to serve as targets for anticipatory guidance prior to high school graduation to reduce tobacco initiation among young adults after graduation. A sample of 203 randomly selected freshmen and sophomore students at a major midwestern…

  17. Interagency Collaboration for Young Adults with Deaf-Blindness: Toward a Common Transition Goal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Jane M.; And Others

    This monograph is a compilation of the knowledge gained by the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) of the Helen Keller National Center, from training and technical assistance activities conducted with state interagency teams serving youth and young adults with deaf-blindness. The book views interagency collaboration as essential in achieving…

  18. Career-Related Outcomes of a Model Transition Demonstration for Young Adults with Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagner, David; Cheney, Douglas; Malloy, Joanne

    1999-01-01

    Career and education specialists tailored a comprehensive support package consisting of personal futures planning, flexible educational programming, employment support, interagency collaboration, mentorship, social-skill building, and flexible funding to the needs of adolescents and young adults with chronic mental illness or emotional disturbance…

  19. The role of space telescopes in the characterization of transiting exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzes, Artie P.

    2014-09-01

    Characterization studies now have a dominant role in the field of exoplanets. Such studies include the measurement of an exoplanet's bulk density, its brightness temperature and the chemical composition of its atmosphere. The use of space telescopes has played a key part in the characterization of transiting exoplanets. These facilities offer astronomers data of exquisite precision and temporal sampling as well as access to wavelength regions of the electromagnetic spectrum that are inaccessible from the ground. Space missions such as the Hubble Space Telescope, Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars (MOST), Spitzer Space Telescope, Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits (CoRoT), and Kepler have rapidly advanced our knowledge of the physical properties of exoplanets and have blazed a trail for a series of future space missions that will help us to understand the observed diversity of exoplanets.

  20. The role of space telescopes in the characterization of transiting exoplanets.

    PubMed

    Hatzes, Artie P

    2014-09-18

    Characterization studies now have a dominant role in the field of exoplanets. Such studies include the measurement of an exoplanet's bulk density, its brightness temperature and the chemical composition of its atmosphere. The use of space telescopes has played a key part in the characterization of transiting exoplanets. These facilities offer astronomers data of exquisite precision and temporal sampling as well as access to wavelength regions of the electromagnetic spectrum that are inaccessible from the ground. Space missions such as the Hubble Space Telescope, Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars (MOST), Spitzer Space Telescope, Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits (CoRoT), and Kepler have rapidly advanced our knowledge of the physical properties of exoplanets and have blazed a trail for a series of future space missions that will help us to understand the observed diversity of exoplanets. PMID:25230657

  1. Is there a role for organic trace element supplements in transition cow health?

    PubMed

    Andrieu, S

    2008-04-01

    Optimal transition cow health is the key to success of the subsequent lactation, and increasing attention has been focused on management and nutritional practices that support it. Physiological stress during the transition period alters the efficiency of the immune system, making the lactating dairy cow more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as mastitis and metritis, with subsequent impairment of reproductive performance. Trace elements have a specific role in free radical control at the cellular level and influence the anti-oxidant/free radical balance. Dietary trace elements must be available for absorption throughout the whole of the digestive process until they reach the final site of absorption in the small intestine. Negative interactions between minerals can occur and, as the intestinal environment lowers the absorption of ionic minerals, chelation technology has been developed to increase mineral bioavailability. Organic trace elements have been used in dairy cow experiments, resulting in significant improvements in udder health, lameness and reproductive performance. PMID:18329303

  2. The role of space telescopes in the characterization of transiting exoplanets.

    PubMed

    Hatzes, Artie P

    2014-09-18

    Characterization studies now have a dominant role in the field of exoplanets. Such studies include the measurement of an exoplanet's bulk density, its brightness temperature and the chemical composition of its atmosphere. The use of space telescopes has played a key part in the characterization of transiting exoplanets. These facilities offer astronomers data of exquisite precision and temporal sampling as well as access to wavelength regions of the electromagnetic spectrum that are inaccessible from the ground. Space missions such as the Hubble Space Telescope, Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars (MOST), Spitzer Space Telescope, Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits (CoRoT), and Kepler have rapidly advanced our knowledge of the physical properties of exoplanets and have blazed a trail for a series of future space missions that will help us to understand the observed diversity of exoplanets.

  3. Implicit Attitude Toward Caregiving: The Moderating Role of Adult Attachment Styles.

    PubMed

    De Carli, Pietro; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; Santona, Alessandra; Parolin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Attachment and caregiving are separate motivational systems that share the common evolutionary purpose of favoring child security. In the goal of studying the processes underlying the transmission of attachment styles, this study focused on the role of adult attachment styles in shaping preferences toward particular styles of caregiving. We hypothesized a correspondence between attachment and caregiving styles: we expect an individual to show a preference for a caregiving behavior coherent with his/her own attachment style, in order to increase the chance of passing it on to offspring. We activated different representations of specific caregiving modalities in females, by using three videos in which mothers with different Adult Attachment states of mind played with their infants. Participants' facial expressions while watching were recorded and analyzed with FaceReader software. After each video, participants' attitudes toward the category "mother" were measured, both explicitly (semantic differential) and implicitly (single target-implicit association task, ST-IAT). Participants' adult attachment styles (experiences in close relationships revised) predicted attitudes scores, but only when measured implicitly. Participants scored higher on the ST-IAT after watching a video coherent with their attachment style. No effect was found on the facial expressions of disgust. These findings suggest a role of adult attachment styles in shaping implicit attitudes related to the caregiving system.

  4. The role of CD44 in fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cell regulation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huimin; Heazlewood, Shen Y; Williams, Brenda; Cardozo, Daniela; Nigro, Julie; Oteiza, Ana; Nilsson, Susan K

    2016-01-01

    Throughout development, hematopoietic stem cells migrate to specific microenvironments, where their fate is, in part, extrinsically controlled. CD44 standard as a member of the cell adhesion molecule family is extensively expressed within adult bone marrow and has been previously reported to play important roles in adult hematopoietic regulation via CD44 standard-ligand interactions. In this manuscript, CD44 expression and function are further assessed and characterized on both fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells. Using a CD44(-/-) mouse model, conserved functional roles of CD44 are revealed throughout development. CD44 is critical in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor pools, as well as in hematopoietic stem cell migration. CD44 expression on hematopoietic stem cells as well as other hematopoietic cells within the bone marrow microenvironment is important in the homing and lodgment of adult hematopoietic stem cells isolated from the bone/bone marrow interface. CD44 is also involved in fetal hematopoietic stem cell migration out of the liver, via a process involving stromal cell-derived factor-1α. The absence of CD44 in neonatal bone marrow has no impact on the size of the long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cell pool, but results in an enhanced long-term engraftment potential of hematopoietic stem cells.

  5. Implicit Attitude Toward Caregiving: The Moderating Role of Adult Attachment Styles

    PubMed Central

    De Carli, Pietro; Tagini, Angela; Sarracino, Diego; Santona, Alessandra; Parolin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Attachment and caregiving are separate motivational systems that share the common evolutionary purpose of favoring child security. In the goal of studying the processes underlying the transmission of attachment styles, this study focused on the role of adult attachment styles in shaping preferences toward particular styles of caregiving. We hypothesized a correspondence between attachment and caregiving styles: we expect an individual to show a preference for a caregiving behavior coherent with his/her own attachment style, in order to increase the chance of passing it on to offspring. We activated different representations of specific caregiving modalities in females, by using three videos in which mothers with different Adult Attachment states of mind played with their infants. Participants' facial expressions while watching were recorded and analyzed with FaceReader software. After each video, participants' attitudes toward the category “mother” were measured, both explicitly (semantic differential) and implicitly (single target-implicit association task, ST-IAT). Participants' adult attachment styles (experiences in close relationships revised) predicted attitudes scores, but only when measured implicitly. Participants scored higher on the ST-IAT after watching a video coherent with their attachment style. No effect was found on the facial expressions of disgust. These findings suggest a role of adult attachment styles in shaping implicit attitudes related to the caregiving system. PMID:26779060

  6. Transition and Students with Learning Disabilities: Facilitating the Movement from School to Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, James R., Ed.; Blalock, Ginger, Ed.

    Eleven chapters provide in-depth perspectives on outcomes and issues of youth with learning disabilities as they move from high school to adulthood. Stressed throughout is the importance of comprehensive transition planning and the educational, employment, social, and living options available to persons with learning disabilities. Chapter titles…

  7. Compromise, Well-Being, and Action Behaviors in Young Adults in Career Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Blume, Kellie

    2013-01-01

    The authors surveyed 186 first-year university students and assessed their level of career compromise associated with making the transition to university. Compromise was operationalized as the discrepancy between the job characteristics of ideal and expected occupations. The authors also assessed career well-being (satisfaction, distress), action…

  8. Transition to Adult Services for Young People with Disabilities: Current Evidence to Guide Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Debra

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines the evidence upon which best practice guidelines for transition to adulthood for young people with physical and developmental disabilities were developed in Ontario, Canada, through consensus activities. Evidence was gathered from published and unpublished literature and focus groups with young people, parents, community…

  9. Household Income during Childhood and Young Adult Weight Status: Evidence from a Nutrition Transition Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether household income at different stages of childhood is associated with weight status in early adulthood in a nutrition transition setting (a developing country with both underweight and overweight populations). I use multinomial logistic regression to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from Cebu, Philippines.…

  10. Understanding Social Positioning in the Context of Learning and Participation Experienced by Adult Transitional Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, E. Beverly

    2010-01-01

    There are two dimensions of positioning: self-identity (reflexive) and, events and interaction between people (discursive). Positioning may become socially restrictive when disruptive discursive episodes have a negative impact on individual self-identity. An interpretive biographical study of 11 participants in a transitional residency (temporary…

  11. The role of the posterior superior temporal sulcus in the processing of unmarked transitivity.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Tanja; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Zysset, Stefan; Wiese, Richard; von Cramon, D Yves; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2007-03-01

    Is it living or not? The ability to differentiate between animate and inanimate entities is of considerable value in everyday life, since it allows for the dissociation of individuals that may willfully cause an action from objects that cannot. The present fMRI study aimed to shed light on the neural correlates of animacy at a relational-interpretive level, i.e. on the role of animacy in the establishment of relations between entities that are more or less likely to cause an event and differ in their potential to act volitionally. To this end, we investigated the processing of visually presented transitive German sentences (nominative-accusative structures) in which the factors animacy and argument order were manipulated. The relations between the arguments differed in that the animate subject either acted on an inanimate object (a very natural construction in terms of transitivity) or on an animate object (resulting in a sentence deviating from an unmarked transitive structure). Participants performed an acceptability judgment task. Violations of unmarked transitivity yielded a significant activation increase within the posterior left superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), thus suggesting a specific role of this cortical region in the relational use of animacy information. This result indicates that the influence of animacy as a relational feature differs from the impact of this parameter on the word level and is in line with other neuroimaging studies showing an engagement of the pSTS when a matching between syntax and semantics is required. A comparison between object- and subject-initial conditions further revealed a robust effect of argument order in the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus (a subregion of Broca's area), thereby replicating previous findings demonstrating a sensitivity of this region to fine-grained language-specific linearization rules. PMID:17222565

  12. Role of astrocytes as neural stem cells in the adult brain

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, bona fide neural stem cells were discovered in the subventricular zone (SVZ), the largest neurogenic niche lining the striatal wall of the lateral ventricles of the brain. In this region resides a subpopulation of astrocytes that express the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nestin and LeX. Astonishingly, these GFAP-expressing progenitors display stem-cell-like features both in vivo and in vitro. Throughout life SVZ astrocytes give rise to interneurons and oligodendrocyte precursors, which populate the olfactory bulb and the white matter, respectively. The role of the progenies of SVZ astrocytes has not been fully elucidated, but some evidence indicates that the new neurons play a role in olfactory discrimination, whereas oligodendrocytes contribute to myelinate white matter tracts. In this chapter, we describe the astrocytic nature of adult neural stem cells, their organization into the SVZ and some of their molecular and genetic characteristics. PMID:23619383

  13. Helping Rural Adolescents Make Successful Postsecondary Transitions: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapan, Richard T.; Aoyagi, Mark; Kayson, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The longitudinal study in this article tested whether advantages in the career development of high school seniors resulted in better transition outcomes for these young adults 3 years after they graduated from high school. Enhanced career development in high school was significantly connected to more successful transitions into the adult roles of…

  14. Health-system pharmacists' role in immunizing adults against pneumococcal disease and influenza.

    PubMed

    Grabenstein, J D; Bonasso, J

    1999-09-01

    The role of pharmacists in immunizing adults against pneumococcal disease and influenza is discussed. Pneumococcal disease and influenza each cause up to 40,000 deaths annually in the United States. Vaccination against these diseases is encouraged for all people 65 years of age or older and for those with certain chronic diseases or immunosuppression. Influenza virus vaccine should also be given to residents of long-term-care facilities, many pregnant women, and health care workers. Pneumococcal vaccine is usually given once in a lifetime; influenza virus vaccine is given annually in the fall. Advocacy of immunization is consistent with the precepts of pharmaceutical care, and pharmacists can promote immunization by assuming the roles of educator, facilitator, and immunizer. Despite lack of specific mention of it in accreditation standards, health-system personnel have a duty to vaccinate adults, just as they do pediatric patients. Pharmacists should review immunization records with patients periodically and at the time of immunization. As with other drug products, formulary decisions and the distribution, storage, and handling of vaccines are important pharmacist responsibilities. Pharmacoeconomic studies have demonstrated the value of pneumococcal and influenza virus vaccines. Medicare covers these vaccines under Part B. Pharmacists have an important role to play in promoting adult immunizations against pneumococcal disease and influenza.

  15. Engaging older adults in their transitional care: what more needs to be done?

    PubMed

    Naylor, Mary D; Hirschman, Karen B; O'Connor, Melissa; Barg, Ronald; Pauly, Mark V

    2013-09-01

    Multiple studies reveal that the healthcare needs of chronically ill older adults are poorly managed and often have devastating consequences. This paper examines available evidence related to improving care management and outcomes in this vulnerable patient group. Findings reinforce the need for enhanced patient engagement and suggest comparative effectiveness research as an important and immediate path to optimize patient-clinician partnerships. An ongoing study in care management is described as an example of such comparative effectiveness research. An overview of the barriers to implementation of evidence-based strategies related to health literacy, shared decision-making and accountability for self-management is provided, followed by a set of recommendations designed to facilitate comparative effectiveness research that advances engagement of high-risk older adults and their family caregivers.

  16. Depression, Sex and Gender Roles in Older Adult Populations: The International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS)

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Afshin; Ahmed, Tamer; Freire, Aline do N. Falcão; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression. Methods International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967). Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions. Results Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55–0.93). In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated. Conclusions Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman. PMID:26771828

  17. Brain Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Directs the Transition from Stem Cells to Mature Neurons During Postnatal/Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Estévez, Vanesa; Oueslati-Morales, Carlos O; Li, Lingling; Pickel, James; Morales, Aixa V; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    The specific actions of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and the role of brain-derived IGF-I during hippocampal neurogenesis have not been fully defined. To address the influence of IGF-I on the stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, we studied a postnatal/adult global Igf-I knockout (KO) mice (Igf-I(-/-) ) and a nervous system Igf-I conditional KO (Igf-I(Δ/Δ) ). In both KO mice we found an accumulation of Tbr2(+) -intermediate neuronal progenitors, some of which were displaced in the outer granule cell layer (GCL) and the molecular layer (ML) of the dentate gyrus (DG). Similarly, more ectopic Ki67(+) - cycling cells were detected. Thus, the GCL was disorganized with significant numbers of Prox1(+) -granule neurons outside this layer and altered morphology of radial glial cells (RGCs). Dividing progenitors were also generated in greater numbers in clonal hippocampal stem cell (HPSC) cultures from the KO mice. Indeed, higher levels of Hes5 and Ngn2, transcription factors that maintain the stem and progenitor cell state, were expressed in both HPSCs and the GCL-ML from the Igf-I(Δ/Δ) mice. To determine the impact of Igf-I deletion on neuronal generation in vivo, progenitors in Igf-I(-/-) and Igf-I(+/+) mice were labeled with a GFP-expressing vector. This revealed that in the Igf-I(-/-) mice more GFP(+) -immature neurons were formed and they had less complex dendritic trees. These findings indicate that local IGF-I plays critical roles during postnatal/adult hippocampal neurogenesis, regulating the transition from HPSCs and progenitors to mature granule neurons in a cell stage-dependent manner. Stem Cells 2016;34:2194-2209. PMID:27144663

  18. The Social Work Role in Reducing 30-Day Readmissions: The Effectiveness of the Bridge Model of Transitional Care.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Renae; Ginsburg, Jacob; Grabowski, Jessica; Post, Sharon; Rosenberg, Walter

    2016-04-01

    The hospital experience is taxing and confusing for patients and their families, particularly those with limited economic and social resources. This complexity often leads to disengagement, poor adherence to the plan of care, and high readmission rates. Novel approaches to addressing the complexities of transitional care are emerging as possible solutions. The Bridge Model is a person-centered, social work-led, interdisciplinary transitional care intervention that helps older adults safely transition from the hospital back to their homes and communities. The Bridge Model combines 3 key components-care coordination, case management, and patient engagement-which provide a seamless transition during this stressful time and improve the overall quality of transitional care for older adults, including reducing hospital readmissions. The post Affordable Care Act (ACA) and managed care environment's emphasis on value and quality support further development and expansion of transitional care strategies, such as the Bridge Model, which offer promising avenues to fulfil the triple aim by improving the quality of individual patient care while also impacting population health and controlling per capita costs.

  19. The Social Work Role in Reducing 30-Day Readmissions: The Effectiveness of the Bridge Model of Transitional Care.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Renae; Ginsburg, Jacob; Grabowski, Jessica; Post, Sharon; Rosenberg, Walter

    2016-04-01

    The hospital experience is taxing and confusing for patients and their families, particularly those with limited economic and social resources. This complexity often leads to disengagement, poor adherence to the plan of care, and high readmission rates. Novel approaches to addressing the complexities of transitional care are emerging as possible solutions. The Bridge Model is a person-centered, social work-led, interdisciplinary transitional care intervention that helps older adults safely transition from the hospital back to their homes and communities. The Bridge Model combines 3 key components-care coordination, case management, and patient engagement-which provide a seamless transition during this stressful time and improve the overall quality of transitional care for older adults, including reducing hospital readmissions. The post Affordable Care Act (ACA) and managed care environment's emphasis on value and quality support further development and expansion of transitional care strategies, such as the Bridge Model, which offer promising avenues to fulfil the triple aim by improving the quality of individual patient care while also impacting population health and controlling per capita costs. PMID:27276523

  20. Gender roles and binge drinking among Latino emerging adults: a latent class regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Ellen L; Wong, Y Joel; Middendorf, Katharine G

    2014-09-01

    Gender roles are often cited as a culturally specific predictor of drinking among Latino populations. This study used latent class regression to test the relationships between gender roles and binge drinking in a sample of Latino emerging adults. Participants were Latino emerging adults who participated in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,442). A subsample of these participants (n = 660) completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory--Short. We conducted latent class regression using 3 dimensions of gender roles (femininity, social masculinity, and personal masculinity) to predict binge drinking. Results indicated a 3-class solution. In Class 1, the protective personal masculinity class, personal masculinity (e.g., being a leader, defending one's own beliefs) was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking. In Class 2, the nonsignificant class, gender roles were not related to binge drinking. In Class 3, the mixed masculinity class, personal masculinity was associated with a reduction in the odds of binge drinking, whereas social masculinity (e.g., forceful, dominant) was associated with an increase in the odds of binge drinking. Post hoc analyses found that females, those born outside the United States, and those with greater English language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 1 (vs. Class 2). Males, those born outside the United States, and those with greater Spanish language usage were at greater odds of being in Class 3 (vs. Class 2). Directions for future research and implications for practice with Latino emerging adults are discussed.

  1. Loss of cyclophilin D reveals a critical role for mitochondrial permeability transition in cell death.

    PubMed

    Baines, Christopher P; Kaiser, Robert A; Purcell, Nicole H; Blair, N Scott; Osinska, Hanna; Hambleton, Michael A; Brunskill, Eric W; Sayen, M Richard; Gottlieb, Roberta A; Dorn, Gerald W; Robbins, Jeffrey; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2005-03-31

    Mitochondria play a critical role in mediating both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. The mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) leads to mitochondrial swelling, outer membrane rupture and the release of apoptotic mediators. The mPT pore is thought to consist of the adenine nucleotide translocator, a voltage-dependent anion channel, and cyclophilin D (the Ppif gene product), a prolyl isomerase located within the mitochondrial matrix. Here we generated mice lacking Ppif and mice overexpressing cyclophilin D in the heart. Ppif null mice are protected from ischaemia/reperfusion-induced cell death in vivo, whereas cyclophilin D-overexpressing mice show mitochondrial swelling and spontaneous cell death. Mitochondria isolated from the livers, hearts and brains of Ppif null mice are resistant to mitochondrial swelling and permeability transition in vitro. Moreover, primary hepatocytes and fibroblasts isolated from Ppif null mice are largely protected from Ca2+-overload and oxidative stress-induced cell death. However, Bcl-2 family member-induced cell death does not depend on cyclophilin D, and Ppif null fibroblasts are not protected from staurosporine or tumour-necrosis factor-alpha-induced death. Thus, cyclophilin D and the mitochondrial permeability transition are required for mediating Ca2+- and oxidative damage-induced cell death, but not Bcl-2 family member-regulated death. PMID:15800627

  2. Finite-size scaling for the glass transition: The role of a static length scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Procaccia, Itamar

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade, computer simulations have had an increasing role in shedding light on difficult statistical physical phenomena, and in particular on the ubiquitous problem of the glass transition. Here in a wide variety of materials the viscosity of a supercooled liquid increases by many orders of magnitude upon decreasing the temperature over a modest range. A natural concern in these computer simulations is the very small size of the simulated systems compared to experimental ones, raising the issue of how to assess the thermodynamic limit. Here we turn this limitation to our advantage by performing finite size scaling on the system size dependence of the relaxation time for supercooled liquids to emphasize the importance of a growing static length scale in the theory of glass transition. We demonstrate that the static length scale that was discovered by us in Physica A0378-437110.1016/j.physa.2011.11.020 391, 1001 (2012) fits the bill extremely well, allowing us to provide a finite-size scaling theory for the α-relaxation time of the glass transition, including predictions for the thermodynamic limit based on simulations in small systems.

  3. Finite-size scaling for the glass transition: the role of a static length scale.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Procaccia, Itamar

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade, computer simulations have had an increasing role in shedding light on difficult statistical physical phenomena, and in particular on the ubiquitous problem of the glass transition. Here in a wide variety of materials the viscosity of a supercooled liquid increases by many orders of magnitude upon decreasing the temperature over a modest range. A natural concern in these computer simulations is the very small size of the simulated systems compared to experimental ones, raising the issue of how to assess the thermodynamic limit. Here we turn this limitation to our advantage by performing finite size scaling on the system size dependence of the relaxation time for supercooled liquids to emphasize the importance of a growing static length scale in the theory of glass transition. We demonstrate that the static length scale that was discovered by us in Physica A 391, 1001 (2012) fits the bill extremely well, allowing us to provide a finite-size scaling theory for the α-relaxation time of the glass transition, including predictions for the thermodynamic limit based on simulations in small systems. PMID:23367953

  4. Role of Halides in the Ordered Structure Transitions of Heated Gold Nanocrystal Superlattices

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Dodecanethiol-capped gold (Au) nanocrystal superlattices can undergo a surprisingly diverse series of ordered structure transitions when heated (Goodfellow, B. W.; Rasch, M. R.; Hessel, C. M.; Patel, R. N.; Smilgies, D.-M.; Korgel, B. A. Nano Lett.2013, 13, 5710–5714). These are the result of highly uniform changes in nanocrystal size, which subsequently force a spontaneous rearrangement of superlattice structure. Here, we show that halide-containing surfactants play an essential role in these transitions. In the absence of any halide-containing surfactant, superlattices of dodecanethiol-capped (1.9-nm-diameter) Au nanocrystals do not change size until reaching about 190–205 °C, at which point the gold cores coalesce. In the presence of halide-containing surfactant, such as tetraoctylphosphonium bromide (TOPB) or tetraoctylammounium bromide (TOAB), the nanocrystals ripen at much lower temperature and superlattices undergo various ordered structure transitions upon heating. Chloride- and iodide-containing surfactants induce similar behavior, destabilizing the Au–thiol bond and reducing the thermal stability of the nanocrystals. PMID:26013597

  5. AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF PRINCIPAL PHILOSOPHIES OF ADULT EDUCATION IN EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION PROGRAMMING FOR ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BREITENFELD, FREDERICK, JR.

    ASSUMING EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION TO BE A FORM OF LIBERAL ADULT EDUCATION, ITS PROGRAMING, PRESENT AND POTENTIAL AUDIENCES, AND THE ATTITUDES OF VARIOUS PUBLICS TOWARD IT WERE INVESTIGATED. TWO VIEWS TOWARD LIBERAL ADULT EDUCATION WERE RECOGNIZED. THE TRADITIONALIST ARGUES THAT CONTENT TRANSCENDS METHOD, THAT THE GOAL OF LIBERAL ADULT EDUCATION IS…

  6. A novel regulatory role for tissue transglutaminase in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nyabam, Samuel; Wang, Zhuo; Thibault, Thomas; Oluseyi, Ayinde; Basar, Rameeza; Marshall, Lindsay; Griffin, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder caused by mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) for which there is no overall effective treatment. Recent work indicates tissue transglutaminase (TG2) plays a pivotal intracellular role in proteostasis in CF epithelia and that the pan TG inhibitor cysteamine improves CFTR stability. Here we show TG2 has another role in CF pathology linked with TGFβ1 activation and signalling, induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), CFTR stability and induction of matrix deposition. We show that increased TG2 expression in normal and CF bronchial epithelial cells increases TGFβ1 levels, promoting EMT progression, and impairs tight junctions as measured by Transepithelial Electric Resistance (TEER) which can be reversed by selective inhibition of TG2 with an observed increase in CFTR stability. Our data indicate that selective inhibition of TG2 provides a potential therapeutic avenue for reducing fibrosis and increasing CFTR stability in CF. PMID:27234323

  7. Roles of Engineering Correlations in Hypersonic Entry Boundary Layer Transition Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Anderson, Brian P.; King, Rudolph A.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to design and operate hypersonic entry vehicles are constrained by many considerations that involve all aspects of an entry vehicle system. One of the more significant physical phenomenon that affect entry trajectory and thermal protection system design is the occurrence of boundary layer transition from a laminar to turbulent state. During the Space Shuttle Return To Flight activity following the loss of Columbia and her crew of seven, NASA's entry aerothermodynamics community implemented an engineering correlation based framework for the prediction of boundary layer transition on the Orbiter. The methodology for this implementation relies upon similar correlation techniques that have been is use for several decades. What makes the Orbiter boundary layer transition correlation implementation unique is that a statistically significant data set was acquired in multiple ground test facilities, flight data exists to assist in establishing a better correlation and the framework was founded upon state of the art chemical nonequilibrium Navier Stokes flow field simulations. Recent entry flight testing performed with the Orbiter Discovery now provides a means to validate this engineering correlation approach to higher confidence. These results only serve to reinforce the essential role that engineering correlations currently exercise in the design and operation of entry vehicles. The framework of information related to the Orbiter empirical boundary layer transition prediction capability will be utilized to establish a fresh perspective on this role, and to discuss the characteristics which are desirable in a next generation advancement. The details of the paper will review the experimental facilities and techniques that were utilized to perform the implementation of the Orbiter RTF BLT Vsn 2 prediction capability. Statistically significant results for multiple engineering correlations from a ground testing campaign will be reviewed in order to describe why only

  8. Inequalities in Risks and Outcomes in a Health Transitioning Country: A Review of a Large National Cohort of Thai Adults.

    PubMed

    Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Friel, Sharon; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2013-09-30

    This article reviews inequalities in health risks and outcomes based on a large longitudinal cohort study of distance-learning adult students enrolled at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University (n = 87,134). The study began in 2005 and the first follow-up was completed in 2009. Risks analyzed for health inequalities were divided into demographic, socioeconomic, geographical, behavioral, and environmental groups. Unequal risks and outcomes identified that would be amenable to policy interventions in transitional Thailand include the following: heat stress-contributing to many adverse outcomes, including occupational injury, psychological distress, and kidney disease; urbanization-unhealthy eating, sedentary lifestyles, low social capital, and poor mental health; obesity-increasingly common especially with rising income and age among men; and injury-big problem for young males and associated with excessive alcohol and dangerous transport. These substantial inequalities require attention from multisectoral policy makers to reduce the gaps and improve health of the Thai population.

  9. Role of antioxidants and trace elements in health and immunity of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Spears, Jerry W; Weiss, William P

    2008-04-01

    A number of antioxidants and trace minerals have important roles in immune function and may affect health in transition dairy cows. Vitamin E and beta-carotene are important cellular antioxidants. Selenium (Se) is involved in the antioxidant system via its role in the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Inadequate dietary vitamin E or Se decreases neutrophil function during the perpariturient period. Supplementation of vitamin E and/or Se has reduced the incidence of mastitis and retained placenta, and reduced duration of clinical symptoms of mastitis in some experiments. Research has indicated that beta-carotene supplementation may enhance immunity and reduce the incidence of retained placenta and metritis in dairy cows. Marginal copper deficiency resulted in reduced neutrophil killing and decreased interferon production by mononuclear cells. Copper supplementation of a diet marginal in copper reduced the peak clinical response during experimental Escherichia coli mastitis. Limited research indicated that chromium supplementation during the transition period may increase immunity and reduce the incidence of retained placenta.

  10. Roles of Energy Dissipation in a Liquid-Solid Transition of Out-of-Equilibrium Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Yuta; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-07-01

    Self-organization of active matter as well as driven granular matter in nonequilibrium dynamical states has attracted considerable attention not only from the fundamental and application viewpoints but also as a model to understand the occurrence of such phenomena in nature. These systems share common features originating from their intrinsically out-of-equilibrium nature, and how energy dissipation affects the state selection in such nonequilibrium states remains elusive. As a simple model system, we consider a nonequilibrium stationary state maintained by continuous energy input, relevant to industrial processing of granular materials by vibration and/or flow. More specifically, we experimentally study roles of dissipation in self-organization of a driven granular particle monolayer. We find that the introduction of strong inelasticity entirely changes the nature of the liquid-solid transition from two-step (nearly) continuous transitions (liquid-hexatic-solid) to a strongly discontinuous first-order-like one (liquid-solid), where the two phases with different effective temperatures can coexist, unlike thermal systems, under a balance between energy input and dissipation. Our finding indicates a pivotal role of energy dissipation and suggests a novel principle in the self-organization of systems far from equilibrium. A similar principle may apply to active matter, which is another important class of out-of-equilibrium systems. On noting that interaction forces in active matter, and particularly in living systems, are often nonconservative and dissipative, our finding may also shed new light on the state selection in these systems.

  11. The role of stochastic noise in the abrupt climatic transitions of the pleistocene

    SciTech Connect

    Matteucci, G.

    1991-01-01

    Analyses of marine [delta][sup 18]O records suggest that the variations of the Earth's orbital parameters have induced and provided the timing of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations. This dissertation analyses some statistical properties of the Pleistocene climate by estimating the Probability Density Function (PDF) of the [delta][sup 18]O record. The results allow to define statistically what were the [open quotes]typical conditions[close quotes] (in a probabilistic sense) of the Quaternary, to identify the modes of the PDF as the mean glacial and interglacial climatic states, and to clarify the meaning and the abruptness of the climatic transitions. A zero-dimensional Energy Balance Model is developed. The nonlinearity of the ice albedo-temperature feedback leads to multiple steady-state equilibria. The role of stochastic perturbations and their interaction with the orbital forcing in producing the periodic and abrupt climatic transitions of the late Pleistocene are illustrated. A stochastic sensitivity analysis is used to clarify the results, especially the selective amplification of the orbitally-induced 100 kyr cycle, and the predictability of the system on the time scales of the orbital cycles. From the analysis of GCM simulations and observational zonally- averaged data a one-dimensional EBM is then developed. The strong nonlinearity of this model and the occurrence of multiple equilibria is caused by the presence of the Thin Ice Cap Instability. A discussion of the features that stochastic perturbations would introduce, follows. Finally a GCM sensitivity study to atmospheric CO[sub 2] shows how the effects of varying CO[sub 2] concentrations can be included in simple EBMs. The role that stochastic perturbations, orbital forcing, and the known past concentrations of atmospheric CO[sub 2] have played in producing the abrupt climatic transitions of the late Pleistocene is discussed.

  12. The Role of the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Purchase Intent Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Koestner, Bryan P; Hedgcock, William; Halfmann, Kameko; Denburg, Natalie L

    2016-01-01

    Older adults are frequently the targets of scams and deception, with millions of individuals being affected each year in the United States alone. Previous research has shown that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) may play a role in vulnerability to fraud. The current study examined brain activation patterns in relation to susceptibility to scams and fraud using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-eight healthy, community-dwelling older adults were subdivided into groups of impaired and unimpaired decision makers as determined by their performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). While in the scanner, the participants viewed advertisements that were created directly from cases deemed deceptive by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). We then obtained behavioral measures involving comprehension of claims and purchase intention of the product in each advertisement. Contrasts show brain activity in the vmPFC was less correlated with purchase intention in impaired vs. unimpaired older adult decision makers. Our results have important implications for both future research and recognizing the possible causes of fraud susceptibility among older adults. PMID:27536238

  13. The Role of the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Purchase Intent Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Koestner, Bryan P; Hedgcock, William; Halfmann, Kameko; Denburg, Natalie L

    2016-01-01

    Older adults are frequently the targets of scams and deception, with millions of individuals being affected each year in the United States alone. Previous research has shown that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) may play a role in vulnerability to fraud. The current study examined brain activation patterns in relation to susceptibility to scams and fraud using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-eight healthy, community-dwelling older adults were subdivided into groups of impaired and unimpaired decision makers as determined by their performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). While in the scanner, the participants viewed advertisements that were created directly from cases deemed deceptive by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). We then obtained behavioral measures involving comprehension of claims and purchase intention of the product in each advertisement. Contrasts show brain activity in the vmPFC was less correlated with purchase intention in impaired vs. unimpaired older adult decision makers. Our results have important implications for both future research and recognizing the possible causes of fraud susceptibility among older adults.

  14. The Role of the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Purchase Intent Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Koestner, Bryan P.; Hedgcock, William; Halfmann, Kameko; Denburg, Natalie L.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults are frequently the targets of scams and deception, with millions of individuals being affected each year in the United States alone. Previous research has shown that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) may play a role in vulnerability to fraud. The current study examined brain activation patterns in relation to susceptibility to scams and fraud using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-eight healthy, community-dwelling older adults were subdivided into groups of impaired and unimpaired decision makers as determined by their performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). While in the scanner, the participants viewed advertisements that were created directly from cases deemed deceptive by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). We then obtained behavioral measures involving comprehension of claims and purchase intention of the product in each advertisement. Contrasts show brain activity in the vmPFC was less correlated with purchase intention in impaired vs. unimpaired older adult decision makers. Our results have important implications for both future research and recognizing the possible causes of fraud susceptibility among older adults. PMID:27536238

  15. Role of the Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Naser, Rayan; Vandenbosch, Renaud; Omais, Saad; Hayek, Dayana; Jaafar, Carine; Al Lafi, Sawsan; Saliba, Afaf; Baghdadi, Maarouf; Skaf, Larissa; Ghanem, Noël

    2016-01-01

    Adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) are relatively quiescent populations that give rise to distinct neuronal subtypes throughout life, yet, at a very low rate and restricted differentiation potential. Thus, identifying the molecular mechanisms that control their cellular expansion is critical for regeneration after brain injury. Loss of the Retinoblastoma protein, Rb, leads to several defects in cell cycle as well as neuronal differentiation and migration during brain development. Here, we investigated the role of Rb during adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb (OB) by inducing its temporal deletion in aNSCs and progenitors. Loss of Rb was associated with increased proliferation of adult progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the rostral migratory stream (RMS) but did not alter self-renewal of aNSCs or neuroblasts subsequent migration and terminal differentiation. Hence, one month after their birth, Rb-null neuroblasts were able to differentiate into distinct subtypes of GABAergic OB interneurons but were gradually lost after 3 months. Similarly, Rb controlled aNSCs/progenitors proliferation in vitro without affecting their differentiation capacity. This enhanced SVZ/OB neurogenesis associated with loss of Rb was only transient and negatively affected by increased apoptosis indicating a critical requirement for Rb in the long-term survival of adult-born OB interneurons. PMID:26847607

  16. Adult-child differences in acoustic cue weighting are influenced by segmental context: Children are not always perceptually biased toward transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Catherine; Turk, Alice

    2004-06-01

    It has been proposed that young children may have a perceptual preference for transitional cues [Nittrouer, S. (2002). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 711-719]. According to this proposal, this preference can manifest itself either as heavier weighting of transitional cues by children than by adults, or as heavier weighting of transitional cues than of other, more static, cues by children. This study tested this hypothesis by examining adults' and children's cue weighting for the contrasts /ess,aye,smcapi/-/sh,aye,smcapi/, /de/-/be/, /ta/-/da/, and /ti/-/di/. Children were found to weight transitions more heavily than did adults for the fricative contrast /ess,aye,smcapi/-/sh,aye,smcapi/, and were found to weight transitional cues more heavily than nontransitional cues for the voice-onset-time contrast /ta/-/da/. However, these two patterns of cue weighting were not found to hold for the contrasts /de/-/be/ and /ti/-/di/. Consistent with several studies in the literature, results suggest that children do not always show a bias towards vowel-formant transitions, but that cue weighting can differ according to segmental context, and possibly the physical distinctiveness of available acoustic cues.

  17. Cigarette taxes and the transition from youth to adult smoking: smoking initiation, cessation, and participation.

    PubMed

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Don; Mathios, Alan

    2008-07-01

    Many policy makers continue to advocate and adopt cigarette taxes as a public health measure. Most previous individual-level empirical studies of cigarette demand are essentially static analyses of the relationship between the level of taxes and smoking behavior at a point in time. In this study, we use longitudinal data to examine the dynamics of young adults' decisions about smoking initiation and cessation. We develop a simple model to highlight the distinctions between smoking initiation, cessation, and participation. We show that because smoking participation reflects past decisions regarding initiation and cessation, the price elasticity of smoking participation is a weighted average of corresponding initiation and cessation elasticities, a finding that applies more broadly to other addictive substances as well. The paper's remaining contributions are empirical. We use data from the 1992 wave of the National Education Longitudinal Study, when most of the cohort were high school seniors, and data from the 2000 wave, when they were about 26 years old. The results show that the distinction between initiation and cessation is empirically useful. We also contribute new estimates on the tax-responsiveness of young adult smoking, paying careful attention to the possibility of bias if hard-to-observe differences in anti-smoking sentiment are correlated with state cigarette taxes. We find no evidence that higher taxes prevent smoking initiation, but some evidence that higher taxes are associated with increased cessation.

  18. Challenges of emerging adulthood-transition from paediatric to adult diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Gurmit; Nayak, Ananth U; Wilkins, Julie; Hankey, Jo; Raffeeq, Parakkal; Varughese, George I; Varadhan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex condition with far reaching physical, psychological and psychosocial effects. These outcomes can be significant when considering the care of a youth transferring from paediatric through to adult diabetes services. The art of mastering a smooth care transfer is crucial if not pivotal to optimising overall diabetic control. Quite often the nature of consultation varies between the two service providers and the objectives and outcomes will mirror this. The purpose of this review is to analyse the particular challenges and barriers one might expect to encounter when transferring these services over to an adult care provider. Particular emphasis is paid towards the psychological aspects of this delicate period, which needs to be recognised and appreciated appropriately in order to understand the particular plights a young diabetic child will be challenged with. We explore the approaches that can be positively adopted in order to improve the experience for child, parents and also the multi- disciplinary team concerned with the overall delivery of this care. Finally we will close with reflection on the potential areas for future development that will ultimately aim to improve long-term outcomes and experiences of the young adolescent confronted with diabetes as well as the burden of disease and burden of cost of disease. PMID:25317240

  19. Potential role of radial glia in adult neurogenesis of teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Zupanc, Günther K H; Clint, Sorcha C

    2003-07-01

    Persistence of radial glia within the adult central nervous system is a widespread phenomenon among fish. Based on a series of studies in the teleost species Apteronotus leptorhynchus, we propose that one function of this persistence is the involvement of radial glia in adult neurogenesis, i.e., the generation and further development of new neurons in the adult central nervous system. In particular, evidence has been obtained for the involvement of radial glia in the guidance of migrating young neurons in both the intact and the regenerating brain; for a possible role as precursor cells from which new neurons arise; and for its role as a source of trophic substances promoting the generation, differentiation, and/or survival of new neurons. These functions contribute not only to the potential of the intact brain to generate new neurons continuously, and of the injured brain to replace damaged cells by newly generated ones, but they also provide an essential part of the cellular substrate of behavioral plasticity.

  20. Critical Role of Jak2 in the Maintenance and Function of Adult Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    AKADA, HAJIME; AKADA, SAEKO; HUTCHISON, ROBERT E.; SAKAMOTO, KAZUHITO; WAGNER, KAY-UWE; MOHI, GOLAM

    2014-01-01

    Jak2, a member of the Janus kinase family of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases, is activated in response to a variety of cytokines, and functions in survival and proliferation of cells. An activating JAK2V617F mutation has been found in most patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, and patients treated with Jak2 inhibitors show significant hematopoietic toxicities. However, the role of Jak2 in adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has not been clearly elucidated. Using a conditional Jak2 knockout allele, we have found that Jak2 deletion results in rapid loss of HSCs/progenitors leading to bone marrow failure and early lethality in adult mice. Jak2 deficiency causes marked impairment in HSC function, and the mutant HSCs are severely defective in reconstituting hematopoiesis in recipient animals. Jak2 deficiency also causes significant apoptosis and loss of quiescence in HSC-enriched LSK (Lin−Sca-1+c-kit+) cells. Jak2-deficient LSK cells exhibit elevated reactive oxygen species levels and enhanced p38 MAPK activation. Mutant LSK cells also show defective Stat5, Erk and Akt activation in response to thrombopoietin and stem cell factor. Gene expression analysis reveals significant downregulation of genes related to HSC quiescence and self-renewal in Jak2-deficient LSK cells. These data suggest that Jak2 plays a critical role in the maintenance and function of adult HSCs. PMID:24677703

  1. Depressive Symptoms of Older Adults Living Alone: The Role of Community Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongmo; Lee, Minhong

    2015-03-01

    Although some evidence suggests that community characteristics may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms among older adults, current literature has not attended to the role of community characteristics in depression in South Korea. This study begins to address this gap in the literature by examining the relationship of community characteristics and depressive symptoms, controlling for individual characteristics. Using a cross-sectional design and probability sampling, we surveyed 949 older adults living alone in 70 communities in the Busan metropolitan area in South Korea in 2012. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis that community characteristics are predictive of depressive symptoms. We find that both the proportion of older adults and the number of senior citizen facilities in a community are associated with depressive symptoms, whereas community poverty is not related to depressive symptoms. Men with lower income, with lower levels of functional abilities, and without stronger family and friend social networks have a higher risk of depressive symptoms. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.

  2. The value of role modelling: Perceptions of undergraduate and diploma nursing (adult) students.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Jayne H; Carter, Diana

    2005-11-01

    Using a grounded theory methodology, this paper demonstrates the value of role modelling in teaching and learning within the clinical area. Views of undergraduate (n=20) and diploma (n=22) nursing (adult) students were sought using individual and focus group interviews. Although the importance of role modelling is acknowledged within the literature, there appears to be little written about the value of providing role modelling within the clinical learning environment to facilitate learning for student nurses. Both groups of students stated the importance of having access to a good role model in order that they could observe and practice skills and/or behaviour. 'Good' role models were seen to have a tremendous influence on the clinical learning environment and on the development of students' competence and confidence. Recommendations were made to include discussions on the value of role modelling on enhancing the clinical learning environment within mentor preparation courses. These discussions should emphasise the value of observational learning, the necessity of providing constructive feedback and the need for role models to enable the student to convert observed behaviour/skills into their own behaviour and skills set. PMID:19040845

  3. The Role of International Non-Governmental Organisations in Promoting Adult Education for Social Change: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Lutz; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role of International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGOs) in adult education as one instrument of global civil society to effect social change. Postcolonial theory is utilized to explore the complex relationships between the concepts of "globalisation", "global civil, society", and "adult education for social change". In…

  4. Moving Women from School to Work in Science: Curriculum Demands/adult Identities. And Life Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhart, Margaret

    This article proposes that the organization of some college curriculum programs as well as some workplaces presents special and perhaps unnecessary obstacles to women who might pursue science or engineering. The article begins with a framework for thinking about connections between school and work in various fields. This section reveals important differences in the way college degree programs are organized and in their implications for the transition to work. Some programs, such as in physics, construct a "tight" link between school and work; others, such as in sociology, construct much looser links. The article proceeds by reviewing results of previous ethnographic research about women's actual experiences in college and work. This section suggests that during the period of transition from college to work, women face special cultural demands that interfere with their pursuit of degrees in tight programs. Joining the lessons from the two preceding sections, the argument is made that the tight organization of some college and workplace environments asks more of women than they can give and helps explain why women continue to be under represented in some fields. The argument has testable Implications for the design of curricularprogramsana'workplace environments that might attract more women (and perhaps more minorities and men) to science and engineering.

  5. The Impact of Body Mass Index and Weight Changes on Disability Transitions and Mortality in Brazilian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Drumond Andrade, Flávia Cristina; Mohd Nazan, Ahmad Iqmer Nashriq; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between body mass index and weight changes on disability transitions and mortality among Brazilian older adults. Longitudinal data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study conducted in São Paulo, Brazil (2000 and 2006), were used to examine the impact of obesity on disability and mortality and of weight changes on health transitions related to disability. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used in the analyses. Individuals who were obese were more likely than those of normal weight to have limitations on activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activity of daily living (IADL), and Nagi's limitations. Obesity was associated with higher incidence of ADL and IADL limitations and with lower recovery from Nagi's limitations. Compared to those who maintained their weight, those who gained weight experienced higher incidence of ADL and Nagi's limitations, even after controlling for initial body mass index. Higher mortality among overweight individuals was only found when the reference category was “remaining free of Nagi limitations.” The findings of the study underline the importance of maintaining normal weight for preventing disability at older ages. PMID:23691319

  6. Transition from embryonic to adult epidermis in reptiles occurs by the production of corneous beta-proteins.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The adaptation of the epidermis in amniote vertebrates to life on land took place by a drastic change from an embryonic epidermis made of two-four periderm layers to a terrestrial-proof epidermis. This transition occurred by the increase in types and number of specialized corneous proteins coded by genes of the Epidermal Differentiation Complex. The prevalent types of corneous proteins produced in the reptilian epidermis contain a beta-sheet region of high amino acid homology which allows their polymerization into a meshwork of filaments forming the hard corneous material of scales and claws. The present immunogold ultrastructural study shows that this transition occurs with the synthesis of glycine-rich corneous beta-proteins (formerly indicated as beta-keratins) that are added to the initial framework of acidic intermediate filaments produced in the embryonic epidermis of lizards, snake, alligator and turtle. These corneous beta-proteins are accumulated in the transitional and definitive layers of reptilian epidermis formed underneath the transitory two-four layered embryonic epidermis. In the more specialized reptiles capable of shedding the epidermis as a single unit, such as lizards and snakes, special glycine-cysteine rich beta-proteins are initially produced in a single layer immediately formed beneath the embryonic epidermis, the oberhautchen. The latter layer allows the in ovo shedding of the embryonic epidermis in preparation for hatching, and in the following shedding cycles of the adult epidermis. The production of specialized corneous-specific beta-proteins in addition to intermediate filament keratins was probably an essential addition for terrestrial life during the evolution of reptiles into different lineages, including birds. The increase of glycine and cysteine in epidermal proteins enhanced the hydrophobicity, insolubility and mechanical strength of the stratum corneum in these amniotes.

  7. Anxiety symptomatology and perceived health in African American adults: Moderating role of emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Sierra E.; Walker, Rheeda L.

    2014-01-01

    Though emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. PMID:25045943

  8. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Transitions between Frailty States, and Mortality among Older Adults: The Invecchiare in Chianti Study

    PubMed Central

    Shardell, Michelle; D’Adamo, Christopher; Alley, Dawn E; Miller, Ram R; Hicks, Gregory E; Milaneschi, Yuri; Semba, Richard D; Cherubini, Antonio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Frailty is a dynamic geriatric syndrome characterized by decreased reserve and increased vulnerability. Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in older adults are associated with many physiological changes that portend frailty and its consequences. We aimed to assess whether serum 25(OH)D concentrations relate to transitions between the states of robustness, prefrailty, and frailty, and to mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, and PARTICIPANTS Adults aged≥65 years (N=1,155) enrolled in Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI), a prospective cohort study in Tuscany, Italy. MEASUREMENTS Serum 25(OH)D concentrations measured at baseline and frailty state (robust, prefrail, frail) assessed at baseline and at three and six years post enrollment. Vital status was also determined at three and six years post enrollment. RESULTS The median (interquartile range) 25(OH)D concentration was 16.0 (10.4—25.6) ng/mL (multiply by 2.496 to convert to nmol/L). Prefrail participants with 25(OH)D<20 ng/mL were 8.9% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 2.5—15.2%) more likely to die, 3.0% (95%CI, −5.6—14.6%) more likely to become frail, and 7.7% (95%CI, −3.5—18.7%) less likely to become robust than prefrail participants with 25(OH)D≥20 ng/mL. Among prefrail participants, each 5 ng/mL decrement of continuous 25(OH)D was associated with 1.46 times higher odds of dying (95%CI, 1.18—2.07) and 1.13 higher odds of incident frailty (95%CI, 0.90—1.39) versus recovery of robustness. Transitions from robustness or frailty were not associated with 25(OH)D. CONCLUSION Results provide evidence that prefrailty is an “at risk” state from which older adults with high 25(OH)D are more likely to recover than to decline. However, high 25(OH)D was not associated with recovery from frailty. Thus, 25(OH)D should be investigated as a potential therapy to treat prefrailty and prevent further decline. PMID:22283177

  9. The Effect of Transition Clinics on Knowledge of Diagnosis and Perception of Risk in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ganju, Rohit G.; Nanda, Ronica H.; Esiashvili, Natia; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Marchak, Jordan G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Improved treatment for pediatric cancers has ensured an evergrowing population of patients surviving into adulthood. The current study evaluated the impact of previous engagement in survivor care on patient knowledge and awareness of health risks as young adults. Procedure Young adult survivors of childhood cancers (N = 93, M age = 23.63 y) were recruited during their annual survivor clinic visit. Participants completed self-reported measures of demographics, treatment knowledge, perception of future health risks, participation in previous survivor care, and neurocognitive functioning. Results In total, 82% of patients (N = 76/93) reported previously participating in survivorship care. These patients were more likely to have knowledge of their radiation treatment (P = 0.034) and more likely to recognize risk for future health effects from their treatment (P = 0.019). Income between $10,000 and $24,999 (odds ratio = 0.168; 95% confidence interval, 0.046–0.616; P = 0.031) was associated with decreased patient knowledge regarding diagnosis. Male sex (odds ratio = 0.324; 95% confidence interval, 0.135–0.777; P = 0.012) was associated with less knowledge of future health risks. Patients with self-reported difficulties on the CCSS-NCQ were more likely to regard their cancer treatment as a future health risk. Conclusion Participation in survivor care plays an important role in imparting information to young adult survivors of pediatric cancer regarding their disease history and risk for future health problems. PMID:26925717

  10. Hospital to community transitions for adults: discharge planners and community service providers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Rosemary Kennedy; Chandran, Devyani; Sergeant, Julie F; Koenig, Terry L

    2014-01-01

    Discharges from the hospital to community-based settings are more difficult for older adults when there is lack of communication, resource sharing, and viable partnerships among service providers in these settings. The researchers captured the perspectives of three different groups of participants from hospitals, independent living centers, and Area Agencies on Aging, which has rarely been done in studies on discharge planning. Findings include identification of barriers in the assessment and referral process (e.g., timing of discharge, inattention to client goals, lack of communication and partnerships between hospital discharge planners and community providers), and strategies for overcoming these barriers. Implications are discussed including potential for Medicaid and Medicare cost reductions due to fewer re-hospitalizations.

  11. Educating adult females for leadership roles in an informal science program for girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreedy, Dale

    The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of and an evidentiary warrant for, how a community of practice focused on informal science learning, can engage and promote active participation that offers adult female members and the community opportunities for legitimacy and transformation. This study is a qualitative, ethnographic research study that documents how adult female volunteers, historically inexperienced and/or excluded from traditional practices of science, come to engage in science activities through an informal, community-based context that helps them to appreciate science connections in their lives that are ultimately empowering and agentic. I begin to understand the ways in which such informal contexts, often thought to be marginal to dominant educational beliefs and practices, can offer adults outside of the field of science, education, or both, an entree into science learning and teaching that facilitate female's participation in legitimate and empowering ways. Using descriptive analyses, I first identify the characteristics of peripheral and active program participants. Through phenomenological analyses, I then develop an understanding of participation in an informal science program by focusing on three adult female members' unique trajectories of participation leading to core member status. Each draws on different aspects of the program that they find most salient, illustrating how different elements can serve as motivators for participation, and support continuation along the trajectory of participation reflecting personal and political agency. Through a purposeful ethnographic case-study analysis, I then explore one core member's transformation, evidenced by her developing identities as someone who enjoys science, engages in science activities, and, enacts a role as community old timer and door opener to science learning. This study: (1) contributes to the limited knowledge base in fields of informal learning, science education, and

  12. The role of fluids on the brittle-ductile transition in the crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirth, Greg; Beeler, Nick

    2015-04-01

    To characterize stress and deformation style at the base of the seismogenic zone we investigate how the mechanical properties of fluid-rock systems respond to variations in temperature and strain rate. The role of fluids on the processes responsible for the brittle-ductile transition in quartz-rich rocks has not been explored at experimental conditions where the kinetic competition between microcracking and viscous flow is similar to that expected in the Earth. Our initial analysis of this competition suggests that the effective pressure law for sliding friction should not work as effectively near the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) as it does at shallow conditions. Our motivation comes from three observations. First, extrapolation of quartzite flow laws indicates the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) occurs at ~300 °C at geologic strain rates for conditions where fault strength is controlled by a coefficient of friction of ~0.6 with a hydrostatic pore-fluid pressure gradient. Second, we suggest that the preservation of relatively high stress microstructures indicates that the effective stress law must sometimes evolve rapidly near the BDT. There is abundant evidence for the presence of fluids during viscous deformation of mylonites (e.g., recrystallization and redistribution of micas, dissolution and reprecipitation of quartz). The relatively high viscous stresses inferred from these microstructures are incompatible with the standard effective stress relationship. A similar "paradox" is evident at experimental conditions where viscous creep is studied in the laboratory. In this case, the presence of fluid (which should produce low effective stress) does not promote localized brittle failure, even though these experiments are conducted under undrained conditions. Third, experiments on partially molten rocks illustrate viscous creep behavior during both drained compaction and undrained triaxial deformation tests, even though the melt pressure approaches or equals

  13. Youth Transitions and Interdependent Adult-Child Relations in Rural Bolivia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punch, Samantha

    2002-01-01

    Draws on ethnographic fieldwork in southern Bolivia to explore how rural Bolivian youth negotiate structural constraints on choices of work versus secondary education, including local versus urban location, economic resources, parental attitudes, gender, family characteristics, social networks and support, and peer role models. Suggests the notion…

  14. The Role of Vocational Education in Preparing Young People for Adult Life and Employment. A Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Derek E.

    Vocational education has a role to play in transition education, especially in relation to postsecondary institutions and to initial employment. Recent overseas developments in vocational education and the transition from school to working life have implications for contemplated changes in senior secondary school curriculum, assessment, and…

  15. Balancing parent care with other roles: interrole conflict of adult daughter caregivers.

    PubMed

    Stephens, M A; Townsend, A L; Martire, L M; Druley, J A

    2001-01-01

    This study examined interrole conflict experienced by 278 women who simultaneously occupied 4 roles: parent care provider, mother to children at home, wife, and employee. Compared with women who experienced no conflict between parent care and their other roles, women reporting parent care conflict tended to have fewer socio-economic resources, to have older children, and to be caring for parents with greater impairment. Women who reported conflicts between parent care and employment were older; had more education; had marriages of longer duration; and had older, more self-sufficient children than women who reported conflict between the parent care role and the mother role. Some evidence was found for the hypothesis that interrole conflict between parent care and other roles mediates the relationship between parent care stress and psychosocial well-being. Results suggest that one way parent care stress exerts its deleterious effects on the well-being of adult daughters is through the incompatible pressures of parent care and other roles.

  16. Contrasting roles for parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons in two forms of adult visual cortical plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Eitan S; Cooke, Sam F; Komorowski, Robert W; Chubykin, Alexander A; Thomazeau, Aurore; Khibnik, Lena A; Gavornik, Jeffrey P; Bear, Mark F

    2016-01-01

    The roles played by cortical inhibitory neurons in experience-dependent plasticity are not well understood. Here we evaluate the participation of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) GABAergic neurons in two forms of experience-dependent modification of primary visual cortex (V1) in adult mice: ocular dominance (OD) plasticity resulting from monocular deprivation and stimulus-selective response potentiation (SRP) resulting from enriched visual experience. These two forms of plasticity are triggered by different events but lead to a similar increase in visual cortical response. Both also require the NMDA class of glutamate receptor (NMDAR). However, we find that PV+ inhibitory neurons in V1 play a critical role in the expression of SRP and its behavioral correlate of familiarity recognition, but not in the expression of OD plasticity. Furthermore, NMDARs expressed within PV+ cells, reversibly inhibited by the psychotomimetic drug ketamine, play a critical role in SRP, but not in the induction or expression of adult OD plasticity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11450.001 PMID:26943618

  17. Effects of Multimedia Social Stories on Knowledge of Adult Outcomes and Opportunities among Transition-Aged Youth with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Sharon; Test, David

    2011-01-01

    Students with significant cognitive disabilities typically experience poor post-school outcomes as adults. Federal legislation and recent research reflect the importance of teaching self-determination skills as a strategy to improve post-school outcomes. However, the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS-2) reported that individuals with…

  18. Comparison of Transition-Related IEP Content for Young Adults with Disabilities Who Do or Do Not Have a Legal Guardian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dorothy Squatrito

    2009-01-01

    IEP transition-related content was compared between young adults with developmental disabilities who had or did not have legal guardians. It was found that students with guardians were more likely to earn a certificate of completion, and wanted to remain living with their families, in comparison to students without guardians who were more likely…

  19. The Evolution of Work Values during the School-to-Work Transition: The Case of Young Adults in the "Missing Middle"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masdonati, Jonas; Fournier, Geneviève; Pinault, Mathieu; Lahrizi, Imane Z.

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a mixed method design, this paper explores the configuration and evolution of work values of 64 young adults in transition from education to employment. Qualitative analyses point out the existence of four categories of work values: interesting tasks, good relationships, self-fulfillment, and attractive work conditions. Quantitative…

  20. Articulating Roles and Responsibilities in the Transition Planning Process: A Practice Aimed at Figuring out How to Work Together. Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Marianne; Golden, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    It is clear that the intention of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Individual with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 require both the Education Agency and the Vocational Rehabilitation Agency (VESID, in New York State) to jointly participate in the development of transition plans for students with disabilities as they prepare for employment…

  1. The Physical Activity Transition among Adults in China: 1991–2011

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shu Wen; Howard, Annie-Green; Wang, Huijun; Su, Chang; Zhang, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have linked work, home production, travel activities, and inactivity with weight and health outcomes. However, these focused on average physical activity over time rather than changes in physical activity and associated socio-demographic and economic factors and urbanicity. Using the 1991–2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey data, we estimated the metabolic equivalent of task hours per week for individuals in occupational, domestic, travel, and active leisure domains and sedentary hours per week. We present the distributions among adult men and women (aged 18–60) and use quantile regression models to explore factors associated with these trends. Trend analyses on the distribution of physical activity show declines along the whole distribution of occupational physical activity for men and women and domestic physical activity for women in China. These patterns remain consistent after adjusting for individual- and household-level factors. Controlling for urbanicity mitigated the decrease in occupational physical activity, particularly for men, but not the decrease in domestic physical activity. Given China's rapid urbanization and its association with occupational physical activity declines and the strong time trend in domestic physical activity, there is a need to invest in interventions and policies that promote physical activity during leisure and travel times. PMID:24341756

  2. Transition of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma clones during clinical progression.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Sakura; Firouzi, Sanaz; López, Yosvany; Yamochi, Tadanori; Nakano, Kazumi; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Utusnomiya, Atae; Iwanaga, Masako; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2016-09-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a peripheral T-cell neoplasm caused by the transformation of HTLV-1-infected T cells. ATLL, especially its aggressive form, is known for its poor prognosis, even with intensive chemotherapy. ATLL cells are considered to be monoclonal; however, multiclonal proliferation or emergence of a new clone over time has been reported based on Southern blot analysis, although direct molecular evidence remains elusive. Furthermore, it is thought that clonal change may be a cause of early drug resistance in ATLL. To directly analyze potential clonal changes in ATLL during its clinical course, we used inverse PCR to detect integration sites in combination with a newly developed method using next-generation sequencing, and compared ATLL cell clonality at different time points. The results of inverse PCR indicated that the major clone was altered in three of 19 patients. Together with results from five patients, using this new method, we found direct evidence of clonal change occurring during the clinical course or in response to chemotherapy in ATLL. These results also highlight the importance of clonality analysis for understanding the mechanisms of ATLL development and drug resistance. PMID:27383637

  3. The role of fire during the Eocene-Oligocene transition in southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömberg, C. A. E.; Selkin, P. A.; Boyle, J.; Carlini, A. A.; Davies-Vollum, K. S.; Dunn, R. E.; Kohn, M. J.; Madden, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    The geological record of wildfire, particularly across climate transitions, can help elucidate the complex relationships between climate, vegetation, and fire at long temporal scales. Across Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT), previous workers have proposed climate changes (drying and changes in seasonality) contemporaneous with the growth of the Antarctic ice sheet that would have changed the likelihood of wildfires in terrestrial ecosystems. We document short-lived changes in fire regime and plant community in Patagonia near the time of the EOT. Specifically, the concentration of magnetic oxide minerals in Eocene-Oligocene loessites from the Sarmiento Formation correlates with the fraction of burnt palm phytoliths as well as with the fraction of non-palm phytoliths. We interpret the magnetic mineral assemblage magnetite + maghemite ± hematite as pyrogenic, forming in reducing conditions at temperatures between 300 and 600°C. The disappearance of fire-related characteristics near the EOT is possible if seasonal drought was suppressed due to a northward shift in the westerlies - a process consistent with changes in modal particle sizes in the Vera Member. Although the transitory nature of the changes in fire regime remains a puzzle, these results imply a more important role for fire in structuring Eocene-Oligocene landscapes than previously thought.

  4. The role of cardiac fibroblasts in the transition from inflammation to fibrosis following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwenhoven, Frans A; Turner, Neil A

    2013-03-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts (CF) play a pivotal role in the repair and remodeling of the heart that occur following myocardial infarction (MI). The transition through the inflammatory, granulation and maturation phases of infarct healing is driven by cellular responses to local levels of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors that fluctuate in a temporal and spatial manner. In the acute inflammatory phase early after MI, CF contribute to the inflammatory milieu through increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and they promote extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation by increasing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity. In the granulation phase, CF migrate into the infarct zone, proliferate and produce MMPs and pro-angiogenic molecules to facilitate revascularization. Fibroblasts also undergo a phenotypic change to become myofibroblasts. In the maturation phase, inflammation is reduced by anti-inflammatory cytokines, and increased levels of profibrotic stimuli induce myofibroblasts to synthesize new ECM to form a scar. The scar is contracted through the mechanical force generated by myofibroblasts, preventing cardiac dilation. In this review we discuss the transition from myocardial inflammation to fibrosis with particular focus on how CF respond to alterations in proinflammatory and profibrotic signals. By furthering our understanding of these events, it is hoped that new therapeutic interventions will be developed that selectively reduce adverse myocardial remodeling post-MI, while sparing essential repair mechanisms.

  5. The role of magnetic field in the transition to streaming ablation in wire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M. R.; Seyler, C. E.; Greenly, J. B.

    2010-05-15

    In wire array Z-pinches, the magnetic field configuration and the global field penetration of individual wires play a key role in the ablation plasma dynamics. Knowledge of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to understand the ablation plasma acceleration process near the wires. Two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations show that a change in the global magnetic field configuration is critical to initiating inward flow of the ablation plasma. Analysis of these simulations show that the initially compressive JxB force around a wire in its vacuum field configuration undergoes a transition to a configuration in which the Lorentz force can accelerate plasma toward the array axis. This transition is achieved through a low magnetic Reynolds number diffusive flow in which the plasma and the magnetic field are decoupled. The plasma current follows the expanding plasma toward the array axis and, after traveling a critical distance scaling with the array radius divided by the wire number, the global magnetic field threads the wire core, thereby allowing JxB coronal acceleration into ablation streams.

  6. Enhanced role of transition metal ion catalysis during in-cloud oxidation of SO2.

    PubMed

    Harris, Eliza; Sinha, Bärbel; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Tilgner, Andreas; Fomba, Khanneh Wadinga; Schneider, Johannes; Roth, Anja; Gnauk, Thomas; Fahlbusch, Benjamin; Mertes, Stephan; Lee, Taehyoung; Collett, Jeffrey; Foley, Stephen; Borrmann, Stephan; Hoppe, Peter; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-05-10

    Global sulfate production plays a key role in aerosol radiative forcing; more than half of this production occurs in clouds. We found that sulfur dioxide oxidation catalyzed by natural transition metal ions is the dominant in-cloud oxidation pathway. The pathway was observed to occur primarily on coarse mineral dust, so the sulfate produced will have a short lifetime and little direct or indirect climatic effect. Taking this into account will lead to large changes in estimates of the magnitude and spatial distribution of aerosol forcing. Therefore, this oxidation pathway-which is currently included in only one of the 12 major global climate models-will have a significant impact on assessments of current and future climate.

  7. The role of transit peptides in the localization of chloroplastic proteins: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Keegstra, K.

    1989-01-01

    Sjef Smeekens in the Utrecht group had just isolated a cDNA clone for PC and plans had been made for him to bring it to our lab to conduct import studies. In that application we proposed to examine the pathway of PC transport to the thylakoid lumen and to investigate the role of the transit peptide in that process. Additionally we proposed to begin studies aimed at investigating protein transport to the chloroplastic envelope. The progress made during the last three years in achieving these objectives is outlined below. During this grant period, we initiated some additional studies aimed at investigating the effect of known topogenic sequences on targeting within chloroplasts. Our results in these studies are also presented below. The descriptions provided in this report outline the major findings and conclusions.

  8. Transitioning from a faculty to an administrative role: part 1, moving from individual to collective accountability.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cesarina M

    2011-01-01

    Many new nursing leaders assuming deanships, assistant, or interim deanships have limited education, experience, or background to prepare them for the job. To assist new deans and those aspiring to be deans, Jana L. Pressler, PhD, RN, and Carole A. Kenner, PhD, RNC-NIC, FAAN, the editors of this department, address common issues, challenges, and opportunities that face academic executive teams, such as negotiating an executive contract, obtaining faculty lines, building effective work teams, managing difficult employees, and creating nimble organizational structure to respond to changing consumer, healthcare delivery, and community needs. In this article, the editors asked guest author, Dr Cesarina Thompson, to discuss the transition process from faculty to administrative role. PMID:21135671

  9. Knowledge about aging and worry in older adults: Testing the mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Nuevo, Roberto; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Montorio, Ignacio; Ruiz, Miguel A.; Cabrera, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the relationship between knowledge about aging and severity of worry in older adults, and to test the potential mediational role of intolerance of uncertainty. Method The sample was composed of 120 community-dwelling older adults, with a mean of age of 71.0 years (SD = 6.3). Mediational analyses and structural equation modeling were used to analyze and compare different models. Results Greater knowledge about aging was negatively related to both intolerance of uncertainty and worry, and its effect on worry was partially mediated by intolerance of uncertainty. The mediational model obtained an excellent fit to the data (i.e. Goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.995) and clearly had a better fit than alternative models. Conclusion These results suggest that a good knowledge of the aging process could help decrease aversive uncertainty and thus reduce the level of worry among older adults. Thus, educational programs to increase knowledge about aging could serve as one preventive strategy for anxiety in old age. PMID:19197699

  10. Early-life origin of adult insomnia: does prenatal-early-life stress play a role?

    PubMed

    Palagini, Laura; Drake, Christopher L; Gehrman, Philip; Meerlo, Peter; Riemann, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is very common in the adult population and it includes a wide spectrum of sequelae, that is, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular alterations as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. According to the conceptualization of insomnia in the context of the 3-P model, the importance of predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors has been stressed. Predisposing factors are present before insomnia is manifested and they are hypothesized to interact with precipitating factors, such as environmental stressful events, contributing to the onset of insomnia. Understanding the early-life origins of insomnia may be particularly useful in order to prevent and treat this costly phenomenon. Based on recent evidence, prenatal-early-life stress exposure results in a series of responses that involve the stress system in the child and could persist into adulthood. This may encompass an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis accompanied by long-lasting modifications in stress reactivity. Furthermore, early-life stress exposure might play an important role in predisposing to a vulnerability to hyperarousal reactions to negative life events in the adult contributing to the development of chronic insomnia. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be involved in the development of maladaptive stress responses in the newborn, ultimately predisposing to develop a variety of (psycho-) pathological states in adult life.

  11. Morphological Awareness and Its Role in Compensation in Adults with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Law, Jeremy M; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the role of morphological awareness (MA) in literacy achievement and compensation in word reading of adults with dyslexia through an exploration of three questions: (1) Do adult dyslexics demonstrate a deficit in MA, and how is this potential deficit related to phonological awareness (PA)? (2) Does MA contribute independently to literacy skills equally in dyslexics and control readers? and (3) Do MA and PA skills differ in compensated and noncompensated dyslexics? A group of dyslexic and normal reading university students matched for age, education and IQ participated in this study. Group analysis demonstrated an MA deficit in dyslexics; as well, MA was found to significantly predict a greater proportion of word reading and spelling within the dyslexic group compared with the controls. Compensated dyslexics were also found to perform significantly better on the morphological task than noncompensated dyslexics. Additionally, no statistical difference was observed in MA between the normal reading controls and the compensated group (independent of PA and vocabulary). Results suggest that intact and strong MA skills contribute to the achieved compensation of this group of adults with dyslexia. Implications for MA based intervention strategies for people with dyslexia are discussed.

  12. Role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adult patients with Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dhédin, Nathalie; Huynh, Anne; Maury, Sébastien; Tabrizi, Reza; Beldjord, Kheira; Asnafi, Vahid; Thomas, Xavier; Chevallier, Patrice; Nguyen, Stéphanie; Coiteux, Valérie; Bourhis, Jean-Henri; Hichri, Yosr; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Reman, Oumedaly; Graux, Carlos; Chalandon, Yves; Blaise, Didier; Schanz, Urs; Lhéritier, Véronique; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Dombret, Hervé; Ifrah, Norbert

    2015-04-16

    Because a pediatric-inspired Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL) protocol yielded a markedly improved outcome in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL, we aimed to reassess the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients treated in the GRAALL-2003 and GRAALL-2005 trials. In all, 522 patients age 15 to 55 years old and presenting with at least 1 conventional high-risk factor were candidates for SCT in first complete remission. Among these, 282 (54%) received a transplant in first complete remission. At 3 years, posttransplant cumulative incidences of relapse, nonrelapse mortality, and relapse-free survival (RFS) were estimated at 19.5%, 15.5%, and 64.7%, respectively. Time-dependent analysis did not reveal a significant difference in RFS between SCT and no-SCT cohorts. However, SCT was associated with longer RFS in patients with postinduction minimal residual disease (MRD) ≥10(-3) (hazard ratio, 0.40) but not in good MRD responders. In B-cell precursor ALL, SCT also benefitted patients with focal IKZF1 gene deletion (hazard ratio, 0.42). This article shows that poor early MRD response, in contrast to conventional ALL risk factors, is an excellent tool to identify patients who may benefit from allogeneic SCT in the context of intensified adult ALL therapy. Trial GRAALL-2003 was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00222027; GRAALL-2005 was registered as #NCT00327678. PMID:25587040

  13. Role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adult patients with Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dhédin, Nathalie; Huynh, Anne; Maury, Sébastien; Tabrizi, Reza; Beldjord, Kheira; Asnafi, Vahid; Thomas, Xavier; Chevallier, Patrice; Nguyen, Stéphanie; Coiteux, Valérie; Bourhis, Jean-Henri; Hichri, Yosr; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Reman, Oumedaly; Graux, Carlos; Chalandon, Yves; Blaise, Didier; Schanz, Urs; Lhéritier, Véronique; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Dombret, Hervé; Ifrah, Norbert

    2015-04-16

    Because a pediatric-inspired Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL) protocol yielded a markedly improved outcome in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL, we aimed to reassess the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients treated in the GRAALL-2003 and GRAALL-2005 trials. In all, 522 patients age 15 to 55 years old and presenting with at least 1 conventional high-risk factor were candidates for SCT in first complete remission. Among these, 282 (54%) received a transplant in first complete remission. At 3 years, posttransplant cumulative incidences of relapse, nonrelapse mortality, and relapse-free survival (RFS) were estimated at 19.5%, 15.5%, and 64.7%, respectively. Time-dependent analysis did not reveal a significant difference in RFS between SCT and no-SCT cohorts. However, SCT was associated with longer RFS in patients with postinduction minimal residual disease (MRD) ≥10(-3) (hazard ratio, 0.40) but not in good MRD responders. In B-cell precursor ALL, SCT also benefitted patients with focal IKZF1 gene deletion (hazard ratio, 0.42). This article shows that poor early MRD response, in contrast to conventional ALL risk factors, is an excellent tool to identify patients who may benefit from allogeneic SCT in the context of intensified adult ALL therapy. Trial GRAALL-2003 was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00222027; GRAALL-2005 was registered as #NCT00327678.

  14. Experiences and Outcomes of Transition from Pediatric to Adult Health Care Services for Young People with Congenital Heart Disease: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Heery, Emily; Sheehan, Aisling M; While, Alison E; Coyne, Imelda

    2015-01-01

    This review synthesizes the empirical literature on outcomes and experiences of transfer and transition from pediatric to adult care for young people with congenital heart disease. A systematic review of papers published between January 2001 and May 2013 that examined outcomes or experiences of transfer and transition among young people with congenital heart disease was conducted. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers with the outcomes data combined using narrative synthesis and the experiences data integrated using thematic synthesis. Thirteen papers were included in the review: six reported outcomes following transfer, six reported experiences of transfer and transition, and one reported both outcomes and experiences. The review data indicate that high proportions of young people were lost to follow-up or experienced long gaps in care after leaving pediatric cardiology. Factors that protected against loss to follow-up or lapse in care included: beliefs that specialized adult care was necessary; poorer health status; attendance at pediatric appointments without parents; and pediatric referral to an adult congenital heart disease center. Data on experiences highlighted that many young people were unconcerned about transition, but lacked knowledge about their condition and were insufficiently prepared for transfer. In terms of adult services, many young people desired continuity in the quality of care, youth-oriented facilities, a personalized approach, and for their parents to remain involved in their care, but in a secondary, supportive capacity. In conclusion, the high proportions of young people lost to follow-up highlight the need for formal transition programs, which ensure a planned and coordinated transfer. Patients with congenital heart disease need education throughout adolescence about the implications of their condition, the differences between pediatric and adult services, and self-care management.

  15. Transition to Adult Care in Persons With Disorders of Sexual Development: The Role of the Gynecologist

    PubMed Central

    Oelschlager, Anne-Marie Amies; Muscarella, Miriam; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Disorders of sexual development (DSD) are a spectrum of conditions diagnosed in infancy due to atypical development of the external genitalia, in adolescence due to atypical pubertal development, or in adulthood due to infertility. Obstetricians may be the first providers to identify a DSD in the fetus or newborn, and should be part of the interdisciplinary team assembled to best care for these patients. Gynecologists must be familiar with the diagnosis and management of these conditions in late adolescence and adulthood. The creation of DSD “centers of excellence” may provide optimal care for individuals with these conditions but many will live too far from such centers and need to be followed by local gynecologists. The purpose of this commentary is to emphasize important medical and psychological issues so gynecologists can provide optimal care for their patients with DSD conditions. PMID:26348185

  16. Changes in marital satisfaction across the transition to parenthood: the role of adult attachment orientations.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Jamie L; Rholes, Steven W; Simpson, Jeffry A; Martin, A McLeish; Tran, SiSi; Wilson, Carol L

    2012-11-01

    This longitudinal study investigated marital satisfaction trajectories across the first 2 years of parenthood. Data were collected from new parents (couples) 6 weeks before the birth of their first child, and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. Growth curve models revealed two key findings. First, for highly anxious individuals, satisfaction was lower or declined when they perceived their partners as less supportive and as behaving more negatively toward them. Second, for highly avoidant individuals, satisfaction was lower or declined when they perceived more work-family conflict and greater demands from their families. The findings suggest that attachment insecurities predict dissatisfaction in new parents primarily when stressors block the pursuit of important attachment goals. PMID:22878461

  17. Anxiety and Depression during Transition from Hospital to Community in Older Adults: Concepts of a Study to Explain Late Age Onset Depression

    PubMed Central

    Lalor, Aislinn F.; Brown, Ted; Robins, Lauren; Lee, Den-Ching Angel; O’Connor, Daniel; Russell, Grant; Stolwyk, Rene; McDermott, Fiona; Johnson, Christina; Haines, Terry P.

    2015-01-01

    The transition between extended hospitalization and discharge home to community-living contexts for older adults is a critical time period. This transition can have an impact on the health outcomes of older adults such as increasing the risk for health outcomes like falls, functional decline and depression and anxiety. The aim of this work is to identify and understand why older adults experience symptoms of depression and anxiety post-discharge and what factors are associated with this. This is a mixed methods study of adults aged 65 years and over who experienced a period of hospitalization longer than two weeks and return to community-living post-discharge. Participants will complete a questionnaire at baseline and additional monthly follow-up questionnaires for six months. Anxiety and depression and their resulting behaviors are major public health concerns and are significant determinants of health and wellbeing among the ageing population. There is a critical need for research into the impact of an extended period of hospitalization on the health status of older adults post-discharge from hospital. This research will provide evidence that will inform interventions and services provided for older adults after they have been discharged home from hospital care. PMID:27417775

  18. Understanding the relationship transitions and associated end of life clinical needs of young adults with life-limiting illnesses: A triangulated longitudinal qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Bridget; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Pringle, Jan; Gold, Libby; Grant, Jayne; Dempsey, Raymond; Scott, Ros; Carragher, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Care of young adults with life-limiting illnesses can often be complex due to the fact that they are growing and developing within the continuing presence of their illness. There is little research conducted nationally and internationally, which has examined the life issues of young adults or taken a longitudinal approach to understand such issues over a period of time. Aim: To gain clear understanding of one particular and pertinent life issue—relationship transition—occurring in the context of being a young adult with a life-limiting illness and the clinical needs arising from this. Design: This was a triangulated, longitudinal, qualitative study involving young adults with life-limiting illnesses and their significant others, namely, family members and healthcare professionals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and analysed using thematic analysis. Clinical case note reviews were also carried out. Setting/participants: A total of 12 young adults (aged between 17 and 23 years) from 2 hospices and 22 nominated significant others participated in a total of 58 interviews. Results: Thematic analysis revealed 4 main themes and 11 subthemes. The main themes were ‘Dependence dichotomy’, ‘In it together’, ‘Biographical uncertainty’, and ‘Conserving integrity’. These themes helped to establish the nature of relationship transitions that the young adult participants from the study experienced and additionally allowed insight into their possible needs at their end of life. Conclusion: This study has identified the nature of relationship transitions pertinent to young adults and has highlighted associated end of life clinical needs. This study can influence further research into the transitions and end of life needs of this particular patient group receiving palliative care, while informing the lacking evidence base which exists internationally. PMID:27781097

  19. Self-Reported Sitting Time in New York City Adults, The Physical Activity and Transit Survey, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, Katherine F.; Firestone, Melanie J.; Lee, Karen K.; Eisenhower, Donna L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies have demonstrated the negative health consequences associated with extended sitting time, including metabolic disturbances and decreased life expectancy. The objectives of this study were to characterize sitting time in an urban adult population and assess the validity of a 2-question method of self-reported sitting time. Methods The New York City Health Department conducted the 2010–2011 Physical Activity and Transit Survey (N = 3,597); a subset of participants wore accelerometers for 1 week (n = 667). Self-reported sitting time was assessed from 2 questions on time spent sitting (daytime and evening hours). Sedentary time was defined as accelerometer minutes with less than 100 counts on valid days. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of sitting time by demographic characteristics. Validity of sitting time with accelerometer-measured sedentary time was assessed using Spearman’s correlation and Bland-Altman techniques. All data were weighted to be representative of the New York City adult population based on the 2006–2008 American Community Survey. Results Mean daily self-reported sitting time was 423 minutes; mean accelerometer-measured sedentary time was 490 minutes per day (r = 0.32, P < .001). The mean difference was 49 minutes per day (limits of agreement: −441 to 343). Sitting time was higher in respondents at lower poverty and higher education levels and lower in Hispanics and people who were foreign-born. Conclusion Participants of higher socioeconomic status, who are not typically the focus of health disparities–related research, had the highest sitting times; Hispanics had the lowest levels. Sitting time may be accurately assessed by self-report with the 2-question method for population surveillance but may be limited in accurately characterizing individual-level behavior. PMID:26020549

  20. A place for the hippocampus in the cocaine addiction circuit: Potential roles for adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Serrano, Antonia; Blanco, Eduardo; Araos, Pedro; Suárez, Juan; Pavón, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J

    2016-07-01

    Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease in which the drug seeking habits and profound cognitive, emotional and motivational alterations emerge from drug-induced neuroadaptations on a vulnerable brain. Therefore, a 'cocaine addiction brain circuit' has been described to explain this disorder. Studies in both cocaine patients and rodents reveal the hippocampus as a main node in the cocaine addiction circuit. The contribution of the hippocampus to cocaine craving and the associated memories is essential to understand the chronic relapsing nature of addiction, which is the main obstacle for the recovery. Interestingly, the hippocampus holds a particular form of plasticity that is rare in the adult brain: the ability to generate new functional neurons. There is an active scientific debate on the contributions of these new neurons to the addicted brain. This review focuses on the potential role(s) of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in cocaine addiction. Although the current evidence primarily originates from animal research, these preclinical studies support AHN as a relevant component for the hippocampal effects of cocaine. PMID:27118134

  1. A place for the hippocampus in the cocaine addiction circuit: Potential roles for adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Serrano, Antonia; Blanco, Eduardo; Araos, Pedro; Suárez, Juan; Pavón, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Santín, Luis J

    2016-07-01

    Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease in which the drug seeking habits and profound cognitive, emotional and motivational alterations emerge from drug-induced neuroadaptations on a vulnerable brain. Therefore, a 'cocaine addiction brain circuit' has been described to explain this disorder. Studies in both cocaine patients and rodents reveal the hippocampus as a main node in the cocaine addiction circuit. The contribution of the hippocampus to cocaine craving and the associated memories is essential to understand the chronic relapsing nature of addiction, which is the main obstacle for the recovery. Interestingly, the hippocampus holds a particular form of plasticity that is rare in the adult brain: the ability to generate new functional neurons. There is an active scientific debate on the contributions of these new neurons to the addicted brain. This review focuses on the potential role(s) of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in cocaine addiction. Although the current evidence primarily originates from animal research, these preclinical studies support AHN as a relevant component for the hippocampal effects of cocaine.

  2. Factor V Leiden does not have a role in cryptogenic ischemic stroke among Iranian young adults

    PubMed Central

    Kheradmand, Ehsan; Pourhossein, Meraj; Amini, Gilda; Saadatnia, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Different risk factors have been suggested for ischemic stroke in young adults. In a group of these patients despite of extensive diagnostic work-up, the primary cause remains unknown. Coagulation tendency is accounted as a possible cause in these patients. Previous studies on factor V Leiden (FVL) as the main cause of inherited thrombophilia for clarifying the role of FVL in stroke have resulted in controversial findings. The current study investigates the role of this factor in ischemic stroke among Iranians. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed between September 2007 and December 2008 in Isfahan, Iran. The case group comprised of 22 patients of which 15 were males and 7 were females with age range of ≤50 years, diagnosed as ischemic stroke without classic risk factors and the control group consisted of 54 healthy young adults. After filling consent form, venous blood samples were obtained and sent to the laboratory for genetic examination. Results: No FVL mutation was found in the case group. There was one carrier of the mutation as heterozygous in the control group (relative frequency = 1.85%). Conclusions: Based on our study, FVL might not be considered as an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke in Iranian individuals who are not suffering from other risk factors of ischemic stroke. PMID:24761388

  3. Racial and ethnic differences in leaving and returning to the parental home: The role of life course transitions, socioeconomic resources, and family connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; South, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although Black and Hispanic young adults in the U.S. are less likely than Whites to move out of the parental home and more likely than Whites to return, reasons for these differences have not been clearly identified. OBJECTIVE This study examines the ability of racial/ethnic disparities in life course transitions, socioeconomic resources, and family connectivity to account for racial/ethnic differences in leaving and returning home. METHODS Using data from the 2005–2011 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics’ Transition into Adulthood study (N=1,491, age 18 to 26), we estimated discrete-time event history models predicting the timing of moving out of and back into the parental home. RESULTS Although no single factor completely explained racial-ethnic differences in the timing of leaving and returning to the parental home, the bulk of the Black-White differences in both home-leaving and home-returning was explained by group differences in transitions into adult roles, the ability to afford independent living, and connections to the origin family. These factors also explained most of the Mexican-White difference in home-leaving. However, only a small portion of the Hispanic-White difference in returning home was attributable to the proposed explanatory variables. CONCLUSION Explanations for racial and ethnic differences in the timing of leaving and returning to the parental home need to consider a broad array of life course characteristics in which Black, Hispanic, and White youth differ. The factors that explain Black-White differences in home-leaving and home-returning may differ from those that explain Hispanic-White differences in these behaviors. PMID:27110219

  4. Role of mitochondrial permeability transition in human renal tubular epithelial cell death induced by aristolochic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Qi Xinming; Cai Yan; Gong Likun; Liu Linlin; Chen Fangping; Xiao Ying; Wu Xiongfei; Li Yan; Xue Xiang |; Ren Jin . E-mail: cdser_simm@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2007-07-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA), a natural nephrotoxin and carcinogen, can induce a progressive tubulointerstitial nephropathy. However, the mechanism by which AA causes renal injury remains largely unknown. Here we reported that the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) plays an important role in the renal injury induced by aristolochic acid I (AAI). We found that in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}, AAI caused mitochondrial swelling, leakage of Ca{sup 2+}, membrane depolarization, and release of cytochrome c in isolated kidney mitochondria. These alterations were suppressed by cyclosporin A (CsA), an agent known to inhibit MPT. Culture of HK-2 cell, a human renal tubular epithelial cell line for 24 h with AAI caused a decrease in cellular ATP, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, and increase of caspase 3 activity. These toxic effects of AAI were attenuated by CsA and bongkrekic acid (BA), another specific MPT inhibitor. Furthermore, AAI greatly inhibited the activity of mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) in isolated mitochondria. We suggested that ANT may mediate, at least in part, the AAI-induced MPT. Taken together, these results suggested that MPT plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of HK-2 cell injury induced by AAI and implied that MPT might contribute to human nephrotoxicity of aristolochic acid.

  5. Towards quantifying the role of exact exchange in predictions of transition metal complex properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ioannidis, Efthymios I.; Kulik, Heather J.

    2015-07-21

    We estimate the prediction sensitivity with respect to Hartree-Fock exchange in approximate density functionals for representative Fe(II) and Fe(III) octahedral complexes. Based on the observation that the range of parameters spanned by the most widely employed functionals is relatively narrow, we compute electronic structure property and spin-state orderings across a relatively broad range of Hartree-Fock exchange (0%-50%) ratios. For the entire range considered, we consistently observe linear relationships between spin-state ordering that differ only based on the element of the direct ligand and thus may be broadly employed as measures of functional sensitivity in predictions of organometallic compounds. The role Hartree-Fock exchange in hybrid functionals is often assumed to play is to correct self-interaction error-driven electron delocalization (e.g., from transition metal centers to neighboring ligands). Surprisingly, we instead observe that increasing Hartree-Fock exchange reduces charge on iron centers, corresponding to effective delocalization of charge to ligands, thus challenging notions of the role of Hartree-Fock exchange in shifting predictions of spin-state ordering.

  6. Female Adult Learners in Rural Community Colleges: A Case Study of Role Perception and Navigation for Student Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tara Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Female adult learners, the fastest growing subpopulation in community colleges, face challenges navigating domestic, professional, and academic roles and take time off from school to reconcile issues with multiple role navigation; thus, their education is disjointed and staggered, creating barriers to persistence. This interpretive design…

  7. The Role of Relationships between Adults and Their Canine Companions: The Impact on Personal Growth and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Lorie Renee

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study used narrative analysis to explore the role of relationships between adults and their canine companions and the role of this relationship in personal growth and well-being. The theoretical frameworks to inform the study consisted of attachment theory and a blend of relational theory and connected knowing. The study focused…

  8. Molecular Changes in Opisthorchis viverrini (Southeast Asian Liver Fluke) during the Transition from the Juvenile to the Adult Stage

    PubMed Central

    Sripa, Jittiyawadee; Hall, Ross S.; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob; Gasser, Robin B.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Southeast Asian liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) chronically infects and affects tens of millions of people in regions of Asia, leading to chronic illness and, importantly, inducing malignant cancer ( = cholangiocarcinoma). In spite of this, little is known, at the molecular level, about the parasite itself, its interplay with its hosts or the mechanisms of disease and/or carcinogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we generated extensive RNA-Seq data (Illumina) representing adult and juvenile stages of O. viverrini, and combined these sequences with previously published transcriptomic data (454 technology) for this species, yielding a combined assembly of significantly increased quality and allowing quantitative assessment of transcription in the juvenile and adult stage. Conclusions This enhanced assembly reveals that, despite the substantial biological similarities between the human liver flukes, O. viverinni and Clonorchis sinensis, there are previously unrecognized differences in major aspects of their molecular biology. Most notable are differences among the C13 and cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidases, which play key roles in tissue migration, immune evasion and feeding, and, thus, represent potential drug and/or vaccine targets. Furthermore, these data indicate that major lineages of cysteine peptidases of socioeconomically important trematodes have evolved through a process of gene loss rather than independent radiation, contrasting previous proposals. PMID:23209858

  9. Invited review: Role of bacterial endotoxins in the etiopathogenesis of periparturient diseases of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Emily F; Ametaj, Burim N

    2016-08-01

    The dairy industry continues to suffer severe economic losses due to the increased disease incidence cows experience during the transition period. It has long been the classical view that the major contributing factor to the development of these periparturient diseases is the considerable increase in nutritional demands for milk production. This classical view, however, fails to account for the substantial correlation between both metabolic and infectious diseases and the detrimental effects that can occur with the provision of high-energy diets to support these nutritional demands. Currently, increasing evidence implicates bacterial endotoxins in the etiopathology of most periparturient diseases. Bacterial endotoxins are components of the outer cell wall of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria that are highly immunostimulatory and can trigger proinflammatory immune responses. The ability of endotoxins to translocate from the mucosal tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract, mammary gland, and uterus, into the systemic circulation has been observed. Once they have entered the circulation, endotoxins potentially contribute to disease either directly, through eliciting an inflammatory response, or indirectly through other factors such as the overreaction of the natural protective mechanisms of the host. Although the evidence implicating a role of endotoxins in the pathogenesis of transition diseases continues to grow, our current knowledge of the host response to mucosal endotoxin exposure and pathogenic mechanisms remain largely unknown. Developing our understanding of the connection between endotoxemia and dairy cattle disease holds significant potential for the future development of preventative measures that could benefit the productivity of the dairy industry as well as animal welfare. PMID:27209132

  10. Socio-technical transition as a co-evolutionary process: Innovation and the role of niche markets in the transition to motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birky, Alicia K.

    2008-10-01

    Significant reductions in greenhouse emissions from personal transportation will require a transition to an alternative technology regime based on renewable energy sources. Two bodies of research, the quasi-evolutionary (QE) model and the multi-level perspective (MLP) assert that processes within niches play a fundamental role in such transitions. This research asks whether the description of transitions based on this niche hypothesis and its underlying assumptions is consistent with the historical U.S. transition to motor vehicles at the beginning of the 20th century. Unique to this dissertation is the combination of the perspective of the entrepreneur with co-evolutionary approaches to socio-technical transitions. This approach is augmented with concepts from the industry life-cycle model and with a taxonomy of mechanisms of learning. Using this analytic framework, I examine specifically the role of entrepreneurial behavior and processes within and among firms in the co-evolution of technologies and institutions during the transition to motor vehicles. I find that niche markets played an important role in the development of the technology, institutions, and the industry. However, I also find that the diffusion of the automobile is not consistent with the niche hypothesis in the following ways: (1) product improvements and cost reductions were not realized in niche markets, but were achieved simultaneously with diffusion into mass markets; (2) in addition to learning-by-doing and learning-by-interacting with users, knowledge spillovers and interacting with suppliers were critical in this process; (3) cost reductions were not automatic results of expanding markets, but rather arose from the strategies of entrepreneurs based on personal perspectives and values. This finding supports the use of a behavioral approach with a micro-focus in the analysis of socio-technical change. I also find that the emergence and diffusion of the motor vehicle can only be understood by

  11. Adolescent Urology and Transitional Care.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Babies with the major congenital anomalies of the genito-urinary tract have all-embracing holistic care during childhood. They require the same level of care in adult life. This is the role of transition and adolescent urology. PMID:26153563

  12. Two-Arm Randomized Pilot Intervention Trial to Decrease Sitting Time and Increase Sit-To-Stand Transitions in Working and Non-Working Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Takemoto, Michelle; Bolling, Khalisa; Atkin, Andrew; Carlson, Jordan; Rosenberg, Dori; Crist, Katie; Godbole, Suneeta; Lewars, Brittany; Pena, Claudia; Merchant, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive sitting has been linked to poor health. It is unknown whether reducing total sitting time or increasing brief sit-to-stand transitions is more beneficial. We conducted a randomized pilot study to assess whether it is feasible for working and non-working older adults to reduce these two different behavioral targets. Methods Thirty adults (15 workers and 15 non-workers) age 50–70 years were randomized to one of two conditions (a 2-hour reduction in daily sitting or accumulating 30 additional brief sit-to-stand transitions per day). Sitting time, standing time, sit-to-stand transitions and stepping were assessed by a thigh worn inclinometer (activPAL). Participants were assessed for 7 days at baseline and followed while the intervention was delivered (2 weeks). Mixed effects regression analyses adjusted for days within participants, device wear time, and employment status. Time by condition interactions were investigated. Results Recruitment, assessments, and intervention delivery were feasible. The ‘reduce sitting’ group reduced their sitting by two hours, the ‘increase sit-to-stand’ group had no change in sitting time (p < .001). The sit-to-stand transition group increased their sit-to-stand transitions, the sitting group did not (p < .001). Conclusions This study was the first to demonstrate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of specific sedentary behavioral goals. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT02544867 PMID:26735919

  13. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    PubMed

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.

  14. Role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adult respiratory failure: an overview.

    PubMed

    Anand, Suneesh; Jayakumar, Divya; Aronow, Wilbert S; Chandy, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides complete or partial support of the heart and lungs. Ever since its inception in the 1960s, it has been used across all age groups in the management of refractory respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock. While it has gained widespread acceptance in the neonatal and pediatric physician community, ECMO remains a controversial therapy for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in adults. Its popularity was revived during the swine flu (H1N1) pandemic and advancements in technology have contributed to its increasing usage. ARDS continues to be a potentially devastating condition with significant mortality rates. Despite gaining more insights into this entity over the years, mechanical ventilation remains the only life-saving, yet potentially harmful intervention available for ARDS. ECMO shows promise in this regard by offering less dependence on mechanical ventilation, thereby potentially reducing ventilator-induced injury. However, the lack of rigorous clinical data has prevented ECMO from becoming the standard of care in the management of ARDS. Therefore, the results of two large ongoing randomized trials, which will hopefully throw more light on the role of ECMO in the management of this disease entity, are keenly awaited. In this article we will provide a basic overview of the development of ECMO, the types of ECMO, the pathogenesis of ARDS, different ventilation strategies for ARDS, the role of ECMO in ARDS and the role of ECMO as a bridge to lung transplantation. PMID:26848884

  15. What Is Transition from School to Adult Life? A Resource Manual for Transition Services for Youth with Disabilities in New Jersey. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This reference manual contains information on transition services for students with disabilities in New Jersey. Section 1 provides an overview of transition services and the five-year systems change grant New Jersey has received from the U.S. Department of Education. Also included is information on New Jersey education law, the four regional…

  16. Epigenetic Gene Regulation in the Adult Mammalian Brain: Multiple roles in Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lubin, Farah D.

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) is one of numerous gene products necessary for long-term memory formation and dysregulation of bdnf has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cognitive and mental disorders. Recent work indicates that epigenetic-regulatory mechanisms including the markings of histone proteins and associated DNA remain labile throughout the lifespan and represent an attractive molecular process contributing to gene regulation in the brain. In this review, important information will be discussed on epigenetics as a set of newly identified dynamic transcriptional mechanisms serving to regulate gene expression changes in the adult brain with particular emphasis on bdnf transcriptional readout in learning and memory formation. This review will also highlight evidence for the role of epigenetics in aberrant bdnf gene regulation in the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction associated with seizure disorders, Rett syndrome, Schizophrenia, and Alzheimer’s disease. Such research offers novel concepts for understanding epigenetic transcriptional mechanisms subserving adult cognition and mental health, and furthermore promises novel avenues for therapeutic approach in the clinic. PMID:21419233

  17. The role of sound in adult and developmental auditory cortical plasticity.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Jos J

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of the current review is to highlight the role of the acoustic environment in auditory cortical plasticity. In order do this we have reviewed our past studies on auditory cortical plasticity based on long-latency evoked potential recordings in humans following cochlear implantation, and multiple single-unit recordings from cat auditory cortex following noise trauma and exposure to a non-deafening acoustic environment. The results of these studies, and those of other investigators highlighted here, show that the auditory cortex shows plastic changes throughout life. Those that occur during maturation are typically considered the most profound and long lasting. In that case plasticity is beneficial as it allows adaptation to behaviorally important sound and adapts easily to changes induced by deafness and subsequent application of hearing aids or cochlear implants. In children as well as adults, changes in cortical representation of frequency can occur following hearing loss, but may be accompanied by unpleasant side effects such as tinnitus. Long exposure to a spectrally enhanced acoustic environment of moderate sound level that does not cause hearing loss paradoxically also results in pronounced changes in the cortical tonotopic maps. These changes are very similar to those following noise trauma. This review provides evidence that in adults, long-lasting plastic changes in auditory cortex occur even in the absence of behaviorally relevant acoustic stimulation. However, in children, the long lasting absence of auditory stimulation arrests cortical development.

  18. The role of adult education and learning policy in fostering societal sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle; Holford, John

    2016-10-01

    The idea of "sustainability" as a core value has slowly permeated policy and practice at governmental and institutional levels, in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have revealed the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important to consider how sustainability is - and could be - integrated into educational policies. In this theoretical contribution to a special issue on "Societal sustainability", the authors draw on available literature and knowledge. They begin their paper by summarising the conditions under which the concept of "sustainability" entered political discourse in the early 1970s and outline how it has influenced educational research. They then introduce the longstanding debate about the relative role of tradition (in terms of traditional cultural and social order) and change (in terms of efforts to provide learning opportunities for everyone) in adult education. Finally, they argue for a rethinking of the ontology of sustainability: this, they suggest, can shed new light on its relationships with adult education and learning and social justice.

  19. The role of adult education and learning policy in fostering societal sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle; Holford, John

    2016-08-01

    The idea of "sustainability" as a core value has slowly permeated policy and practice at governmental and institutional levels, in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have revealed the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important to consider how sustainability is - and could be - integrated into educational policies. In this theoretical contribution to a special issue on "Societal sustainability", the authors draw on available literature and knowledge. They begin their paper by summarising the conditions under which the concept of "sustainability" entered political discourse in the early 1970s and outline how it has influenced educational research. They then introduce the longstanding debate about the relative role of tradition (in terms of traditional cultural and social order) and change (in terms of efforts to provide learning opportunities for everyone) in adult education. Finally, they argue for a rethinking of the ontology of sustainability: this, they suggest, can shed new light on its relationships with adult education and learning and social justice.

  20. The role of the MDI and DPI in pediatric patients: "Children are not just miniature adults".

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Richard C

    2005-10-01

    Metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) and dry powder inhalers play an important role in the treatment of asthma in children of all ages. Yet these devices, which were originally developed for use in adults, interact differently with children. Through childhood there are progressive changes in pharmacokinetic handling and pharmacodynamic effects of inhaled antiasthmatic drugs, in the efficiency and distribution of aerosolized drugs in the respiratory tract, and in the patient's ability to successfully use aerosol devices. This, in turn, produces changes in potential for producing efficacy and adverse effects, and in the balance between risk and benefit. These differences from adults are greatest for children under 4-5 years of age, who are unable to use DPIs or unassisted MDIs, and who therefore must rely on nebulizers and MDIs with valved holding chambers for inhaled drug delivery. Unfortunately, there are no drugs approved for delivery via MDI (with holding chamber) in children under 4 years of age, and there are insufficient data to ensure that many of the available drug-MDI-holding-chamber combinations are both safe and effective. In particular, the potential for effects of inhaled corticosteroids on growth are insufficiently studied in this age group and remains a concern. It is likely that the risk of adverse effects on growth are different for each of the many possible MDI/valved-holding-chamber combinations.

  1. The Role of Developmental Relationships in the Transition to Entrepreneurship: A Qualitative Study and Agenda for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terjesen, Siri; Sullivan, Sherry E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the under-researched subject of the role of mentoring relationships within and outside of organizational boundaries as individuals make the career transition from being a corporate employee to becoming an entrepreneur. Design/methodology/approach: Using structured interviews, the authors collected…

  2. Perceptions of School Counselors Regarding Their Roles in Transition Services for Students with Learning Disabilities towards Post Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Molly

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the perceptions of secondary school counselors regarding their roles in the postsecondary transition process for individuals with learning disabilities. Five research areas were discussed knowledge, advocacy, collaboration, self determination, and parent/student involvement with regard to transition…

  3. Factors Contributing to Successful Transitions into the Role of a New Superintendency in Texas: A Mixed Methods Triangulation Convergence Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors contributing to a successful transition into the role of a new superintendency in Texas. A triangular designed mixed methodology with a convergence model was employed. The setting was urban, suburban, and rural school districts in Texas. The participants were superintendents of public school…

  4. A ventral view on antidepressant action: roles for adult hippocampal neurogenesis along the dorsoventral axis.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F

    2014-12-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is implicated in antidepressant action, stress responses, and cognitive functioning. The hippocampus is functionally segregated along its longitudinal axis into dorsal (dHi) and ventral (vHi) regions in rodents, and analogous posterior and anterior regions in primates, whereby the vHi preferentially regulates stress and anxiety, while the dHi preferentially regulates spatial learning and memory. Given the role of neurogenesis in functions preferentially regulated by the dHi or vHi, it is plausible that neurogenesis is preferentially regulated in either the dHi or vHi depending upon the stimulus. We appraise here the literature on the effects of stress and antidepressants on neurogenesis along the hippocampal longitudinal axis and explore whether preferential regulation of neurogenesis in the vHi/anterior hippocampus contributes to stress resilience and antidepressant action.

  5. Roles of Dietary Phytoestrogens on the Regulation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Diverse Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Geum-A.; Hwang, Kyung-A.; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in tumor progression. The cells undergoing EMT upregulate the expression of cell motility-related proteins and show enhanced migration and invasion. The hallmarks of EMT in cancer cells include changed cell morphology and increased metastatic capabilities in cell migration and invasion. Therefore, prevention of EMT is an important tool for the inhibition of tumor metastasis. A novel preventive therapy is needed, such as treatment of natural dietary substances that are nontoxic to normal human cells, but effective in inhibiting cancer cells. Phytoestrogens, such as genistein, resveratrol, kaempferol and 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), can be raised as possible candidates. They are plant-derived dietary estrogens, which are found in tea, vegetables and fruits, and are known to have various biological efficacies, including chemopreventive activity against cancers. Specifically, these phytoestrogens may induce not only anti-proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, but also anti-metastasis by inhibiting the EMT process in various cancer cells. There have been several signaling pathways found to be associated with the induction of the EMT process in cancer cells. Phytoestrogens were demonstrated to have chemopreventive effects on cancer metastasis by inhibiting EMT-associated pathways, such as Notch-1 and TGF-beta signaling. As a result, phytoestrogens can inhibit or reverse the EMT process by upregulating the expression of epithelial phenotypes, including E-cadherin, and downregulating the expression of mesenchymal phenotypes, including N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, and vimentin. In this review, we focused on the important roles of phytoestrogens in inhibiting EMT in many types of cancer and suggested phytoestrogens as prominent alternative compounds to chemotherapy. PMID:27231938

  6. A role for associated transition metals in the immunotoxicity of inhaled ambient particulate matter.

    PubMed Central

    Zelikoff, Judith T; Schermerhorn, Kimberly R; Fang, Kaijie; Cohen, Mitchell D; Schlesinger, Richard B

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that infection, specifically pneumonia, contributes substantially to the increased morbidity and mortality among elderly individuals following exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). This laboratory has previously demonstrated that a single inhalation exposure of Streptococcus pneumoniae-infected rats to concentrated ambient PM(2.5) (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < or =2.5 microm) from New York City (NYC) air exacerbates the infection process and alters pulmonary and systemic immunity. Although these results provide some basis for explaining the epidemiologic findings, the identity of specific PM constituents that might have been responsible for the worsening pneumonia in exposed hosts remains unclear. Thus, studies were performed to correlate the physicochemical attributes of ambient PM(2.5) with its in vivo immunotoxicity to identify and characterize the role of constitutive transition metals in exacerbating an ongoing streptococcal infection. Uninfected or previously infected rats were exposed in the laboratory to soluble divalent Fe, Mn, or Ni chloride salts. After exposure, uninfected rats were sacrificed and their lungs were lavaged. Lungs from infected hosts were used to evaluate changes in bacterial clearance and effects of exposure on the extent/severity of infection. Results demonstrated that inhalation of Fe altered innate and adaptive immunity in uninfected hosts, and both Fe and Ni reduced pulmonary bacterial clearance in previously infected rats. The effects on clearance produced in infected Fe-exposed rats were similar to those seen in infected rats exposed to ambient NYC PM. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that inhaled ambient PM can worsen the outcome of an ongoing pulmonary infection and that associated Fe may play some role in the immunotoxicity. PMID:12426150

  7. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore and its role in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Samangouei, Parisa; Kalkhoran, Siavash Beikoghli; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. For patients presenting with an acute myocardial infarction, the most effective treatment for limiting myocardial infarct (MI) size is timely reperfusion. However, in addition to the injury incurred during acute myocardial ischemia, the process of reperfusion can itself induce myocardial injury and cardiomyocyte death, termed 'myocardial reperfusion injury', the combination of which can be referred to as acute ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Crucially, there is currently no effective therapy for preventing this form of injury, and novel cardioprotective therapies are therefore required to protect the heart against acute IRI in order to limit MI size and preserve cardiac function. The opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in the first few minutes of reperfusion is known to be a critical determinant of IRI, contributing up to 50% of the final MI size. Importantly, preventing its opening at this time using MPTP inhibitors, such as cyclosporin-A, has been reported in experimental and clinical studies to reduce MI size and preserve cardiac function. However, more specific and novel MPTP inhibitors are required to translate MPTP inhibition as a cardioprotective strategy into clinical practice. In this article, we review the role of the MPTP as a mediator of acute myocardial IRI and as a therapeutic target for cardioprotection. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Mitochondria: From Basic Mitochondrial Biology to Cardiovascular Disease". PMID:25446182

  8. Chronic bullying victimization across school transitions: The role of genetic and environmental influences

    PubMed Central

    Bowes, Lucy; Maughan, Barbara; Ball, Harriet; Shakoor, Sania; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the antecedents and consequences of chronic victimization by bullies across a school transition using a genetically sensitive longitudinal design. Data were from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study (E-Risk), an epidemiological cohort of 2,232 children. We used mothers’ and children’s reports of bullying victimization during primary school and early secondary school. Children who experienced frequent victimization at both time points were classed as “chronic victims” and were found to have an increased risk for mental health problems and academic difficulties compared to children who were bullied only in primary school, children bullied for the first time in secondary school, and never-bullied children. Biometric analyses revealed that stability in victimization over this period was influenced primarily by genetic and shared environmental factors. Regression analyses showed that children’s early characteristics such as preexistent adjustment difficulties and IQ predicted chronic versus transitory victimization. Family risk factors for chronic victimization included socioeconomic disadvantage, low maternal warmth, and maltreatment. Our results suggest that bullying intervention programs should consider the role of the victims’ behaviors and family background in increasing vulnerability to chronic victimization. Our study highlights the importance of widening antibullying interventions to include families to reduce the likelihood of children entering a pathway toward chronic victimization. PMID:23627948

  9. Granular-flow rheology: Role of shear-rate number in transition regime

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, C.-L.; Ling, C.-H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale behind the semiempirical formulation of a generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model in the light of the Reiner-Rivlin constitutive theory and the viscoplastic theory, thereby identifying the parameters that control the rheology of granular flow. The shear-rate number (N) proves to be among the most significant parameters identified from the GVF model. As N ??? 0 and N ??? ???, the GVF model can reduce asymptotically to the theoretical stress versus shear-rate relations in the macroviscous and graininertia regimes, respectively, where the grain concentration (C) also plays a major role in the rheology of granular flow. Using available data obtained from the rotating-cylinder experiments of neutrally buoyant solid spheres dispersing in an interstitial fluid, the shear stress for granular flow in transition between the two regimes proves dependent on N and C in addition to some material constants, such as the coefficient of restitution. The insufficiency of data on rotating-cylinder experiments cannot presently allow the GVF model to predict how a granular flow may behave in the entire range of N; however, the analyzed data provide an insight on the interrelation among the relevant dimensionless parameters.

  10. Role of Glycans in Cancer Cells Undergoing Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Xin; Tan, Zengqi; Chen, Si; Guan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The term “cancer” refers to a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process whereby epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell–cell adhesion ability, and acquire migratory and invasive properties to gain mesenchymal phenotype, is an important step leading to tumor metastasis. Glycans, such as N-glycans, O-glycans, and glycosphingolipids, are involved in numerous biological processes, including inflammation, virus/bacteria–host interactions, cell–cell interactions, morphogenesis, and cancer development and progression. Aberrant expression of glycans has been observed in several EMT models, and the functional roles of such glycans in cancer development and progression has been investigated. We summarize here recent research progress regarding the functions of glycans in cancer cells undergoing EMT. Better understanding of the mechanisms underlying aberrant glycan patterns in EMT and cancer will facilitate the development of such glycans as cancer biomarkers or as targets in design and synthesis of anti-tumor drugs. PMID:26925388

  11. The role of the miR-200 family in epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Mongroo, Perry S

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Genes encoding miRNAs are located in regions of the genome that are commonly amplified, deleted or rearranged. They are commonly dysregulated in human cancers and known to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Members of the miR-200 miRNA family are downregulated in human cancer cells and tumors due to aberrant epigenetic gene silencing and play a critical role in the suppression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor cell adhesion, migration, invasion and metastasis, by targeting and repressing the expression of key mRNAs that are involved in EMT (ZEB1 and ZEB2), β-catenin/Wnt signaling (β-catenin), EGFR inhibitor resistance (ERRFI-1) and chemoresistance to therapeutic agents (TUBB3). Since the miR-200 family functions as putative tumor suppressors and represent biomarkers for poorly differentiated and aggressive cancers, restoration of miR-200 expression may have therapeutic implications for the treatment of metastatic and drug-resistant tumors. PMID:20592490

  12. The role of the miR-200 family in epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Mongroo, Perry S; Rustgi, Anil K

    2010-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Genes encoding miRNAs are located in regions of the genome that are commonly amplified, deleted or rearranged. They are commonly dysregulated in human cancers and known to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Members of the miR-200 miRNA family are downregulated in human cancer cells and tumors due to aberrant epigenetic gene silencing and play a critical role in the suppression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor cell adhesion, migration, invasion and metastasis, by targeting and repressing the expression of key mRNAs that are involved in EMT (ZEB1 and ZEB2), β-catenin/Wnt signaling (β-catenin), EGFR inhibitor resistance (ERRFI-1) and chemoresistance to therapeutic agents (TUBB3). Since the miR-200 family functions as putative tumor suppressors and represent biomarkers for poorly differentiated and aggressive cancers, restoration of miR-200 expression may have therapeutic implications for the treatment of metastatic and drug-resistant tumors. PMID:20592490

  13. Effective process or dangerous precipice: qualitative comparative embedded case study with young people with epilepsy and their parents during transition from children’s to adult services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transition from children’s to adult epilepsy services is known to be challenging. Some young people partially or completely disengage from contact with services, thereby risking their health and wellbeing. We conducted a mixed-method systematic review that showed current epilepsy transition models enabling information exchange and developing self-care skills were not working well. We used synthesised evidence to develop a theoretical framework to inform this qualitative study. The aim was to address a critical research gap by exploring communication, information needs, and experiences of knowledge exchange in clinical settings by young people and their parents, during transition from children’s to adult epilepsy services. Method Qualitative comparative embedded Case study with 2 'transition’ cases (epilepsy services) in two hospitals. Fifty-eight participants: 30 young people (13–19 years) and 28 parents were interviewed in-depth (individual or focus group). Clinical documents/guidelines were collated. 'Framework’ thematic analysis was used. The theoretical framework was tested using themes, pattern matching and replication logic. Theory-based evaluation methods were used to understand how and why different models of service delivery worked. Results A joint epilepsy clinic for young people 14–17 years coordinated by children’s and adult services was more likely to influence young people’s behaviour by facilitating more positive engagement with adult healthcare professionals and retention of epilepsy-related self-care information. Critical success factors were continuity of care, on-going and consistent age-appropriate and person centred communication and repeated information exchange. Three young people who experienced a single handover clinic disengaged from services. Psychosocial care was generally inadequate and healthcare professionals lacked awareness of memory impairment. Parents lacked knowledge, skills and support to enable their

  14. Learning to Be Illegal: Undocumented Youth and Shifting Legal Contexts in the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Roberto G.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the transition to adulthood among 1.5-generation undocumented Latino young adults. For them, the transition to adulthood involves exiting the legally protected status of K to 12 students and entering into adult roles that require legal status as the basis for participation. This collision among contexts makes for a turbulent…

  15. The key role of a transition course in preparing medical students for internship.

    PubMed

    Teo, Alan R; Harleman, Elizabeth; O'sullivan, Patricia S; Maa, John

    2011-07-01

    Among the core transitions in medical education is the one from medical school to residency. Despite this challenging transition, the final year of medical school is known as lacking structure and clarity. The authors examine the preparation of medical students for the professional and personal challenges of internship in the context of transition courses. They first describe the development of a residency transition course, offered since 2001 at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine (UCSF), exploring aspects of a needs assessment, course goals and content, core competencies, and course implementation. They then critically analyze the course, judging it successful based on high subjective satisfaction scores and increased perceived preparedness data. Next, the authors discuss the national context of transition courses, perspectives of various stakeholders, and lessons learned from the UCSF experience. Finally, they consider future directions, suggesting that internship transition courses be a standard part of the medical school curriculum. PMID:21617513

  16. The key role of a transition course in preparing medical students for internship.

    PubMed

    Teo, Alan R; Harleman, Elizabeth; O'sullivan, Patricia S; Maa, John

    2011-07-01

    Among the core transitions in medical education is the one from medical school to residency. Despite this challenging transition, the final year of medical school is known as lacking structure and clarity. The authors examine the preparation of medical students for the professional and personal challenges of internship in the context of transition courses. They first describe the development of a residency transition course, offered since 2001 at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine (UCSF), exploring aspects of a needs assessment, course goals and content, core competencies, and course implementation. They then critically analyze the course, judging it successful based on high subjective satisfaction scores and increased perceived preparedness data. Next, the authors discuss the national context of transition courses, perspectives of various stakeholders, and lessons learned from the UCSF experience. Finally, they consider future directions, suggesting that internship transition courses be a standard part of the medical school curriculum.

  17. The role of mechanical forces in the planar-to-bulk transition in growing Escherichia coli microcolonies

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Matthew A. A.; Wacław, Bartłomiej; Allen, Rosalind J.; Cicuta, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces are obviously important in the assembly of three-dimensional multicellular structures, but their detailed role is often unclear. We have used growing microcolonies of the bacterium Escherichia coli to investigate the role of mechanical forces in the transition from two-dimensional growth (on the interface between a hard surface and a soft agarose pad) to three-dimensional growth (invasion of the agarose). We measure the position within the colony where the invasion transition happens, the cell density within the colony and the colony size at the transition as functions of the concentration of the agarose. We use a phenomenological theory, combined with individual-based computer simulations, to show how mechanical forces acting between the bacterial cells, and between the bacteria and the surrounding matrix, lead to the complex phenomena observed in our experiments—in particular the observation that agarose concentration non-trivially affects the colony size at transition. Matching these approaches leads to a prediction for how the friction between the bacteria and the agarose should vary with agarose concentration. Our experimental conditions mimic numerous clinical and environmental scenarios in which bacteria invade soft matrices, as well as shedding more general light on the transition between two- and three-dimensional growth in multicellular assemblies. PMID:24920113

  18. The role of mechanical forces in the planar-to-bulk transition in growing Escherichia coli microcolonies.

    PubMed

    Grant, Matthew A A; Wacław, Bartłomiej; Allen, Rosalind J; Cicuta, Pietro

    2014-08-01

    Mechanical forces are obviously important in the assembly of three-dimensional multicellular structures, but their detailed role is often unclear. We have used growing microcolonies of the bacterium Escherichia coli to investigate the role of mechanical forces in the transition from two-dimensional growth (on the interface between a hard surface and a soft agarose pad) to three-dimensional growth (invasion of the agarose). We measure the position within the colony where the invasion transition happens, the cell density within the colony and the colony size at the transition as functions of the concentration of the agarose. We use a phenomenological theory, combined with individual-based computer simulations, to show how mechanical forces acting between the bacterial cells, and between the bacteria and the surrounding matrix, lead to the complex phenomena observed in our experiments-in particular the observation that agarose concentration non-trivially affects the colony size at transition. Matching these approaches leads to a prediction for how the friction between the bacteria and the agarose should vary with agarose concentration. Our experimental conditions mimic numerous clinical and environmental scenarios in which bacteria invade soft matrices, as well as shedding more general light on the transition between two- and three-dimensional growth in multicellular assemblies. PMID:24920113

  19. The role of mechanical forces in the planar-to-bulk transition in growing Escherichia coli microcolonies.

    PubMed

    Grant, Matthew A A; Wacław, Bartłomiej; Allen, Rosalind J; Cicuta, Pietro

    2014-08-01

    Mechanical forces are obviously important in the assembly of three-dimensional multicellular structures, but their detailed role is often unclear. We have used growing microcolonies of the bacterium Escherichia coli to investigate the role of mechanical forces in the transition from two-dimensional growth (on the interface between a hard surface and a soft agarose pad) to three-dimensional growth (invasion of the agarose). We measure the position within the colony where the invasion transition happens, the cell density within the colony and the colony size at the transition as functions of the concentration of the agarose. We use a phenomenological theory, combined with individual-based computer simulations, to show how mechanical forces acting between the bacterial cells, and between the bacteria and the surrounding matrix, lead to the complex phenomena observed in our experiments-in particular the observation that agarose concentration non-trivially affects the colony size at transition. Matching these approaches leads to a prediction for how the friction between the bacteria and the agarose should vary with agarose concentration. Our experimental conditions mimic numerous clinical and environmental scenarios in which bacteria invade soft matrices, as well as shedding more general light on the transition between two- and three-dimensional growth in multicellular assemblies.

  20. Adults in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbeiter, Solomon

    1978-01-01

    The concept of evolutionary life cycles should become an integral part of a job placement process. The college educational process should be the beginning of a lifetime of learning and earning and not be viewed as a point of departure into an unknown work world. (Author)

  1. Mind how you cross the gap! Outcomes for young people who failed to make the transition from child to adult services: the TRACK study

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Zoebia; Ford, Tamsin; Kramer, Tami; Paul, Moli; Parsons, Helen; Harley, Katherine; Weaver, Tim; McLaren, Susan; Singh, Swaran P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method The Transitions of Care from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services to Adult Mental Health Services (TRACK) study was a multistage, multicentre study of adolescents' transitions between child and adult mental health services undertaken in England. We conducted a secondary analysis of the TRACK study data to investigate healthcare provision for young people (n = 64) with ongoing mental health needs, who were not transferred from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health services mental health services (AMHS). Results The most common outcomes were discharge to a general practitioner (GP; n = 29) and ongoing care with CAMHS (n = 13), with little indication of use of third-sector organisations. Most of these young people had emotional/neurotic disorders (n = 31, 48.4%) and neurodevelopmental disorders (n = 15, 23.4%). Clinical implications GPs and CAMHS are left with the responsibility for the continuing care of young people for whom no adult mental health service could be identified. GPs may not be able to offer the skilled ongoing care that these young people need. Equally, the inability to move them decreases the capacity of CAMHS to respond to new referrals and may leave some young people with only minimal support. PMID:27280035

  2. Mind how you cross the gap! Outcomes for young people who failed to make the transition from child to adult services: the TRACK study.

    PubMed

    Islam, Zoebia; Ford, Tamsin; Kramer, Tami; Paul, Moli; Parsons, Helen; Harley, Katherine; Weaver, Tim; McLaren, Susan; Singh, Swaran P

    2016-06-01

    Aims and method The Transitions of Care from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services to Adult Mental Health Services (TRACK) study was a multistage, multicentre study of adolescents' transitions between child and adult mental health services undertaken in England. We conducted a secondary analysis of the TRACK study data to investigate healthcare provision for young people (n = 64) with ongoing mental health needs, who were not transferred from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health services mental health services (AMHS). Results The most common outcomes were discharge to a general practitioner (GP; n = 29) and ongoing care with CAMHS (n = 13), with little indication of use of third-sector organisations. Most of these young people had emotional/neurotic disorders (n = 31, 48.4%) and neurodevelopmental disorders (n = 15, 23.4%). Clinical implications GPs and CAMHS are left with the responsibility for the continuing care of young people for whom no adult mental health service could be identified. GPs may not be able to offer the skilled ongoing care that these young people need. Equally, the inability to move them decreases the capacity of CAMHS to respond to new referrals and may leave some young people with only minimal support. PMID:27280035

  3. The role of psychological well-being in obese and overweight older adults.

    PubMed

    Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Marcellini, Fiorella; Boscaro, Marco; Faloia, Emanuela; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Bevilacqua, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Being obese or overweight is often associated with impaired quality of life and psychological well-being (PWB) in comparison with normal-weight people (Giuli et al., 2014), both in developed and developing countries. PWB is considered a very important correlate of subjective well-being in people with excess weight. The concept of PWB is based on Ryff's multidimensional model (Ryff, 2014), which considers well-being as eudaemonic concept, and includes six dimensions: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance. Few studies have analyzed the role of specific correlates of perceived well-being in the obese and overweight Italian older population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of perceived well-being in obese and overweight older adults. Our study included 124 overweight and obese older participants, aged 60 years or more, selected from patients attending the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences of Polytechnic University of Marche (Italy). As previously described (Giuli et al., 2014), the participants were recruited on the basis of specific inclusion/exclusion criteria, in a period of three years (January 2010-December 2012).

  4. The roles of behavioural activation and inhibition among young adults engaging in self-injury.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Abigail L; Seelbach, Abigail C; Conner, Bradley T; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behaviour, particularly among young adults. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms underlying NSSI or the personality correlates of these behaviours. The goal of this study was to examine the roles of the behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS) in NSSI. A total of 604 undergraduates completed two self-report measures of BAS and BIS, as well as NSSI history. Logistic and negative binomial linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between measures of BAS and BIS and the presence and course characteristics of NSSI. Approximately 30% of participants reported a history of NSSI. High scores on BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), combined with low scores on BIS total, predicted NSSI history. However, the opposite was also true, with high levels of BIS total, combined with low levels of BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), also predicting NSSI history. In addition, several BAS by BIS interactions predicted an NSSI course characterized by more acts and methods used. This study supports the roles of both BAS and BIS in NSSI and takes the first step in identifying how these personality correlates may help identify individuals at risk for NSSI.

  5. The roles of behavioural activation and inhibition among young adults engaging in self-injury

    PubMed Central

    JENKINS, ABIGAIL L.; SEELBACH, ABIGAIL C.; CONNER, BRADLEY T.; ALLOY, LAUREN B.

    2014-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behaviour, particularly among young adults. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms underlying NSSI or the personality correlates of these behaviours. The goal of this study was to examine the roles of the behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS) in NSSI. A total of 604 undergraduates completed two self-report measures of BAS and BIS, as well as NSSI history. Logistic and negative binomial linear regressions were used to examine the relationships between measures of BAS and BIS and the presence and course characteristics of NSSI. Approximately 30% of participants reported a history of NSSI. High scores on BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), combined with low scores on BIS total, predicted NSSI history. However, the opposite was also true, with high levels of BIS total, combined with low levels of BAS (drive, reward and fun seeking), also predicting NSSI history. In addition, several BAS by BIS interactions predicted an NSSI course characterized by more acts and methods used. This study supports the roles of both BAS and BIS in NSSI and takes the first step in identifying how these personality correlates may help identify individuals at risk for NSSI. PMID:24343924

  6. Influence of adult attachment insecurities on parenting self-esteem: the mediating role of dyadic adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Vincenzo; Bianco, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent–child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem. Methods: The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects) of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0–6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. Results: Path analysis was used to design and test a theoretical integrative model, achieving a good fit with the data. Findings showed that dyadic adjustment mediates the negative influence on parenting self-efficacy of both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Parenting satisfaction is positively influenced by parenting self-efficacy and negatively affected by child’s age. Attachment anxiety negatively influences parenting satisfaction. Conclusion: Our findings are in line with the theoretical expectations and have promising implications for future research and intervention programs designed to improve parenting self-esteem. PMID:26441811

  7. Weight management services for adults--highlighting the role of primary care.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S J; O'Shea, D

    2012-01-01

    Ireland has the fourth highest prevalence of overweight and obese men in the European Union and the seventh highest prevalence among women. This study focuses on 777 referrals on the waiting list for Ireland's only fully funded hospital-based adult weight management service with special emphasis on the role of primary care in the referral process. Since our last review two years ago, we found that patients are now being referred at a younger age (mean 43 years). The mean BMI at referral has increased from 44 to 46. Five hundred and forty eight (70%) referrals were from primary care with males accounting for 163 (30%) of these, despite male obesity being more prevalent. Interestingly, as the distance from Dublin increased, the number of referrals decreased. Overall this is a concerning trend showing the increasing burden of obesity on a younger population and a health system inadequately equipped to deal with the problem. It also highlights the central role of the primary care physician in the timely and appropriate referral to optimise use of our available resources.

  8. An exploration of role model influence on adult nursing students' professional development: A phenomenological research study.

    PubMed

    Felstead, Ian S; Springett, Kate

    2016-02-01

    Patients' expectations of being cared for by a nurse who is caring, competent, and professional are particularly pertinent in current health and social care practice. The current drive for NHS values-based recruitment serves to strengthen this. How nursing students' development of professionalism is shaped is not fully known, though it is acknowledged that their practice experience strongly shapes behaviour. This study (in 2013-14) explored twelve adult nursing students' lived experiences of role modelling through an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach, aiming to understand the impact on their development as professional practitioners. Clinical nurses influenced student development consistently. Some students reported that their experiences allowed them to learn how not to behave in practice; a productive learning experience despite content. Students also felt senior staff influence on their development to be strong, citing 'leading by example.' The impact of patients on student professional development was also a key finding. Through analysing information gained, identifying and educating practice-based mentors who are ready, willing, and able to role model professional attributes appear crucial to developing professionalism in nursing students. Those involved in nurse education, whether service providers or universities, may wish to acknowledge the influence of clinical nurse behaviour observed by students both independent of and in direct relation to care delivery and the impact on student nurse professional development. A corollary relates to how students should be guided and briefed/debriefed to work with a staff to ensure their exposure to a variety of practice behaviours. PMID:26673614

  9. An exploration of role model influence on adult nursing students' professional development: A phenomenological research study.

    PubMed

    Felstead, Ian S; Springett, Kate

    2016-02-01

    Patients' expectations of being cared for by a nurse who is caring, competent, and professional are particularly pertinent in current health and social care practice. The current drive for NHS values-based recruitment serves to strengthen this. How nursing students' development of professionalism is shaped is not fully known, though it is acknowledged that their practice experience strongly shapes behaviour. This study (in 2013-14) explored twelve adult nursing students' lived experiences of role modelling through an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach, aiming to understand the impact on their development as professional practitioners. Clinical nurses influenced student development consistently. Some students reported that their experiences allowed them to learn how not to behave in practice; a productive learning experience despite content. Students also felt senior staff influence on their development to be strong, citing 'leading by example.' The impact of patients on student professional development was also a key finding. Through analysing information gained, identifying and educating practice-based mentors who are ready, willing, and able to role model professional attributes appear crucial to developing professionalism in nursing students. Those involved in nurse education, whether service providers or universities, may wish to acknowledge the influence of clinical nurse behaviour observed by students both independent of and in direct relation to care delivery and the impact on student nurse professional development. A corollary relates to how students should be guided and briefed/debriefed to work with a staff to ensure their exposure to a variety of practice behaviours.

  10. [Adult].

    PubMed

    Milke-García, María Del Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Adulthood starts after youth and is characterized by the completion of growth and the achievement of organic and psychological maturity. Obesity and other preventable diseases related to lifestyle are common at this age. A complete, balanced and sufficient diet, together with exercise are important in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Several studies have brought about the mechanisms by which the incorporation of milk and dairy products to diet is beneficial in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Milk also contributes to the improvement of dental, bone and intestinal health, theoretically helps in body weight control, has a definite role on the muscular and bone mass maintenance and is an option for hydration during exercise, this being as important as diet for overweight, obesity, diabetes, dislipidemias and hypertension control.

  11. [Adult].

    PubMed

    Milke-García, María Del Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Adulthood starts after youth and is characterized by the completion of growth and the achievement of organic and psychological maturity. Obesity and other preventable diseases related to lifestyle are common at this age. A complete, balanced and sufficient diet, together with exercise are important in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Several studies have brought about the mechanisms by which the incorporation of milk and dairy products to diet is beneficial in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Milk also contributes to the improvement of dental, bone and intestinal health, theoretically helps in body weight control, has a definite role on the muscular and bone mass maintenance and is an option for hydration during exercise, this being as important as diet for overweight, obesity, diabetes, dislipidemias and hypertension control. PMID:27603885

  12. A Review of the Role of Information Communication Technology and Course Design in Transitional Education Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienties, Bart; Kaper, Wolter; Struyven, Katrien; Tempelaar, Dirk; van Gastel, Leendert; Vrancken, Sanne; Jasinska, Magdalena; Virgailaite-Meckauskaite, Egle

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of higher educational institutes are offering remedial, bridging, preparatory or transitional courses in a blended and online format to remediate and enhance students' knowledge and skills. This article addresses how teachers and institutes design and implement these courses. The descriptions of transitional courses were…

  13. Successful Transitions for Young Children with Disabilities and Their Families: Roles of School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Hains, Ann H.; Dogaru, Cristian

    2007-01-01

    Three early transitions are significant for young children with disabilities and their families: (1) into Early Intervention, (2) between that program and preschool services, and (3) from Early Childhood Special Education into kindergarten special education. Each of these transitions is significant for families in terms of obtaining appropriate…

  14. Expectations and Perceptions at School Transitions: The Role of Peer Status and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Mayeux, Lara

    2007-01-01

    This study integrated research on aggression, peer status, and social and academic functioning across the middle- and high-school transitions. We examined how peer status and aggression are related to adolescents' expectations about their academic and social functioning in a new school system before the transition into that system, and their…

  15. Transitional Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Mary; Keating, Stacen A.

    2008-01-01

    Transitional care encompasses a broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of health care and across care settings. High-quality transitional care is especially important for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and complex therapeutic regimens, as well as for their…

  16. Influence of the Environment on Participation in Social Roles for Young Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Kitty-Rose; Girdler, Sonya; Bourke, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Einfeld, Stewart; Tonge, Bruce; Parmenter, Trevor R.; Leonard, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Background The concept of disability is now understood as a result of the interaction between the individual, features related to impairment, and the physical and social environment. It is important to understand these environmental influences and how they affect social participation. The purpose of this study is to describe the social participation of young adults with Down syndrome and examine its relationship with the physical and social environment. Methods Families ascertained from the Down syndrome ‘Needs Opinion Wishes’ database completed questionnaires during 2011. The questionnaires contained two parts, young person characteristics and family characteristics. Young adults’ social participation was measured using the Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H) and the influences of environmental factors were measured by the Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE). The analysis involved descriptive statistics and linear and logistic regression. Results Overall, participation in daily activities was higher (mean 6.45) than in social roles (mean 5.17) (range 0 to 9). When the physical and/or social environment was reported as a facilitator, compared to being no influence or a barrier, participation in social roles was greater (coef 0.89, 95%CI 0.28, 1.52, coef 0.83, 95%CI 0.17, 1.49, respectively). The relationships between participation and both the physical (coef 0.60, 95% CI −0.40, 1.24) and social (coef 0.20, 95%CI −0.47, 0.87) environments were reduced when age, gender, behavior and functioning in ADL were taken into account. Conclusion We found that young adults’ participation in social roles was influenced more by the physical environment than by the social environment, providing a potentially modifiable avenue for intervention. PMID:25259577

  17. Muscle organizers in Drosophila: the role of persistent larval fibers in adult flight muscle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, E. R.; Fernandes, J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    In many organisms muscle formation depends on specialized cells that prefigure the pattern of the musculature and serve as templates for myoblast organization and fusion. These include muscle pioneers in insects and muscle organizing cells in leech. In Drosophila, muscle founder cells have been proposed to play a similar role in organizing larval muscle development during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, following histolysis of most of the larval musculature, there is a second round of myogenesis that gives rise to the adult muscles. It is not known whether muscle founder cells organize the development of these muscles. However, in the thorax specific larval muscle fibers do not histolyze at the onset of metamorphosis, but instead serve as templates for the formation of a subset of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Because these persistent larval muscle fibers appear to be functioning in many respects like muscle founder cells, we investigated whether they were necessary for DLM development by using a microbeam laser to ablate them singly and in combination. We found that, in the absence of the larval muscle fibers, DLMs nonetheless develop. Our results show that the persistent larval muscle fibers are not required to initiate myoblast fusion, to determine DLM identity, to locate the DLMs in the thorax, or to specify the total DLM fiber volume. However, they are required to regulate the number of DLM fibers generated. Thus, while the persistent larval muscle fibers are not obligatory for DLM fiber formation and differentiation, they are necessary to ensure the development of the correct number of fibers.

  18. The role of apelin in the modulation of gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Antuschevich, H; Kapica, M; Krawczynska, A; Herman, A; Kato, I; Kuwahara, A; Zabielski, R

    2016-06-01

    Apelin is considered as important gut regulatory peptide ligand of APJ receptor with a potential physiological role in gastrointestinal cytoprotection, regulation of food intake and drinking behavior. Circulating apelin inhibits secretion of pancreatic juice through vagal- cholecystokinin-dependent mechanism and reduces local blood flow. Our study was aimed to determine the effect of fundectomy and intraperitoneal or intragastric administration of apelin-13 on pancreatic and gastric enzymes activities in adult rats. Fundectomy is a surgical removal of stomach fundus - maine site apelin synthesis. Three independent experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. In the first and second experiment apelin-13 was given by intragastric or intraperitoneal way twice a day for 10 days (100 nmol/kg b.w.). Control groups received the physiological saline respectively. In the third experiment the group of rats after fundectomy were used. Fundectomized rats did not receive apelin and the rats from control group were 'sham operated'. At the end of experiment rats were sacrificed and blood from rats was withdrawn for apelin and CCK (cholecystokinin) radioimmunoassay analysis and pancreas and stomach tissues were collected for enzyme activity analyses. Intragastric and intraperitoneal administrations of apelin-13 increased basal plasma CCK level and stimulated gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in rats. In animals after fundectomy decreased activity of studied enzymes was observed, as well as basal plasma apelin and CCK levels. In conclusion, apelin can effects on CCK release and stimulates some gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in adult rats while fudectomy suppresses those processes. Changes in the level of pancreatic lipase activity point out that apelin may occurs as a regulator of lipase secretion.

  19. The role of apelin in the modulation of gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Antuschevich, H; Kapica, M; Krawczynska, A; Herman, A; Kato, I; Kuwahara, A; Zabielski, R

    2016-06-01

    Apelin is considered as important gut regulatory peptide ligand of APJ receptor with a potential physiological role in gastrointestinal cytoprotection, regulation of food intake and drinking behavior. Circulating apelin inhibits secretion of pancreatic juice through vagal- cholecystokinin-dependent mechanism and reduces local blood flow. Our study was aimed to determine the effect of fundectomy and intraperitoneal or intragastric administration of apelin-13 on pancreatic and gastric enzymes activities in adult rats. Fundectomy is a surgical removal of stomach fundus - maine site apelin synthesis. Three independent experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. In the first and second experiment apelin-13 was given by intragastric or intraperitoneal way twice a day for 10 days (100 nmol/kg b.w.). Control groups received the physiological saline respectively. In the third experiment the group of rats after fundectomy were used. Fundectomized rats did not receive apelin and the rats from control group were 'sham operated'. At the end of experiment rats were sacrificed and blood from rats was withdrawn for apelin and CCK (cholecystokinin) radioimmunoassay analysis and pancreas and stomach tissues were collected for enzyme activity analyses. Intragastric and intraperitoneal administrations of apelin-13 increased basal plasma CCK level and stimulated gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in rats. In animals after fundectomy decreased activity of studied enzymes was observed, as well as basal plasma apelin and CCK levels. In conclusion, apelin can effects on CCK release and stimulates some gastric and pancreatic enzymes activity in adult rats while fudectomy suppresses those processes. Changes in the level of pancreatic lipase activity point out that apelin may occurs as a regulator of lipase secretion. PMID:27512001

  20. Differential roles of hypoxia and innate immunity in juvenile and adult dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Preuße, Corinna; Allenbach, Yves; Hoffmann, Olaf; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Pehl, Debora; Radke, Josefine; Doeser, Alexandra; Schneider, Udo; Alten, Rieke H E; Kallinich, Tilmann; Benveniste, Olivier; von Moers, Arpad; Schoser, Benedikt; Schara, Ulrike; Stenzel, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) can occur in both adults and juveniles with considerable clinical differences. The links between immune-mediated mechanisms and vasculopathy with respect to development of perifascicular pathology are incompletely understood. We investigated skeletal muscle from newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve juvenile (jDM) and adult dermatomyositis (aDM) patients focusing on hypoxia-related pathomechanisms, vessel pathology, and immune mechanisms especially in the perifascicular region. Therefore, we assessed the skeletal muscle biopsies from 21 aDM, and 15 jDM patients by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Transcriptional analyses of genes involved in hypoxia, as well as in innate and adaptive immunity were performed by quantitative Polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of whole tissue cross sections including perifascicular muscle fibers.Through these analysis, we found that basic features of DM, like perifascicular atrophy and inflammatory infiltrates, were present at similar levels in jDM and aDM patients. However, jDM was characterized by predominantly hypoxia-driven pathology in perifascicular small fibers and by macrophages expressing markers of hypoxia. A more pronounced regional loss of capillaries, but no relevant activation of type-1 Interferon (IFN)-associated pathways was noted. Conversely, in aDM, IFN-related genes were expressed at significantly elevated levels, and Interferon-stimulated gene (ISG)15 was strongly positive in small perifascicular fibers whereas hypoxia-related mechanisms did not play a significant role.In our study we could provide new molecular data suggesting a conspicuous pathophysiological 'dichotomy' between jDM and aDM: In jDM, perifascicular atrophy is tightly linked to hypoxia-related pathology, and poorly to innate immunity. In aDM, perifascicular atrophy is prominently associated with molecules driving innate immunity, while hypoxia-related mechanisms seem to be less relevant. PMID:27121733

  1. The Role of Healthcare Providers and Caregivers in Educating Older Adults about Foodborne Illness Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlgenant, Kelly C.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Godwin, Sandria L.; Speller-Henderson, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Adults aged 60 or older are more likely than younger adults to experience severe complications or even death as a result of foodborne infections. This study investigated which specific groups of healthcare providers or other caregivers are most receptive to providing food safety information to older adults. Telephone-based focus groups were…

  2. Architects, Captains, and Dreamers: Creating Advisor Roles that Foster Youth-Adult Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Dana; Lewis, Tiffanie; Sanders, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    While research has documented the many ways in which student voice can enable educational change, the process of how adults can help to enable student voice is less clear. This article examines how adults new to working as advisors of student voice initiatives begin to develop partnerships with young people. Using a Youth-Adult Partnership…

  3. Four Lay-of-the-Land Papers on the Federal Role in Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLendon, Lennox L.; Murphy, Garrett W.; Parker, James

    2006-01-01

    The four papers in this series were commissioned for the first meeting of the National Commission on Adult Literacy, which met in Nashville on November 14, 2006. The first paper, "Adult Education and Literacy Legislation and Its Effects on the Field," provides the basic provisions of the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA, 1998): its…

  4. 20 CFR 663.100 - What is the role of the adult and dislocated worker programs in the One-Stop delivery system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 CFR part 662. Consistent with those provisions: (1) Core services for adults and dislocated... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the role of the adult and dislocated... AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE...

  5. Evo-devo of Child Growth: The Role of Weaning in the Transition from Infancy to Childhood.

    PubMed

    Shaoul, Ron; Tiosano, Dov; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2016-01-01

    Homo sapiens are unique in having a life history phase of childhood, which follows infancy, as defined by breastfeeding. This review uses evolutionary life history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies for transition from infancy to childhood. We have previously shown that a delayed infancy-childhood transition has a lifelong impact on stature. Feeding practices during infancy are fundamental elements of nutrition as they program for future growth and body composition. A relationship between the duration of breastfeeding and the nature of weaning has been suggested as a possible cause for later obesity and growth patterns. This review highlights the role that breast milk feeding and variations in the weaning age have on transition to childhood, growth, and body composition.

  6. The Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore: Channel Formation by F-ATP Synthase, Integration in Signal Transduction, and Role in Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Paolo; Rasola, Andrea; Forte, Michael; Lippe, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) is a permeability increase of the inner mitochondrial membrane mediated by a channel, the permeability transition pore (PTP). After a brief historical introduction, we cover the key regulatory features of the PTP and provide a critical assessment of putative protein components that have been tested by genetic analysis. The discovery that under conditions of oxidative stress the F-ATP synthases of mammals, yeast, and Drosophila can be turned into Ca2+-dependent channels, whose electrophysiological properties match those of the corresponding PTPs, opens new perspectives to the field. We discuss structural and functional features of F-ATP synthases that may provide clues to its transition from an energy-conserving into an energy-dissipating device as well as recent advances on signal transduction to the PTP and on its role in cellular pathophysiology. PMID:26269524

  7. The Role of Supportive Adults in Promoting Positive Development in Middle Childhood: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Hertzman, Clyde

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the role of supportive adults to emotional well-being in a population of Grade 4 students attending public schools in Vancouver, Canada. Reflecting the ecology of middle childhood, we examined the extent to which perceived family, school, and neighborhood support relate to young people's self-reported…

  8. The Role of Astrocytes in the Generation, Migration, and Integration of New Neurons in the Adult Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Gengatharan, Archana; Bammann, Rodrigo R.; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, new neurons in the adult olfactory bulb originate from a pool of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. Adult-born cells play an important role in odor information processing by adjusting the neuronal network to changing environmental conditions. Olfactory bulb neurogenesis is supported by several non-neuronal cells. In this review, we focus on the role of astroglial cells in the generation, migration, integration, and survival of new neurons in the adult forebrain. In the subventricular zone, neural stem cells with astrocytic properties display regional and temporal specificity when generating different neuronal subtypes. Non-neurogenic astrocytes contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the neurogenic niche. Neuroblast chains migrate through the rostral migratory stream ensheathed by astrocytic processes. Astrocytes play an important regulatory role in neuroblast migration and also assist in the development of a vasculature scaffold in the migratory stream that is essential for neuroblast migration in the postnatal brain. In the olfactory bulb, astrocytes help to modulate the network through a complex release of cytokines, regulate blood flow, and provide metabolic support, which may promote the integration and survival of new neurons. Astrocytes thus play a pivotal role in various processes of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis, and it is likely that many other functions of these glial cells will emerge in the near future. PMID:27092050

  9. Career Success: The Role of Teenage Career Aspirations, Ambition Value and Gender in Predicting Adult Social Status and Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Julie S.; Schoon, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Links between family social background, teenage career aspirations, educational performance and adult social status attainment are well documented. Using a contextual developmental framework, this article extends previous research by examining the role of gender and teenage ambition value in shaping social status attainment and earnings in…

  10. Factors Influencing Adults' Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors and the Role of Environmental Schools in Influencing Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Efrat; Trop, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    The present study revisits a subfield of environmental education: significant life experiences, which studies the influences that shape the development of environmental stewardship. In the present study, we examine the effect of various formative experiences on a group of adults and analyze the role of school, as a formative influence on the…

  11. The Role of Spirituality in Learning Music: A Case of North American Adult Students of Japanese Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunobu, Koji

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the role of spirituality in learning music for North American adult students is explored by examining the case of shakuhachi music. One distinctive character of engaging in music through the shakuhachi is that it facilitates the attainment of an "optimal relationship" between the practitioners" musical pursuit and self-cultivation…

  12. Adolescent Girls' ADHD Symptoms and Young Adult Driving: The Role of Perceived Deviant Peer Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoos, Stephanie L.; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with…

  13. The moderating role of executive functioning in older adults' responses to a reminder of mortality.

    PubMed

    Maxfield, Molly; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff; Pepin, Renee; Davis, Hasker P

    2012-03-01

    In previous research, older adults responded to mortality salience (MS) with increased tolerance, whereas younger persons responded with increased punitiveness. One possible explanation for this is that many older adults adapt to challenges of later life, such as the prospect of mortality, by becoming more flexible. Recent studies suggest that positively oriented adaptation is more likely for older adults with high levels of executive functioning. Thus, we hypothesized that the better an older adult's executive functioning, the more likely MS would result in increased tolerance. Older and younger adults were randomly assigned to MS or control conditions, and then evaluated moral transgressors. As in previous research, younger adults were more punitive after reminders of mortality; executive functioning did not affect their responses. Among older adults, high functioning individuals responded to MS with increased tolerance rather than intolerance, whereas those low in functioning became more punitive.

  14. Transitional Care and Adherence of Adolescents and Young Adults After Kidney Transplantation in Germany and Austria: A Binational Observatory Census Within the TRANSNephro Trial.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, Martin; Prüfe, Jenny; Oldhafer, Martina; Bethe, Dirk; Dierks, Marie-Luise; Müther, Silvia; Thumfart, Julia; Hoppe, Bernd; Büscher, Anja; Rascher, Wolfgang; Hansen, Matthias; Pohl, Martin; Kemper, Markus J; Drube, Jens; Rieger, Susanne; John, Ulrike; Taylan, Christina; Dittrich, Katalin; Hollenbach, Sabine; Klaus, Günter; Fehrenbach, Henry; Kranz, Birgitta; Montoya, Carmen; Lange-Sperandio, Bärbel; Ruckenbrodt, Bettina; Billing, Heiko; Staude, Hagen; Heindl-Rusai, Krisztina; Brunkhorst, Reinhard; Pape, Lars

    2015-12-01

    Transition from child to adult-oriented care is widely regarded a challenging period for young people with kidney transplants and is associated with a high risk of graft failure. We analyzed the existing transition structures in Germany and Austria using a questionnaire and retrospective data of 119 patients transferred in 2011 to 2012. Most centers (73%) confirmed agreements on the transition procedure. Patients' age at transfer was subject to regulation in 73% (18 years). Median age at transition was 18.3 years (16.5-36.7). Median serum creatinine increased from 123 to 132 μmol/L over the 12 month observation period before transfer (P = 0.002). A total of 25/119 patients showed increased creatinine ≥ 20% just before transfer. Biopsy proven rejection was found in 10/119 patients. Three patients lost their graft due to chronic graft nephropathy.Mean coefficient of variation (CoV%) of immunosuppression levels was 0.20 ± 0.1. Increased creatinine levels ≥ 20% just before transfer were less frequently seen in patients with CoV < 0.20 (P = 0.007). The majority of pediatric nephrology centers have internal agreements on transitional care. More than half of the patients had CoV of immunosuppression trough levels consistent with good adherence. Although, 20% of the patients showed increase in serum creatinine close to transfer.

  15. Role of secondary instability theory and parabolized stability equations in transition modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Hady, Nabil M.; Dinavahi, Surya P.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Zang, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    In modeling the laminar-turbulent transition region, the designer depends largely on benchmark data from experiments and/or direct numerical simulations that are usually extremely expensive. An understanding of the evolution of the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and quantifies in the transport equations like the dissipation and production is essential in the modeling process. The secondary instability theory and the parabolized stability equations method are used to calculate these quantities, which are then compared with corresponding quantities calculated from available direct numerical simulation data for the incompressible boundary-layer flow of laminar-turbulent transition conditions. The potential of the secondary instability theory and the parabolized stability equations approach in predicting these quantities is discussed; results indicate that inexpensive data that are useful for transition modeling in the early stages of the transition region can be provided by these tools.

  16. The Role of Grain Boundary Energy on Grain Boundary Complexion Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Bojarski, Stephanie A.; Rohrer, Gregory S.

    2014-09-01

    Grain boundary complexions are distinct equilibrium structures and compositions of a grain boundary and complexion transformations are transition from a metastable to an equilibrium complexion at a specific thermodynamic and geometric conditions. Previous work indicates that, in the case of doped alumina, a complexion transition that increased the mobility of transformed boundaries and resulted in abnormal grain growth also caused a decrease in the mean relative grain boundary energy as well as an increase in the anisotropy of the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD). The current work will investigate the hypothesis that the rates of complexion transitions that result in abnormal grain growth (AGG) depend on grain boundary character and energy. Furthermore, the current work expands upon this understanding and tests the hypothesis that it is possible to control when and where a complexion transition occurs by controlling the local grain boundary energy distribution.

  17. The role of ASTN2 variants in childhood and adult ADHD, comorbid disorders and associated personality traits.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Christine M; Lempp, Thomas; Nguyen, T Trang; Jacob, Christian P; Weissflog, Lena; Romanos, Marcel; Renner, Tobias J; Walitza, Susanne; Warnke, Andreas; Rujescu, Dan; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Reif, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Previous linkage and genome wide association (GWA) studies in ADHD indicated astrotactin 2 (ASTN2) as a candidate gene for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ASTN2 plays a key role in glial-guided neuronal migration. To investigate whether common variants in ASTN2 contribute to ADHD disorder risk, we tested 63 SNPs spanning ASTN2 for association with ADHD and specific comorbid disorders in two samples: 171 families of children with ADHD and their parents (N = 592), and an adult sample comprising 604 adult ADHD cases and 974 controls. The C-allele of rs12376789 in ASTN2 nominally increased the risk for ADHD in the trio sample (p = 0.025). This was not observed in the adult case-control sample alone, but retained in the combined sample (nominal p = 0.030). Several other SNPs showed nominally significant association with comorbid disorders, especially anxiety disorder, in the childhood and adult ADHD samples. Some ASTN2 variants were nominally associated with personality traits in the adult ADHD sample and overlapped with risk alleles for comorbid disorders in childhood. None of the findings survived correction for multiple testing, thus, results do not support a major role of common variants in ASTN2 in the pathogenesis of ADHD, its comorbid disorders or ADHD associated personality traits. PMID:27138430

  18. Adolescent girls' ADHD symptoms and young adult driving: the role of perceived deviant peer affiliation.

    PubMed

    Cardoos, Stephanie L; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with or without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood (Wave 1; 6-12 years) followed through adolescence (Wave 2; 11-18 years) and into young adulthood (Wave 3; 17-24 years). A subsample of 103 girls with a driving license by Wave 3 and with full data for all study variables was utilized in this investigation. In adolescence, mothers and teachers reported on ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), and participants reported on perceived deviant peer affiliation. In young adulthood, participants reported on driving behavior and outcomes, including number of accidents, number of moving vehicle citations, and ever having driven illegally. Covariates included age and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder. Inattention directly predicted citations. Perceived deviant peer affiliation mediated the association between inattention and (a) accidents and (b) citations. In addition, perceived deviant peer affiliation moderated the association between hyperactivity/impulsivity and accidents, with hyperactivity/impulsivity predicting accidents only for those with low perceived deviant peer affiliation. Perceived deviant peer affiliation appears to play an important role in the association between ADHD symptoms and driving outcomes. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that both ADHD symptoms and peer processes should be targeted in interventions that aim to prevent negative driving outcomes in young women with and without ADHD.

  19. Transition From Child to Adult Care--'It's Not a One-Off Event': Development of Benchmarks to Improve the Experience.

    PubMed

    Aldiss, Susie; Ellis, Judith; Cass, Hilary; Pettigrew, Tanya; Rose, Laura; Gibson, Faith

    2015-01-01

    The transition from child to adult services is a crucial time in the health of young people who may potentially fall into a poorly managed 'care gap'. A multi-site, multi-staged study was undertaken to identify the key aspects of a transitional programme of care for young people. Through a process of mapping, which involved drawing on primary and secondary data, a clinical practice-benchmark tool was developed. Benchmarks are a health care quality performance measurement 'tool'. They provide clinical teams with standards that services can measure themselves against to see how they are doing. They are used in a comparing and sharing activity, using a structured and systematic approach, to share best practice. They offer a mechanism to look at processes, and provide an opportunity to analyse skills and attitudes, which may be the hidden narrative in benchmarking. This paper describes steps in the development of benchmarks for transition to adult care, often associated with low patient and family satisfaction. Qualitative data were collected through focus groups, workshops and interviews from 13 young people with long-term health conditions, 11 parents, 36 professionals and 21 experts leading on transition within the United Kingdom. Transcripts were analysed using qualitative content analysis. For young people and their parents/carers to experience timely and effective transition, eight factors and their associated indicators of best practice were developed from the primary and secondary data and refined through an iterative process. We recommend their use to clinical teams to inform system level strategies as well as evaluation programmes. PMID:26209172

  20. Role for protein geranylgeranylation in adult T-cell leukemia cell survival

    SciTech Connect

    Nonaka, Mizuho; Uota, Shin; Saitoh, Yasunori; Takahashi, Mayumi; Sugimoto, Haruyo; Amet, Tohti; Arai, Ayako; Miura, Osamu; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamaoka, Shoji

    2009-01-15

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease that develops in human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected individuals. Despite the accumulating knowledge of the molecular biology of HTLV-I-infected cells, effective therapeutic strategies remain to be established. Recent reports showed that the hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitor statins have anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on certain tumor cells through inhibition of protein prenylation. Here, we report that statins hinder the survival of ATL cells and induce apoptotic cell death. Inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation is responsible for these effects, since simultaneous treatment with isoprenoid precursors, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate or farnesyl pyrophosphate, but not a cholesterol precursor squalene, restored the viability of ATL cells. Simvastatin inhibited geranylgeranylation of small GTPases Rab5B and Rac1 in ATL cells, and a geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor GGTI-298 reduced ATL cell viability more efficiently than a farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277. These results not only unveil an important role for protein geranylgeranylation in ATL cell survival, but also implicate therapeutic potentials of statins in the treatment of ATL.