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Sample records for adult romantic relationships

  1. Romantic Relationships and Interpersonal Violence among Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Karen M.; Bosek, Rebecca L.; Trimble, Erin L.

    2010-01-01

    Romantic relationships are important in the lives of adults with developmental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to explore dating and romantic relationships among these adults and to identify the nature and extent of interpersonal violence in their relationships. A random sample of 47 women and men participated in semistructured…

  2. Assessing decision making in young adult romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Vennum, Amber; Fincham, Frank D

    2011-09-01

    Romantic relationships among young adults are rich with ambiguity and without a clear, universal progression emphasizing the need for active decision making. Lack of active decision making in romantic relationships can lead to increases in constraints (e.g. pregnancy, shared living space or finances) that promote the continuation of relationships that would have otherwise ended, leading to increased risk of relationship distress. Because there is no available assessment of thoughtfulness regarding relationship decisions, the authors of the present studies report data on the development of one such scale, the Relationship Deciding Scale (RDS). Study 1 (N = 995) reveals the factor structure of the RDS and provides reliability data for the emergent subscales. In Study 2 (N = 963), the obtained three-factor structure (Relationship Confidence, Knowledge of Warning Signs, and Deciding) is tested via confirmatory factor analysis, demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity, and is shown to predict relationship characteristics 14 weeks later. Study 3 (N = 805) shows the sensitivity of the three factors to change through examination of the influence of a semester-long intervention targeted at increasing decision making in relationships. Use of this scale for identifying and intervening with couples or individuals who lack active decision making in relationships may decrease their risk for future relationship distress.

  3. Romantic Relationship Satisfaction Moderates the Etiology of Adult Personality

    PubMed Central

    South, Susan C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Elkins, Irene; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The heritability of major normative domains of personality is well-established, with approximately half the proportion of variance attributed to genetic differences. In the current study, we examine the possibility of gene x environment interaction (GxE) for adult personality using the environmental context of intimate romantic relationship functioning. Personality and relationship satisfaction are significantly correlated phenotypically, but to date no research has examined how the genetic and environmental components of variance for personality differ as a function of romantic relationship satisfaction. Given the importance of personality for myriad outcomes from work productivity to psychopathology, it is vital to identify variables present in adulthood that may affect the etiology of personality. In the current study, quantitative models of GxE were used to determine whether the genetic and environmental influences on personality differ as a function of relationship satisfaction. We drew from a sample of now-adult twins followed longitudinally from adolescence through age 29. All participants completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and an abbreviated version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS). Biometric moderation was found for eight of the eleven MPQ scales examined: Well-Being, Social Potency, Negative Emotionality, Alienation, Aggression, Constraint, Traditionalism, and Absorption. The pattern of findings differed, suggesting that the ways in which relationship quality moderates the etiology of personality may depend on the personality trait. PMID:26581694

  4. Romantic Relationship Satisfaction Moderates the Etiology of Adult Personality.

    PubMed

    South, Susan C; Krueger, Robert F; Elkins, Irene J; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The heritability of major normative domains of personality is well-established, with approximately half the proportion of variance attributed to genetic differences. In the current study, we examine the possibility of gene × environment interaction (G×E) for adult personality using the environmental context of intimate romantic relationship functioning. Personality and relationship satisfaction are significantly correlated phenotypically, but to date no research has examined how the genetic and environmental components of variance for personality differ as a function of romantic relationship satisfaction. Given the importance of personality for myriad outcomes from work productivity to psychopathology, it is vital to identify variables present in adulthood that may affect the etiology of personality. In the current study, quantitative models of G×E were used to determine whether the genetic and environmental influences on personality differ as a function of relationship satisfaction. We drew from a sample of now-adult twins followed longitudinally from adolescence through age 29. All participants completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and an abbreviated version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Biometric moderation was found for eight of the eleven MPQ scales examined: well-being, social potency, negative emotionality, alienation, aggression, constraint, traditionalism, and absorption. The pattern of findings differed, suggesting that the ways in which relationship quality moderates the etiology of personality may depend on the personality trait.

  5. Young adult romantic relationships: the role of parents' marital problems and relationship efficacy.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ming; Fincham, Frank D; Pasley, B Kay

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the link between parental divorce and marital conflict and young adult romantic relationships, and it tested whether offspring efficacy beliefs and conflict mediate this association. Young adults (N=358) provided data at three time points each separated by 7-week intervals. Results from structural equation modeling demonstrated that (a) parents' marital conflict, rather than parental divorce, was associated with offspring conflict behavior; (b) relationship efficacy mediated this association; and (c) conflict behavior, in turn, mediated the association between efficacy beliefs and the quality of offspring romantic relationships. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the impact of parents' marital problems on romantic relationships in young adulthood. Their implications for preventive interventions and future research are also outlined.

  6. Parental divorce and young adult children's romantic relationships: resolution of the divorce experience.

    PubMed

    Shulman, S; Scharf, M; Lumer, D; Maurer, O

    2001-10-01

    Fifty-one romantically involved young Israeli adults, whose parents were divorced, were questioned about their romantic relationship, parents' conflict, and current feelings about and reconstruction of the divorce. An integrative perception of the divorce was found to be related to fewer problems and to higher levels of friendship, enjoyment, and intimacy in the relationship. Implications for research and intervention with young adults are discussed.

  7. Relationship duration moderates associations between attachment and relationship quality: meta-analytic support for the temporal adult romantic attachment model.

    PubMed

    Hadden, Benjamin W; Smith, C Veronica; Webster, Gregory D

    2014-02-01

    Although research has examined associations between attachment dimensions and relationship outcomes, theory has ignored how these associations change over time in adult romantic relationships. We proposed the Temporal Adult Romantic Attachment (TARA) model, which predicts that the negative associations between anxious and avoidant attachment on one hand and relationship satisfaction and commitment on the other will be more negative as relationship durations increase. Meta-analyses largely confirmed that negative associations between both insecure attachment dimensions and both relationship outcomes were more negative among longer relationship durations in cross-sectional samples. We also explored gender differences in these associations. The present review not only integrates the literature on adult attachment and romantic relationship satisfaction/commitment but also highlights the importance of relationship duration as a key moderator of the associations among these variables. We discuss the broad implications of these effects and our meta-analytic findings for the TARA model, attachment theory, and romantic relationships.

  8. Recollections of Being Loved: Implications of Childhood Experiences with Parents for Young Adults' Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Katherine A.; Schutte, Emily D.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which young adults recollections of their childhood experiences with parents were associated with their reported feelings and behavior in romantic relationships. Participants were 205 young adults. Based on a question from the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1996), participants wrote…

  9. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Rauer, Amy J; Volling, Brenda L

    2007-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning.

  10. To Accept or Reject? The Impact of Adolescent Rejection Sensitivity on Early Adult Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Hafen, Christopher A.; Spilker, Ann; Chango, Joanna; Marston, Emily S.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Successfully navigating entry into romantic relationships is a key task in adolescence, which sensitivity to rejection can make difficult to accomplish. This study uses multi-informant data from a community sample of 180 adolescents assessed repeatedly from age 16 to 22. Individuals with elevated levels of rejection sensitivity at age 16 were less likely to have a romantic partner at age 22, reported more anxiety and avoidance when they did have relationships, and were observed to be more negative in their interactions with romantic partners. In addition, females whose rejection sensitivity increased during late adolescence were more likely to adopt a submissive pattern within adult romantic relationships, further suggesting a pattern in which rejection sensitivity forecasts difficulties. PMID:24729668

  11. Factors Linking Childhood Experiences to Adult Romantic Relationships among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.; Beach, Steven R.H.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that a high quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381

  12. Profiles and Correlates of Relational Aggression in Young Adults' Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Chesir-Teran, Daniel; McFaul, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of experiencing and perpetrating relational aggression in the context of young adults' romantic relationships. We assess correlates of relational aggression in four domains of risk: (1) Social-cognitive, (2) Relationship, (3) Trait/dispositional, and (4) Mental health. Results indicate that…

  13. Mapping Young Adults' Use of Fathers for Attachment Support: Implications on Romantic Relationship Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Harry; Almond, Tasha M.

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods approach was used to examine how young adults (n = 1012) perceive fathers as targets for attachment support. Participants ranked the level of attachment support received and sought from fathers, mothers, best friends, and romantic partners, and provided relationship-specific information on additional indices of social support…

  14. Longitudinal Changes in Emerging Adults' Attachment Preferences for Their Mother, Father, Friends, and Romantic Partner: Focusing on the Start and End of Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umemura, Tomo; Lacinová, Lenka; Macek, Petr; Kunnen, E. Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Only a few studies have longitudinally explored to whom emerging adults prefer to turn to seek closeness, comfort, and security (called "attachment preferences"), and previous studies on attachment preferences in emerging adults have focused only on the beginning of romantic relationships but not on the end of relationships. Czech…

  15. Predictors of young adults' representations of and behavior in their current romantic relationship: prospective tests of the prototype hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Roisman, Glenn I; Collins, W Andrew; Sroufe, L Alan; Egeland, Byron

    2005-06-01

    Although attachment theory suggests that childhood experiences with caregivers serve as a prototype for adult love relationships, few explicit tests of this hypothesis exist in the literature. Drawing on data from a longitudinal cohort followed from birth to young adulthood, this paper examined correlates and antecedents of young adults' representations of and behavior in their current romantic relationship. Young adults who experienced a secure relationship with their primary caregiver in infancy as assessed in the Strange Situation were more likely to (a) produce coherent discourse regarding their current romantic partnership in the context of the Current Relationship Interview (CRI) and (b) have a higher quality romantic relationship as observed in standard conflict and collaboration tasks. Infant security accounted for variation in CRI security above and beyond the observed quality of participants' current romantic relationship. In contrast, the association between infant and romantic security was partially mediated by individuals' self-reports about their romantic experiences, suggesting that one plausible mechanism by which early experiences with caregivers shape young adults' representations of their attachments with romantic partners is through adults' expectations for and perceptions of love relationships.

  16. RELATIONAL SCHEMAS, HOSTILE ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS, AND BELIEFS ABOUT MARRIAGE AMONG YOUNG AFRICAN AMERICAN ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Lei, Man Kit; Landor, Antoinette

    2011-01-01

    The present study tests a developmental model designed to explain the romantic relationship difficulties and reluctance to marry often reported for African Americans. Using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 400 African American young adults, we examine the manner in which race-related adverse experiences during late childhood and early adolescence give rise to the cynical view of romantic partners and marriage held by many young African Americans. Our results indicate that adverse circumstances disproportionately suffered by African American youth (viz., harsh parenting, family instability, discrimination, criminal victimization, and financial hardship) promote distrustful relational schemas that lead to troubled dating relationships, and that these negative relationship experiences, in turn, encourage a less positive view of marriage. PMID:22328799

  17. RELATIONAL SCHEMAS, HOSTILE ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS, AND BELIEFS ABOUT MARRIAGE AMONG YOUNG AFRICAN AMERICAN ADULTS.

    PubMed

    Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Lei, Man Kit; Landor, Antoinette

    2012-02-01

    The present study tests a developmental model designed to explain the romantic relationship difficulties and reluctance to marry often reported for African Americans. Using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 400 African American young adults, we examine the manner in which race-related adverse experiences during late childhood and early adolescence give rise to the cynical view of romantic partners and marriage held by many young African Americans. Our results indicate that adverse circumstances disproportionately suffered by African American youth (viz., harsh parenting, family instability, discrimination, criminal victimization, and financial hardship) promote distrustful relational schemas that lead to troubled dating relationships, and that these negative relationship experiences, in turn, encourage a less positive view of marriage.

  18. Do I Really Need Someone in Order to become an Adult?: Romantic Relationships during Emerging Adulthood in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanz, Margherita; Tagliabue, Semira

    2007-01-01

    Italian emerging adults stay at home with their parents until they marry. Being involved in a romantic relationship may be considered one precursor of the success of the transition to adulthood. In this study, 92 dating and 84 nondating emerging adults were compared on when they left the parental home and their future plans. They were also…

  19. Trajectories of Adolescent Hostile-Aggressive Behavior and Family Climate: Longitudinal Implications for Young Adult Romantic Relationship Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as…

  20. Media depictions of physical and relational aggression: connections with aggression in young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women.

  1. Snooping in Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Kelly; Knox, David; Easterling, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A 42 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 268 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess the frequency, motivations, and outcome of snooping in romantic relationships. Almost two thirds (66%) reported that they had engaged in snooping behavior, most often when the partner was taking a shower. Primary motives were…

  2. Romantic Relationship Patterns in Young Adulthood and Their Developmental Antecedents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauer, Amy J.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The delayed entry into marriage that characterizes modern society raises questions about young adults' romantic relationship trajectories and whether patterns found to characterize adolescent romantic relationships persist into young adulthood. The current study traced developmental transitions into and out of romantic relationships from age…

  3. The Distinctive Role of Romantic Relationships in Moderating the Effects of Early Caregiving on Adult Anxious-Depressed Symptoms over Nine Years

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Jessica E.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study tests a model of young adult romantic quality as a moderator of the effects of early caregiving on anxious-depressed symptoms over a nine-year period in adulthood. Participants (n = 93) were a subsample from a longitudinal study of risk and adaptation. Quality of early caregiving was measured using observational data collected at five points in the first four years of life. Young adult romantic relationship quality was assessed from interviews with participants at age 23. Self-report anxious-depressed symptoms were measured at ages 23, 26, and 32. The results indicated that romantic quality moderated early caregiving to predict symptom levels across this period, with evidence for inoculation, amplification, and compensation effects. A discriminant analysis examining young adult work competence as a moderator provided further evidence for the distinctiveness of romantic relationships in changing the association between early caregiving and adult internalizing symptoms. PMID:23880395

  4. The Relationship Context for Sexual Activity and its Associations with Romantic Cognitions among Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Collibee, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the associations of sexual activity with romantic cognitions, particularly longitudinally. We used a multi-analytic approach to examine the longitudinal, between-person, and within-person associations between sexual activity and romantic cognitions. We distinguished among sexual activity with four different types of partners—romantic partners, friends, acquaintances, and friends with benefits. An ethnically/racially representative sample of 185 participants (94 males & 91 females) completed questionnaires when they were 2.5, 4, and 5.5 years out of high school. Frequent sexual activity with a romantic partner was associated with positive romantic cognitions, including less avoidant and anxious relational styles, greater romantic life satisfaction, and romantic appeal. Frequent sexual activity with various nonromantic partners was often associated with more negative romantic cognitions, including avoidant styles, lower romantic life satisfaction, and lower romantic appeal. Few longitudinal effects were found. Findings contribute to a developmental task theory concepualization of sexual behavior. PMID:27242952

  5. The Relationship Context for Sexual Activity and its Associations with Romantic Cognitions among Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have examined the associations of sexual activity with romantic cognitions, particularly longitudinally. We used a multi-analytic approach to examine the longitudinal, between-person, and within-person associations between sexual activity and romantic cognitions. We distinguished among sexual activity with four different types of partners-romantic partners, friends, acquaintances, and friends with benefits. An ethnically/racially representative sample of 185 participants (94 males & 91 females) completed questionnaires when they were 2.5, 4, and 5.5 years out of high school. Frequent sexual activity with a romantic partner was associated with positive romantic cognitions, including less avoidant and anxious relational styles, greater romantic life satisfaction, and romantic appeal. Frequent sexual activity with various nonromantic partners was often associated with more negative romantic cognitions, including avoidant styles, lower romantic life satisfaction, and lower romantic appeal. Few longitudinal effects were found. Findings contribute to a developmental task theory concepualization of sexual behavior.

  6. Adolescent Peer Relationships and Emerging Adult Romantic Styles: A Longitudinal Study of Youth in an Italian Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhariwal, Amrit; Connolly, Jennifer; Paciello, Marinella; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    This study extends understanding of romantic development in the emerging adult years by using an 8-year longitudinal design in Italy. Peer groups at age 13, interpersonal functioning and emotion regulation at age 17, and romantic styles at age 21 were measured in 388 youth. Early peer groups were shown to be indirectly associated with two romantic…

  7. Taking Chances in Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Lindsey; Knox, David

    2016-01-01

    A 64 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 381 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess taking chances in romantic relationships. Almost three fourths (72%) self-identified as being a "person willing to take chances in my love relationship." Engaging in unprotected sex, involvement in a "friends with…

  8. Influence of Family of Origin and Adult Romantic Partners on Romantic Attachment Security

    PubMed Central

    Dinero, Rachel E.; Conger, Rand D.; Shaver, Phillip R.; Widaman, Keith F.; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle

    2009-01-01

    According to attachment theory, attachment security or attachment style derives from social experiences that begin early in life and continue into the adult years. In this study we examined these expectations by examining associations between the quality of observed interaction patterns in the family of origin during adolescence and self-reported romantic attachment style and observed romantic relationship behaviors in adulthood (at ages 25 and 27). Family and romantic relationship interactions were rated by trained observers from video recordings of structured conversation tasks. Attachment style was assessed with items from Griffin and Bartholomew's (1994) Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Observational ratings of warmth and sensitivity in family interactions were positively related to similar behaviors by romantic partners and to self-reported attachment security. In addition, romantic interactions characterized by high warmth and low hostility at age 25 predicted greater attachment security at 27, after controlling for attachment security at age 25. However, attachment security at age 25 did not predict later romantic relationship interactions after controlling for earlier interactions. These findings underscore the importance of social experiences in close relationships for the development of romantic attachment security but they are inconsistent with the theoretical expectation that attachment security will predict the quality of interactions in romantic unions. PMID:18729676

  9. Preparing Students for Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Richard; Peterson, Amelia; Weinstein, Emily

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important aspects in our lives is learning how to have mutual, caring romantic relationships. Yet while schools and many other industries in this country devote tremendous attention and resources to preparing the young for work, they do remarkably little to prepare them for generous, self-respecting sex and love. Educators and…

  10. Emerging adults' expectations for pornography use in the context of future committed romantic relationships: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Spencer B; Negash, Sesen; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D

    2013-05-01

    Using qualitative content analysis from the written comments of 404 primarily heterosexual college students, we examined (1) their expectations for pornography use while married or in a committed long-term relationship and (2) variations by gender. Four prominent groups emerged. A majority of men (70.8 %) and almost half of women (45.5 %) reported circumstances (alone or with their partners) wherein pornography use was acceptable in a relationship and several conditions for, and consequences associated with, such use also emerged. Another group (22.3 % men; 26.2 % women) viewed pornography use as unacceptable because of being in a committed relationship whereas a third group (5.4 % men; 12.9 % women) reported that pornography use was unacceptable in any context or circumstance. A final group emerged of a few women (10.4 %) who stated that a partner's use of pornography was acceptable, but they did not expect to use it personally. Implications for relationship education among emerging adults and future research on pornography use within the context of romantic relationships are discussed.

  11. Intimate imitation: Automatic motor imitation in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos

    2016-07-01

    Our relationships with romantic partners are often some of the closest and most important relationships that we experience in our adult lives. Interpersonal closeness in romantic relationships is characterised by an increased overlap between cognitive representations of oneself and one's partner. Importantly, this type of self-other overlap also occurs in the bodily domain, whereby we can represent another's embodied experiences in the same way as we represent our own. However, as yet this bodily self-other overlap has only been investigated in individuals unfamiliar to each other. Here, we investigate bodily self-other overlap between romantic partners, using automatic imitation as an example case of bodily overlap in the motor domain. We found that participants automatically imitated romantic partners significantly more than close others with whom they had a platonic relationship. Furthermore, imitation in these relationships was related to key aspects of relationship quality, as indicated by adult attachment style.

  12. The Contribution of Community and Family Contexts to African American Young Adults' Romantic Relationship Health: A Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research,…

  13. Relationships among Internet attitudes, Internet use, romantic beliefs, and perceptions of online romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Traci L

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors relating to perceptions of online romantic relationships. One hundred seventy-seven people who had never been involved in an online romantic relationship completed a survey to assess relationships among perceptions of online romantic relationships and (a) amount of Internet use, (b) Internet affinity, (c) perceived realism of the Internet, and (d) romantic beliefs. Results reveal that amount of time spent online and affinity for the Internet are positively related to more favorable perceptions of online romantic relationships, whereas perceived realism and romantic beliefs were not related to perceptions of online romantic relationships. Romantic beliefs, therefore, may lend themselves to more conventional notions of relationships. Implications for and development and maintenance of online relationships, as impacted by social support networks, are discussed.

  14. Attachment, borderline personality, and romantic relationship dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jonathan; Stepp, Stephanie D; Wan, Ming Wai; Hope, Holly; Morse, Jennifer Q; Steele, Miriam; Steele, Howard; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have implicated attachment and disturbances in romantic relationships as important indicators for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The current research extends our current knowledge by examining the specific associations among attachment, romantic relationship dysfunction, and BPD, above and beyond the contribution of emotional distress and nonromantic interpersonal functioning in two distinct samples. Study 1 comprised a community sample of women (N = 58) aged 25-36. Study 2 consisted of a psychiatric sample (N = 138) aged 21-60. Results from both Study 1 and Study 2 demonstrated that (1) attachment was specifically related to BPD symptoms and romantic dysfunction, (2) BPD symptoms were specifically associated with romantic dysfunction, and (3) the association between attachment and romantic dysfunction was statistically mediated by BPD symptoms. The findings support specific associations among attachment, BPD symptoms, and romantic dysfunction.

  15. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  16. "Don't tell him you have HIV unless he's 'the one'": romantic relationships among adolescents and young adults with perinatal HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Fair, Cynthia; Albright, Jamie

    2012-12-01

    Individuals with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) are surviving into young adulthood. Previous literature has explored the sexual behavior of those with PHIV. However, their perspectives on navigating romantic relationships are not well understood. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 young adults living with PHIV recruited from two pediatric infectious disease clinics in the southeast United States. The majority of participants were African American (n=27, 77.2%), female (n=23, 65.7%), and the mean age was 20.7 (range 15-30) years. Questions focused on experiences with dating and romantic relationships as well as relationship advice for others living with HIV. Transcribed interviews were coded for emergent themes. Qualitative analyses revealed that the majority of participants have dated and struggled with their HIV status in their intimate relationships. The majority of those who disclosed their HIV status to past partners had experienced some form of rejection. However, several participants reported receiving support upon disclosure. Some individuals had never disclosed to a romantic partner, but carefully managed intimacy by delaying dating, terminating relationships, and "taking it slow." Advice fell into two broad categories: "be safe" which referred to the physical protection of self and partners, as well as emotional protection from possible rejection. The second advice category was basic encouragement which stressed the importance for young adults living with HIV to have hope that they would find a supportive partner and to be patient. The focus of education must include not only transmission risk factors, but also developing and maintaining healthy relationships in the context of a highly stigmatized illness.

  17. Romantic and sexual relationships, body image, and fertility in adolescent and young adult testicular cancer survivors: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Melissa Y; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2010-08-01

    This review presents a summary of existing knowledge regarding the effect of testicular cancer along four broad domains, including romantic and sexual relationships, body image, and fertility. A total of 37 studies were reviewed. Of note, most research consists of older adult testicular cancer survivors, with very little research attention afforded to adolescent and young adult survivorship. Relationship status (i.e., partnered versus unpartnered) appears to play an important role as it relates to adjustment outcomes in testicular cancer survivors. In addition, sexual function (and thereby fertility) and body image are also frequently compromised. Implications regarding a lack of developmentally focused research on adolescent and young adult testicular cancer survivorship are discussed, along with recommendations for new research.

  18. Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…

  19. The Mediator Role of Need Satisfaction between Subjective Well-Being and Romantic Relationships Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali; Dogan, Tayfun

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: The most important part of identity exploration for emerging adults is love. Establishing healthy intimate relationships support the process of identity exploration. In addition to the positive and negative factors that affect romantic relationships, the concept of quality is also very important in these romantic relationships.…

  20. Attachment in romantic relationships and somatization.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Eva; Sattel, Heribert; Gündel, Harald; Henningsen, Peter; Kruse, Johannes

    2015-02-01

    Adult attachment representations have been considered to play a role in the development and treatment of somatizing behavior. In this study, the associations between the two attachment dimensions avoidance and anxiety and dimensions of psychopathology (somatization, depression, and general anxiety) were explored. The sample consists of 202 outpatients diagnosed with a somatoform disorder. Data were collected via self-report measures. A path analysis shows that the two attachment dimensions are not directly associated with somatization. There are, however, significant indirect associations between attachment and somatization mediated by depression and general anxiety, which are more pronounced for attachment anxiety than for attachment avoidance. The findings reveal that a low level of attachment security in romantic relationships, especially an anxious stance toward the partner, comes along with poor mental health, which in turn is related to a preoccupation with somatic complaints. Implications for the treatment of somatizing patients are discussed.

  1. Exploring Mexican American adolescent romantic relationship profiles and adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Moosmann, Danyel A.V.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Although Mexican Americans are the largest ethnic minority group in the nation, knowledge is limited regarding this population's adolescent romantic relationships. This study explored whether 12th grade Mexican Americans’ (N = 218; 54% female) romantic relationship characteristics, cultural values, and gender created unique latent classes and if so, whether they were linked to adjustment. Latent class analyses suggested three profiles including, relatively speaking, higher, satisfactory, and lower quality romantic relationships. Regression analyses indicated these profiles had distinct associations with adjustment. Specifically, adolescents with higher and satisfactory quality romantic relationships reported greater future family expectations, higher self-esteem, and fewer externalizing symptoms than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Similarly, adolescents with higher quality romantic relationships reported greater academic self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Overall, results suggested higher quality romantic relationships were most optimal for adjustment. Future research directions and implications are discussed. PMID:26141198

  2. South African Adolescents' Constructions of Intimacy in Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesch, Elmien; Furphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Localized understandings of adolescent romantic relationships are needed to expand our knowledge of the diversity of adolescent romantic experiences and to challenge negative discourses of adolescent heterosexual relationships. This study explored the constructions of intimacy of 20 adolescent men and women in romantic relationships from one…

  3. Adolescents' Conceptions of the Influence of Romantic Relationships on Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers have investigated how adolescents' friendships affect their romantic relationships, the influence of romantic relationships on friendships is unexamined. As a first step, 9th- (n = 198) and 11th grade students (n = 152) reported on their conceptions of friendship when one friend had a romantic relationship and when neither…

  4. Young Adolescents' Perceptions of Romantic Relationships and Sexual Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Heather R.; Keller, Mary L.; Heidrich, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe young adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationships, ratings of important romantic partner characteristics, and acceptability of sexual activity with romantic relationships. Fifty-seven eighth-grade participants (average age = 13.8 years) from one urban US public middle school completed an anonymous…

  5. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness

    PubMed Central

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68). Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113). Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward. PMID:27895606

  6. Influence of family of origin and adult romantic partners on romantic attachment security.

    PubMed

    Dinero, Rachel E; Conger, Rand D; Shaver, Phillip R; Widaman, Keith F; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle

    2008-08-01

    According to attachment theory, attachment style derives from social experiences throughout the life span. The authors tested this expectation by examining associations between the quality of observed interaction patterns in the family of origin during adolescence and self-reported romantic attachment style and observed romantic relationship behaviors in adulthood (ages 25 and 27). Family and romantic relationship interactions were rated by trained observers from video recordings of structured conversation tasks. Attachment style was assessed with items from D. W. Griffin and K. Bartholomew's (1994a) Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Observational ratings of warmth and sensitivity in family interactions were positively related to similar behaviors by romantic partners and to attachment security. In addition, romantic interactions characterized by high warmth and low hostility at age 25 predicted greater attachment security at 27, after controlling for attachment security at age 25. However, attachment security at age 25 did not predict later romantic relationship interactions after controlling for earlier interactions. These findings underscore the importance of close relationships in the development of romantic attachment security but do not indicate that attachment security predicts the quality of interactions in romantic relationships.

  7. Romantic love and sexual desire in close relationships.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Gian C; Turner, Rebecca A; Keltner, Dacher; Campos, Belinda; Altemus, Margaret

    2006-05-01

    Drawing on recent claims in the study of relationships, attachment, and emotion, the authors hypothesized that romantic love serves a commitment-related function and sexual desire a reproduction-related function. Consistent with these claims, in Study 1, brief experiences of romantic love and sexual desire observed in a 3-min interaction between romantic partners were related to distinct feeling states, distinct nonverbal displays, and commitment- and reproductive-related relationship outcomes, respectively. In Study 2, the nonverbal display of romantic love was related to the release of oxytocin. Discussion focuses on the place of romantic love and sexual desire in the literature on emotion.

  8. Romantic relationships and alcohol use: A long-term, developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Rauer, Amy J; Pettit, Gregory S; Samek, Diana R; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Bates, John E

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the developmental origins of alcohol use in young adulthood. Despite substantial evidence linking committed romantic relationships to less problematic alcohol use in adulthood, the uniformity of these protective benefits across different romantic relationships is unclear. Further, the extent to which the establishment and maintenance of these romantic relationships is preceded by earlier adolescence alcohol use remains unknown. To address these gaps in the literature, the current study utilized multitiple-dimensional, multiple-informant data spanning 20 years on 585 individuals in the Child Development Project. Findings from both variable- and person-centered analyses support a progression of associations predicting adolescent alcohol use (ages 15-16), drinking, and romantic relationships in early adulthood (ages 18-25), and then problematic young adult alcohol use (age 27). Although adolescent alcohol use predicted greater romantic involvement and turnover in early adulthood, romantic involvement, but not turnover, appeared to reduce the likelihood of later problematic drinking. These findings remained robust even after accounting for a wide array of selection and socialization factors. Moreover, characteristics of the individuals (e.g., gender) and of their romantic relationships (e.g., partner substance use problems and romantic relationship satisfaction) did not moderate these findings. Findings underscore the importance of using a developmental-relational perspective to consider the antecedents and consequences of alcohol use early in the life span.

  9. Sexual well-being of a community sample of high-functioning adults on the autism spectrum who have been in a romantic relationship.

    PubMed

    Byers, E Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D; Reilly, Georgianna

    2013-07-01

    This study explored factors (gender, age, relationship status, symptomatology) associated with the sexual well-being of 141 (56 men and 85 women) adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) living in the community. Participants completed an online survey consisting of a measure of autistic symptoms as well as measures of dyadic and solitary sexual well-being. Canonical correlation analyses showed that participants who were currently in a romantic relationship reported more frequent dyadic affectionate and genital activity and greater sexual assertiveness and sexual satisfaction, pointing to the importance of context in an active sex life. After controlling for the first variate, men and individuals with less autism symptomatology, particularly in the social and communication domains, generally reported significantly greater dyadic sexual well-being, including greater sexual satisfaction, assertiveness, arousability, and desire and lower sexual anxiety and fewer sexual problems. Men also reported better solitary sexual well-being, including more sexual thoughts, more sexual desire, and more frequent solitary sexual activity; however, they had lower sexual knowledge. These results highlight the importance for research and sexuality education with individuals with HFA/AS to conceptualize sexual well-being as a multidimensional construct consisting of both dyadic and solitary aspects.

  10. Adolescents' conceptions of the influence of romantic relationships on friendships.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jennifer J

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers have investigated how adolescents' friendships affect their romantic relationships, the influence of romantic relationships on friendships is unexamined. As a first step, 9th- (n = 198) and 11th grade students (n = 152) reported on their conceptions of friendship when one friend had a romantic relationship and when neither friend had a romantic relationship. As predicted, adolescents believed friendships in which a friend was dating would be characterized by less positive features and more negative features than friendships in which neither friend was dating. Additionally, older adolescents thought romantic relationships were more damaging to companionship and corumination than did younger adolescents. The closer nature of older adolescents' romantic relationships may result in lower quality friendships or older adolescents may be more aware of the potential negative consequences of romantic relationships for friendships. Girls viewed friendships as higher in conflict-rivalry and lower in corumination when one friend was dating while boys did not. And although girls and boys viewed friendships as lower in intimacy and companionship when a friend has a romantic partner, the difference was greater for girls than boys. Girls may be more sensitive to the effects of a friend's romantic relationship on their friendship than are boys. Findings necessitate theories of close relationships that incorporate age and gender as important variables.

  11. Romantic Relationships and Adjustment Problems in China: The Moderating Effect of Classroom Romantic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Jinqin; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Zhang, Jianxin; Guo, Fei; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Mianbo; Chen, Zhiyan

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research has shown that adolescent romantic relationships are associated with a wide range of developmental outcomes, including adverse consequences. The present study used a hierarchical linear model to examine the moderating effect of classroom romantic context on the association between adolescent romantic…

  12. An exploration of young ethnic minority males' beliefs about romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jennifer L; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic minority males experience a disproportionate prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Few studies have explored the beliefs that frame romantic relationships in which sexual behavior occurs. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of romantic relationships for young ethnic minority men who partner with adolescent women with high-risk sexual histories and the beliefs about romantic relationships that underlie these relationship choices. A phenomenologic approach was used. Two semi-structured interviews were completed with six Mexican American and two African American young adult males 19 to 26 years of age. Participants struggled to balance a desire to maintain physical and psychological closeness with partners with a desire to distance from partners in the face of unmet psychological needs. Recognition of how males struggle to balance getting needs met in romantic relationships will be necessary for the provision of culturally relevant care for males and their partners.

  13. Emotional and Behavioral Effects of Romantic Relationships in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhiyan; Guo, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Li, Xinying; Duan, Qing; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' romantic relationships have been associated with higher levels of depression, although their links with externalizing behavioral problems remain unclear. The present study examined the impact of adolescent romantic relationships on depression and externalizing behaviors in a large sample of 10,509 Chinese secondary school students…

  14. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  15. Romantic Relationships Trajectories of African American Gay/Bisexual Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyre, Stephen L.; Milbrath, Constance; Peacock, Ben

    2007-01-01

    The interview study reported here sought to identify the perceived trajectory of romantic relationships of a cohort of Oakland African American gay/bisexual adolescents. Biographical interviews were used to identify cultural models of romantic relationships in the study sample and discovered a trajectory of four phases. In the antecedent to the…

  16. The Relation of Insecure Attachment States of Mind and Romantic Attachment Styles to Adolescent Aggression in Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Miga, Erin M.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.; Manning, Nell

    2010-01-01

    The relation of attachment states of mind and self reported attachment relationship styles to romantic partner aggression was examined in a community sample of 93 adolescents. Higher levels of insecure-preoccupied and insecure-dismissing states of mind, as assessed by the Adolescent Attachment Interview at age 14, were predictive, respectively, of perpetration and victimization of psychological aggression in romantic relationships four years later. Partners’ romantic attachment anxiety was linked to both psychological and physical aggression perpetration in romantic relationships. Results are interpreted as suggesting the value of assessing aggression in adolescent romantic relationships in the context of broader patterns of regulation of affect and behavior via the attachment system. PMID:20730640

  17. SHIFTING PERSPECTIVES: COGNITIVE CHANGES PARTIALLY MEDIATE THE IMPACT OF ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS ON DESISTANCE FROM CRIME

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Barr, Ashley B.

    2012-01-01

    Although research regarding the impact of marriage on desistance is important, most romantic relationships during early adulthoood, the period in the life course when involvement in criminal offending is relatively high, do not involve marriage. Using the internal moderator approach, we tested hypotheses regarding the impact of non-marital romantic relationships on desistance using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 600 African American young adults. The results largely supported the study hypotheses. We found no significant association between simply being in a romantic relationship and desistance from offending. On the other hand, for both males and females quality of romantic relationship was rather strongly associated with desistance. Partner antisociality only influenced the offending of females. Much of the effect of quality of romantic relationship on desistance was mediated by a reduction in commitment to a criminogenic knowledge structure (a hostile view of people and relationships, concern with immediate gratification, and cynical view of conduct norms). The mediating effect of change in affiliation with deviant peers was not significant once the contribution of criminogenic knowledge structure was taken into account. The findings are discussed in terms of social control and cognitive accounts of the mechanisms whereby romantic relationships influence desistance. PMID:25328280

  18. Perceived Marginalization and the Prediction of Romantic Relationship Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmiller, Justin J.; Agnew, Christopher R.

    2007-01-01

    The present research examined how perceived marginalization of one's romantic relationship is associated with level of future commitment to and stability of that involvement. Results from a 7-month longitudinal study of romantically involved individuals (N = 215) revealed that perceived social network marginalization at Time 1 predicted breakup…

  19. Harsh, inconsistent parental discipline and romantic relationships: mediating processes of behavioral problems and ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Surjadi, Florensia F; Lorenz, Frederick O; Conger, Rand D; Wickrama, K A S

    2013-10-01

    According to the Development of Early Adult Romantic Relationships (DEARR) model (Bryant, C. M., & Conger, R. D. [2002]. Conger, R. D., Cui, M., Bryant, C. M., & Elder, G. H., Jr. [2000] interactional characteristics in the family of origin influence early adult romantic relationships by promoting or inhibiting the development of interpersonal competencies that contribute to relationship success in young adulthood. The present study uses the DEARR model as a general framework to help examine the long-term link between parental discipline practices in adolescence and young adult's interactions in the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Using prospective data from 288 target participants, their families, and their romantic partner, beginning when the targets were adolescents and continuing up to the fifth year of their marital or cohabiting relationships, we found empirical support for the DEARR model. Parental discipline practices in adolescence were associated with romantic relationship quality during the early years of marriage or cohabitation through processes in late adolescence and young adulthood. Specifically, harsh and inconsistent discipline practices were associated with greater attitudinal ambivalence toward parents in adolescence. Inconsistent discipline was also associated with higher risks of externalizing problems during late adolescence years. Externalizing problems and ambivalence toward parents predicted poorer relationship quality through aggressive behaviors and ambivalence toward a romantic partner during the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Implications for practitioners working with couples and families are discussed.

  20. Conceptualization and Assessment of Disengagement in Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Robin A.; Lawrence, Erika; Langer, Amie

    2008-01-01

    Research examining relationship distress and dissolution highlights the importance of romantic disengagement. However, prior conceptualizations and measures of romantic disengagement have tended to combine disengagement with related but distinct constructs hindering the study of romantic disengagement. In the present study we conducted exploratory factor analyses to demonstrate that disengagement is a relatively distinct construct and to clarify the conceptualization of romantic disengagement. More importantly, we developed a novel measure– the Romantic Disengagement Scale (RDS). The RDS demonstrated adequate fit across samples of dating individuals, married couples and women in physically aggressive relationships. The RDS also demonstrated strong divergent and incremental validity. Implications for enhancing conceptual models, research methodology, and clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:19727315

  1. Adult Attachment, Cognitive Appraisal, and University Students' Reactions to Romantic Infidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Chih D. C.; King, Makini L.; Debernardi, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adult attachment, cognitive appraisal, and university students' behavioral and emotional reactions to infidelity situations in romantic relationships. Results based on 173 university students suggested that both attachment and cognitive appraisals significantly predicted distinct types of infidelity…

  2. Self-determination theory and romantic relationship processes.

    PubMed

    Knee, C Raymond; Hadden, Benjamin W; Porter, Ben; Rodriguez, Lindsey M

    2013-11-01

    Self-determination theory can be viewed as a theory of optimal relationship development and functioning. We examine the concept of self that is employed in self-determination theory and explain how its unique definition allows an important and novel characterization of investing one's "self" in romantic relationships. A self-determined perspective on romantic relationships integrates several theories on romantic relationship development, but also goes beyond them by explicitly articulating the personality, developmental, and situational factors that facilitate optimal self-investment and relational functioning. Self-determination promotes openness rather than defensiveness and facilitates perspective-taking, authenticity, and support of close others. The dyadic context of romantic relationships affords great opportunity for theoretical development and integration of self-determination theory with current theories of interdependence and relational well-being.

  3. The Salience of Adolescent Romantic Experiences for Romantic Relationship Qualities in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Stephanie D.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual links between aspects of adolescents' dating experiences (i.e., involvement and quality; ages 15-17.5) and qualities of their romantic relationships in young adulthood (ages 20-21) were examined in a prospective longitudinal design. Even after accounting for earlier relationship experiences with parents and peers, aspects of adolescent…

  4. Threats to Parental and Romantic Attachment Figures' Availability and Adult Attachment Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Thomas B.; Galbraith, Richard C.; Timmons, Nicole Mead; Steed, April; Tobler, Samuel B.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested hypotheses based on the theoretical idea that threats to parental availability would have a direct effect on later adult attachment insecurity and that this relationship would be partially, but not fully, mediated by threats to the availability of a romantic partner. Participants were 1,063 individuals in a married or unmarried…

  5. Digital Dating and Virtual Relating: Conceptualizing Computer Mediated Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkle, Erich R.; Richardson, Rhonda A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the culture and history of the Internet that have contributed to the recent emergence of a subset of romantic interpersonal relationships known as computer mediated relationships. Considers the differences between the characteristics of face-to-face relationships and online relationships. Discusses implications of findings on clinical…

  6. Self- and Partner-objectification in Romantic Relationships: Associations with Media Consumption and Relationship Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Ramsey, Laura R; Jaworski, Beth K

    2011-04-01

    Few studies have examined objectification in the context of romantic relationships, even though strong theoretical arguments have often made this connection. This study addresses this gap in the literature by examining whether exposure to mass media is related to self-objectification and objectification of one's partner, which in turn is hypothesized to be related to relationship and sexual satisfaction. A sample of undergraduate students (91 women and 68 men) enrolled in a university on the west coast of the United States completed self-report measures of the following variables: self-objectification, objectification of one's romantic partner, relationship satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and exposure to objectifying media. Men reported higher levels of partner objectification than did women; there was no gender difference in self-objectification. Self- and partner-objectification were positively correlated; this correlation was especially strong for men. In regression analyses, partner-objectification was predictive of lower levels of relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, a path model revealed that consuming objectifying media is related to lowered relationship satisfaction through the variable of partner-objectification. Finally, self- and partner-objectification were related to lower levels of sexual satisfaction among men. This study provides evidence for the negative effects of objectification in the context of romantic relationships among young adults.

  7. Assessment of Romantic Perfectionism: Psychometric Properties of the Romantic Relationship Perfectionism Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matte, Melody; Lafontaine, Marie-France

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to provide validity evidence for the scores from the Romantic Relationship Perfectionism Scale. Results indicate a two-factor structure, adequate reliability, and overall good convergent, concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity evidence. The strengths and limitations of this measure are discussed.…

  8. Romantic relationship formation, maintenance and changes in personal networks.

    PubMed

    Rözer, Jesper Jelle; Mollenhorst, Gerald; Volker, Beate

    2015-03-01

    According to the social withdrawal hypothesis, a personal network becomes smaller when a person starts dating, cohabitates and marries. This phenomenon is widely established in the literature. However, these studies were usually done with cross-sectional data. As a consequence, it is still unclear whether or how personal networks actually change after the formation of a romantic relationship (i.e. dating), after starting cohabitation and after getting married. It is also unclear how long and to what extent social withdrawal continues. To overcome these shortcomings, we examine how the size and composition of personal networks change after relationship formation. We use two waves of the PAIRFAM dataset (2008 and 2011), which include information about 6640 Germans who were between 16 and 39 years of age at the time of the second interview in 2008. Results from fixed effects regression models underscore that the association between romantic relationships and changes in personal networks is more dynamic than previous studies suggested. For example, after the formation of a romantic relationship people show a decrease in non-kin contacts, while an increase in non-kin contacts is observed after two years of dating, as well as after two years of cohabitation. These network changes suggest that people adapt their social networks to the demands and constraints of each phase of a romantic relationship. Because the decline in network size after dating is not stable, there is no need to be afraid that those who have a romantic partner remain isolated from other relationships.

  9. Coregulation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia in adult romantic partners.

    PubMed

    Helm, Jonathan L; Sbarra, David A; Ferrer, Emilio

    2014-06-01

    Questions surrounding physiological interdependence in romantic relationships are gaining increased attention in the research literature. One specific form of interdependence, coregulation, can be defined as the bidirectional linkage of oscillating signals within optimal bounds. Conceptual and theoretical work suggests that physiological coregulation should be instantiated in romantic couples. Although these ideas are appealing, the central tenets of most coregulatory models await empirical evaluation. In the current study, we evaluate the covariation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in 32 romantic couples during a series of laboratory tasks using a cross-lagged panel model. During the tasks, men's and women's RSA were associated with their partners' previous RSA responses, and this pattern was stronger for those couples with higher relationship satisfaction. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for attachment theory, as well as the association between relationships and health.

  10. Masculinity in adolescent males' early romantic and sexual heterosexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Bell, David L; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Ott, Mary A

    2015-05-01

    There is a need to understand better the complex interrelationship between the adoption of masculinity during adolescence and the development of early romantic and sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe features of adolescent masculinity and how it is expressed in the contexts of early to middle adolescent males' romantic and sexual relationships. Thirty-three 14- to 16-year-old males were recruited from an adolescent clinic serving a community with high sexually transmitted infection rates and were asked open-ended questions about their relationships-how they developed, progressed, and ended. Participants described a high degree of relationally oriented beliefs and behaviors related to romantic and sexual relationships, such as a desire for intimacy and trust. The males also described a more limited degree of conventionally masculine beliefs and behaviors. These beliefs and behaviors often coexisted or overlapped. Implications for the clinical care of similar groups of adolescents are described.

  11. The use of social networking sites for relationship maintenance in long-distance and geographically close romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Billedo, Cherrie Joy; Kerkhof, Peter; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2015-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) play an increasingly important role in maintaining geographically close romantic relationships (GCRR). However, knowledge about SNS use in long-distance romantic relationships (LDRR) is still lacking. The present study examined the relative importance of SNS in maintaining LDRR compared to GCRR, particularly with regard to the use of SNS to express involvement (via relational maintenance behaviors) and to gauge a partner's involvement (via partner surveillance and jealousy) in the relationship. An online survey was conducted among predominantly young adult Facebook users who were in a romantic relationship (N=272). Results showed that participants who were in a LDRR reported higher levels of relational maintenance behaviors through SNS than participants who were in a GCRR. Also, as compared to participants who were in a GCRR, participants who were in a LDRR used SNS more for partner surveillance and experienced higher levels of SNS jealousy.

  12. Transitions in romantic relationships and development of self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Eva C; Orth, Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that self-esteem increases during late adolescence and young adulthood, but that there is large interindividual variability in this development. However, little is known about the factors accounting for these findings. Using propensity score matching, we tested whether important transitions in the domain of romantic relationships (i.e., beginning a relationship, marrying, and breaking up) explain why individuals differ in the particular self-esteem trajectory they follow. Data came from a longitudinal German study with a large sample of 3 nationally representative cohorts of late adolescents and young adults (total N = 9,069). The analyses were based on 4 assessments across a 3-year period. Using matched samples, the results showed that beginning a relationship increased self-esteem and that the increase persisted when the relationship held at least for 1 year. Experiencing a relationship break-up decreased self-esteem, but the effect disappeared after 1 year, even if the participant stayed single. Marrying did not influence self-esteem. Additionally, we tested for selection effects of self-esteem on the later occurrence of relationship transitions. High self-esteem predicted the beginning of a relationship and low self-esteem predicted relationship break-up. All findings held across gender, age, and migration background. Furthermore, relationship quality mediated the effect of self-esteem on relationship break-up and the effect of beginning a longer versus a short relationship on self-esteem. The findings have significant implications because they show that self-esteem influences whether important transitions occur in the relationship domain and that, in turn, experiencing these transitions influences the further development of self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Beliefs about Romantic Relationships: Gender Differences among Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Deborah A.; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; McNeely, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Three-hundred-and-twenty six undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed an anonymous 74-item questionnaire designed to assess beliefs about men, women, and relationships. Significant differences between men's and women's beliefs about romantic relationships were found on eight of 14 items. Men were significantly more likely to…

  14. Romantic Attachment and Relationship Functioning in Same-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Jonathan J.; Selterman, Dylan; Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate links between dimensions of romantic attachment and relationship functioning in a cross-sectional sample of people in same-sex relationships, with the goals of replicating basic findings from research on heterosexual couples and advancing understanding of unique issues faced by same-sex couples. The…

  15. Media exposure and romantic relationship quality: a slippery slope?

    PubMed

    Reizer, Abira; Hetsroni, Amir

    2014-02-01

    This study examines whether media consumption predicted relationship quality among 188 college students who were involved in romantic relationships. The respondents assessed their commitment to the relationship, their satisfaction from the relationship, and their tendency to engage in conflicts within the relationship. Media consumption was measured by assessing the time dedicated to television viewing in general, watching specific genres, Internet use, and newspaper reading. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that total TV viewing time statistically predicted lower commitment to the relationship, while viewing of programming focusing on romantic relationships predicted lower satisfaction and stronger tendency to engage in conflicts. Consumption of media other than television and the control factors did not predict any indicator of relationship quality. The pattern of negative associations between TV viewing and relationship quality is discussed with reference to cultivation theory and mood management theory.

  16. [Association between approach-avoidance commitment to romantic relationships, emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and personal mental health].

    PubMed

    Komura, Kentaro

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined the association between approach-avoidance commitment, emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and mental health. It was hypothesized that the association between avoidance commitment and emotional experiences was moderated by approach commitment. Two hundred and three undergraduates who were involved in romantic relationships participated in a questionnaire survey. Results revealed that approach commitment was associated with greater positive emotion and less negative emotion, and these emotional experiences were associated with higher mental health. On the other hand, the association between avoidance commitment and emotional experiences was moderated by approach commitment. That is, only when approach commitment was weak, avoidance commitment was associated with fewer positive emotions and greater negative emotions, and that these emotional experiences were associated with lower mental health. These results reveal that approach-avoidance commitment was associated with mental health via emotional experiences in romantic relationships, and verified Johnson's (1999) and Levinger's (1999) theoretical argument.

  17. The Contribution of Community and Family Contexts to African American Young Adults’ Romantic Relationship Health: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yifu

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research, however, has examined the contextual and intrapersonal processes in late childhood and adolescence that influence romantic relationship health among African American adults. We investigated competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community-related stressors in late childhood, and negative relational schemas in adolescence, as predictors of young adult romantic relationship health. Participants were 318 African American young adults (59.4% female) who had provided data at four time points from ages 10–22 years. Structural equation modeling indicated that exposure to community-related stressors and low levels of competence-promoting parenting contributed to negative relational schemas, which were proximal predictors of young adult relationship health. Relational schemas mediated the associations of competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community stressors in late childhood with romantic relationship health during young adulthood. Results suggest that enhancing caregiving practices, limiting youths’ exposure to community stressors, and modifying relational schemas are important processes to be targeted for interventions designed to enhance African American adults’ romantic relationships. PMID:23494451

  18. Brief Report: Activities in Heterosexual Romantic Relationships--Grade Differences and Associations with Relationship Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Wendy; Rose, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas much research addresses relations of youths' heterosexual romantic relationships with sexual and/or delinquent activities, less attention has been paid to youths' more normative, day-to-day activities with romantic partners. This gap in the literature is problematic given that these activities define the substance of the relationships and…

  19. The development of romantic relationships and adaptations in the system of peer relationships.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2002-12-01

    In this review, it is proposed that a systems approach to the study of the development of romantic relationships might enhance our understanding of the nature of social relationships, and the links between social relationships and individual psychosocial functioning. First, a selected literature review is provided on the normative development of romantic relationships during adolescence, antecedents of different romantic involvement pathways, and positive and negative qualities of these relationships. Second, the focus is placed on the how the development of romantic relationships occurs within existing systems of relationships including peer networks and close friendships. It is suggested that the development of romantic relationships may change the peer network and nature of relationships with friends and others, and particular types of transitions in social relationships will likely occur. The timing of these transitions and an understanding of the entire peer system as romantic relationships develop will likely improve our understanding of individual developmental processes such as identity formation and the development of externalizing and internalizing problems. Finally, it is proposed that adolescents are faced with a complicated task that includes developing romantic interests and relationships but managing their changing social networks.

  20. Romantic Relationships among Unmarried African Americans and Caribbean Blacks: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the correlates of relationship satisfaction, marriage expectations, and relationship longevity among unmarried African American and Black Caribbean (Caribbean Black) adults who are in a romantic relationship. The study used data from the National Survey of American Life, a national representative sample of African Americans…

  1. Parental Involvement in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Patterns and Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Marni L.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined dimensions of mothers' and fathers' involvement in adolescents' romantic relationships when offspring were age 17. Using cluster analysis, parents from 105 White, working and middle class families were classified as positively involved, negatively involved, or autonomy-oriented with respect to their adolescents' romantic…

  2. Analyzing Cultural Models in Adolescent Accounts of Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbrath, Constance; Ohlson, Brightstar; Eyre, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Research on academic achievement has led the way in demonstrating how culturally constructed meanings shape adolescent scholastic behavior. The aim of this research is to move this standpoint of analysis more centrally into the area of adolescent dating and sexuality by focusing on the cultural components of adolescent romantic relationships. This…

  3. Love Styles and Self-Silencing in Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kerry A.; Cramer, Kenneth M.; Singleton-Jackson, Jill A.

    2005-01-01

    Six love styles have been theorized to be related to several personality constructs (e.g., self-esteem) (Lee, 1973). Despite the interpersonal nature of love, investigations have yet to evaluate related variables and their association to love styles in romantic relationships. As a stable cognitive schema, silencing the self is proposed to account…

  4. Adolescent Romantic Relationships in China and Canada: A Cross-National Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhi Hong; Connolly, Jennifer; Jiang, Depeng; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the romantic involvements of Canadian and Chinese adolescents as well as linkages with friend and parental relationships. Participants were 496 Chinese adolescents and 395 Canadian adolescents, aged 16-17 years. Chinese adolescents were less likely to have any form of romantic involvement, including a romantic relationship,…

  5. The Capacity to Balance Intimacy and Conflict: Differences in Romantic Relationships Between Healthy and Diabetic Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    1997-01-01

    Examined the developmental changes in romantic relationships of both healthy and diabetic adolescents. Found that, whereas healthy adolescents were increasingly able to balance both intimacy and conflict in their relationships with romantic partners, diabetic adolescents were unable to experience both positive and negative romantic qualities.…

  6. A longitudinal study of interpersonal relationships among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents and young adults: mediational pathways from attachment to romantic relationship quality.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tyrel J; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-10-01

    The current study examined the potential for mental health to mediate associations between earlier attachment to parents and peers and later relationship adjustment during adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of sexual minority youth. Secondarily, the study examined associations between peer and parental attachment and relationship/dating milestones. Participants included 219 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth who participated in six waves of data collection over 3.5 years. Parental attachment was associated with an older age of dating initiation, while peer attachment was associated with longer relationship length. Both peer and parental attachment were significantly associated with mental health in later adolescence and young adulthood. Mental health mediated the association between peer attachment and main partner relationship quality. While the total indirect effect of parental attachment on main partner relationship quality was statistically significant, specific indirect effects were not. Implications for the application of attachment theory and integration of interpersonal factors into mental health intervention with sexual minority youth are discussed.

  7. A longitudinal study of interpersonal relationships among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents and young adults: Mediational pathways from attachment to romantic relationship quality

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Tyrel J.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the potential for mental health to mediate associations between earlier attachment to parents and peers and later relationship adjustment during adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of sexual minority youth. Secondarily, the study examined associations between peer and parental attachment and relationship/dating milestones. Participants included 219 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth who participated in six waves of data collection over 3.5 years. Parental attachment was associated with an older age of dating initiation, while peer attachment was associated with longer relationship length. Both peer and parental attachment were significantly associated with mental health in later adolescence and young adulthood. Mental health mediated the association between peer attachment and main partner relationship quality. While the total indirect effect of parental attachment on main partner relationship quality was statistically significant, specific indirect effects were not. Implications for the application of attachment theory and integration of interpersonal factors into mental health intervention with sexual minority youth are discussed. PMID:26108898

  8. Bad Romance: Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Association Between Romantic Relationships and Deviant Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates how romantic relationships are related to antisocial behavior longitudinally among delinquent males and females (n=354; ages 14-25). While being in a relationship or not is unrelated to antisocial behavior, romantic partner characteristics (antisocial behavior and antisocial influence) are associated with greater antisocial behavior. As males age, they become increasingly resistant to romantic partner characteristics. In contrast, females become increasingly vulnerable to the effects of romantic partner characteristics on antisocial behavior as they age, particularly when these relationships are relatively shorter. Females in shorter romantic relationships with partners who are antisocial or exert antisocial influence are at risk of persisting in antisocial behavior. PMID:25045242

  9. Bad Romance: Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Association Between Romantic Relationships and Deviant Behavior.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kathryn C; Dmitrieva, Julia; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    The current study investigates how romantic relationships are related to antisocial behavior longitudinally among delinquent males and females (n=354; ages 14-25). While being in a relationship or not is unrelated to antisocial behavior, romantic partner characteristics (antisocial behavior and antisocial influence) are associated with greater antisocial behavior. As males age, they become increasingly resistant to romantic partner characteristics. In contrast, females become increasingly vulnerable to the effects of romantic partner characteristics on antisocial behavior as they age, particularly when these relationships are relatively shorter. Females in shorter romantic relationships with partners who are antisocial or exert antisocial influence are at risk of persisting in antisocial behavior.

  10. Sexual Well-Being of a Community Sample of High-Functioning Adults on the Autism Spectrum Who Have Been in a Romantic Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.; Reilly, Georgianna

    2013-01-01

    This study explored factors (gender, age, relationship status, symptomatology) associated with the sexual well-being of 141 (56 men and 85 women) adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) living in the community. Participants completed an online survey consisting of a measure of autistic symptoms as well as measures of…

  11. Examining the possible functions of kissing in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2013-11-01

    Recent research suggests that romantic kissing may be utilized in human sexual relationships to evaluate aspects of a potential mate's suitability, to mediate feelings of attachment between pair-bonded individuals, or to facilitate arousal and initiate sexual relations. This study explored these potential functions of romantic kissing by examining attitudes towards the importance of kissing in the context of various human mating situations. The study involved an international online questionnaire, which was completed by 308 male and 594 female participants aged 18-63 years. Support was found for the hypothesis that kissing serves a useful mate-assessment function: women, high mate-value participants, and participants high in sociosexual orientation placed greater importance on kissing in romantic relationships and stated that an initial kiss was more likely to affect their attraction to a potential mate than did men, low-mate value participants or low sociosexual orientation participants. Kissing also seemed to be utilized in the mediation of pair-bond attachments: kissing was seen to be more important at established stages of relationships by low sociosexual participants, kissing was generally seen as more important in long-term relationship contexts (but particularly so by women), and kissing frequency was found to be related to relationship satisfaction. The findings of this research showed very little evidence to support the hypothesis that the primary function of kissing is to elevate levels of arousal.

  12. Brief report: Activities in heterosexual romantic relationships: grade differences and associations with relationship satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Wendy; Rose, Amanda J

    2012-02-01

    Whereas much research addresses relations of youths' heterosexual romantic relationships with sexual and/or delinquent activities, less attention has been paid to youths' more normative, day-to-day activities with romantic partners. This gap in the literature is problematic given that these activities define the substance of the relationships and likely are connected to relationship satisfaction. In the current study, 223 youths in fifth (28 boys; 32 girls), eighth (31 boys; 40 girls), and eleventh (36 boys; 56 girls) grades reporting current romantic relationships indicated their engagement in activities with romantic partners and relationship satisfaction. Findings revealed important grade differences in activity involvement, with eighth- and eleventh-graders reporting higher engagement than fifth-graders, especially in out-of-school activities. Additionally, engagement in out-of-school activities was most strongly associated with relationship satisfaction for all grades.

  13. Development of the Brief Romantic Relationship Interaction Coding Scheme (BRRICS)

    PubMed Central

    Humbad, Mikhila N.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Klump, Kelly L.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Although observational studies of romantic relationships are common, many existing coding schemes require considerable amounts of time and resources to implement. The current study presents a new coding scheme, the Brief Romantic Relationship Interaction Coding Scheme (BRRICS), designed to assess various aspects of romantic relationship both quickly and efficiently. The BRRICS consists of four individual coding dimensions assessing positive and negative affect in each member of the dyad, as well as four codes assessing specific components of the dyadic interaction (i.e., positive reciprocity, demand-withdraw pattern, negative reciprocity, and overall satisfaction). Concurrent associations with measures of marital adjustment and conflict were evaluated in a sample of 118 married couples participating in the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Couples were asked to discuss common conflicts in their marriage while being videotaped. Undergraduate coders used the BRRICS to rate these interactions. The BRRICS scales were correlated in expected directions with self-reports of marital adjustment, as well as children’s perception of the severity and frequency of marital conflict. Based on these results, the BRRICS may be an efficient tool for researchers with large samples of observational data who are interested in coding global aspects of the relationship but do not have the resources to use labor intensive schemes. PMID:21875192

  14. Let's get serious: communicating commitment in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua M; Griskevicius, Vladas; Li, Norman P

    2011-06-01

    Are men or women more likely to confess love first in romantic relationships? And how do men and women feel when their partners say "I love you"? An evolutionary-economics perspective contends that women and men incur different potential costs and gain different potential benefits from confessing love. Across 6 studies testing current and former romantic relationships, we found that although people think that women are the first to confess love and feel happier when they receive such confessions, it is actually men who confess love first and feel happier when receiving confessions. Consistent with predictions from our model, additional studies have shown that men's and women's reactions to love confessions differ in important ways depending on whether the couple has engaged in sexual activity. These studies have demonstrated that saying and hearing "I love you" has different meanings depending on who is doing the confessing and when the confession is being made. Beyond romantic relationships, an evolutionary-economics perspective suggests that displays of commitment in other types of relationships--and reactions to these displays--will be influenced by specific, functional biases.

  15. Conflicting pressures on romantic relationship commitment for anxiously attached individuals.

    PubMed

    Joel, Samantha; MacDonald, Geoff; Shimotomai, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    Anxious attachment predicts strong desires for intimacy and stability in romantic relationships, yet the relation between anxious attachment and romantic commitment is unclear. We propose that extant literature has failed to find a consistent relation because anxiously attached individuals experience conflicting pressures on commitment. Data from Australia (N=137) show that relationship satisfaction and felt security each act as suppressors of a positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment. Data from Japan (N=159) replicate the suppression effect of felt security and also demonstrate that the residual positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment can be partly explained by dependence on the partner. These findings suggest that anxiously attached individuals may be ambivalent about commitment. Dissatisfaction and worries about negative evaluation appear to exert downward pressure on commitment, counteracting the upward pressure that is exerted by factors such as relational dependency.

  16. Romantic Relationship Dynamics of Urban African American Adolescents: Patterns of Monogamy, Commitment, and Trust

    PubMed Central

    Towner, Senna L.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Relationship dynamics develop early in life and are influenced by social environments. STI/HIV prevention programs need to consider romantic relationship dynamics that contribute to sexual health. The aim of this study was to examine monogamous patterns, commitment, and trust in African American adolescent romantic relationships. The authors also focused on the differences in these dynamics between and within gender. The way that such dynamics interplay in romantic relationships has the potential to influence STI/HIV acquisition risk. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 African American adolescents aged 14 to 21 living in San Francisco. Our results discuss data related to monogamous behaviors, expectations, and values; trust and respect in romantic relationships; commitment to romantic relationships; and outcomes of mismatched relationship expectations. Incorporating gender-specific romantic relationships dynamics can enhance the effectiveness of prevention programs. PMID:26691404

  17. Predicting romantic involvement, relationship cognitions, and relationship qualities from physical appearance, perceived norms, and relational styles regarding friends and parents.

    PubMed

    Furman, Wyndol; Winkles, Jessica K

    2010-12-01

    Using a sample of 199 adolescents, the present study examined Furman and Wehner's (1999) hypothesis that the predictors of the degree of romantic involvement and the predictors of romantic relationship cognitions and qualities differ. As hypothesized, physical appearance and friends' normative romantic involvement were related to the degree of casual and serious romantic involvement, whereas relational styles regarding friends and parents were unrelated in almost all cases. On the other hand, relational styles regarding friends and parents were related to supportive and negative romantic interactions and romantic styles. In contrast, physical appearance and friends' normative romantic involvement were generally unrelated to interactions and romantic styles. Physical appearance was also related to romantic appeal and satisfaction.

  18. Adult romantic relationships as contexts of human development: a multimethod comparison of same-sex couples with opposite-sex dating, engaged, and married dyads.

    PubMed

    Roisman, Glenn I; Clausell, Eric; Holland, Ashley; Fortuna, Keren; Elieff, Chryle

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a multimethod, multi-informant comparison of community samples of committed gay male (n=30) and lesbian (n=30) couples with both committed (n=50 young engaged and n=40 older married) and noncommitted (n=109 exclusively dating) heterosexual pairs. Specifically, in this study the quality of same- and opposite-sex relationships was examined at multiple levels of analysis via self-reports and partner reports, laboratory observations, and measures of physiological reactivity during dyadic interactions. Additionally, individuals in same-sex, engaged, and marital relationships were compared with one another on adult attachment security as assessed through the coherence of participants' narratives about their childhood experiences. Results indicated that individuals in committed same-sex relationships were generally not distinguishable from their committed heterosexual counterparts, with one exception--lesbians were especially effective at working together harmoniously in laboratory observations.

  19. Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current…

  20. Long-Distance and Proximal Romantic Relationship Satisfaction: Attachment and Closeness Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Amber; Pistole, M. Carole

    2009-01-01

    Relationship satisfaction was examined in college student long-distance romantic relationships (LDRRs) and geographically proximal romantic relationships (PRRs). LDRR/PRR attachment style proportions and relationship satisfaction were similar. Multiple regression analyses revealed that low attachment avoidance contributed uniquely to high LDRR…

  1. Predicting Romantic Involvement, Relationship Cognitions, and Relationship Qualities from Physical Appearance, Perceived Norms, and Relational Styles regarding Friends and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Wyndol; Winkles, Jessica K.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 199 adolescents, the present study examined Furman and Wehner's (1999) hypothesis that the predictors of the degree of romantic involvement and the predictors of romantic relationship cognitions and qualities differ. As hypothesized, physical appearance and friends' normative romantic involvement were related to the degree of…

  2. Can we be (and stay) friends? Remaining friends after dissolution of a romantic relationship.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Melinda; Hackathorn, Jana; Clark, Eddie M; Mattingly, Brent A

    2011-01-01

    Although many individuals report being friends with their ex-romantic partners (Wilmot, Carbaugh, & Baxter, 1985), the literature regarding post-romantic friendships is very limited. We investigated whether satisfaction in the dissolved romantic relationship could predict post-romantic friendships and friendship maintenance. We found that the more satisfied individuals were during the dissolved romance, the more likely they were to remain friends and the more likely they were to engage in friendship maintenance behaviors. We also found that friendship maintenance fully mediated the association between past romantic satisfaction and current friendship satisfaction.

  3. Sexual transformations and intimate behaviors in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Burke, Tricia J; Young, Valerie J

    2012-01-01

    To understand the association between sexual transformations (i.e., changes in sexual behavior for the partner), intimate behaviors, and relationship quality among couples in romantic relationships, this study used Actor Partner Interdependence Models to examine frequency of sexual transformations, feelings about sexual transformations, and intimate behaviors as predictors of relationship satisfaction among 96 couples (N = 192). Sexual transformations were also examined as a moderator of the association between intimate behavior and relationship satisfaction. Results indicated that relationship satisfaction was positively associated with partners' frequent sexual transformations, actors' positive feelings about sexual transformations, and intimate behavior from the partner. Further, in less intimate relationships, relationship satisfaction was greater when partners reported making more sexual transformations.

  4. Quality Counts: Developmental Shifts in Associations Between Romantic Relationship Qualities and Psychosocial Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed a developmental task theory of romantic relationships by examining associations between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment across 9 years using a community-based sample of 100 male and 100 female participants (Mage Wave 1 = 15.83) in a Western U.S. city. Using multilevel modeling, the study examined the moderating effect of age on links between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment. Consistent with developmental task theory, high romantic quality was more negatively associated with internalizing symptoms and dating satisfaction during young adulthood than adolescence. Romantic relationship qualities were also associated with externalizing symptoms and substance use, but the degree of association was consistent across ages. The findings underscore the significance of romantic relationship qualities across development.

  5. Sexual Esteem in Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Sexual Behavior, Contraception Use, and Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Megan; Lefkowitz, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Sexual esteem is an integral psychological aspect of sexual health (Snell & Papini, 1989), yet it is unclear if sexual esteem is associated with sexual health behavior among heterosexual men and women. The current analysis uses a normative framework for sexual development (Lefkowitz & Gillen, 2006; Tolman & McClelland, 2011) by examining the association of sexual esteem with sexual behavior, contraception use, and romantic relationship characteristics. Participants (N = 518; 56.0% female; mean age = 18.43 years; 26.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino; among non-Hispanic/Latinos, 27.2% of the full sample identified as European American, 22.4% Asian American, 14.9% African American, and 8.7% multiracial) completed web-based surveys at a large northeastern university. Participants who had oral sex more frequently, recently had more oral and penetrative sex partners (particularly for male participants), and spent more college semesters in romantic relationships, tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who had sex less frequently, with fewer partners, or spent more semesters without romantic partners. Sexually active male emerging adults who never used contraception during recent penetrative sex tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who did use it, whereas female emerging adults who never used contraception tended to have lower sexual esteem than those who did use it. Implications of these results for the development of a healthy sexual self-concept in emerging adulthood are discussed. PMID:25210789

  6. Sexual Esteem in Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Sexual Behavior, Contraception Use, and Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Maas, Megan K; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2015-01-01

    Sexual esteem is an integral psychological aspect of sexual health (Snell & Papini, 1989 ), yet it is unclear whether sexual esteem is associated with sexual health behavior among heterosexual men and women. The current analysis used a normative framework for sexual development (Lefkowitz & Gillen, 2006 ; Tolman & McClelland, 2011 ) by examining the association of sexual esteem with sexual behavior, contraception use, and romantic relationship characteristics. Participants (N = 518; 56.0% female; mean age = 20.43 years; 26.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino; among non-Hispanic/Latinos, 27.2% of the full sample identified as European American, 22.4% Asian American, 14.9% African American, and 8.7% multiracial) completed Web-based surveys at a large Northeastern university. Participants who had oral sex more frequently, recently had more oral and penetrative sex partners (particularly for male participants), and spent more college semesters in romantic relationships tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who had sex less frequently, with fewer partners, or spent more semesters without romantic partners. Sexually active male emerging adults who never used contraception during recent penetrative sex tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who did use it, whereas female emerging adults who never used contraception tended to have lower sexual esteem than those who did use it. Implications of these results for the development of a healthy sexual self-concept in emerging adulthood are discussed.

  7. Romantic Relationships and Criminal Desistance: Pathways and Processes

    PubMed Central

    Wyse, Jessica JB; Harding, David J.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    In dominant theories of criminal desistance, marital relationship formation is understood to be a key “turning point” away from deviant behavior. Empirical studies supporting this claim have largely focused on the positive role of marriage in men's desistance from crime, and relatively few studies have examined the role that non-marital relationships may play in desistance. Drawing on 138 longitudinal in-depth interviews with 22 men and women reentering society from prison, this paper extends the scope of desistance research by additionally considering the significance of more fleeting and fluid relationships, and the diverse processes through which romantic relationships of all sorts are linked with criminal behaviors. We present an empirically-based typology detailing six processes, grouped within three conceptual categories, through which romantic relationships had their effects. These pathways include material circumstances, social bonds and interactions, and emotional supports and stressors. We also consider gender differences in these processes. While more tenuous bonds to marginally conventional partners would seem to exert little effect, as one of the few relationships and social roles available to many former prisoners, we found that they wielded important influence, if not always in a positive direction. PMID:25484489

  8. Risk factors for victimization in romantic relationships of young women: a review of empirical studies and implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Vézina, Johanne; Hébert, Martine

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on risk factors for victimization in romantic relationships of adolescent girls and young adult women. The review includes 61 empirical studies published between 1986 and 2006 that have investigated risk factors for sustained psychological, sexual, and physical violence in romantic relationships of young women ages 12 to 24. An ecological approach is used as a conceptual model to review risk factors into four categories: sociodemographic factors, individual factors (personal and interpersonal), environmental factors (family, community, and peers), and contextual factors (linked to the romantic relationship). Methodological limitations of the studies in terms of measurement issues, samples studied, research designs, and underlying conceptual models are discussed. Finally, implications for prevention programming are considered. Recommendations are presented about which clientele should be targeted, which risk factors should be considered, and when programs should be implemented.

  9. Interethnic Romantic Relationships: Enacting Affiliative Ethnic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yodanis, Carrie; Lauer, Sean; Ota, Risako

    2012-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews with respondents who were in interethnic relationships (N = 28), the authors extended and refined a new approach to mate selection based on affiliative ethnic identities (T. Jimenez, 2010). Rather than assimilation and a breakdown of ethnic group boundaries, they found that people pursued interethnic relationships…

  10. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  11. Romantic Relationship Dynamics of Urban African American Adolescents: Patterns of Monogamy, Commitment, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towner, Senna L.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Relationship dynamics develop early in life and are influenced by social environments. STI/HIV prevention programs need to consider romantic relationship dynamics that contribute to sexual health. The aim of this study was to examine monogamous patterns, commitment, and trust in African American adolescent romantic relationships. The authors also…

  12. Conflict Beliefs, Goals, and Behavior in Romantic Relationships during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Valerie A.; Kobielski, Sarah J.; Martin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about social cognition regarding conflict in romantic relationships during late adolescence. The current study examined beliefs, social goals, and behavioral strategies for conflict in romantic relationships and their associations with relationship quality among a sample of 494 college students. Two dimensions of conflict beliefs,…

  13. Romantic Relationships: An Important Context for HIV/STI and Pregnancy Prevention Programmes with Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karin K.; Anderson, Pamela M.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill; Walker, James D.; Charles, Vignetta Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Romantic relationships are central in the lives of young people. This paper uses data on romantic relationships from urban youth in the USA to illustrate how using a relationships perspective in HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention programmes broadens the skills and content covered, and contextualises the learning to enhance relevance and use.…

  14. Romantic Relationships and Substance Use in Early Adulthood: An Examination of the Influences of Relationship Type, Partner Substance Use, and Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Charles B.; White, Helene R.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study used longitudinal data from 909 young adults to examine associations between substance use and romantic relationship status and quality. Heavy alcohol use, marijuana use, and cigarette smoking, as well as relationship status, relationship quality, partner substance use, and other salient life circumstances were assessed at four time points in the two years after high school. Marriage, cohabiting relationships, and noncohabiting dating relationships were associated with reductions in heavy drinking and marijuana use relative to non-dating after adjusting for adolescent substance use; marriage compared to not dating was associated with reductions in cigarette smoking. For those in romantic relationships, partner substance use moderated the associations between relationship quality and substance use for heavy drinking and marijuana use, supporting the hypothesis derived from the Social Development Model that the protective effect of stronger social bonds depends on the use patterns of the partner to whom an individual is bonded. PMID:20617756

  15. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    PubMed Central

    DiDonato, Theresa E.; Jakubiak, Brittany K.

    2016-01-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives. PMID:27547256

  16. Are College Students Replacing Dating and Romantic Relationships with Hooking Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebenbruner, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed female college students' ("N" = 197) participation in dating, romantic relationships, hooking up behaviors, and the intersection of these activities. Hooking up was prevalent among students ("n" = 78; 39.6%), but dating ("n" = 139; 70.6%) and romantic relationship ("n" = 147; 74.6%)…

  17. The Meaning of Respect in Romantic Relationships among Low-Income African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, L. Kris; Catania, Joseph A.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Although interpersonal respect is considered an important quality in successful romantic relationships, limited attention has been paid to this concept. We examined the meaning of respect in romantic relationships as conceptualized by low-income, sexually active, heterosexually identified, African American adolescents aged 15 to 17 (N = 50).…

  18. Diversity in Romantic Relations of Adolescents with Varying Health Status: Links to Intimacy in Close Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2000-01-01

    Investigated similarities and differences between close friendships and romantic relationships among 95 adolescents, who were either diabetic or healthy. Among healthy adolescents, found demonstrated time-dependent links between intimacy in both relationship types. Among diabetic adolescents, found a preference for romantic partners who offered…

  19. Genetic and neural correlates of romantic relationship satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Siyang; Yu, Dian; Han, Shihui

    2016-02-01

    Romantic relationship satisfaction (RRS) is important for mental/physical health but varies greatly across individuals. To date, we have known little about the biological (genetic and neural) correlates of RRS. We tested the hypothesis that the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), the promoter region of the gene SLC6A4 that codes for the serotonin transporter protein, is associated with individuals' RRS. Moreover, we investigated neural activity that mediates 5-HTTLPR association with RRS by scanning short-short (s/s) and long-long (l/l) homozygotes of 5-HTTLPR, using functional MRI, during a Cyberball game that resulted in social exclusion. l/l compared with s/s allele carriers reported higher RRS but lower social interaction anxiety. l/l compared with s/s carriers showed stronger activity in the right ventral prefrontal cortex (RVPFC) and stronger functional connectivity between the dorsal and rostral ACC when being excluded from the Cyberball game. Moreover, the 5-HTTLPR association with RRS was mediated by the RVPFC activity and the 5-HTTLPR association with social interaction anxiety was mediated by both the dorsal-rostral ACC connectivity and RVPFC activity. Our findings suggest that 5-HTTLPR is associated with satisfaction of one's own romantic relationships and this association is mediated by the neural activity in the brain region related to emotion regulation.

  20. Genetic and neural correlates of romantic relationship satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Siyang; Yu, Dian

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship satisfaction (RRS) is important for mental/physical health but varies greatly across individuals. To date, we have known little about the biological (genetic and neural) correlates of RRS. We tested the hypothesis that the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), the promoter region of the gene SLC6A4 that codes for the serotonin transporter protein, is associated with individuals’ RRS. Moreover, we investigated neural activity that mediates 5-HTTLPR association with RRS by scanning short-short (s/s) and long-long (l/l) homozygotes of 5-HTTLPR, using functional MRI, during a Cyberball game that resulted in social exclusion. l/l compared with s/s allele carriers reported higher RRS but lower social interaction anxiety. l/l compared with s/s carriers showed stronger activity in the right ventral prefrontal cortex (RVPFC) and stronger functional connectivity between the dorsal and rostral ACC when being excluded from the Cyberball game. Moreover, the 5-HTTLPR association with RRS was mediated by the RVPFC activity and the 5-HTTLPR association with social interaction anxiety was mediated by both the dorsal–rostral ACC connectivity and RVPFC activity. Our findings suggest that 5-HTTLPR is associated with satisfaction of one’s own romantic relationships and this association is mediated by the neural activity in the brain region related to emotion regulation. PMID:26385612

  1. Caught in a bad romance: adolescent romantic relationships and mental health.

    PubMed

    Soller, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Integrating insights from cultural sociology and identity theory, I explore the mental health consequences of adolescent romantic relationship inauthenticity--incongruence between thoughts/feelings and actions within romantic contexts. Applying sequence analysis to National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, I measure relationship inauthenticity by quantifying the extent to which the ordering of events of actual romantic relationships (e.g., holding hands, saying "I love you") diverges from the sequence of events within idealized relationship scripts among 5,316 adolescents. I then test its association with severe depression, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. I find that romantic relationship inauthenticity is positively associated with the risk of all three markers of poor mental health, but only for girls. This study highlights the importance of gender and culture in determining how early romantic involvement influences psychological well-being.

  2. Do Conflict Resolution and Recovery Predict the Survival of Adolescents' Romantic Relationships?

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that being able to resolve and recover from conflicts is of key importance for relationship satisfaction and stability in adults. Less is known about the importance of these relationship dynamics in adolescent romantic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated whether conflict resolution and recovery predict breakups in middle adolescent couples. Couples who are able to resolve and recover from conflict were expected to demonstrate a lower probability of breaking up. In total, 80 adolescent couples (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16) participated in a 4-wave prospective questionnaire and observational study, with one year between measurements. In addition to self-report measures, adolescents were observed in real-time during conflicts with their partners. Multilevel Proportional Hazard analyses revealed that, contrary to the hypothesis, conflict resolution and conflict recovery did not predict the likelihood of breakup. Survival differences were not attributable to conflict resolution or conflict recovery. More research is needed to consider the unique relationship factors of adolescent romantic relationships to determine why some relationships survive while others do not. PMID:23613960

  3. Late adolescent girls' relationships with parents and romantic partner: the distinct role of mothers and fathers.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2008-12-01

    The distinct role of mothers and fathers in shaping the quality of relationships with romantic partner was explored. One hundred and twenty 17-year old girls were observed during their senior year in high school with each of their parents during a Revealed differences task [Allen, J. P., Hauser, S. T., Bell, K. L., Boykin, K. A., & Tate, D. C. (1994). Autonomy and relatedness coding system manual, version 2.01. Unpublished manual] and filled out questionnaires pertaining to their relationships with romantic partners. A year and a half later (7 months after conscription to compulsory military service) they again filled out questionnaires. Whereas self-reports did not distinguish between relations with mothers and fathers observational data revealed that relationships with each parent are associated with somewhat different aspects of the romantic relationship. Better quality of relationship with mother was associated with delays in the girl's entrance into sexual romantic relationships, and with better quality of romantic relationship concurrently whereas better quality of relationship with father was associated with better quality of romantic relationship once they are formed concurrently and longitudinally. The findings highlight the central role that mothers and fathers play in shaping the quality of the romantic relationships that late adolescent girls form and underscore the importance of using observational data as well as questionnaire data.

  4. The Code of the Street and Romantic Relationships: A dyadic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.; Stewart, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its publication, Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street thesis has found support in studies connecting disadvantage to the internalization of street-oriented values and an associated lifestyle of violent/deviant behavior. This primary emphasis on deviance in public arenas has precluded researchers from examining the implications of the code of the street for less public arenas, like intimate relationships. In an effort to understand if and how the endorsement of the street code may infiltrate such relationships, the present study examines the associations between the code of the street and relationship satisfaction and commitment among young adults involved in heterosexual romantic relationships. Using a dyadic approach, we find that street code orientation, in general, negatively predicts satisfaction and commitment, in part due to increased relationship hostility/conflict associated with the internalization of the code. Gender differences in these associations are considered and discussed at length. PMID:23504000

  5. Social networking sites in romantic relationships: attachment, uncertainty, and partner surveillance on facebook.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2014-01-01

    Social networking sites serve as both a source of information and a source of tension between romantic partners. Previous studies have investigated the use of Facebook for monitoring former and current romantic partners, but why certain individuals engage in this behavior has not been fully explained. College students (N=328) participated in an online survey that examined two potential explanatory variables for interpersonal electronic surveillance (IES) of romantic partners: attachment style and relational uncertainty. Attachment style predicted both uncertainty and IES, with preoccupieds and fearfuls reporting the highest levels. Uncertainty did not predict IES, however. Future directions for research on romantic relationships and online surveillance are explored.

  6. Romantic Relationships and Delinquent Behaviour in Adolescence: The Moderating Role of Delinquency Propensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Jenny M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    There is some evidence that adolescent romantic involvement is associated with delinquent behaviour. One aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether this holds for romantic relationships deemed important by the participants. A second aim was to test whether this association was stronger for adolescents with pre-existing delinquent…

  7. The Characteristics of Romantic Relationships Associated with Teen Dating Violence

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Peggy C.; Soto, Danielle A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of teen dating violence have focused heavily on family and peer influences, but little research has been conducted on the relationship contexts within which violence occurs. The present study explores specific features of adolescent romantic relationships associated with the perpetration of physical violence. Relying on personal interviews with a sample of 956 adolescents, results indicate that respondents who self-report violence perpetration are significantly more likely than their non-violent counterparts to report higher levels of other problematic relationship dynamics and behaviors such as jealousy, verbal conflict, and cheating. However, we find no significant differences in levels of love, intimate self-disclosure, or perceived partner caring, and violent relationships are, on average, characterized by longer duration, more frequent contact, sexual intimacy and higher scores on the provision and receipt of instrumental support. Finally, violence is associated with the perception of a relatively less favorable power balance, particularly among male respondents. These findings complicate traditional views of the dynamics within violent relationships, add to our understanding of risk factors, and may also shed light on why some adolescents remain in physically abusive relationships. PMID:21037934

  8. Racially and Ethnically Diverse Schools and Adolescent Romantic Relationships*

    PubMed Central

    Strully, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670

  9. Rewards and Costs in Adolescent Other-Sex Friendships: Comparisons to Same-Sex Friendships and Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Laura Shaffer; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-01-01

    This study used a social exchange framework to examine the features of non-romantic other-sex (OS) friendships compared with same-sex (SS) friendships and romantic relationships. High school seniors (N = 141) completed open-ended interviews about the benefits and costs of having OS friendships, SS friendships, and romantic relationships in…

  10. Falling in love with romantic ideals: women in relationships with child molesters.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from a larger research study, this paper explores intersecting and competing social relations that influenced the romantic desires of women who became intimately involved with men who molested children. Through a feminist poststructuralist lens, women's narratives were analysed with the use of feminist interpretations of Foucauldian discourse theory. Analysis informed of a discursive power over participants that made the attainment of romantic desires an imperative for ensuring social respect, worth and credibility as women. When all was not ideal, these same romantic desires compelled women to fix and hold onto their relationships--even when with men that attract damning societal responses towards them. Even upon acknowledgement of their partners' sexual transgressions, the fear of relationship breakdown meant that romantic desires again featured as imperatives for the women. The imagined pleasure of achieving romantic desires is discursive; so powerful that it outweighed women's fears and dangers of precarious intimate life with men who commit abhorrent acts.

  11. Directly observed interaction within adolescent romantic relationships: What have we learned?

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Deborah P; Shulman, Shmuel

    2008-01-01

    Review and conceptual analysis of the papers in this special issue calls attention to several important methodological and conceptual issues surrounding the direct observation of adolescent romantic couples. It also provides an important new foundation of knowledge about the nature of adolescents' romantic relationships. Connections with previous family relationships, new understandings of the distinctive nature of adolescent romantic relationships, and gender issues are clarified by this body of papers. Together, these papers move the scholarly field forward and generate new lines of questions for future investigators. PMID:18986697

  12. The Influence of Parental Romantic Relationships on College Students' Attitudes about Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Pamela B.

    2010-01-01

    Many marriages are at risk for dissolution partly because many individuals do not have healthy examples to follow. Unmarried college students completed a survey designed to assess their attitudes about relationships and whether attitudes differed based on their perceptions of their parents' relationships or marital status. It was hypothesized that…

  13. The influence of romantic attachment and intimate partner violence on non-suicidal self-injury in young adults.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Bureau, Jean-François; Cloutier, Paula; Dandurand, Cathy

    2010-05-01

    Several theoretical models for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been proposed. Despite an abundance of theoretical speculation, few empirical studies have examined the impact of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI. The present study examines the influence of romantic attachment and received intimate partner violence (physical, psychological and sexual) on recent reports of NSSI behaviors and thoughts. The sample was composed of 537 (79.9% female) primarily Caucasian university students between the ages of 18 and 25 years and currently involved in a romantic relationship. The results reveal that anxiety over abandonment was a significant predictor of NSSI thoughts and behaviors in women and a significant predictor of NSSI thoughts in men. Moreover, the experience of intimate partner violence emerged as a significant predictor of NSSI behaviors in both men and women. Continued empirical investigations into the influence of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI will facilitate the development of psychological interventions for young adults dealing with self-harm.

  14. Suppression sours sacrifice: emotional and relational costs of suppressing emotions in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.

  15. Staying alone or getting attached: development of the motivations toward romantic relationships during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kindelberger, Cécile; Tsao, Raphaële

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the initial validation of a romantic relationship motivation scale, enabling the level of self-determined involvement in romantic relationships during adolescence to be examined. The inclusion of Self-Determination Theory (E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan, 2000) in the motivational constructs enhances the developmental perspective regarding adolescent romantic involvement. The scale was administered to 284 adolescents (163 girls and 121 boys, age 14-19 years) with a self-esteem scale and some questions about their romantic experiences to provide some elements of external validation. The results confirmed the 4-factor structure: intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, external regulation, and amotivation, which follow the self-determination continuum, previously highlighted in friendship motivation. As hypothesized, adolescents became more self-determined with age and girls were more self-determined than boys. Other findings show specific links between motivation for romantic relationships, self-esteem and romantic experiences. It highlights the importance of considering adolescents' motivations when exploring their romantic relationships.

  16. Stalking, and Social and Romantic Functioning among Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Mark; Newton, Naomi; Kaur, Archana

    2007-01-01

    We examine the nature and predictors of social and romantic functioning in adolescents and adults with ASD. Parental reports were obtained for 25 ASD adolescents and adults (13-36 years), and 38 typical adolescents and adults (13-30 years). The ASD group relied less upon peers and friends for social (OR = 52.16, p less than 0.01) and romantic…

  17. Humor use in romantic relationships: the effects of relationship satisfaction and pleasant versus conflict situations.

    PubMed

    Butzer, Bethany; Kuiper, Nicholas A

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the authors explored the use of positive, negative, and avoiding humor in 2 types of situations by individuals in romantic relationships. Participants (N = 154) rated their frequency of humor use in either a typical conflict scenario with their partner or a typical pleasant event. Participants also indicated their overall degree of romantic relationship satisfaction. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that individuals who were more satisfied with their relationship reported higher levels of positive humor use and lower levels of negative and avoiding humor use. Furthermore, lower levels of negative and avoiding humor use were reported for the conflict situation. Last, a significant 2-way interaction revealed that individuals who were high in relationship satisfaction reported significantly lower levels of negative humor use in a conflict situation as compared with a pleasant encounter. In contrast, individuals who were low in relationship satisfaction reported the same high levels of negative humor use regardless of whether they were in a conflict situation or a pleasant encounter. The authors discuss these findings in terms of the need for further research to clearly delineate the factors that may influence the complex use of humor in romantic relationships.

  18. Impact of Sexual Coercion on Romantic Experiences of Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Wyndol

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of sexual coercion on romantic relationship quality and dating experiences. The current study aimed to address this dearth in the literature and test the hypothesis that sexual coercion has a negative impact on victims’ subsequent romantic experiences. Using a sample of 94 youth (44 males and 50 females), the current study addressed the impact of sexual coercion on romantic relationship quality and dating experiences. Tracking youth for 8.5 years (M age at Wave 1 = 15.10 years, SD = .49), the current study used piecewise growth curve modeling to account for shifts in the intercept and slope of romantic experiences following sexual coercion. Negative interactions immediately increased following coercion and continued to have an accelerated rate of growth (i.e., a slope change). Jealousy in romantic relationships increased in slope. Serious dating decelerated following the coercive incident. Results were largely consistent across gender and severity of the coercive incident. Contrary to hypotheses, relational support, relationship satisfaction, and casual dating did not significantly change following sexual coercion. Consistent with hypotheses, sexual coercion had a negative impact on romantic experiences. These findings have clinical implications for both prevention and intervention around sexual violence. In addition, the consistency of findings across gender and severity suggests that increased focus should be directed toward both male sexual coercion and less severe sexual coercion. PMID:24519107

  19. Impact of sexual coercion on romantic experiences of adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the effect of sexual coercion on romantic relationship quality and dating experiences. The current study aimed to address this dearth in the literature and test the hypothesis that sexual coercion has a negative impact on victims' subsequent romantic experiences. Using a sample of 94 youth (44 males and 50 females), the current study addressed the impact of sexual coercion on romantic relationship quality and dating experiences. Tracking youth for 8.5 years (M age at Wave 1 = 15.10 years, SD = .49), the current study used piecewise growth curve modeling to account for shifts in the intercept and slope of romantic experiences following sexual coercion. Negative interactions immediately increased following coercion and continued to have an accelerated rate of growth (i.e., a slope change). Jealousy in romantic relationships increased in slope. Serious dating decelerated following the coercive incident. Results were largely consistent across gender and severity of the coercive incident. Contrary to hypotheses, relational support, relationship satisfaction, and casual dating did not significantly change following sexual coercion. Consistent with hypotheses, sexual coercion had a negative impact on romantic experiences. These findings have clinical implications for both prevention and intervention around sexual violence. In addition, the consistency of findings across gender and severity suggests that increased focus should be directed toward both male sexual coercion and less severe sexual coercion.

  20. Problem behavior and romantic relationships: assortative mating, behavior contagion, and desistance.

    PubMed

    Rhule-Louie, Dana M; McMahon, Robert J

    2007-03-01

    Antisocial behavior and substance misuse are forms of problem behavior demonstrating considerable continuity over time. Accordingly, problem behavior influences interpersonal contexts across the life course, which may result in the replication of coercive interactions and a problem behavior lifestyle within romantic relationships. Furthermore, theories of self-selection, and associated research, suggest that individuals pick companions compatible with, and supportive of, their behavior, leading to high levels of similarity between romantic partners and the potential reinforcement of problem behavior over time. However, some research suggests that romantic relationships may play a positive role and facilitate desistance from problem behavior. The purpose of this paper is to explore how antisocial behavior and substance use both influence and are influenced by romantic relationships in late adolescence and early adulthood. We first review research regarding the extent of, and processes underlying, partner similarity in problem behavior. Next, we examine how romantic relationships may promote the desistance of problem behavior. Finally, we discuss possible moderators of the association between problem behavior and romantic relationships, as well as limitations, intergenerational implications, and recommended future directions of the reviewed research.

  1. Youth Reports of Parents’ Romantic Relationship Quality: Links to Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Tazeen; Zilioli, Samuele; Tobin, Erin T.; Imami, Ledina; Kane, Heidi S.; Saleh, Daniel J.; Slatcher, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Prior work has shown that negative aspects (e.g., conflict) of marriage or marriage-like relationships are associated with poor health of offspring, but much less is known about the effects of positive aspects (e.g., affection) of parental romantic relationships. This study investigated links between conflict and affection within parents’ romantic relationships and the health of youth with asthma. Method Eighty youths with asthma aged 10-17 answered daily questions over a 4-day period about conflict and affection within their parents’ romantic relationship, as well as their own daily mood, asthma symptoms, and expiratory peak flow. Results Multiple regression analyses revealed that romantic affection—but not conflict—was directly associated with higher expiratory peak flow. Further, there was a significant indirect effect of romantic affection via youth positive affect on lower asthma symptoms. Conclusion These results are the first to our knowledge to demonstrate that youth-reported positive characteristics of parents’ romantic relationships are associated with better health among youth with asthma. PMID:26998733

  2. Romantic Relationship Patterns from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Family and Peer Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Stéphanie; Poulin, François

    2016-05-01

    The present study identifies and describes romantic relationship patterns from adolescence to adulthood and examines their associations with family and peer experiences in early adolescence. In a 13-year longitudinal study, 281 youth (58 % girls) identified all their romantic partners each year from the ages of 16-24. Dimensions of family relationships (family cohesion, parent-child conflict) and peer relationships (peer likeability, social withdrawal, close friendships, other-sex friendships) were assessed at age 12. Latent class analyses brought out five distinct romantic relationship patterns and significant associations were found with family and peer relationships in early adolescence. These five romantic relationship patterns appeared to follow a continuum of romantic involvement, with romantic relationship patterns situated a both ends of this continuum (later involvement pattern and intense involvement pattern) being associated with more interpersonal experiences in early adolescence.

  3. Resolution of Disagreements between Romantic Partners, among Adolescents, and Young Adults: Qualitative Analysis of Interaction Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Shulman, Shmuel

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to explore qualitatively developmental differences in disagreement negotiation and resolution skills between adolescent and young adult romantic partners. Twenty adolescent and 20 young adult couples participated in the study. The Knox inventory was used to measure the level of disagreement between partners on ten domains…

  4. Gender Development and Heterosexual Romantic Relationships During Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Anderson, Kristin J.

    1997-01-01

    Examines same-gender and cross-gender friendships as potential contexts for development of preferences and skills that may influence the quality of adolescent dating relationships and adult marriages. Considers how children's traditionally gender-segregated peer relationships contribute to miscommunications and power asymmetries in later…

  5. Same-Sex Peer Relations and Romantic Relationships during Early Adolescence: Interactive Links to Emotional, Behavioral, and Academic Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Bukowski, William M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between early adolescents' involvement in romantic relationships and their emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment, depending on same-sex peer relationships. Found a negative relationship between romantic involvement and emotional and behavioral adjustment for adolescents who were unpopular with same-sex peers.…

  6. Stress in romantic relationships and adolescent depressive symptoms: Influence of parental support.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Samantha F; Salk, Rachel H; Hyde, Janet S

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that stressful life events can play a role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms; however, there has been little research on romantic stress specifically. The relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms is particularly salient in adolescence, as adolescence often involves the onset of dating. This and other stressors are often dealt with in the context of the family. The present study examined the relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms both concurrently and prospectively, controlling for preexisting depressive symptoms. We then explored whether support from parents buffers the negative effects of romantic stress on depressive symptoms. In addition, the study sought to determine whether the benefits of support vary by parent and child gender. A community sample of 375 adolescents completed self-report measures of parental support (both maternal and paternal), romantic stress, and depressive symptoms. A behavioral measure of maternal support was also obtained. For boys and girls, romantic stress at age 15 predicted depressive symptoms at ages 15 and 18, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Perceived maternal support buffered the stress-depressive symptom relationship for both genders at age 15, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Higher perceived paternal support was associated with lower adolescent depressive symptoms; however, it did not have a buffering effect. These results have implications for the development of effective family-centered methods to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in adolescents.

  7. Urban adolescent girls' perspectives on romantic relationships: initiation, involvement, negotiation, and conflict.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Ellen M; Morales-Alemán, Mercedes M; Teitelman, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe romantic relationships from the perspective of urban, adolescent girls, to address gaps in our understanding of their relationship dimensions. Minority adolescent girls (n  =  17) participated in private semi-structured interviews aimed to elicit the understanding of the adolescents' perspectives on their own relationship experiences and dynamics. The research team conducted conventional content analysis of the interview transcripts. Four major themes emerged about romantic relationships: (1) influence of male pursuit and social norms on relationship initiation factors; (2) a romantic partner is a confidant, friend, and companion; (3) negotiating intimacy respectfully; and (4) relationship conflict through control and abuse. Adolescents described sub-themes of social norms of male pursuit and relationship pressures that dictated relationship initiation. Relationships were depicted by emotional support, caring, and companionship. Adolescents described positive negotiation skills. However, relationship conflict, including controlling behaviors and violence, was illustrated in these same relationships. This study provides a rich description of romantic relationships from the perspectives of urban, adolescent girls. Most salient findings included social pressures and a combination of both positive and negative attributes. Implications include the need for intervention development at the community level to address social pressures, recognition of positive adolescent relationship attributes, and facilitation of skills to identify and address low-quality relationship characteristics.

  8. Urban Adolescent Girls’ Perspectives on Romantic Relationships: Initiation, Involvement, Negotiation, and Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Ellen M.; Morales-Alemán, Mercedes M.; Teitelman, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe romantic relationships from the perspective of urban, adolescent girls, to address gaps in our understanding of their relationship dimensions. Minority adolescent girls (n = 17) participated in private semi-structured interviews aimed to elicit the understanding of the adolescents’ perspectives on their own relationship experiences and dynamics. The research team conducted conventional content analysis of the interview transcripts. Four major themes emerged about romantic relationships: (1) influence of male pursuit and social norms on relationship initiation factors; (2) a romantic partner is a confidant, friend, and companion; (3) negotiating intimacy respectfully; and (4) relationship conflict through control and abuse. Adolescents described sub-themes of social norms of male pursuit and relationship pressures that dictated relationship initiation. Relationships were depicted by emotional support, caring, and companionship. Adolescents described positive negotiation skills. However, relationship conflict, including controlling behaviors and violence, was illustrated in these same relationships. This study provides a rich description of romantic relationships from the perspectives of urban, adolescent girls. Most salient findings included social pressures and a combination of both positive and negative attributes. Implications include the need for intervention development at the community level to address social pressures, recognition of positive adolescent relationship attributes, and facilitation of skills to identify and address low-quality relationship characteristics. PMID:25259641

  9. Self-forgiveness in romantic relationships: it matters to both of us.

    PubMed

    Pelucchi, Sara; Paleari, F Giorgia; Regalia, Camillo; Fincham, Frank D

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates self-forgiveness for real hurts committed against the partner in a romantic relationship (N = 168 couples). Using a dyadic perspective, we evaluated whether offender self-forgiveness, conceived as a bidimensional construct distinct from self-excusing, was uniquely related to both own and partner relationship satisfaction. For both males and females, offending partners were more satisfied with their romantic relationship to the extent that they had more positive and less negative sentiment and thoughts toward themselves, whereas victimized partners were more satisfied with the relationship when the offending partner had less negative sentiment and thoughts (but not more positive ones) toward himself/herself. The implications of these findings for understanding self-forgiveness and its pro-relationship effects in romantic couples are discussed.

  10. Fighting fair: Adaptive Marital Conflict Strategies as Predictors of Future Adolescent Peer and Romantic Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Miga, Erin M.; Gdula, Julie Ann; Allen, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations between reasoning during interparental conflict and autonomous adolescent conflict negotiation with peers over time. Participants included 133 adolescents and their parents, peers, and romantic partners in a multi-method, multiple reporter, longitudinal study. Interparental reasoning at adolescent age 13 predicted greater autonomy and relatedness in observed adolescent-peer conflict one year later and lower levels of autonomy undermining during observed romantic partner conflict five years later. Interparental reasoning also predicted greater satisfaction and affection in adolescent romantic relationships seven years later. Findings suggest that autonomy promoting behaviors exhibited in the interparental context may influence adolescents’ own more autonomous approaches to subsequent peer and romantic conflict. Possible explanatory models are discussed, including social learning theory and attachment theory. PMID:23087547

  11. Exploration of Intimacy in Intercultural and Intracultural Romantic Relationships in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Michael D.; Richmond, Katherine; Stirlen, Amber; Kompel, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the area of intercultural dating relationships. An intercultural relationship is characterized by two individuals that come from different religions, cultures, and/or races and label their relationship as romantic. Such couples have been taboo for much of history, but have rapidly increased within the past thirty years (Crohn,…

  12. Elevated romantic love and jealousy if relationship status is declared on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Gábor; Szekeres, Ádám; Kiss, Zoltán G; Farkas, Péter; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Declared relationship status on Facebook can serve as a public commitment and as an extra layer of a couple's security. However, the question arises: do those who report the relationship status feel stronger romantic love and jealousy toward their partners than those who do not share such information publicly? To test this assumption, profile information and questionnaire data of romantic love and jealousy were gathered from 292, 230 females) respondents that were in a relationship. Our results suggest that announcing the relationship status is associated with elevated romantic love and jealousy. Therefore, being "Facebook official" can be interpreted as a tie-sign indicating that the couple is "out of the market," and can promote their unity as a "digital wedding ring."

  13. Adolescent online romantic relationship initiation: differences by sexual and gender identification.

    PubMed

    Korchmaros, Josephine D; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2015-04-01

    Data from the national Teen Health and Technology Study of adolescents 13-18 years old (N = 5091) were used to examine online formation of romantic relationships. Results show that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) and non-LGBTQ adolescents similarly were most likely to have met their most recent boy/girlfriend in the past 12 months at school. However, they differed on many characteristics of romantic relationship initiation, including the extent to which they initiated romantic relationships online. LGBTQ and non-LGBTQ adolescents also differed on level of offline access to potential partners, offline popularity, and numerous other factors possibly related to online relationship initiation (e.g., Internet use and demographic factors). Even after adjusting for differences in these factors, LGBTQ adolescents were more likely than non-LGBTQ adolescents to find boy/girlfriends online in the past 12 months. The results support the rich-get-richer hypothesis as well as the social compensation hypothesis.

  14. Elevated romantic love and jealousy if relationship status is declared on Facebook

    PubMed Central

    Orosz, Gábor; Szekeres, Ádám; Kiss, Zoltán G.; Farkas, Péter; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Declared relationship status on Facebook can serve as a public commitment and as an extra layer of a couple’s security. However, the question arises: do those who report the relationship status feel stronger romantic love and jealousy toward their partners than those who do not share such information publicly? To test this assumption, profile information and questionnaire data of romantic love and jealousy were gathered from 292, 230 females) respondents that were in a relationship. Our results suggest that announcing the relationship status is associated with elevated romantic love and jealousy. Therefore, being “Facebook official” can be interpreted as a tie-sign indicating that the couple is “out of the market,” and can promote their unity as a “digital wedding ring.” PMID:25767460

  15. Patterns of Romantic Involvement among Emerging Adults: Psychosocial Correlates and Precursors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Scharf, Miri; Livne, Yaara; Barr, Tamuz

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined patterns of romantic involvement in 100 Israeli emerging adults (54 males) who were followed from age 22 to 29 years. Analyses of interviews at age 29 yielded four distinctive relational patterns that are associated with different levels of concurrent wellbeing: Intimately committed, Intimate, Non- intimately committed,…

  16. Instagram Unfiltered: Exploring Associations of Body Image Satisfaction, Instagram #Selfie Posting, and Negative Romantic Relationship Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Jessica L; Clayton, Russell B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and consequences associated with Instagram selfie posting. Thus, this study explored whether body image satisfaction predicts Instagram selfie posting and whether Instagram selfie posting is then associated with Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes. A total of 420 Instagram users aged 18 to 62 years (M = 29.3, SD = 8.12) completed an online survey questionnaire. Analysis of a serial multiple mediator model using bootstrapping methods indicated that body image satisfaction was sequentially associated with increased Instagram selfie posting and Instagram-related conflict, which related to increased negative romantic relationship outcomes. These findings suggest that when Instagram users promote their body image satisfaction in the form of Instagram selfie posts, risk of Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes might ensue. Findings from the current study provide a baseline understanding to potential and timely trends regarding Instagram selfie posting.

  17. Acceptance in Romantic Relationships: The Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Despite the recent emphasis on acceptance in romantic relationships, no validated measure of relationship acceptance presently exists. To fill this gap, the 20-item Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory (FAPBI; A. Christensen & N. S. Jacobson, 1997) was created to assess separately the acceptability and frequency of both…

  18. Affairs of the Heart: Qualities of Adolescent Romantic Relationships and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2010-01-01

    We know more about parent and peer influences than about the ways in which specific qualities of adolescent romantic relationships may influence sexual decision-making. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we focus on communication processes and emotional feelings, as well as more basic contours of adolescent romantic…

  19. Telling It like It Is: Teen Perspectives on Romantic Relationships. Research Brief. Publication #2009-44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Lina; Ikramullah, Erum; Manlove, Jennifer; Peterson, Kristen; Scarupa, Harriet J.

    2009-01-01

    Teen romantic relationships have become a pervasive part of popular culture, from TV shows, movies, and books to blogs and social networking sites. But the attention paid to these relationships extends beyond the parameters of popular culture. Romance, teen style, has become of increasing interest to anyone concerned with healthy adolescent…

  20. Attention-Deficit/Hperactivity Disorder Symptom Levels and Romantic Relationship Quality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Michael R.; Kuryluk, Amanda D.; Whitton, Sarah W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom levels in college undergraduates are associated with poorer romantic relationship quality, and to test whether emotion regulation difficulties, perceived stress, and hostile relationship conflict mediate this association.…

  1. Assessing Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Can We Do It Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; Brown, Alan S.

    2005-01-01

    Almost all research on aggression in adolescent romantic relationships makes use of 1-time, retrospective assessment methods. In the present research, the authors compared data on the experience of adolescent relationship aggression (physical aggression and threatening behavior) collected from 125 high school students via 2 methods: (a) a 1-time,…

  2. Sexual activity with romantic and nonromantic partners and psychosocial adjustment in young adults.

    PubMed

    Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined whether positive or negative links occur between psychosocial adjustment and sexual activity with four types of partners-romantic partners, friends, acquaintances, and friends with benefits. We examined longitudinal associations and concurrent between-person and within-person associations. A representative sample of 185 participants (93 males, 92 females), their friends, and mothers completed questionnaires when the participants were 2.5, 4, and 5.5 years out of high school. Regardless of the type of partner, more frequent sexual activity relative to the sexual activity of other young adults was associated with more substance use and risky sexual behavior (i.e., between-person effects). Similarly, for all types of nonromantic partners, more frequrent sexual activity relative to one's own typical sexual activity was associated with more substance use and risky sexual behavior (i.e., within-person effects). Differences in frequency of sexual activity with friends and acquaintances were associated with greater internalizing and externalizing symptoms as well as lower self-esteem. Follow-up analyses revealed the associations were particularly strong for friends with benefits. Women's sexual activity frequency with a nonromantic partner was more commonly associated with poorer psychosocial adjustment than such activity by men. More frequent sexual activity with a romantic partner was associated with higher self-esteem and lower internalizing symptoms. Few long-term effects were found for any type of sexual activity. The findings underscore the importance of examining relationship context and illustrate the value of using multiple analytic strategies for identifying the precise nature of associations.

  3. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Schad, Megan M; Szwedo, David E; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P

    2008-03-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at age 15 and from adolescents and their romantic partners at age 18. Teens' relational aggression and romantic partners' victimization were predicted from levels of best friends' pressuring behaviors toward teens in an observed interaction as well as from best friends' ratings of how much pressure teens experienced from their peer group. Romantic partner relational aggression and teen victimization were predicted by pressure from teens' peer group only. Adolescents' romantic relational aggression and victimization were also associated with elevated levels of depressive symptoms and increased alcohol use. Results are discussed in terms of the connection of relational aggression in romantic relationships to the broader task of establishing autonomy with peers in psychosocial development.

  4. Parent-Child Positivity and Romantic Relationships in Emerging Adulthood: Congruence, Compensation, and the Role of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Tina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2017-01-01

    Romantic relationship quality in adolescence and early adulthood has often been linked to earlier parent-child relationship quality but it is possible that these links are nonlinear. Moreover, the role of social skills as mediator of associations between parent-child and romantic relations has been discussed but not rigorously tested. Using data…

  5. Romantic Relationship Status Biases Memory of Faces of Attractive Opposite-Sex Others: Evidence from a Reverse-Correlation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karremans, Johan C.; Dotsch, Ron; Corneille, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that, presumably as a way to protect one's current romantic relationship, individuals involved in a heterosexual romantic relationship tend to give lower attractiveness ratings to attractive opposite-sex others as compared to uninvolved individuals (i.e., the "derogation effect"). The present study importantly…

  6. Narcissism and romantic relationships: The differential impact of narcissistic admiration and rivalry.

    PubMed

    Wurst, Stefanie N; Gerlach, Tanja M; Dufner, Michael; Rauthmann, John F; Grosz, Michael P; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Denissen, Jaap J A; Back, Mitja D

    2017-02-01

    Narcissism is known to be related to romantic success in short-term contexts (dating, early stage relationships) but also to problems in long-term committed relationships. We propose that these diverging romantic outcomes of narcissism can be explained by differential associations with agentic versus antagonistic dimensions of grandiose narcissism: Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry. Both dimensions serve the central narcissistic goal of gaining and maintaining a grandiose self-view, but do so by different processes: Admiration is characterized by the tendency to promote the positivity of one's self-view by seeking social admiration (assertive self-enhancement). Rivalry is characterized by the tendency to protect oneself from a negative self-view by derogating others (antagonistic self-protection). Across 7 studies (total N = 3,560) using diverse measures and methodological approaches (self-, peer, and partner reports, as well as interpersonal perception measures in video-based studies, face-to-face laboratory encounters, and online surveys), we show that the short-term romantic appeal associated with narcissism is primarily attributable to the dimension of Admiration, whereas the long-term romantic problems associated with narcissism are primarily attributable to the dimension of Rivalry. These results highlight the utility of a 2-dimensional reconceptualization of grandiose narcissism for explaining its heterogeneous romantic outcomes. The findings further underscore the idea that different facets of personality traits might impact different aspects of romantic relationship quality, depending on the stage of the relationship. Such a more nuanced view increases the predictive validity of personality traits in social relationship research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. With or Without You? Contextualizing the Impact of Romantic Relationship Breakup on Crime Among Serious Adolescent Offenders.

    PubMed

    Larson, Matthew; Sweeten, Gary; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-01-01

    The decline and delay of marriage has prolonged adolescence and the transition to adulthood, and consequently fostered greater romantic relationship fluidity during a stage of the life course that is pivotal for both development and offending. Yet, despite a growing literature of the consequences of romantic relationships breakup, little is known about its connection with crime, especially among youth enmeshed in the criminal justice system. This article addresses this gap by examining the effects of relationship breakup on crime among justice-involved youth-a key policy-relevant group. We refer to data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a longitudinal study of 1354 (14% female) adjudicated youth from the juvenile and adult court systems in Phoenix and Philadelphia, to assess the nature and complexity of this association. In general, our results support prior evidence of breakup's criminogenic influence. Specifically, they suggest that relationship breakup's effect on crime is particularly acute among this at-risk sample, contingent upon post-breakup relationship transitions, and more pronounced for relationships that involve cohabitation. Our results also extend prior work by demonstrating that breakup is attenuated by changes in psychosocial characteristics and peer associations/exposure. We close with a discussion of our findings, their policy implications, and what they mean for research on relationships and crime among serious adolescent offenders moving forward.

  8. Alcohol and Tobacco Use Disorder Comorbidity in Young Adults and the Influence of Romantic Partner Environments

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, Meredith C.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Epstein, Marina; Hawkins, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there is considerable evidence that the development of tobacco dependence (TD) and that of alcohol use disorder (AUD) are intertwined, less is known about the comorbid development of these disorders. The present study examines tobacco dependence and alcohol use disorder comorbidity in young adulthood within the context of romantic partner relationships. Methods Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a contemporary, ethnically diverse, and gender balanced longitudinal panel including 808 participants. A typological person-centered approach was used to assign participants to four outcome groups: no disorder, tobacco dependence (TD) only, alcohol use disorder (AUD) only, and comorbid (both). Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the association between partner general and substance-specific environments and single or dual alcohol and tobacco use disorder diagnosis in young adulthood (ages 24–33, n = 628). Previous heavy alcohol and tobacco use were controlled for, as were dispositional characteristics, gender, ethnicity, adult SES, and adult depression. Results Greater partner conflict increased the likelihood of being comorbid compared to having TD only or AUD only. Having a smoking partner increased the likelihood of being comorbid compared to having AUD only, but having a drinking partner did not significantly distinguish being comorbid from having TD only. Conclusions Findings demonstrated the utility of a comorbidity-based, person-centered approach and the influence of general and tobacco-specific, but not alcohol-specific, partner environments on comorbid alcohol and tobacco use disorders in young adulthood. PMID:23428316

  9. Consequences of interpersonal spin on couple-relevant goal progress and relationship satisfaction in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Sadikaj, Gentiana; Rappaport, Lance M; Moskowitz, D S; Zuroff, David C; Koestner, Richard; Powers, Theodore

    2015-10-01

    Large fluctuations in a person's interpersonal behavior across situations and over time are thought to be associated with poor personal and interpersonal outcomes. This study examined 2 outcomes, relationship satisfaction and goal progress, that could be associated with individual differences in dispersion of interpersonal behavior (interpersonal spin) in romantic relationships. Need satisfaction and perceived autonomy support for goal pursuit from the partner were examined as mediator variables. Spin was measured using an event-contingent recording (ECR) methodology with a sample of 93 cohabiting couples who reported their interpersonal behavior in interactions with each other during a 20-day period. Relationship satisfaction and goal completion were measured at the end of the ECR procedure (T2) and approximately 7 months after the ECR (T3). Need satisfaction and perceived autonomy support were measured at T2. In both genders, higher spin was associated with lower T2 relationship satisfaction. There was also a decline in relationship satisfaction from T2 to T3 among men with high spin partners. In both genders, higher spin was associated with lower need satisfaction, and lower need satisfaction was associated with a decline in relationship satisfaction from T2 to T3. In both genders, higher spin was associated with lower perceived autonomy support, and lower support was associated with decreased progress in goal completion from T2 to T3. The effects of spin were independent of the effects of mean levels of behavior. These findings extend the understanding of the detrimental consequences of dispersion in interpersonal behavior to the disruption of the person's romantic relationships.

  10. Patterns of Interaction in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Distinct Features and Links to Other Close Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Wyndol; Shomaker, Lauren B.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the similarities and differences between adolescents' interactions with romantic partners and those with friends and mothers. Thirty-two adolescents were observed interacting with a romantic partner, a close friend, and their mother. Adolescents and romantic partners engaged in more conflict than adolescents and friends.…

  11. Adolescent Peer Relations, Friendships, and Romantic Relationships: Do They Predict Social Anxiety and Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Harrison, Hannah Moore

    2005-01-01

    This study examined multiple levels of adolescents' interpersonal functioning, including general peer relations (peer crowd affiliations, peer victimization), and qualities of best friendships and romantic relationships as predictors of symptoms of depression and social anxiety. An ethnically diverse sample of 421 adolescents (57% girls; 14 to 19…

  12. Informal Helpers' Responses when Adolescents Tell Them about Dating Violence or Romantic Relationship Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, Arlene N.; Tolman, Richard M.; Callahan, Michelle R.; Saunders, Daniel G.; Black, Beverly M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the responses of informal helpers to adolescents who disclose dating violence or upsetting but non-violent experiences in their romantic relationships. Based on a survey of 224 Midwestern high school students, the study found that youths were more likely to disclose problems to friends rather than others. A factor analysis of…

  13. Romantic Relationship Commitment and Its Linkages with Commitment to Parents and Friends during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan; van Duin, Jet; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This five-wave longitudinal study examines linkages between adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationship commitment and the development of adolescents' perceptions of commitment to parents and friends. A total of 218 early-to-middle adolescents (39.0 percent boys) and 185 middle-to-late adolescents (30.8 percent boys) participated.…

  14. Problem Behavior and Romantic Relationships: Assortative Mating, Behavior Contagion, and Desistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhule-Louie, Dana M.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Antisocial behavior and substance misuse are forms of problem behavior demonstrating considerable continuity over time. Accordingly, problem behavior influences interpersonal contexts across the life course, which may result in the replication of coercive interactions and a problem behavior lifestyle within romantic relationships. Furthermore,…

  15. "No Cosby Show": Single Black Mother Homes and How Black Men Build Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Maia Niguel

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lives of 11 Black men to better understand how Black men who were raised in single Black mother homes build romantic relationships with Black women. One focus group and a series of individual in-person interviews were conducted with the participants who ranged between 23 and 43 years of age. Participants were…

  16. "I Luv U :)!": A Descriptive Study of the Media Use of Individuals in Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Stockdale, Laura; Busby, Dean; Iverson, Bethany; Grant, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we address the communication technologies individuals within romantic relationships are using to communicate with one another, the frequency of use, and the association between the use of these technologies and couple's positive and negative communication. Participants consisted of individuals involved in a serious, committed,…

  17. Observing Differences between Healthy and Unhealthy Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Substance Abuse and Interpersonal Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florsheim, Paul; Moore, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on adolescent romantic relationships has been largely based on self-reports and interview data; as a result, relatively little is known about the interpersonal-behavioral dynamics of adolescent couples. In an attempt to address this gap in the previous literature on young couples, the present study used observational methods to…

  18. The prosocial versus proself power holder: how power influences sacrifice in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Righetti, Francesca; Luchies, Laura B; van Gils, Suzanne; Slotter, Erica B; Witcher, Betty; Kumashiro, Madoka

    2015-06-01

    Romantic partners often have to sacrifice their interests to benefit their partner or to maintain the relationship. In the present work, we investigated whether relative power within the relationship plays an important role in determining the extent to which partners are likely to sacrifice. Drawing from both classic theories and recent research on power, we tested two competing predictions on the relationship between power and sacrifice in romantic relationships. We tested whether (a) power is negatively related to sacrifice and (b) power is positively related to sacrifice. Furthermore, we also explored whether the association between power and sacrifice is moderated by commitment and inclusion of the other in the self. To test our hypotheses, we used different methodologies, including questionnaires, diary studies, and videotaped interactions. Results across the five studies (N = 1,088) consistently supported the hypothesis that power is negatively related to tendencies to sacrifice in close relationships.

  19. Mimicking attractive opposite-sex others: the role of romantic relationship status.

    PubMed

    Karremans, Johan C; Verwijmeren, Thijs

    2008-07-01

    Based on the recent literature indicating that nonconscious behavioral mimicry is partly goal directed, three studies examined, and supported, the hypothesis that people who are involved in a romantic relationship nonconsciously mimic an attractive opposite-sex other to a lesser extent than people not involved in a relationship. Moreover, Studies 2 and 3 revealed that romantically involved persons tended to mimic an attractive alternative less to the extent that they were more close to their current partner. Finally, Study 3 provided preliminary support for a potential underlying mechanism, revealing that the effect of relationship status on level of mimicry displayed toward an opposite-sex other is mediated by perceived attractiveness of the opposite-sex other. The present findings suggest that behavioral mimicry serves an implicit self-regulatory function in relationship maintenance. Implications for both the literature on relationship maintenance and the literature on behavioral mimicry are discussed.

  20. Associations among Aspects of Interpersonal Power and Relationship Functioning in Adolescent Romantic Couples

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Charles G; Galliher, Renee V; Ferguson, Tamara J

    2008-01-01

    This study used a multidimensional assessment of interpersonal power to examine associations between indices of relationship power and relationship functioning in 92 adolescent romantic couples recruited from rural communities in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Significant differences emerged between girlfriends and boyfriends in their reports of decision making authority, perceptions of humiliating behaviors by the partner, and ratings of themselves giving-in to their partners in a videotaped interaction task. In addition, indices of interpersonal power were associated with dating aggression and relationship satisfaction for both girlfriends and boyfriends, although gender differences emerged in the patterns of association between power and outcomes. Results are discussed in light of current developmental, feminist, and social psychological theories of interpersonal power in romantic relationships. PMID:18776943

  1. Romantic relationship stages and social networking sites: uncertainty reduction strategies and perceived relational norms on facebook.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Anderegg, Courtney

    2014-11-01

    Due to their pervasiveness and unique affordances, social media play a distinct role in the development of modern romantic relationships. This study examines how a social networking site is used for information seeking about a potential or current romantic partner. In a survey, Facebook users (N=517) were presented with Facebook behaviors categorized as passive (e.g., reading a partner's profile), active (e.g., "friending" a common third party), or interactive (e.g., commenting on the partner's wall) uncertainty reduction strategies. Participants reported how normative they perceived these behaviors to be during four possible stages of relationship development (before meeting face-to-face, after meeting face-to-face, casual dating, and exclusive dating). Results indicated that as relationships progress, perceived norms for these behaviors change. Sex differences were also observed, as women perceived passive and interactive strategies as more normative than men during certain relationship stages.

  2. When giving feels good. The intrinsic benefits of sacrifice in romantic relationships for the communally motivated.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Aleksandr; Impett, Emily A; Oveis, Christopher; Hui, Bryant; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2010-12-01

    Who benefits most from making sacrifices for others? The current study provides one answer to this question by demonstrating the intrinsic benefits of sacrifice for people who are highly motivated to respond to a specific romantic partner's needs noncontingently, a phenomenon termed communal strength. In a 14-day daily-experience study of 69 romantic couples, communal strength was positively associated with positive emotions during the sacrifice itself, with feeling appreciated by the partner for the sacrifice, and with feelings of relationship satisfaction on the day of the sacrifice. Furthermore, feelings of authenticity for the sacrifice mediated these associations. Several alternative hypotheses were ruled out: The effects were not due to individuals higher in communal strength making qualitatively different kinds of sacrifices, being more positive in general, or being involved in happier relationships. Implications for research and theory on communal relationships and positive emotions are discussed.

  3. Cyber aggression within adolescents' romantic relationships: linkages to parental and partner attachment.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research has examined face-to-face aggression within adolescents' romantic relationships, but little attention has been given to the role of electronic technologies in adolescents' perpetuation of these behaviors. Thus, this study examined the relationship of anxious and avoidant partner attachments to partner-directed cyber aggression, assessed 1 year later among 600 adolescents (54% female). After accounting for gender and previous behaviors, anxious partner attachment was related to later partner-directed cyber aggression. In addition, insecure parental attachment from adolescents' mothers was related positively to insecure partner attachment and had an indirect effect on their partner-directed cyber aggression through the mediation of anxious partner attachment. This study provides insight into the impact of electronic technologies on adolescents' romantic relationships.

  4. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  5. Effects of empathy and conflict resolution strategies on psychophysiological arousal and satisfaction in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M; Oliveira-Silva, Patrícia; Simon-Dack, Stephanie; Lefdahl-Davis, Erin; Adams, David; McConnell, John; Howell, Desiree; Hess, Ryan; Davis, Andrew; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2014-03-01

    The present research builds upon the extant literature as it assesses psychophysiological factors in relation to empathy, conflict resolution, and romantic relationship satisfaction. In this study, we examined physiological reactivity of individuals in the context of emotionally laden interactions with their romantic partners. Participants (N = 31) completed self-report measures and attended in-person data collection sessions with their romantic partners. Participants were guided through discussions of problems and strengths of their relationships in vivo with their partners while we measured participants' skin conductance level (SCL) and interbeat interval (IBI) of the heart. We hypothesized that participants' level of empathy towards their partners would be reflected by physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) and relationship satisfaction, such that higher levels of empathy would be linked to changes in physiological arousal and higher relationship satisfaction. Further, we hypothesized that differences would be found in physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) based on the type of conflict resolution strategy used by participants. Finally, we hypothesized that differences would be found in empathy towards partner and relationship satisfaction based on the type of conflict resolution strategies used by participants. Results partially supported hypotheses and were discussed in light of existing knowledge based on empirical and theoretical sources.

  6. For better and for worse: genes and parenting interact to predict future behavior in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Masarik, April S; Conger, Rand D; Donnellan, M Brent; Stallings, Michael C; Martin, Monica J; Schofield, Thomas J; Neppl, Tricia K; Scaramella, Laura V; Smolen, Andrew; Widaman, Keith F

    2014-06-01

    We tested the differential susceptibility hypothesis with respect to connections between interactions in the family of origin and subsequent behaviors with romantic partners. Focal or target participants (G2) in an ongoing longitudinal study (N = 352) were observed interacting with their parents (G1) during adolescence and again with their romantic partners in adulthood. Independent observers rated positive engagement and hostility by G1 and G2 during structured interaction tasks. We created an index for hypothesized genetic plasticity by summing G2's allelic variation for polymorphisms in 5 genes (serotonin transporter gene [linked polymorphism], 5-HTT; ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 gene/dopamine receptor D2 gene, ANKK1/DRD2; dopamine receptor D4 gene, DRD4; dopamine active transporter gene, DAT; and catechol-O-methyltransferase gene, COMT). Consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, G2s exposed to more hostile and positively engaged parenting behaviors during adolescence were more hostile or positively engaged toward a romantic partner if they had higher scores on the genetic plasticity index. In short, genetic factors moderated the connection between earlier experiences in the family of origin and future romantic relationship behaviors, for better and for worse.

  7. Supportive Romantic Relationships as Predictors of Resilience Against Early Adolescent Maternal Negativity.

    PubMed

    Szwedo, David E; Hessel, Elenda T; Allen, Joseph P

    2017-02-01

    Negativity in parent-child relationships during adolescence has been viewed as a risk factor for teens' future personal and interpersonal adjustment. This study examined support from romantic partners and close friends during late adolescence as protective against maternal negativity experienced during early adolescence. A combination of observational, self-report, and peer-report measures were obtained from a community sample of 97 youth (58 % female), their mothers, closest friends, and romantic partners assessed at ages 13, 18, and 20. Moderating effects suggested a protective effect of romantic support against maternal negativity across a variety of psychosocial outcomes, including depressive symptoms, self-worth, social withdrawal, and externalizing behavior. Protective effects were found even after controlling for initial levels of outcome behavior and observed support from close friends throughout adolescence. Receiving support from a romantic partner may provide teens with new, positive ways of coping with adversity and help them avoid more serious distress that may be predicted from maternal negativity when such support is not available.

  8. Adolescent Online Romantic Relationship Initiation: Differences by Sexual and Gender Identification

    PubMed Central

    Korchmaros, Josephine D.; Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the national Teen Health and Technology Study of adolescents 13-18 years old (N = 5,091) were used to examine online formation of romantic relationships. Results show that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) and non-LGBTQ adolescents similarly were most likely to have met their most recent boy/girlfriend in the past 12 months at school. However, they differed on many characteristics of romantic relationship initiation, including the extent to which they initiated romantic relationships online. LGBTQ and non-LGBTQ adolescents also differed on level of offline access to potential partners, offline popularity, and numerous other factors possibly related to online relationship initiation (e.g., Internet use and demographic factors). Even after adjusting for differences in these factors, LGBTQ adolescents were more likely than non-LGBTQ adolescents to find boy/girlfriends online in the past 12 months. The results support the rich-get-richer hypothesis as well as the social compensation hypothesis. PMID:25625753

  9. The blues of adolescent romance: observed affective interactions in adolescent romantic relationships associated with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; Dishion, Thomas J; Overbeek, Geertjan; Burk, William J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-05-01

    We examined the associations between observed expressions of positive and negative emotions during conflict discussions and depressive symptoms during a 2-year period in a sample of 160 adolescents in 80 romantic relationships (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16). Conflict discussions were coded using the 10-code Specific Affect Coding System. Depressive symptoms were assessed at the time of the observed conflict discussions (Time 1) and 2 years later (Time 2). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Girls' expression of both positive and negative emotions at T1 was related to their own depressive symptoms at T2 (actor effect). Boys' positive emotions and negative emotions (actor effect) and girls' negative emotions (partner effect) were related to boys' depressive symptoms at T2. Contrary to expectation, relationship break-up and relationship satisfaction were unrelated to changes in depressive symptoms or expression of negative or positive emotion during conflict discussion. These findings underscore the unique quality of adolescent romantic relationships and suggest new directions in the study of the link between mental health and romantic involvement in adolescence.

  10. Observing differences between healthy and unhealthy adolescent romantic relationships: substance abuse and interpersonal process.

    PubMed

    Florsheim, Paul; Moore, David R

    2008-12-01

    Previous research on adolescent romantic relationships has been largely based on self-reports and interview data; as a result, relatively little is known about the interpersonal-behavioral dynamics of adolescent couples. In an attempt to address this gap in the previous literature on young couples, the present study used observational methods to differentiate between healthy and dysfunctional adolescent romantic relationships. Two groups of adolescent couples were recruited to participate in this study: (1) a high-risk group (n=18 couples) in which one or both partners had a substance use disorder (SUD) and (2) a low-risk group (n=12 couples) in which neither partner had a history of psychopathology. Self-report and observational data on couples' relationships were collected from both groups. Couples' observed conflict interactions were coded using the structural analysis of social behavior [Florsheim, P., & Benjamin, L. S. (2001). The structural analysis of social behavior observational coding scheme. In P. K. Kerig, & M. Lindahl (Eds.), Family observational coding schemes: Resources for systemic research (pp. 127-150). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates]. Findings indicated that, compared to couples with no psychopathology, couples in the SUD group engaged in significantly more hostile and less warm behavior, as well as more complex communication involving a mix of hostility and warmth. Self-reported relational quality did not differentiate the two groups, highlighting the unique contributions of observational data for understanding the clinically relevant dynamics of adolescent romantic relationships.

  11. Parent and peer predictors of physical aggression and conflict management in romantic relationships in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Collins, W Andrew

    2005-06-01

    Violence between romantic partners is widespread, but developmental precursors of perpetration and victimization are little understood. Among participants followed from birth to 23 years of age, familial and extrafamilial childhood and adolescent relationships were examined in connection with couple violence in early adulthood. Predictors included early childhood physical abuse and witnessing of parental partner violence, features of parent-child interactions at the age of 13 years, and close friendship quality at the age of 16 years. Controlling for early familial violence, intrusive or overly familiar behavior in videotaped parent-child collaborations at 13 years of age consistently predicted violence perpetration and victimization in early adulthood. Friendship quality at the age of 16 years contributed over and above familial predictors. Understanding the role of both familial and extrafamilial close relationship precursors may lead to effective strategies for ameliorating the problem of romantic partner violence.

  12. Positive Body Image and Sexual Functioning in Dutch Female University Students: The Role of Adult Romantic Attachment.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women.

  13. An Exploratory Investigation of the Role of Openness in Relationship Quality among Emerging Adult Chinese Couples

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yixin; Wang, Kexin; Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Jianxin; Zhou, Mingjie

    2017-01-01

    This study tested emerging adult couples’ openness and its fit effect on their romantic relationship quality using quadratic polynomial regression and response surface analysis. Participants were 260 emerging adult dyads. Both dyads’ openness and relationship quality were measured. The result showed that (1) female and male openness contribute differently to relationship quality; (2) couples with similar high openness could experience better relationship quality than those with similar low openness traits; and (3) when dyadic openness is dissimilar, it is better to be either relatively high or relatively low than to be moderate. These findings highlight the role of openness in emerging adults’ romantic relationships from a dyadic angle. PMID:28360875

  14. Affairs of the Heart: Qualities of Adolescent Romantic Relationships and Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2010-01-01

    We know more about parent and peer influences than about the ways in which specific qualities of adolescent romantic relationships may influence sexual decision-making. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we focus on communication processes and emotional feelings, as well as more basic contours of adolescent romantic relationships, including power and influence dynamics. Controlling for traditional predictors and duration of the relationship, results suggest that subjectively experienced relationship qualities matter for understanding teens’ sexual behavior choices. Further, findings indicate a similar effect of most relationship qualities on male and female reports of sexual behavior. However, influence and power dynamics within the relationship were not related to the likelihood that boys reported sexual intercourse in a focal relationship. In contrast, girls who perceived a more favorable power balance were less likely to report sexual intercourse than their female counterparts who perceived a less favorable power balance. Recognizing that the results capture reciprocal influence processes, longitudinal and qualitative data are used to further explore the complex nature of these associations. PMID:21170165

  15. Positive Interactions and Avoidant and Anxious Representations in Relationships with Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners.

    PubMed

    Furman, Wyndol; Stephenson, J Claire; Rhoades, Galena K

    2014-12-01

    We examined associations between positive interactions and avoidant and anxious representations in relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Two hundred adolescents completed questionnaires, observations, and attachment interviews. From a between-person perspective, those adolescents with more positive interactions overall had less avoidant representations. Within persons, more positive interactions were relative to one's own average level in relationships, the less avoidant representations were for that type of relationship. Adolescents were less anxious about a particular type of relationship if they have positive interactions in their other types of relationships. Finally, representations were primarily predicted by interactions in the same type of relationship; interactions in other relationships contributed little. The findings underscore the importance of examining representations of particular types of relationships.

  16. Together Forever? Romantic Relationship Characteristics and Prenatal Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2008-01-01

    Using Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Data (N = 4,871), this paper examines why relationship status matters for prenatal health behaviors. The paper argues that a mother's potential investments in her child's health are conditioned by socioeconomic and interpersonal resources, including the quality of her relationship with the child's father.…

  17. Effects of Adult Romantic Attachment and Social Support on Resilience and Depression in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Zane; Warren, Ann Marie; Riggs, Shelley; Clark, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause psychological consequences that negatively affect quality of life. It is increasingly recognized that factors such as resilience and social support may produce a buffering effect and are associated with improved health outcomes. However the influence of adult attachment style on an individual’s ability to utilize social support after SCI has not been examined. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between adult romantic attachment perceived social support depression and resilience in individuals with SCI. In addition we evaluated potential mediating effects of social support and adult attachment on resilience and depression. Methods: Participants included 106 adults with SCI undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. Individuals completed measures of adult attachment (avoidance and anxiety) social support resilience and depression. Path analysis was performed to assess for presence of mediation effects. Results: When accounting for the smaller sample size support was found for the model (comparative fit index = .927 chi square = 7.86 P = .01 β = -0.25 standard error [SE] = -2.93 P < .05). The mediating effect of social support on the association between attachment avoidance and resilience was the only hypothesized mediating effect found to be significant (β = -0.25 SE = -2.93 P < .05). Conclusion: Results suggest that individuals with SCI with higher levels of attachment avoidance have lower perceived social support which relates to lower perceived resilience. Assessing attachment patterns during inpatient rehabilitation may allow therapists to intervene to provide greater support. PMID:26364285

  18. Sexual and romantic jealousy in heterosexual and homosexual adults.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christine R

    2002-01-01

    Several theorists have claimed that men are innately more upset by a mate's sexual infidelity and women are more upset by a mate's emotional infidelity because the sexes faced different adaptive problems (for men, cuckoldry; for women, losing a mate's resources). The present work examined this theory of jealousy as a specific innate module in 196 adult men and women of homosexual and heterosexual orientations. As in previous work, heterosexuals' responses to a forced-choice question about hypothetical infidelity yielded a gender difference. However no gender differences were found when participants recalled personal experiences with a mate's actual infidelity. Men and women, regardless of sexual orientation, on average focused more on a mate's emotional infidelity than on a mate's sexual infidelity. Responses to hypothetical infidelity were uncorrelated with reactions to actual infidelity. This finding casts doubt on the validity of the hypothetical measures used in previous research.

  19. [Effects of relational efficacy on two attachment functions: evidence from romantic relationships and same-sex friendships].

    PubMed

    Asano, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Toshikazu

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated how relational efficacy affects functions of safe haven and secure base in romantic relationships and same-sex friendships. Relational efficacy, which is a shared or intersubjective efficacy of relationship partners, refers to a pair's belief that they can mutually coordinate and integrate their resources to prevent and resolve any problems. Participants were 97 dating heterosexual couples and 119 same-sex friendships. Multilevel structural equation modeling suggested that relational efficacy promotes the safe haven function and the secure base function in romantic relationships and same-sex friendships, controlled for sex, relationship longevity, irreplaceability, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance. Additionally, the effects of relational efficacy on the safe haven function and the secure base function in romantic relationships are stronger than in same-sex friendships. These results are discussed in terms of the association between intersubjective processes in close relationships and individuals' hedonic/eudaimonic well-being.

  20. I say a little prayer for you: praying for partner increases commitment in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Fincham, Frank D; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-10-01

    Partner-focused petitionary prayer (PFPP) has received little attention in the prayer literature. In two studies, we examine PFPP to see whether it is uniquely important in conveying relationship benefits, whether its benefits are transmitted through an effect on relationship satisfaction, and whether one's own or the partner's PFPP is central to beneficial effects. In Study 1, we examined PFPP in a sample of 316 undergraduate students who were in an "exclusive" romantic relationship, finding that PFPP was related to later level of commitment and that this relationship was partially mediated through enhanced relationship satisfaction. Study 2 examined PFPP in a sample of 205, married African American couples, finding that both partners' PFPP was consequential for commitment, with actor effects partially mediated through relationship quality, and partner effects fully mediated. Together the studies suggest the value of continued investigation of PFPP as a potentially important vehicle for enhancing relationship outcomes.

  1. Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Romantic Relationship Distress Among White and Mexican Newlyweds.

    PubMed

    Hammett, Julia F; Ulloa, Emilio C; Castañeda, Donna M; Hokoda, Audrey

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and romantic relationship distress in a sample of 100 heterosexual White and Mexican American couples. Data were collected during the first and during the third year of marriage. In the overall sample, wives' own IPV victimization was associated with wives' increased distress and husbands' IPV victimization was associated with wives' decreased distress. Among Mexican Americans, wives' IPV victimization was related to husbands' increased distress, whereas among White Americans, wives' IPV victimization was related to husbands' decreased distress. These results indicate that the association between IPV victimization and relationship distress may not only differ by gender but also by ethnicity.

  2. The role of adult attachment security in non-romantic, non-attachment-related first interactions between same-sex strangers.

    PubMed

    Roisman, Glenn I

    2006-12-01

    Research using the Adult Attachment Interview has largely examined its predictive significance for interpersonal behavior within the context of observations of parent-child and romantic relationships. A limitation of this state of affairs is that the literature does not make clear whether or when attachment-related variation becomes reflected in other kinds of interpersonal encounters. This study demonstrates that links between adults' states of mind regarding childhood attachment experiences and the quality of their interpersonal interactions are evident in first meetings between same-sex strangers in a non-attachment-related context. More specifically, in a study of 50 stranger dyads (50% female), secure adults demonstrated positive emotional engagement during a challenging puzzle-building task. In contrast, preoccupied adults dominated the task, whereas dismissing adults evidenced negative emotion during the interaction. Results held controlling for the Big Five personality dimensions and suggest a middle ground position regarding the narrow versus broad correlates of adult attachment security.

  3. Relationship Involvement Among Young Adults: Are Asian American Men an Exceptional Case?

    PubMed Central

    Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Joyner, Kara; Kao, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Asian American men and women have been largely neglected in previous studies of romantic relationship formation and status. Using data from the first and fourth waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we examine romantic and sexual involvement among young adults, most of who were between the ages of 25 to 32 (N=11,555). Drawing from explanations that focus on structural and cultural elements as well as racial hierarchies, we examine the factors that promote and impede involvement in romantic/sexual relationships. We use logistic regression to model current involvement of men and women separately and find, with the exception of Filipino men, Asian men are significantly less likely than white men to be currently involved with a romantic partner, even after controlling for a wide array of characteristics. Our results suggest that the racial hierarchy framework best explains lower likelihood of involvement among Asian American men. PMID:26549919

  4. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Stanley O; Henderson, Michael C; Kim, Mary; Gilstrap, Samuel; Yi, Jennifer; Rusbult, Caryl E; Hardin, Deletha P; Gaertner, Lowell

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect, responses to partners' anger or criticism) in heterosexual and gay relationships; and we examined the impact of internalized homophobia (i.e., attitudes toward self, other, and disclosure) on accommodation specifically in gay relationships. A total of 262 heterosexuals (102 men and 162 women) and 857 gays (474 men and 383 women) participated in the present study. Consistent with hypotheses, among heterosexuals and gays, socially oriented values were significantly and positively related to accommodation (whereas the personally oriented value of individualism was unrelated to accommodation); and among gays in particular, internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively related to accommodation. Implications for the study of heterosexual and gay relationships are discussed.

  5. Bare market: campus sex ratios, romantic relationships, and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Regnerus, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of college women, we evaluate the effect of campus sex ratios on women's relationship attitudes and behaviors. Our results suggest that women on campuses where they comprise a higher proportion of the student body give more negative appraisals of campus men and relationships, go on fewer traditional dates, are less likely to have had a college boyfriend, and are more likely to be sexually active. These effects appear to stem both from decreased dyadic power among women on campuses where they are more numerous and from their increased difficulty locating a partner on such campuses.

  6. Rural Adolescent Girls Negotiating Healthy and Unhealthy Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2012-01-01

    The focused discussions of adolescent girls were analyzed to explore the processes of managing healthy and unhealthy aspects of dating relationships. Grounded theory methods were used to generate an outline of these processes. The core category elicited from discussions with participants was "wrestling with gender expectations". This category…

  7. Attachment and Commitment in College Students' Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Vocaturo, Loran C.

    1999-01-01

    Study examines attachment organization and dimensions of commitment in 101 females and 30 males with the use of an attachment questionnaire and the Commitment Inventory. Persons in a relationship who endorsed a secure or preoccupied attachment prototype reported stronger personal dedication than those endorsing a fearful-avoidant or…

  8. Adolescent friend similarity on alcohol abuse as a function of participation in romantic relationships: Sometimes a new love comes between old friends.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Adolescent Friend Similarity on Alcohol Abuse as a Function of Participation in Romantic Relationships: Sometimes a New Love Comes Between Old Friends

    PubMed Central

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friend on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years, nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across two consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point where they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. PMID:26595356

  10. Romantic Relationship Experiences from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Role of Older Siblings in Mexican-Origin Families.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Killoren, Sarah E; Whiteman, Shawn D; Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2016-05-01

    Youth's experiences with romantic relationships during adolescence and young adulthood have far reaching implications for future relationships, health, and well-being; yet, although scholars have examined potential peer and parent influences, we know little about the role of siblings in youth's romantic relationships. Accordingly, this study examined the prospective longitudinal links between Mexican-origin older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences and variation by sibling structural and relationship characteristics (i.e., sibling age and gender similarity, younger siblings' modeling) and cultural values (i.e., younger siblings' familism values). Data from 246 Mexican-origin families with older (M = 20.65 years; SD = 1.57; 50 % female) and younger (M = 17.72 years; SD = .57; 51 % female) siblings were used to examine the likelihood of younger siblings' involvement in dating relationships, sexual relations, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage with probit path analyses. Findings revealed older siblings' reports of involvement in a dating relationship, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage predicted younger siblings' relationship experiences over a 2-year period. These links were moderated by sibling age spacing, younger siblings' reports of modeling and familism values. Our findings suggest the significance of social learning dynamics as well as relational and cultural contexts in understanding the links between older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences among Mexican-origin youth.

  11. Nonmarital romantic relationship commitment and leave behavior: the mediating role of dissolution consideration.

    PubMed

    Vanderdrift, Laura E; Agnew, Christopher R; Wilson, Juan E

    2009-09-01

    Two studies investigated the process by which individuals in nonmarital romantic relationships characterized by low commitment move toward enacting leave behaviors. Predictions based on the behavioral, goal, and implementation intention literatures were tested using a measure of dissolution consideration developed for this research. Dissolution consideration assesses how salient relationship termination is for an individual while one's relationship is intact. Study 1 developed and validated a measure of dissolution consideration and Study 2 was a longitudinal test of the utility of dissolution consideration in predicting the enactment of leave behaviors. Results indicated that dissolution consideration mediates the association between commitment and enacting leave behaviors, is associated with taking more immediate action, and provides unique explanatory power in leave behavior beyond the effect of commitment alone. Collectively, the findings suggest that dissolution consideration is an intermediate step between commitment and stay/leave behavior in close relationships.

  12. Understanding the One You Love: A Longitudinal Assessment of an Empathy Training Program for Couples in Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Edgar C. J.; Angera, Jeffrey J.; Carter, Sara Jacobs; Nakamoto, Mindy; Kalso, Michelle

    1999-01-01

    Couples (N=48) in romantic relationships participated in a 10-hour empathy training program. Scores on three empathy measures improved over a six-month period. A change in perceptions of a partner's empathy at six months was positively related to relationship satisfaction at the six-month follow-up. (Author/MKA)

  13. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  14. Geosocial Networking App Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Serious Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Coventry, Ryan; Puckett, Jae A; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Geosocial networking (GSN) mobile phone applications ("apps") are used frequently among men who have sex with men (MSM) to socialize and meet sexual partners. Though GSN apps are used by some MSM in partnered relationships, little is known about how the use of GSN apps among MSM in serious romantic relationships can influence couples' sexual and relationship health. MSM in serious relationships (N = 323; M age = 40 years) were recruited through a popular GSN app for MSM. Participants completed open-ended items regarding the costs and benefits of app use to their relationships, discussions of app use with their partners, and preferences for relationship education related to app use. Reported benefits of app use included improving sex and communication with one's primary partner and fulfilling unmet sexual needs. Although approximately half had not discussed app use with their partners, citing app use as a "non-issue," many cited various drawbacks to app use, including jealousy and being a distraction from the relationship. Few described sexual health concerns as a drawback to meeting partners through apps. Regarding relationship education preferences, most wanted help with general communication skills and how to express one's sexual needs to a partner. Although GSN app use can enhance relationships and sex among partnered MSM, unclear communication about app use may contribute to negative relationship outcomes and could prevent partners from having sexual needs met. Relationship and sexual health education programs for male couples should consider addressing social media and technology use in their curricula.

  15. Predicting Improvement in Depression Across Therapies Using Indicators of Romantic Relationship Functioning: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Denton, Wayne H

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a common presenting problem, often affected by couple interactions in unique ways. However, research in the area of romantic relationship functioning and depression often replicates previous research or consists of literature reviews, limiting the clinical relevancy. The purpose of this preliminary study is to expand the research on the effects of relational processes on depression treatment outcomes. We tested whether initiator tendency, attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, and marital satisfaction predicted improvement in depression for women with Major Depressive Disorder enrolled in a depression treatment clinical trial (n = 17). Women completed treatments of either pharmacotherapy or combined Emotionally Focused Therapy for couples and pharmacotherapy. We found that higher baseline levels of partner initiator tendency resulted in less change in depression (worse outcomes), regardless of treatment type and that higher baseline levels of attachment avoidance predicted better depression outcomes in treatment. Marital satisfaction, however, was not linked to change in depression. Initiator tendency is discussed as a critical romantic relationship factor for depression treatment outcomes.

  16. Older Women in New Romantic Relationships: Understanding the Meaning and Importance of Sex in Later Life.

    PubMed

    Watson, Wendy K; Stelle, Charlie; Bell, Nancy

    2016-12-02

    Although research has found that sexual activity declines with age, most of this literature examines people in long-term marriages. Little is known about the initiation of new sexual relationships in later life. In-depth interviews with 14 women aged 64 to 77 years were conducted to examine their personal and collective narratives regarding sexuality in later life. In contrast to common perceptions, none of the participants felt that aging had negatively impacted their own sexuality. For many, this was a time in their lives when they were experiencing renewed sexual desire and enjoyment. Even though sex might not have held the same priority as when they were younger, it held a place of importance in their romantic relationships. The discussion focuses on understanding women's sexual relationships and behaviors within the context of their cohort and lives.

  17. Heterosexual romantic relationships inside of prison: partner status as predictor of loneliness, sexual satisfaction, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Carcedo, Rodrigo J; Perlman, Daniel; Orgaz, M Begoña; López, Félix; Fernández-Rouco, Noelia; Faldowski, Richard A

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the differences in loneliness, sexual satisfaction, and quality of life among three groups of prison inmates: inmates in a heterosexual romantic relationship with a fellow prisoner, inmates with a partner outside the prison, and inmates without a partner. In-person interviews with 70 male and 70 female inmates from the Topas Penitentiary (Spain) were conducted. These inmates lived in the same facility but in gender-segregated modules. After controlling for age, nationality, total time in prison, actual sentence time served, and estimated time to parole, the results showed a lower level of romantic loneliness, and a higher level of sexual satisfaction and global, psychological, and environment quality of life for the group of inmates with a heterosexual partner inside prison. These findings highlight the positive attributes associated with heterosexual romantic relationships between inmates inside the same prison.

  18. The Mediating Role of Romantic Desolation and Dating Anxiety in the Association Between Interpersonal Competence and Life Satisfaction Among Polish Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Katarzyna; Segrin, Chris

    This study investigates the role of romantic desolation on life satisfaction in young adulthood. Using data from a Polish sample of 330 (205 females and 125 males) young adults aged 20-30, who completed Polish versions of the Satisfaction With Life Scale, Dating Anxiety Scale, Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire-Revised, and Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults-Short Form, romantic desolation (romantic loneliness and lack of a romantic partner) and dating anxiety were tested as mediators of the association between interpersonal competence and life satisfaction. Results revealed that single individuals reported lower life satisfaction and higher romantic loneliness than did partnered individuals. At the same time, no differences emerged between single and partnered individuals in dating anxiety or interpersonal competence. Structural equation modeling results showed that low interpersonal competence has an indirect effect on romantic desolation through higher levels of dating anxiety. Also, dating anxiety had an indirect effect on lower life satisfaction through increased romantic desolation. These results highlight the important role of dating anxiety and romantic desolation for explaining why low interpersonal competence is associated with diminished life satisfaction in young adults.

  19. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.

  20. Does Identity Precede Intimacy? Testing Erikson's Theory on Romantic Development in Emerging Adults of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyers, Wim; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2010-01-01

    Erikson stated that healthy identity development during adolescence is a precursor of intimacy in romantic relationships during emerging adulthood. However, from a developmental contextual perspective, there are reasons to question this strict developmental ordering. Using interview and questionnaire data from a longitudinal study on 93…

  1. The Influence of Romantic Attachment and Intimate Partner Violence on Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cloutier, Paula; Dandurand, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Several theoretical models for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been proposed. Despite an abundance of theoretical speculation, few empirical studies have examined the impact of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI. The present study examines the influence of romantic attachment and received intimate partner violence (physical,…

  2. More options lead to more searching and worse choices in finding partners for romantic relationships online: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pai-Lu; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2009-06-01

    It is not surprising that the Internet has become a means by which people expand their social networks and form close relationships. Almost every online-dating Web site provides members with search tools. However, do users truly benefit from more complete searches of a large pool of possibilities? The present study, based on the cognitive perspective, examined whether more search options triggered excessive searching, leading to worse choices and poorer selectivity. We argue that more search options lead to less selective processing by reducing users' cognitive resources, distracting them with irrelevant information, and reducing their ability to screen out inferior options. A total of 128 Taiwanese late adolescents and adults with experience in online romantic relationships participated in an experimental study. After entering the characteristics they found desirable in a partner in such a relationship, participants were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of available profiles. The dependent measures consisted of the number of profiles searched, the average preference difference for all profiles viewed, the preference difference for the chosen profile, and the degree of selectivity. These measures were used to determine whether more attention was devoted to better alternatives and less attention to worse alternatives. The data supported the predictions. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.

  3. Culture, Power, Authenticity and Psychological Well-Being within Romantic Relationships: A Comparison of European American and Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Kristin D.; Suizzo, Marie-Anne

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated possible cultural differences in the association of power, authentic self-expression, and well-being within romantic relationships. Participants (N = 314) included European American students from a central Texas university and Mexican American students from a border university. Results indicated that power inequality was…

  4. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  5. The Role of Character Strengths in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: An Initial Study on Partner Selection and Mates' Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Marco; Ruch, Willibald

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of 24 character strengths in 87 adolescent romantic relationships focusing on their role in partner selection and their role in mates' life satisfaction. Measures included the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth, the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, and an Ideal Partner Profiler for the…

  6. The effects of sexually explicit material use on romantic relationship dynamics.

    PubMed

    Minarcik, Jenny; Wetterneck, Chad T; Short, Mary B

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Pornography use has become increasingly common. Studies have shown that individuals who use sexually explicit materials (SEMs) report negative effects (Schneider, 2000b). However, Bridges (2008b) found that couples who use SEM together have higher relationship satisfaction than those who use SEM independently. A further investigation into various types of SEM use in relationships may highlight how SEM is related to various areas of couple satisfaction. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to examine the impact of SEM use related to different relationship dynamics. Methods The current study included a college and Internet sample of 296 participants divided into groups based upon the SEM use in relationships (i.e., SEM alone, SEM use with partner, and no SEM use). Results There were significant differences between groups in relationship satisfaction [F(2, 252) = 3.69, p = .026], intimacy [F(2, 252) = 7.95, p = <.001], and commitment [F(2, 252) = 5.30, p = .006]. Post-hoc analyses revealed additional differences in relationship satisfaction [t(174) = 2.13, p = .035] and intimacy [t(174) = 2.76, p = .006] based on the frequency of SEM use. Discussion Further exploration of the SEM use function in couples will provide greater understanding of its role in romantic relationships.

  7. The effects of sexually explicit material use on romantic relationship dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Minarcik, Jenny; Wetterneck, Chad T.; Short, MARY B.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Pornography use has become increasingly common. Studies have shown that individuals who use sexually explicit materials (SEMs) report negative effects (Schneider, 2000b). However, Bridges (2008b) found that couples who use SEM together have higher relationship satisfaction than those who use SEM independently. A further investigation into various types of SEM use in relationships may highlight how SEM is related to various areas of couple satisfaction. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to examine the impact of SEM use related to different relationship dynamics. Methods The current study included a college and Internet sample of 296 participants divided into groups based upon the SEM use in relationships (i.e., SEM alone, SEM use with partner, and no SEM use). Results There were significant differences between groups in relationship satisfaction [F(2, 252) = 3.69, p = .026], intimacy [F(2, 252) = 7.95, p = <.001], and commitment [F(2, 252) = 5.30, p = .006]. Post-hoc analyses revealed additional differences in relationship satisfaction [t(174) = 2.13, p = .035] and intimacy [t(174) = 2.76, p = .006] based on the frequency of SEM use. Discussion Further exploration of the SEM use function in couples will provide greater understanding of its role in romantic relationships. PMID:27784182

  8. Breaking up is hard to do: unwanted pursuit behaviors following the dissolution of a romantic relationship.

    PubMed

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J; Palarea, R E; Cohen, J; Rohling, M L

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of unwanted pursuit behaviors among college students. Participants (n = 282) had experienced the termination of a meaningful romantic relationship. Two questionnaires were administered. One assessed unwanted pursuit behaviors that were perpetrated by individuals who had not initiated the relationship breakup (breakup sufferers; n = 120); the other assessed individuals who had initiated the relationship breakup (relationship dissolvers; n = 162). Results indicated that most breakup sufferers had engaged in at least one act of unwanted pursuit (i.e., unwanted phone calls, unwanted in-person conversations) after the breakup. Breakup sufferers were more likely than relationship dissolvers to perceive a positive impact from their unwanted pursuit behavior. Partner-specific attachment experiences and love styles emerged as significant predictors of unwanted pursuit behavior perpetration, according to both victims and perpetrators of unwanted pursuit. However, only victims of unwanted pursuit revealed an association between levels of relationship violence and unwanted pursuit behavior perpetration. Victims also reported that their unwanted pursuit was related to a lack of friendship between themselves and their expartners. In contrast, there was a positive association between feelings of friendship and unwanted pursuit for perpetrators. The implications of these findings and their application to the stalking literature are discussed.

  9. Rejection sensitivity and depressive symptoms: Longitudinal actor-partner effects in adolescent romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Norona, Jerika C; Roberson, Patricia N E; Welsh, Deborah P

    2016-08-01

    The present study utilizes the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the longitudinal relationship between rejection sensitivity and one's own and one's partner's depressive symptoms. The sample included adolescent romantic couples from the U.S. (N = 198 adolescents; 50% girls; 90.2% Caucasian) whose rejection sensitivity at Time 1 and depressive symptoms approximately one year later (Time 2) were assessed. Additionally, aggressive behaviors and maintenance behaviors that commonly associated with rejection sensitivity (e.g., self-silencing) are explored as mediators. Results indicate that boyfriends' rejection sensitivity at Time 1 predicted girlfriends' depressive symptoms at Time 2. Additionally, girls' rejection sensitivity predicted their own and their boyfriends' self-silencing. Developmental and clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Predicting commitment in young adults' physically aggressive and sexually coercive dating relationships.

    PubMed

    Young, Brennan J; Furman, Wyndol

    2013-11-01

    Intimate partner violence often begins during the courtship stage of romantic relationships. Although some relationships dissolve as a result of aggression, other relationships remain intact, increasing the risk for escalated violence. The present study identified factors predictive of individual differences in emerging adults' commitment to physically aggressive or sexually coercive dating relationships. Specifically, Rusbult's Investment Model of romantic relationships (e.g., investment, satisfaction, quality of alternatives, and commitment) was applied to a longitudinal sample of 148 young adult women who reported experiencing aggression or coercion from their current partners. To further explain commitment within aggressive or coercive dating relationships, rejection sensitivity and anxious and avoidant romantic relational styles were included as predictors of the Investment Model variables. A more avoidant romantic style indirectly predicted commitment through relationship satisfaction and investment. Both commitment and rejection sensitivity significantly predicted continuing an aggressive or coercive relationship 6 months later. The present study improves our understanding of the processes involved in relationship commitment. Continuing to understand these processes will inform interventions that seek to help women who have decided to end aggressive or coercive dating relationships.

  11. Time Out from Sex or Romance: Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Decisions to Purposefully Avoid Sexual Activity or Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-05-01

    Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The

  12. The Importance of Relationships with Parents and Best Friends for Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Quality: Differences between Indigenous and Ethnic Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; de Greef, Marieke; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how the quality of relationships with parents and friends were related to intimacy, commitment, and passion in adolescents' romantic relationships for indigenous Dutch and ethnic Dutch adolescents. Self-report survey data were used from 444 (88.9%) indigenous Dutch and 55 (11.1%) ethnic Dutch adolescents between 12 and 18 years…

  13. Recruitment of African American and Latino Adolescent Couples in Romantic Relationships: Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Angelic; Watnick, Dana; Bauman, Laurie J

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is considerable literature on effective engagement strategies for recruiting adolescents individually for health research studies, but literature on recruiting adolescent couples is new and minimal. PURPOSE: This paper describes the recruitment strategies used for Teen Connections, a longitudinal study that recruited 139 mainly African American and Latino adolescent couples in romantic relationships living in New York City. METHOD: We collected data in Microsoft Access and documented the date each recruitment strategy was implemented, date each partner was enrolled, and amount of effort required to enroll participants. We identified individual and relationship characteristics from each partner's baseline survey. RESULTS: We found that relationship type and characteristics, language used in printed materials, parental consent, implementing a screener questionnaire, and gender of partner had implications for enrollment in TC. DISCUSSION: Couples studies are highly demanding but achievable with dedicated staff and access to a large number of youth. TRANSLATION TO HEALTH EDUCATION PRACTICE: Research on sexual health and risk often relies on individual reports of dyadic events. Adolescent couples' studies may not be pursued because of recruitment limitations, but they can provide invaluable insight into relationship dynamics, characteristics etc. that may help design better health education interventions, and should be pursued nonetheless.

  14. Recruitment of African American and Latino Adolescent Couples in Romantic Relationships: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Angelic; Watnick, Dana; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is considerable literature on effective engagement strategies for recruiting adolescents individually for health research studies, but literature on recruiting adolescent couples is new and minimal. Purpose This paper describes the recruitment strategies used for Teen Connections, a longitudinal study that recruited 139 mainly African American and Latino adolescent couples in romantic relationships living in New York City. Method We collected data in Microsoft Access and documented the date each recruitment strategy was implemented, date each partner was enrolled, and amount of effort required to enroll participants. We identified individual and relationship characteristics from each partner's baseline survey. Results We found that relationship type and characteristics, language used in printed materials, parental consent, implementing a screener questionnaire, and gender of partner had implications for enrollment in TC. Discussion Couples studies are highly demanding but achievable with dedicated staff and access to a large number of youth. Translation to Health Education Practice Research on sexual health and risk often relies on individual reports of dyadic events. Adolescent couples' studies may not be pursued because of recruitment limitations, but they can provide invaluable insight into relationship dynamics, characteristics etc. that may help design better health education interventions, and should be pursued nonetheless. PMID:23326814

  15. Brief report: Intimacy, passion, and commitment in romantic relationships--validation of a 'triangular love scale' for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Ha, Thao; Scholte, Ron; de Kemp, Raymond; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of an adolescent version of the 'triangular love scale' (TLS), which assesses three components of romantic relationships: intimacy, passion, and commitment. Using data from 435 Dutch adolescents aged 12-18 years, we found evidence for convergent validity, showing that dimensions of intimacy, passion, and commitment were all positively correlated with relationship satisfaction and duration. Evidence was also found for divergent validity, as adolescents' perceptions of the main (dis)advantages of being involved in romantic relationships showed a specific pattern of associations with intimacy, passion, and commitment. Finally, CFA analyses in LISREL showed that a model in which all separate questionnaire items were specified to load on three underlying, correlated factors (intimacy, passion, commitment) fit the data adequately. Overall, this measure seems appropriate for use with adolescents.

  16. Presuming the influence of the media: teenagers' constructions of gender identity through sexual/romantic relationships and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate

    2014-06-01

    Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers' alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's 'presumed media influence' theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers' constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers' drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships.

  17. Presuming the influence of the media: teenagers′ constructions of gender identity through sexual/romantic relationships and alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers’ alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's ‘presumed media influence’ theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers’ constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers’ drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships. PMID:24443822

  18. Low-income mothers as "othermothers" to their romantic partners' children: women's coparenting in multiple partner fertility relationships.

    PubMed

    Burton, Linda M; Hardaway, Cecily R

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we investigated low-income mothers' involvement in multiple partner fertility (MPF) relationships and their experiences as "othermothers" to their romantic partners' children from previous and concurrent intimate unions. Othermothering, as somewhat distinct from stepmothering, involves culturally-scripted practices of sharing parenting responsibilities with children's biological parents. We framed this investigation using this concept because previous research suggests that many low-income women practice this form of coparenting in their friend and kin networks. What is not apparent in this literature, however, is whether women unilaterally othermother their romantic partners' children from different women. How often and under what circumstances do women in nonmarital MPF intimate unions with men coparent their partners' children from other relationships? We explored this question using a modified grounded theory approach and secondary longitudinal ethnographic data on 256 low-income mostly unmarried mothers from the Three-City Study. Results indicated that 78% of the mothers had been or were involved in MPF unions and while most had othermothered the children of their friends and relatives, 89% indicated that they did not coparent their partners' children from any MPF relationship. Mothers' reasons for not doing so were embedded in: (a) gendered scripts around second families, or "casa chicas"; (b) the tenuous nature of pass-through MPF relationships; and (c) mothers' own desires for their romantic partners to child-swap. Implications of this research for family science and practice are discussed.

  19. Qualitative Analysis of Interactions on an Online Discussion Forum for Young People with Experience of Romantic Relationship Breakup.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Aidan; Ryan, Patrick; McMahon, Eimear; Butler, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to use qualitative analysis to examine the ways in which young people with experience of romantic relationship breakup interact with each other on an Internet-mediated discussion forum and to ascertain the function of the interactions. Participants were 31 registered forum users and 10 forum moderators. Findings were based on content analysis of 238 messages posted across 28 distinct discussion threads over 12 consecutive months. Nine different types of interaction were identified. In each case the function of the interaction was identified (e.g., to relay personal experiences or solicit opinions of others) and illustrated using quotations from the data set. Online discussion forums that are facilitated by trained moderators offer a safe space for young people to disclose personal information and express their emotions in respect of romantic relationship breakup. Online interactions are rich in empathy and peer support is evident among visitors to such forums.

  20. Early adolescent African American girls’ perceptions of virginity and romantic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Gwendolyn D.; White, Reashanda; Hataway, Connie; Moneyham, Linda; Gaioso, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Background Nationally, African American (AA) girls aged 15 to 19 have the highest incidence of Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis compared to White and Hispanic girls of the same age group. To address this STI epidemic, it is imperative to target AA girls during early adolescence and before sexual debut. According to the 2011 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, approximately 7% of AA girls initiate sex prior to age 13. The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study was to explore AA girls’, aged 12 to 14, perceptions about virginity and relationships and how those perceptions influence their decisions to engage in or abstain from sexual activity. Methods A convenience sample of 64 participants was recruited through community-based organizations in Alabama. Data were collected using individual interviews and focus groups. Individual interview focused on (1) values and beliefs about being a virgin, (2) choosing boyfriends, and (3) perceptions about good and bad relationships. Focus groups were held to validate findings from interviews. Verbatim transcripts of audiotapes, observation notes, and demographic data were primary data for analysis. Content analysis was used in analysis and interpretation of qualitative data to formulate meaningful categories, themes, and patterns. The qualitative research software, QSR N-Vivo®, was used to code and sort data into categories. The SPSS statistical software was used to conduct descriptive analyses to describe the study sample. Results Mean age of study sample was 12.9 years. Out of 64participants, 5 reported having engaged in sexual activity. Mean age of sexual debut was 13 years. Common themes that emerged included: respecting myself, ideal boyfriend, characteristics of a romantic relationship. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest STI prevention programs should build upon the values related to virginity to promote delaying sexual activity. Furthermore, findings suggest the need for education about healthy

  1. Caught in a bad romance: perfectionism, conflict, and depression in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, Sean P; Sherry, Simon B; Antony, Martin M; Stewart, Sherry H; Sherry, Dayna L; Hartling, Nikola

    2012-04-01

    According to the social disconnection model, perfectionistic concerns (i.e., harsh self-scrutiny, extreme concern over mistakes and others' evaluations, and excessive reactions to perceived failures) confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms indirectly through interpersonal problems. This study tested the social disconnection model in 226 heterosexual romantic dyads using a mixed longitudinal and experience sampling design. Perfectionistic concerns were measured using three partner-specific self-report questionnaires. Conflict was measured as a dyadic variable, incorporating reports from both partners. Depressive symptoms were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Perfectionistic concerns and depressive symptoms were measured at Day 1 and Day 28. Aggregated dyadic conflict was measured with daily online questionnaires from Days 2 to 15. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. There were four primary findings: (a) Dyadic conflict mediated the link between perfectionistic concerns and depressive symptoms, even when controlling for baseline depressive symptoms; (b) depressive symptoms were both an antecedent and a consequence of dyadic conflict; (c) perfectionistic concerns incrementally predicted dyadic conflict and depressive symptoms beyond neuroticism (i.e., a tendency to experience negative emotions) and other-oriented perfectionism (i.e., rigidly demanding perfection from one's partner); and (d) the relationships among variables did not differ based on gender. As the most rigorous test of the social disconnection model to date, this study provides strong support for this emerging model. Results also clarify the characterological and the interpersonal context within which depressive symptoms are likely to occur.

  2. Perceptions of partners' problematic alcohol use affect relationship outcomes beyond partner self-reported drinking: alcohol use in committed romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Øverup, Camilla S; Overup, Camilla S; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent among college students, including those who are in committed romantic relationships. Individuals' perceptions of their partner's alcohol use may have significant effects on how they view both their partner and their relationship. The current study examines the effect of one's perception of one's romantic partner's drinking as problematic on one's relationship satisfaction and commitment, and whether this varies as a function of one's partner's drinking. Both partners in romantic heterosexual relationships (N = 78 dyads) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and problems, relationship satisfaction and commitment, and the perception that their partner's drinking was problematic. Analyses using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (APIMs) revealed a partner-moderated actor interaction, such that partner self-reported drinking significantly moderated the association between the actor's perception of their partner's drinking as problematic and actor relationship outcomes. Results indicated that when partners drank at higher levels, perceiving their drinking as problematic did not have an effect. These individuals were less satisfied regardless of their perceptions. However, when partners drank at lower levels, perceiving their drinking as problematic was negatively associated with relationship outcomes. Furthermore, for alcohol consumption, three-way interactions with gender emerged, indicating that this effect was stronger for males. Results extend the literature on drinking in relationships and on interpersonal perception. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  3. Relationship Functioning Among Adult Children of Alcoholics*

    PubMed Central

    Kearns-Bodkin, Jill N.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current research was to examine the impact of both maternal and paternal alcoholism on the relationship functioning of husbands and wives over the early years of marriage. Method: Couples (N = 634) were assessed at the time of marriage, and again at their first, second, and fourth anniversaries. Husbands and wives completed separate, self-administered questionnaires at home. Results: Results of separate repeated measures analyses of covariance revealed that, for both husbands and wives, the appraisal of their marital relationship was associated with alcoholism in the opposite gender parent. That is, for husbands, alcoholism in the mother was associated with lower marital satisfaction across the 4 years of marriage. For wives, alcoholism in the father was related to lower marital intimacy. Husbands' physical aggression was influenced by mother's and father's alcoholism; high levels of physical aggression were present among men with alcoholic mothers and nonalcoholic fathers. Interestingly, wives' experience of husband's aggression was also highest among women with alcoholic mothers and nonalcoholic fathers. Wives also reported engaging in high levels of physical aggression when they had an alcoholic mother and a nonalcoholic father, but this effect was restricted to the early part of the marriage. Finally, parental alcoholism was associated with both husbands' and wives' attachment representations. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that children raised in alcoholic families may carry the problematic effects of their early family environment into their adult romantic relationships. PMID:18925353

  4. Relationships among Young Adults' Marital Messages Received, Marital Attitudes, and Relationship Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurts, W. Matthew; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among university students' marital messages received (MMR), marital attitudes, and romantic relationship self-efficacy (RSE). Results indicated that students' marital attitudes and romantic relationship status predicted their level of RSE. The authors found differences in MMR, marital attitudes, and RSE on the…

  5. How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways: Parenting during Adolescence, Attachment Styles, and Romantic Narratives in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosko, Amanda; Tieu, Thanh-Thanh; Lawford, Heather; Pratt, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, a quantitative and qualitative examination of the associations among parent-child relations, adult attachment styles, and relationship quality and theme in romantic narratives was conducted. Parenting and adult attachment style were assessed through questionnaires, whereas overall quality of romantic relationships…

  6. The Development of Adolescent Self-Regulation: Reviewing the Role of Parent, Peer, Friend, and Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2014-01-01

    Self-regulation plays an important role in adolescent development, predicting success in multiple domains including school and social relationships. While researchers have paid increasing attention to the influence of parents on the development of adolescent self-regulation, we know little about the influence of peers and friends and even less about the influence of romantic partners on adolescent development of self-regulation. Extant studies examined a unidirectional model of self-regulation development rather than a bidirectional model of self-regulation development. Given that relationships and self-regulation develop in tandem, a model of bidirectional development between relationship context and adolescent self-regulation may be relevant. This review summarizes extant literature and proposes that in order to understand how adolescent behavioral and emotional self-regulation develops in the context of social relationships one must consider that each relationship builds upon previous relationships and that self-regulation and relationship context develop bidirectionally. PMID:24793391

  7. The development of adolescent self-regulation: reviewing the role of parent, peer, friend, and romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Farley, Julee P; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2014-06-01

    Self-regulation plays an important role in adolescent development, predicting success in multiple domains including school and social relationships. While researchers have paid increasing attention to the influence of parents on the development of adolescent self-regulation, we know little about the influence of peers and friends and even less about the influence of romantic partners on adolescent development of self-regulation. Extant studies examined a unidirectional model of self-regulation development rather than a bidirectional model of self-regulation development. Given that relationships and self-regulation develop in tandem, a model of bidirectional development between relationship context and adolescent self-regulation may be relevant. This review summarizes extant literature and proposes that in order to understand how adolescent behavioral and emotional self-regulation develops in the context of social relationships one must consider that each relationship builds upon previous relationships and that self-regulation and relationship context develop bidirectionally.

  8. Animal Magnetism: Metaphoric Cues Alter Perceptions of Romantic Partners and Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Kelly A.; Schlegel, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    The psychological state of love is difficult to define, and we often rely on metaphors to communicate about this state and its constituent experiences. Commonly, these metaphors liken love to a physical force—it sweeps us off our feet, causes sparks to fly, and ignites flames of passion. Even the use of “attraction” to refer to romantic interest, commonplace in both popular and scholarly discourse, implies a force propelling two objects together. The present research examined the effects of exposing participants to a physical force (magnetism) on subsequent judgments of romantic outcomes. Across two studies, participants exposed to magnets reported greater levels of satisfaction, attraction, intimacy, and commitment. PMID:27227965

  9. Cross Cultural Relationships of Depression, Attachment Styles, and Quality of Romantic Relationships: Cultural Difference between Taiwanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burleson, Yi-An Lo

    2013-01-01

    Relationship quality has been determined to be a positive factor in the treatment of depression (Brown, 2000; Fagan, 2009). Although the importance of marriage has been broadly studied, little research has investigated correlations among relationship quality, depressive moods, and attachment styles. Although the prevalence of depressive moods has…

  10. Subclinical ADHD, Stress, and Coping in Romantic Relationships of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbey, Gail A.; Snell, William E., Jr.; Callis, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine how the subclinical symptoms of adult ADHD and those of oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) affect relationship satisfaction and stress and to determine whether different patterns of coping strategies emerge when undergraduates have symptoms of one or both disorders. Method: Participants (N = 497) complete self-report surveys…

  11. Fighting Fair: Adaptive Marital Conflict Strategies as Predictors of Future Adolescent Peer and Romantic Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miga, Erin M.; Gdula, Julie Ann; Allen, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between reasoning during inter-parental conflict and autonomous adolescent conflict negotiation with peers over time. Participants included 133 adolescents and their parents, peers, and romantic partners in a multimethod, multiple reporter, longitudinal study. Inter-parental reasoning at adolescent age of 13…

  12. Co-Parenting Relationship Experiences of Black Adolescent Mothers in Active Romantic Partnerships With the Fathers of Their Children.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Thach, Chia T; Shelton, Melissa M; Boyer, Cherrie B

    2015-08-01

    We conducted an interpretive description of co-parenting relationship experiences of romantically involved Black adolescent mothers and fathers with shared biological children. The study was conducted in Brooklyn, New York, using data from individual in-depth interviews with adolescent mothers and fathers (n = 10). Four themes were identified: (a) putting our heads together; (b) balancing childhood and parenthood; (c) less money, more problems; and (d) if we use condoms, it is for contraception. The co-parenting couples managed very complex relationships, but their mutual interest in the welfare of their children was a relational asset. Co-parents had sparse financial resources but used a moral economy strategy to provide mutual support. Future research is needed that focuses on identifying other co-parent relationship assets and integrating and evaluating their utility for enhancing interventions for adolescent families.

  13. Family myths in romantic fiction.

    PubMed

    Kramer, D; Moore, M

    2001-02-01

    Three types of myths frequently appearing in contemporary romantic fiction deal with traditional family values, spousal relationships, and love. Several myths belonging to each type are illustrated and analyzed. It is argued that by naturalizing some behaviors and idealizing others, romantic novels not only may indoctrinate their readers with a patriarchal ideology but also may inculcate upon them pathogenic family processes.

  14. The Mediating Effects of Emotion Regulation and Dyadic Coping on the Relationship Between Romantic Attachment and Non-suicidal Self-injury.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Bureau, Jean-François

    2017-02-01

    Insecure attachment is believed to play a fundamental role in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). In fact, the quality of parent-child attachment relationships has become an emerging topic attracting a growing number of theoretical and research contributions in the field of NSSI. However, despite these considerable advances in the scientific study of NSSI, progress pertaining to investigating the quality of romantic attachment relationship is lacking. In an effort to expand current knowledge, the present study aims to not only explore the relationships between romantic attachment and NSSI, but also to explore the mechanisms by which these two variables relate by examining the mediating role that emotion regulation and dyadic coping might play in this relationship. Participants consisted of 797 (81.9 % female) university students, all of whom were involved in a romantic relationship for at least 6 months and between the ages of 17 and 25. Results revealed that although difficulties in emotion regulation mediated the relationships between romantic attachment insecurity (i.e., attachment anxiety and avoidance) and NSSI, dyadic coping was not found to be a significant mediator. These results highlight the importance of attachment security and internal processes to manage stress in the prevention of NSSI.

  15. Violence in adolescents' romantic relationships: findings from a survey amongst school-going youth in a South African community.

    PubMed

    Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Stevens, Garth; Ricardo, Izabel

    2002-08-01

    This paper reports on a study of heterosexual adolescent dating violence among secondary school students in a South African community. Approximately half of the surveyed males, and just over half of the surveyed females reported involvement in a physically violent dating relationship either as a perpetrator and/or victim. The study found significant associations between the beliefs about violence in a romantic relationship, the witnessing of physical violence in friendship contexts, the use of alcohol and adolescent dating violence. A significant association between familial variables and adolescent dating violence was only found for male participants. No significant association was found between religious participation and adolescent dating violence. The implications for prevention are discussed in an attempt to demonstrate the potential of local information that identifies risk factors for the development of appropriate community- and schools-based intervention programmes.

  16. Mutual influences between partners' hormones shape conflict dialog and relationship duration at the initiation of romantic love.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Inna; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Early-stage romantic love involves reorganization of neurohormonal systems and behavioral patterns marked by mutual influences between the partners' physiology and behavior. Guided by the biobehavioral synchrony conceptual frame, we tested bidirectional influences between the partners' hormones and conflict behavior at the initiation of romantic love. Participants included 120 new lovers (60 couples) and 40 singles. Plasma levels of five affiliation and stress-related hormones were assessed: oxytocin (OT), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (T), cortisol (CT), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Couples were observed in conflict interaction coded for empathy and hostility. CT and DHEAS showed direct actor effects: higher CT and DHEAS predicted greater hostility. OT showed direct partner effects: individuals whose partners had higher OT showed greater empathy. T and CT showed combined actor-partner effects. High T predicted greater hostility only when partner also had high T, but lower hostility when partner had low T. Similarly, CT predicted low empathy only in the context of high partner's CT. Mediational analysis indicated that combined high CT in both partners was associated with relationship breakup as mediated by decrease in empathy. Findings demonstrate the mutual influences between hormones and behavior within an attachment bond and underscore the dynamic, co-regulated, and systemic nature of pair-bond formation in humans.

  17. Negative Mood Regulation Expectancies and Conflict Behaviors in Late Adolescent College Student Romantic Relationships: The Moderating Role of Generalized Attachment Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creasey, Gary; Ladd, Aimee

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to specify associations among negative mood regulation expectancies, generalized attachment representations, and conflict tactics in a sample of college students involved in a romantic relationship. It was predicted that attachment representations would moderate associations between negative mood regulation…

  18. Personality disorders and romantic adult attachment: a comparison of secure and insecure attached child molesters.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, Stefan; Vanheule, Stijn; Desmet, Mattias

    2006-04-01

    This study analyzed personality disorders in a group of 33 securely and 51 insecurely attached child molesters. A total of 51 child molesters were selected from a community based educational training program, and the other group was selected from a Belgian prison (n = 33). Research shows that adult attachment styles and personality disorders share a common underlying structure. It is remarkable that very little is known about differences between securely and insecurely attached child molesters. In this study, the authors found that the schizoid personality disorder differed between securely and insecurely attached child molesters. These findings have implications for the aetiology and treatment of child molesters. Future research is necessary to determine patterns of attachment in relationship to personality disorders.

  19. The Past Is Present: Representations of Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners Predict Subsequent Romantic Representations.

    PubMed

    Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene

    2016-12-28

    This study examined how representations of parent-child relationships, friendships, and past romantic relationships are related to subsequent romantic representations. Two-hundred 10th graders (100 female; Mage  = 15.87 years) from diverse neighborhoods in a Western U.S. city were administered questionnaires and were interviewed to assess avoidant and anxious representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Participants then completed similar questionnaires and interviews about their romantic representations six more times over the next 7.5 years. Growth curve analyses revealed that representations of relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners each uniquely predicted subsequent romantic representations across development. Consistent with attachment and behavioral systems theory, representations of romantic relationships are revised by representations and experiences in other relationships.

  20. Attitudes and practices regarding the formation of romantic relationships on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Donn, Jessica E; Sherman, Richard C

    2002-04-01

    We conducted two studies to examine young adults' attitudes and practices about using the Internet to facilitate the formation of intimate relationships. In the first study, we surveyed 235 undergraduates and 76 Ph.D. students about their attitudes toward and use of the Internet in forming relationships. In the second study, a sample of 40 undergraduates explored real exemplars of matchmaking sites and then answered surveys about their impressions of the sites, while a control group of 51 undergraduates answered the same questions without exploring actual sites. In study one, more graduate students than undergraduates reported meeting someone in person whom they had first met on the Internet, p < 0.05, and had both thought about and taken steps to meet a friend or mate on the Internet, p < 0.01. Graduate students also expressed more positive views of using the Internet to form relationships, p < 0.001. In study two, the exposure group rated the sites less negatively than the control group, p < 0.001, indicating that viewing the sites did mediate opinions. Both groups expressed significant concerns about people lying on matchmaking sites and trying to meet people without using visual cues. Results are discussed in the context of mediation by life stage needs.

  1. Heterosexual romantic relationships, interpersonal needs, and quality of life in prison.

    PubMed

    Carcedo, Rodrigo J; Perlman, Daniel; López, Félix; Begoña Orgaz, M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of having vs. not having a and quality of life. In-person interviews were conducted with 55 male and 64 female inmates from the Topas Penitentiary (Spain). Higher levels of social loneliness and lower levels of sexual satisfaction were associated with lower levels of quality of life. In addition, the interaction between sexual satisfaction and romantic partner status was significant. Higher levels of sexual satisfaction were associated with higher levels of quality of life only for the group without a partner. These findings support a "bad is stronger than good" principle and indicate the detrimental aspects that can be associated with not having a satisfactory sexual life while incarcerated.

  2. Predicting violence in romantic relationships during adolescence and emerging adulthood: a critical review of the mechanisms by which familial and peer influences operate.

    PubMed

    Olsen, James P; Parra, Gilbert R; Bennett, Shira A

    2010-06-01

    For three decades, researchers have sought to gain a greater understanding of the developmental antecedents to later perpetration or victimization of violence in romantic relationships. Whereas the majority of early studies focused on family-of-origin factors, attention in recent years has turned to additional ecologies such as peer relationships. This review highlights accomplishments of both family and peer studies that focus on violent romantic relationships in an effort to summarize the current state of knowledge. Attention is given to epidemiology and developmental family and peer factors, with special attention given to mechanisms that mediate and/or moderate the relation between family and peer factors and later participation in violent relationships. A critical approach is taken throughout the review in order to identify limitations of previous studies, and to highlight key findings. A case is made for viewing these developmental antecedents as a result of multiple developmental ecologies that is perhaps best summarized as a culture of violence.

  3. What do older adults seek in their potential romantic partners? Evidence from online personal ads.

    PubMed

    William, D McIntosh; Locker, Lawrence; Briley, Katherine; Ryan, Rebecca; Scott, Alison J

    2011-01-01

    Because of the dearth of available partners, older women looking to date may have to relax their dating standards to find a dating partner, perhaps accepting a life situation that is not what they had hoped for. However older women may be reluctant to sacrifice an often recently-gained lifestyle free of caregiving obligations. Older men, on the other hand, have a large pool of potential dating partners and do not face the same dilemma. We compared Internet dating profiles for 100 older adults and 100 younger adults, and found that older adults (and especially older women) were more selective than younger adults when it came to the age, race, religion, income, and height of a prospective dating partner. However, older adults were willing to travel substantially farther than younger adults to meet the right partner. These findings paint a clear picture of older Internet daters as eager to meet the right person, but not desperate to meet just anyone.

  4. Young adults' retrospective reports of parenting by mothers and fathers: associations with current relationship quality.

    PubMed

    Dalton, William T; Frick-Horbury, Donna; Kitzmann, Katherine M

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined retrospective reports of both mothers' and fathers' parenting and young adults' (N = 75) relationship quality. Multiple regression analyses showed that, as predicted, young adults' retrospective reports of the positive parenting they experienced as children were significantly related to the extent by which they currently viewed (a) others as accessible and responsive, (b) their relationships with others as meaningful and important, and (c) themselves as able to form healthy relationships. Although both mothers' and fathers' parenting related to the quality of current relationships with parents, only reports of fathers' parenting were related to the quality of current relationships with a romantic partner. Fathers' parenting was also related to views of the self as being able to form secure and close relationships. The authors address both methodological and substantive explanations for these results.

  5. "They'll Always Find a Way to Get to You": Technology Use in Adolescent Romantic Relationships and Its Role in Dating Violence and Abuse.

    PubMed

    Stonard, Karlie E; Bowen, Erica; Walker, Kate; Price, Shelley A

    2015-06-11

    Electronic communication technology (ECT), such as mobile phones and online communication tools, is widely used by adolescents; however, the availability of such tools may have both positive and negative impacts within the context of romantic relationships. While an established literature has documented the nature, prevalence, and impact of traditional forms of adolescent dating violence and abuse (ADVA), limited empirical investigation has focused on the role of ECT in ADVA or what shall be termed technology-assisted adolescent dating violence and abuse (TAADVA) and how adolescents perceive the impact of TAADVA relative to ADVA. In this article, the authors explore the role ECT plays in adolescent romantic relationships and psychologically abusive and controlling ADVA behaviors and its perceived impact. An opportunity sample of 52 adolescents (22 males and 30 females) between the ages of 12 and 18 years participated in the study. One all-female and seven mixed-gendered semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Thematic analysis was used to identify three superordinate themes, including (a) perceived healthy versus unhealthy communication, (b) perceived monitoring and controlling communication, and (c) perceived impact of technology-assisted abuse compared with that in person. While ECTs had a positive impact on the development and maintenance of adolescent romantic relationships, such tools also provided a new avenue for unhealthy, harassment, monitoring, and controlling behaviors within these relationships. ECT was also perceived to provide unique impacts in terms of making TAADVA seem both less harmful and more harmful than ADVA experienced in person. Adolescents' perceptions and experiences of ECT in romantic relationships and TAADVA may also vary be gender. Implications of the findings are discussed, and recommendations are made for future research.

  6. Romantic Relationship Length and its Perceived Quality: Mediating Role of Facebook-Related Conflict.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, H M Saidur

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Facebook use is leading to negative relationship outcomes such as cheating and breakup by assessing users' perceived relationship qualities. It was hypothesized that Facebook-related conflict will be negatively related with users' relationship length and will also be negatively related with their perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Facebook-related conflict further mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Self-report data were gathered from participants (N = 101) in an online survey by employing standard questionnaires. A set of regression and mediation analyses confirmed all the hypotheses of the study. That is, Facebook-related conflict mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Moreover, the magnitude of mediation was highest for relationship satisfaction. Implications for future research and contributions are discussed.

  7. Relationship Education for Incarcerated Adults.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, Kate Taylor; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Rauer, Amy; Pettit, Gregory S; Erath, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    As relationship education (RE) programs become more widely implemented, it is important to measure and document the changes associated with RE for diverse audiences. Also, researchers have been challenged to examine the impact of RE with more disadvantaged groups. While we are seeing an increase in this area, only three studies have examined RE with an incarcerated sample. These previous studies examined only those currently in a relationship and focused primarily on couple functioning. The aim of this study was to expand the existing literature by examining RE with a broader sample of incarcerated adults, regardless of current relationship status, and to expand our understanding of its association with outcomes beyond the couple domain by also including measures of individual and parental functioning. In addition, we examined whether change from pre- to posttest was moderated by individual characteristics. Using a sample of incarcerated adults (N = 122), the study found positive change in three domains of functioning (couple, individual, and parental). Specifically, results indicated change on five of the eight outcome variables examined. Overall, we found both similarities and differences among program participants on changes from pre- to posttest. For the majority of outcomes, the positive change from pre- to posttest emerged regardless of individual characteristics.

  8. Romantic ideals, mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life: a comparative study of young adults in India and America.

    PubMed

    Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C; Ferenczi, Nelli

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have established that Indians tend to be greater in collectivism and gender role traditionalism than Americans. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these differences explained further cultural differences in romantic beliefs, traditional mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life. Results revealed that Indians reported greater collectivism than Americans and, in turn, held stronger romantic beliefs. Additionally, Indians' greater collectivism and endorsement of more traditional gender roles in part predicted their preferences for a marital partner possessing traditional characteristics, and fully accounted for their heightened concerns about encountering future difficulties in marital life. These results shed light on the processes underlying cultural differences in relationship attitudes and preferences, and point to culture-specific therapies to enhance marital functioning.

  9. Romantic ideals, mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life: a comparative study of young adults in India and America

    PubMed Central

    Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have established that Indians tend to be greater in collectivism and gender role traditionalism than Americans. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these differences explained further cultural differences in romantic beliefs, traditional mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life. Results revealed that Indians reported greater collectivism than Americans and, in turn, held stronger romantic beliefs. Additionally, Indians' greater collectivism and endorsement of more traditional gender roles in part predicted their preferences for a marital partner possessing traditional characteristics, and fully accounted for their heightened concerns about encountering future difficulties in marital life. These results shed light on the processes underlying cultural differences in relationship attitudes and preferences, and point to culture-specific therapies to enhance marital functioning. PMID:25520681

  10. Social Dominance in Romantic Relationships: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Non-Verbal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The study of social dominance has a long tradition within the peer relationships literature, but rarely has the topic been investigated observationally and longitudinally within other salient close relationships. The present study investigated the role of experiences in social relationships and adjustment indices in childhood in predicting later…

  11. Marriage and mental health among young adults.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy E

    2012-03-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695), I find that married young adults exhibit levels of psychological distress that are similar to those of young adults in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults also report lower frequency of drunkenness than those who are not in a romantic relationship. Married young adults, especially those who first married at ages 22 to 26, report higher life satisfaction than those in other type of romantic relationships,those in no romantic relationship, and those who married prior to age 22. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed.

  12. Of Sex and Romance: Late Adolescent Relationships and Young Adult Union Formation.

    PubMed

    Raley, R Kelly; Crissey, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2007-11-11

    To better understand the social factors that influence the diverse pathways to family formation young adults experience today, this research investigates the association between opposite-gender relationships during late adolescence and union formation in early adulthood. Using data from the first and third waves of the Add Health (n = 4,911), we show that, for both men and women, there is continuity between adolescent and adult relationship experiences. Those involved in adolescent romantic relationships at the end of high school are more likely to marry and to cohabit in early adulthood. Moreover, involvement in a nonromantic sexual relationship is positively associated with cohabitation, but not marriage. We conclude that the precursors to union formation patterns in adulthood are observable in adolescence.

  13. The Impact of Sex Work on Women’s Personal Romantic Relationships and the Mental Separation of Their Work and Personal Lives: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Bellhouse, Clare; Crebbin, Susan; Fairley, Christopher K.; Bilardi, Jade E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Very limited research has been undertaken on sex workers’ personal romantic relationships and the impact the nature of their work has on their relationships. This exploratory study aimed to explore the impact sex work has on women’s personal romantic relationships and the use of mental separation as a coping mechanism to balance the two aspects of their lives. Methods Fifty-five women working in the indoor sex industry in Melbourne, Australia, were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire about various aspects of their work, including the impact of sex work on their personal relationships. Questionnaires were completed anonymously and included both closed and open-ended questions. A further six women were interviewed to ‘member check’ the accuracy of the questionnaire findings. Results Most women (78%) reported that, overall, sex work affected their personal romantic relationships in predominantly negative ways, mainly relating to issues stemming from lying, trust, guilt and jealousy. A small number of women reported positive impacts from sex work including improved sexual self-esteem and confidence. Just under half of women were in a relationship at the time of the study and, of these, 51% reported their partner was aware of the nature of their work. Seventy-seven percent of single women chose to remain single due to the nature of their work. Many women used mental separation as a coping mechanism to manage the tensions between sex work and their personal relationships. Member checking validated the accuracy of the questionnaire data. Conclusion This exploratory study identified a number of ways in which sex work impacts negatively on women’s personal romantic relationships. The findings of this study support the need for further studies to be undertaken to determine if the findings are reflected in a larger, more representative sample of Australian sex workers and should be considered in the context of any future intervention and

  14. A Qualitative Investigation of College Students' Facebook Usage and Romantic Relationships: Implications for College Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrell, Renee S.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2016-01-01

    The use of social media is a societal trend influencing the way that individuals communicate with and relate to one another. Moreover, Facebook use may facilitate or hinder individuals' relationship growth and development. The purpose of this article is to (a) review research examining Facebook usage and interpersonal relationships, (b) present…

  15. Social Stigma and Sexual Minorities' Romantic Relationship Functioning: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    PubMed

    Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa

    2015-10-01

    To bolster knowledge of determinants of relationship functioning among sexual minorities, the current meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively review evidence for the association between social stigma and relationship functioning as well as examine potential moderators. Thirty-five studies were identified, including 130 effect sizes (39 independent; N = 10,745). Across studies, evidence was found for a small but significant inverse association between social stigma and relationship functioning. Furthermore, this association was moderated by stigma type (with more deleterious associations for internalized relative to perceived stigma) and dimension of relationship functioning (with more deleterious associations for affective relative to cognitive and negative relative to positive). Evidence for demographic moderators (region, sex, race, age) was generally mixed although important limitations related to unique characteristics of study samples are discussed. We conclude by highlighting the importance of social stigma for relationship functioning and point toward directions for future research and policy action.

  16. Social Stigma and Sexual Minorities’ Romantic Relationship Functioning: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    To bolster knowledge of determinants of relationship functioning among sexual minorities, the current meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively review evidence for the association between social stigma and relationship functioning as well as examine potential moderators. Thirty-five studies were identified, including 130 effect sizes (39 independent; N = 10,745). Across studies, evidence was found for a small but significant inverse association between social stigma and relationship functioning. Furthermore, this association was moderated by stigma type (with more deleterious associations for internalized relative to perceived stigma) and dimension of relationship functioning (with more deleterious associations for affective relative to cognitive and negative relative to positive). Evidence for demographic moderators (region, sex, race, age) was generally mixed although important limitations related to unique characteristics of study samples are discussed. We conclude by highlighting the importance of social stigma for relationship functioning and point toward directions for future research and policy action. PMID:26199218

  17. Regional brain activity during early-stage intense romantic love predicted relationship outcomes after 40 months: an fMRI assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Brown, Lucy; Aron, Arthur; Cao, Guikang; Feng, Tingyong; Acevedo, Bianca; Weng, Xuchu

    2012-09-20

    Early-stage romantic love is associated with activation in reward and motivation systems of the brain. Can these localized activations, or others, predict long-term relationship stability? We contacted participants from a previous fMRI study of early-stage love by Xu et al. [34] after 40 months from initial assessments. We compared brain activation during the initial assessment at early-stage love for those who were still together at 40 months and those who were apart, and surveyed those still together about their relationship happiness and commitment at 40 months. Six participants who were still with their partners at 40 months (compared to six who had broken up) showed less activation during early-stage love in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, right subcallosal cingulate and right accumbens, regions implicated in long-term love and relationship satisfaction [1,2]. These regions of deactivation at the early stage of love were also negatively correlated with relationship happiness scores collected at 40 months. Other areas involved were the caudate tail, and temporal and parietal lobes. These data are preliminary evidence that neural responses in the early stages of romantic love can predict relationship stability and quality up to 40 months later in the relationship. The brain regions involved suggest that forebrain reward functions may be predictive for relationship stability, as well as regions involved in social evaluation, emotional regulation, and mood.

  18. Self-perceived attractiveness, romantic desirability and self-esteem: a mating sociometer perspective.

    PubMed

    Bale, Christopher; Archer, John

    2013-01-26

    Sociometer theory proposes that self-esteem is an adaptation which evolved to monitor and regulate interpersonal relationships. It is therefore sensitive to self-assessments in domains relevant to relational desirability. Positive relationships between self-perceived physical attractiveness and self-esteem found in previous studies may reflect the functioning of a mating sociometer, designed to monitor individuals' desirability as romantic or sexual partners. We thus predicted that these relationships should be mediated by self-perceptions of romantic desirability, or more specifically, individuals' confidence in their abilities to successfully establish and maintain romantic relationships. Two hundred and eighty seven young adults (98 male) completed an online measure of self-perceived attractiveness, together with measures of self-confidence in appearance and romantic relationships, body-esteem and global self-esteem. Linear regression analyses indicated that self-perceived attractiveness, self-confidence in appearance and body-esteem all significantly predicted self-esteem, and that in each case, the relationship was mediated by romantic self-confidence. Self-perceived attractiveness predicted self-esteem significantly more strongly in females than in males. We discuss these results in relation to sociometer and parental investment theories, and explore limitations and future directions.

  19. Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

  20. Dating and Disclosure: Adolescent Management of Information regarding Romantic Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddis, Christopher; Randolph, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary disclosure regarding romantic involvement was examined in a sample of 222 middle and late adolescents (124 female adolescents, M = 16.19 years). Disclosure was described with three empirically derived, conceptually meaningful composites that pertained to identity/choice of romantic partner, everyday expression of romantic relationship,…

  1. Adolescent daughters' romantic competence: the role of divorce, quality of parenting, and maternal romantic history.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Shmuel; Zlotnik, Aynat; Shachar-Shapira, Lital; Connolly, Jennifer; Bohr, Yvonne

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the links between parental divorce, quality of maternal parenting, spousal relationships and middle adolescent romantic competence in 80 mother-adolescent daughter pairs (40 divorced). Mothers were asked to describe their attitudes and behaviors with regard to their daughters' romantic behavior. In addition, mothers were interviewed about their own romantic experiences when they were at the age of their daughters. Adolescent girls (mean age = 16.98 years; range 16-18) were administered a comprehensive interview about romantic competence. Findings indicated that adolescent girls from divorced families showed lower levels of romantic competence, which were expressed in their behavior, attitudes toward relationships and skill in handling those relationships. Divorce was found to have had an adverse effect on girls' romantic competence, whereas continued adaptive parenting and spousal relationships alleviated the effect of divorce. Mothers' coherent representation of their own adolescent romantic experiences also alleviated the effect of divorce on daughters' romantic behavior. Results show the important role of family relationships in fostering romantic competence among adolescent girls.

  2. Self-Esteem, Demand for Approval and the Facilitativeness of a Romantic Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    There is some empirical support for the person-centred hypothesis that self-esteem is positively associated with having a facilitative relationship. Rational emotive behaviour theory suggests such an association is more likely to occur in people holding the irrational belief that they must be approved by others while person-centred theory may…

  3. Rural Adolescent Boys' Negotiating Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: "We Need to Sacrifice Our Brains"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dmytro, Dana; Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Hoard, Ryan; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-four adolescent boys in Grades 9 to 12 in a rural New Brunswick high school engaged in focused discussions that were analyzed using grounded theory to determine their heterosexual dating relationship processes. A theory was created from exchange transcriptions. The core category was "wrestling with gendered expectations,"…

  4. Young Adult Relationship Values at the Intersection of Gender and Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Kathleen E.; Ortyl, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent decades have brought significant social changes in the industrialized West that may influence young adults’ attitudes about intimate relationships, including changes in gender expectations and behaviors and changes in sexual attitudes and practices. We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (N=14,121) to compare men to women, and sexual minorities to heterosexuals, on ratings of the importance of love, faithfulness, commitment, financial security, and racial homogamy for successful relationships. We found that nearly all young adults adhere to dominant relationship values inherent in the romantic love ideology; however, we found modest but significant differences by gender and sexual identity in relationship values. Significant interactions demonstrated that gender and sexual identity intersect to uniquely influence relationship views. PMID:23710079

  5. Oxytocin during the initial stages of romantic attachment: Relations to couples’ interactive reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Inna; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Leckman, James F.; Feldman, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Summary Romantic relationships can have a profound effect on adults’ health and well-being whereas the inability to maintain intimate bonds has been associated with physical and emotional distress. Studies in monogamous mammalian species underscore the central role of oxytocin (OT) in pair-bonding and human imaging studies implicate OT-rich brain areas in early romantic love. To assess the role of OT in romantic attachment, we examined plasma OT in 163 young adults: 120 new lovers (60 couples) three months after the initiation of their romantic relationship and 43 non-attached singles. Twenty-five of the 36 couples who stayed together were seen again six months later. Couples were observed in dyadic interactions and were each interviewed regarding relationship-related thoughts and behaviors. OT was significantly higher in new lovers compared to singles, F(1, 152) = 109.33, p < .001, which may suggest increased activity of the oxytocinergic system during the early stages of romantic attachment. These high levels of OT among new lovers did not decrease six months later and showed high individual stability. OT correlated with the couples’ interactive reciprocity, including social focus, positive affect, affectionate touch, and synchronized dyadic states, and with anxieties and worries regarding the partner and the relationship, findings which parallel those described for parent–infant bonding. OT levels at the first assessment differentiated couples who stayed together six months later from those who separated during this period. Regression analysis showed that OT predicted interactive reciprocity independent of sex, relationship duration, and the partner’s OT. Findings suggest that OT may play an important role at the first stages of romantic attachment and lend support to evolutionary models suggesting that parental and romantic attachment share underlying bio-behavioral mechanisms. PMID:22281209

  6. Emotion Regulation and Perceptions of Hostile and Constructive Criticism in Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sarah R; Renshaw, Keith D; Curby, Timothy W

    2016-03-01

    Perceptions of hostile criticism (PHC) from close others are associated with poor individual functioning and low relationship satisfaction, whereas perceptions of constructive criticism (PCC) are associated with better relationship satisfaction. There is little empirical knowledge, however, regarding individual factors that contribute to such perceptions. The present study examined associations of overall emotion regulation difficulties, as well as the specific use of expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal, with PHC and PCC. Both partners of 63 community couples completed global self-report measures. Sixty-one couples also completed similar measures immediately following each of three discussions during a laboratory session. Multilevel modeling analyses of global data indicated that individuals' reports of PHC were higher when they used more suppression and when both they and their partners reported greater difficulty in emotion regulation. Results with discussion-specific data were similar: Participants reported higher PHC in discussions when both they and their partners reported using more suppression or when they had more difficulties in emotion regulation during the discussions. Individuals reported higher levels of PCC when their partners reported using less suppression, both globally and in discussions. Finally, participants also reported higher levels of PCC in discussions when they reported using more reappraisal.

  7. Attachment insecurity, biased perceptions of romantic partners' negative emotions, and hostile relationship behavior.

    PubMed

    Overall, Nickola C; Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Fillo, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    In the current research, we tested the extent to which attachment insecurity produces inaccurate and biased perceptions of intimate partners' emotions and whether more negative perceptions of partners' emotions elicit the damaging behavior often associated with attachment insecurity. Perceptions of partners' emotions as well as partners' actual emotions were assessed multiple times in couples' conflict discussions (Study 1) and daily during a 3-week period in 2 independent samples (Study 2). Using partners' reports of their own emotional experiences as the accuracy benchmark, we simultaneously tested whether attachment insecurity was associated with the degree to which individuals (a) accurately detected shifts in their partners' negative emotions (tracking accuracy), and (b) perceived their partners were feeling more negative relationship-related emotions than they actually experienced (directional bias). Highly avoidant perceivers were equally accurate at tracking their partners' changing emotions compared to less avoidant individuals (tracking accuracy), but they overestimated the intensity of their partners' negative emotions to a greater extent than less avoidant individuals (directional bias). In addition, more negative perceptions of partners' emotions triggered more hostile and defensive behavior in highly avoidant perceivers both during conflict discussions (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In contrast, attachment anxiety was not associated with tracking accuracy, directional bias, or hostile reactions to perceptions of their partners' negative emotions. These findings demonstrate the importance of assessing biased perceptions in actual relationship interactions and reveal that biased perceptions play an important role in activating the defenses of avoidantly attached people.

  8. Relationship Characteristics Associated with the Experience of Hurt in Romantic Relationships: A Test of the Relational Turbulence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Jennifer A.; Knobloch, Leanne K.; Checton, Maria G.; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate

    2009-01-01

    We employed the relational turbulence model to identify (a) relationship characteristics associated with people's appraisals of hurtful messages, and (b) features of hurtful episodes and relationship characteristics that correspond with the directness of communication about hurt. We conducted a study in which 135 dating couples reported on their…

  9. Marriage and romantic involvement among aged African Americans.

    PubMed

    Tucker, M B; Taylor, R J; Mitchell-Kernan, C

    1993-05-01

    This study examined the extent and structural correlates of marriage, romantic involvement, and preference for romantic involvement among older adults in a national sample of African Americans. Multivariate analyses indicated that gender, age, education, income, and urban residence were important predictors of marriage and romantic involvement. In particular, men and younger respondents were more likely than women and older respondents to be married, have a romantic involvement, or be desirous of a romantic involvement. The effects of the decreased probability of marriage for future cohorts of older African American women on their supportive networks, living arrangements, and income adequacy are discussed.

  10. Adolescent Friend Similarity on Alcohol Abuse as a Function of Participation in Romantic Relationships: Sometimes a New Love Comes between Old Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical…

  11. Does power help or hurt? The moderating role of self-other focus on power and perspective-taking in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Amie M; Chen, Serena

    2013-08-01

    Reconciling competing viewpoints suggesting that power helps and hurts perspective-taking in close relationships, in two experiments and two daily experience studies we tested the hypothesis that power's effect on perspective-taking depends on the extent to which people are relatively self-versus other-focused. In Study 1, recalling a time of high (vs. low) power over a romantic partner reduced inclinations to take the partner's perspective for relatively self-focused but not other-focused individuals. Studies 2 and 3 replicated Study 1 using daily variations in power and perspective-taking. In Study 4, being the "in-charge" partner during a conflict conversation reduced empathic accuracy for more self-focused individuals. Self-other focus was assessed with measures of gratitude, relational self-construal, and social value orientation. The current findings provide evidence that, particularly for the more self-focused, relationship power influences people's inclinations to take their romantic partner's perspective in daily life as well as their empathic accuracy during conflict.

  12. Adolescent Daughters' Romantic Competence: The Role of Divorce, Quality of Parenting, and Maternal Romantic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Zlotnik, Aynat; Shachar-Shapira, Lital; Connolly, Jennifer; Bohr, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the links between parental divorce, quality of maternal parenting, spousal relationships and middle adolescent romantic competence in 80 mother-adolescent daughter pairs (40 divorced). Mothers were asked to describe their attitudes and behaviors with regard to their daughters' romantic behavior. In addition, mothers were…

  13. Risking it for Love: Romantic Relationships and Early Pubertal Development Confer Risk for later Disruptive Behavior Disorders in African-American Girls Receiving Psychiatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Erin M.; Nichols, Sara; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptive behavior problems (DBP) represent a growing concern for young women (e.g., Snyder & Sickmund, 2006), but gender-specific investigations have been traditionally underrepresented in this area. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations among gender-relevant risk factors for DBP among 217 African American girls in psychiatric care. African American girls, 12–16 years old (M=14.6; SD=1.2), and their primary female caregivers (N=254) were recruited from outpatient mental health clinics and reported on girls’ DBP, heterosexual dating experiences (romantic and sexual), peer relationships, pubertal development, and self-silencing at baseline, 6-, and 12-months. Structural Equation Modeling examined evidence for full versus mediated (via self-silencing) models and the structural relationships (direct and indirect) among key study variables. Results suggest that the full model was a significantly better fit than the mediated model as indicated by a Chi-squared difference test (p < .01). In the full model, direct effects of greater romantic dating experiences and lower quality peer relationships at baseline predicted DBP at 12-months. Sexual dating experiences were more strongly linked with DBP at 12-months for early maturing compared to average or later maturing girls. Indirect effects analyses suggested that girls’ suppression of relational needs, assessed through a measure of self-silencing, explained the association between peer relationships and DBP. Findings highlight the importance of the relational context for girls’ DBP, with treatment implications supporting relationship-based models of care, early intervention, and skill building around negotiating needs with peers and partners. PMID:24748499

  14. Pathways to Relationship Aggression between Adult Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Dean M.; Holman, Thomas B.; Walker, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the pathways to adult aggression beginning in the family of origin (FOO) and continuing through adult relationships were investigated. With a sample of 30,600 individuals, a comprehensive model was evaluated that included the unique influences of violent victimization in the family, witnessing parental violence, perpetrating…

  15. "You're not getting married for the moon and the stars": The uncertainties of older British widowers about the idea of new romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kate M; Arnott, Lauren; Soulsby, Laura K

    2013-12-01

    Older widowers are more likely to remarry than older widowed women. However, relatively little is known about the attitudes of older widowers to new romantic relationships and remarriage or repartnering. In this study of 60 widowers, more than half spontaneously discussed their attitudes toward, and experiences of, these relationships. However, none of the widowers had remarried and of those who described themselves as repartnered only one was cohabiting. We examine these data in the light of Lopata's concept of 'husband sanctification' (1981). We identify four themes. First, some widowers do sanctify their late wives. Second, we argue that wife sanctification contributes to widowers' uncertainties about repartnering. Third, when widowers make decisions to repartner, wife sanctification does not appear to make an important contribution. Finally, there is evidence to suggest that wife sanctification influences how men refer to their new women friends. Thus, we conclude by arguing that wife sanctification influences widowers' decisions surrounding remarriage/repartnering.

  16. My beliefs of my peers' beliefs: exploring the gendered nature of social norms in adolescent romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, Jodie L; Rowley, Rochelle Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Dating violence in adolescent relationships is a growing social problem in the United States. A majority of adolescents have dated by the time they finish high school and these experiences have an impact on their relationship trajectories as adults. Although more and more prevention efforts are aimed at reducing teen dating violence and/or teaching adolescents about healthy relationships, very few of these efforts investigate discrepancies in descriptive and injunctive norms associated with adolescent dating. This pilot study adds to the existing literature by investigating the dating norms of early and mid-adolescents to aid in tailoring prevention efforts among this population. One hundred eighty-seven middle and high school student leaders from public schools in the Midwest completed an annual relationship survey. Findings suggest that participants did not support unhealthy relationship norms overall. However, two patterns of discrepancies emerged: one between participant attitudes (descriptive norms) and their perceptions of peer attitudes (injunctive norms), and another between perceptions participants hold about their male versus female peers' beliefs. Results imply the development of pluralistic ignorance occurs during adolescence and that perceptions of peer norms are in line with the principles of hegemonic masculinity. Implications for possible prevention initiatives and future research directions are noted.

  17. Irrational Beliefs and Abuse in University Students' Romantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaygusuz, Canani

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: The complex nature of romantic relationships, in general, makes the continuation of these relationships a challenge. This situation is even more problematic in traditional societies, as social norms for these relations are more strict and more disciplinarian. University students want to be in romantic relationships due to their…

  18. Do Incest, Depression, Parental Drinking, Serious Romantic Relationships, and Living with Parents Influence Patterns of Substance Use During Emerging Adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Susan M.; Rubenstein, Casey

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how incest, depression, parental drinking, relationship status, and living with parents affect patterns of substance use among emerging adults, 18 to 25 years old. The study sample included (n = 11,546) individuals who participated in Waves I, II, and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study used separate latent class analysis for males and females to determine how patterns of substance use clustered together. The study identified the following three classes of substance use: heavy, moderate, and normative substance use patterns. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that, for females only, incest histories also nearly doubled the risk of heavy-use class membership. In addition, experiencing depression, being single, and not living with parents serve as risk factors for males and females in the heavy-use group. Conversely, being Black, Hispanic, or living with parents lowered the likelihood of being in the group with the most substance use behaviors (i.e., heavy use). Findings highlight the need for interventions that target depression and female survivors of incest among emerging adults. PMID:25052877

  19. Do incest, depression, parental drinking, serious romantic relationships, and living with parents influence patterns of substance use during emerging adulthood?

    PubMed

    Snyder, Susan M; Rubenstein, Casey

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how incest, depression, parental drinking, relationship status, and living with parents affect patterns of substance use among emerging adults, 18 to 25 years old. The study sample included (n = 11,546) individuals who participated in Waves I, II, and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study used separate latent class analysis for males and females to determine how patterns of substance use clustered together. The study identified the following three classes of substance use: heavy, moderate, and normative substance use patterns. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that, for females only, incest histories also nearly doubled the risk of heavy-use class membership. In addition, experiencing depression, being single, and not living with parents serve as risk factors for males and females in the heavy-use group. Conversely, being Black, Hispanic, or living with parents lowered the likelihood of being in the group with the most substance use behaviors (i.e., heavy use). Findings highlight the need for interventions that target depression and female survivors of incest among emerging adults.

  20. “Is this normal? Is this not normal? There’s no set example”: Sexual Health Intervention Preferences of LGBT Youth in Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Greene, George J.; Fisher, Kimberly A.; Kuper, Laura; Andrews, Rebecca; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Limited research has examined the romantic relationships of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth (LGBT) despite evidence of relationship-oriented risks, including STI/HIV infection, unplanned pregnancy, and interpersonal violence. In efforts to inform future dyadic sexual health interventions for LGBT youth, this couples-based study aimed to identify the most salient sexual and relationships concerns of young same-sex couples and to assess their preferences for intervention content and format. Participants were a subset 36 young, racially and ethnically diverse, same-sex couples (N = 72 individuals) recruited from two on-going longitudinal studies. Interviews were coded using a constant comparison method and a process of inductive and deductive thematic analysis was used to interpret the data. The analysis yielded the following intervention themes: addressing sexual risk and protective behaviors, improving communication, coping with family and relationship violence, and identifying role models and sources of support. The couples reported a clear preference for small group interventions and many recommended a mixed format approach for intervention delivery (i.e., including dyadic and online sessions). Additionally, recommendations for participant recruitment included a combination of Internet-based and social network referrals. PMID:25678895

  1. Perceived Body Image Satisfaction: Impact on Romantic Relationships of African American Adult Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Candy H.

    2009-01-01

    The size, shape and physical attractiveness of a woman's body are linked to her sexuality. As women age, changes occur to their bodies that may cause them anxiety over the socially constructed body image norms that are promoted within this society. Researchers posit that the standard of our culture seems to create more problems for women as they…

  2. Environmental Unpredictability in Childhood Is Associated With Anxious Romantic Attachment and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K

    2016-03-27

    Human life history theory describes how resources are allocated among conflicting life tasks, including trade-offs concerning reproduction. The current research investigates the unique importance of environmental unpredictability in childhood in association with romantic attachment, and explores whether objective or subjective measures of environmental risk are more informative for testing life history hypotheses. We hypothesize that (1) unpredictability in childhood will be associated with greater anxious attachment, (2) anxious attachment will be associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, and (3) anxious attachment will mediate the relationship between unpredictability in childhood and IPV perpetration. In two studies (totaln= 391), participants in a heterosexual, romantic relationship completed self-report measures of childhood experiences, romantic attachment, and IPV perpetration. Study 1 provides support for Hypothesis 1. Hypothesis 1 is replicated only for men, but not women, in Study 2. Results of Study 2 provide support for Hypothesis 2 for men and women, and Hypothesis 3 was supported for men but not women. The findings contribute to the literature addressing the association of environmental risk in childhood on adult romantic relationship outcomes.

  3. Is love colorblind? Political orientation and interracial romantic desire.

    PubMed

    Eastwick, Paul W; Richeson, Jennifer A; Son, Deborah; Finkel, Eli J

    2009-09-01

    The present research examined the association of political orientation with ingroup favoritism in two live romantic contexts. In Study 1, White participants had sequential interactions with both a White and Black confederate and reported their romantic desire for each. In Study 2, both White and Black participants speed-dated multiple potential romantic partners and reported whether they would be interested in meeting each speed-dating partner again. In both studies, White participants' political conservatism positively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: White conservatives were less likely than White liberals to desire Black (interracial) relative to White potential romantic partners. In contrast, Black participants' political conservatism negatively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: Consistent with system-justification theory, Black conservatives were more likely than Black liberals to desire White (interracial) relative to Black potential romantic partners. Political orientation may be a key factor that influences the initiation of interracial romantic relationships.

  4. How do I love thee? Let me count the ways: parenting during adolescence, attachment styles, and romantic narratives in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nosko, Amanda; Tieu, Thanh-Thanh; Lawford, Heather; Pratt, Michael W

    2011-05-01

    In this longitudinal study, a quantitative and qualitative examination of the associations among parent-child relations, adult attachment styles, and relationship quality and theme in romantic narratives was conducted. Parenting and adult attachment style were assessed through questionnaires, whereas overall quality of romantic relationships (regard and importance), intimacy, and romantic story theme were examined with a life story approach (McAdams, 1993). At ages 17 and 26 years, 100 participants completed a series of questionnaires and also, at age 26, told a story about a "relationship-defining moment" with a romantic partner. Parent-child relations when participants were 17 years old were related predictably to all three attachment styles. About 70% of the sample told romantic stories with a "true love" type of theme. Associations between parent-child relations when the child was 17 and this type of theme in the story told when the participant was 26 were mediated by a more secure (and a less avoidant) attachment style when the participant was 26, as predicted. The implications of these findings for links between attachment models and the life story are discussed.

  5. Does High Educational Attainment Limit the Availability of Romantic Partners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Isaac; Lewis, Sally V.; Beverly, Monifa G.; Patel, Samir H.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that highly educated individuals endure hardships in finding suitable romantic partners. Romantic hardships affect social and emotional adjustment levels, leading to low self-efficacy in relationship decision making. To address the need for research pertaining to this topic, the authors explored the experiences of eight…

  6. Early Adolescent Romantic Partner Status, Peer Standing, and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a…

  7. The Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships Scale: Associations With Risky Sexual Behavior Among At-Risk African American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Broaddus, Michelle; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative research was used to create the Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships scale. At-risk, predominantly African American emerging adults participated in qualitative interviews (N = 20) and quantitative surveys (N = 110) about their uses of text messaging within romantic and sexual relationships. Exploratory factor analysis of items generated from interviews resulted in four subscales: Sexting, Relationship Maintenance, Relationship Development, and Texting for Sexual Safety. Exploratory analyses indicated associations of Sexting with more instances of condomless sex, and Texting for Sexual Safety with fewer instances of condomless sex, which was moderated by relationship power. Further research on the connections between text messaging in relationships and sexual behavior among high-risk and minority young adults is warranted, and intervention efforts to decrease sexual risks need to incorporate these avenues of sexual communication.

  8. Adverse adolescent relationship histories and young adult health: Cumulative effects of loneliness, low parental support, relationship instability, intimate partner violence and loss

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Emma K.; Chyu, Laura; Hoyt, Lindsay; Doane, Leah D.; Boisjoly, Johanne; Duncan, Greg; Chase-Lansdale, Lindsay; McDade, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the associations between adverse interpersonal relationship histories experienced during adolescence and health in young adulthood in a large, nationally representative sample. Methods Using data from Waves I, II and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, multiple adverse relationship experiences are examined, including high loneliness, low perceived parental support, frequent transitions in romantic relationships (relationship instability), exposure to intimate partner violence, and loss by death of important relationship figures. These histories are assessed, both individually and in a relationship risk index, as predictors of self-reported general health and depressive symptoms at Wave III (ages 18 to 27), controlling for baseline (Wave I) health and for demographic and health behavior covariates. Results Net of baseline health and covariates, each type of relationship risk (experienced between Wave I and Wave III) was related to either depression or general health at Wave III, with the strongest effects seen for exposure to intimate partner violence. In addition, a cumulative relationship risk index examining the extent to which youth experienced high levels of multiple relationship risk factors revealed that each additional adverse relationship experience increased the odds of reporting poor mental and general health at Wave III, with increases occurring in an additive manner. Conclusions Multiple types of adverse relationship experiences predicted increases in poor general health and depressive symptoms from adolescence to early adulthood. Consistent with a cumulative risk hypothesis, the more types of adverse relationship experiences a youth experienced, the worse their young adult health outcomes. PMID:21856520

  9. Love and hooking up in the new millennium: communication technology and relationships among urban African American and Puerto Rican young adults.

    PubMed

    Bergdall, Anna R; Kraft, Joan Marie; Andes, Karen; Carter, Marion; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Hock-Long, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Communication technology is a central feature of young people's lives, but its role in romantic and sexual relationships has not been thoroughly examined. This article describes how young adults use communication technology for partnering across relationship stages (formation, maintenance, and dissolution) and types (serious/casual), and proposes implications of usage in relationships. This study analyzed qualitative data from a five-week, prospective, coital diary method with related debriefing interviews (N = 70) of African American and Puerto Rican men and women aged 18 to 25 years in Hartford and Philadelphia. Cell phones, including calls, text messaging, and mobile Internet, were the most common forms of communication technology used for partnering goals. Participants reported using cell phones to pursue partnering goals across all relationship stages, including formation (meeting, screening, and getting to know new partners), maintaining existing relationships, and breaking up. Cell phone uses depended on the type of relationship (serious/casual) and the participants' intentions and desires. Results indicated that cell phones are an important element of communication among young adults in romantic and sexual relationships. Specific features of cell phone communication shape the process and context of partnering. Future research should explore emerging communication technologies and implications for psychosocial development, dating violence, and sexual behavior.

  10. Perceived Closeness in Adult Sibling Relationships: Origins, Maintenance, and Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Helgola G.; Dalton, Mary Jo

    Research on adult sibling relationships suggests a concern about the quality of these relationships. The meaning of closeness in sibling relationships across the adult life span, its perceived origins, maintenance, and dynamics, were investigated in a sample of 55 adults ranging in age from 25 to 93 years. Semi-structured interviews with the…

  11. Early Adolescent Romantic Partner Status, Peer Standing, and Problem Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A

    2009-12-01

    This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a romantic partner. Similarly, youth perceived as conventional and unconventional leaders were also more likely to have a romantic partner than were non-leaders. Youth who had a romantic partner drank more alcohol and were more aggressive than were youth who did not have a romantic partner. Among those youth who had romantic partners, those who reported having more deviance-prone partners were themselves more likely to use alcohol and to be more aggressive, and those who engaged in deviant behavior with their partners used more alcohol. However, these associations varied somewhat by gender. These findings underscore the salience of early romantic partner relationships in the adjustment of early adolescents.

  12. Pedagogy and "Romantic" Love

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper, which is significantly inspired by and based upon aspects of the writings of particular British nineteenth-century Romantic poets, outlines a positive, necessary even, role for friendship, love and passion in pedagogy.

  13. Conflict with Friends, Relationship Blindness, and the Pathway to Adult Disagreeableness

    PubMed Central

    Hafen, Christopher A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Schad, Megan M.; Hessel, Elenda T.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form and maintain relationships with friends and romantic partners is a major developmental task for adolescents. Disagreeable youth are likely to struggle with this task, yet little is known about how they maintain their oppositional style from adolescence to adulthood. The current study examines the long-term implications of disagreeableness in a diverse sample of 164 adolescents assessed repeatedly across a 10-year period along with their friends and romantic partners. Disagreeableness at age 14–15 was assessed in observation with friends. Disagreeableness was then examined as a predictor of both future relationship quality with friends at age 16 and romantic relationships at age 21. The results indicate that although disagreeable youth do not report any relationship struggles, both their friends and romantic partners see their relationships as being low in quality. Findings suggest a developmental process by which disagreeable adolescents maintain their oppositional style through a mechanism of relationship blindness, as they simply are unable to see the relationship issues that their friends and partners clearly perceive. PMID:25937688

  14. Conflict with Friends, Relationship Blindness, and the Pathway to Adult Disagreeableness.

    PubMed

    Hafen, Christopher A; Allen, Joseph P; Schad, Megan M; Hessel, Elenda T

    2015-07-01

    The ability to form and maintain relationships with friends and romantic partners is a major developmental task for adolescents. Disagreeable youth are likely to struggle with this task, yet little is known about how they maintain their oppositional style from adolescence to adulthood. The current study examines the long-term implications of disagreeableness in a diverse sample of 164 adolescents assessed repeatedly across a 10-year period along with their friends and romantic partners. Disagreeableness at age 14-15 was assessed in observation with friends. Disagreeableness was then examined as a predictor of both future relationship quality with friends at age 16 and romantic relationships at age 21. The results indicate that although disagreeable youth do not report any relationship struggles, both their friends and romantic partners see their relationships as being low in quality. Findings suggest a developmental process by which disagreeable adolescents maintain their oppositional style through a mechanism of relationship blindness, as they simply are unable to see the relationship issues that their friends and partners clearly perceive.

  15. NGF and romantic love.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Enzo

    2011-06-01

    Romantic love is the catalyst behind the spread of the human life. The neurobiology of love embraces the hypothesis that what we call "romantic attachment" or "romantic love" may be at least in part the expression of biological factors. A corollary of this hypothesis states that it is possible to learn much about the nature of human love by studying the molecules involved in the expression of social and affiliative behaviours. Under this theoretical framework, we have investigated the changes in plasma neurotrophin levels in subjects with early stage romantic love. A positive association between the intensity of early romantic feelings and serum levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) has been identified. These findings link love with biologically relevant pathways for neuron survival and illuminate the biochemical correlates of such a complex feeling that so deeply affects our own lives. The progresses in the neurobiology of love suggest that this kind of research may open a new window onto our understanding of the very nature of human romantic bonding.

  16. Perceived impact of body feedback from romantic partners on young adults' body image and sexual well-being.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Kaitlyn M; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the messages individuals receive from their partners about their bodies and their perceived impact on body image and sexual well-being. Young adult men (n=35) and women (n=57) completed open-ended questions identifying messages they had received from partners and the impact of these messages on their body image and sexual well-being. Content coding revealed three verbal (expressions of approval and pride, challenging negative beliefs, expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) and two nonverbal (physical affection, physical expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) positive messages as well as one verbal (disapproval/disgust) and two nonverbal (rejection, humiliation) negative messages. Some participants reported gender-related messages (muscularity/strength, genital appearance, breast appearance, weight, and comparison to others). Positive messages were seen to increase confidence, self-acceptance, and sexual empowerment/fulfillment, whereas negative messages decreased these feelings. Our findings suggest that even everyday, seemingly neutral messages are perceived to have an important impact on young adults.

  17. Commitment: Functions, Formation, and the Securing of Romantic Attachment.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Scott M; Rhoades, Galena K; Whitton, Sarah W

    2010-12-01

    In this theoretical paper, we review central concepts in the psychological literature on relationship commitment to provide a foundation to discuss two themes related to long-term romantic relationships and marriages. First, we describe and discuss the role that commitment plays in stabilizing romantic attachment. Second, we use empirical research on cohabitation to highlight how the formation of commitment can be undermined by what are now common trajectories of couple development. The first topic underscores an increasingly important role for commitment in an age of companionate marriage. The second topic draws attention to dynamics that can affect the strength of romantic commitments, especially in marriage.

  18. The green eyed monster in the bottle: Relationship contingent self-esteem, romantic jealousy, and alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    DiBello, Angelo M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Hadden, Benjamin W; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-10-01

    Previous research suggests that both jealousy and relationship contingent self-esteem (RCSE) are related to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. No work, however, has examined these two constructs together as they relate to motives for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. The current study aims to build upon emerging literature examining different types of jealousy (i.e., emotional, cognitive, and behavioral), relationship quality (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, closeness), RCSE, and alcohol use. More specifically, the current study aimed to examine the associations between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems, in the context of the different types of jealousy. Moreover, the current study aimed to assess whether the associations between RCSE, jealousy, and drinking outcomes vary as a function of relationship quality. Two hundred and seventy seven individuals (87% female) at a large southern university participated in the study. They completed measures of RCSE, relationship satisfaction, commitment, closeness, and jealousy as well as alcohol-related outcomes. Using PROCESS, moderated mediational analyses were used to evaluate different types of jealousy as mediators of the association between RCSE and drinking to cope/alcohol-related problems. Further, we aimed to examine whether relationship quality moderated the association between RCSE and jealousy in predicting alcohol-related variables. Results indicated that cognitive jealousy mediated the association between both RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Further, relationship satisfaction, commitment, and closeness were all found to moderate the association between RSCE and cognitive jealousy such that at lower, but not higher levels of satisfaction, commitment, and closeness, cognitive jealousy mediated the association between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems.

  19. Victimization and Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: The Influence of Parental and Peer Behaviors, and Individual Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Yeung, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Consistent with the view that adolescent relationships are established in the context of important characteristics of their social networks, we examined the effects of adolescents' experiences of parenting (psychological control and positive monitoring) and of peer aggression and victimization, on their self reports of dating victimization and…

  20. Nonmarital Romantic Relationships and Mental Health in Early Adulthood: Does the Association Differ for Women and Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robin W.; Barrett, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Although social scientists have long assumed that intimate social relationships are more closely associated with women's than men's mental health, recent research indicates that there are no gender differences in the advantages of marriage and disadvantages of unmarried statuses when males' and females' distinct expressions of emotional distress…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of the Associations among Adolescent Conflict Resolution Styles, Depressive Symptoms, and Romantic Relationship Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescents' conflict resolution styles mediated between depressive symptoms and relationship longevity. Data were used from a sample of 80 couples aged 13-19 years old (Mage = 15.48, SD = 1.16). At Time 1 adolescents reported their depressive symptoms and conflict resolution styles. Additionally, time until…

  2. Violence in Adolescents' Romantic Relationships: Findings from a Survey amongst School-Going Youth in a South African Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Stevens, Garth; Ricardo, Izabel

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of heterosexual adolescent dating violence among secondary school students in a South African community. Approximately half of the surveyed males, and just over half of the surveyed females reported involvement in a physically violent dating relationship either as a perpetrator and/or victim. The study found…

  3. How a Supportive Partner May Increase Relationship Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The way in which satisfaction with a romantic relationship may be affected by how supportive a partner is and how constructively they deal with conflict in that relationship was examined in young adults. Both greater support and less conflict were found to be independently associated with relationship satisfaction, implying that both are necessary…

  4. To Stay or To Leave? The Role of Attachment Styles in Communication Patterns and Potential Termination of Romantic Relationships Following Discovery of Deception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Su Ahn; Smith, Sandi W.; Levine, Timothy R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates communication patterns and subsequent relational outcomes following romantic partners' deception for people with different attachment styles. Reveals that respondents (undergraduate students) with a secure attachment style were more likely to report talking about the issue, whereas anxious/ambivalents were more likely to report…

  5. Neural substrates and behavioral profiles of romantic jealousy and its temporal dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Yu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie; Liang, Jie; Lu, Lin; Zhou, Xiaolin; Shi, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Jealousy is not only a way of experiencing love but also a stabilizer of romantic relationships, although morbid romantic jealousy is maladaptive. Being engaged in a formal romantic relationship can tune one’s romantic jealousy towards a specific target. Little is known about how the human brain processes romantic jealousy by now. Here, by combining scenario-based imagination and functional MRI, we investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of romantic jealousy and their development across stages (before vs. after being in a formal relationship). Romantic jealousy scenarios elicited activations primarily in the basal ganglia (BG) across stages, and were significantly higher after the relationship was established in both the behavioral rating and BG activation. The intensity of romantic jealousy was related to the intensity of romantic happiness, which mainly correlated with ventral medial prefrontal cortex activation. The increase in jealousy across stages was associated with the tendency for interpersonal aggression. These results bridge the gap between the theoretical conceptualization of romantic jealousy and its neural correlates and shed light on the dynamic changes in jealousy. PMID:27273024

  6. The Role of Romantic Partners, Family and Peer Networks in Dating Couples’ Views about Cohabitation

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.; Smock, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging adults are increasingly cohabiting, but few studies have considered the role of social context in the formation of their views of cohabitation. Drawing on 40 semi-structured interviews with dating couples, we explored the role of romantic partners, family, and peers on evaluations of cohabitation. In couples where each member had a differing view about cohabitation, one romantic partner’s desire to not cohabit trumped their partner’s more ambivalent feelings about cohabitation. The influence of family in the formation of cohabitation views was evident through a variety of mechanisms, including parental advice, social modeling, religious values, and economic control. Peers also played a key role, with couples using the vicarious trials of their peer networks to judge how cohabitation would affect their own relationship. By using a couple perspective, assessing reports from both members of each couple, this study showcases how beliefs about cohabitation are formed within an intimate dyad. PMID:23087542

  7. Adult Sibling Relationships with Brothers and Sisters with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…

  8. Teaching the Romantic Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Kieran

    1994-01-01

    Considers the emergence of English Romanticism in the early 19th century as the advent of new ways of thinking and knowing. Compares the cognitive skills of romanticism with the development of adolescent cognition. Shows how English teachers can tailor literature instruction to foster the insights of romantic understanding. (HB)

  9. Childhood maltreatment and difficulties in emotion regulation: associations with sexual and relationship satisfaction among young adult women.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Vujanovic, Anka A; Gilbert, Myani; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations among childhood maltreatment, difficulties in emotion regulation, and sexual and relationship satisfaction among young adult women reporting current involvement in committed, romantic relationships. A sample of 192 women (ages 18-25) completed self-report questionnaires as part of an Internet-based survey. It was hypothesized that severity of childhood maltreatment and difficulties in emotion regulation would each independently and negatively predict (a) sexual satisfaction, (b) relationship intimacy, and (c) expression of affection within the context of the relationship. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that greater emotion regulation difficulties would moderate the effects of childhood maltreatment on these sexual and relationship variables (i.e., sexual satisfaction, relationship intimacy, and expression of affection). Findings suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation demonstrated an incremental effect with regard to sexual satisfaction, but not with intimacy and affection expression. In contrast to predictions, no significant interactive effects were documented. Clinical implications and future directions related to this line of inquiry are discussed.

  10. Gender differences in desire discrepancy as a predictor of sexual and relationship satisfaction in a college sample of heterosexual romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Mark, Kristen P; Murray, Sarah H

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined desire discrepancy and its effect on sexual and relationship satisfaction in a sample of 133 heterosexual couples attending a midsize university. Couples were required to be in a relationship for at least 1 year (M = 4.32 years, SD = 3.13 years); 23.7% of the couples were cohabitating. Hierarchical multiple regression results indicated that higher desire discrepancy scores significantly predicted women's (but not men's) lower sexual satisfaction after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Higher desire discrepancy scores significantly predicted men's (but not women's) lower relationship satisfaction after controlling for sexual satisfaction. The authors assessed gender differences using a mixed model with the dyad and gender as factors and satisfaction as the outcome. Although gender difference patterns appeared in the regression models, the differences were nonsignificant within each couple in the extent to which desire discrepancy affected sexual and relationship satisfaction. These findings suggest moving away from focusing on only one partner with low desire and shifting attention to the dyad's interaction. Also, the way in which desire discrepancy affects sexual and relationship satisfaction deserves consideration. Therapeutic implications and study limitations are discussed.

  11. Identity and Intimacy during Adolescence: Connections among Identity Styles, Romantic Attachment and Identity Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Pittman, Joe F.; Cadely, Hans Saint-Eloi; Tuggle, Felicia J.; Harrell-Levy, Marinda K.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of adult attachment and psychosocial development theories suggests that adolescence is a time when capacities for romantic intimacy and identity formation are co-evolving. The current study addressed direct, indirect and moderated associations among identity and romantic attachment constructs with a diverse sample of 2178 middle…

  12. Adults and Children with Asperger Syndrome: Exploring Adult Attachment Style, Marital Satisfaction and Satisfaction with Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Winnie; Peterson, Candida C.

    2011-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a disorder resembling autism in its problems with social interaction and cognitive flexibility. Today, a number of adults with AS marry and rear children. Yet there has been little research into the quality of their marital and parental relationships. This study explored romantic attachment style, marital satisfaction and…

  13. Intergenerational Relationships and Affectual Solidarity between Grandparents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monserud, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether both parents' relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for young adults' perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18-23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: young adults with married biological parents (N =…

  14. More Bridges: Investigating the Relevance of Self-Report and Interview Measures of Adult Attachment for Marital and Caregiving Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Matte-Gagne, Celia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this report was to investigate the associations between attachment state of mind, romantic attachment style, and indices of maternal functioning in two relational spheres: the mother-child relationship (i.e., maternal sensitivity and child attachment security) and the marital relationship (i.e., mothers' and their partners' marital…

  15. Romantic Understanding and Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis

    2004-01-01

    This essay outlines the potential role for Kieran Egan's (1990) notion of "romantic understanding" in science education. A summary of conventional approaches to science education is followed by a detailed analysis of the implications that romantic understanding may have for the science curriculum, teaching and student learning. In particular the…

  16. Entry into romantic partnership is associated with obesity.

    PubMed

    The, Natalie S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2009-07-01

    BMI is highly correlated between spouses; however, less is understood about the underlying mechanism(s) by which the development of obesity in one individual increases the risk of obesity in his/her spouse. The objective of this study is to investigate whether romantic partnership and duration of cohabitation are related to incident obesity and obesity-promoting behaviors. We used two data sets from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health: (i) 6,949 US adolescents (wave II, 1996) followed into adulthood (wave III, 2001-2002) and (ii) 1,293 dating, cohabiting, and married romantic couples from wave III, including measured anthropometry and self-report behavior data. In the longitudinal cohort, we used sex-stratified logistic regression models to examine the risk of incident obesity by longitudinal romantic relationship status and duration of time spent living with a romantic partner. In the Couples Sample, we used multinomial logistic regression to predict concordance in outcomes: obesity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and screen time by romantic partnership and duration of time living with a romantic partner. Individuals who transitioned from single/dating to cohabiting or married were more likely to become obese than those who were dating at both waves. Partner concordance for negative, obesity-related behaviors was strongest for married couples and couples who lived together > or =2 years. The shared household environment may increase the likelihood of becoming obese, influence partner concordance, and may be an important target for obesity intervention.

  17. Development of the Parent Adult Relationship Questionnaire (PARQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitzer, Lindsay; Fingerman, Karen L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between adults and parents are characterized by positive and negative qualities. Existing measures of relationship qualities and ambivalence often rely on items that are unbalanced in number of positive and negative items, emotional tone, or missing negative items completely. Three studies established validity (construct, convergent,…

  18. Bouncing Back from a Breakup: Attachment, Time Perspective, Mental Health, and Romantic Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Steven P.; Sifers, Sarah K.

    2011-01-01

    Coping with a romantic breakup is a normal developmental task of emerging adulthood. Because of their role in influencing interpersonal relationships and adjustment, attachment history and time perspectives may influence resilience to romantic loss. In an online survey of 1,404 university students ages 18-25 who reported experiencing recent…

  19. Relationship of childhood weight status to morbidity in adults.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sidney; Collins, Gretchen; Nordsieck, Marie

    2016-08-01

    A cohort of white males who had attended elementary schools in Hagerstown, Md., between 1923 and 1928, and whose height-weight records for those years were available, was examined during 1961-63. A study of their childhood relative weight at ages 9-13, and of their adult relative weight 35-40 years later, was made in relation to selected physiological variables and diagnosed morbidity.Essential findings were as follows: Childhood relative weight at ages 9-13 had no significant relationship to adult levels of fasting blood sugar, serum cholesterol, beta-lipoprotein, or blood pressure, or to cardiovascular renal disease.Childhood relative weight at ages 9-13 was significantly related to hypertensive vascular disease. The below average weight group experienced a higher prevalence than observed in either average or moderately overweight childhood groups.Approximately 30 percent of the below average weight children became average weight adults and 21 percent became overweight adults. Of the average weight children, approximately 40 percent became overweight adults. Overweight children tended to remain overweight as adults.Adult relative weight of the same cohort, viewed 35-40 years later, was significantly associated with fasting blood sugar, beta-lipoprotein, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Elevated levels of each of these variables occurred with greater frequency in the overweight child.Adult relative weight was significantly associated with hypertensive vascular disease and cardiovascular renal disease; the higher prevalence occurred in the overweight adults.The highest risk for hypertensive vascular and cardiovascular renal disease was associated with the persons who acquired their overweight status as adults. The higher prevalence of these diseases among the overweight adults was largely attributable to the adults who moved from a below average childhood weight category to an overweight adult group. The moderately or markedly overweight adults who was

  20. Lovestruck: women, romantic love and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Power, Charmaine; Koch, Tina; Kralik, Debbie; Jackson, Debra

    2006-05-01

    Intimate Partner Violence remains a significant problem globally despite health promotion aimed at raising awareness. In particular, there is a current trend for many young women to view some abusive/violent behaviours as acceptable in their relationships. Intimate Partner Violence has serious implications for its short and long term impacts on the health of women and children. Health workers may find working with women a challenging and sometimes frustrating experience. A way forward is to develop clearer understandings of the complexities of Intimate Partner Violence and to better understand women's investments in romantic relationships. In this paper a secondary analysis of data from a narrative study of women's recovery from IPV relationships is presented in order to illustrate discourses that inform underpinnings of romantic relationships. Transcriptions of audio-taped interviews were analysed using a feminist post-structural approach in order to make visible the ways in which the women negotiated their identities in the discourses of femininity. A critical review of current literature was also undertaken to develop the construct of romantic love. Women revealed that cues for Intimate Partner Violence were present early in the relationship but were not recognised at the time. Two positions within the discourse of romantic love were identified that underpinned their desires to establish and invest in the relationship despite the presence of cues for Intimate Partner Violence. These were 'Desperate for a man' and interpreting jealousy as a sign of love. Romantic love may be desirable for the sharing of warmth, safety and protection, and yet can mask behaviours that are cues for domestic violence. Understanding the complex nature of the ways that women's desires are located in the discourse of romantic love has implications for all nurses working to prevent and reduce the incidence of Intimate Partner Violence.

  1. Relationship Education for Youth in High School: Preliminary Evidence from a Non-Controlled Study on Dating Behavior and Parent-Adolescent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, TeKisha M.; McGill, Julianne; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Relationship education (RE), often employed for adults, has become increasingly available for teenagers. However, non-romantic relationships are rarely assessed as a potential outcome domain influenced by RE. Objective: Informed by life course theory and the ecological systems perspective, this study examines the influence of RE on…

  2. Latent Fairness in Adults' Relationship-Based Moral Judgments.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jian; Liu, Yanchun; Li, Jiafeng

    2015-01-01

    Can adults make fair moral judgments when individuals with whom they have different relationships are involved? The present study explored the fairness of adults' relationship-based moral judgments in two respects by performing three experiments involving 999 participants. In Experiment 1, 65 adults were asked to decide whether to harm a specific person to save five strangers in the footbridge and trolley dilemmas in a within-subject design. The lone potential victim was a relative, a best friend, a person they disliked, a criminal or a stranger. Adults' genetic relatedness to, familiarity with and affective relatedness to the lone potential victims varied. The results indicated that adults made different moral judgments involving the lone potential victims with whom they had different relationships. In Experiment 2, 306 adults responded to the footbridge and trolley dilemmas involving five types of lone potential victims in a within-subject design, and the extent to which they were familiar with and affectively related to the lone potential victim was measured. The results generally replicated those of Experiment 1. In addition, for close individuals, adults' moral judgments were less deontological relative to their familiarity with or positive affect toward these individuals. For individuals they were not close to, adults made deontological choices to a larger extent relative to their unfamiliarity with or negative affect toward these individuals. Moreover, for familiar individuals, the extent to which adults made deontological moral judgments more closely approximated the extent to which they were familiar with the individual. The adults' deontological moral judgments involving unfamiliar individuals more closely approximated their affective relatedness to the individuals. In Experiment 3, 628 adults were asked to make moral judgments with the type of lone potential victim as the between-subject variable. The results generally replicated those of the previous

  3. Mothers' versus Fathers' Alcohol Abuse and Attachment in Adult Daughters of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…

  4. Religiosity and sexual involvement within adolescent romantic couples.

    PubMed

    LeJeune, Brenna C; Zimet, Gregory D; Azzouz, Faouzi; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2013-09-01

    The impact of religiosity in adolescent romantic partnerships on sexual behavior was assessed. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health reciprocated couples database using religious- and relationship-oriented variables to predict sexual involvement in 374 couples (748 participants). We found that individual- and couple-based religiosity impacted sexual behavior. These findings provide evidence for dyad religiosity as a component involved in the expression of sexual behavior in romantic relationships. The current results highlight the importance of incorporating a broad social perspective in order to understand the expression of adolescent sexual behavior.

  5. Links between Sibling Experiences and Romantic Competence from Adolescence through Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Doughty, Susan E.; Lam, Chun Bun; Stanik, Christine E.; McHale, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous research has linked sibling relationship experiences to youth’s social competencies with peers, we know little about the role of siblings in youth’s romantic relationship experiences. Drawing on data from a longitudinal sample of 190 families, this study examined the links between sibling experiences and the development of perceived romantic competence from early adolescence into young adulthood (ages 12 to 20). The data were collected from 373 youth (50.7% female) in home interviews on up to 5 annual occasions. Multi-level models tested the moderating role of sibling gender constellation in romantic competence development and the links between (changes in) sibling intimacy and conflict, and romantic competence. The results revealed that youth with same-sex siblings showed no change in their perceived romantic competence, but those with opposite-sex siblings exhibited increases in romantic competence over time. Controlling for parent-child intimacy, at times when youth reported more sibling intimacy, they also reported greater romantic competence, and youth with higher cross-time average sibling conflict were lower in romantic competence, on average. This study illustrates that sibling experiences remain important in social development into early adulthood and suggests directions for application and future research. PMID:25183625

  6. Romantic love modulates women's identification of men's body odors.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Johan N; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn

    2009-02-01

    Romantic love is one of our most potent and powerful emotions, but very little is known with respect to the hormonal and psychological mechanisms in play. Romantic love is thought to help intimate partners stay committed to each other and two mechanisms have been proposed to mediate this commitment: increased attention towards one's partner or deflected attention away from other potential partners. Both mechanisms find support in the literature. We explored the potential influence of each of these mechanisms by assessing women's ability to identify (ID) body odors originating from their boyfriend, a same-sex friend, and an opposite-sex friend and the relationship between this ability and the degree of romantic love expressed towards their boyfriend. We hypothesized that an increase in attention towards one's partner would render a positive correlation between ID of a boyfriend's body odor and degree of romantic love; conversely, we hypothesized that attention deflected away from other potential partners would render a negative correlation between ID of an opposite-sex friend's body odor and degree of romantic love for the boyfriend. Our results supported the deflection theory as we found a negative correlation between the degree of romantic love for the subjects' boyfriends and their ability to ID the body odor of an opposite-sex friend but not of their boyfriend or same-sex friend. Our results indicate that romantic love deflects attention away from potential new partners rather than towards the present partner. These changes are likely mediated by circulating neuropeptides and a testable model is suggested.

  7. The Romantics and Their Shakespeare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    fascination with Shakespeare was the birth of character criticism, or, in the words of Romantic critic Charles Lamb, the desire "to know the internal workings...and movements of a great mind, of an Othello or a Hamlet for instance, the when and the why and the how far they should be moved". Strangely, despite...were unsuccessful. The Romantic playwrights had to contend with the remarkable and influential legacy of Shakespeare --a tradition which they tried to

  8. Sexual communication, satisfaction, and condom use behavior in friends with benefits and romantic partners.

    PubMed

    Lehmiller, Justin J; Vanderdrift, Laura E; Kelly, Janice R

    2014-01-01

    Although "friends with benefits" relationships (FWBRs) are common and have been the subject of significant media and research attention, relatively little is known about them, especially in terms of how they differ from other types of relationships. The present research sought to compare the sexual outcomes of FWBRs to those of traditional romantic relationships via an online survey. Results revealed that FWBR partners were less likely to be sexually exclusive, had a lower frequency of sexual interaction, were less sexually satisfied, and generally communicated less about sex than romantic partners did. However, compared to romantic partners, FWBR partners devoted relatively more of the time spent together to sexual activity, practiced safe sex more frequently, communicated more often about extradyadic sexual experiences, and reported a greater number of lifetime casual sex partners. These findings indicate that the sexual outcomes of FWBRs and romantic relationships are quite distinct and provide evidence of the potential public health implications associated with both casual and committed sexual relationships.

  9. Modelling goal adjustment in social relationships: Two experimental studies with children and adults.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Tamara; Kappes, Cathleen; Schwerdt, Laura; Sander, Johanna; Poller, Charlotte

    2016-10-23

    In two experiments, we investigated observational learning in social relationships as one possible pathway to the development of goal adjustment processes. In the first experiment, 56 children (M = 9.29 years) observed their parent as a model; in the second, 50 adults (M = 32.27 years) observed their romantic partner. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: goal engagement (GE), goal disengagement (GD), or control group (CO) and were asked to solve (unsolvable) puzzles. Before trying to solve the puzzles by themselves, subjects observed the instructed model, who was told to continue with the same puzzle (GE) or to switch to the next puzzle (GD). Results show that children in the GE group switched significantly less than in the GD or CO group. There was no difference between the GD group and CO group. Adults in the GE group switched significantly less than in the GD or CO group, whereas subjects in the GD group switched significantly more often than the CO group. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Previous research focused mainly on the functions of goal adjustment processes. It rarely considered processes and conditions that contribute to the development of goal engagement and goal disengagement. There are only two cross-sectional studies that directly investigate this topic. Previous research that claims observational learning as a pathway of learning emotion regulation or adjustment processes has (only) relied on correlational methods and, thus, do not allow any causal interpretations. Previous research, albeit claiming a life span focus, mostly investigated goal adjustment processes in one specific age group (mainly adults). There is no study that investigates the same processes in different age groups. What does this study add? In our two studies, we focus on the conditions of goal adjustment processes and sought to demonstrate one potential pathway of learning or changing the application of goal adjustment

  10. Investigation of Starting Romantic Intimacy in Emerging Adulthood in Terms of Self-Esteem, Gender and Gender Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali; Atak, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims, firstly, to examine whether gender plays a decisive role in starting romantic intimacy during the emerging adulthood period; secondly, to compare emerging adults who are assigned different gender roles, in terms of starting romantic intimacy; and thirdly, to analyze the level at which self-esteem and gender roles predict the…

  11. Romantic Attachment and Subtypes/Dimensions of Jealousy

    PubMed Central

    Marazziti, Donatella; Consoli, Giorgio; Albanese, Francesco; Laquidara, Emanuela; Baroni, Stefano; Catena Dell’Osso, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored the possible relationship between romantic attachment and jealousy in 100 healthy subjects. The romantic attachment and jealousy were evaluated by means of, respectively, the “Experiences in Close Relationships” questionnaire (ECR), and the “Questionario della Gelosia” (QUEGE). The ECR anxiety scale was related to all QUEGE dimensions, while the ECR avoidance scale to three. Individuals with the preoccupied attachment style showed higher scores than secure subjects on the obsessionality, interpersonal sensitivity and fear of loss dimensions. Fearful-avoidant individuals had higher score than secure subjects on the fear of loss dimension only, while dismissing individuals had lower scores on the self-esteem dimension. These findings suggest that romantic attachment and jealousy are intertwined. PMID:20835357

  12. Adolescent Romantic Couples Influence on Substance Use in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudonis-Miller, Lauren C.; Lewis, Lisa; Tong, Yan; Tu, Wanzhu; Aalsma, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescent peer group affiliations are consistent predictors of substance use initiation and maintenance; it is less clear how adolescent "romantic" relationships influence substance use behavior. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants in the final dataset…

  13. Social-Contextual Influences on Adolescent Romantic Involvement: The Constraints of Being a Numerical Minority.

    PubMed

    Raley, R Kelly; Sullivan, M Kate

    2010-01-01

    This research explores white-black differences in adolescent heterosexual romantic involvement and how these differences are shaped by social context. We find that, parallel to patterns of marriage in adulthood, Non-Hispanic white girls are more likely to be in a romantic relationship than African American girls. This is particularly true when we focus on heterosexual romantic relationships formed with schoolmates. Among boys, African Americans are more likely to be romantically involved than Non-Hispanic whites. We investigate the contribution of two broad types of social-demographic factors to these race-ethnic differences, population composition and normative climate. We develop theory about why being a numerical minority should lead to lower levels of relationship formation, especially when interracial relationships are rare. Results support the population composition hypotheses but not the idea that race-ethnic differences arise because of differences in normative climate.

  14. Family cohesion and romantic and sexual initiation: a three wave longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Hanneke; van de Schoot, Rens; Woertman, Liesbeth; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim

    2012-05-01

    Although the relation between family relationships and the timing of sexual debut has been the focus of many studies, research on mediating factors is scarce. This study examines whether low levels of family cohesion result in an earlier onset of romantic and sexual experiences, and whether the link between family cohesion and an early sexual debut is mediated by early romantic initiation. A longitudinal sample of 314 adolescent girls and 222 boys, aged 12-17 at Wave 1, completed questionnaires at three measurement points with three year intervals. The results showed that sexual debut followed romantic initiation for 77% of the participants. For early adolescent females (aged 12-14), high levels of family cohesion resulted in a later sexual debut and this association was fully mediated by a delay of romantic initiation. Among boys and older girls, timing of romantic initiation did not mediate the link between family cohesion and timing of sexual initiation. Early adolescent girls who have negative relationships with their parents turn to romantic relationships for intimacy and support, which subsequently provide the opportunity for an early sexual debut. Low levels of family cohesion thus primarily precipitate romantic initiation and sexual initiation appears to be secondary to this process among girls in this age group.

  15. Romantic attachment, empathy, and the broader autism phenotype among college students.

    PubMed

    Lamport, Dustin; Turner, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that mild autistic-like characteristics can be measured among relatives of individuals with autism and in the general population. These characteristics have been referred to as the broader autism phenotype (BAP), and include pragmatic language difficulties, aloofness, and rigidity. Evidence is growing to suggest that individuals with BAP encounter difficulties in their social interactions. Recent work demonstrates that college students scoring high on the BAP report more loneliness (Jobe & Williams White, 2007) and more interpersonal problems (Wainer, Ingersoll, & Hopwood, 2012). Because intimate relationships are important in development and are very salient in emerging adulthood, the authors examined the relation of the BAP to romantic attachment and empathy among young adults. Higher BAP scores were associated with lower empathy and higher attachment anxiety and avoidance. Specifically, pragmatic language difficulties were related to higher rates of avoidant attachment and this relationship was mediated by empathy. In contrast, pragmatic language deficits were directly related to anxious attachment.

  16. Romantic Hero, Language Arts: 5113.92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Developed for a high school quinmester unit on the romantic hero, this guide contains teaching strategies for a study of the characteristics of the romantic hero as he appears in various literary selections. Several major literary works are analyzed and discussed in comparison with popular culture heroes, and the portrayal of the romantic hero in…

  17. Adult attachment, attachment to the supervisor, and the supervisory alliance: how they relate to novice therapists' perceived counseling self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Marmarosh, Cheri L; Nikityn, Mary; Moehringer, Jason; Ferraioli, Lauren; Kahn, Sonia; Cerkevich, Angela; Choi, Jaehwa; Reisch, Emily

    2013-06-01

    The supervisory relationship is one of the most important components in training therapists' professional development, and it is a frequent area of training-focused research. The current study explored how 57 training therapists' adult romantic attachments relate to the attachment to the supervisor and the supervisory working alliance. Additionally, we explored how both adult attachment and supervisory attachment relate to trainees' perceptions of their counseling self-efficacy (CSE). Results revealed that therapists with higher levels of fearful attachment to the supervisors and avoidant attachment in adult romantic relationships had less perceived CSE. Hierarchical regression revealed that it was the avoidant adult romantic attachment and the supervisory working alliance that accounted for the most significant variance in CSE, not the attachment to the supervisor. Path analysis using structural equation modeling was used to explore both the direct and indirect paths to CSE. When all variables were explored together, only the path from romantic attachment avoidance to fearful attachment to the supervisor was significant. Adult romantic attachment no longer directly related to CSE when including all the variables in the model. Implications of the findings will be discussed with regard to future research that is needed, the use of attachment-based supervisory interventions, and the application of the findings in clinical training.

  18. The relationship between adults' conceptual understanding of inversion and associativity.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Adam K; Robinson, Katherine M

    2010-03-01

    Children's understanding of the mathematical concepts of inversion and associativity are positively related, as measured by the use of conceptually based shortcut strategies on 3-term inversion problems (i.e., a + b - b, d x e / e) and associativity problems (i.e., a + b - c, d x e / f; Robinson & Dubé, 2009; Robinson & Ninowski, 2003). Individuals who use the inversion shortcut (e.g., 3) are more likely to use the associativity strategy (e.g., 3 x 12 / 4. 12 / 4 = 3, 3 x 3 = 9), which is almost never used by an individual who does not also use the inversion shortcut (Robinson & Dubé, 2009). One possible reason for this relationship is that directing attention to the right-most operation during problem solving may be required to prime the conceptually based shortcut strategies for both problem types. This study investigated the relationship between adults' understanding of inversion and associativity. Adults (N = 42) solved inversion and associativity problems in 1 of 2 conditions. The participants were either presented with the left-most operation and then the whole problem or presented with the right-most operation and then the whole problem. A positive relationship between the use of the conceptually based strategies was found, and it was strikingly similar to the relationship found in childhood. There was evidence that the presentation of the right-most operation first primed the inversion shortcut.

  19. Contributors to Adult Sibling Relationships and Intention to Care of Siblings of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of childhood sibling relationships to adult sibling relationships and intention to provide care was investigated in a sample in which one member of each dyad had Down syndrome. Thirty-nine adult siblings of an adult with Down syndrome who had participated in a study of sibling relationships in childhood/adolescence provided data…

  20. Establishment of safety paradigms and trust in emerging adult relationships

    PubMed Central

    Mullinax, Margo; Sanders, Stephanie; Higgins, Jenny; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2016-01-01

    There is a critical need to understand the interplay between relationship trust and public health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of emerging adult women’s processes of establishing trust in sexual relationships. Twenty-five women aged 18–24 years participated in semi-structured interviews. Throughout the interviews, women compared and contrasted experiences in which they felt comfortable engaging in sexual intercourse with a partner versus times in which they did not feel comfortable. Analysis was based on a critical qualitative research orientation. When asked to speak to instances when they felt comfortable having sex, most women spoke about relationship trust. Many participants conceptualised trust based on past experiences with bad relationships or sexual violence. Based on their previous experiences of feeling unsafe or undervalued, emotional and physical security became prioritised in relationship development. Trust was developed through friendship, communication over time, and through shared life experiences. This research is among the first to qualitatively investigate trust formation and other impersonal dynamics related to sexual health decision-making. Insights from this study should be translated into future action by public health practitioners to promote healthy sexual relationships and communication about sexual health topics as a form of trust building. PMID:26943023

  1. Heterosexual romantic involvement and depressive symptoms in black adolescent girls: effects of menarche and perceived social support.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S

    2015-04-01

    Research has accumulated to demonstrate that depressive symptoms are associated with heterosexual romantic involvement during adolescence, but relatively little work has linked this body of literature to the existing literature on associations between early pubertal timing and adolescent depressive symptoms. This study extends prior research by examining whether early menarche and heterosexual romantic involvement interact to predict depressive symptoms in a national sample of Black adolescent girls (N = 607; M age = 15 years; 32 % Caribbean Black and 68 % African American). We further examined whether the adverse effects of heterosexual romantic involvement and early menarche would be mediated by perceived social support from mothers, fathers, and peers. Path analysis results indicated that girls who report current involvement in a heterosexual romantic relationship also reported high levels of perceived peer support than girls with no romantic involvement. High levels of perceived peer support, in turn, predicted low levels of depressive symptoms. Romantically involved girls with an early menarche also reported significantly less depressive symptoms than girls not romantically involved with an early menarche. Neither perceived maternal support nor perceived paternal support mediated associations between heterosexual romantic involvement, menarche, and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that individual and social factors can impede heterosexual romantic involvement effects on depressive symptoms in Black adolescent girls.

  2. 'Love of the heart': romantic love among young mothers in Mali.

    PubMed

    Sølbeck, Ditte Enemark

    2010-05-01

    This paper calls attention to an ideal of romantic love among young unmarried mothers in Mali. It demonstrates that romantic love constitutes a motivating force for the agency of young Malian mothers who invest themselves in hopes of romantic outcomes from their relationships. Like the majority of people in Mali, the young mothers in this study dedicated a considerable time each weekday to watching a Venezuelan soap opera, which could be regarded as offering a modern version of Romeo and Juliet. Yet, romance is not the only thing that matters in young mothers' ideals of love. Materiality plays an important role as well. Thus, young mothers have multiple motives for engaging in relationships with men: they seek both romance and material stability, which is why an either love or exchange perspective is insufficient when examining the topic of romantic love in a Malian context.

  3. Albery Whitman, a Rebellious Romantic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Carl L.

    One of the Afro-American writers who spoke out clearly during the postreconstruction period was Albery A. Whitman (1851-1902). A romantic poet, Whitman produced seven volumes of poetry. His profound belief in freedom and equality for his race is expressed forcefully in two long narrative poems, "Not a Man and Yet a Man" and "The…

  4. Romantic Love vs. Drug Addiction May Inspire a New Treatment for Addiction.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Zhang, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses the evidences from our recent studies to compare the neural alterations between romantic love and drug addiction, moreover we also compare the behavioral and neurochemical alterations between romantic love and drug addiction. From the behavioral comparisons we find that there are many similarities between the early stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage romantic love is considered as a behavioral addiction, while significant differences exist between the later stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage of romantic love eventually developed into a prosocial behavior. The neuroimaging comparisons suggest that romantic love and drug addiction both display the functional enhancement in reward and emotion regulation network. Except the similar neural changes, romantic love display special function enhancement in social cognition network, while drug addiction display special dysfunction in cognitive control network. The neurochemical comparisons show that there are many similarities in the dopamine (DA) system, while significant differences in oxytocin (OT) system for romantic love and drug addiction. These findings indicate that the functional alterations in reward and emotion regulation network and the DA system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a behavioral addiction, and the functional alterations in social cognition network and the OT system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a prosocial behavior. It

  5. Romantic Love vs. Drug Addiction May Inspire a New Treatment for Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Zhang, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses the evidences from our recent studies to compare the neural alterations between romantic love and drug addiction, moreover we also compare the behavioral and neurochemical alterations between romantic love and drug addiction. From the behavioral comparisons we find that there are many similarities between the early stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage romantic love is considered as a behavioral addiction, while significant differences exist between the later stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage of romantic love eventually developed into a prosocial behavior. The neuroimaging comparisons suggest that romantic love and drug addiction both display the functional enhancement in reward and emotion regulation network. Except the similar neural changes, romantic love display special function enhancement in social cognition network, while drug addiction display special dysfunction in cognitive control network. The neurochemical comparisons show that there are many similarities in the dopamine (DA) system, while significant differences in oxytocin (OT) system for romantic love and drug addiction. These findings indicate that the functional alterations in reward and emotion regulation network and the DA system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a behavioral addiction, and the functional alterations in social cognition network and the OT system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a prosocial behavior. It

  6. The Role of Resilience and Anti-Resilience Behaviors in the Romantic Lives of Black Same Gender Loving (sgl) Men

    PubMed Central

    Applewhite, Sheldon; Littlefield, Marci Bounds

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of resilience in the romantic lives of Black same gender loving romantic male couples in the nyc metropolitan area. Twenty in-depth interviews (N=40) were conducted, ranging in age from 18 to 67, and were predominately low income and moderately educated. Research questions were: 1) What strategies do Black sgl couples use to preserve and improve their relationships and (2) What are the potential problems or barriers your relationship experiences? The data from interviews were aggregated and three major themes emerged: direct communication strategies, relationship support, and intentional and thoughtful decision making. Additional themes identified as anti-resilient to Black sgl couples were relationship discord, hostile neighborhood climate, poor communication, and lack of support. Findings show that additional research Black gay couples is needed to identify the contextual factors that influence their romantic relationships and the resilient strategies that they uses to support their romantic relationships. PMID:28042598

  7. Machiavellianism and Adult Attachment in General Interpersonal Relationships and Close Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Ináncsi, Tamás; Láng, András; Bereczkei, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Up to the present, the relationship between Machiavellianism and adult attachment has remained a question to be answered in the psychological literature. That is why this study focused on the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment towards significant others in general interpersonal relationships and in intimate-close relationships. Two attachment tests (Relationship Questionnaire and long-form of Experiences in Close Relationship) and the Mach-IV test were conducted on a sample consisting of 185 subjects. Results have revealed that Machiavellian subjects show a dismissing-avoidant attachment style in their general interpersonal relationships, while avoidance is further accompanied by some characteristics of attachment anxiety in their intimate-close relationships. Our findings further refine the relationship between Machiavellianism and dismissing-avoidant attachment. Machiavellian individuals not only have a negative representation of significant others, but they also tend to seek symbiotic closeness in order to exploit their partners. This ambitendency in distance regulation might be particularly important in understanding the vulnerability of Machiavellian individuals. PMID:27247647

  8. Family and Friend Relationships among Older and Younger Adults: Interaction Motivation, Mood, and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Brian P.

    1995-01-01

    In a study of relationships and life satisfaction, 82 independently-living older adults and 91 younger adults completed measures of their relationships with family and friends. For elderly people, the quality of relationships with their friends was more important than the quality of relationships with their children. The discussion focuses on how…

  9. Ideals as Anchors for Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Margaret; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Research on young-adult sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa typically conceptualizes sex as an individual-level risk behavior. We introduce a new approach that connects the conditions surrounding the initiation of sex with subsequent relationship well-being, examines relationships as sequences of interdependent events, and indexes relationship experiences to individually held ideals. New card-sort data from southern Malawi capture young women’s relationship experiences and their ideals in a sequential framework. Using optimal matching, we measure the distance between ideal and experienced relationship sequences to (1) assess the associations between ideological congruence and perceived relationship well-being, (2) compare this ideal-based approach to other experience-based alternatives, and (3) identify individual- and couple-level correlates of congruence between ideals and experiences in the romantic realm. We show that congruence between ideals and experiences conveys relationship well-being along four dimensions: expressions of love and support, robust communication habits, perceived biological safety, and perceived relationship stability. We further show that congruence is patterned by socioeconomic status and supported by shared ideals within romantic dyads. We argue that conceiving of ideals as anchors for how sexual experiences are manifest advances current understandings of romantic relationships, and we suggest that this approach has applications for other domains of life. PMID:27110031

  10. Adolescent romantic couples influence on substance use in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gudonis-Miller, Lauren C; Lewis, Lisa; Tong, Yan; Tu, Wanzhu; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2012-06-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescent peer group affiliations are consistent predictors of substance use initiation and maintenance; it is less clear how adolescent romantic relationships influence substance use behavior. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants in the final dataset for the current study included adolescents (321 males and 321 females) who were identified in reciprocated romantic relationships at Wave 1 (1994-1995; mean age 16.7 years) that were followed into young adulthood and reassessed at two different time points (Wave 2 in 1996, mean age 17.7, and Wave 3 in 2001-2002, mean age 23.1). Data were gathered from both partners, and included demographic variables, longitudinal measures of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana), and relationship seriousness. Hierarchical linear modeling using SAS PROC MIXED were utilized to test for individual versus partner influences. Results revealed individual and partner effects for the prediction of alcohol and tobacco, although individual effects were generally greater than partner influences. For marijuana use, as self-reported relationship seriousness increased, future marijuana use decreased. These findings suggest the developmental significance of adolescent romantic relationships on the prediction of future substance use behavior during young adulthood.

  11. Adolescent Romantic Couples Influence on Substance Use in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Gudonis, Lauren C.; Lewis, Lisa; Tong, Yan; Tu, Wanzhu; Aalsma, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescent peer group affiliations are consistent predictors ofsubstance use initiation and maintenance; it is less clear how adolescent romantic relationships influence substance use behavior. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants in the final dataset for the current study includedadolescents (321 males and 321 females) who were identified in reciprocated romantic relationships at Wave 1 (1994-1995; mean age 16.7 years) that were followed into young adulthood and reassessed at two different time points (Wave 2 in 1996, mean age 17.7, and Wave 3 in 2001-2002, mean age 23.1). Data were gathered from both partners, and included demographic variables, longitudinal measures of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana), and relationship seriousness. Hierarchical linear modeling using SAS PROC MIXED were utilized to test for individual versus partner influences. Results revealed individual and partner effects for the prediction of alcohol and tobacco, although individual effects were generally greater than partner influences. For marijuana use, as self-reported relationship seriousness increased, future marijuana use decreased. These findings suggest the developmental significance of adolescent romantic relationships on the prediction of future substance use behavior during young adulthood. PMID:21907401

  12. Family relationships of adults with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Allen, D M; Farmer, R G

    1996-01-01

    Current, ongoing interactions between adults exhibiting borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits and their families of origin may influence and maintain self-destructive behavior. Family interactions in such patients are often characterized by coexisting extremes of overinvolvement and underinvolvement by parental figures. Such parental behavior may trigger preexisting role relationship schemata in vulnerable individuals. Negative family reactions to new behavior patterns may make change difficult. A model for how present-day interpersonal patterns lead to self-destructive behavior, based on clinical observations, is proposed and case examples are presented.

  13. Health and Well-Being in Emerging Adults’ Same-Sex Relationships: Critical Questions and Directions for Research in Developmental Science

    PubMed Central

    Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Hammack, Phillip L.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have yet to account for the potentially unique experiences of emerging adults who are in or seeking to be in a relationship with a same-sex romantic partner. This paper articulates an agenda for research focused on better understanding and addressing the health and well-being of emerging adults in or pursuing same-sex romantic relationships. We provide a general summary of what is known about health and well-being in same-sex relationships, followed by an overview of the current and changing social climate surrounding same-sex relationships. We point out how recent historical changes present sexual minority emerging adults with unique relational benefits and challenges that have not been examined within the social and health sciences. We conclude by proposing a set of research questions to help develop knowledge needed to improve the health and well-being of emerging adults in or pursuing same-sex relationships. PMID:27588221

  14. Older Men's and Women's Relationships with Adult Kin: How Equitable Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Peterson, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Sought global assessments of marital equitability from 62 older adults, and compared men's and women's global equity feelings concerning their relationships with spouses, aged parents, and adult children. Forty younger adults rated equity of their marriages and relationships with parents and grandparents. Majority of both generations' involvements…

  15. Romantic Fantasies, Cross-Gender Friendships, and Romantic Experiences in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Walsh, Sophie; Harel, Shirley; Shulman, Shmuel

    2008-01-01

    Findings of this study, conducted on 142 adolescents (67 ninth graders and 75 eleventh graders), show that romantic experiences among adolescents are manifested in different forms: romantic fantasies, cross-gender friendships, and sustained interactions with a romantic partner. These three forms of experience are manifested differently across age…

  16. Adult Children of Divorce and Relationship Education: Implications for Counselors and Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veronica I.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the impact of relationship education on young adults' optimism about relationships and attitudes toward marriage whose parents were divorced and offers implications and suggestions for counselors and counselor educators. Previous research in the area of intimate and family relationships has demonstrated that adults who have…

  17. Adult Relationships in Multiple Contexts and Associations with Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capp, Gordon; Berkowitz, Ruth; Sullivan, Kathrine; Astor, Ron Avi; De Pedro, Kris; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Benbenishty, Rami; Rice, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Adult relationships provide critical support for adolescents because of their potential to foster positive development and provide protective influences. Few studies examine multiple ecological layers of adult relationships in connection with well-being and depression. This study examines the influence of relationships from multiple…

  18. Adult to adult right lobe living donor liver transplantation: does biological relationship matter?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Tan, Yifei; Shen, Shu; Jiang, Li; Yan, Lunan; Yang, Jiayin; Li, Bo; Wen, Tianfu; Zeng, Yong; Wang, WenTao; Xu, Mingqing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The influence of the biological relationship between the donor and the recipient is rarely discussed in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), although it is believed to be an important risk factor in other types of organ transplantations. A total of 272 consecutive patients undergoing adult to adult right lobe LDLT were retrospectively analyzed and stratified into a nonbiologically related (NBR) group (69 patients) and a biologically related (BR) group (203 patients). The preoperative data and postoperative outcomes of both recipients and donors were evaluated. More than two-thirds of the recipients had histories of HBV infection, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was the main reason for the patients undergoing LDLT in both groups. The percentage of female donors in the NBR group was more than the percentage in the BR group (P = 0.000). There were no differences between the groups in postoperative laboratory testing or daily immunosuppression dose, and the complication rates in both the recipient and donor surgeries showed no significant differences. For patients with benign diseases, the cumulative 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rate were 92.9% in the 4 periods in the NBR group and 89.1%, 87.6%, 83.7%, and 83.7%, respectively, in BR group, while for the patients diagnosed as HCC, if patients exceeding the Milan criteria were involved, the 5-year survival rate was 41.2%, compared to 82% for patients within the Milan criteria, which was nearly the same as for those with the benign disease. In conclusion, our findings suggested that the biological relationship between the donor and the recipient in adult to adult LDLT was not associated with the short- and long-term outcomes of recipients diagnosed with benign liver diseases and early stage HCC. Moreover, the criteria for patients diagnosed with HCC to undergo LDLT should be restrictively selected. PMID:28121912

  19. Interpersonal Effects of Suffering in Older Adult Caregiving Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Monin, Joan K.; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Examining the interpersonal effects of suffering in the context of family caregiving is an important step to a broader understanding of how exposure to suffering affects humans. In this review article, we first describe existing evidence that being exposed to the suffering of a care recipient (conceptualized as psychological distress, physical symptoms, and existential/spiritual distress) directly influences caregivers’ emotional experiences. Drawing from past theory and research, we propose that caregivers experience similar, complementary, and/or defensive emotions in response to care recipient suffering through mechanisms such as cognitive empathy, mimicry, and conditioned learning, placing caregivers at risk for psychological and physical morbidity. We then describe how gender, relationship closeness, caregiving efficacy, and individual differences in emotion regulation moderate these processes. Finally, we provide directions for future research to deepen our understanding of interpersonal phenomena among older adults, and we discuss implications for clinical interventions to alleviate the suffering of both caregivers and care recipients. PMID:19739924

  20. The Role of Important Non-Parental Adults (VIPs) in the Lives of Older Adolescents: A Comparison of Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The…

  1. Priming Sexual and Romantic Representations in Two Media Environments: Sex Encourages and Romance Discourages Sexual Permissiveness … Sometimes.

    PubMed

    Dillman Carpentier, Francesca R

    2016-06-29

    Two experiments (Ns = 314, 447) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of sexual cues in temporarily increasing young adults' self-reported sexual permissiveness, as well as the effects of romantic cues in temporarily decreasing permissiveness. Participants were exposed to sexual or romantic cues embedded as a theme-defining component of an online game (Study 1) or in advertisements peripheral to the online game (Study 2). Sexual and romantic conditions were compared against a control condition. As hypothesized, participants in the romantic conditions rated themselves lower in sexual permissiveness, compared to participants in the sexual and control conditions, particularly when participants positively evaluated the online game experience. Findings suggest that exposure to entertaining media depictions of two people, as a committed couple, expressing love, as well as lust, for each other might deter young adults from considering engagement in casual sexual encounters indicative of "hookup culture."

  2. Contributors to Adult Sibling Relationships and Intention to Care of Siblings of Individuals With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cuskelly, Monica

    2016-05-01

    The contribution of childhood sibling relationships to adult sibling relationships and intention to provide care was investigated in a sample in which one member of each dyad had Down syndrome. Thirty-nine adult siblings of an adult with Down syndrome who had participated in a study of sibling relationships in childhood/adolescence provided data about the quality of current relationships and of their intention to provide care for their brother/sister with Down syndrome in the future. Only behavior problems in the child with Down syndrome predicted warmth of the current adult relationship. Although adult sibling relationships were reported to be warm, the quality of neither the current nor the past relationship was associated with the reported intention to provide care.

  3. Relationship between childhood body mass index and young adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Minto; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Nageotte, Christian G.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R.; Zoratti, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between obesity and asthma is an area of debate. Objective To investigate the association of elevated body mass index (BMI) at a young age and young adult asthma. Methods BMI, questionnaires, and serologic tests results were analyzed in participants of a predominantly white, middle-class, population-based birth cohort from Detroit, Michigan at 6 to 8 and 18 years of age. Asthma diagnosis was based on medical record data. Allergen specific IgE was analyzed using UniCAP, with atopy defined as 1 or more allergen specific IgE levels of 0.35 kU/L or higher. Overweight was defined as a BMI in 85th percentile or higher. Results A total of 10.6% of overweight males at 6 to 8 years of age had current asthma at 18 to 20 years of age compared with 3.2% of males who were normal or underweight (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–11.0; P=.048). A total of 19.6% of females who were overweight at 6 to 8 years of age had asthma compared with 10.3% of females who were normal or underweight (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9–3.9; P=.09). After adjustment for atopy at 6 to 8 years of age, overweight males had an adjusted RR of 4.7 (95% CI, 1.4–16.2; P=.01), and overweight females had an adjusted RR of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P=.15). Change in BMI between 6 to 8 years of age and 18 to 20 years of age was also examined. Patients with persistently elevated BMI exhibited increased risk of asthma as young adults (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7) but not with an increasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2) or a decreasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2). Conclusion Overweight males 6 to 8 years of age have increased risk of asthma as young adults. Being overweight remains a predictor of asthma after adjustment for early atopy. A similar but not statistically significant trend was also seen among overweight females. Overweight body habitus throughout childhood is a risk factor for young adult asthma. PMID:23176878

  4. Romantic Love Is Associated with Enhanced Inhibitory Control in an Emotional Stop-Signal Task

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sensen; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Wang, Yongming; d’Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Wang, Huijun; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether romantic lovers differ in emotion-related inhibitory control capacity from those who are single. Methods: 88 healthy undergraduate college students participated in the study. Half were currently in love and in a romantic relationship (love group, LG), and half were single and had never been in a romantic relationship (single group, SG). Based on duration of romantic relationship (i.e., love duration), the LG were further divided into two subgroups: “early stage love” and “longer periods of love”. All participants completed an emotional Stop Signal Task, consisting of a variety of human face stimuli displaying either sad or neutral affect. Results: Results found that relative to SG, lovers showed greater inhibitory control [shorter stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)] during negative emotion condition trials. Furthermore, in early stages of love, SSRT for negative emotion condition trials was significantly shorter compared to that in “longer periods of love” or SG individuals, with no significant differences between the two latter groups. Conclusion: Compared with individuals who were single, early stage lovers showed greater capacity for inhibiting action during presentation of negative emotional stimuli. Within a greater social context, greater inhibitory control capacity during early stages of love may be related to the successful formation of romantic relationships, particularly to the ability to persevere in goal-directed action despite negative emotional contexts such as that of sadness. PMID:27826260

  5. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  6. Humor in romantic contexts: do men participate and women evaluate?

    PubMed

    Wilbur, Christopher J; Campbell, Lorne

    2011-07-01

    Several lines of research illustrate that humor plays a pivotal role in relationship initiation. The current article applies sexual selection theory to argue that humor production is a fitness indicator, allowing men to transmit information tacitly about their underlying qualities. And whereas prior research has emphasized women's appreciation of humor as a signal of interest, the focus here is on how women evaluate prospective suitors' humorous offerings. Two studies, including an ecologically valid study of online dating advertisements, provided evidence for men's production and women's evaluation of humor in romantic contexts. A third study revealed that women's evaluations of potential mates' humor are predictive of their romantic interest. Moreover, this article shows that preferences for and perceptions of humor are associated with preferences for and perceptions of intelligence and warmth, consistent with the argument that one function of humor is as a fitness indicator that provides information about underlying mate quality.

  7. Parenting across Racial and Class Lines: Assortative Mating Patterns of New Parents Who Are Married, Cohabiting, Dating or No Longer Romantically Involved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Joshua R.; Harknett, Kristen

    2006-01-01

    We examine the assortative mating patterns of new parents who are married, cohabiting, romantically involved and no longer romantically involved. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study, we find that relationship status at the time of a birth depends mainly on father's race rather than on whether mother and father's…

  8. Negative childhood experiences and adult love relationships: the role of internal working models of attachment.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Gerard; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated links between internal working models of attachment and the quality of adult love relationships in a high risk sample of women (n = 34), all of whom reported negative parenting in childhood. Half of the sample was identified as having a history of satisfying adult love relationships, while the remainder had experienced ongoing adult relationship problems. Measures of internal working models of attachment were made using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). A strong association was found between attachment classifications and the quality of adult love relationships. In addition, women with satisfying love relationships demonstrated significantly higher coherence of mind ratings than those with poor relationship histories. Insecure working models of attachment were associated with problems in adult love relationships. Although secure/autonomous attachment status was linked to optimal adult relationship outcomes, some women with a history of satisfying love relationships had insecure working models of attachment. These results suggest that the ways that adults process early experiences may influence later psychosocial functioning.

  9. Gender differences in romantic jealousy.

    PubMed

    Pines, A M; Friedman, A

    1998-02-01

    Findings of studies of gender differences in jealousy are contradictory. In the present study, conflicting literature was addressed by distinguishing 5 dimensions of jealousy: level, trigger, experience, focus, and responses. In 4 studies, 3 in the U.S. and 1 in Israel, gender differences were explored in these 5 dimensions of romantic jealousy. Although there were no gender differences in the likelihood, frequency, duration, or intensity of jealousy, there were differences in the responses to certain jealousy-producing occasions as well as in the focus, experience, and expression of jealousy.

  10. Parental Romantic Expectations and Parent-Child Sexuality Communication in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Laura G.; Himle, Michael B.; Strassberg, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, parental romantic expectations, and parental provision of sexuality and relationship education in an online sample of 190 parents of youth 12-18 years of age with a parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Regression analyses were conducted…

  11. The Pursuit of Romantic Alternatives Online: Social Media Friends as Potential Romantic Alternatives.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Irum Saeed; Alghamdi, Nawal G

    2017-03-20

    What causes some marriages to stand the test of time while others fail? Marital commitment is the key force underlying the stability, quality, and longevity of the romantic relationship. Commitment is strengthened in the presence of marital satisfaction, the absence of alternative attractions, and steady investments made in the relationship. Commitment is also a consequence of increasing dependence such that when partners are emotionally engaged with their virtual connections, their dependence on their significant other weakens resulting in low commitment. Dependence on the partner increases when people feel satisfied in their relationship, think unfavorably about the quality of available alternatives and feel that they have made great investments in their relationship. Technological advancements and the ever-evolving communication mediums contribute to relationship troubles by providing access to alternatives that substantially reduce shared family time. The boastfully curated profiles of virtual connections and their overly glossed pictures may lead partners to feel deficient in their life. Previous research showed that Facebook can reduce relationship satisfaction by providing alternatives and deflecting time and emotional investments away from the committed relationship. This article examines the commitment literature and discusses how commitment is undermined in the contemporary era. Finally, marital therapy is addressed with suggestions for future areas of exploration.

  12. Relationships among Teacher's Knowledge and Application of Principles of Adult Teaching and Student Satisfaction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Clay N., Jr.

    The nature of the relationship between a teacher's knowledge of certain principles of adult teaching, his application of those principles in classroom practice, and the resultant level of satisfaction reported by his adult students was studied. Agroup of 1,596 adults in 100 university classes were the subjects. A theoretical framework adapted from…

  13. Exploring Paternal Maturity in the Relationships between Older Fathers and Adult Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelle, Charlie D.; Sheehan, Nancy W.

    2011-01-01

    While research on parent-adult child relationships has expanded over the last two decades, most research has ignored the experiences of older fathers and their relationships with adult children. The present study sought to explore how midlife and older men assess the costs and rewards associated with their fatherhood experiences and how fathers'…

  14. Intimate Adult Relationships, Quality of Life and Psychological Adjusment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleque, Abdul

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess relations between adult intimacy, quality of life, and psychological adjustment. Data were collected in the United States from a sample of 64 college students. The measuring instruments used were Personal Information Sheet, Adult version of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (Adult PAQ), Intimate…

  15. Multidimensional Architecture of Love: From Romantic Narratives to Psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Karandashev, Victor; Clapp, Stuart

    2015-12-01

    Romantic love has been explored by writers for centuries revealing multiple emotions and feelings related to this phenomenon. Scientific efforts to understand love began in the mid-twentieth century and greatly advanced the topic in the past few decades. Several instruments measuring love were developed. They are still, however, limited in their scope. The purpose of our study was to explore love's emotional complexity through discourse analysis of romantic narratives and apply the constructs identified in those narratives to the reality of love relationships. In the first study, the discourse analysis of quotes selected from a representative sample of romantic narratives lead to a comprehensive set of items measuring the variety of love constructs. Second and third studies, utilizing 498 participants of various ages, empirically explored the diversity of love constructs and their architecture. The study brought many constructs to the arena of love research. A hierarchical cluster analysis allowed depicting these dimensions in varying models. Mental representations of love structures varied depending on the participants' mental complexity and other factors.

  16. The Role of Romantic Partners, Family, and Peer Networks in Dating Couples' Views about Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.; Smock, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging adults are increasingly cohabiting, but few studies have considered the role of social context in the formation of their views of cohabitation. Drawing on 40 semistructured interviews with dating couples, we explored the role of romantic partners, family, and peers on evaluations of cohabitation. In couples where each member had a…

  17. Regulation of Romantic Love Feelings: Preconceptions, Strategies, and Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Langeslag, Sandra J. E.; van Strien, Jan W.

    2016-01-01

    Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new) activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP) amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300–400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700–3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700–3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative effects of

  18. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners

    PubMed Central

    Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

  19. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners.

    PubMed

    Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy.

  20. The perils and possibilities in disclosing childhood sexual abuse to a romantic partner.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Darren; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to understand the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in adulthood by interviewing seven women about their experiences of disclosing CSA to romantic partners. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, an in-depth, qualitative research approach, was used to analyze the transcripts. The analysis produced 10 themes that were grouped into three domains: (a) Struggling in Private about Disclosure: prior to disclosing, participants described concerns that arose in the context of their romantic relationships; (b) The Experience of Disclosing: participants described when and how they disclosed and the thoughts and feelings accompanying disclosure; and (c) The Aftereffects of Disclosure: after disclosing, participants described the impact it had on the self as well as on the relationship with their romantic partner.

  1. Grandparental impact in young adults' relationships with their closest grandparents: the role of relationship strength and emotional closeness.

    PubMed

    Brussoni, M J; Boon, S D

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the role that relationship strength, generally, and emotional closeness, more specifically, may play in delimiting the bounds of grandparental influence in young adults' lives. One-hundred and seventy-one college-aged young adults completed a questionnaire evaluating their relationship with the living grandparent to whom they felt most emotionally close or, if they felt close to none of their living grandparents, the grandparent with whom they had the most contact. Participants' perceptions of the strength of this relationship were significantly and positively related to their responses on measures of the extent to which their closest grandparent influenced various aspects of their lives (e.g., their beliefs and values, how much their lives would be missing had they never known the grandparent). In addition, participants whose grandparent-grandchild relationships were emotionally close endorsed a broader range of alternatives on checklist measures of perceived relationship impact than did those whose relationships were more emotionally distant.

  2. Romantic attraction and adolescent smoking trajectories.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Research on sexual orientation and substance use has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are more likely to smoke than heterosexuals. This analysis furthers the examination of smoking behaviors across sexual orientation groups by describing how same- and opposite-sex romantic attraction, and changes in romantic attraction, are associated with distinct six-year developmental trajectories of smoking. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health dataset is used to test our hypotheses. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting smoking trajectory membership as a function of romantic attraction were separately estimated for men and women. Romantic attraction effects were found only for women. The change from self-reported heterosexual attraction to lesbian or bisexual attraction was more predictive of higher smoking trajectories than was a consistent lesbian or bisexual attraction, with potentially important differences between the smoking patterns of these two groups.

  3. Educational Alliance: The Importance of Relationships in Adult Education with Court-Mandated Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottern, Ron

    2012-01-01

    This conceptual study examines the importance of relationships between teachers and students in court-mandated adult education settings. Although research has been done on the importance of relationships between teachers and incarcerated students, there have been no outstanding studies on the relationships developed between teachers and students…

  4. Examining Student-Adult Relationships during K-12 School Age Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappi, Shelly J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between dependent and independent variables and the effects relationships have on K-12 students as they struggle through life stressors. Thus, the research study was based upon this over arching question: How does having positive student-adult relationships impact a student's ability to cope with life…

  5. Adult Son-Parent Relationships and Their Associations with Sons' Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Rosalind C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between quality of adult sons' experiences in current relationships with parents and sons' psychological distress among 285 sons. Sons who reported positive relationship with their mother or father also reported low psychological distress. Presence or absence of female siblings moderated association between both son-mother…

  6. The Relationships between Cognitive Ability and Dental Status in a National Sample of USA Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbah, Wael; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2010-01-01

    There are very few studies on the relationship between cognitive ability and dental status in middle aged and younger adults. We postulate that lower cognitive ability is directly related to poorer dental status and that this relationship operates through the relationship between cognitive ability and health-related behaviors. The objectives of…

  7. Relationships between Adult Learners' Anxiety Levels and Cooperative Exam Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curless, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    More nontraditional, adult learners are entering higher education than ever before due to the continued growth in technology and current economic conditions that encourage adults to acquire additional skills for the workplace. The pressure for these students to do well in school and finish quickly can lead to increased anxiety associated with the…

  8. The Relationship between Resourcefulness and Persistence in Adult Autonomous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Michael K; Derrick, M. Gail; Carr, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the tenability of a proposed path-analytic model relating resourcefulness and persistence in the context of adult autonomous learning. Data collected from a nonprobability sample of 492 American adults using valid and reliable measures for resourcefulness and persistence were analyzed. Results suggest…

  9. Marriage following Adolescent Parenthood: Relationship to Adult Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Lee, Jungeun; Morrison, Diane M.; Lindhorst, Taryn

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that adult marriages confer benefits. Does marriage following a teenage birth confer benefits similar to those observed for adults? Longitudinal data from a community sample of 235 young women who gave birth as unmarried adolescents were used to examine this question. Controlling for socioeconomic status and preexisting…

  10. Loneliness mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and adult psychopathology: evidence from the adult psychiatric morbidity survey.

    PubMed

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Murphy, Jamie

    2015-04-01

    Childhood abuse (CA) has been found to be related to the development of a variety of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Although CA is also associated with adult loneliness, few studies have investigated the role of loneliness as a mediator in the relationship between CA and adult psychopathology. Using data from a large, general population sample a mediation model was proposed and tested. Controlling for a range of background variables, the results from a series of regression analyses found that loneliness mediated the association between CA and six adult psychiatric disorders. The findings of this study highlight the importance of loneliness to the development of psychopathology. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  11. Galactosyltransferase in fetal, neonatal, and adult colon: relationship to differentiation.

    PubMed

    LaMont, J T; Ventola, A

    1978-08-01

    Microsomal galactosyltransferase activity of fetal rat colon increased fourfold between 18 and 22 days of gestation and then more slowly during neonatal life reaching adult levels after 14 days. The Km for uridinediphosphate- (UDP) galactose, pH optimum, cation, and detergent requirements were identical in fetal and adult galactosyltransferase. Cytidine 5'-diphosphate-choline stimulated the adult but not fetal colonic galactosyltrasferase activity by inhibition of UDP-galactose pyrophosphatase. The increase in colonic galactosyltransferase in late fetal development is correlated with our previous observation that incorporation of [3H]galactose is markedly increased during differentiation of the fetal colon.

  12. Relationship between socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome among Nigerian adults.

    PubMed

    Adedoyin, Rufus A; Afolabi, Abiodun; Adegoke, Olajire O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Awotidebe, Taofeek O

    2013-01-01

    .148 and 3.862, respectively, p<0.05). The high SES group was found to have significantly higher SBP and FBG than the low and middle SES groups. There were significant correlations between SES scores and SBP (r=0.255; p<0.05), FBG (r=0.270; p<0.01), and BMI (r=0.210; p<0.05). Also, significant relationships were found between weight and TG (r=0.282; p<0.05), waist circumference (WC) and FBG (r=0.264; p<0.05), and WC and TG (r=0.414; p<0.01). The study concluded that SES has significant relationship with metabolic syndrome components such as SBP and fasting blood glucose among adult population in Nigeria.

  13. Hybrid Governance in an Adult Program: A Nuanced Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockley, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Eastern Mennonite University's adult program uses a hybrid governance structure. Functions separated from the traditional program include marketing, admissions, and student advising. Functions that remain connected to the traditional program include the registrar, financial aid, and student business accounts.

  14. Adolescents' Anxiety in Dating Situations: The Potential Role of Friends and Romantic Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Mackey, Eleanor Race

    2007-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interpersonal functioning, including the qualities of their closest friendships and romantic relationships, as predictors of dating/heterosocial anxiety. An ethnically diverse sample of 781 adolescents (57% girls; ages 15-19 years) completed measures that assessed the number and type of close friends, the presence…

  15. Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners: Enmeshment in Deviant Networks and Adolescent Delinquency Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonardo, Robert A.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent networks include parents, friends, and romantic partners, but research on the social learning mechanisms related to delinquency has not typically examined the characteristics of all three domains simultaneously. Analyses draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 957), and our analytic sample contains 51% male and…

  16. Family Cohesion and Romantic and Sexual Initiation: A Three Wave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaf, Hanneke; van de Schoot, Rens; Woertman, Liesbeth; Hawk, Skyler T.; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Although the relation between family relationships and the timing of sexual debut has been the focus of many studies, research on mediating factors is scarce. This study examines whether low levels of family cohesion result in an earlier onset of romantic and sexual experiences, and whether the link between family cohesion and an early sexual…

  17. Predicting Responses to Bids for Sexual and Romantic Escalation in Cross-Sex Friendships.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Valerie; Weger, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The transition from a platonic cross-sex friendship to a more intimate sexual and/or romantic relationship is an interesting, yet somewhat understudied, phenomenon. In this study, we introduce and test relationship adaptation theory to predict cross-sex friends' predispositions for reciprocating a bid for escalation to an exclusive dating or friends with benefits (FWB) relationship. Analyses of data collected from 288 participants found participants' dating status, anticipated rewards from escalating the relationship, expected social disapproval, friendship quality, and their friend's attractiveness predicted disposition to reciprocating a cross-sex friend's hypothetical bid for escalation to an exclusive romantic escalation. In addition, participants' biological sex, anticipated rewards from escalating the relationship, expected social disapproval, sexual permissiveness, and their friend's attractiveness emerged as predictors of disposition toward a friend's hypothetical bid to escalate a platonic friendship to a FWB relationship.

  18. Maslow's Theory of Motivation: Its Relevance for Adult-Adolescent Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyehalu, Anthony S.

    1983-01-01

    Contends that the apparent psychosocial inadequacies of contemporary adolescents stem from the widespread adult attitude of relegating them to the status of minors. Recommends that the dynamic principles of adult-adolescent relationships as well as child-rearing techniques in general, draw heavily from the provisions of Maslovian psychology. (JAC)

  19. Adult Attachment and Parental Bonding: Correlations between Perceived Relationship Qualities and Self-Reported Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambruster, Ellen W.; Witherington, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Adult attachment and parental bonding have been linked to anxiety disorders, but rarely have these associations been demonstrated in the same study. To fill this gap in the research literature, we utilized several different self-report measures to examine the relationships among adult attachment style, memories of early bonding experiences, and…

  20. Universities and Adult Literacy in South Africa: An Exploration of Their Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxenham, John; French, Edward

    Observations of the relationship between South Africa's universities and adult literacy are offered by a British Council consultant after a visit to South Africa. The purpose was to help university lecturers design and develop an adult literacy course and to give seminars to local literacy groups. Impressions are described on the state of…

  1. The Longitudinal Relationships between Rural Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…

  2. Ambivalence in the Relationship of Adult Children to Aging Parents and In-Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, Andrea E.; Shuey, Kim M.; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates ambivalence in adult children's relationships with their aging parents and in-laws. Focuses on factors predicting adult children's ambivalence toward parents and in-laws within a gendered kinship structure that shapes these relations. Concludes that ambivalence is a useful concept for representing the complexity of parent-child…

  3. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Dietery Intake, and Body Mass Index in Young Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the relationship of diet and weight to alcohol consumption in young adults. Dietary intake data were collected in 1995–1996 on 1,335 young adults (20–38 years) (62% female; 27% black) using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (YAQ), and the Health Lifestyle-Behavio...

  4. Historical and Contemporary Aspects of the Relationship between the State and Adult Education in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    An outgrowth of earlier research on historical and contemporary adult education in Greece, this paper provides highlights of the relationship between the state and adult education in that country. The highlights are organized by the following historical periods: prehistory (c. 3000-1100 B.C.); early and archaic Greece (c. 1100-700 B.C.);…

  5. The Relationship between the Self-Efficacy and Life Satisfaction of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakar, Firdevs Savi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and life satisfaction of young adults. This study is cross-sectional study and variables. Data were collected between March 2012 and April 2012 from young adults who were bachelor degree and attending the Celal Bayar University Pedagogical Formation Program the academic…

  6. Attachment States of Mind and the Quality of Young Adults' Sibling Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Groh, Ashley M.; Holland, Ashley S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines young adults' states of mind regarding their early attachment experiences in relation to the observed and perceived quality of their sibling relationships. Sixty sibling pairs (18-25 years of age) were (a) administered the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985), (b) videotaped during a conflict…

  7. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  8. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers.

    PubMed

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A; Stoyanov, Stoyan R

    2016-05-06

    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10-18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs.

  9. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers

    PubMed Central

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A.; Stoyanov, Stoyan R.

    2016-01-01

    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10–18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs. PMID:27164149

  10. Adult Romantic Relationships as Contexts of Human Development: A Multimethod Comparison of Same-Sex Couples with Opposite-Sex Dating, Engaged, and Married Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Clausell, Eric; Holland, Ashley; Fortuna, Keren; Elieff, Chryle

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a multimethod, multi-informant comparison of community samples of committed gay male (n=30) and lesbian (n=30) couples with both committed (n=50 young engaged and n=40 older married) and noncommitted (n=109 exclusively dating) heterosexual pairs. Specifically, in this study the quality of same- and opposite-sex relationships…

  11. Older adult social participation and its relationship with health: Rural-urban differences.

    PubMed

    Vogelsang, Eric M

    2016-11-01

    In an aging world, there is increased need to identify places and characteristics of places that promote health among older adults. This study examines whether there are rural-urban differences in older adult social participation and its relationship with health. Using the 2003 and 2011 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n=3006), I find that older adults living in rural counties are less socially active than their counterparts in more-urban counties. I also find that relationships between social participation and health vary by the type of activity and rural-urban context.

  12. Sexual Relationships in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Understanding the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, A. C.; Murphy, G. H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are known to be very vulnerable to sexual abuse. This may result partly from their lack of sexual knowledge and their powerless position in society. It could also be exacerbated by an ignorance of the law. This study investigates their understanding of the law relating to sexuality. Method:…

  13. Changes in the Conjugal Relationships of Adult Female Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Groot, Susan Crum

    This study found that, prior to beginning school, the typical adult female student at Montclair State College reports moderately positive support from her spouse. However, during the first semester, she encounters mild role conflict and lack of self-confidence in her ability to meet family and academic responsibilities. During her second and third…

  14. Attachment Relationships and Psychological Adjustment of Married Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleque, Abdul; Shirin, Anjuman; Uddin, Muhammad Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored relations among remembered parental (paternal and maternal) acceptance in childhood, spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment of adults. It also explored whether remembered childhood experiences of parental acceptance mediate the relation between perceived spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment. The sample…

  15. A Phenomenological Study of Falling out of Romantic Love

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailor, Joanni L.

    2013-01-01

    Romantic love is considered a necessary ingredient in marriage. In this study, the experience of falling out of romantic love with one's spouse was examined. Eight individuals who had fallen out of romantic love with their spouse were interviewed. By using Moustakas' Transcendental Phenomenological method, several themes emerged which provided a…

  16. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Adult Intimate Relationships: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…

  17. Relationships among Cortical Thickness, Reading Skill, and Print Exposure in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jason G.; Manis, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among cortical thickness in the left-hemisphere reading network, and reading skill and experience in adult nonimpaired readers. Given the relationship between print exposure and reading, it is possible that print exposure is related to cortical structure. The pattern of correlations indicated that individuals…

  18. Middle School Children's Career Aspirations: Relationship to Adult Occupations and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuette, Christine T.; Ponton, Michael K.; Charlton, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between the career aspirations of 89 preadolescents from low socioeconomic backgrounds and the actual occupations of the working adults in their homes with regard to status, job gender identification, and interest (Holland, 1997). There was a significant relationship between boys' career aspirations and the…

  19. Neuroticism mediates the relationship between childhood adversity and adult sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Sullivan, Sarah G; Hitchcock, Carla A; Stein, Murray B

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of childhood adversity and adult sleep quality in 327 college students (91 males), with a mean age of 18.9 years (SD = 2.1) and also examined whether neuroticism significantly mediated the observed association. Regression findings indicate that the relationship between childhood adversity and adult sleep quality is significant, and that there is a stronger association in men. Furthermore, a bootstrapping approach to testing the significance of the indirect effect (i.e., mediation) indicated that neuroticism mediated this relationship in both men and women. These data suggest that otherwise healthy young adults with a history of childhood adversity are at increased risk for sleep disturbance. Neuroticism may represent a potential target for change in future insomnia interventions, particularly in adults with a history of childhood adversity.

  20. Measuring Love: Sexual Minority Male Youths' Ideal Romantic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Johns, Michelle M; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna; Santana, Matt Leslie; Zimmerman, Marc

    2011-04-01

    Research examining how sexual minorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, we examined the validity of Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love in a sample of sexual minority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, we examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and tested whether the three underlying constructs of the theory (Intimacy, Passion, and Commitment) emerged when participants were asked to consider their ideal relationship with another man. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we found support for the three-factor solution to characterize sexual minority male youths' ideal romantic relationship, after minimizing item cross-loadings and adapting the content of the Passion subscale. We discuss the implications of our findings regarding the measurement of the TLS among sexual minority male youth and propose ways to enhance its measurement in future research.

  1. The Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Adult Personality Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Kelly E.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.; Gagne, Gerard G.; Mello, Andrea F.; Mello, Marcelo F.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorder symptomatology in a community sample of healthy adults without diagnosable DSM-IV-TR Axis I psychiatric disorders who reported a history of childhood abuse. Twenty-eight subjects with a history of moderate to severe physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse according to the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were compared to 33 subjects without an abuse history on symptoms of personality disorders. Subjects in the Abuse group were more likely to report subclinical symptoms of paranoid, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, obsessive compulsive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorders. These findings link reports of childhood abuse with symptoms of personality disorders in the absence of Axis I psychiatric disorders in a community sample of healthy adults. PMID:17685839

  2. Relationships Among Reading Skills of Adults with Low Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, John P.; Shore, Jane R.; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Scarborough, Hollis S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the interrelationships among latent factors of the Simple View of reading comprehension (word recognition and language comprehension) and hypothesized additional factors (vocabulary and reading fluency) in a sample of 476 adult learners with low literacy levels. The results provided evidence for reliable distinctions between word recognition, fluency, language comprehension, and vocabulary skills as components of reading. Even so, the data did not support the hypothesis that the Simple View needs to be expanded to include vocabulary or fluency factors, as has been posited in a few prior studies of younger and more able readers. Rather, word recognition and language comprehension alone were found to account adequately for variation in reading comprehension in adults with low literacy. PMID:20179307

  3. Touching moments: desire modulates the neural anticipation of active romantic caress

    PubMed Central

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J.; Ferri, Francesca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    A romantic caress is a basic expression of affiliative behavior and a primary reinforcer. Given its inherent affective valence, its performance also would imply the prediction of reward values. For example, touching a person for whom one has strong passionate feelings likely is motivated by a strong desire for physical contact and associated with the anticipation of hedonic experiences. The present study aims at investigating how the anticipatory neural processes of active romantic caress are modulated by the intensity of the desire for affective contact as reflected by passionate feelings for the other. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning was performed in romantically involved partners using a paradigm that allowed to isolate the specific anticipatory representations of active romantic caress, compared with control caress, while testing for the relationship between neural activity and measures of feelings of passionate love for the other. The results demonstrated that right posterior insula activity in anticipation of romantic caress significantly co-varied with the intensity of desire for union with the other. This effect was independent of the sensory-affective properties of the performed touch, like its pleasantness. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis showed that the same posterior insula cluster interacted with brain regions related to sensory-motor functions as well as to the processing and anticipation of reward. The findings provide insight on the neural substrate mediating between the desire for and the performance of romantic caress. In particular, we propose that anticipatory activity patterns in posterior insula may modulate subsequent sensory-affective processing of skin-to-skin contact. PMID:24616676

  4. Touching moments: desire modulates the neural anticipation of active romantic caress.

    PubMed

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J; Ferri, Francesca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    A romantic caress is a basic expression of affiliative behavior and a primary reinforcer. Given its inherent affective valence, its performance also would imply the prediction of reward values. For example, touching a person for whom one has strong passionate feelings likely is motivated by a strong desire for physical contact and associated with the anticipation of hedonic experiences. The present study aims at investigating how the anticipatory neural processes of active romantic caress are modulated by the intensity of the desire for affective contact as reflected by passionate feelings for the other. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning was performed in romantically involved partners using a paradigm that allowed to isolate the specific anticipatory representations of active romantic caress, compared with control caress, while testing for the relationship between neural activity and measures of feelings of passionate love for the other. The results demonstrated that right posterior insula activity in anticipation of romantic caress significantly co-varied with the intensity of desire for union with the other. This effect was independent of the sensory-affective properties of the performed touch, like its pleasantness. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis showed that the same posterior insula cluster interacted with brain regions related to sensory-motor functions as well as to the processing and anticipation of reward. The findings provide insight on the neural substrate mediating between the desire for and the performance of romantic caress. In particular, we propose that anticipatory activity patterns in posterior insula may modulate subsequent sensory-affective processing of skin-to-skin contact.

  5. Relationship of Hemoglobin Concentration in Adult Asthmatic Patients.

    PubMed

    Nasreen, S; Nessa, A; Islam, M F; Husain, M F; Khatun, N; Wahed, F; Zannat, M R; Tajkia, T

    2016-10-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, in which many cells and cellular elements play a role. Asthma is one of the most common diseases globally and currently affects 300 million people. The epidemic rise in anemia, asthma, and related allergic disease is a common major public health problem worldwide. Asthma and anemia associated with acute infections occur both in children and adults. This descriptive type of cross sectional study was done to find out the levels of hemoglobin concentration in adult asthmatic patients and carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2014 to January 2016. Fifty (50) male and 50 (fifty) female adult asthmatic patients aged 18-60 years were included in the study group. They are enrolled from the Department of Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh and also from locality. For comparison age matched 50 male and 50 female apparently healthy persons were also studied as control. Hemoglobin concentration was estimated by Cyanmethemoglobin method. For statistical analysis unpaired student's 't' test was used. Mean hemoglobin concentration was significantly decreased in study group in comparison to control group and the result was statistically significant (p<0.001). The study findings showed a high prevalence of anemia among asthmatic patients than non asthmatic healthy persons.

  6. Marriage, Relationship Quality, and Sleep among U.S. Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Hao; Waite, Linda J; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2015-09-01

    Sleep is a restorative behavior essential for health. Poor sleep has been linked to adverse health outcomes among older adults; however, we know little about the social processes that affect sleep. Using innovative actigraphy data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (N = 727), we considered the role of marriage, positive marital relationship support, and negative marital relationship strain on older adults' (ages 62-90) self-reported and actigraph-measured sleep characteristics. We found that married older adults had better actigraph-estimated but not self-reported sleep characteristics than the unmarried. However, among the married, those who reported more negative aspects of their marital relationship reported more insomnia symptoms, with the association reduced when psychosocial characteristics were added to the model. The married who reported more positive aspects of their marital relationship showed better actigraph-estimated sleep characteristics; taking characteristics of the physical and mental health and home environment into account reduced this association.

  7. The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Andreas; Zeki, Semir

    2004-03-01

    Romantic and maternal love are highly rewarding experiences. Both are linked to the perpetuation of the species and therefore have a closely linked biological function of crucial evolutionary importance. Yet almost nothing is known about their neural correlates in the human. We therefore used fMRI to measure brain activity in mothers while they viewed pictures of their own and of acquainted children, and of their best friend and of acquainted adults as additional controls. The activity specific to maternal attachment was compared to that associated to romantic love described in our earlier study and to the distribution of attachment-mediating neurohormones established by other studies. Both types of attachment activated regions specific to each, as well as overlapping regions in the brain's reward system that coincide with areas rich in oxytocin and vasopressin receptors. Both deactivated a common set of regions associated with negative emotions, social judgment and 'mentalizing', that is, the assessment of other people's intentions and emotions. We conclude that human attachment employs a push-pull mechanism that overcomes social distance by deactivating networks used for critical social assessment and negative emotions, while it bonds individuals through the involvement of the reward circuitry, explaining the power of love to motivate and exhilarate.

  8. Relationship commitment, perceived equity, and sexual enjoyment among young adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Galinsky, Adena M; Sonenstein, Freya Lund

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about how enjoyment of sexual behavior is linked to the relationship context of the behavior among young adults in the United States. To examine this association, multivariate logistic and ordered logistic regression analyses were conducted using data from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, collected when the participants were 18 to 26 years old (N = 2,970). Analyses explored the associations between four measures of sexual enjoyment and three measures of relationship context. Perceived equity was associated with sexual enjoyment, but the pattern of associations differed by gender. Perceiving oneself to be underbenefited was associated with less enjoyment for all four measures of sexual enjoyment among women, but for only one measure among men. Perceiving oneself to be overbenefited was associated with less enjoyment for three of the sexual enjoyment measures among men, but for only two among women. Most of these associations were no longer significant when subjective relationship commitment was added to the models. Among both young adult men and women, subjective relationship commitment was associated with all four measures of sexual enjoyment. In contrast, formal relationship status was not consistently associated with any of the sexual enjoyment measures. Young adults perceiving that they are in more-committed relationships enjoy their partnered sexual acts more, on average, than those in less-committed relationships. Anticipation of higher sexual enjoyment could be used by public health campaigns to motivate young adults to engage in fewer, more-committed sexual partnerships.

  9. Fueling the Flames of the Green-Eyed Monster: The Role of Ruminative Thought in Reaction to Romantic Jealousy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Christine L.; Cupach, William R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines factors predicted to influence individuals' responses to romantic jealousy. Details a study in which undergraduate students completed scales measuring relationship-specific linking, relationship-specific rumination, possessiveness, trust, and communicative responses to jealousy. Suggests that jealous rumination is an important cognitive…

  10. The Relationship between Learning Disabilities and Homelessness in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markos, Patricia A.; Strawser, Sherri

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the relationship between learning disabilities (LD) and homelessness. Research describing the connection between disabilities and homelessness has focused on individuals presenting with disabilities such as mental illness, physical disabilities, medical disabilities, or substance abuse. At this time, the presence of LD in…

  11. Relationship between Auditory and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sheft, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective was to evaluate the association of peripheral and central hearing abilities with cognitive function in older adults. Methods Recruited from epidemiological studies of aging and cognition at the Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, participants were a community-dwelling cohort of older adults (range 63–98 years) without diagnosis of dementia. The cohort contained roughly equal numbers of Black (n=61) and White (n=63) subjects with groups similar in terms of age, gender, and years of education. Auditory abilities were measured with pure-tone audiometry, speech-in-noise perception, and discrimination thresholds for both static and dynamic spectral patterns. Cognitive performance was evaluated with a 12-test battery assessing episodic, semantic, and working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial abilities. Results Among the auditory measures, only the static and dynamic spectral-pattern discrimination thresholds were associated with cognitive performance in a regression model that included the demographic covariates race, age, gender, and years of education. Subsequent analysis indicated substantial shared variance among the covariates race and both measures of spectral-pattern discrimination in accounting for cognitive performance. Among cognitive measures, working memory and visuospatial abilities showed the strongest interrelationship to spectral-pattern discrimination performance. Conclusions For a cohort of older adults without diagnosis of dementia, neither hearing thresholds nor speech-in-noise ability showed significant association with a summary measure of global cognition. In contrast, the two auditory metrics of spectral-pattern discrimination ability significantly contributed to a regression model prediction of cognitive performance, demonstrating association of central auditory ability to cognitive status using auditory metrics that avoided the confounding effect of speech materials. PMID:26237423

  12. Factors Contributing to the Quality of Sibling Relationships for Adults With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew J.; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that the quality of sibling relationships has a significant impact on the lives of adults with schizophrenia. A life course perspective was used to guide an investigation of the predictors of the quality of the relationship between adults with schizophrenia and their siblings. Methods The data come from a longitudinal study of families of adults with schizophrenia. This study is based on a survey of 136 siblings of adults with schizophrenia. Multiple regression was used to estimate the predictors of sibling relationship quality. Results Siblings reported a better relationship when they grew up in a more cohesive family environment (beta=.16, p<.05) and when they experienced more personal gains from coping with the challenges of a brother’s or sister’s mental illness (beta=.37, p<.001). Siblings reported a worse relationship when they perceived their brother or sister with schizophrenia as having control over his or her symptoms (beta=−.18, p<.05), expressed greater fear of their brother’s or sister’s behavior (beta=−.17, p<.05), and indicated that their brother or sister had struck or threatened them at some point in their lives (beta=−.18, p<.05). Conclusions The quality of the sibling relationship is a major contributor to sibling involvement in the future and to the quality of life of adults with schizophrenia. By identifying the factors associated with positive sibling relationships, mental health providers will be better prepared to engage siblings in the treatment process and help promote stronger bonds of affection between adults with schizophrenia and their siblings. PMID:18182540

  13. National and State-Specific Health Insurance Disparities for Adults in Same-Sex Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Blewett, Lynn A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined national and state-specific disparities in health insurance coverage, specifically employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) coverage, for adults in same-sex relationships. Methods. We used data from the American Community Survey to identify adults (aged 25–64 years) in same-sex relationships (n = 31 947), married opposite-sex relationships (n = 3 060 711), and unmarried opposite-sex relationships (n = 259 147). We estimated multinomial logistic regression models and state-specific relative differences in ESI coverage with predictive margins. Results. Men and women in same-sex relationships were less likely to have ESI than were their married counterparts in opposite-sex relationships. We found ESI disparities among adults in same-sex relationships in every region, but we found the largest ESI gaps for men in the South and for women in the Midwest. ESI disparities were narrower in states that had extended legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, and broad domestic partnerships. Conclusions. Men and women in same-sex relationships experience disparities in health insurance coverage across the country, but residing in a state that recognizes legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, or broad domestic partnerships may improve access to ESI for same-sex spouses and domestic partners. PMID:24328616

  14. Relationships between the perceived neighborhood social environment and walking for transportation among older adults.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Donder, Liesbeth; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Buffel, Tine; De Witte, Nico; Dury, Sarah; Verté, Dominique; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-03-01

    Ecological models state that physical activity (PA) behaviors can be explained by the interplay between individuals and their surrounding physical and social environment. However, the majority of research on PA-environment relationships has focused upon the physical environment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between the perceived social environment and older adults' walking for transportation, while adjusting for individual and perceived physical environmental factors. Questionnaires were used to collect data on walking for transportation, individual, perceived physical and social environmental factors in 50,986 Flemish older adults (≥65 years) in the period of 2004-2010. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the relationships between perceived social environmental factors and the odds of daily walking for transportation. The final models showed significant positive relationships for frequency of contacts with neighbors, neighbors' social support, too many immigrants residing in the neighborhood, neighborhood involvement, participation, and volunteering. These results emphasize the need for including social environmental factors in future studies examining correlates of older adults' physical activity. Current findings suggest that projects stimulating interpersonal relationships, place attachment, and formal community engagement might promote walking for transportation among older adults. Future research should try to further disentangle the complex (inter)relationships and causal mechanisms between older individuals, their environments, and their walking for transportation behavior.

  15. Relationships among stress, infectious illness, and religiousness/spirituality in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Callen, Bonnie L; Mefford, Linda; Groër, Maureen; Thomas, Sandra P

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among stress, infectious illness, and religiousness/spirituality in community-dwelling older adults in the southeastern United States. Four assessment tools were completed by 82 older adults (mean age = 74, age range = 65 to 91): the Perceived Stress Scale, the Carr Infection Symptom Checklist (SCL), the Brief Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality, and a demographic form. A significant correlation was found between stress and SCL scores; however, four dimensions of religiousness/spirituality moderated the relationship between stress and infection. Older adults who were unable to forgive themselves or forgive others, or feel forgiven by God, were more likely to have had an infection in the previous month. Increased infections also occurred when older participants did not feel they had religious support from their congregations. Using these findings, gerontological nurses are well positioned to deliver tailored stress management and forgiveness interventions when older adults report increased stress.

  16. Parental romantic expectations and parent-child sexuality communication in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Laura G; Himle, Michael B; Strassberg, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, parental romantic expectations, and parental provision of sexuality and relationship education in an online sample of 190 parents of youth 12-18 years of age with a parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Regression analyses were conducted separately for youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported average or above IQ and youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported below average IQ. For youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported average or above IQ, autism spectrum disorder severity predicted parental romantic expectations, but not parental provision of sexuality and relationship education. For youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported below average IQ, parental romantic expectations mediated the relationship between autism spectrum disorder severity and parent provision of sexuality and relationship education. This supports the importance of carefully considering intellectual functioning in autism spectrum disorder sexuality research and suggests that acknowledging and addressing parent expectations may be important for parent-focused sexuality and relationship education interventions.

  17. Romanticism and Romantic Science: Their Contribution to Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Schulz, Roland

    2014-10-01

    The unique contributions of romanticism and romantic science have been generally ignored or undervalued in history and philosophy of science studies and science education. Although more recent research in history of science has come to delineate the value of both topics for the development of modern science, their merit for the educational field has not been explored. Romanticism was not only an obvious historical period, but a particular state of mind with its own extraordinary emotional sensitivity towards nature. It is especially the latter which we hope to revisit and reclaim for science education. After discussing several key historical contributions, we describe nine characteristics of `Romantic Science' in order to focus on six ideas/possibilities that we believe hold much value for transforming current science education: (1) the emotional sensitivity toward nature, (2) the centrality of sense experience, (3) the importance of "holistic experience", (4) the importance of the notions of mystery and wonder, (5) the power of science to transform people's outlook on the natural world, and (6) the importance of the relationship between science and philosophy. It is argued that in view of a pragmatist/utilitarian conception of school science prevalent today the aforementioned ideas (especially the notion of wonder and the poetic/non-analytical mode of knowledge), can provide food for thought for both science teachers and researchers seeking to work out an aesthetic conception, one that complements current approaches such as inquiry science and conceptual change.

  18. Romantic Poets and Prose Writers. Goldentree Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogle, Richard Harter, Comp.

    Intended as a guide to scholarship on Romantic writers, this selective bibliography attempts to cover the major works and topics, with emphasis on work published in the 20th century. Omitted are unpublished dissertations and most literary histories, bibliographies of bibliography, short notes and explications, and older biographical works that…

  19. A Burkean Perspective of Romantic Jealousy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Peggy Yuhas

    Kenneth Burke's dramatistic theory of social movements can be applied to current romantic jealousy theories. Burke's dramaturgy has seven major elements: order, guilt, negation, victimage, mortification, catharsis, and redemption. These elements may all be transposed onto Burke's three critical motives: Order (status quo), Secret (differences…

  20. Classic and Romantic in Irish Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKernan, Jim

    Recent trends in curriculum development in Irish post-primary schools are traced according to two models: the classic-centrist and the romantic-decentralist. The classic model, initiated by agencies external to the school, views curriculum development as a science and focuses on accountability and competency-based teaching and testing. The…

  1. Social relationships and health related behaviors among older US adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health behaviors are a key determinant of health and well-being that are influenced by the nature of the social environment. This study examined associations between social relationships and health-related behaviors among a nationally representative sample of older people. Methods We analyzed data from three waves (1999–2004) of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants were 4,014 older Americans aged 60 and over. Log-binomial regression models estimated prevalence ratios (PR) for the associations between social relationships and each of the following health behaviors: alcohol use, smoking, physical activity and dental attendance. Results Health-compromising behaviors (smoking, heavy drinking and less frequent dental visits) were related to marital status, while physical activity, a health-promoting behavior, was associated with the size of friendship networks. Smoking was more common among divorced/separated (PR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.6, 2.7) and widowed (PR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.3) respondents than among those married or cohabiting, after adjusting for socio-demographic background. Heavy drinking was 2.6 times more common among divorced/separated and 1.7 times more common among widowed men compared to married/cohabiting men, while there was no such association among women. For women, heavy drinking was associated with being single (PR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.9). Being widowed was related to a lower prevalence of having visited a dentist compared to being married or living with a partner (PR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.86, 0.99). Those with a larger circle of friends were more likely to be physically active (PR = 1.17; 95% CI:1.06, 1.28 for 5–8 versus less than 5 friends). Conclusions Social relationships of older Americans were independently associated with different health-related behaviors, even after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic determinants. Availability of emotional support did not however

  2. Relationships of individual, social, and physical environmental factors with older adults' television viewing time.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Donder, Liesbeth; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting) can be associated detrimentally with health outcomes. Older adults, the most sedentary age group, are especially at risk due to their high levels of television viewing time. This study examined individual, social, and physical environmental correlates of older adults' television viewing. Data on daily television viewing time, plus individual, social, and physical environmental factors were collected from 50,986 noninstitutionalized older adults (≥ 65 years) in Flanders (Belgium). The results showed significant relationships between television viewing time and individual, social, and physical environmental factors. Subgroups at risk for high levels of television viewing were those who were functionally limited, less educated, widowed, and (semi)urban-dwelling older adults. Our findings illustrate a cross-sectional link between older adults' television viewing time and social composition of their neighborhood, formal participation, access to alternative activities, and safety from crime.

  3. Relationship between social capital indicators and lifestyle in Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Loch, Mathias Roberto; Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno de; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Martinez-Gómez, David; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined the relationship between indicators of social capital and health-related behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1,062 participants representative of the population aged 40 years or older from a city in Southern Brazil. The following indicators of social capital were examined: number of friends, number of people they could borrow money from when in need; extent of trust in community members; number of times members of the community help each other; community safety; and extent of membership in community activities. Also, an overall score of social capital including all indicators was calculated. A poor social capital was associated with insufficient leisure-time physical activity (OR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.07-2.70), low consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR = 1.53; 95%CI: 1.05-2.24), and smoking (OR = 1.97; 95%CI: 1.21-3.21). No clear association was found between capital social and binge drinking. A score of social capital showed an inverse relationship with the number of prevalent risk behaviors (p < 0.001). These results reinforce that policies to promote health should consider social capital.

  4. Proper and dark heroes as DADS and CADS : Alternative mating strategies in British Romantic literature.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanne; Jobling, Ian

    2003-09-01

    Empirical tests described in this article support hypotheses derived from evolutionary theory on the perceptions of literary characters. The proper and dark heroes in British Romantic literature of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries respectively represent long-term and short-term mating strategies. Recent studies indicate that for long-term relationships, women seek partners with the ability and willingness to sustain paternal investment in extended relationships. For short-term relationships, women choose partners whose features indicate high genetic quality. In hypothetical scenarios, females preferred proper heroes for long-term relationships. The shorter the relationship under consideration, the more likely women were to choose dark heroes as partners.

  5. Turkish and Moroccan Young Adults in the Netherlands: The Relationship Between Acculturation and Psychological Problems.

    PubMed

    Özbek, Emel; Bongers, Ilja L; Lobbestael, Jill; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and psychological problems in Turkish and Moroccan young adults living in the Netherlands. A sample of 131 healthy young adults aged between 18 and 24 years old, with a Turkish or Moroccan background was recruited using snowball sampling. Data on acculturation, internalizing and externalizing problems, beliefs about psychological problems, attributions of psychological problems and barriers to care were collected and analyzed using Latent Class Analysis and multinomial logistic regression. Three acculturation classes were identified in moderately to highly educated, healthy Turkish or Moroccan young adults: integration, separation and diffusion. None of the participants in the sample were marginalized or assimilated. Young adults reporting diffuse acculturation reported more internalizing and externalizing problems than those who were integrated or separated. Separated young adults reported experiencing more practical barriers to care than integrated young adults. Further research with a larger sample, including young adult migrants using mental health services, is required to improve our understanding of acculturation, psychological problems and barriers to care in this population. Including experiences of discrimination in the model might improve our understanding of the relationship between different forms of acculturation and psychological problems.

  6. Relationship between perceived sleep and polysomnography in older adult patients

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Silva, Mayra; Bazzana, Caroline Moreira; de Souza, Altay Lino; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Lucchesi, Lígia M.; Lopes, Guiomar Silva

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Aging is a multifactorial process that elicits changes in the duration and quality of sleep. Polysomnography is considered to be the standard examination for the analysis of sleep and consists of the simultaneous recording of selected physiological variables during sleep. Objective The objective of this study was to use polysomnography to compare sleep reported by senior citizens. Methods We selected 40 patients, both male and female, with ages ranging from 64 to 89 years from the Center for the Study of Aging at the Federal University of São Paulo. Patients answered questions about sleep on the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment and underwent polysomnography. Results The results were compared, and agreement between perceived sleep and polysomnography was found in several areas. There was an association between difficulty sleeping and sleep onset latency (p=0.015), waking up at night with sleep onset latency (p=0.005), total sleep time with daytime sleepiness (0.005) and snoring (0.027), sleep efficiency with sleepiness (0.004), snoring (0.033) and pause in breathing (p=0.024), awakenings with snoring (p=0.012) and sleep apnea with pauses in breathing (p=0.001). Conclusion These results suggest that the older adult population have a good perception of their sleep. The questionnaires aimed at this population should be used as an alternative to polysomnography. PMID:26483948

  7. The Temporal Relationship Between Faulty Gambling Cognitions and Gambling Severity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Ryan; Graves, Chad; Ellery, Michael; Afifi, Tracie O

    2016-12-01

    Disordered gambling in young adults is hypothesized as being related to mistaken gambling-related cognitions. Few studies have examined the temporal order of this relationship using longitudinal data. The purpose of this study is to understand the directionality of the relationship between gambling cognitions and gambling severity in a longitudinal sample of young adults. Young adults (N = 578), initially aged 18-21 years, completed the Manitoba Longitudinal Survey of Young Adults at two time points approximately 2-3 years apart. Measures of beliefs about randomness related to gambling and gambling severity, as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index, were utilized. A cross-sectional relationship between gambling severity and gambling-related cognitions was observed with greater gambling severity being associated with increased endorsement of mistaken cognitions. Evidence for a bidirectional longitudinal relationship was observed with faulty gambling cognitions leading to later problematic gambling behaviors and vice versa when examining a total beliefs scale. When examining specific beliefs about randomness, initial gambling group membership predicted later endorsement of certain beliefs about randomness while initial belief ratings did not impact later gambling group membership. The results of this study suggest a bidirectional relationship between gambling severity and erroneous gambling-related cognitions. However, when examining specific beliefs about randomness, evidence was found for problem gambling behaviors leading to erroneous gambling beliefs. These findings suggest that prevention efforts targeting cognitions may not be as effective in impacting those not yet demonstrating disordered gambling behaviors.

  8. Adult Children of Gay and Lesbian Parents: Religion and the Parent-Child Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Megan C.; Foley, Pamela F.; Aster, Amanda M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous scholars have explored various challenges facing children of gay and lesbian individuals, and some have explored the impact of a parent’s sexual orientation on the parent-child relationship. However, the impact of religion on the parent-child relationships of adult children with a gay or lesbian parent has been overlooked. In this study, 10 adult children with both a gay or lesbian parent and a heterosexual parent were interviewed and asked to retrospectively explore how religion impacted their parent-child relationships. The following themes emerged from phenomenological analysis of the interviews: (a) family break-up more difficult than the parents’ coming out; (b) discovery that parent was gay or lesbian; (c) initial shame over having gay or lesbian parent; (d) positive aspects of having a gay or lesbian parent; (e) redefined relationship with religion; and (f) impact of culture on how gay and lesbian individuals are viewed. PMID:25477556

  9. Aggression in Adolescent Dating Relationships: Predictors and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of romantic relationships is one of the most striking features of adolescence. By the late adolescent years, most teenagers have been in a romantic relationship at least once and roughly half of teens are dating currently. Alarmingly though, in many of these relationships adolescents act aggressively toward each other and this…

  10. Social relationships in young adults at ultra high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Robustelli, Briana L; Newberry, Raeana E; Whisman, Mark A; Mittal, Vijay A

    2017-01-01

    Studies suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have smaller social networks and less satisfying relationships. However, much is still unknown about the typical quantity and quality of social relationships in young adults during the ultra high-risk (UHR) period. Investigating these relationships holds significant importance for improving understanding of etiological processes, mapping the social environment, and highlighting treatment targets in a critical period. A total of 85 participants (44 UHR and 41 healthy controls) completed measures examining the participants' social relationships, social support, and loneliness. Mean differences between the UHR and healthy control participants and associations between social relationships and symptoms and functioning were examined. Results indicated significant differences between groups on several indices. Specifically, the UHR youth reported fewer close friends, less diverse social networks, less perceived social support, poorer relationship quality with family and friends, and more loneliness. Notably, within the UHR group, being lonely and having fewer and worse quality relationships was associated with greater symptom severity and lower overall functioning. This study suggests that youth at high-risk of developing psychosis have fewer and poorer quality social relationships. Interventions that focus on increasing the quantity and quality of young adults' social networks may be beneficial for this population.

  11. The relationship between child maltreatment and substance abuse treatment outcomes among emerging adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment.

  12. Relationship between anxiety, depression, and morbidity in adult asthma patients

    PubMed Central

    Rimington, L; Davies, D; Lowe, D; Pearson, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Symptoms of disease reported by patients reflect the effects of the disease process within the individual and the person's physical and mental ability to tolerate or otherwise cope with the limitations on their functioning. This study examines the relationship between asthma symptoms, disease severity, and psychological status in patients being managed in routine primary healthcare settings.
METHODS—One hundred and fourteen subjects from four GP practices, two inner city and two suburban, were studied. Symptoms were assessed by means of the Asthma Quality of Life questionnaire (AQLQ) and a locally devised Q score, and psychological status with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale. Spirometric values and details of current asthma treatment (BTS asthma guidelines treatment step) were recorded as markers of asthma severity.
RESULTS—Symptoms as measured by AQLQ correlated with peak expiratory flow (rS = 0.40) and with BTS guidelines treatment step (rS =0.25). Similarly, the Q score correlated with peak expiratory flow (rS = 0.44) and with BTS guidelines treatment step (rS =0.42). Similar levels of correlation of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) with symptoms were reported. HAD anxiety and depression scores also correlated to a similar extent with these two symptom scores, but there was hardly any correlation with lung function. Logistic regression analysis showed that HAD scores help to explain symptom scores over and above the effects of lung function and BTS guidelines treatment step. Symptoms, depression, and anxiety were higher for inner city patients while little difference was observed in objective measures of asthma.
CONCLUSIONS—Asthma guidelines suggest that changing levels of symptoms should be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. These data suggest that reported symptoms may be misleading and unreliable because they may reflect non-asthma factors that cannot be expected to respond to changes in

  13. Concurrent Validity of the Adult Attachment Scale and the Adolescent Relationship Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingo, Meera; Chambliss, Catherine

    The Adult Attachment Scale (AAS) (N. Collins and S. Read, 1996) and the Adolescent Relationship Questionnaire (ARQ) (E. Scharfe and K. Bartholomew, 1995) widely used self-assessment measures of attachment behavior. This study investigated the validity of these two measures by administering them concurrently to 117 introductory psychology college…

  14. The Relationships among Adult Affective Factors, Engagement in Science, and Scientific Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chun-Yen; Li, Yuh-Yuh; Cheng, Ying-Yao

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among adult affective factors, engagement in science, and scientific competencies. Probability proportional to size sampling was used to select 504 participants between the ages of 18 and 70 years. Data were collected through individual face-to-face interviews. The results of hierarchical regression…

  15. Young Adult Relationship Values at the Intersection of Gender and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Ann; Hull, Kathleen E.; Ortyl, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent decades have brought significant social changes in the industrialized West that may influence young adults' attitudes about intimate relationships, including changes in gender expectations and behaviors and changes in sexual attitudes and practices. We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 14,121) to…

  16. The Relationship of Perceived Social Support with Well-Being in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerette, Amy R.; Smedema, Susan Miller

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between perceived social support and multiple indicators of well-being in adults with visual impairments was investigated. The results included significant correlation of social support and depressive symptoms, satisfaction with life, as well as with physical, psychological, economic, family, and social well-being. Implications…

  17. Adaptive Behavior among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Its Relationship to Community Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and…

  18. Relationships between Recreation and Levels of Self-Determination for Adolescents and Young Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Jayne; McDonnell, John

    2008-01-01

    Self-determination continues to be a focus for secondary students who have intellectual disabilities. This study examined the relationship between recreation and self-determination for adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities. Students from secondary and post-high school special education programs tracked their involvement in…

  19. The Relationship between Relative Fundamental Frequency and a Kinematic Estimate of Laryngeal Stiffness in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Victoria S.; Heller Murray, Elizabeth S.; Lien, Yu-An S.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between the acoustic measure relative fundamental frequency (RFF) and a kinematic estimate of laryngeal stiffness. Method: Twelve healthy adults (mean age = 22.7 years, SD = 4.4; 10 women, 2 men) produced repetitions of /ifi/ while varying their vocal effort during simultaneous acoustic and video…

  20. Structural Relationships between Social Activities and Longitudinal Trajectories of Depression among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Song-Iee; Hasche, Leslie; Bowland, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the structural relationships between social activities and trajectories of late-life depression. Design and Methods: Latent class analysis was used with a nationally representative sample of older adults (N = 5,294) from the Longitudinal Study on Aging II to classify patterns of social activities. A latent growth curve…

  1. RELATIONSHIP OF AMEBOCYTES AND TERRESTRIAL ELEMENTS TO ADULT SHELL DEPOSITION IN EASTERN OYSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fisher, William S. Submitted. Relationship of Amebocytes and Terrestrial Elements to Adult Shell Deposition in Eastern Oysters. J. Shellfish Res. 30 p. (ERL,GB 1197).

    Freshwater runoff contains terrestrial elements from geological deposits that may be vital to eastern oys...

  2. Relationships between Adult Workers' Spiritual Well-Being and Job Satisfaction: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Tracey E.; Young, J. Scott; Kelly, Virginia A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors studied the relationships between adult workers' spiritual well-being and job satisfaction. Two hundred participants completed 2 instruments: the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (C. W. Ellison & R. F. Paloutzian, 1982) and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form (D. J. Weiss, R. V. Dawis, G. W. England, & L. H. Lofquist,…

  3. The Interactive Effects of Marital Conflict and Divorce on Parent-Adult Children's Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Tianyi; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines main effect and interactive models of the relations between marital conflict, divorce, and parent-adult child relationships and gender differences in these relations. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of a community sample (N = 585). Parental marital conflict and divorce were measured from age 5 through age 17 years.…

  4. Secondary Traumatization among Adult Children of PTSD Veterans: The Role of Mother-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinshtein, Yula; Dekel, Rachel; Polliack, Miki

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the level of secondary traumatization among adult children of Israeli war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as manifested in emotional distress, stress resulting from terrorist attacks, and capacity for intimacy. In addition, the role of the mother-child relationship as a moderator of these manifestations of…

  5. Support and Conflict in Ethnically Diverse Young Adults' Relationships with Parents and Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    We examined support and conflict with parents and close friends in a sample of ethnically diverse young adults (European-, Asian-, Cuban-, Latin-, and Mexican Americans). College students (N = 495) completed six subscales from the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). Friends were rated higher than parents on…

  6. The Relationship between Grey-Matter and ASD and ADHD Traits in Typical Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Scholte, H. Steven

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether in 85 healthy adults (18-29 years) there is a relationship between grey-matter (GM) volume and autism and ADHD symptom severity. The structural MRI findings and autism and ADHD self-reports revealed that autism and ADHD symptom severity was correlated with GM volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Autism symptom-severity was…

  7. Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; Martens, Patricia M.; Dyslin, Christopher W.; Guimond, Jennifer M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although the intergenerational transmission of family violence has been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been fully determined. The present study examined whether trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between a childhood history of child physical abuse (CPA) and adult CPA risk, and whether any such…

  8. The relationship between pain and functional disability in Black and White older adults.

    PubMed

    Horgas, Ann L; Yoon, Saunjoo L; Nichols, Austin Lee; Marsiske, Michael

    2008-08-01

    In this study we examined pain and disability in 115 community-dwelling, urban, older adults (mean age = 74 years; 52% Black, 48% White). Participants completed a survey of pain (pain presence, intensity, locations, and duration) and disability (Sickness Impact Profile). Sixty percent of the sample reported pain; Black and White adults did not differ on any pain variable. In structural equation models controlling for socioeconomic factors and health, pain did not mediate the relationship between race and disability. Race moderated the pain-disability relationship; pain was more associated with disability among Whites than Blacks. This study highlights the need for greater understanding of health disparities between Black and White older adults as they relate to pain and disability.

  9. Sibling Relationships during the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Little, Wendy M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shed new light on individual development during the early adulthood years, yet few investigators have examined sibling relationships during this stage of life. These relationships undergo transformations as individuals enter adult roles and orient their lives towards friends and romantic partners and establish independence from parents and siblings. This review examines major life events and role transitions such as leaving home, completing school, obtaining employment, getting married, and having children that influence individuals and their sibling relationships. In addition, the review considers how sibling relationships may affect individuals during the transition to adulthood, and considers the context of family and culture. The article concludes with suggestions for future research on sibling relationships during early adulthood and beyond. PMID:20700389

  10. Script-like attachment representations in dreams containing current romantic partners.

    PubMed

    Selterman, Dylan; Apetroaia, Adela; Waters, Everett

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated parallels between romantic attachment styles and general dream content. The current study examined partner-specific attachment representations alongside dreams that contained significant others. The general prediction was that dreams would follow the "secure base script," and a general correspondence would emerge between secure attachment cognitions in waking life and in dreams. Sixty-one undergraduate student participants in committed dating relationships of six months duration or longer completed the Secure Base Script Narrative Assessment at Time 1, and then completed a dream diary for 14 consecutive days. Blind coders scored dreams that contained significant others using the same criteria for secure base content in laboratory narratives. Results revealed a significant association between relationship-specific attachment security and the degree to which dreams about romantic partners followed the secure base script. The findings illuminate our understanding of mental representations with regards to specific attachment figures. Implications for attachment theory and clinical applications are discussed.

  11. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Attitudes toward Romantic Kissing

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Hormonal changes associated with the human menstrual cycle have been previously found to affect female mate preference, whereby women in the late follicular phase of their cycle (i.e., at higher risk of conception) prefer males displaying putative signals of underlying genetic fitness. Past research also suggests that romantic kissing is utilized in human mating contexts to assess potential mating partners. The current study examined whether women in their late follicular cycle phase place greater value on kissing at times when it might help serve mate assessment functions. Using an international online questionnaire, results showed that women in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle felt that kissing was more important at initial stages of a relationship than women in the luteal phase of their cycle. Furthermore, it was found that estimated progesterone levels were a significant negative predictor for these ratings. PMID:24078298

  12. The relationship between adenovirus-36 seropositivity, obesity and metabolic profile in Turkish children and adults.

    PubMed

    Karamese, M; Altoparlak, U; Turgut, A; Aydogdu, S; Karamese, S Aksak

    2015-12-01

    Obesity potentially arising from viral infection is known as 'infectobesity'. The latest reports suggest that adenovirus-36 (Adv36) is related to obesity in adults and children. Our aim was not only to determine the Adv36 seropositivity in both obese and non-obese children and adults, but also to investigate correlations between antibody positivity and serum lipid profiles. Both Adv36 positivity and tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha, leptin and interleukin-6 levels were detected in blood samples collected from 146 children and 130 adults by ELISA. Fasting plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels were also measured. Adv36 positivity was determined to be 27·1% and 6% in obese and non-obese children and 17·5% and 4% in obese and non-obese adults, respectively. There was no difference with regard to total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels (P > 0·05). However, there was a significant difference between groups in terms of leptin levels (P < 0·05). We determined the prevalence of Adv36 positivity in obese children and adults. Our results showed that Adv36 may be an obesity agent for both adults and children, parallel with current literature data. However, the available data on a possible relationship between Adv36 infection and obesity both in children and adults do not completely solve the problem.

  13. The Longitudinal Relationship between the Use of Long-Term Care and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pot, Anne Margriet; Deeg, Dorly J.H.; Twisk, Jos W.R.; Beekman, Aartjan T.F.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to estimate the longitudinal relationship between transitions in the use of long-term care and older adults' depressive symptoms and to investigate whether this relationship could be explained by markers of older adults' underlying health, or other variables including demographics, personality, and partner…

  14. Self-Esteem of Young Adults Experiencing Interparental Violence and Child Physical Maltreatment: Parental and Peer Relationships as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…

  15. Mr. Right and Mr. Right Now: romantic and casual partner-seeking online among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Leslie-Santana, Matthew; Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna

    2011-02-01

    Dating is a normative behavior for youth, yet few studies have examined the relationship between romantic partner-seeking and sexual behavior among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). This omission is most notable across studies examining YMSM's partner-seeking behaviors online. In this study, we examined the relationship between sexual behaviors and online partner-seeking behaviors for casual and romantic partners in a sample of YMSM (N = 431; M = 21.49 years old, SD = 1.94) who reported using the Internet to meet other men. Using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), we found YMSM in the High Romantic/High Casual group had more unprotected partners than YMSM in other categories. YMSM in the High Romantic/Low Casual group had fewer unprotected partners than the High Romantic/High Casual group. We discuss the implications of our findings and conclude that there is a need to further examine romantic partner-seeking among YMSM.

  16. The Real Relationship in Psychotherapy: Relationships to Adult Attachments, Working Alliance, Transference, and Therapy Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmarosh, Cheri L.; Gelso, Charles J.; Markin, Rayna D.; Mallery, Coretta; Choi, Jaehwa; Majors, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how the real relationship (RR) relates to important process and outcome variables from both the clients' and therapists' perspectives. Using a sample of 31 therapist/client dyads at a university counseling center, the authors examined the RR at the 3rd session of therapy and at termination. The results…

  17. Art Education, Romantic Idealism, and Work: Comparing Ruskin's Ideas to Those Found in Nineteenth Century Nova Scotia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amburgy, Patricia; Soucy, Donald

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship between romantic idealism and vocational goals of art education in nineteenth-century Nova Scotia, Canada. Compares these ideas with those of John Ruskin concerning art and morality. Discusses the views of the Nova Scotian educators relative to issues of contemporary art education. (KO)

  18. The long reach of childhood. Childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life.

    PubMed

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Jak, Suzanne

    2013-09-01

    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in their association with satisfaction in the romantic relationship, the quality of adult family ties and the perceived quality of the social network, i.e. loneliness in adulthood. Based on data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (N=3980) structural equation models were estimated to predict adult relationships and loneliness with childhood experiences. Positive attachment experiences with parents, such as reliability, closeness and supportiveness during childhood were associated with greater satisfaction in the romantic relationship, stronger family ties and less loneliness, whereas stressful childhood experiences, such as conflicts and violence negatively predicted the quality of adult relationships. Life span theoretical perspectives, such as attachment theory are discussed as useful unifying framework to study social relationships, their interconnectedness and association with outcome during all phases of life.

  19. Pair-bonding, romantic love, and evolution: the curious case of Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Campbell, Lorne; Overall, Nickola C

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates a thesis containing three interconnected propositions. First, romantic love is a "commitment device" for motivating pair-bonding in humans. Second, pair-bonding facilitated the idiosyncratic life history of hominins, helping to provide the massive investment required to rear children. Third, managing long-term pair bonds (along with family relationships) facilitated the evolution of social intelligence and cooperative skills. We evaluate this thesis by integrating evidence from a broad range of scientific disciplines. First, consistent with the claim that romantic love is an evolved commitment device, our review suggests that it is universal; suppresses mate-search mechanisms; has specific behavioral, hormonal, and neuropsychological signatures; and is linked to better health and survival. Second, we consider challenges to this thesis posed by the existence of arranged marriage, polygyny, divorce, and infidelity. Third, we show how the intimate relationship mind seems to be built to regulate and monitor relationships. Fourth, we review comparative evidence concerning links among mating systems, reproductive biology, and brain size. Finally, we discuss evidence regarding the evolutionary timing of shifts to pair-bonding in hominins. We conclude there is interdisciplinary support for the claim that romantic love and pair-bonding, along with alloparenting, played critical roles in the evolution of Homo sapiens.

  20. Disparities in Health and Disability Among Older Adults in Same-Sex Cohabiting Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study compared indicators of impaired health and disability between older adults in same-sex cohabiting relationships and their peers in opposite-sex cohabiting relationships. Methods Data were obtained on men (n=698) and women (n=630) aged 50 years and older and in self-reported same-sex relationships from the National Health Interview Survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate differences in physical health, mental health and disability status. Results Compared to their peers in married opposite-sex relationships, older men in same-sex relationships exhibited greater odds of psychological distress, and older women in same-sex relationships experienced elevated odds of poor/fair health, needing help with ADLs and IADLs, functional limitations, and psychological distress. Discussion This study adds to the limited information on health and disability among older lesbian, gay and bisexual adults. As this population grows, gerontologists must develop a better understanding of the unique issues and challenges facing them and their families. PMID:25253727