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Sample records for adult romantic relationships

  1. Developmental and Dyadic Perspectives on Commitment in Adult Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Oriña, M. Minda; Collins, W. Andrew; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Kim, John S.

    2012-01-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the developmental roots of becoming the “weak-link” (less committed) partner in adult romantic relationships, and the associations between partners’ absolute and relative levels of commitment and dyadic outcomes. We examined 78 target participants who have been studied since birth and were involved in a romantic relationship when they were 20–21 years old. As predicted, people who received lower quality support from caregivers in toddlerhood or were unable to resolve conflicts with a best friend in mid-adolescence were more likely to become the weak-link (less committed) partner in their adult romantic relationships at age 20–21. Furthermore, the lower the weak-link partner was in commitment and the greater the discrepancy in commitment between the partners, the greater the likelihood that romantic couples displayed hostility (rated by observers) during a videotaped conflict resolution task when they were 20–21 years old. These findings are discussed from developmental and dyadic perspectives. PMID:21617252

  2. Relationship duration moderates associations between attachment and relationship quality: meta-analytic support for the temporal adult romantic attachment model.

    PubMed

    Hadden, Benjamin W; Smith, C Veronica; Webster, Gregory D

    2014-02-01

    Although research has examined associations between attachment dimensions and relationship outcomes, theory has ignored how these associations change over time in adult romantic relationships. We proposed the Temporal Adult Romantic Attachment (TARA) model, which predicts that the negative associations between anxious and avoidant attachment on one hand and relationship satisfaction and commitment on the other will be more negative as relationship durations increase. Meta-analyses largely confirmed that negative associations between both insecure attachment dimensions and both relationship outcomes were more negative among longer relationship durations in cross-sectional samples. We also explored gender differences in these associations. The present review not only integrates the literature on adult attachment and romantic relationship satisfaction/commitment but also highlights the importance of relationship duration as a key moderator of the associations among these variables. We discuss the broad implications of these effects and our meta-analytic findings for the TARA model, attachment theory, and romantic relationships.

  3. The Association between Adult Attachment Styles and Conflict Resolution in Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lin

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether adult attachment was predictive of conflict resolution behaviors and satisfaction in romantic relationships. Both adult attachment dimensions, Avoidance and Anxiety, were predictive of conflict resolution behaviors and relationship satisfaction. Gender differences existed in conflict resolution behaviors, but they were not as…

  4. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Rauer, Amy J; Volling, Brenda L

    2007-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning. PMID:19050748

  5. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Rauer, Amy J.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2009-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning. PMID:19050748

  6. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Rauer, Amy J; Volling, Brenda L

    2007-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning.

  7. The Family of Origin Parachute Model: Landing Safely in Adult Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Dean M.; Gardner, Brandt C.; Taniguchi, Narumi

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the utility of the family of origin parachute model in predicting longitudinal outcomes for couples in romantic relationships. This conceptual model contains common family variables that are theoretically and empirically related to later adult functioning and are believed to influence attitudes that adult children develop…

  8. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381

  9. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  10. Mapping Young Adults' Use of Fathers for Attachment Support: Implications on Romantic Relationship Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Harry; Almond, Tasha M.

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods approach was used to examine how young adults (n = 1012) perceive fathers as targets for attachment support. Participants ranked the level of attachment support received and sought from fathers, mothers, best friends, and romantic partners, and provided relationship-specific information on additional indices of social support…

  11. The association between romantic relationship status and 5-HT1A gene in young adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinting; Gong, Pingyuan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    What factors determine whether or not a young adult will fall in love? Sociological surveys and psychological studies have shown that non-genetic factors, such as socioeconomic status, external appearance, and personality attributes, are crucial components in romantic relationship formation. Here we demonstrate that genetic variants also contribute to romantic relationship formation. As love-related behaviors are associated with serotonin levels in the brain, this study investigated to what extent a polymorphism (C-1019G, rs6295) of 5-HT1A gene is related to relationship status in 579 Chinese Han people. We found that 50.4% of individuals with the CC genotype and 39.0% with CG/GG genotype were in romantic relationship. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the C-1019G polymorphism was significantly associated with the odds of being single both before and after controlling for socioeconomic status, external appearance, religious beliefs, parenting style, and depressive symptoms. These findings provide, for the first time, direct evidence for the genetic contribution to romantic relationship formation. PMID:25412229

  12. Romantic relationship development in the age of Facebook: an exploratory study of emerging adults' perceptions, motives, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults' experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as "In a Relationship" and actively link one's profile to a romantic partner's, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed.

  13. Romantic relationship development in the age of Facebook: an exploratory study of emerging adults' perceptions, motives, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites are becoming a prevalent form of communication in the escalation of romantic relationships. An online survey (n=403) addressed emerging adults' experiences with Facebook and romantic relationships, particularly a unique affordance of Facebook: the ability to declare oneself as "In a Relationship" and actively link one's profile to a romantic partner's, commonly known as going Facebook official. Results identified common social perceptions of the meaning of this status (regarding commitment, intensity, and social response) and both interpersonal and social motives for posting it on Facebook. Additionally, sex differences were identified in perceptions of meaning, wherein women felt this status conveyed commitment and intensity moreso than men did. Implications of this discrepancy on heterosexual relationship satisfaction and the prevailing role of technology in romantic relationships are discussed. PMID:23098273

  14. Adult attachment orientations and anger expression in romantic relationships: a dyadic analysis.

    PubMed

    Nisenbaum, Max G; Lopez, Frederick G

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined how the gender and adult attachment orientations of romantic relationship partners contribute to each participant's experience and expression of anger in their relationship. Specifically, we collected data from both members of a heterosexual relationship to examine how a person's adult attachment orientation influences their own, and their partner's, anger-related behavior. In addition, we examined whether one partner's responses to another's anger predicted the other's anger-related response tendencies. Furthermore, we explored the contribution of participants' sex to their own and their partners' anger-related behavior. Hypotheses were tested using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM), a data analytic strategy that takes into account the nonindependence of dyadic data. Results yielded partial support for theory-based predictions about the influence of adult attachment orientations on anger-related reactions and accommodation behavior. The implications of these findings for counseling practice and future research are discussed.

  15. Do I Really Need Someone in Order to become an Adult?: Romantic Relationships during Emerging Adulthood in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanz, Margherita; Tagliabue, Semira

    2007-01-01

    Italian emerging adults stay at home with their parents until they marry. Being involved in a romantic relationship may be considered one precursor of the success of the transition to adulthood. In this study, 92 dating and 84 nondating emerging adults were compared on when they left the parental home and their future plans. They were also…

  16. Snooping in Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Kelly; Knox, David; Easterling, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A 42 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 268 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess the frequency, motivations, and outcome of snooping in romantic relationships. Almost two thirds (66%) reported that they had engaged in snooping behavior, most often when the partner was taking a shower. Primary motives were…

  17. Trajectories of Adolescent Hostile-Aggressive Behavior and Family Climate: Longitudinal Implications for Young Adult Romantic Relationship Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as…

  18. Romantic Relationship Patterns in Young Adulthood and Their Developmental Antecedents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauer, Amy J.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The delayed entry into marriage that characterizes modern society raises questions about young adults' romantic relationship trajectories and whether patterns found to characterize adolescent romantic relationships persist into young adulthood. The current study traced developmental transitions into and out of romantic relationships from age…

  19. Trajectories of adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior and family climate: Longitudinal implications for young adult romantic relationship competence.

    PubMed

    Fosco, Gregory M; Van Ryzin, Mark J; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as key individual and family level factors that may forecast later romantic relationship functioning. Guided by a family systems framework, we evaluated the reciprocal influences of adolescent hostility and family climate, to provide a more comprehensive picture of the etiology of romantic relationship functioning. We drew on a large sample (N = 974) of young adults (mean age = 19.5) that were followed starting in the fall of 6th grade, and subsequently in spring of 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th grades prior to the young adult assessment. Using a latent difference score cross-lag model (McArdle, 2009), our results indicated that a more positive family climate was associated with decreases in HAB, but HAB was not associated with changes in family climate. Further, the influence of the family climate on HAB was consistent across all time points. HAB and family climate had different predictions for young adult romantic relationships: Increasing HAB over adolescence predicted relationship violence, while maintenance in family climate was a key predictor of relationship problem-solving skills. The only predictor of love and connection in relationships was early family functioning. Implications for developmental theory and prevention science are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337516

  20. Romantic relationships and health among African American young adults: linking patterns of relationship quality over time to changes in physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ashley B; Culatta, Elizabeth; Simons, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    With trends in delayed marriage, scholars have begun to explore how a wide range of romantic relationships contribute to health. Although a welcome shift, this largely cross-sectional work ignores potential (in)stability in relationship supports and stressors thought to affect health. Using Family and Community Health Study data on 634 African American young adults, we extend this work by demonstrating the value of a holistic, multidimensional assessment of relationship quality for understanding the link between relationships and health. In addition, however, we also show that there is substantial instability in both the presence and quality of romantic relationships during the transition to adulthood. Importantly, particular patterns of instability are uniquely associated with changes in mental and physical health. Given persistent racial inequalities across both relationships and health, such findings prove theoretically and practically important. In particular, they highlight the need for more contextualized, life course-sensitive approaches in future work.

  1. Taking Chances in Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Lindsey; Knox, David

    2016-01-01

    A 64 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 381 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess taking chances in romantic relationships. Almost three fourths (72%) self-identified as being a "person willing to take chances in my love relationship." Engaging in unprotected sex, involvement in a "friends with…

  2. Preparing Students for Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Richard; Peterson, Amelia; Weinstein, Emily

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important aspects in our lives is learning how to have mutual, caring romantic relationships. Yet while schools and many other industries in this country devote tremendous attention and resources to preparing the young for work, they do remarkably little to prepare them for generous, self-respecting sex and love. Educators and…

  3. Influence of Family of Origin and Adult Romantic Partners on Romantic Attachment Security

    PubMed Central

    Dinero, Rachel E.; Conger, Rand D.; Shaver, Phillip R.; Widaman, Keith F.; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle

    2009-01-01

    According to attachment theory, attachment security or attachment style derives from social experiences that begin early in life and continue into the adult years. In this study we examined these expectations by examining associations between the quality of observed interaction patterns in the family of origin during adolescence and self-reported romantic attachment style and observed romantic relationship behaviors in adulthood (at ages 25 and 27). Family and romantic relationship interactions were rated by trained observers from video recordings of structured conversation tasks. Attachment style was assessed with items from Griffin and Bartholomew's (1994) Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Observational ratings of warmth and sensitivity in family interactions were positively related to similar behaviors by romantic partners and to self-reported attachment security. In addition, romantic interactions characterized by high warmth and low hostility at age 25 predicted greater attachment security at 27, after controlling for attachment security at age 25. However, attachment security at age 25 did not predict later romantic relationship interactions after controlling for earlier interactions. These findings underscore the importance of social experiences in close relationships for the development of romantic attachment security but they are inconsistent with the theoretical expectation that attachment security will predict the quality of interactions in romantic unions. PMID:18729676

  4. Peer and romantic relationships among adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood hematological cancer: a review of challenges and positive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Foster, Rebecca H; Stern, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on peer and romantic relationship experiences of adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood cancer, highlighting those surviving leukemia or lymphoma. While most AYA survivors adjust well to life following a hematological cancer diagnosis and treatment, many unique experiences, both positive and challenging, have been documented with respect to successfully navigating developmentally normative social goals. Therefore, the social implications of surviving childhood leukemia or lymphoma are explored. Specifically, the development of peer and romantic relationships, perceptions of social acceptance, parental influences and attachment, perceived vulnerabilities and body image, and risks to fertility are discussed. PMID:25228563

  5. Emerging adults' expectations for pornography use in the context of future committed romantic relationships: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Spencer B; Negash, Sesen; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D

    2013-05-01

    Using qualitative content analysis from the written comments of 404 primarily heterosexual college students, we examined (1) their expectations for pornography use while married or in a committed long-term relationship and (2) variations by gender. Four prominent groups emerged. A majority of men (70.8 %) and almost half of women (45.5 %) reported circumstances (alone or with their partners) wherein pornography use was acceptable in a relationship and several conditions for, and consequences associated with, such use also emerged. Another group (22.3 % men; 26.2 % women) viewed pornography use as unacceptable because of being in a committed relationship whereas a third group (5.4 % men; 12.9 % women) reported that pornography use was unacceptable in any context or circumstance. A final group emerged of a few women (10.4 %) who stated that a partner's use of pornography was acceptable, but they did not expect to use it personally. Implications for relationship education among emerging adults and future research on pornography use within the context of romantic relationships are discussed.

  6. Quality of Relationships and Romantic Jealousy: Effects of Adult Attachment and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radecki-Bush, Catherine; Bush, Joseph P.

    Individual differences in adult attachment have been the focus of recent research on personal relationships. Research has indicated that those with insecure attachment histories were more threatened by a partner's attraction to a rival than were persons reporting secure parental attachment. Higher levels of dispositional jealousy have also been…

  7. The Contribution of Community and Family Contexts to African American Young Adults' Romantic Relationship Health: A Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research,…

  8. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  9. Shared social and emotional activities within adolescent romantic and non-romantic sexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Russell, Stephen T

    2013-05-01

    Typically, "non-romantic" sexual relationships are assumed to be casual; however, the emotional and social distinctions between romantic and non-romantic contexts are not well understood, particularly in adolescence. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) was used to compare shared emotional (e.g., telling partner that they love her/him) and social (e.g., going out in a group) activities within romantic and non-romantic sexual relationships. Adolescents who reported exclusively romantic sexual relationships (n = 1,891) shared more emotional, but not social, activities with their partners than adolescents who were in non-romantic sexual relationships (n = 315; small effect size, r = .07-.13), akin to adolescents who experienced both relationship types (n = 519; small-to-medium effect size, r = .18-.38). Girls shared more emotional and social activities with their partners than boys when in romantic relationships (small effect size, r = .06-.10); there were no significant gender differences within non-romantic sexual relationships. Findings suggest that gendered scripts remain for sexual relationships that are romantic but not for those that are non-romantic. Notably, for the majority of adolescents, non-romantic relationships still held many emotional and social dimensions typical of romantic relationships and differences between relationship types were small. Although non-romantic relationships were less intimate than romantic sexual relationships, there was remarkable heterogeneity within this relationship type. Caution is advised when working with adolescents engaged in "casual" sexual relationships. Understanding the complexity of adolescent sexual relationships is critical for the advancement of effective sex education programming.

  10. The Mediator Role of Need Satisfaction between Subjective Well-Being and Romantic Relationships Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali; Dogan, Tayfun

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: The most important part of identity exploration for emerging adults is love. Establishing healthy intimate relationships support the process of identity exploration. In addition to the positive and negative factors that affect romantic relationships, the concept of quality is also very important in these romantic relationships.…

  11. Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…

  12. Exploring Mexican American adolescent romantic relationship profiles and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Moosmann, Danyel A V; Roosa, Mark W

    2015-08-01

    Although Mexican Americans are the largest ethnic minority group in the nation, knowledge is limited regarding this population's adolescent romantic relationships. This study explored whether 12th grade Mexican Americans' (N = 218; 54% female) romantic relationship characteristics, cultural values, and gender created unique latent classes and if so, whether they were linked to adjustment. Latent class analyses suggested three profiles including, relatively speaking, higher, satisfactory, and lower quality romantic relationships. Regression analyses indicated these profiles had distinct associations with adjustment. Specifically, adolescents with higher and satisfactory quality romantic relationships reported greater future family expectations, higher self-esteem, and fewer externalizing symptoms than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Similarly, adolescents with higher quality romantic relationships reported greater academic self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners than those with lower quality romantic relationships. Overall, results suggested higher quality romantic relationships were most optimal for adjustment. Future research directions and implications are discussed. PMID:26141198

  13. Adolescents' Conceptions of the Influence of Romantic Relationships on Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers have investigated how adolescents' friendships affect their romantic relationships, the influence of romantic relationships on friendships is unexamined. As a first step, 9th- (n = 198) and 11th grade students (n = 152) reported on their conceptions of friendship when one friend had a romantic relationship and when neither…

  14. Young Adolescents' Perceptions of Romantic Relationships and Sexual Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Heather R.; Keller, Mary L.; Heidrich, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe young adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationships, ratings of important romantic partner characteristics, and acceptability of sexual activity with romantic relationships. Fifty-seven eighth-grade participants (average age = 13.8 years) from one urban US public middle school completed an anonymous…

  15. Influence of family of origin and adult romantic partners on romantic attachment security.

    PubMed

    Dinero, Rachel E; Conger, Rand D; Shaver, Phillip R; Widaman, Keith F; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle

    2008-08-01

    According to attachment theory, attachment style derives from social experiences throughout the life span. The authors tested this expectation by examining associations between the quality of observed interaction patterns in the family of origin during adolescence and self-reported romantic attachment style and observed romantic relationship behaviors in adulthood (ages 25 and 27). Family and romantic relationship interactions were rated by trained observers from video recordings of structured conversation tasks. Attachment style was assessed with items from D. W. Griffin and K. Bartholomew's (1994a) Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Observational ratings of warmth and sensitivity in family interactions were positively related to similar behaviors by romantic partners and to attachment security. In addition, romantic interactions characterized by high warmth and low hostility at age 25 predicted greater attachment security at 27, after controlling for attachment security at age 25. However, attachment security at age 25 did not predict later romantic relationship interactions after controlling for earlier interactions. These findings underscore the importance of close relationships in the development of romantic attachment security but do not indicate that attachment security predicts the quality of interactions in romantic relationships. PMID:18729676

  16. Influence of family of origin and adult romantic partners on romantic attachment security.

    PubMed

    Dinero, Rachel E; Conger, Rand D; Shaver, Phillip R; Widaman, Keith F; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle

    2008-08-01

    According to attachment theory, attachment style derives from social experiences throughout the life span. The authors tested this expectation by examining associations between the quality of observed interaction patterns in the family of origin during adolescence and self-reported romantic attachment style and observed romantic relationship behaviors in adulthood (ages 25 and 27). Family and romantic relationship interactions were rated by trained observers from video recordings of structured conversation tasks. Attachment style was assessed with items from D. W. Griffin and K. Bartholomew's (1994a) Relationship Scales Questionnaire. Observational ratings of warmth and sensitivity in family interactions were positively related to similar behaviors by romantic partners and to attachment security. In addition, romantic interactions characterized by high warmth and low hostility at age 25 predicted greater attachment security at 27, after controlling for attachment security at age 25. However, attachment security at age 25 did not predict later romantic relationship interactions after controlling for earlier interactions. These findings underscore the importance of close relationships in the development of romantic attachment security but do not indicate that attachment security predicts the quality of interactions in romantic relationships.

  17. Romantic relationships and alcohol use: A long-term, developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Rauer, Amy J; Pettit, Gregory S; Samek, Diana R; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Bates, John E

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the developmental origins of alcohol use in young adulthood. Despite substantial evidence linking committed romantic relationships to less problematic alcohol use in adulthood, the uniformity of these protective benefits across different romantic relationships is unclear. Further, the extent to which the establishment and maintenance of these romantic relationships is preceded by earlier adolescence alcohol use remains unknown. To address these gaps in the literature, the current study utilized multitiple-dimensional, multiple-informant data spanning 20 years on 585 individuals in the Child Development Project. Findings from both variable- and person-centered analyses support a progression of associations predicting adolescent alcohol use (ages 15-16), drinking, and romantic relationships in early adulthood (ages 18-25), and then problematic young adult alcohol use (age 27). Although adolescent alcohol use predicted greater romantic involvement and turnover in early adulthood, romantic involvement, but not turnover, appeared to reduce the likelihood of later problematic drinking. These findings remained robust even after accounting for a wide array of selection and socialization factors. Moreover, characteristics of the individuals (e.g., gender) and of their romantic relationships (e.g., partner substance use problems and romantic relationship satisfaction) did not moderate these findings. Findings underscore the importance of using a developmental-relational perspective to consider the antecedents and consequences of alcohol use early in the life span. PMID:27427805

  18. Romantic Relationships and Adjustment Problems in China: The Moderating Effect of Classroom Romantic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Jinqin; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Zhang, Jianxin; Guo, Fei; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Mianbo; Chen, Zhiyan

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research has shown that adolescent romantic relationships are associated with a wide range of developmental outcomes, including adverse consequences. The present study used a hierarchical linear model to examine the moderating effect of classroom romantic context on the association between adolescent romantic…

  19. Patterns of Interaction in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Distinct Features and Links to Other Close Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Wyndol; Shomaker, Lauren B.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the similarities and differences between adolescents' interactions with romantic partners and those with friends and mothers. Thirty-two adolescents were observed interacting with a romantic partner, a close friend, and their mother. Adolescents and romantic partners engaged in more conflict than adolescents and friends. Adolescents' affective responsiveness was less positive with romantic partners than with their friends. Additionally, the dyadic positivity was lower in romantic relationships than in friendships. More off task behavior occurred in romantic relationships than in mother-adolescent relationships. Romantic partners were also less skillful communicators and had lower levels of affective responsiveness than mothers. Adolescents perceived more support and fewer negative interactions in romantic relationships than in relationships with mothers. Consistent with expectations, adolescents' interactions with romantic partners were associated with those with friends and mothers. Thus, romantic relationships are characterized by distinct patterns of interaction, yet also are associated with other close relationships. PMID:18093642

  20. An exploration of young ethnic minority males' beliefs about romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jennifer L; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic minority males experience a disproportionate prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Few studies have explored the beliefs that frame romantic relationships in which sexual behavior occurs. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of romantic relationships for young ethnic minority men who partner with adolescent women with high-risk sexual histories and the beliefs about romantic relationships that underlie these relationship choices. A phenomenologic approach was used. Two semi-structured interviews were completed with six Mexican American and two African American young adult males 19 to 26 years of age. Participants struggled to balance a desire to maintain physical and psychological closeness with partners with a desire to distance from partners in the face of unmet psychological needs. Recognition of how males struggle to balance getting needs met in romantic relationships will be necessary for the provision of culturally relevant care for males and their partners.

  1. Family of Origin Influences on Late Adolescent Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Mark J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Single, never-married late adolescents (n=977) completed measures regarding trait anxiety, family dynamics in family of origin, and communication patterns in romantic relationships. Found that dynamics of fusion and control were associated with higher anxiety and were related to communication in romantic relationships. Triangulation in family of…

  2. Romantic Relationships Trajectories of African American Gay/Bisexual Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyre, Stephen L.; Milbrath, Constance; Peacock, Ben

    2007-01-01

    The interview study reported here sought to identify the perceived trajectory of romantic relationships of a cohort of Oakland African American gay/bisexual adolescents. Biographical interviews were used to identify cultural models of romantic relationships in the study sample and discovered a trajectory of four phases. In the antecedent to the…

  3. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  4. The Relation of Insecure Attachment States of Mind and Romantic Attachment Styles to Adolescent Aggression in Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Miga, Erin M.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.; Manning, Nell

    2010-01-01

    The relation of attachment states of mind and self reported attachment relationship styles to romantic partner aggression was examined in a community sample of 93 adolescents. Higher levels of insecure-preoccupied and insecure-dismissing states of mind, as assessed by the Adolescent Attachment Interview at age 14, were predictive, respectively, of perpetration and victimization of psychological aggression in romantic relationships four years later. Partners’ romantic attachment anxiety was linked to both psychological and physical aggression perpetration in romantic relationships. Results are interpreted as suggesting the value of assessing aggression in adolescent romantic relationships in the context of broader patterns of regulation of affect and behavior via the attachment system. PMID:20730640

  5. SHIFTING PERSPECTIVES: COGNITIVE CHANGES PARTIALLY MEDIATE THE IMPACT OF ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS ON DESISTANCE FROM CRIME

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Barr, Ashley B.

    2012-01-01

    Although research regarding the impact of marriage on desistance is important, most romantic relationships during early adulthoood, the period in the life course when involvement in criminal offending is relatively high, do not involve marriage. Using the internal moderator approach, we tested hypotheses regarding the impact of non-marital romantic relationships on desistance using longitudinal data from a sample of approximately 600 African American young adults. The results largely supported the study hypotheses. We found no significant association between simply being in a romantic relationship and desistance from offending. On the other hand, for both males and females quality of romantic relationship was rather strongly associated with desistance. Partner antisociality only influenced the offending of females. Much of the effect of quality of romantic relationship on desistance was mediated by a reduction in commitment to a criminogenic knowledge structure (a hostile view of people and relationships, concern with immediate gratification, and cynical view of conduct norms). The mediating effect of change in affiliation with deviant peers was not significant once the contribution of criminogenic knowledge structure was taken into account. The findings are discussed in terms of social control and cognitive accounts of the mechanisms whereby romantic relationships influence desistance. PMID:25328280

  6. Harsh, inconsistent parental discipline and romantic relationships: mediating processes of behavioral problems and ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Surjadi, Florensia F; Lorenz, Frederick O; Conger, Rand D; Wickrama, K A S

    2013-10-01

    According to the Development of Early Adult Romantic Relationships (DEARR) model (Bryant, C. M., & Conger, R. D. [2002]. Conger, R. D., Cui, M., Bryant, C. M., & Elder, G. H., Jr. [2000] interactional characteristics in the family of origin influence early adult romantic relationships by promoting or inhibiting the development of interpersonal competencies that contribute to relationship success in young adulthood. The present study uses the DEARR model as a general framework to help examine the long-term link between parental discipline practices in adolescence and young adult's interactions in the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Using prospective data from 288 target participants, their families, and their romantic partner, beginning when the targets were adolescents and continuing up to the fifth year of their marital or cohabiting relationships, we found empirical support for the DEARR model. Parental discipline practices in adolescence were associated with romantic relationship quality during the early years of marriage or cohabitation through processes in late adolescence and young adulthood. Specifically, harsh and inconsistent discipline practices were associated with greater attitudinal ambivalence toward parents in adolescence. Inconsistent discipline was also associated with higher risks of externalizing problems during late adolescence years. Externalizing problems and ambivalence toward parents predicted poorer relationship quality through aggressive behaviors and ambivalence toward a romantic partner during the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Implications for practitioners working with couples and families are discussed.

  7. Adult Attachment, Cognitive Appraisal, and University Students' Reactions to Romantic Infidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Chih D. C.; King, Makini L.; Debernardi, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adult attachment, cognitive appraisal, and university students' behavioral and emotional reactions to infidelity situations in romantic relationships. Results based on 173 university students suggested that both attachment and cognitive appraisals significantly predicted distinct types of infidelity…

  8. Self-determination theory and romantic relationship processes.

    PubMed

    Knee, C Raymond; Hadden, Benjamin W; Porter, Ben; Rodriguez, Lindsey M

    2013-11-01

    Self-determination theory can be viewed as a theory of optimal relationship development and functioning. We examine the concept of self that is employed in self-determination theory and explain how its unique definition allows an important and novel characterization of investing one's "self" in romantic relationships. A self-determined perspective on romantic relationships integrates several theories on romantic relationship development, but also goes beyond them by explicitly articulating the personality, developmental, and situational factors that facilitate optimal self-investment and relational functioning. Self-determination promotes openness rather than defensiveness and facilitates perspective-taking, authenticity, and support of close others. The dyadic context of romantic relationships affords great opportunity for theoretical development and integration of self-determination theory with current theories of interdependence and relational well-being. PMID:23921674

  9. Self-determination theory and romantic relationship processes.

    PubMed

    Knee, C Raymond; Hadden, Benjamin W; Porter, Ben; Rodriguez, Lindsey M

    2013-11-01

    Self-determination theory can be viewed as a theory of optimal relationship development and functioning. We examine the concept of self that is employed in self-determination theory and explain how its unique definition allows an important and novel characterization of investing one's "self" in romantic relationships. A self-determined perspective on romantic relationships integrates several theories on romantic relationship development, but also goes beyond them by explicitly articulating the personality, developmental, and situational factors that facilitate optimal self-investment and relational functioning. Self-determination promotes openness rather than defensiveness and facilitates perspective-taking, authenticity, and support of close others. The dyadic context of romantic relationships affords great opportunity for theoretical development and integration of self-determination theory with current theories of interdependence and relational well-being.

  10. Postpartum Transitions in Adolescent Mothers' Romantic and Maternal Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Christina B.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    1999-01-01

    Interviewed adolescent mothers at prepartum or early postpartum and 1 year later regarding maternal and romantic relationships, depression, and negative life events. Responses indicated that over time male partner support became more important than maternal support. (LBT)

  11. Intergenerational Transmission of Aggression in Romantic Relationships: The Moderating Role of Attachment Security

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Amanda L.; Miga, Erin M.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective study used longitudinal, multi-reporter data to examine the influence of parents’ marital relationship functioning on subsequent adolescent romantic relationships. Consistent with Bryant and Conger’s model for the development of early adult romantic relationships (DEARR; 2002), we found that interactional styles, more specifically paternal aggression and satisfaction, exhibited in parents’ marital relationship when their adolescents were age 13, were predictive of qualities of the adolescent’s romantic relationships five years later. Continuities were domain specific: paternal satisfaction predicted adolescent satisfaction and paternal aggression predicted adolescent aggression. Attachment security moderated the link between paternal aggression and subsequent adolescent aggression, with continuities between negative conflictual styles across relationships reduced for secure adolescents. Results are interpreted as suggesting that attachment may help attenuated the transmission of destructive conflict strategies across generations. PMID:20001139

  12. The Salience of Adolescent Romantic Experiences for Romantic Relationship Qualities in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Stephanie D.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual links between aspects of adolescents' dating experiences (i.e., involvement and quality; ages 15-17.5) and qualities of their romantic relationships in young adulthood (ages 20-21) were examined in a prospective longitudinal design. Even after accounting for earlier relationship experiences with parents and peers, aspects of adolescent…

  13. Digital Dating and Virtual Relating: Conceptualizing Computer Mediated Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkle, Erich R.; Richardson, Rhonda A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the culture and history of the Internet that have contributed to the recent emergence of a subset of romantic interpersonal relationships known as computer mediated relationships. Considers the differences between the characteristics of face-to-face relationships and online relationships. Discusses implications of findings on clinical…

  14. Assessment of Romantic Perfectionism: Psychometric Properties of the Romantic Relationship Perfectionism Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matte, Melody; Lafontaine, Marie-France

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to provide validity evidence for the scores from the Romantic Relationship Perfectionism Scale. Results indicate a two-factor structure, adequate reliability, and overall good convergent, concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity evidence. The strengths and limitations of this measure are discussed.…

  15. Threats to Parental and Romantic Attachment Figures' Availability and Adult Attachment Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Thomas B.; Galbraith, Richard C.; Timmons, Nicole Mead; Steed, April; Tobler, Samuel B.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested hypotheses based on the theoretical idea that threats to parental availability would have a direct effect on later adult attachment insecurity and that this relationship would be partially, but not fully, mediated by threats to the availability of a romantic partner. Participants were 1,063 individuals in a married or unmarried…

  16. When and why do ideal partner preferences affect the process of initiating and maintaining romantic relationships?

    PubMed

    Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J; Eagly, Alice H

    2011-11-01

    Three studies explored how the traits that people ideally desire in a romantic partner, or ideal partner preferences, intersect with the process of romantic relationship initiation and maintenance. Two attraction experiments in the laboratory found that, when participants evaluated a potential romantic partner's written profile, they expressed more romantic interest in a partner whose traits were manipulated to match (vs. mismatch) their idiosyncratic ideals. However, after a live interaction with the partner, the match vs. mismatch manipulation was no longer associated with romantic interest. This pattern appeared to have emerged because participants reinterpreted the meaning of the traits as they applied to the partner, a context effect predicted by classic models of person perception (S. E. Asch, 1946). Finally, a longitudinal study of middle-aged adults demonstrated that participants evaluated a current romantic partner (but not a partner who was merely desired) more positively to the extent that the partner matched their overall pattern of ideals across several traits; the match in level of ideals (i.e., high vs. low ratings) was not relevant to participants' evaluations. In general, the match between ideals and a partner's traits may predict relational outcomes when participants are learning about a partner in the abstract and when they are actually in a relationship with the partner, but not when considering potential dating partners they have met in person.

  17. When and why do ideal partner preferences affect the process of initiating and maintaining romantic relationships?

    PubMed

    Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J; Eagly, Alice H

    2011-11-01

    Three studies explored how the traits that people ideally desire in a romantic partner, or ideal partner preferences, intersect with the process of romantic relationship initiation and maintenance. Two attraction experiments in the laboratory found that, when participants evaluated a potential romantic partner's written profile, they expressed more romantic interest in a partner whose traits were manipulated to match (vs. mismatch) their idiosyncratic ideals. However, after a live interaction with the partner, the match vs. mismatch manipulation was no longer associated with romantic interest. This pattern appeared to have emerged because participants reinterpreted the meaning of the traits as they applied to the partner, a context effect predicted by classic models of person perception (S. E. Asch, 1946). Finally, a longitudinal study of middle-aged adults demonstrated that participants evaluated a current romantic partner (but not a partner who was merely desired) more positively to the extent that the partner matched their overall pattern of ideals across several traits; the match in level of ideals (i.e., high vs. low ratings) was not relevant to participants' evaluations. In general, the match between ideals and a partner's traits may predict relational outcomes when participants are learning about a partner in the abstract and when they are actually in a relationship with the partner, but not when considering potential dating partners they have met in person. PMID:21707198

  18. Self- and Partner-objectification in Romantic Relationships: Associations with Media Consumption and Relationship Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Ramsey, Laura R; Jaworski, Beth K

    2011-04-01

    Few studies have examined objectification in the context of romantic relationships, even though strong theoretical arguments have often made this connection. This study addresses this gap in the literature by examining whether exposure to mass media is related to self-objectification and objectification of one's partner, which in turn is hypothesized to be related to relationship and sexual satisfaction. A sample of undergraduate students (91 women and 68 men) enrolled in a university on the west coast of the United States completed self-report measures of the following variables: self-objectification, objectification of one's romantic partner, relationship satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and exposure to objectifying media. Men reported higher levels of partner objectification than did women; there was no gender difference in self-objectification. Self- and partner-objectification were positively correlated; this correlation was especially strong for men. In regression analyses, partner-objectification was predictive of lower levels of relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, a path model revealed that consuming objectifying media is related to lowered relationship satisfaction through the variable of partner-objectification. Finally, self- and partner-objectification were related to lower levels of sexual satisfaction among men. This study provides evidence for the negative effects of objectification in the context of romantic relationships among young adults.

  19. Romantic relationship formation, maintenance and changes in personal networks.

    PubMed

    Rözer, Jesper Jelle; Mollenhorst, Gerald; Volker, Beate

    2015-03-01

    According to the social withdrawal hypothesis, a personal network becomes smaller when a person starts dating, cohabitates and marries. This phenomenon is widely established in the literature. However, these studies were usually done with cross-sectional data. As a consequence, it is still unclear whether or how personal networks actually change after the formation of a romantic relationship (i.e. dating), after starting cohabitation and after getting married. It is also unclear how long and to what extent social withdrawal continues. To overcome these shortcomings, we examine how the size and composition of personal networks change after relationship formation. We use two waves of the PAIRFAM dataset (2008 and 2011), which include information about 6640 Germans who were between 16 and 39 years of age at the time of the second interview in 2008. Results from fixed effects regression models underscore that the association between romantic relationships and changes in personal networks is more dynamic than previous studies suggested. For example, after the formation of a romantic relationship people show a decrease in non-kin contacts, while an increase in non-kin contacts is observed after two years of dating, as well as after two years of cohabitation. These network changes suggest that people adapt their social networks to the demands and constraints of each phase of a romantic relationship. Because the decline in network size after dating is not stable, there is no need to be afraid that those who have a romantic partner remain isolated from other relationships.

  20. Construct validity of the Schwartz outcome scale-10: comparisons to interpersonal distress, adult attachment, alexithymia, the five-factor model, romantic relationship length and ratings of childhood memories.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Greg; Blake, Margaret; Naraine, Melissa; Siefert, Caleb; Blais, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    The Schwartz Outcome Scale-10 (SOS-10) is a 10-item questionnaire that measures the broad domain of psychological well-being and quality of life. The SOS-10 is easy to administer and score. Past research has shown its utility, reliability and validity in different clinical settings (i.e., inpatient, outpatient and non-psychiatry medical settings) and with diverse clinical populations in measuring treatment outcome. The present study looks to extend the construct validity of the SOS-10 to assessing quality of life and psychological health in non-clinical samples as well. The results reveal that the SOS-10 is associated in predicted ways with established measures of attachment, interpersonal distress, alexithymia and the big five model whose construct validity and psychometric soundness has been well documented. The SOS-10 was also associated in predicted ways with ratings of childhood memories and the length of the participants' longest romantic relationship.

  1. Masculinity in adolescent males' early romantic and sexual heterosexual relationships.

    PubMed

    Bell, David L; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Ott, Mary A

    2015-05-01

    There is a need to understand better the complex interrelationship between the adoption of masculinity during adolescence and the development of early romantic and sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to describe features of adolescent masculinity and how it is expressed in the contexts of early to middle adolescent males' romantic and sexual relationships. Thirty-three 14- to 16-year-old males were recruited from an adolescent clinic serving a community with high sexually transmitted infection rates and were asked open-ended questions about their relationships-how they developed, progressed, and ended. Participants described a high degree of relationally oriented beliefs and behaviors related to romantic and sexual relationships, such as a desire for intimacy and trust. The males also described a more limited degree of conventionally masculine beliefs and behaviors. These beliefs and behaviors often coexisted or overlapped. Implications for the clinical care of similar groups of adolescents are described.

  2. The use of social networking sites for relationship maintenance in long-distance and geographically close romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Billedo, Cherrie Joy; Kerkhof, Peter; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2015-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) play an increasingly important role in maintaining geographically close romantic relationships (GCRR). However, knowledge about SNS use in long-distance romantic relationships (LDRR) is still lacking. The present study examined the relative importance of SNS in maintaining LDRR compared to GCRR, particularly with regard to the use of SNS to express involvement (via relational maintenance behaviors) and to gauge a partner's involvement (via partner surveillance and jealousy) in the relationship. An online survey was conducted among predominantly young adult Facebook users who were in a romantic relationship (N=272). Results showed that participants who were in a LDRR reported higher levels of relational maintenance behaviors through SNS than participants who were in a GCRR. Also, as compared to participants who were in a GCRR, participants who were in a LDRR used SNS more for partner surveillance and experienced higher levels of SNS jealousy.

  3. Beliefs about Romantic Relationships: Gender Differences among Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Deborah A.; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; McNeely, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Three-hundred-and-twenty six undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed an anonymous 74-item questionnaire designed to assess beliefs about men, women, and relationships. Significant differences between men's and women's beliefs about romantic relationships were found on eight of 14 items. Men were significantly more likely to…

  4. Romantic Attachment and Relationship Functioning in Same-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Jonathan J.; Selterman, Dylan; Fassinger, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate links between dimensions of romantic attachment and relationship functioning in a cross-sectional sample of people in same-sex relationships, with the goals of replicating basic findings from research on heterosexual couples and advancing understanding of unique issues faced by same-sex couples. The…

  5. Media exposure and romantic relationship quality: a slippery slope?

    PubMed

    Reizer, Abira; Hetsroni, Amir

    2014-02-01

    This study examines whether media consumption predicted relationship quality among 188 college students who were involved in romantic relationships. The respondents assessed their commitment to the relationship, their satisfaction from the relationship, and their tendency to engage in conflicts within the relationship. Media consumption was measured by assessing the time dedicated to television viewing in general, watching specific genres, Internet use, and newspaper reading. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that total TV viewing time statistically predicted lower commitment to the relationship, while viewing of programming focusing on romantic relationships predicted lower satisfaction and stronger tendency to engage in conflicts. Consumption of media other than television and the control factors did not predict any indicator of relationship quality. The pattern of negative associations between TV viewing and relationship quality is discussed with reference to cultivation theory and mood management theory. PMID:24765723

  6. South African Adolescents' Constructions of Intimacy in Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesch, Elmien; Furphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Localized understandings of adolescent romantic relationships are needed to expand our knowledge of the diversity of adolescent romantic experiences and to challenge negative discourses of adolescent heterosexual relationships. This study explored the constructions of intimacy of 20 adolescent men and women in romantic relationships from one…

  7. Brief report: how adolescent personality moderates the effect of love history on the young adulthood romantic relationship quality?

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the effect of previous romantic relationship involvement on later romantic relationship quality and tested whether adolescents' personality type (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, resilients) moderated this link. We answered our research questions in a sample of 320 Dutch participants (213 girls) who had a romantic relationship when they were 21 years old. At 12 years of age, their personality types were identified. At 21 years of age, participants reported their current romantic relationship quality (i.e., commitment, exploration, and reconsideration) and indicated the number of romantic relationships they had before. No main effects of the number of romantic relationships on current romantic relationship quality were found. There were significant interaction effects between personality types and the number of romantic relationships on romantic relationship quality. With more romantic relationship experiences, undercontrollers committed less to and explored less in their current romantic relationship. No such link was found for resilients and overcontrollers.

  8. Parental Involvement in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Patterns and Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Marni L.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined dimensions of mothers' and fathers' involvement in adolescents' romantic relationships when offspring were age 17. Using cluster analysis, parents from 105 White, working and middle class families were classified as positively involved, negatively involved, or autonomy-oriented with respect to their adolescents' romantic…

  9. Love Styles and Self-Silencing in Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kerry A.; Cramer, Kenneth M.; Singleton-Jackson, Jill A.

    2005-01-01

    Six love styles have been theorized to be related to several personality constructs (e.g., self-esteem) (Lee, 1973). Despite the interpersonal nature of love, investigations have yet to evaluate related variables and their association to love styles in romantic relationships. As a stable cognitive schema, silencing the self is proposed to account…

  10. Romantic Relationships and Body Satisfaction among Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, Charlotte N.; Markey, Patrick M.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we examined associations between young women's romantic relationships and their body image. Ninety-five heterosexual couples (women's mean age=22.46 and men's mean age=24.38) participated in this study. We examined young women's satisfaction with their own bodies, their "perceptions" of their significant others' satisfaction…

  11. Brief Report: Activities in Heterosexual Romantic Relationships--Grade Differences and Associations with Relationship Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Wendy; Rose, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas much research addresses relations of youths' heterosexual romantic relationships with sexual and/or delinquent activities, less attention has been paid to youths' more normative, day-to-day activities with romantic partners. This gap in the literature is problematic given that these activities define the substance of the relationships and…

  12. Longitudinal association between adolescent attachment, adult romantic attachment, and emotion regulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Pascuzzo, Katherine; Cyr, Chantal; Moss, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Attachment security towards parents and peers in adolescence, and romantic attachment styles and emotion regulation strategies in young adulthood, were evaluated using an eight-year longitudinal design. Fifty-six young adults completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) at age 14, and then, at age 22, the Experience in Close Relationships (ECR) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), an emotion regulation questionnaire concerning coping strategies, including task-oriented versus emotion-oriented foci. Results indicated that greater insecurity to parents and peers in adolescence predicted a more anxious romantic attachment style and greater use of emotion-oriented strategies in adulthood. Concurrently, anxious adult attachment style was related to more emotion-oriented strategies, whereas an avoidant attachment style was related to less support-seeking. Analyses also identified emotion-oriented coping strategies as a partial mediator of the link between adolescent attachment insecurity to parents and adult anxious attachment, and a complete mediator of the association between adolescent attachment insecurity to peers and adult anxious attachment. These findings support the core assumption of continuity in attachment theory, where relationships to parents influence close romantic relationships in adulthood.

  13. Romantic Relationships among Unmarried African Americans and Caribbean Blacks: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the correlates of relationship satisfaction, marriage expectations, and relationship longevity among unmarried African American and Black Caribbean (Caribbean Black) adults who are in a romantic relationship. The study used data from the National Survey of American Life, a national representative sample of African Americans…

  14. Bad Romance: Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Association Between Romantic Relationships and Deviant Behavior.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kathryn C; Dmitrieva, Julia; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    The current study investigates how romantic relationships are related to antisocial behavior longitudinally among delinquent males and females (n=354; ages 14-25). While being in a relationship or not is unrelated to antisocial behavior, romantic partner characteristics (antisocial behavior and antisocial influence) are associated with greater antisocial behavior. As males age, they become increasingly resistant to romantic partner characteristics. In contrast, females become increasingly vulnerable to the effects of romantic partner characteristics on antisocial behavior as they age, particularly when these relationships are relatively shorter. Females in shorter romantic relationships with partners who are antisocial or exert antisocial influence are at risk of persisting in antisocial behavior.

  15. Bad Romance: Sex Differences in the Longitudinal Association Between Romantic Relationships and Deviant Behavior.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kathryn C; Dmitrieva, Julia; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    The current study investigates how romantic relationships are related to antisocial behavior longitudinally among delinquent males and females (n=354; ages 14-25). While being in a relationship or not is unrelated to antisocial behavior, romantic partner characteristics (antisocial behavior and antisocial influence) are associated with greater antisocial behavior. As males age, they become increasingly resistant to romantic partner characteristics. In contrast, females become increasingly vulnerable to the effects of romantic partner characteristics on antisocial behavior as they age, particularly when these relationships are relatively shorter. Females in shorter romantic relationships with partners who are antisocial or exert antisocial influence are at risk of persisting in antisocial behavior. PMID:25045242

  16. A longitudinal study of interpersonal relationships among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents and young adults: Mediational pathways from attachment to romantic relationship quality

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Tyrel J.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the potential for mental health to mediate associations between earlier attachment to parents and peers and later relationship adjustment during adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of sexual minority youth. Secondarily, the study examined associations between peer and parental attachment and relationship/dating milestones. Participants included 219 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth who participated in six waves of data collection over 3.5 years. Parental attachment was associated with an older age of dating initiation, while peer attachment was associated with longer relationship length. Both peer and parental attachment were significantly associated with mental health in later adolescence and young adulthood. Mental health mediated the association between peer attachment and main partner relationship quality. While the total indirect effect of parental attachment on main partner relationship quality was statistically significant, specific indirect effects were not. Implications for the application of attachment theory and integration of interpersonal factors into mental health intervention with sexual minority youth are discussed. PMID:26108898

  17. Examining the Possible Functions of Kissing in Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that romantic kissing may be utilized in human sexual relationships to evaluate aspects of a potential mate’s suitability, to mediate feelings of attachment between pair-bonded individuals, or to facilitate arousal and initiate sexual relations. This study explored these potential functions of romantic kissing by examining attitudes towards the importance of kissing in the context of various human mating situations. The study involved an international online questionnaire, which was completed by 308 male and 594 female participants aged 18–63 years. Support was found for the hypothesis that kissing serves a useful mate-assessment function: women, high mate-value participants, and participants high in sociosexual orientation placed greater importance on kissing in romantic relationships and stated that an initial kiss was more likely to affect their attraction to a potential mate than did men, low-mate value participants or low sociosexual orientation participants. Kissing also seemed to be utilized in the mediation of pair-bond attachments: kissing was seen to be more important at established stages of relationships by low sociosexual participants, kissing was generally seen as more important in long-term relationship contexts (but particularly so by women), and kissing frequency was found to be related to relationship satisfaction. The findings of this research showed very little evidence to support the hypothesis that the primary function of kissing is to elevate levels of arousal. PMID:24114390

  18. Sexual Well-Being of a Community Sample of High-Functioning Adults on the Autism Spectrum Who Have Been in a Romantic Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D.; Reilly, Georgianna

    2013-01-01

    This study explored factors (gender, age, relationship status, symptomatology) associated with the sexual well-being of 141 (56 men and 85 women) adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) living in the community. Participants completed an online survey consisting of a measure of autistic symptoms as well as measures of…

  19. Let's get serious: communicating commitment in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua M; Griskevicius, Vladas; Li, Norman P

    2011-06-01

    Are men or women more likely to confess love first in romantic relationships? And how do men and women feel when their partners say "I love you"? An evolutionary-economics perspective contends that women and men incur different potential costs and gain different potential benefits from confessing love. Across 6 studies testing current and former romantic relationships, we found that although people think that women are the first to confess love and feel happier when they receive such confessions, it is actually men who confess love first and feel happier when receiving confessions. Consistent with predictions from our model, additional studies have shown that men's and women's reactions to love confessions differ in important ways depending on whether the couple has engaged in sexual activity. These studies have demonstrated that saying and hearing "I love you" has different meanings depending on who is doing the confessing and when the confession is being made. Beyond romantic relationships, an evolutionary-economics perspective suggests that displays of commitment in other types of relationships--and reactions to these displays--will be influenced by specific, functional biases.

  20. Let's get serious: communicating commitment in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua M; Griskevicius, Vladas; Li, Norman P

    2011-06-01

    Are men or women more likely to confess love first in romantic relationships? And how do men and women feel when their partners say "I love you"? An evolutionary-economics perspective contends that women and men incur different potential costs and gain different potential benefits from confessing love. Across 6 studies testing current and former romantic relationships, we found that although people think that women are the first to confess love and feel happier when they receive such confessions, it is actually men who confess love first and feel happier when receiving confessions. Consistent with predictions from our model, additional studies have shown that men's and women's reactions to love confessions differ in important ways depending on whether the couple has engaged in sexual activity. These studies have demonstrated that saying and hearing "I love you" has different meanings depending on who is doing the confessing and when the confession is being made. Beyond romantic relationships, an evolutionary-economics perspective suggests that displays of commitment in other types of relationships--and reactions to these displays--will be influenced by specific, functional biases. PMID:21319910

  1. Conflicting pressures on romantic relationship commitment for anxiously attached individuals.

    PubMed

    Joel, Samantha; MacDonald, Geoff; Shimotomai, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    Anxious attachment predicts strong desires for intimacy and stability in romantic relationships, yet the relation between anxious attachment and romantic commitment is unclear. We propose that extant literature has failed to find a consistent relation because anxiously attached individuals experience conflicting pressures on commitment. Data from Australia (N=137) show that relationship satisfaction and felt security each act as suppressors of a positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment. Data from Japan (N=159) replicate the suppression effect of felt security and also demonstrate that the residual positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment can be partly explained by dependence on the partner. These findings suggest that anxiously attached individuals may be ambivalent about commitment. Dissatisfaction and worries about negative evaluation appear to exert downward pressure on commitment, counteracting the upward pressure that is exerted by factors such as relational dependency.

  2. Weight stigma in existing romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Boyes, Alice D; Latner, Janet D

    2009-01-01

    Associations between body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and relationship quality and other partner/relationship perceptions were investigated in 57 dating or married couples. Heavier women had lower quality relationships, which they predicted were more likely to end. They partnered with less desirable men and thought their partners would rate them as less warm/trustworthy. Heavier women were judged by their male partners as lower in attractiveness/vitality and as poorer matches to their partners' attractiveness ideals. In contrast, men's BMI was generally not associated with relationship functioning. These findings point to the potential mechanisms that may contribute to heavier women's relationship difficulties. PMID:19466667

  3. Weight stigma in existing romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Boyes, Alice D; Latner, Janet D

    2009-01-01

    Associations between body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and relationship quality and other partner/relationship perceptions were investigated in 57 dating or married couples. Heavier women had lower quality relationships, which they predicted were more likely to end. They partnered with less desirable men and thought their partners would rate them as less warm/trustworthy. Heavier women were judged by their male partners as lower in attractiveness/vitality and as poorer matches to their partners' attractiveness ideals. In contrast, men's BMI was generally not associated with relationship functioning. These findings point to the potential mechanisms that may contribute to heavier women's relationship difficulties.

  4. Romantic Relationship Dynamics of Urban African American Adolescents: Patterns of Monogamy, Commitment, and Trust

    PubMed Central

    Towner, Senna L.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Relationship dynamics develop early in life and are influenced by social environments. STI/HIV prevention programs need to consider romantic relationship dynamics that contribute to sexual health. The aim of this study was to examine monogamous patterns, commitment, and trust in African American adolescent romantic relationships. The authors also focused on the differences in these dynamics between and within gender. The way that such dynamics interplay in romantic relationships has the potential to influence STI/HIV acquisition risk. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 African American adolescents aged 14 to 21 living in San Francisco. Our results discuss data related to monogamous behaviors, expectations, and values; trust and respect in romantic relationships; commitment to romantic relationships; and outcomes of mismatched relationship expectations. Incorporating gender-specific romantic relationships dynamics can enhance the effectiveness of prevention programs. PMID:26691404

  5. Shared and Distinctive Origins and Correlates of Adult Attachment Representations: The Developmental Organization of Romantic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    To test proposals regarding the hierarchical organization of adult attachment, this study examined developmental origins of generalized and romantic attachment representations and their concurrent associations with romantic functioning. Participants (N = 112) in a 35-year prospective study completed the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Current…

  6. Long-Distance and Proximal Romantic Relationship Satisfaction: Attachment and Closeness Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Amber; Pistole, M. Carole

    2009-01-01

    Relationship satisfaction was examined in college student long-distance romantic relationships (LDRRs) and geographically proximal romantic relationships (PRRs). LDRR/PRR attachment style proportions and relationship satisfaction were similar. Multiple regression analyses revealed that low attachment avoidance contributed uniquely to high LDRR…

  7. Can we be (and stay) friends? Remaining friends after dissolution of a romantic relationship.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Melinda; Hackathorn, Jana; Clark, Eddie M; Mattingly, Brent A

    2011-01-01

    Although many individuals report being friends with their ex-romantic partners (Wilmot, Carbaugh, & Baxter, 1985), the literature regarding post-romantic friendships is very limited. We investigated whether satisfaction in the dissolved romantic relationship could predict post-romantic friendships and friendship maintenance. We found that the more satisfied individuals were during the dissolved romance, the more likely they were to remain friends and the more likely they were to engage in friendship maintenance behaviors. We also found that friendship maintenance fully mediated the association between past romantic satisfaction and current friendship satisfaction. PMID:22017080

  8. Interethnic Romantic Relationships: Enacting Affiliative Ethnic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yodanis, Carrie; Lauer, Sean; Ota, Risako

    2012-01-01

    Through in-depth interviews with respondents who were in interethnic relationships (N = 28), the authors extended and refined a new approach to mate selection based on affiliative ethnic identities (T. Jimenez, 2010). Rather than assimilation and a breakdown of ethnic group boundaries, they found that people pursued interethnic relationships…

  9. Romantic Relationships and Criminal Desistance: Pathways and Processes

    PubMed Central

    Wyse, Jessica JB; Harding, David J.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    In dominant theories of criminal desistance, marital relationship formation is understood to be a key “turning point” away from deviant behavior. Empirical studies supporting this claim have largely focused on the positive role of marriage in men's desistance from crime, and relatively few studies have examined the role that non-marital relationships may play in desistance. Drawing on 138 longitudinal in-depth interviews with 22 men and women reentering society from prison, this paper extends the scope of desistance research by additionally considering the significance of more fleeting and fluid relationships, and the diverse processes through which romantic relationships of all sorts are linked with criminal behaviors. We present an empirically-based typology detailing six processes, grouped within three conceptual categories, through which romantic relationships had their effects. These pathways include material circumstances, social bonds and interactions, and emotional supports and stressors. We also consider gender differences in these processes. While more tenuous bonds to marginally conventional partners would seem to exert little effect, as one of the few relationships and social roles available to many former prisoners, we found that they wielded important influence, if not always in a positive direction. PMID:25484489

  10. Quality Counts: Developmental Shifts in Associations Between Romantic Relationship Qualities and Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed a developmental task theory of romantic relationships by examining associations between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment across 9 years using a community based sample of 100 male and 100 female participants (M age Wave 1 = 15.83) in a Western U.S. city. Using multilevel modeling, the study examined the moderating effect of age on links between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment. Consistent with developmental task theory, high romantic quality was more associated with internalizing symptoms and dating satisfaction during young adulthood than adolescence. Romantic relationship qualities were also associated with externalizing symptoms and substance use, but the degree of association was consistent across ages. The findings underscore the significance of romantic relationship qualities across development. PMID:26283151

  11. Quality Counts: Developmental Shifts in Associations Between Romantic Relationship Qualities and Psychosocial Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed a developmental task theory of romantic relationships by examining associations between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment across 9 years using a community-based sample of 100 male and 100 female participants (Mage Wave 1 = 15.83) in a Western U.S. city. Using multilevel modeling, the study examined the moderating effect of age on links between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment. Consistent with developmental task theory, high romantic quality was more negatively associated with internalizing symptoms and dating satisfaction during young adulthood than adolescence. Romantic relationship qualities were also associated with externalizing symptoms and substance use, but the degree of association was consistent across ages. The findings underscore the significance of romantic relationship qualities across development. PMID:26283151

  12. Sexual Esteem in Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Sexual Behavior, Contraception Use, and Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Megan; Lefkowitz, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Sexual esteem is an integral psychological aspect of sexual health (Snell & Papini, 1989), yet it is unclear if sexual esteem is associated with sexual health behavior among heterosexual men and women. The current analysis uses a normative framework for sexual development (Lefkowitz & Gillen, 2006; Tolman & McClelland, 2011) by examining the association of sexual esteem with sexual behavior, contraception use, and romantic relationship characteristics. Participants (N = 518; 56.0% female; mean age = 18.43 years; 26.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino; among non-Hispanic/Latinos, 27.2% of the full sample identified as European American, 22.4% Asian American, 14.9% African American, and 8.7% multiracial) completed web-based surveys at a large northeastern university. Participants who had oral sex more frequently, recently had more oral and penetrative sex partners (particularly for male participants), and spent more college semesters in romantic relationships, tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who had sex less frequently, with fewer partners, or spent more semesters without romantic partners. Sexually active male emerging adults who never used contraception during recent penetrative sex tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who did use it, whereas female emerging adults who never used contraception tended to have lower sexual esteem than those who did use it. Implications of these results for the development of a healthy sexual self-concept in emerging adulthood are discussed. PMID:25210789

  13. Sexual Esteem in Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Sexual Behavior, Contraception Use, and Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Maas, Megan K; Lefkowitz, Eva S

    2015-01-01

    Sexual esteem is an integral psychological aspect of sexual health (Snell & Papini, 1989 ), yet it is unclear whether sexual esteem is associated with sexual health behavior among heterosexual men and women. The current analysis used a normative framework for sexual development (Lefkowitz & Gillen, 2006 ; Tolman & McClelland, 2011 ) by examining the association of sexual esteem with sexual behavior, contraception use, and romantic relationship characteristics. Participants (N = 518; 56.0% female; mean age = 20.43 years; 26.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino; among non-Hispanic/Latinos, 27.2% of the full sample identified as European American, 22.4% Asian American, 14.9% African American, and 8.7% multiracial) completed Web-based surveys at a large Northeastern university. Participants who had oral sex more frequently, recently had more oral and penetrative sex partners (particularly for male participants), and spent more college semesters in romantic relationships tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who had sex less frequently, with fewer partners, or spent more semesters without romantic partners. Sexually active male emerging adults who never used contraception during recent penetrative sex tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who did use it, whereas female emerging adults who never used contraception tended to have lower sexual esteem than those who did use it. Implications of these results for the development of a healthy sexual self-concept in emerging adulthood are discussed.

  14. Attachment and the experience and expression of emotions in romantic relationships: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jeffry A; Collins, W Andrew; Tran, SiSi; Haydon, Katherine C

    2007-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, the authors tested a developmental hypothesis derived from attachment theory and recent empirical findings. Target participants were 78 individuals who have been studied intensively from infancy into their mid-20s. When targets were 20-23 years old, the authors tested the way in which interpersonal experiences at 3 pivotal points in each target's earlier social development--infancy/early childhood, early elementary school, and adolescence--predicted the pattern of positive versus negative emotions experienced with his or her romantic partner. A double-mediation model revealed that targets classified as securely attached at 12 months old were rated as more socially competent during early elementary school by their teachers. Targets' social competence, in turn, forecasted their having more secure relationships with close friends at age 16, which in turn predicted more positive daily emotional experiences in their adult romantic relationships (both self- and partner-reported) and less negative affect in conflict resolution and collaborative tasks with their romantic partners (rated by observers). These results are discussed in terms of attachment theory and how antecedent life experiences may indirectly shape events in current relationships.

  15. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  16. Romantic Relationship Dynamics of Urban African American Adolescents: Patterns of Monogamy, Commitment, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towner, Senna L.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Relationship dynamics develop early in life and are influenced by social environments. STI/HIV prevention programs need to consider romantic relationship dynamics that contribute to sexual health. The aim of this study was to examine monogamous patterns, commitment, and trust in African American adolescent romantic relationships. The authors also…

  17. Conflict Beliefs, Goals, and Behavior in Romantic Relationships during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Valerie A.; Kobielski, Sarah J.; Martin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about social cognition regarding conflict in romantic relationships during late adolescence. The current study examined beliefs, social goals, and behavioral strategies for conflict in romantic relationships and their associations with relationship quality among a sample of 494 college students. Two dimensions of conflict beliefs,…

  18. Romantic Relationships: An Important Context for HIV/STI and Pregnancy Prevention Programmes with Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karin K.; Anderson, Pamela M.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill; Walker, James D.; Charles, Vignetta Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Romantic relationships are central in the lives of young people. This paper uses data on romantic relationships from urban youth in the USA to illustrate how using a relationships perspective in HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention programmes broadens the skills and content covered, and contextualises the learning to enhance relevance and use.…

  19. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    PubMed Central

    DiDonato, Theresa E.; Jakubiak, Brittany K.

    2016-01-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives. PMID:27547256

  20. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation.

    PubMed

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-08-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals' anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target's use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target's positive humor increased individuals' attraction, especially women's, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives. PMID:27547256

  1. The Meaning of Respect in Romantic Relationships among Low-Income African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, L. Kris; Catania, Joseph A.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Harper, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Although interpersonal respect is considered an important quality in successful romantic relationships, limited attention has been paid to this concept. We examined the meaning of respect in romantic relationships as conceptualized by low-income, sexually active, heterosexually identified, African American adolescents aged 15 to 17 (N = 50).…

  2. Are College Students Replacing Dating and Romantic Relationships with Hooking Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebenbruner, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed female college students' ("N" = 197) participation in dating, romantic relationships, hooking up behaviors, and the intersection of these activities. Hooking up was prevalent among students ("n" = 78; 39.6%), but dating ("n" = 139; 70.6%) and romantic relationship ("n" = 147; 74.6%)…

  3. Understanding Change in Romantic Relationship Expectations of International Female Students from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Bugay, Aslı

    2010-01-01

    In the light of grounded theory, the authors explored change in romantic relationship expectations of international students. Twelve female graduate students from Turkey were interviewed and several themes were identified explaining the presence and absence of change in participants’ attitudes toward romantic relationships. The findings are discussed in relation to acculturation and direction for future research is presented. PMID:20835294

  4. Diversity in Romantic Relations of Adolescents with Varying Health Status: Links to Intimacy in Close Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2000-01-01

    Investigated similarities and differences between close friendships and romantic relationships among 95 adolescents, who were either diabetic or healthy. Among healthy adolescents, found demonstrated time-dependent links between intimacy in both relationship types. Among diabetic adolescents, found a preference for romantic partners who offered…

  5. I get no respect: the relationship between betrayal trauma and romantic relationship functioning.

    PubMed

    Owen, Jesse; Quirk, Kelley; Manthos, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored the association among young adults' (N = 86) experiences of betrayal traumas (interpersonal trauma perpetrated by someone close) prior to age 18, psychological well-being, attachment styles, and romantic relationship function (i.e., dedication, relationship adjustment, and perceived partner respect). Based on betrayal trauma theory, we posited that participants' reports of betrayal traumas would be negatively related to their perceptions of respect from their partner but would not relate to their perceptions of relationship adjustment or dedication. Furthermore, we expected that the relationship between betrayal traumas and respect would be mediated by participants' attachment style and psychological well-being. Results identified a negative association between betrayal traumas and psychological well-being and a positive association between betrayal trauma and anxious and avoidant attachment. Betrayal traumas were also shown to be negatively related to partner respect and not significantly associated with dedication and relationship adjustment. Anxious attachment and psychological well-being were significant mediators for the relationship between betrayal traumas and perceived respect. PMID:22375806

  6. Caught in a bad romance: adolescent romantic relationships and mental health.

    PubMed

    Soller, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Integrating insights from cultural sociology and identity theory, I explore the mental health consequences of adolescent romantic relationship inauthenticity--incongruence between thoughts/feelings and actions within romantic contexts. Applying sequence analysis to National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, I measure relationship inauthenticity by quantifying the extent to which the ordering of events of actual romantic relationships (e.g., holding hands, saying "I love you") diverges from the sequence of events within idealized relationship scripts among 5,316 adolescents. I then test its association with severe depression, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. I find that romantic relationship inauthenticity is positively associated with the risk of all three markers of poor mental health, but only for girls. This study highlights the importance of gender and culture in determining how early romantic involvement influences psychological well-being.

  7. Caught in a bad romance: adolescent romantic relationships and mental health.

    PubMed

    Soller, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Integrating insights from cultural sociology and identity theory, I explore the mental health consequences of adolescent romantic relationship inauthenticity--incongruence between thoughts/feelings and actions within romantic contexts. Applying sequence analysis to National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, I measure relationship inauthenticity by quantifying the extent to which the ordering of events of actual romantic relationships (e.g., holding hands, saying "I love you") diverges from the sequence of events within idealized relationship scripts among 5,316 adolescents. I then test its association with severe depression, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. I find that romantic relationship inauthenticity is positively associated with the risk of all three markers of poor mental health, but only for girls. This study highlights the importance of gender and culture in determining how early romantic involvement influences psychological well-being. PMID:24578396

  8. Social networking sites in romantic relationships: attachment, uncertainty, and partner surveillance on facebook.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2014-01-01

    Social networking sites serve as both a source of information and a source of tension between romantic partners. Previous studies have investigated the use of Facebook for monitoring former and current romantic partners, but why certain individuals engage in this behavior has not been fully explained. College students (N=328) participated in an online survey that examined two potential explanatory variables for interpersonal electronic surveillance (IES) of romantic partners: attachment style and relational uncertainty. Attachment style predicted both uncertainty and IES, with preoccupieds and fearfuls reporting the highest levels. Uncertainty did not predict IES, however. Future directions for research on romantic relationships and online surveillance are explored. PMID:23952623

  9. The Code of the Street and Romantic Relationships: A dyadic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.; Stewart, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its publication, Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street thesis has found support in studies connecting disadvantage to the internalization of street-oriented values and an associated lifestyle of violent/deviant behavior. This primary emphasis on deviance in public arenas has precluded researchers from examining the implications of the code of the street for less public arenas, like intimate relationships. In an effort to understand if and how the endorsement of the street code may infiltrate such relationships, the present study examines the associations between the code of the street and relationship satisfaction and commitment among young adults involved in heterosexual romantic relationships. Using a dyadic approach, we find that street code orientation, in general, negatively predicts satisfaction and commitment, in part due to increased relationship hostility/conflict associated with the internalization of the code. Gender differences in these associations are considered and discussed at length. PMID:23504000

  10. Directly Observed Interaction within Adolescent Romantic Relationships: What Have We Learned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Deborah P.; Shulman, Shmuel

    2008-01-01

    Review and conceptual analysis of the papers in this special issue calls attention to several important methodological and conceptual issues surrounding the direct observation of adolescent romantic couples. It also provides an important new foundation of knowledge about the nature of adolescents' romantic relationships. Connections with previous…

  11. Racially and Ethnically Diverse Schools and Adolescent Romantic Relationships*

    PubMed Central

    Strully, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670

  12. Rewards and Costs in Adolescent Other-Sex Friendships: Comparisons to Same-Sex Friendships and Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Laura Shaffer; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-01-01

    This study used a social exchange framework to examine the features of non-romantic other-sex (OS) friendships compared with same-sex (SS) friendships and romantic relationships. High school seniors (N = 141) completed open-ended interviews about the benefits and costs of having OS friendships, SS friendships, and romantic relationships in…

  13. Personality Effects on Romantic Relationship Quality through Friendship Quality: A Ten-Year Longitudinal Study in Youths

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with different personality types (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, resilients) had different friendship quality development throughout adolescence. It also investigated whether personality types were indirectly related to romantic relationship quality in young adulthood, via friendship quality development in adolescence. The study employed six waves of longitudinal questionnaire data from Dutch youths who had a romantic relationship when they were young adults. Two age cohorts were followed, from 12 to 21 years and from 16 to 25 years, respectively. Findings showed that resilients reported higher mean levels of friendship quality during adolescence (i.e., more support from, less negative interaction with and less dominance from their best friend) than both overcontrollers and undercontrollers. Through the mean levels of friendship quality throughout adolescence, resilients indirectly experienced higher romantic relationship quality during young adulthood than both overcontrollers and undercontrollers. Thus, results provide support for a developmental model in which adolescent friendship quality is a mechanism linking personality types with young adulthood romantic relationship quality. PMID:25232964

  14. Personality effects on romantic relationship quality through friendship quality: a ten-year longitudinal study in youths.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with different personality types (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, resilients) had different friendship quality development throughout adolescence. It also investigated whether personality types were indirectly related to romantic relationship quality in young adulthood, via friendship quality development in adolescence. The study employed six waves of longitudinal questionnaire data from Dutch youths who had a romantic relationship when they were young adults. Two age cohorts were followed, from 12 to 21 years and from 16 to 25 years, respectively. Findings showed that resilients reported higher mean levels of friendship quality during adolescence (i.e., more support from, less negative interaction with and less dominance from their best friend) than both overcontrollers and undercontrollers. Through the mean levels of friendship quality throughout adolescence, resilients indirectly experienced higher romantic relationship quality during young adulthood than both overcontrollers and undercontrollers. Thus, results provide support for a developmental model in which adolescent friendship quality is a mechanism linking personality types with young adulthood romantic relationship quality.

  15. Falling in love with romantic ideals: women in relationships with child molesters.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from a larger research study, this paper explores intersecting and competing social relations that influenced the romantic desires of women who became intimately involved with men who molested children. Through a feminist poststructuralist lens, women's narratives were analysed with the use of feminist interpretations of Foucauldian discourse theory. Analysis informed of a discursive power over participants that made the attainment of romantic desires an imperative for ensuring social respect, worth and credibility as women. When all was not ideal, these same romantic desires compelled women to fix and hold onto their relationships--even when with men that attract damning societal responses towards them. Even upon acknowledgement of their partners' sexual transgressions, the fear of relationship breakdown meant that romantic desires again featured as imperatives for the women. The imagined pleasure of achieving romantic desires is discursive; so powerful that it outweighed women's fears and dangers of precarious intimate life with men who commit abhorrent acts.

  16. The Influence of Parental Romantic Relationships on College Students' Attitudes about Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Pamela B.

    2010-01-01

    Many marriages are at risk for dissolution partly because many individuals do not have healthy examples to follow. Unmarried college students completed a survey designed to assess their attitudes about relationships and whether attitudes differed based on their perceptions of their parents' relationships or marital status. It was hypothesized that…

  17. Demographic and developmental differences in the content and sequence of adolescents' ideal romantic relationship behaviors.

    PubMed

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Goldberg, Shoshana K; Widman, Laura; Reese, Bianka M; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes data from 18,392 respondents (aged 12-19) in Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to provide a detailed descriptive analysis of U.S. adolescents' desired behaviors in their ideal romantic relationships. Age, gender, and ethnic group differences in the desire for--and preferred sequence of--a set of activities that could occur in a hypothetical romantic relationship were explored within subsets of heterosexual (n = 17,274) and sexual minority adolescents (n = 1118). Non-sexual behaviors were more commonly desired compared to sexual behaviors. The typical desired behavioral sequence was: holding hands, going out alone, telling others they were a couple, kissing, saying "I love you," sexual touching, and finally having sex. Overall, more similarities than differences emerged across groups, with some notable differences in the percentages who desired sexual behaviors. Results provide a nuanced picture of adolescent relationship scripts, with implications for education and prevention. PMID:26431691

  18. The influence of romantic attachment and intimate partner violence on non-suicidal self-injury in young adults.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Bureau, Jean-François; Cloutier, Paula; Dandurand, Cathy

    2010-05-01

    Several theoretical models for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been proposed. Despite an abundance of theoretical speculation, few empirical studies have examined the impact of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI. The present study examines the influence of romantic attachment and received intimate partner violence (physical, psychological and sexual) on recent reports of NSSI behaviors and thoughts. The sample was composed of 537 (79.9% female) primarily Caucasian university students between the ages of 18 and 25 years and currently involved in a romantic relationship. The results reveal that anxiety over abandonment was a significant predictor of NSSI thoughts and behaviors in women and a significant predictor of NSSI thoughts in men. Moreover, the experience of intimate partner violence emerged as a significant predictor of NSSI behaviors in both men and women. Continued empirical investigations into the influence of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI will facilitate the development of psychological interventions for young adults dealing with self-harm.

  19. Multiple dimensions of peer influence in adolescent romantic and sexual relationships: a descriptive, qualitative perspective.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Deardorff, Julianna

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents undergo critical developmental transformations that increase the salience of peer influence. Peer interactions (platonic and romantic) have been found to have both a positive and negative influence on adolescent attitudes and behaviors related to romantic relationships and sexual behavior. This study used qualitative methodology to explore how peers influence romantic and sexual behavior. Forty adolescents participated in individual semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. The concept of peer influence on romantic relationships and sexual behavior emerged as a key theme. Youth described that platonic peers (friends) influenced their relationships and sexual behavior including pressuring friends into relationships, establishing relationships as currency for popularity and social status, and creating relationship norm and expectations. Romantic peers also motivated relationship and sexual behavior as youth described engaging in behavior to avoid hurting and successfully pleasing their partners. Future research should explore multiple types of peer influence in order to better inform interventions to improve the quality of adolescents' romantic and sexual relationships.

  20. Spectrums of love: examining the relationship between romantic motivations and sexual risk among young gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Ventuneac, Ana; Pingel, Emily; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2012-08-01

    We examined the association between HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and romantic feelings among single, young gay and bisexual men (YGBM). Romantic feelings may have positive (romantic ideation) and negative (romantic obsession) connotations. Consequently, we hypothesized that YGBM would report greater risks if they reported having obsessive thoughts about their relationship desires; conversely, we hypothesized that YGBM who envision a romantic relationship would report fewer unprotected partners. Using cross-sectional data from a study examining YGBM's online dating experiences (N = 376; ages 18-24), we found a positive association between romantic obsession and number of partners for unprotected receptive (URAI) and insertive (UIAI) anal intercourse. Conversely, we found a negative association between romantic ideation and number of partners for URAI and UIAI. Is love risky or protective? Our results indicate support for both perspectives. We discuss the implications of our findings, highlighting the importance of addressing romantic pursuits into existing HIV prevention interventions for YGBM.

  1. Spectrums of Love: Examining the relationship between romantic motivations and sexual risk among young gay and bisexual men

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Ventuneac, Ana; Pingel, Emily; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association between HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and romantic feelings among single, young gay and bisexual men (YGBM). Romantic feelings may have positive (romantic ideation) and negative (romantic obsession) connotations. Consequently, we hypothesized that YGBM would report greater risks if they reported having obsessive thoughts about their relationship desires; conversely, we hypothesized that YGBM who envision a romantic relationship would report fewer unprotected partners. Using cross-sectional data from a study examining YGBM’s online dating experiences (N=376; ages 18 to 24), we found a positive association between romantic obsession and number of partners for unprotected receptive (URAI) and insertive (UIAI) anal intercourse. Conversely, we found a negative association between romantic ideation and number of partners for URAI and UIAI. Is love risky or protective? Our results indicate support for both perspectives. We discuss the implications of our findings, highlighting the importance of addressing romantic pursuits into existing HIV-prevention interventions for YGBM. PMID:22223300

  2. Attachment, personality, and psychopathology among adult inpatients: self-reported romantic attachment style versus Adult Attachment Interview states of mind.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Shelley A; Paulson, Adrienne; Tunnell, Ellen; Sahl, Gayla; Atkison, Heather; Ross, Colin A

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined self-reported romantic attachment style and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) states of mind regarding early attachment relationships, personality dimensions, and psychopathology in a psychiatric sample of trauma survivors. Inpatients (N = 80) admitted to a hospital trauma treatment program were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, AAI, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, Dissociative Experiences Scale, and Dissociative Disorder Interview Schedule. Self-report and AAI attachment classifications were not related, and different results emerged for the two measures. Self-reported romantic attachment style was significantly associated with personality dimensions, with fearful adults showing the most maladaptive personality profiles. Findings suggested that self-report dimensions of self and other independently contribute to different forms of psychological dysfunction. AAI unresolved trauma was uniquely associated with dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder, whereas unresolved trauma and unresolved loss jointly contributed to schizotypal and borderline personality disorder scores. The differences in findings between the two measures are discussed with a view toward the developmental and clinical implications. PMID:17241494

  3. Youth Reports of Parents’ Romantic Relationship Quality: Links to Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Tazeen; Zilioli, Samuele; Tobin, Erin T.; Imami, Ledina; Kane, Heidi S.; Saleh, Daniel J.; Slatcher, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Prior work has shown that negative aspects (e.g., conflict) of marriage or marriage-like relationships are associated with poor health of offspring, but much less is known about the effects of positive aspects (e.g., affection) of parental romantic relationships. This study investigated links between conflict and affection within parents’ romantic relationships and the health of youth with asthma. Method Eighty youths with asthma aged 10-17 answered daily questions over a 4-day period about conflict and affection within their parents’ romantic relationship, as well as their own daily mood, asthma symptoms, and expiratory peak flow. Results Multiple regression analyses revealed that romantic affection—but not conflict—was directly associated with higher expiratory peak flow. Further, there was a significant indirect effect of romantic affection via youth positive affect on lower asthma symptoms. Conclusion These results are the first to our knowledge to demonstrate that youth-reported positive characteristics of parents’ romantic relationships are associated with better health among youth with asthma. PMID:26998733

  4. Adolescents' working models and styles for relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners.

    PubMed

    Furman, Wyndol; Simon, Valerie A; Shaffer, Laura; Bouchey, Heather A

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the links among adolescents' representations of their relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners. Sixty-eight adolescents were interviewed three times to assess their working models for each of these types of relationships. Working models of friendships were related to working models of relationships with parents and romantic partners. Working models of relationships with parents and romantic partners were inconsistently related. A similar pattern of results was obtained for self-report measures of relational styles for the three types of relationships. Perceived experiences were also related. Specifically, support in relationships with parents tended to be related to support in romantic relationships and friendships, but the latter two were unrelated. On the other hand, self and other controlling behaviors in friendships were related to corresponding behaviors in romantic relationships. Negative interactions in the three types of relationships also tended to be related. Taken together, the findings indicate that the representations of the three types of relationships are distinct, yet related. Discussion focuses on the nature of the links among the three.

  5. Gender Development and Heterosexual Romantic Relationships During Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Anderson, Kristin J.

    1997-01-01

    Examines same-gender and cross-gender friendships as potential contexts for development of preferences and skills that may influence the quality of adolescent dating relationships and adult marriages. Considers how children's traditionally gender-segregated peer relationships contribute to miscommunications and power asymmetries in later…

  6. Stress in romantic relationships and adolescent depressive symptoms: Influence of parental support.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Samantha F; Salk, Rachel H; Hyde, Janet S

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that stressful life events can play a role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms; however, there has been little research on romantic stress specifically. The relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms is particularly salient in adolescence, as adolescence often involves the onset of dating. This and other stressors are often dealt with in the context of the family. The present study examined the relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms both concurrently and prospectively, controlling for preexisting depressive symptoms. We then explored whether support from parents buffers the negative effects of romantic stress on depressive symptoms. In addition, the study sought to determine whether the benefits of support vary by parent and child gender. A community sample of 375 adolescents completed self-report measures of parental support (both maternal and paternal), romantic stress, and depressive symptoms. A behavioral measure of maternal support was also obtained. For boys and girls, romantic stress at age 15 predicted depressive symptoms at ages 15 and 18, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Perceived maternal support buffered the stress-depressive symptom relationship for both genders at age 15, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Higher perceived paternal support was associated with lower adolescent depressive symptoms; however, it did not have a buffering effect. These results have implications for the development of effective family-centered methods to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in adolescents.

  7. Same-Sex Peer Relations and Romantic Relationships during Early Adolescence: Interactive Links to Emotional, Behavioral, and Academic Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Bukowski, William M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between early adolescents' involvement in romantic relationships and their emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment, depending on same-sex peer relationships. Found a negative relationship between romantic involvement and emotional and behavioral adjustment for adolescents who were unpopular with same-sex peers.…

  8. Urban adolescent girls' perspectives on romantic relationships: initiation, involvement, negotiation, and conflict.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Ellen M; Morales-Alemán, Mercedes M; Teitelman, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe romantic relationships from the perspective of urban, adolescent girls, to address gaps in our understanding of their relationship dimensions. Minority adolescent girls (n  =  17) participated in private semi-structured interviews aimed to elicit the understanding of the adolescents' perspectives on their own relationship experiences and dynamics. The research team conducted conventional content analysis of the interview transcripts. Four major themes emerged about romantic relationships: (1) influence of male pursuit and social norms on relationship initiation factors; (2) a romantic partner is a confidant, friend, and companion; (3) negotiating intimacy respectfully; and (4) relationship conflict through control and abuse. Adolescents described sub-themes of social norms of male pursuit and relationship pressures that dictated relationship initiation. Relationships were depicted by emotional support, caring, and companionship. Adolescents described positive negotiation skills. However, relationship conflict, including controlling behaviors and violence, was illustrated in these same relationships. This study provides a rich description of romantic relationships from the perspectives of urban, adolescent girls. Most salient findings included social pressures and a combination of both positive and negative attributes. Implications include the need for intervention development at the community level to address social pressures, recognition of positive adolescent relationship attributes, and facilitation of skills to identify and address low-quality relationship characteristics.

  9. Urban Adolescent Girls’ Perspectives on Romantic Relationships: Initiation, Involvement, Negotiation, and Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Ellen M.; Morales-Alemán, Mercedes M.; Teitelman, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe romantic relationships from the perspective of urban, adolescent girls, to address gaps in our understanding of their relationship dimensions. Minority adolescent girls (n = 17) participated in private semi-structured interviews aimed to elicit the understanding of the adolescents’ perspectives on their own relationship experiences and dynamics. The research team conducted conventional content analysis of the interview transcripts. Four major themes emerged about romantic relationships: (1) influence of male pursuit and social norms on relationship initiation factors; (2) a romantic partner is a confidant, friend, and companion; (3) negotiating intimacy respectfully; and (4) relationship conflict through control and abuse. Adolescents described sub-themes of social norms of male pursuit and relationship pressures that dictated relationship initiation. Relationships were depicted by emotional support, caring, and companionship. Adolescents described positive negotiation skills. However, relationship conflict, including controlling behaviors and violence, was illustrated in these same relationships. This study provides a rich description of romantic relationships from the perspectives of urban, adolescent girls. Most salient findings included social pressures and a combination of both positive and negative attributes. Implications include the need for intervention development at the community level to address social pressures, recognition of positive adolescent relationship attributes, and facilitation of skills to identify and address low-quality relationship characteristics. PMID:25259641

  10. Urban adolescent girls' perspectives on romantic relationships: initiation, involvement, negotiation, and conflict.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Ellen M; Morales-Alemán, Mercedes M; Teitelman, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe romantic relationships from the perspective of urban, adolescent girls, to address gaps in our understanding of their relationship dimensions. Minority adolescent girls (n  =  17) participated in private semi-structured interviews aimed to elicit the understanding of the adolescents' perspectives on their own relationship experiences and dynamics. The research team conducted conventional content analysis of the interview transcripts. Four major themes emerged about romantic relationships: (1) influence of male pursuit and social norms on relationship initiation factors; (2) a romantic partner is a confidant, friend, and companion; (3) negotiating intimacy respectfully; and (4) relationship conflict through control and abuse. Adolescents described sub-themes of social norms of male pursuit and relationship pressures that dictated relationship initiation. Relationships were depicted by emotional support, caring, and companionship. Adolescents described positive negotiation skills. However, relationship conflict, including controlling behaviors and violence, was illustrated in these same relationships. This study provides a rich description of romantic relationships from the perspectives of urban, adolescent girls. Most salient findings included social pressures and a combination of both positive and negative attributes. Implications include the need for intervention development at the community level to address social pressures, recognition of positive adolescent relationship attributes, and facilitation of skills to identify and address low-quality relationship characteristics. PMID:25259641

  11. The Effect of Parental Divorce on Relationships with Parents and Romantic Partners of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; DeCuzzi, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Three-hundred-and-thirty undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential anonymous 26 item questionnaire designed to assess the effect of parental divorce/remarriage on the relationship with their respective parents and on their own romantic relationships. The data revealed several significant relationships-respondents…

  12. Exploration of Intimacy in Intercultural and Intracultural Romantic Relationships in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Michael D.; Richmond, Katherine; Stirlen, Amber; Kompel, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the area of intercultural dating relationships. An intercultural relationship is characterized by two individuals that come from different religions, cultures, and/or races and label their relationship as romantic. Such couples have been taboo for much of history, but have rapidly increased within the past thirty years (Crohn,…

  13. Elevated romantic love and jealousy if relationship status is declared on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Gábor; Szekeres, Ádám; Kiss, Zoltán G; Farkas, Péter; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Declared relationship status on Facebook can serve as a public commitment and as an extra layer of a couple's security. However, the question arises: do those who report the relationship status feel stronger romantic love and jealousy toward their partners than those who do not share such information publicly? To test this assumption, profile information and questionnaire data of romantic love and jealousy were gathered from 292, 230 females) respondents that were in a relationship. Our results suggest that announcing the relationship status is associated with elevated romantic love and jealousy. Therefore, being "Facebook official" can be interpreted as a tie-sign indicating that the couple is "out of the market," and can promote their unity as a "digital wedding ring." PMID:25767460

  14. Elevated romantic love and jealousy if relationship status is declared on Facebook

    PubMed Central

    Orosz, Gábor; Szekeres, Ádám; Kiss, Zoltán G.; Farkas, Péter; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Declared relationship status on Facebook can serve as a public commitment and as an extra layer of a couple’s security. However, the question arises: do those who report the relationship status feel stronger romantic love and jealousy toward their partners than those who do not share such information publicly? To test this assumption, profile information and questionnaire data of romantic love and jealousy were gathered from 292, 230 females) respondents that were in a relationship. Our results suggest that announcing the relationship status is associated with elevated romantic love and jealousy. Therefore, being “Facebook official” can be interpreted as a tie-sign indicating that the couple is “out of the market,” and can promote their unity as a “digital wedding ring.” PMID:25767460

  15. Adolescent online romantic relationship initiation: differences by sexual and gender identification.

    PubMed

    Korchmaros, Josephine D; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2015-04-01

    Data from the national Teen Health and Technology Study of adolescents 13-18 years old (N = 5091) were used to examine online formation of romantic relationships. Results show that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) and non-LGBTQ adolescents similarly were most likely to have met their most recent boy/girlfriend in the past 12 months at school. However, they differed on many characteristics of romantic relationship initiation, including the extent to which they initiated romantic relationships online. LGBTQ and non-LGBTQ adolescents also differed on level of offline access to potential partners, offline popularity, and numerous other factors possibly related to online relationship initiation (e.g., Internet use and demographic factors). Even after adjusting for differences in these factors, LGBTQ adolescents were more likely than non-LGBTQ adolescents to find boy/girlfriends online in the past 12 months. The results support the rich-get-richer hypothesis as well as the social compensation hypothesis.

  16. Patterns of Romantic Involvement among Emerging Adults: Psychosocial Correlates and Precursors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Scharf, Miri; Livne, Yaara; Barr, Tamuz

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined patterns of romantic involvement in 100 Israeli emerging adults (54 males) who were followed from age 22 to 29 years. Analyses of interviews at age 29 yielded four distinctive relational patterns that are associated with different levels of concurrent wellbeing: Intimately committed, Intimate, Non- intimately committed,…

  17. Instagram Unfiltered: Exploring Associations of Body Image Satisfaction, Instagram #Selfie Posting, and Negative Romantic Relationship Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Jessica L; Clayton, Russell B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and consequences associated with Instagram selfie posting. Thus, this study explored whether body image satisfaction predicts Instagram selfie posting and whether Instagram selfie posting is then associated with Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes. A total of 420 Instagram users aged 18 to 62 years (M = 29.3, SD = 8.12) completed an online survey questionnaire. Analysis of a serial multiple mediator model using bootstrapping methods indicated that body image satisfaction was sequentially associated with increased Instagram selfie posting and Instagram-related conflict, which related to increased negative romantic relationship outcomes. These findings suggest that when Instagram users promote their body image satisfaction in the form of Instagram selfie posts, risk of Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes might ensue. Findings from the current study provide a baseline understanding to potential and timely trends regarding Instagram selfie posting.

  18. Instagram Unfiltered: Exploring Associations of Body Image Satisfaction, Instagram #Selfie Posting, and Negative Romantic Relationship Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Jessica L; Clayton, Russell B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and consequences associated with Instagram selfie posting. Thus, this study explored whether body image satisfaction predicts Instagram selfie posting and whether Instagram selfie posting is then associated with Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes. A total of 420 Instagram users aged 18 to 62 years (M = 29.3, SD = 8.12) completed an online survey questionnaire. Analysis of a serial multiple mediator model using bootstrapping methods indicated that body image satisfaction was sequentially associated with increased Instagram selfie posting and Instagram-related conflict, which related to increased negative romantic relationship outcomes. These findings suggest that when Instagram users promote their body image satisfaction in the form of Instagram selfie posts, risk of Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes might ensue. Findings from the current study provide a baseline understanding to potential and timely trends regarding Instagram selfie posting. PMID:26779659

  19. Affairs of the Heart: Qualities of Adolescent Romantic Relationships and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2010-01-01

    We know more about parent and peer influences than about the ways in which specific qualities of adolescent romantic relationships may influence sexual decision-making. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we focus on communication processes and emotional feelings, as well as more basic contours of adolescent romantic…

  20. Telling It like It Is: Teen Perspectives on Romantic Relationships. Research Brief. Publication #2009-44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Lina; Ikramullah, Erum; Manlove, Jennifer; Peterson, Kristen; Scarupa, Harriet J.

    2009-01-01

    Teen romantic relationships have become a pervasive part of popular culture, from TV shows, movies, and books to blogs and social networking sites. But the attention paid to these relationships extends beyond the parameters of popular culture. Romance, teen style, has become of increasing interest to anyone concerned with healthy adolescent…

  1. Attention-Deficit/Hperactivity Disorder Symptom Levels and Romantic Relationship Quality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Michael R.; Kuryluk, Amanda D.; Whitton, Sarah W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom levels in college undergraduates are associated with poorer romantic relationship quality, and to test whether emotion regulation difficulties, perceived stress, and hostile relationship conflict mediate this association.…

  2. Parent-Child Relationship Trajectories during Adolescence: Longitudinal Associations with Romantic Outcomes in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of parent-child relationships in adolescence, especially with respect to changes in support levels and negativity, and analyzed if and how these trajectories were associated with the subsequent quality of romantic relationships in young adulthood. A sample of 145 German subjects was followed…

  3. Acceptance in Romantic Relationships: The Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Despite the recent emphasis on acceptance in romantic relationships, no validated measure of relationship acceptance presently exists. To fill this gap, the 20-item Frequency and Acceptability of Partner Behavior Inventory (FAPBI; A. Christensen & N. S. Jacobson, 1997) was created to assess separately the acceptability and frequency of both…

  4. Romantic Relationship Status Biases Memory of Faces of Attractive Opposite-Sex Others: Evidence from a Reverse-Correlation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karremans, Johan C.; Dotsch, Ron; Corneille, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that, presumably as a way to protect one's current romantic relationship, individuals involved in a heterosexual romantic relationship tend to give lower attractiveness ratings to attractive opposite-sex others as compared to uninvolved individuals (i.e., the "derogation effect"). The present study importantly…

  5. Facebook and romantic relationships: intimacy and couple satisfaction associated with online social network use.

    PubMed

    Hand, Matthew M; Thomas, Donna; Buboltz, Walter C; Deemer, Eric D; Buyanjargal, Munkhsanaa

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks, such as Facebook, have gained immense popularity and potentially affect the way people build and maintain interpersonal relationships. The present study sought to examine time spent on online social networks, as it relates to intimacy and relationship satisfaction experienced in romantic relationships. Results did not find relationships between an individual's usage of online social networks and his/her perception of relationship satisfaction and intimacy. However, the study found a negative relationship between intimacy and the perception of a romantic partner's use of online social networks. This finding may allude to an attributional bias in which individuals are more likely to perceive a partner's usage as negative compared to their own usage. Additionally, it was found that intimacy mediates the relationship between online social network usage and overall relationship satisfaction, which suggests that the level of intimacy experienced in a relationship may serve as a buffer that protects the overall level of satisfaction. PMID:23101932

  6. Compliance and intimacy: young adults' attempts to motivate health-promoting behaviors by romantic partners.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Michael Robert

    2006-01-01

    Benefits of relational intimacy on health may derive from its influence on the success of verbal attempts to motivate romantic partners' compliance with suggested protective behaviors. The intimacy levels of 209 participants' romantic relationships were assessed, as were motivations to change 4 health behaviors in response to 8 appeal strategies. Intimacy had significant impacts on the estimated effectiveness of several appeals. Also, as intimacy increased, caring replaced the provision of health information as the most efficacious strategy for motivating dietary modification. Overall, appeals seeking safer sex and those employing liking, caring, and threat strategies were rated as generally most effective.

  7. With or Without You? Contextualizing the Impact of Romantic Relationship Breakup on Crime Among Serious Adolescent Offenders.

    PubMed

    Larson, Matthew; Sweeten, Gary; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-01-01

    The decline and delay of marriage has prolonged adolescence and the transition to adulthood, and consequently fostered greater romantic relationship fluidity during a stage of the life course that is pivotal for both development and offending. Yet, despite a growing literature of the consequences of romantic relationships breakup, little is known about its connection with crime, especially among youth enmeshed in the criminal justice system. This article addresses this gap by examining the effects of relationship breakup on crime among justice-involved youth-a key policy-relevant group. We refer to data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a longitudinal study of 1354 (14% female) adjudicated youth from the juvenile and adult court systems in Phoenix and Philadelphia, to assess the nature and complexity of this association. In general, our results support prior evidence of breakup's criminogenic influence. Specifically, they suggest that relationship breakup's effect on crime is particularly acute among this at-risk sample, contingent upon post-breakup relationship transitions, and more pronounced for relationships that involve cohabitation. Our results also extend prior work by demonstrating that breakup is attenuated by changes in psychosocial characteristics and peer associations/exposure. We close with a discussion of our findings, their policy implications, and what they mean for research on relationships and crime among serious adolescent offenders moving forward.

  8. Relationship Churning, Physical Violence, and Verbal Abuse in Young Adult Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Meekin, Sarah; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2013-01-01

    Young adults' romantic relationships are often unstable, commonly including breakup--reconcile patterns. From the developmental perspective of emerging adulthood exploration, such relationship "churning" is expected; however, minor conflicts are more common in churning relationships. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study ("N" =…

  9. Stalking, and social and romantic functioning among adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Mark; Newton, Naomi; Kaur, Archana

    2007-11-01

    We examine the nature and predictors of social and romantic functioning in adolescents and adults with ASD. Parental reports were obtained for 25 ASD adolescents and adults (13-36 years), and 38 typical adolescents and adults (13-30 years). The ASD group relied less upon peers and friends for social (OR = 52.16, p < .01) and romantic learning (OR = 38.25, p < .01). Individuals with ASD were more likely to engage in inappropriate courting behaviours (chi2 df = 19 = 3168.74, p < .001) and were more likely to focus their attention upon celebrities, strangers, colleagues, and ex-partners (chi2 df = 5 =2335.40, p < .001), and to pursue their target longer than controls (t = -2.23, df = 18.79, p < .05). These results show that the diagnosis of ASD is pertinent when individuals are prosecuted under stalking legislation in various jurisdictions.

  10. Adolescent Peer Relations, Friendships, and Romantic Relationships: Do They Predict Social Anxiety and Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Harrison, Hannah Moore

    2005-01-01

    This study examined multiple levels of adolescents' interpersonal functioning, including general peer relations (peer crowd affiliations, peer victimization), and qualities of best friendships and romantic relationships as predictors of symptoms of depression and social anxiety. An ethnically diverse sample of 421 adolescents (57% girls; 14 to 19…

  11. Observing Differences between Healthy and Unhealthy Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Substance Abuse and Interpersonal Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florsheim, Paul; Moore, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on adolescent romantic relationships has been largely based on self-reports and interview data; as a result, relatively little is known about the interpersonal-behavioral dynamics of adolescent couples. In an attempt to address this gap in the previous literature on young couples, the present study used observational methods to…

  12. Adolescents' Gender Mistrust: Variations and Implications for the Quality of Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that perceptions of gender mistrust are implicated in lower marriage rates among low-income populations. Yet few quantitative studies have examined the factors predicting gender mistrust during adolescence and whether it influences the quality of subsequent nonmarital romantic relationships. Analysis of three waves of…

  13. Late Adolescent Girls' Relationships with Parents and Romantic Partner: The Distinct Role of Mothers and Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2008-01-01

    The distinct role of mothers and fathers in shaping the quality of relationships with romantic partner was explored. One hundred and twenty 17-year old girls were observed during their senior year in high school with each of their parents during a Revealed differences task [Allen, J. P., Hauser, S. T., Bell, K. L., Boykin, K. A., & Tate, D. C.…

  14. Problem Behavior and Romantic Relationships: Assortative Mating, Behavior Contagion, and Desistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhule-Louie, Dana M.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Antisocial behavior and substance misuse are forms of problem behavior demonstrating considerable continuity over time. Accordingly, problem behavior influences interpersonal contexts across the life course, which may result in the replication of coercive interactions and a problem behavior lifestyle within romantic relationships. Furthermore,…

  15. Romantic Relationship Commitment and Its Linkages with Commitment to Parents and Friends during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan; van Duin, Jet; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This five-wave longitudinal study examines linkages between adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationship commitment and the development of adolescents' perceptions of commitment to parents and friends. A total of 218 early-to-middle adolescents (39.0 percent boys) and 185 middle-to-late adolescents (30.8 percent boys) participated.…

  16. Adolescents' Relational Schemas and Their Subjective Understanding of Romantic Relationship Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin D.; Welsh, Deborah P.; Fite, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the association between adolescents' relational schemas and their subjective understanding of interactions in the context of male-female romantic relationships. We employed an innovative multimodal methodology: the video-recall system [Welsh, D. P., & Dickson, J. W. (2005). Video-recall procedures for examining subjective…

  17. Relationship problems and extradyadic romantic and sexual activity in a web-sample of Norwegian men and women.

    PubMed

    Træen, Bente; Thuen, Frode

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the prevalence of self-reported types of extradyadic romantic and sexual activity among adult Norwegians and to explore the role of infidelity in breaking up a permanent relationship. The results are based on 1,001 web interviews with persons ranging in age from 18 to 67 years. The majority of respondents reported having engaged in some kind of extradyadic romantic and/or sexual activity. Forty-five percent of the women and 39% of the men claimed they had experienced a previous breakup from a marriage or cohabiting relationship. Among those aged 50 years or older, the most important reasons for breaking up a previous relationship were infidelity (38%) and lost love (38%). More men (44%) than women (33%) reported infidelity. Respondents younger than 50 years were more motivated by boredom. Among respondents below the age of 50 years, the most frequently reported reasons for considering termination of a present relationship were quarreling (37%), poor sex life (29%), and "other" reasons (25%). Accordingly, infidelity was not identified as an essential factor for considering a breakup from the present relationship.

  18. The prosocial versus proself power holder: how power influences sacrifice in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Righetti, Francesca; Luchies, Laura B; van Gils, Suzanne; Slotter, Erica B; Witcher, Betty; Kumashiro, Madoka

    2015-06-01

    Romantic partners often have to sacrifice their interests to benefit their partner or to maintain the relationship. In the present work, we investigated whether relative power within the relationship plays an important role in determining the extent to which partners are likely to sacrifice. Drawing from both classic theories and recent research on power, we tested two competing predictions on the relationship between power and sacrifice in romantic relationships. We tested whether (a) power is negatively related to sacrifice and (b) power is positively related to sacrifice. Furthermore, we also explored whether the association between power and sacrifice is moderated by commitment and inclusion of the other in the self. To test our hypotheses, we used different methodologies, including questionnaires, diary studies, and videotaped interactions. Results across the five studies (N = 1,088) consistently supported the hypothesis that power is negatively related to tendencies to sacrifice in close relationships.

  19. Adolescents' Gender Mistrust: Variations and Implications for the Quality of Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Nomaguchi, Kei M; Giordano, Peggy C; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A

    2011-10-01

    Recent research demonstrates that perceptions of gender mistrust are implicated in lower marriage rates among low-income populations. Yet few quantitative studies have examined the factors predicting gender mistrust during adolescence and whether it influences the quality of subsequent nonmarital romantic relationships. Analysis of three waves of data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (N = 1,106) indicates that in addition to neighborhood poverty rates, parents' own gender mistrust and parent-child relationship quality are related to adolescents' gender mistrust, suggesting that parents play an important role in influencing adolescents' developing feelings of gender mistrust. Perceptions of gender mistrust are not related to whether adolescents are involved in dating relationships, but are linked to higher levels of jealousy and verbal conflict in adolescents' subsequent romantic relationships, albeit only for male adolescents.

  20. Adolescents’ Gender Mistrust: Variations and Implications for the Quality of Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that perceptions of gender mistrust are implicated in lower marriage rates among low-income populations. Yet few quantitative studies have examined the factors predicting gender mistrust during adolescence and whether it influences the quality of subsequent nonmarital romantic relationships. Analysis of three waves of data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (N = 1,106) indicates that in addition to neighborhood poverty rates, parents’ own gender mistrust and parent–child relationship quality are related to adolescents’ gender mistrust, suggesting that parents play an important role in influencing adolescents’ developing feelings of gender mistrust. Perceptions of gender mistrust are not related to whether adolescents are involved in dating relationships, but are linked to higher levels of jealousy and verbal conflict in adolescents’ subsequent romantic relationships, albeit only for male adolescents. PMID:21984845

  1. Mimicking attractive opposite-sex others: the role of romantic relationship status.

    PubMed

    Karremans, Johan C; Verwijmeren, Thijs

    2008-07-01

    Based on the recent literature indicating that nonconscious behavioral mimicry is partly goal directed, three studies examined, and supported, the hypothesis that people who are involved in a romantic relationship nonconsciously mimic an attractive opposite-sex other to a lesser extent than people not involved in a relationship. Moreover, Studies 2 and 3 revealed that romantically involved persons tended to mimic an attractive alternative less to the extent that they were more close to their current partner. Finally, Study 3 provided preliminary support for a potential underlying mechanism, revealing that the effect of relationship status on level of mimicry displayed toward an opposite-sex other is mediated by perceived attractiveness of the opposite-sex other. The present findings suggest that behavioral mimicry serves an implicit self-regulatory function in relationship maintenance. Implications for both the literature on relationship maintenance and the literature on behavioral mimicry are discussed. PMID:18453390

  2. Preliminary validation of a romantic attachment orientation measure from the California Adult Q-Sort.

    PubMed

    Chopik, William J; Edelstein, Robin S

    2015-01-01

    We present data on the preliminary validation of a measure of romantic attachment orientation from the California Adult Q-Sort (CAQ). The CAQ is found in several longitudinal data sets, and researchers can use the CAQ to answer questions about changes in romantic attachment across the lifespan. Expert raters nominated CAQ items that were characteristic of attachment anxiety and avoidance. In a sample of observers and targets, we compared ratings based on composites of these CAQ items to self- and observer-reports from a widely used scale of adult attachment. These expert-generated measures of CAQ-attachment orientation correlated highly with ECR measures of attachment orientation, suggesting that items from the CAQ can reliably measure an individual's attachment orientation. PMID:26402579

  3. Romantic relationship stages and social networking sites: uncertainty reduction strategies and perceived relational norms on facebook.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Anderegg, Courtney

    2014-11-01

    Due to their pervasiveness and unique affordances, social media play a distinct role in the development of modern romantic relationships. This study examines how a social networking site is used for information seeking about a potential or current romantic partner. In a survey, Facebook users (N=517) were presented with Facebook behaviors categorized as passive (e.g., reading a partner's profile), active (e.g., "friending" a common third party), or interactive (e.g., commenting on the partner's wall) uncertainty reduction strategies. Participants reported how normative they perceived these behaviors to be during four possible stages of relationship development (before meeting face-to-face, after meeting face-to-face, casual dating, and exclusive dating). Results indicated that as relationships progress, perceived norms for these behaviors change. Sex differences were also observed, as women perceived passive and interactive strategies as more normative than men during certain relationship stages.

  4. Romantic relationship stages and social networking sites: uncertainty reduction strategies and perceived relational norms on facebook.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Anderegg, Courtney

    2014-11-01

    Due to their pervasiveness and unique affordances, social media play a distinct role in the development of modern romantic relationships. This study examines how a social networking site is used for information seeking about a potential or current romantic partner. In a survey, Facebook users (N=517) were presented with Facebook behaviors categorized as passive (e.g., reading a partner's profile), active (e.g., "friending" a common third party), or interactive (e.g., commenting on the partner's wall) uncertainty reduction strategies. Participants reported how normative they perceived these behaviors to be during four possible stages of relationship development (before meeting face-to-face, after meeting face-to-face, casual dating, and exclusive dating). Results indicated that as relationships progress, perceived norms for these behaviors change. Sex differences were also observed, as women perceived passive and interactive strategies as more normative than men during certain relationship stages. PMID:25314128

  5. The role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution in predicting shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Appel, Israel; Shulman, Shmuel

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution patterns in shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescent couples. Data were used from 55 couples aged 15-18 years. Partners completed the Romantic Attraction scale and were observed negotiating a disagreement. Three and 6 months later, they were asked to report whether they were still together. Findings indicated that partners' romantic attraction and the tendency to minimize disagreements during interaction predicted shorter relationship maintenance. In contrast, longer relationship maintenance was predicted by partners' capability to resolve conflicts constructively in a positive atmosphere. Findings are embedded and discussed within Fisher's (2004) evolutionary theory of love.

  6. The role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution in predicting shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Appel, Israel; Shulman, Shmuel

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution patterns in shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescent couples. Data were used from 55 couples aged 15-18 years. Partners completed the Romantic Attraction scale and were observed negotiating a disagreement. Three and 6 months later, they were asked to report whether they were still together. Findings indicated that partners' romantic attraction and the tendency to minimize disagreements during interaction predicted shorter relationship maintenance. In contrast, longer relationship maintenance was predicted by partners' capability to resolve conflicts constructively in a positive atmosphere. Findings are embedded and discussed within Fisher's (2004) evolutionary theory of love. PMID:25663237

  7. Cyber aggression within adolescents' romantic relationships: linkages to parental and partner attachment.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research has examined face-to-face aggression within adolescents' romantic relationships, but little attention has been given to the role of electronic technologies in adolescents' perpetuation of these behaviors. Thus, this study examined the relationship of anxious and avoidant partner attachments to partner-directed cyber aggression, assessed 1 year later among 600 adolescents (54% female). After accounting for gender and previous behaviors, anxious partner attachment was related to later partner-directed cyber aggression. In addition, insecure parental attachment from adolescents' mothers was related positively to insecure partner attachment and had an indirect effect on their partner-directed cyber aggression through the mediation of anxious partner attachment. This study provides insight into the impact of electronic technologies on adolescents' romantic relationships.

  8. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  9. You are so beautiful... to me: seeing beyond biases and achieving accuracy in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Brittany C; Vazire, Simine

    2014-09-01

    Do romantic partners see each other realistically, or do they have overly positive perceptions of each other? Research has shown that realism and positivity co-exist in romantic partners' perceptions (Boyes & Fletcher, 2007). The current study takes a novel approach to explaining this seemingly paradoxical effect when it comes to physical attractiveness--a highly evaluative trait that is especially relevant to romantic relationships. Specifically, we argue that people are aware that others do not see their partners as positively as they do. Using both mean differences and correlational approaches, we test the hypothesis that despite their own biased and idiosyncratic perceptions, people have 2 types of partner-knowledge: insight into how their partners see themselves (i.e., identity accuracy) and insight into how others see their partners (i.e., reputation accuracy). Our results suggest that romantic partners have some awareness of each other's identity and reputation for physical attractiveness, supporting theories that couple members' perceptions are driven by motives to fulfill both esteem- and epistemic-related needs (i.e., to see their partners positively and realistically). PMID:25133729

  10. Effects of empathy and conflict resolution strategies on psychophysiological arousal and satisfaction in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M; Oliveira-Silva, Patrícia; Simon-Dack, Stephanie; Lefdahl-Davis, Erin; Adams, David; McConnell, John; Howell, Desiree; Hess, Ryan; Davis, Andrew; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2014-03-01

    The present research builds upon the extant literature as it assesses psychophysiological factors in relation to empathy, conflict resolution, and romantic relationship satisfaction. In this study, we examined physiological reactivity of individuals in the context of emotionally laden interactions with their romantic partners. Participants (N = 31) completed self-report measures and attended in-person data collection sessions with their romantic partners. Participants were guided through discussions of problems and strengths of their relationships in vivo with their partners while we measured participants' skin conductance level (SCL) and interbeat interval (IBI) of the heart. We hypothesized that participants' level of empathy towards their partners would be reflected by physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) and relationship satisfaction, such that higher levels of empathy would be linked to changes in physiological arousal and higher relationship satisfaction. Further, we hypothesized that differences would be found in physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) based on the type of conflict resolution strategy used by participants. Finally, we hypothesized that differences would be found in empathy towards partner and relationship satisfaction based on the type of conflict resolution strategies used by participants. Results partially supported hypotheses and were discussed in light of existing knowledge based on empirical and theoretical sources. PMID:24213481

  11. Adolescent Online Romantic Relationship Initiation: Differences by Sexual and Gender Identification

    PubMed Central

    Korchmaros, Josephine D.; Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the national Teen Health and Technology Study of adolescents 13-18 years old (N = 5,091) were used to examine online formation of romantic relationships. Results show that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) and non-LGBTQ adolescents similarly were most likely to have met their most recent boy/girlfriend in the past 12 months at school. However, they differed on many characteristics of romantic relationship initiation, including the extent to which they initiated romantic relationships online. LGBTQ and non-LGBTQ adolescents also differed on level of offline access to potential partners, offline popularity, and numerous other factors possibly related to online relationship initiation (e.g., Internet use and demographic factors). Even after adjusting for differences in these factors, LGBTQ adolescents were more likely than non-LGBTQ adolescents to find boy/girlfriends online in the past 12 months. The results support the rich-get-richer hypothesis as well as the social compensation hypothesis. PMID:25625753

  12. The blues of adolescent romance: observed affective interactions in adolescent romantic relationships associated with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; Dishion, Thomas J; Overbeek, Geertjan; Burk, William J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-05-01

    We examined the associations between observed expressions of positive and negative emotions during conflict discussions and depressive symptoms during a 2-year period in a sample of 160 adolescents in 80 romantic relationships (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16). Conflict discussions were coded using the 10-code Specific Affect Coding System. Depressive symptoms were assessed at the time of the observed conflict discussions (Time 1) and 2 years later (Time 2). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Girls' expression of both positive and negative emotions at T1 was related to their own depressive symptoms at T2 (actor effect). Boys' positive emotions and negative emotions (actor effect) and girls' negative emotions (partner effect) were related to boys' depressive symptoms at T2. Contrary to expectation, relationship break-up and relationship satisfaction were unrelated to changes in depressive symptoms or expression of negative or positive emotion during conflict discussion. These findings underscore the unique quality of adolescent romantic relationships and suggest new directions in the study of the link between mental health and romantic involvement in adolescence.

  13. Observing differences between healthy and unhealthy adolescent romantic relationships: substance abuse and interpersonal process.

    PubMed

    Florsheim, Paul; Moore, David R

    2008-12-01

    Previous research on adolescent romantic relationships has been largely based on self-reports and interview data; as a result, relatively little is known about the interpersonal-behavioral dynamics of adolescent couples. In an attempt to address this gap in the previous literature on young couples, the present study used observational methods to differentiate between healthy and dysfunctional adolescent romantic relationships. Two groups of adolescent couples were recruited to participate in this study: (1) a high-risk group (n=18 couples) in which one or both partners had a substance use disorder (SUD) and (2) a low-risk group (n=12 couples) in which neither partner had a history of psychopathology. Self-report and observational data on couples' relationships were collected from both groups. Couples' observed conflict interactions were coded using the structural analysis of social behavior [Florsheim, P., & Benjamin, L. S. (2001). The structural analysis of social behavior observational coding scheme. In P. K. Kerig, & M. Lindahl (Eds.), Family observational coding schemes: Resources for systemic research (pp. 127-150). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates]. Findings indicated that, compared to couples with no psychopathology, couples in the SUD group engaged in significantly more hostile and less warm behavior, as well as more complex communication involving a mix of hostility and warmth. Self-reported relational quality did not differentiate the two groups, highlighting the unique contributions of observational data for understanding the clinically relevant dynamics of adolescent romantic relationships. PMID:18031803

  14. The blues of adolescent romance: observed affective interactions in adolescent romantic relationships associated with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; Dishion, Thomas J; Overbeek, Geertjan; Burk, William J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-05-01

    We examined the associations between observed expressions of positive and negative emotions during conflict discussions and depressive symptoms during a 2-year period in a sample of 160 adolescents in 80 romantic relationships (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16). Conflict discussions were coded using the 10-code Specific Affect Coding System. Depressive symptoms were assessed at the time of the observed conflict discussions (Time 1) and 2 years later (Time 2). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Girls' expression of both positive and negative emotions at T1 was related to their own depressive symptoms at T2 (actor effect). Boys' positive emotions and negative emotions (actor effect) and girls' negative emotions (partner effect) were related to boys' depressive symptoms at T2. Contrary to expectation, relationship break-up and relationship satisfaction were unrelated to changes in depressive symptoms or expression of negative or positive emotion during conflict discussion. These findings underscore the unique quality of adolescent romantic relationships and suggest new directions in the study of the link between mental health and romantic involvement in adolescence. PMID:24198197

  15. Adolescent online romantic relationship initiation: differences by sexual and gender identification.

    PubMed

    Korchmaros, Josephine D; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2015-04-01

    Data from the national Teen Health and Technology Study of adolescents 13-18 years old (N = 5091) were used to examine online formation of romantic relationships. Results show that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) and non-LGBTQ adolescents similarly were most likely to have met their most recent boy/girlfriend in the past 12 months at school. However, they differed on many characteristics of romantic relationship initiation, including the extent to which they initiated romantic relationships online. LGBTQ and non-LGBTQ adolescents also differed on level of offline access to potential partners, offline popularity, and numerous other factors possibly related to online relationship initiation (e.g., Internet use and demographic factors). Even after adjusting for differences in these factors, LGBTQ adolescents were more likely than non-LGBTQ adolescents to find boy/girlfriends online in the past 12 months. The results support the rich-get-richer hypothesis as well as the social compensation hypothesis. PMID:25625753

  16. Sustainable Decisions Signal Sustainable Relationships: How Purchasing Decisions Affect Perceptions and Romantic Attraction.

    PubMed

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-01-01

    In the pursuit of love, individuals strategically use luxury products to signal status and other attractive attributes. Might eco-friendly products also signal mate-relevant information? The current research examined inferences from eco-friendly purchases and how they predict perceived suitability for short- and long-term romantic relationships. Participants read descriptions of a stranger's eco-friendly or luxury purchase decisions, reported their perceptions of the purchaser, and indicated their potential romantic interest in the purchaser. The influence of the relative price of the chosen product was also investigated. Compared to luxury purchasers, eco-friendly purchasers were ascribed greater warmth, competence, and good partner traits, but less physical appeal, and they were preferred for long-term but not short-term relationships. The social costs and benefits of "going green" are discussed in light of their implications for environmental sustainability efforts. PMID:25695751

  17. Sustainable Decisions Signal Sustainable Relationships: How Purchasing Decisions Affect Perceptions and Romantic Attraction.

    PubMed

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-01-01

    In the pursuit of love, individuals strategically use luxury products to signal status and other attractive attributes. Might eco-friendly products also signal mate-relevant information? The current research examined inferences from eco-friendly purchases and how they predict perceived suitability for short- and long-term romantic relationships. Participants read descriptions of a stranger's eco-friendly or luxury purchase decisions, reported their perceptions of the purchaser, and indicated their potential romantic interest in the purchaser. The influence of the relative price of the chosen product was also investigated. Compared to luxury purchasers, eco-friendly purchasers were ascribed greater warmth, competence, and good partner traits, but less physical appeal, and they were preferred for long-term but not short-term relationships. The social costs and benefits of "going green" are discussed in light of their implications for environmental sustainability efforts.

  18. The association between engaging in romantic relationships and Mexican adolescent substance use offers: exploring gender differences.

    PubMed

    Booth, Jaime M; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Nuňo-Gutiérrez, Bertha L; Perez, Maria Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Gender differences in alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs use in Mexico are rapidly disappearing. This study explores the possible relationship between engaging in romantic relationships on substance use offers and the moderating effects of gender among a group of adolescents (N = 432) living in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. The data used to test these relationships were collected through self-administered surveys in 2010. OLS regressions were estimated, predicting substance offers. The results demonstrate an association between having been in a relationship and receiving substance use offers in the previous 12 months. Having had a boyfriend/girlfriend had a significant influence on the offers received by adolescent females, but not for males.

  19. Nonmarital romantic relationships and mental health in early adulthood: does the association differ for women and men?

    PubMed

    Simon, Robin W; Barrett, Anne E

    2010-06-01

    Although social scientists have long assumed that intimate social relationships are more closely associated with women's than men's mental health, recent research indicates that there are no gender differences in the advantages of marriage and disadvantages of unmarried statuses when males' and females' distinct expressions of emotional distress are considered. These findings have led to the conclusion that there has been a convergence in the importance of intimate relationships for men's and women's mental health. However, these patterns may not be evident for nonmarital romantic relationships among current cohorts of young adults. In this article, we examine the associations among several dimensions of these relationships and symptoms of both depression and substance abuse/dependence in a diverse sample of young adults in Miami, Florida. We find gender differences that vary across dimensions of relationships: While current involvements and recent breakups are more closely associated with women's than men's mental health, support and strain in an ongoing relationship are more closely associated with men's than women's emotional well-being. Our findings highlight the need to consider the period in the life course as well as experiences of specific cohorts of men and women when theorizing about gender differences in the importance of intimate relationships for mental health.

  20. Positive Body Image and Sexual Functioning in Dutch Female University Students: The Role of Adult Romantic Attachment.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women.

  1. Incidental regulation of attraction: the neural basis of the derogation of attractive alternatives in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Meghan L; Berkman, Elliot T; Karremans, Johan C; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2011-04-01

    Although a great deal of research addresses the neural basis of deliberate and intentional emotion-regulation strategies, less attention has been paid to the neural mechanisms involved in implicit forms of emotion regulation. Behavioural research suggests that romantically involved participants implicitly derogate the attractiveness of alternative partners, and the present study sought to examine the neural basis of this effect. Romantically committed participants in the present study were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while indicating whether they would consider each of a series of attractive (or unattractive) opposite-sex others as a hypothetical dating partner both while under cognitive load and no cognitive load. Successful derogation of attractive others during the no cognitive load compared to the cognitive load trials corresponded with increased activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and posterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (pDMPFC), and decreased activation in the ventral striatum, a pattern similar to those reported in deliberate emotion-regulation studies. Activation in the VLPFC and pDMPFC was not significant in the cognitive load condition, indicating that while the derogation effect may be implicit, it nonetheless requires cognitive resources. Additionally, activation in the right VLPFC correlated with participants' level of relationship investment. These findings suggest that the RVLPFC may play a particularly important role in implicitly regulating the emotions that threaten the stability of a romantic relationship. PMID:21432689

  2. Incidental regulation of attraction: The neural basis of the derogation of attractive alternatives in romantic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Meghan L.; Berkman, Elliot T.; Karremans, Johan C.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Although a great deal of research addresses the neural basis of deliberate and intentional emotion-regulation strategies, less attention has been paid to the neural mechanisms involved in implicit forms of emotion regulation. Behavioural research suggests that romantically involved participants implicitly derogate the attractiveness of alternative partners, and the present study sought to examine the neural basis of this effect. Romantically committed participants in the present study were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while indicating whether they would consider each of a series of attractive (or unattractive) opposite-sex others as a hypothetical dating partner both while under cognitive load and no cognitive load. Successful derogation of attractive others during the no cognitive load compared to the cognitive load trials corresponded with increased activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and posterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (pDMPFC), and decreased activation in the ventral striatum, a pattern similar to those reported in deliberate emotion-regulation studies. Activation in the VLPFC and pDMPFC was not significant in the cognitive load condition, indicating that while the derogation effect may be implicit, it nonetheless requires cognitive resources. Additionally, activation in the right VLPFC correlated with participants’ level of relationship investment. These findings suggest that the RVLPFC may play a particularly important role in implicitly regulating the emotions that threaten the stability of a romantic relationship. PMID:21432689

  3. Affairs of the Heart: Qualities of Adolescent Romantic Relationships and Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2010-01-01

    We know more about parent and peer influences than about the ways in which specific qualities of adolescent romantic relationships may influence sexual decision-making. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we focus on communication processes and emotional feelings, as well as more basic contours of adolescent romantic relationships, including power and influence dynamics. Controlling for traditional predictors and duration of the relationship, results suggest that subjectively experienced relationship qualities matter for understanding teens’ sexual behavior choices. Further, findings indicate a similar effect of most relationship qualities on male and female reports of sexual behavior. However, influence and power dynamics within the relationship were not related to the likelihood that boys reported sexual intercourse in a focal relationship. In contrast, girls who perceived a more favorable power balance were less likely to report sexual intercourse than their female counterparts who perceived a less favorable power balance. Recognizing that the results capture reciprocal influence processes, longitudinal and qualitative data are used to further explore the complex nature of these associations. PMID:21170165

  4. Beyond global sociosexual orientations: a more differentiated look at sociosexuality and its effects on courtship and romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Penke, Lars; Asendorpf, Jens B

    2008-11-01

    Sociosexuality is usually assessed as the overall orientation toward uncommitted sex, although this global approach may mask unique contributions of different components. In a large online study (N = 2,708) and a detailed behavioral assessment of 283 young adults (both singles and couples) with a 1-year follow-up, the authors established 3 theoretically meaningful components of sociosexuality: past behavioral experiences, the attitude toward uncommitted sex, and sociosexual desire (all measured by a revised version of the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory). Discriminant validity was shown with regard to (a) their factorial structure, (b) sex differences, (c) many established correlates of sociosexuality, and (d) the prediction of observed flirting behavior when meeting an attractive opposite-sex stranger, even down to the level of objectively coded behaviors, as well as (e) the self-reported number of sexual partners and (f) changes in romantic relationship status over the following year. Within couples, the 3 components also showed distinct degrees of assortative mating and distinct effects on the romantic partner. Implications for the evolutionary psychology of mating tactics are discussed.

  5. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Stanley O; Henderson, Michael C; Kim, Mary; Gilstrap, Samuel; Yi, Jennifer; Rusbult, Caryl E; Hardin, Deletha P; Gaertner, Lowell

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect, responses to partners' anger or criticism) in heterosexual and gay relationships; and we examined the impact of internalized homophobia (i.e., attitudes toward self, other, and disclosure) on accommodation specifically in gay relationships. A total of 262 heterosexuals (102 men and 162 women) and 857 gays (474 men and 383 women) participated in the present study. Consistent with hypotheses, among heterosexuals and gays, socially oriented values were significantly and positively related to accommodation (whereas the personally oriented value of individualism was unrelated to accommodation); and among gays in particular, internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively related to accommodation. Implications for the study of heterosexual and gay relationships are discussed. PMID:16368666

  6. I say a little prayer for you: praying for partner increases commitment in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Fincham, Frank D; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-10-01

    Partner-focused petitionary prayer (PFPP) has received little attention in the prayer literature. In two studies, we examine PFPP to see whether it is uniquely important in conveying relationship benefits, whether its benefits are transmitted through an effect on relationship satisfaction, and whether one's own or the partner's PFPP is central to beneficial effects. In Study 1, we examined PFPP in a sample of 316 undergraduate students who were in an "exclusive" romantic relationship, finding that PFPP was related to later level of commitment and that this relationship was partially mediated through enhanced relationship satisfaction. Study 2 examined PFPP in a sample of 205, married African American couples, finding that both partners' PFPP was consequential for commitment, with actor effects partially mediated through relationship quality, and partner effects fully mediated. Together the studies suggest the value of continued investigation of PFPP as a potentially important vehicle for enhancing relationship outcomes.

  7. Attachment and Commitment in College Students' Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Vocaturo, Loran C.

    1999-01-01

    Study examines attachment organization and dimensions of commitment in 101 females and 30 males with the use of an attachment questionnaire and the Commitment Inventory. Persons in a relationship who endorsed a secure or preoccupied attachment prototype reported stronger personal dedication than those endorsing a fearful-avoidant or…

  8. Rural Adolescent Girls Negotiating Healthy and Unhealthy Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2012-01-01

    The focused discussions of adolescent girls were analyzed to explore the processes of managing healthy and unhealthy aspects of dating relationships. Grounded theory methods were used to generate an outline of these processes. The core category elicited from discussions with participants was "wrestling with gender expectations". This category…

  9. Adolescent friend similarity on alcohol abuse as a function of participation in romantic relationships: Sometimes a new love comes between old friends.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Adolescent friend similarity on alcohol abuse as a function of participation in romantic relationships: Sometimes a new love comes between old friends.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595356

  11. Romantic Relationship Experiences from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Role of Older Siblings in Mexican-Origin Families.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Killoren, Sarah E; Whiteman, Shawn D; Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2016-05-01

    Youth's experiences with romantic relationships during adolescence and young adulthood have far reaching implications for future relationships, health, and well-being; yet, although scholars have examined potential peer and parent influences, we know little about the role of siblings in youth's romantic relationships. Accordingly, this study examined the prospective longitudinal links between Mexican-origin older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences and variation by sibling structural and relationship characteristics (i.e., sibling age and gender similarity, younger siblings' modeling) and cultural values (i.e., younger siblings' familism values). Data from 246 Mexican-origin families with older (M = 20.65 years; SD = 1.57; 50 % female) and younger (M = 17.72 years; SD = .57; 51 % female) siblings were used to examine the likelihood of younger siblings' involvement in dating relationships, sexual relations, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage with probit path analyses. Findings revealed older siblings' reports of involvement in a dating relationship, cohabitation, and engagement/marriage predicted younger siblings' relationship experiences over a 2-year period. These links were moderated by sibling age spacing, younger siblings' reports of modeling and familism values. Our findings suggest the significance of social learning dynamics as well as relational and cultural contexts in understanding the links between older and younger siblings' romantic relationship experiences among Mexican-origin youth.

  12. Longitudinal Pathways between Maternal Mental Health in Infancy and Offspring Romantic Relationships in Adulthood: A 30-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal pathways between maternal mental health in infancy and offspring romantic relationship outcomes in adulthood were examined using a 30-year prospective longitudinal study of 196 mothers and their children. Structural equation modeling revealed that maternal mental health at 30 months was related to offspring relationship status and…

  13. Relationship Involvement Among Young Adults: Are Asian American Men an Exceptional Case?

    PubMed Central

    Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Joyner, Kara; Kao, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Asian American men and women have been largely neglected in previous studies of romantic relationship formation and status. Using data from the first and fourth waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we examine romantic and sexual involvement among young adults, most of who were between the ages of 25 to 32 (N=11,555). Drawing from explanations that focus on structural and cultural elements as well as racial hierarchies, we examine the factors that promote and impede involvement in romantic/sexual relationships. We use logistic regression to model current involvement of men and women separately and find, with the exception of Filipino men, Asian men are significantly less likely than white men to be currently involved with a romantic partner, even after controlling for a wide array of characteristics. Our results suggest that the racial hierarchy framework best explains lower likelihood of involvement among Asian American men. PMID:26549919

  14. Geosocial Networking App Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Serious Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Coventry, Ryan; Puckett, Jae A; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Geosocial networking (GSN) mobile phone applications ("apps") are used frequently among men who have sex with men (MSM) to socialize and meet sexual partners. Though GSN apps are used by some MSM in partnered relationships, little is known about how the use of GSN apps among MSM in serious romantic relationships can influence couples' sexual and relationship health. MSM in serious relationships (N = 323; M age = 40 years) were recruited through a popular GSN app for MSM. Participants completed open-ended items regarding the costs and benefits of app use to their relationships, discussions of app use with their partners, and preferences for relationship education related to app use. Reported benefits of app use included improving sex and communication with one's primary partner and fulfilling unmet sexual needs. Although approximately half had not discussed app use with their partners, citing app use as a "non-issue," many cited various drawbacks to app use, including jealousy and being a distraction from the relationship. Few described sexual health concerns as a drawback to meeting partners through apps. Regarding relationship education preferences, most wanted help with general communication skills and how to express one's sexual needs to a partner. Although GSN app use can enhance relationships and sex among partnered MSM, unclear communication about app use may contribute to negative relationship outcomes and could prevent partners from having sexual needs met. Relationship and sexual health education programs for male couples should consider addressing social media and technology use in their curricula.

  15. The Influence of Romantic Attachment and Intimate Partner Violence on Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Cloutier, Paula; Dandurand, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Several theoretical models for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) have been proposed. Despite an abundance of theoretical speculation, few empirical studies have examined the impact of intimate relationship functioning on NSSI. The present study examines the influence of romantic attachment and received intimate partner violence (physical,…

  16. Seeking security or growth: a regulatory focus perspective on motivations in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Winterheld, Heike A; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2011-11-01

    Using a multimethod approach, we examined how regulatory focus shapes people's perceptual, behavioral, and emotional responses in different situations in romantic relationships. We first examined how chronic regulatory focus affects romantic partners' support perceptions and problem-solving behaviors while they were engaged in a conflict resolution discussion (Study 1). Next, we experimentally manipulated regulatory focus and tested its effects on partner perceptions when individuals recalled a prior conflict resolution discussion (Study 2). We then examined how chronic regulatory focus influences individuals' emotional responses to hypothetical relationship events (Study 3) and identified specific partner behaviors to which people should respond with regulatory goal-congruent emotions (Study 4). Strongly prevention-focused people perceived their partners as more distancing and less supportive during conflict (Studies 1 and 2), approached conflict resolution by discussing the details related to the conflict (Study 1), and experienced a negative relationship outcome with more agitation (Study 3). Strongly promotion-focused people perceived their partners as more supportive and less distancing (Studies 1 and 2), displayed more creative conflict resolution behavior (Study 1), and experienced a negative relationship outcome with more sadness and a favorable outcome with more positive emotions (Study 3). In Study 4, recalling irresponsible and responsible partner behaviors was associated with experiencing more prevention-focused emotions, whereas recalling affectionate and neglectful partner behaviors was associated with more promotion-focused emotions. The findings show that regulatory focus and approach-avoidance motivations influence certain interpersonal processes in similar ways, but regulatory focus theory also generates novel predictions on which approach-avoidance models are silent.

  17. More options lead to more searching and worse choices in finding partners for romantic relationships online: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pai-Lu; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2009-06-01

    It is not surprising that the Internet has become a means by which people expand their social networks and form close relationships. Almost every online-dating Web site provides members with search tools. However, do users truly benefit from more complete searches of a large pool of possibilities? The present study, based on the cognitive perspective, examined whether more search options triggered excessive searching, leading to worse choices and poorer selectivity. We argue that more search options lead to less selective processing by reducing users' cognitive resources, distracting them with irrelevant information, and reducing their ability to screen out inferior options. A total of 128 Taiwanese late adolescents and adults with experience in online romantic relationships participated in an experimental study. After entering the characteristics they found desirable in a partner in such a relationship, participants were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of available profiles. The dependent measures consisted of the number of profiles searched, the average preference difference for all profiles viewed, the preference difference for the chosen profile, and the degree of selectivity. These measures were used to determine whether more attention was devoted to better alternatives and less attention to worse alternatives. The data supported the predictions. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.

  18. The Role of Character Strengths in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: An Initial Study on Partner Selection and Mates' Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Marco; Ruch, Willibald

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of 24 character strengths in 87 adolescent romantic relationships focusing on their role in partner selection and their role in mates' life satisfaction. Measures included the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth, the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, and an Ideal Partner Profiler for the…

  19. Brief Report: Intimacy, Passion, and Commitment in Romantic Relationships--Validation of a "Triangular Love Scale" for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Ha, Thao; Scholte, Ron; de Kemp, Raymond; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of an adolescent version of the "triangular love scale" (TLS), which assesses three components of romantic relationships: intimacy, passion, and commitment. Using data from 435 Dutch adolescents aged 12-18 years, we found evidence for convergent validity, showing that dimensions of intimacy, passion,…

  20. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  1. "He Cheated on Me, I Cheated on Him Back'': Mexican American and White Adolescents' Perceptions of Cheating in Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Hickle, Kristine E.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative approach was used to explore the meaning and perceptions of cheating in adolescent romantic relationships. Mexican American and White adolescents (N = 75; 53.3% girls; 56.1% Mexican American), separated by gender and ethnicity into 12 focus groups (three groups per type), discussed personal and peer experiences of cheating in dating…

  2. True love waits? A sibling-comparison study of age at first sexual intercourse and romantic relationships in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether the timing of first sexual intercourse in adolescence predicts romantic outcomes in adulthood, including union formation, number of romantic partners, and relationship dissatisfaction. Participants were 1,659 same-sex sibling pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, who were followed from adolescence (mean age = 16 years) to young adulthood (mean age = 29 years). The timing of participants' first sexual intercourse was classified as early (at age 14 or earlier), on time (between the ages of 15 and 19), or late (at age 19 or older). Compared with early and on-time age at first sex, late age at first sex was associated with decreased odds of marriage or nonmarital cohabitation and fewer romantic partners in adulthood. Among individuals who had married or cohabited with a partner, late timing of first sex was associated with significantly reduced levels of relationship dissatisfaction, even after controlling for genetic and environmental differences between families (using a sibling-comparison model), demographic outcomes in adulthood, and involvement in dating during adolescence. These results underscore the contribution of a life-span approach to our understanding of romantic relationships.

  3. Geosocial Networking App Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Serious Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Coventry, Ryan; Puckett, Jae A; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Geosocial networking (GSN) mobile phone applications ("apps") are used frequently among men who have sex with men (MSM) to socialize and meet sexual partners. Though GSN apps are used by some MSM in partnered relationships, little is known about how the use of GSN apps among MSM in serious romantic relationships can influence couples' sexual and relationship health. MSM in serious relationships (N = 323; M age = 40 years) were recruited through a popular GSN app for MSM. Participants completed open-ended items regarding the costs and benefits of app use to their relationships, discussions of app use with their partners, and preferences for relationship education related to app use. Reported benefits of app use included improving sex and communication with one's primary partner and fulfilling unmet sexual needs. Although approximately half had not discussed app use with their partners, citing app use as a "non-issue," many cited various drawbacks to app use, including jealousy and being a distraction from the relationship. Few described sexual health concerns as a drawback to meeting partners through apps. Regarding relationship education preferences, most wanted help with general communication skills and how to express one's sexual needs to a partner. Although GSN app use can enhance relationships and sex among partnered MSM, unclear communication about app use may contribute to negative relationship outcomes and could prevent partners from having sexual needs met. Relationship and sexual health education programs for male couples should consider addressing social media and technology use in their curricula. PMID:26969319

  4. Time Out from Sex or Romance: Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Decisions to Purposefully Avoid Sexual Activity or Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-05-01

    Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The

  5. Time Out from Sex or Romance: Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Decisions to Purposefully Avoid Sexual Activity or Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-05-01

    Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The

  6. Students' use of mass media for ideas about romantic relationships was influenced by perceived realism of presentations and parental happiness.

    PubMed

    Westman, Alida S; Lynch, Teresa J; Lewandowski, Lisa; Hunt-Carter, Erin

    2003-06-01

    52 undergraduates between 18 and 24 years of age (34 women) answered a questionnaire about their use of mass media for ideas about romantic relationships and indicated how happy their parents' relationship seemed during the students' formative years. If sitcoms, dramas, magazine articles, or books were seen as realistic or presenting an ideal for which to strive in real life, students used ideas about romantic relationships presented more frequently, and they also more frequently explored sitcoms and dramas for ideas, but not magazines or books. If the parental relationship was seen as happy, students were more likely to use TV and magazines but not books for ideas; they evaluated sitcoms as more and books as less realistic.

  7. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships. PMID:15896922

  8. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.

  9. The Importance of Relationships with Parents and Best Friends for Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Quality: Differences between Indigenous and Ethnic Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; de Greef, Marieke; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how the quality of relationships with parents and friends were related to intimacy, commitment, and passion in adolescents' romantic relationships for indigenous Dutch and ethnic Dutch adolescents. Self-report survey data were used from 444 (88.9%) indigenous Dutch and 55 (11.1%) ethnic Dutch adolescents between 12 and 18 years…

  10. Presuming the influence of the media: teenagers′ constructions of gender identity through sexual/romantic relationships and alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers’ alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's ‘presumed media influence’ theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers’ constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers’ drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships. PMID:24443822

  11. Presuming the influence of the media: teenagers' constructions of gender identity through sexual/romantic relationships and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Jane E K; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate

    2014-06-01

    Using empirical data from group discussions and in-depth interviews with 13 to 15-year olds in Scotland, this study explores how teenagers' alcohol drinking and sexual/romantic relationships were shaped by their quest for appropriate gendered identities. In this, they acknowledged the influence of the media, but primarily in relation to others, not to themselves, thereby supporting Milkie's 'presumed media influence' theory. Media portrayals of romantic/sexual relationships appeared to influence teenagers' constructions of gender-appropriate sexual behaviour more than did media portrayals of drinking behaviour, perhaps because the teenagers had more firsthand experience of observing drinking than of observing sexual relationships. Presumed media influence may be less influential if one has experience of the behaviour portrayed. Drinking and sexual behaviour were highly interrelated: sexual negotiation and activities were reportedly often accompanied by drinking. For teenagers, being drunk or, importantly, pretending to be drunk, may be a useful way to try out what they perceived to be gender-appropriate identities. In sum, teenagers' drinking and sexual/romantic relationships are primary ways in which they do gender and the media's influence on their perceptions of appropriate gendered behaviour is mediated through peer relationships.

  12. Early adolescent African American girls’ perceptions of virginity and romantic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Gwendolyn D.; White, Reashanda; Hataway, Connie; Moneyham, Linda; Gaioso, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Background Nationally, African American (AA) girls aged 15 to 19 have the highest incidence of Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis compared to White and Hispanic girls of the same age group. To address this STI epidemic, it is imperative to target AA girls during early adolescence and before sexual debut. According to the 2011 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, approximately 7% of AA girls initiate sex prior to age 13. The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study was to explore AA girls’, aged 12 to 14, perceptions about virginity and relationships and how those perceptions influence their decisions to engage in or abstain from sexual activity. Methods A convenience sample of 64 participants was recruited through community-based organizations in Alabama. Data were collected using individual interviews and focus groups. Individual interview focused on (1) values and beliefs about being a virgin, (2) choosing boyfriends, and (3) perceptions about good and bad relationships. Focus groups were held to validate findings from interviews. Verbatim transcripts of audiotapes, observation notes, and demographic data were primary data for analysis. Content analysis was used in analysis and interpretation of qualitative data to formulate meaningful categories, themes, and patterns. The qualitative research software, QSR N-Vivo®, was used to code and sort data into categories. The SPSS statistical software was used to conduct descriptive analyses to describe the study sample. Results Mean age of study sample was 12.9 years. Out of 64participants, 5 reported having engaged in sexual activity. Mean age of sexual debut was 13 years. Common themes that emerged included: respecting myself, ideal boyfriend, characteristics of a romantic relationship. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest STI prevention programs should build upon the values related to virginity to promote delaying sexual activity. Furthermore, findings suggest the need for education about healthy

  13. YOUNG ADULT DATING RELATIONSHIPS AND THE MANAGEMENT OF SEXUAL RISK

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Flanigan, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize ‘risk management’ as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV. PMID:23805015

  14. Caught in a bad romance: perfectionism, conflict, and depression in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, Sean P; Sherry, Simon B; Antony, Martin M; Stewart, Sherry H; Sherry, Dayna L; Hartling, Nikola

    2012-04-01

    According to the social disconnection model, perfectionistic concerns (i.e., harsh self-scrutiny, extreme concern over mistakes and others' evaluations, and excessive reactions to perceived failures) confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms indirectly through interpersonal problems. This study tested the social disconnection model in 226 heterosexual romantic dyads using a mixed longitudinal and experience sampling design. Perfectionistic concerns were measured using three partner-specific self-report questionnaires. Conflict was measured as a dyadic variable, incorporating reports from both partners. Depressive symptoms were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Perfectionistic concerns and depressive symptoms were measured at Day 1 and Day 28. Aggregated dyadic conflict was measured with daily online questionnaires from Days 2 to 15. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. There were four primary findings: (a) Dyadic conflict mediated the link between perfectionistic concerns and depressive symptoms, even when controlling for baseline depressive symptoms; (b) depressive symptoms were both an antecedent and a consequence of dyadic conflict; (c) perfectionistic concerns incrementally predicted dyadic conflict and depressive symptoms beyond neuroticism (i.e., a tendency to experience negative emotions) and other-oriented perfectionism (i.e., rigidly demanding perfection from one's partner); and (d) the relationships among variables did not differ based on gender. As the most rigorous test of the social disconnection model to date, this study provides strong support for this emerging model. Results also clarify the characterological and the interpersonal context within which depressive symptoms are likely to occur.

  15. Caught in a bad romance: perfectionism, conflict, and depression in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, Sean P; Sherry, Simon B; Antony, Martin M; Stewart, Sherry H; Sherry, Dayna L; Hartling, Nikola

    2012-04-01

    According to the social disconnection model, perfectionistic concerns (i.e., harsh self-scrutiny, extreme concern over mistakes and others' evaluations, and excessive reactions to perceived failures) confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms indirectly through interpersonal problems. This study tested the social disconnection model in 226 heterosexual romantic dyads using a mixed longitudinal and experience sampling design. Perfectionistic concerns were measured using three partner-specific self-report questionnaires. Conflict was measured as a dyadic variable, incorporating reports from both partners. Depressive symptoms were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Perfectionistic concerns and depressive symptoms were measured at Day 1 and Day 28. Aggregated dyadic conflict was measured with daily online questionnaires from Days 2 to 15. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. There were four primary findings: (a) Dyadic conflict mediated the link between perfectionistic concerns and depressive symptoms, even when controlling for baseline depressive symptoms; (b) depressive symptoms were both an antecedent and a consequence of dyadic conflict; (c) perfectionistic concerns incrementally predicted dyadic conflict and depressive symptoms beyond neuroticism (i.e., a tendency to experience negative emotions) and other-oriented perfectionism (i.e., rigidly demanding perfection from one's partner); and (d) the relationships among variables did not differ based on gender. As the most rigorous test of the social disconnection model to date, this study provides strong support for this emerging model. Results also clarify the characterological and the interpersonal context within which depressive symptoms are likely to occur. PMID:22353007

  16. How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways: Parenting during Adolescence, Attachment Styles, and Romantic Narratives in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosko, Amanda; Tieu, Thanh-Thanh; Lawford, Heather; Pratt, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, a quantitative and qualitative examination of the associations among parent-child relations, adult attachment styles, and relationship quality and theme in romantic narratives was conducted. Parenting and adult attachment style were assessed through questionnaires, whereas overall quality of romantic relationships…

  17. Animal Magnetism: Metaphoric Cues Alter Perceptions of Romantic Partners and Relationships.

    PubMed

    Christy, Andrew G; Hirsch, Kelly A; Schlegel, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    The psychological state of love is difficult to define, and we often rely on metaphors to communicate about this state and its constituent experiences. Commonly, these metaphors liken love to a physical force-it sweeps us off our feet, causes sparks to fly, and ignites flames of passion. Even the use of "attraction" to refer to romantic interest, commonplace in both popular and scholarly discourse, implies a force propelling two objects together. The present research examined the effects of exposing participants to a physical force (magnetism) on subsequent judgments of romantic outcomes. Across two studies, participants exposed to magnets reported greater levels of satisfaction, attraction, intimacy, and commitment.

  18. Animal Magnetism: Metaphoric Cues Alter Perceptions of Romantic Partners and Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Kelly A.; Schlegel, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    The psychological state of love is difficult to define, and we often rely on metaphors to communicate about this state and its constituent experiences. Commonly, these metaphors liken love to a physical force—it sweeps us off our feet, causes sparks to fly, and ignites flames of passion. Even the use of “attraction” to refer to romantic interest, commonplace in both popular and scholarly discourse, implies a force propelling two objects together. The present research examined the effects of exposing participants to a physical force (magnetism) on subsequent judgments of romantic outcomes. Across two studies, participants exposed to magnets reported greater levels of satisfaction, attraction, intimacy, and commitment. PMID:27227965

  19. Cross Cultural Relationships of Depression, Attachment Styles, and Quality of Romantic Relationships: Cultural Difference between Taiwanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burleson, Yi-An Lo

    2013-01-01

    Relationship quality has been determined to be a positive factor in the treatment of depression (Brown, 2000; Fagan, 2009). Although the importance of marriage has been broadly studied, little research has investigated correlations among relationship quality, depressive moods, and attachment styles. Although the prevalence of depressive moods has…

  20. Subclinical ADHD, Stress, and Coping in Romantic Relationships of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbey, Gail A.; Snell, William E., Jr.; Callis, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine how the subclinical symptoms of adult ADHD and those of oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) affect relationship satisfaction and stress and to determine whether different patterns of coping strategies emerge when undergraduates have symptoms of one or both disorders. Method: Participants (N = 497) complete self-report surveys…

  1. Relationships among Young Adults' Marital Messages Received, Marital Attitudes, and Relationship Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurts, W. Matthew; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among university students' marital messages received (MMR), marital attitudes, and romantic relationship self-efficacy (RSE). Results indicated that students' marital attitudes and romantic relationship status predicted their level of RSE. The authors found differences in MMR, marital attitudes, and RSE on the…

  2. "He cheated on me, I cheated on him back": Mexican American and White adolescents' perceptions of cheating in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Hickle, Kristine E

    2011-10-01

    A qualitative approach was used to explore the meaning and perceptions of cheating in adolescent romantic relationships. Mexican American and White adolescents (N = 75; 53.3% girls; 56.1% Mexican American), separated by gender and ethnicity into 12 focus groups (three groups per type), discussed personal and peer experiences of cheating in dating relationships as both the victim and perpetrator. Dialogue was coded using inductive content analysis; two broader cheating themes encompassing six sub-themes emerged 1) perceptions of cheating (individual-oriented, peer-oriented, and frequency of occurrence) and 2) consequences of cheating (commitment, emotional responses, and relationship outcomes). Mexican American girls spoke most frequently and strongly about cheating, followed by White girls. The meaning and contexts of cheating by ethnicity and gender has important implications for promoting healthy dating behavior during adolescence.

  3. Mutual influences between partners' hormones shape conflict dialog and relationship duration at the initiation of romantic love.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Inna; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Early-stage romantic love involves reorganization of neurohormonal systems and behavioral patterns marked by mutual influences between the partners' physiology and behavior. Guided by the biobehavioral synchrony conceptual frame, we tested bidirectional influences between the partners' hormones and conflict behavior at the initiation of romantic love. Participants included 120 new lovers (60 couples) and 40 singles. Plasma levels of five affiliation and stress-related hormones were assessed: oxytocin (OT), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (T), cortisol (CT), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Couples were observed in conflict interaction coded for empathy and hostility. CT and DHEAS showed direct actor effects: higher CT and DHEAS predicted greater hostility. OT showed direct partner effects: individuals whose partners had higher OT showed greater empathy. T and CT showed combined actor-partner effects. High T predicted greater hostility only when partner also had high T, but lower hostility when partner had low T. Similarly, CT predicted low empathy only in the context of high partner's CT. Mediational analysis indicated that combined high CT in both partners was associated with relationship breakup as mediated by decrease in empathy. Findings demonstrate the mutual influences between hormones and behavior within an attachment bond and underscore the dynamic, co-regulated, and systemic nature of pair-bond formation in humans.

  4. Coupling Longitudinal Data and Multilevel Modeling to Examine the Antecedents and Consequences of Jealousy Experiences in Romantic Relationships: A Test of the Relational Turbulence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Jennifer A.; Solomon, Denise Haunani

    2006-01-01

    We used longitudinal data and multilevel modeling to examine how intimacy, relational uncertainty, and failed attempts at interdependence influence emotional, cognitive, and communicative responses to romantic jealousy, and how those experiences shape subsequent relationship characteristics. The relational turbulence model (Solomon & Knobloch,…

  5. Negative Mood Regulation Expectancies and Conflict Behaviors in Late Adolescent College Student Romantic Relationships: The Moderating Role of Generalized Attachment Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creasey, Gary; Ladd, Aimee

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to specify associations among negative mood regulation expectancies, generalized attachment representations, and conflict tactics in a sample of college students involved in a romantic relationship. It was predicted that attachment representations would moderate associations between negative mood regulation…

  6. Romantic Relationships in Intra-Ethnic and Inter-Ethnic Adolescent Couples in Germany: The Role of Attachment to Parents, Self-Esteem, and Conflict Resolution Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2010-01-01

    We investigated romantic relationships in a sample of 380 adolescents who formed 190 heterosexual couples (mean age: females 17 years; males 18 years): 173 intra-ethnic (German) couples and 17 inter-ethnic couples. Factor analyses revealed two types of love experiences: (a) experiences of attraction and a passionate focus on the partner…

  7. Heterosexual romantic relationships, interpersonal needs, and quality of life in prison.

    PubMed

    Carcedo, Rodrigo J; Perlman, Daniel; López, Félix; Begoña Orgaz, M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of having vs. not having a and quality of life. In-person interviews were conducted with 55 male and 64 female inmates from the Topas Penitentiary (Spain). Higher levels of social loneliness and lower levels of sexual satisfaction were associated with lower levels of quality of life. In addition, the interaction between sexual satisfaction and romantic partner status was significant. Higher levels of sexual satisfaction were associated with higher levels of quality of life only for the group without a partner. These findings support a "bad is stronger than good" principle and indicate the detrimental aspects that can be associated with not having a satisfactory sexual life while incarcerated.

  8. Predicting violence in romantic relationships during adolescence and emerging adulthood: a critical review of the mechanisms by which familial and peer influences operate.

    PubMed

    Olsen, James P; Parra, Gilbert R; Bennett, Shira A

    2010-06-01

    For three decades, researchers have sought to gain a greater understanding of the developmental antecedents to later perpetration or victimization of violence in romantic relationships. Whereas the majority of early studies focused on family-of-origin factors, attention in recent years has turned to additional ecologies such as peer relationships. This review highlights accomplishments of both family and peer studies that focus on violent romantic relationships in an effort to summarize the current state of knowledge. Attention is given to epidemiology and developmental family and peer factors, with special attention given to mechanisms that mediate and/or moderate the relation between family and peer factors and later participation in violent relationships. A critical approach is taken throughout the review in order to identify limitations of previous studies, and to highlight key findings. A case is made for viewing these developmental antecedents as a result of multiple developmental ecologies that is perhaps best summarized as a culture of violence.

  9. What do older adults seek in their potential romantic partners? Evidence from online personal ads.

    PubMed

    William, D McIntosh; Locker, Lawrence; Briley, Katherine; Ryan, Rebecca; Scott, Alison J

    2011-01-01

    Because of the dearth of available partners, older women looking to date may have to relax their dating standards to find a dating partner, perhaps accepting a life situation that is not what they had hoped for. However older women may be reluctant to sacrifice an often recently-gained lifestyle free of caregiving obligations. Older men, on the other hand, have a large pool of potential dating partners and do not face the same dilemma. We compared Internet dating profiles for 100 older adults and 100 younger adults, and found that older adults (and especially older women) were more selective than younger adults when it came to the age, race, religion, income, and height of a prospective dating partner. However, older adults were willing to travel substantially farther than younger adults to meet the right partner. These findings paint a clear picture of older Internet daters as eager to meet the right person, but not desperate to meet just anyone.

  10. Effects of the Relationship Enhancement® Program on Social Skills, Empathy and Social Support for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    An important area of research is emerging for adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with respect to the challenges they face in their social relationships. Social relationships include those that are romantic in nature such as dating, cohabitation and marriage. Researchers suggest that engaging in a healthy and happy romantic…

  11. Romantic Relationship Length and its Perceived Quality: Mediating Role of Facebook-Related Conflict.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, H M Saidur

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Facebook use is leading to negative relationship outcomes such as cheating and breakup by assessing users' perceived relationship qualities. It was hypothesized that Facebook-related conflict will be negatively related with users' relationship length and will also be negatively related with their perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Facebook-related conflict further mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Self-report data were gathered from participants (N = 101) in an online survey by employing standard questionnaires. A set of regression and mediation analyses confirmed all the hypotheses of the study. That is, Facebook-related conflict mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Moreover, the magnitude of mediation was highest for relationship satisfaction. Implications for future research and contributions are discussed.

  12. Romantic Relationship Length and its Perceived Quality: Mediating Role of Facebook-Related Conflict.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, H M Saidur

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Facebook use is leading to negative relationship outcomes such as cheating and breakup by assessing users' perceived relationship qualities. It was hypothesized that Facebook-related conflict will be negatively related with users' relationship length and will also be negatively related with their perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Facebook-related conflict further mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Self-report data were gathered from participants (N = 101) in an online survey by employing standard questionnaires. A set of regression and mediation analyses confirmed all the hypotheses of the study. That is, Facebook-related conflict mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Moreover, the magnitude of mediation was highest for relationship satisfaction. Implications for future research and contributions are discussed. PMID:27247665

  13. Romantic Relationship Length and its Perceived Quality: Mediating Role of Facebook-Related Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, H. M. Saidur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Facebook use is leading to negative relationship outcomes such as cheating and breakup by assessing users’ perceived relationship qualities. It was hypothesized that Facebook-related conflict will be negatively related with users’ relationship length and will also be negatively related with their perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Facebook-related conflict further mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Self-report data were gathered from participants (N = 101) in an online survey by employing standard questionnaires. A set of regression and mediation analyses confirmed all the hypotheses of the study. That is, Facebook-related conflict mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Moreover, the magnitude of mediation was highest for relationship satisfaction. Implications for future research and contributions are discussed. PMID:27247665

  14. Romantic ideals, mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life: a comparative study of young adults in India and America

    PubMed Central

    Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have established that Indians tend to be greater in collectivism and gender role traditionalism than Americans. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these differences explained further cultural differences in romantic beliefs, traditional mate preferences, and anticipation of future difficulties in marital life. Results revealed that Indians reported greater collectivism than Americans and, in turn, held stronger romantic beliefs. Additionally, Indians' greater collectivism and endorsement of more traditional gender roles in part predicted their preferences for a marital partner possessing traditional characteristics, and fully accounted for their heightened concerns about encountering future difficulties in marital life. These results shed light on the processes underlying cultural differences in relationship attitudes and preferences, and point to culture-specific therapies to enhance marital functioning. PMID:25520681

  15. Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Romantic Adjustment: Comparison of Single- and Multiple-Indicator Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stephane; Lussier, Yvan

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the usefulness of single- and multiple-indicator strategies in a model examining the role of child sexual abuse (CSA) to predict later marital satisfaction through attachment and psychological distress. The sample included 1,092 women and men from a nonclinical population in cohabiting or marital relationships. The single-item…

  16. A Qualitative Investigation of College Students' Facebook Usage and Romantic Relationships: Implications for College Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrell, Renee S.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2016-01-01

    The use of social media is a societal trend influencing the way that individuals communicate with and relate to one another. Moreover, Facebook use may facilitate or hinder individuals' relationship growth and development. The purpose of this article is to (a) review research examining Facebook usage and interpersonal relationships, (b) present…

  17. Social Stigma and Sexual Minorities’ Romantic Relationship Functioning: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    To bolster knowledge of determinants of relationship functioning among sexual minorities, the current meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively review evidence for the association between social stigma and relationship functioning as well as examine potential moderators. Thirty-five studies were identified, including 130 effect sizes (39 independent; N = 10,745). Across studies, evidence was found for a small but significant inverse association between social stigma and relationship functioning. Furthermore, this association was moderated by stigma type (with more deleterious associations for internalized relative to perceived stigma) and dimension of relationship functioning (with more deleterious associations for affective relative to cognitive and negative relative to positive). Evidence for demographic moderators (region, sex, race, age) was generally mixed although important limitations related to unique characteristics of study samples are discussed. We conclude by highlighting the importance of social stigma for relationship functioning and point toward directions for future research and policy action. PMID:26199218

  18. Social Stigma and Sexual Minorities' Romantic Relationship Functioning: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    PubMed

    Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa

    2015-10-01

    To bolster knowledge of determinants of relationship functioning among sexual minorities, the current meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively review evidence for the association between social stigma and relationship functioning as well as examine potential moderators. Thirty-five studies were identified, including 130 effect sizes (39 independent; N = 10,745). Across studies, evidence was found for a small but significant inverse association between social stigma and relationship functioning. Furthermore, this association was moderated by stigma type (with more deleterious associations for internalized relative to perceived stigma) and dimension of relationship functioning (with more deleterious associations for affective relative to cognitive and negative relative to positive). Evidence for demographic moderators (region, sex, race, age) was generally mixed although important limitations related to unique characteristics of study samples are discussed. We conclude by highlighting the importance of social stigma for relationship functioning and point toward directions for future research and policy action.

  19. The Impact of Sex Work on Women’s Personal Romantic Relationships and the Mental Separation of Their Work and Personal Lives: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Bellhouse, Clare; Crebbin, Susan; Fairley, Christopher K.; Bilardi, Jade E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Very limited research has been undertaken on sex workers’ personal romantic relationships and the impact the nature of their work has on their relationships. This exploratory study aimed to explore the impact sex work has on women’s personal romantic relationships and the use of mental separation as a coping mechanism to balance the two aspects of their lives. Methods Fifty-five women working in the indoor sex industry in Melbourne, Australia, were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire about various aspects of their work, including the impact of sex work on their personal relationships. Questionnaires were completed anonymously and included both closed and open-ended questions. A further six women were interviewed to ‘member check’ the accuracy of the questionnaire findings. Results Most women (78%) reported that, overall, sex work affected their personal romantic relationships in predominantly negative ways, mainly relating to issues stemming from lying, trust, guilt and jealousy. A small number of women reported positive impacts from sex work including improved sexual self-esteem and confidence. Just under half of women were in a relationship at the time of the study and, of these, 51% reported their partner was aware of the nature of their work. Seventy-seven percent of single women chose to remain single due to the nature of their work. Many women used mental separation as a coping mechanism to manage the tensions between sex work and their personal relationships. Member checking validated the accuracy of the questionnaire data. Conclusion This exploratory study identified a number of ways in which sex work impacts negatively on women’s personal romantic relationships. The findings of this study support the need for further studies to be undertaken to determine if the findings are reflected in a larger, more representative sample of Australian sex workers and should be considered in the context of any future intervention and

  20. Thoughts about Talk in Romantic Relationships: Similarity Makes for Attraction (and Happiness, Too).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burleson, Brant R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Finds that similarity in communication values among heterosexual dating partners did not contribute to whether people dated one another, but did contribute to how satisfied they were with their dating relationship and how attracted they were to their partners. (SR)

  1. Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

  2. Regional brain activity during early-stage intense romantic love predicted relationship outcomes after 40 months: an fMRI assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Brown, Lucy; Aron, Arthur; Cao, Guikang; Feng, Tingyong; Acevedo, Bianca; Weng, Xuchu

    2012-09-20

    Early-stage romantic love is associated with activation in reward and motivation systems of the brain. Can these localized activations, or others, predict long-term relationship stability? We contacted participants from a previous fMRI study of early-stage love by Xu et al. [34] after 40 months from initial assessments. We compared brain activation during the initial assessment at early-stage love for those who were still together at 40 months and those who were apart, and surveyed those still together about their relationship happiness and commitment at 40 months. Six participants who were still with their partners at 40 months (compared to six who had broken up) showed less activation during early-stage love in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, right subcallosal cingulate and right accumbens, regions implicated in long-term love and relationship satisfaction [1,2]. These regions of deactivation at the early stage of love were also negatively correlated with relationship happiness scores collected at 40 months. Other areas involved were the caudate tail, and temporal and parietal lobes. These data are preliminary evidence that neural responses in the early stages of romantic love can predict relationship stability and quality up to 40 months later in the relationship. The brain regions involved suggest that forebrain reward functions may be predictive for relationship stability, as well as regions involved in social evaluation, emotional regulation, and mood.

  3. Helping each other grow: romantic partner support, self-improvement, and relationship quality.

    PubMed

    Overall, Nickola C; Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2010-11-01

    This research tested whether and how partners' support of self-improvement efforts influences recipients' relationship evaluations and self-improvement success. Study 1 provided an initial test of predictions using self-reports (N = 150). Study 2 assessed support behavior exhibited in couples' (N = 47) discussions of self-improvement desires, and tracked relationship quality and self-improvement every 3 months for 1 year. More nurturing and action-facilitating partner support was more helpful to recipients, whereas partners who criticized and invalidated recipients were less helpful. Receiving more help from the partner, in turn, predicted greater relationship quality and more self-improvement. More negative support seeking also predicted lower self-improvement because recipients' behavior elicited less partner help. These effects were not attributable to partners' general warmth and understanding, global self or relationship evaluations, how much recipients desired or tried to change, or whether targeted attributes posed relationship problems. This research documents the powerful influence that partners' help has on recipients' personal growth. PMID:20858888

  4. Self-perceived attractiveness, romantic desirability and self-esteem: a mating sociometer perspective.

    PubMed

    Bale, Christopher; Archer, John

    2013-01-01

    Sociometer theory proposes that self-esteem is an adaptation which evolved to monitor and regulate interpersonal relationships. It is therefore sensitive to self-assessments in domains relevant to relational desirability. Positive relationships between self-perceived physical attractiveness and self-esteem found in previous studies may reflect the functioning of a mating sociometer, designed to monitor individuals' desirability as romantic or sexual partners. We thus predicted that these relationships should be mediated by self-perceptions of romantic desirability, or more specifically, individuals' confidence in their abilities to successfully establish and maintain romantic relationships. Two hundred and eighty seven young adults (98 male) completed an online measure of self-perceived attractiveness, together with measures of self-confidence in appearance and romantic relationships, body-esteem and global self-esteem. Linear regression analyses indicated that self-perceived attractiveness, self-confidence in appearance and body-esteem all significantly predicted self-esteem, and that in each case, the relationship was mediated by romantic self-confidence. Self-perceived attractiveness predicted self-esteem significantly more strongly in females than in males. We discuss these results in relation to sociometer and parental investment theories, and explore limitations and future directions. PMID:23353113

  5. Self-perceived attractiveness, romantic desirability and self-esteem: a mating sociometer perspective.

    PubMed

    Bale, Christopher; Archer, John

    2013-01-01

    Sociometer theory proposes that self-esteem is an adaptation which evolved to monitor and regulate interpersonal relationships. It is therefore sensitive to self-assessments in domains relevant to relational desirability. Positive relationships between self-perceived physical attractiveness and self-esteem found in previous studies may reflect the functioning of a mating sociometer, designed to monitor individuals' desirability as romantic or sexual partners. We thus predicted that these relationships should be mediated by self-perceptions of romantic desirability, or more specifically, individuals' confidence in their abilities to successfully establish and maintain romantic relationships. Two hundred and eighty seven young adults (98 male) completed an online measure of self-perceived attractiveness, together with measures of self-confidence in appearance and romantic relationships, body-esteem and global self-esteem. Linear regression analyses indicated that self-perceived attractiveness, self-confidence in appearance and body-esteem all significantly predicted self-esteem, and that in each case, the relationship was mediated by romantic self-confidence. Self-perceived attractiveness predicted self-esteem significantly more strongly in females than in males. We discuss these results in relation to sociometer and parental investment theories, and explore limitations and future directions.

  6. Adolescent daughters' romantic competence: the role of divorce, quality of parenting, and maternal romantic history.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Shmuel; Zlotnik, Aynat; Shachar-Shapira, Lital; Connolly, Jennifer; Bohr, Yvonne

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the links between parental divorce, quality of maternal parenting, spousal relationships and middle adolescent romantic competence in 80 mother-adolescent daughter pairs (40 divorced). Mothers were asked to describe their attitudes and behaviors with regard to their daughters' romantic behavior. In addition, mothers were interviewed about their own romantic experiences when they were at the age of their daughters. Adolescent girls (mean age = 16.98 years; range 16-18) were administered a comprehensive interview about romantic competence. Findings indicated that adolescent girls from divorced families showed lower levels of romantic competence, which were expressed in their behavior, attitudes toward relationships and skill in handling those relationships. Divorce was found to have had an adverse effect on girls' romantic competence, whereas continued adaptive parenting and spousal relationships alleviated the effect of divorce. Mothers' coherent representation of their own adolescent romantic experiences also alleviated the effect of divorce on daughters' romantic behavior. Results show the important role of family relationships in fostering romantic competence among adolescent girls.

  7. Self-Esteem, Demand for Approval and the Facilitativeness of a Romantic Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    There is some empirical support for the person-centred hypothesis that self-esteem is positively associated with having a facilitative relationship. Rational emotive behaviour theory suggests such an association is more likely to occur in people holding the irrational belief that they must be approved by others while person-centred theory may…

  8. Rural Adolescent Boys' Negotiating Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: "We Need to Sacrifice Our Brains"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dmytro, Dana; Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Hoard, Ryan; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-four adolescent boys in Grades 9 to 12 in a rural New Brunswick high school engaged in focused discussions that were analyzed using grounded theory to determine their heterosexual dating relationship processes. A theory was created from exchange transcriptions. The core category was "wrestling with gendered expectations,"…

  9. Dating and Disclosure: Adolescent Management of Information regarding Romantic Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daddis, Christopher; Randolph, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary disclosure regarding romantic involvement was examined in a sample of 222 middle and late adolescents (124 female adolescents, M = 16.19 years). Disclosure was described with three empirically derived, conceptually meaningful composites that pertained to identity/choice of romantic partner, everyday expression of romantic relationship,…

  10. Marriage and mental health among young adults.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy E

    2012-03-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695), I find that married young adults exhibit levels of psychological distress that are similar to those of young adults in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults also report lower frequency of drunkenness than those who are not in a romantic relationship. Married young adults, especially those who first married at ages 22 to 26, report higher life satisfaction than those in other type of romantic relationships,those in no romantic relationship, and those who married prior to age 22. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed.

  11. Attachment insecurity, biased perceptions of romantic partners' negative emotions, and hostile relationship behavior.

    PubMed

    Overall, Nickola C; Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Fillo, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    In the current research, we tested the extent to which attachment insecurity produces inaccurate and biased perceptions of intimate partners' emotions and whether more negative perceptions of partners' emotions elicit the damaging behavior often associated with attachment insecurity. Perceptions of partners' emotions as well as partners' actual emotions were assessed multiple times in couples' conflict discussions (Study 1) and daily during a 3-week period in 2 independent samples (Study 2). Using partners' reports of their own emotional experiences as the accuracy benchmark, we simultaneously tested whether attachment insecurity was associated with the degree to which individuals (a) accurately detected shifts in their partners' negative emotions (tracking accuracy), and (b) perceived their partners were feeling more negative relationship-related emotions than they actually experienced (directional bias). Highly avoidant perceivers were equally accurate at tracking their partners' changing emotions compared to less avoidant individuals (tracking accuracy), but they overestimated the intensity of their partners' negative emotions to a greater extent than less avoidant individuals (directional bias). In addition, more negative perceptions of partners' emotions triggered more hostile and defensive behavior in highly avoidant perceivers both during conflict discussions (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In contrast, attachment anxiety was not associated with tracking accuracy, directional bias, or hostile reactions to perceptions of their partners' negative emotions. These findings demonstrate the importance of assessing biased perceptions in actual relationship interactions and reveal that biased perceptions play an important role in activating the defenses of avoidantly attached people.

  12. Of Sex and Romance: Late Adolescent Relationships and Young Adult Union Formation.

    PubMed

    Raley, R Kelly; Crissey, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2007-11-11

    To better understand the social factors that influence the diverse pathways to family formation young adults experience today, this research investigates the association between opposite-gender relationships during late adolescence and union formation in early adulthood. Using data from the first and third waves of the Add Health (n = 4,911), we show that, for both men and women, there is continuity between adolescent and adult relationship experiences. Those involved in adolescent romantic relationships at the end of high school are more likely to marry and to cohabit in early adulthood. Moreover, involvement in a nonromantic sexual relationship is positively associated with cohabitation, but not marriage. We conclude that the precursors to union formation patterns in adulthood are observable in adolescence.

  13. Relationship Characteristics Associated with the Experience of Hurt in Romantic Relationships: A Test of the Relational Turbulence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theiss, Jennifer A.; Knobloch, Leanne K.; Checton, Maria G.; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate

    2009-01-01

    We employed the relational turbulence model to identify (a) relationship characteristics associated with people's appraisals of hurtful messages, and (b) features of hurtful episodes and relationship characteristics that correspond with the directness of communication about hurt. We conducted a study in which 135 dating couples reported on their…

  14. Adolescent Friend Similarity on Alcohol Abuse as a Function of Participation in Romantic Relationships: Sometimes a New Love Comes between Old Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical…

  15. Adolescent Daughters' Romantic Competence: The Role of Divorce, Quality of Parenting, and Maternal Romantic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Zlotnik, Aynat; Shachar-Shapira, Lital; Connolly, Jennifer; Bohr, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the links between parental divorce, quality of maternal parenting, spousal relationships and middle adolescent romantic competence in 80 mother-adolescent daughter pairs (40 divorced). Mothers were asked to describe their attitudes and behaviors with regard to their daughters' romantic behavior. In addition, mothers were…

  16. Does power help or hurt? The moderating role of self-other focus on power and perspective-taking in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Amie M; Chen, Serena

    2013-08-01

    Reconciling competing viewpoints suggesting that power helps and hurts perspective-taking in close relationships, in two experiments and two daily experience studies we tested the hypothesis that power's effect on perspective-taking depends on the extent to which people are relatively self-versus other-focused. In Study 1, recalling a time of high (vs. low) power over a romantic partner reduced inclinations to take the partner's perspective for relatively self-focused but not other-focused individuals. Studies 2 and 3 replicated Study 1 using daily variations in power and perspective-taking. In Study 4, being the "in-charge" partner during a conflict conversation reduced empathic accuracy for more self-focused individuals. Self-other focus was assessed with measures of gratitude, relational self-construal, and social value orientation. The current findings provide evidence that, particularly for the more self-focused, relationship power influences people's inclinations to take their romantic partner's perspective in daily life as well as their empathic accuracy during conflict.

  17. Young Adult Relationship Values at the Intersection of Gender and Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Kathleen E.; Ortyl, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent decades have brought significant social changes in the industrialized West that may influence young adults’ attitudes about intimate relationships, including changes in gender expectations and behaviors and changes in sexual attitudes and practices. We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (N=14,121) to compare men to women, and sexual minorities to heterosexuals, on ratings of the importance of love, faithfulness, commitment, financial security, and racial homogamy for successful relationships. We found that nearly all young adults adhere to dominant relationship values inherent in the romantic love ideology; however, we found modest but significant differences by gender and sexual identity in relationship values. Significant interactions demonstrated that gender and sexual identity intersect to uniquely influence relationship views. PMID:23710079

  18. Risking it for Love: Romantic Relationships and Early Pubertal Development Confer Risk for later Disruptive Behavior Disorders in African-American Girls Receiving Psychiatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Erin M.; Nichols, Sara; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptive behavior problems (DBP) represent a growing concern for young women (e.g., Snyder & Sickmund, 2006), but gender-specific investigations have been traditionally underrepresented in this area. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations among gender-relevant risk factors for DBP among 217 African American girls in psychiatric care. African American girls, 12–16 years old (M=14.6; SD=1.2), and their primary female caregivers (N=254) were recruited from outpatient mental health clinics and reported on girls’ DBP, heterosexual dating experiences (romantic and sexual), peer relationships, pubertal development, and self-silencing at baseline, 6-, and 12-months. Structural Equation Modeling examined evidence for full versus mediated (via self-silencing) models and the structural relationships (direct and indirect) among key study variables. Results suggest that the full model was a significantly better fit than the mediated model as indicated by a Chi-squared difference test (p < .01). In the full model, direct effects of greater romantic dating experiences and lower quality peer relationships at baseline predicted DBP at 12-months. Sexual dating experiences were more strongly linked with DBP at 12-months for early maturing compared to average or later maturing girls. Indirect effects analyses suggested that girls’ suppression of relational needs, assessed through a measure of self-silencing, explained the association between peer relationships and DBP. Findings highlight the importance of the relational context for girls’ DBP, with treatment implications supporting relationship-based models of care, early intervention, and skill building around negotiating needs with peers and partners. PMID:24748499

  19. Risking it for love: romantic relationships and early pubertal development confer risk for later disruptive behavior disorders in African-American girls receiving psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Javdani, Shabnam; Rodriguez, Erin M; Nichols, Sara R; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R

    2014-11-01

    Disruptive behavior problems (DBP) represent a growing concern for young women (e.g., Snyder and Sickmund, 2006), but gender-specific investigations have been traditionally underrepresented in this area. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations among gender-relevant risk factors for DBP among 217 African American girls in psychiatric care. African American girls, 12-16 years old (M = 14.6; SD = 1.2), and their primary female caregivers (N = 254) were recruited from outpatient mental health clinics and reported on girls' DBP, heterosexual dating experiences (romantic and sexual), peer relationships, pubertal development, and self-silencing at baseline, 6-, and 12 months. Structural Equation Modeling examined evidence for full versus mediated (via self-silencing) models and the structural relationships (direct and indirect) among key study variables. Results suggest that the full model was a significantly better fit than the mediated model as indicated by a Chi-squared difference test (p < 0.01). In the full model, direct effects of greater romantic dating experiences and lower quality peer relationships at baseline predicted DBP at 12 months. Sexual dating experiences were more strongly linked with DBP at 12 months for early maturing compared to average or later maturing girls. Indirect effects analyses suggested that girls' suppression of relational needs, assessed through a measure of self-silencing, explained the association between peer relationships and DBP. Findings highlight the importance of the relational context for girls' DBP, with treatment implications supporting relationship-based models of care, early intervention, and skill building around negotiating needs with peers and partners. PMID:24748499

  20. Thinking about romantic/erotic love.

    PubMed

    Grunebaum, H

    1997-07-01

    The implications for therapy of the salient characteristics of romantic/erotic love are discussed. 1. We do not have control over our feelings of romantic/erotic love. 2. These feelings occur relatively infrequently during most people's lives. 3. Being with a partner whom one loves is valued and regarded as a good; it sometimes conflicts with other values and goods. There are no clear criteria for resolving this conflict. 4. Love is regarded as one essential basis for marriage. 5. In addition to romantic/erotic love, other qualities and capacities are important in sustaining a long-term relationship such as a marriage.

  1. Irrational Beliefs and Abuse in University Students' Romantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaygusuz, Canani

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: The complex nature of romantic relationships, in general, makes the continuation of these relationships a challenge. This situation is even more problematic in traditional societies, as social norms for these relations are more strict and more disciplinarian. University students want to be in romantic relationships due to their…

  2. Effects of gender and psychosocial factors on "friends with benefits" relationships among young adults.

    PubMed

    Owen, Jesse; Fincham, Frank D

    2011-04-01

    Friends with benefits relationships (FWB) are a blend of friendship and physical intimacy outside of a committed romantic relationship. This study examined young adults' (n = 889) engagement in, and reactions to, a FWB relationship in the past year based on their gender, psychological distress, alcohol use, and relationship attitudes. Men (54.3%) were more likely than women (42.9%) to report at least one FWB relationship and both men and women reported that FWB relationships were associated with more positive emotional reactions than negative ones although this difference was larger for men. Greater alcohol use was related to engaging in a FWB relationship and this relationship was stronger for women. Further, thoughtfulness about relationship decisions moderated the relationship between alcohol use and engaging in FWB relationships, and again this moderation effect was stronger for women than men. Young adults with more psychological distress and who felt constrained in the FWB relationship were more likely to report negative emotional reactions. Implications for psychoeducational programs and future research are offered.

  3. Romantic Partner Selection and Socialization during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Valerie A.; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study examined romantic partner selection and socialization among a sample of 78 young adolescents (6th-8th graders). Independent assessments of adolescent and romantic partner adjustment were collected before and after relationships initiated via peer nomination and self-report. Prior to their relationship, adolescents and…

  4. Do incest, depression, parental drinking, serious romantic relationships, and living with parents influence patterns of substance use during emerging adulthood?

    PubMed

    Snyder, Susan M; Rubenstein, Casey

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how incest, depression, parental drinking, relationship status, and living with parents affect patterns of substance use among emerging adults, 18 to 25 years old. The study sample included (n = 11,546) individuals who participated in Waves I, II, and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study used separate latent class analysis for males and females to determine how patterns of substance use clustered together. The study identified the following three classes of substance use: heavy, moderate, and normative substance use patterns. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that, for females only, incest histories also nearly doubled the risk of heavy-use class membership. In addition, experiencing depression, being single, and not living with parents serve as risk factors for males and females in the heavy-use group. Conversely, being Black, Hispanic, or living with parents lowered the likelihood of being in the group with the most substance use behaviors (i.e., heavy use). Findings highlight the need for interventions that target depression and female survivors of incest among emerging adults.

  5. “Is this normal? Is this not normal? There’s no set example”: Sexual Health Intervention Preferences of LGBT Youth in Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Greene, George J.; Fisher, Kimberly A.; Kuper, Laura; Andrews, Rebecca; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Limited research has examined the romantic relationships of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth (LGBT) despite evidence of relationship-oriented risks, including STI/HIV infection, unplanned pregnancy, and interpersonal violence. In efforts to inform future dyadic sexual health interventions for LGBT youth, this couples-based study aimed to identify the most salient sexual and relationships concerns of young same-sex couples and to assess their preferences for intervention content and format. Participants were a subset 36 young, racially and ethnically diverse, same-sex couples (N = 72 individuals) recruited from two on-going longitudinal studies. Interviews were coded using a constant comparison method and a process of inductive and deductive thematic analysis was used to interpret the data. The analysis yielded the following intervention themes: addressing sexual risk and protective behaviors, improving communication, coping with family and relationship violence, and identifying role models and sources of support. The couples reported a clear preference for small group interventions and many recommended a mixed format approach for intervention delivery (i.e., including dyadic and online sessions). Additionally, recommendations for participant recruitment included a combination of Internet-based and social network referrals. PMID:25678895

  6. Pathways to Relationship Aggression between Adult Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Dean M.; Holman, Thomas B.; Walker, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the pathways to adult aggression beginning in the family of origin (FOO) and continuing through adult relationships were investigated. With a sample of 30,600 individuals, a comprehensive model was evaluated that included the unique influences of violent victimization in the family, witnessing parental violence, perpetrating…

  7. Perceived Body Image Satisfaction: Impact on Romantic Relationships of African American Adult Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Candy H.

    2009-01-01

    The size, shape and physical attractiveness of a woman's body are linked to her sexuality. As women age, changes occur to their bodies that may cause them anxiety over the socially constructed body image norms that are promoted within this society. Researchers posit that the standard of our culture seems to create more problems for women as they…

  8. Is love colorblind? Political orientation and interracial romantic desire.

    PubMed

    Eastwick, Paul W; Richeson, Jennifer A; Son, Deborah; Finkel, Eli J

    2009-09-01

    The present research examined the association of political orientation with ingroup favoritism in two live romantic contexts. In Study 1, White participants had sequential interactions with both a White and Black confederate and reported their romantic desire for each. In Study 2, both White and Black participants speed-dated multiple potential romantic partners and reported whether they would be interested in meeting each speed-dating partner again. In both studies, White participants' political conservatism positively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: White conservatives were less likely than White liberals to desire Black (interracial) relative to White potential romantic partners. In contrast, Black participants' political conservatism negatively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: Consistent with system-justification theory, Black conservatives were more likely than Black liberals to desire White (interracial) relative to Black potential romantic partners. Political orientation may be a key factor that influences the initiation of interracial romantic relationships.

  9. Is love colorblind? Political orientation and interracial romantic desire.

    PubMed

    Eastwick, Paul W; Richeson, Jennifer A; Son, Deborah; Finkel, Eli J

    2009-09-01

    The present research examined the association of political orientation with ingroup favoritism in two live romantic contexts. In Study 1, White participants had sequential interactions with both a White and Black confederate and reported their romantic desire for each. In Study 2, both White and Black participants speed-dated multiple potential romantic partners and reported whether they would be interested in meeting each speed-dating partner again. In both studies, White participants' political conservatism positively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: White conservatives were less likely than White liberals to desire Black (interracial) relative to White potential romantic partners. In contrast, Black participants' political conservatism negatively predicted the strength of the ingroup-favoring bias: Consistent with system-justification theory, Black conservatives were more likely than Black liberals to desire White (interracial) relative to Black potential romantic partners. Political orientation may be a key factor that influences the initiation of interracial romantic relationships. PMID:19571275

  10. Does High Educational Attainment Limit the Availability of Romantic Partners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Isaac; Lewis, Sally V.; Beverly, Monifa G.; Patel, Samir H.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that highly educated individuals endure hardships in finding suitable romantic partners. Romantic hardships affect social and emotional adjustment levels, leading to low self-efficacy in relationship decision making. To address the need for research pertaining to this topic, the authors explored the experiences of eight…

  11. Early Adolescent Romantic Partner Status, Peer Standing, and Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a…

  12. How do I love thee? Let me count the ways: parenting during adolescence, attachment styles, and romantic narratives in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nosko, Amanda; Tieu, Thanh-Thanh; Lawford, Heather; Pratt, Michael W

    2011-05-01

    In this longitudinal study, a quantitative and qualitative examination of the associations among parent-child relations, adult attachment styles, and relationship quality and theme in romantic narratives was conducted. Parenting and adult attachment style were assessed through questionnaires, whereas overall quality of romantic relationships (regard and importance), intimacy, and romantic story theme were examined with a life story approach (McAdams, 1993). At ages 17 and 26 years, 100 participants completed a series of questionnaires and also, at age 26, told a story about a "relationship-defining moment" with a romantic partner. Parent-child relations when participants were 17 years old were related predictably to all three attachment styles. About 70% of the sample told romantic stories with a "true love" type of theme. Associations between parent-child relations when the child was 17 and this type of theme in the story told when the participant was 26 were mediated by a more secure (and a less avoidant) attachment style when the participant was 26, as predicted. The implications of these findings for links between attachment models and the life story are discussed.

  13. How do I love thee? Let me count the ways: parenting during adolescence, attachment styles, and romantic narratives in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nosko, Amanda; Tieu, Thanh-Thanh; Lawford, Heather; Pratt, Michael W

    2011-05-01

    In this longitudinal study, a quantitative and qualitative examination of the associations among parent-child relations, adult attachment styles, and relationship quality and theme in romantic narratives was conducted. Parenting and adult attachment style were assessed through questionnaires, whereas overall quality of romantic relationships (regard and importance), intimacy, and romantic story theme were examined with a life story approach (McAdams, 1993). At ages 17 and 26 years, 100 participants completed a series of questionnaires and also, at age 26, told a story about a "relationship-defining moment" with a romantic partner. Parent-child relations when participants were 17 years old were related predictably to all three attachment styles. About 70% of the sample told romantic stories with a "true love" type of theme. Associations between parent-child relations when the child was 17 and this type of theme in the story told when the participant was 26 were mediated by a more secure (and a less avoidant) attachment style when the participant was 26, as predicted. The implications of these findings for links between attachment models and the life story are discussed. PMID:21219065

  14. Pedagogy and "Romantic" Love

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper, which is significantly inspired by and based upon aspects of the writings of particular British nineteenth-century Romantic poets, outlines a positive, necessary even, role for friendship, love and passion in pedagogy.

  15. NGF and romantic love.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Enzo

    2011-06-01

    Romantic love is the catalyst behind the spread of the human life. The neurobiology of love embraces the hypothesis that what we call "romantic attachment" or "romantic love" may be at least in part the expression of biological factors. A corollary of this hypothesis states that it is possible to learn much about the nature of human love by studying the molecules involved in the expression of social and affiliative behaviours. Under this theoretical framework, we have investigated the changes in plasma neurotrophin levels in subjects with early stage romantic love. A positive association between the intensity of early romantic feelings and serum levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) has been identified. These findings link love with biologically relevant pathways for neuron survival and illuminate the biochemical correlates of such a complex feeling that so deeply affects our own lives. The progresses in the neurobiology of love suggest that this kind of research may open a new window onto our understanding of the very nature of human romantic bonding.

  16. Parental Divorce and Premarital Couples: Commitment and Other Relationship Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquet, E.; Surra Catherine A.

    2001-01-01

    Parental divorce is thought to affect romantic relationships of young adults, especially with respect to certainty about relationships and perceptions of problems in relationships. This study examined these connections with a random sample of 464 coupled partners. Young adults who were casually dating showed the strongest effects of divorce,…

  17. Suggested Interventions for Young Adults' Relationship Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terneus, Sandra K.; Martin, H. Dan

    2005-01-01

    Professionals in the social psychology field concur that teenagers and young adults may not have the appropriate skills and ego strength to affirm healthy relationship decisions. This article reviews current research regarding partner selection from adolescence through early adulthood. It also provides appendices of interventions used in clinical…

  18. Perceived impact of body feedback from romantic partners on young adults' body image and sexual well-being.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Kaitlyn M; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the messages individuals receive from their partners about their bodies and their perceived impact on body image and sexual well-being. Young adult men (n=35) and women (n=57) completed open-ended questions identifying messages they had received from partners and the impact of these messages on their body image and sexual well-being. Content coding revealed three verbal (expressions of approval and pride, challenging negative beliefs, expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) and two nonverbal (physical affection, physical expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) positive messages as well as one verbal (disapproval/disgust) and two nonverbal (rejection, humiliation) negative messages. Some participants reported gender-related messages (muscularity/strength, genital appearance, breast appearance, weight, and comparison to others). Positive messages were seen to increase confidence, self-acceptance, and sexual empowerment/fulfillment, whereas negative messages decreased these feelings. Our findings suggest that even everyday, seemingly neutral messages are perceived to have an important impact on young adults. PMID:27085111

  19. Commitment: Functions, Formation, and the Securing of Romantic Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Scott M.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Whitton, Sarah W.

    2010-01-01

    In this theoretical paper, we review central concepts in the psychological literature on relationship commitment to provide a foundation to discuss two themes related to long-term romantic relationships and marriages. First, we describe and discuss the role that commitment plays in stabilizing romantic attachment. Second, we use empirical research on cohabitation to highlight how the formation of commitment can be undermined by what are now common trajectories of couple development. The first topic underscores an increasingly important role for commitment in an age of companionate marriage. The second topic draws attention to dynamics that can affect the strength of romantic commitments, especially in marriage. PMID:21339829

  20. A Longitudinal Study of the Associations among Adolescent Conflict Resolution Styles, Depressive Symptoms, and Romantic Relationship Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescents' conflict resolution styles mediated between depressive symptoms and relationship longevity. Data were used from a sample of 80 couples aged 13-19 years old (Mage = 15.48, SD = 1.16). At Time 1 adolescents reported their depressive symptoms and conflict resolution styles. Additionally, time until…

  1. Victimization and Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: The Influence of Parental and Peer Behaviors, and Individual Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Yeung, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Consistent with the view that adolescent relationships are established in the context of important characteristics of their social networks, we examined the effects of adolescents' experiences of parenting (psychological control and positive monitoring) and of peer aggression and victimization, on their self reports of dating victimization and…

  2. Love and hooking up in the new millennium: communication technology and relationships among urban African American and Puerto Rican young adults.

    PubMed

    Bergdall, Anna R; Kraft, Joan Marie; Andes, Karen; Carter, Marion; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Hock-Long, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Communication technology is a central feature of young people's lives, but its role in romantic and sexual relationships has not been thoroughly examined. This article describes how young adults use communication technology for partnering across relationship stages (formation, maintenance, and dissolution) and types (serious/casual), and proposes implications of usage in relationships. This study analyzed qualitative data from a five-week, prospective, coital diary method with related debriefing interviews (N = 70) of African American and Puerto Rican men and women aged 18 to 25 years in Hartford and Philadelphia. Cell phones, including calls, text messaging, and mobile Internet, were the most common forms of communication technology used for partnering goals. Participants reported using cell phones to pursue partnering goals across all relationship stages, including formation (meeting, screening, and getting to know new partners), maintaining existing relationships, and breaking up. Cell phone uses depended on the type of relationship (serious/casual) and the participants' intentions and desires. Results indicated that cell phones are an important element of communication among young adults in romantic and sexual relationships. Specific features of cell phone communication shape the process and context of partnering. Future research should explore emerging communication technologies and implications for psychosocial development, dating violence, and sexual behavior.

  3. To Stay or To Leave? The Role of Attachment Styles in Communication Patterns and Potential Termination of Romantic Relationships Following Discovery of Deception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Su Ahn; Smith, Sandi W.; Levine, Timothy R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates communication patterns and subsequent relational outcomes following romantic partners' deception for people with different attachment styles. Reveals that respondents (undergraduate students) with a secure attachment style were more likely to report talking about the issue, whereas anxious/ambivalents were more likely to report…

  4. Teaching the Romantic Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Kieran

    1994-01-01

    Considers the emergence of English Romanticism in the early 19th century as the advent of new ways of thinking and knowing. Compares the cognitive skills of romanticism with the development of adolescent cognition. Shows how English teachers can tailor literature instruction to foster the insights of romantic understanding. (HB)

  5. Neural substrates and behavioral profiles of romantic jealousy and its temporal dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Yu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie; Liang, Jie; Lu, Lin; Zhou, Xiaolin; Shi, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Jealousy is not only a way of experiencing love but also a stabilizer of romantic relationships, although morbid romantic jealousy is maladaptive. Being engaged in a formal romantic relationship can tune one’s romantic jealousy towards a specific target. Little is known about how the human brain processes romantic jealousy by now. Here, by combining scenario-based imagination and functional MRI, we investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of romantic jealousy and their development across stages (before vs. after being in a formal relationship). Romantic jealousy scenarios elicited activations primarily in the basal ganglia (BG) across stages, and were significantly higher after the relationship was established in both the behavioral rating and BG activation. The intensity of romantic jealousy was related to the intensity of romantic happiness, which mainly correlated with ventral medial prefrontal cortex activation. The increase in jealousy across stages was associated with the tendency for interpersonal aggression. These results bridge the gap between the theoretical conceptualization of romantic jealousy and its neural correlates and shed light on the dynamic changes in jealousy. PMID:27273024

  6. Neural substrates and behavioral profiles of romantic jealousy and its temporal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Yu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie; Liang, Jie; Lu, Lin; Zhou, Xiaolin; Shi, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Jealousy is not only a way of experiencing love but also a stabilizer of romantic relationships, although morbid romantic jealousy is maladaptive. Being engaged in a formal romantic relationship can tune one's romantic jealousy towards a specific target. Little is known about how the human brain processes romantic jealousy by now. Here, by combining scenario-based imagination and functional MRI, we investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of romantic jealousy and their development across stages (before vs. after being in a formal relationship). Romantic jealousy scenarios elicited activations primarily in the basal ganglia (BG) across stages, and were significantly higher after the relationship was established in both the behavioral rating and BG activation. The intensity of romantic jealousy was related to the intensity of romantic happiness, which mainly correlated with ventral medial prefrontal cortex activation. The increase in jealousy across stages was associated with the tendency for interpersonal aggression. These results bridge the gap between the theoretical conceptualization of romantic jealousy and its neural correlates and shed light on the dynamic changes in jealousy. PMID:27273024

  7. The Role of Romantic Partners, Family and Peer Networks in Dating Couples’ Views about Cohabitation

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.; Smock, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging adults are increasingly cohabiting, but few studies have considered the role of social context in the formation of their views of cohabitation. Drawing on 40 semi-structured interviews with dating couples, we explored the role of romantic partners, family, and peers on evaluations of cohabitation. In couples where each member had a differing view about cohabitation, one romantic partner’s desire to not cohabit trumped their partner’s more ambivalent feelings about cohabitation. The influence of family in the formation of cohabitation views was evident through a variety of mechanisms, including parental advice, social modeling, religious values, and economic control. Peers also played a key role, with couples using the vicarious trials of their peer networks to judge how cohabitation would affect their own relationship. By using a couple perspective, assessing reports from both members of each couple, this study showcases how beliefs about cohabitation are formed within an intimate dyad. PMID:23087542

  8. The Role of Romantic Partners, Family and Peer Networks in Dating Couples' Views about Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Cohen, Jessica A; Smock, Pamela J

    2011-01-01

    Emerging adults are increasingly cohabiting, but few studies have considered the role of social context in the formation of their views of cohabitation. Drawing on 40 semi-structured interviews with dating couples, we explored the role of romantic partners, family, and peers on evaluations of cohabitation. In couples where each member had a differing view about cohabitation, one romantic partner's desire to not cohabit trumped their partner's more ambivalent feelings about cohabitation. The influence of family in the formation of cohabitation views was evident through a variety of mechanisms, including parental advice, social modeling, religious values, and economic control. Peers also played a key role, with couples using the vicarious trials of their peer networks to judge how cohabitation would affect their own relationship. By using a couple perspective, assessing reports from both members of each couple, this study showcases how beliefs about cohabitation are formed within an intimate dyad. PMID:23087542

  9. The Role of Romantic Partners, Family and Peer Networks in Dating Couples' Views about Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Cohen, Jessica A; Smock, Pamela J

    2011-01-01

    Emerging adults are increasingly cohabiting, but few studies have considered the role of social context in the formation of their views of cohabitation. Drawing on 40 semi-structured interviews with dating couples, we explored the role of romantic partners, family, and peers on evaluations of cohabitation. In couples where each member had a differing view about cohabitation, one romantic partner's desire to not cohabit trumped their partner's more ambivalent feelings about cohabitation. The influence of family in the formation of cohabitation views was evident through a variety of mechanisms, including parental advice, social modeling, religious values, and economic control. Peers also played a key role, with couples using the vicarious trials of their peer networks to judge how cohabitation would affect their own relationship. By using a couple perspective, assessing reports from both members of each couple, this study showcases how beliefs about cohabitation are formed within an intimate dyad.

  10. Comparing the associations between three types of adolescents' romantic involvement and their engagement in substance use.

    PubMed

    Beckmeyer, Jonathon J

    2015-07-01

    Using data on 838 middle adolescents, the current study compared the associations between three types of romantic involvement and alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Off-time (i.e., serious romantic relationships) but not on-time (i.e., romantic socializing and dating) types of involvement were expected to be associated with increased odds of using each substance. Participating in romantic socializing was unrelated to substance use and dating was only positively associated with alcohol use. Participation in serious romantic relationships, however, was associated with an increased likelihood of having used each substance. Associations did not differ between males and females. Based on these results some but not all forms of romantic involvement may place middle adolescents at risk for substance use. Implications for parents and relationship education are discussed. PMID:26005102

  11. Dating after late-life spousal loss: Does it compromise relationships with adult children?

    PubMed

    Carr, Deborah; Boerner, Kathrin

    2013-12-01

    In Widowhood in an American City (1973), Helena Lopata observed that widows struggle with new romantic relationships because their children often are resentful toward these new partners. Since the publication of Lopata's classic work, however, few studies have explored empirically the ways that widow(er)'s dating affects their relationships with children. We use prospective data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples study (CLOC) to explore: (1) the impact of bereaved spouses' dating on positive and negative aspects of parent-child relationships six and 18 months postloss; (2) the extent to which these associations are explained by preloss characteristics; and (3) the factors that moderate the association between widow(er) dating and parent-child relations. Multivariate analyses show that widowers who are interested in dating six months postloss report low levels of support and high levels of conflict with their children, yet widows report enhanced relationship quality. This pattern reflects the fact that men who are interested in dating do form new relationships, whereas women's interests are not translated into actual dating. Widowers' dating six months postloss compromises parent-child closeness among those with a history of strained parent-child relations, yet enhances closeness among those with historically good relationships. Dating takes a harsher toll on parent-daughter compared to parent-son relationships. Overall, dating threatens parent-child relationships in specific cases, yet it may also strengthen widow(er) s' parent-child bonds. We discuss the implications for the well-being of older widow(er)s and adult children.

  12. Convergence and Non-convergence in the Quality of Adolescent Relationships and its Association with Adolescent Adjustment and Young Adult Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Justin

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of identifying and examining both converging (matched relationship quality across one’s set of relationships) and non-converging (mixed relationship quality across one’s set of relationships), the present study used a pattern-centered approach to examine the different ways adolescent relationships pattern together among a large, national sample of U.S adolescents (aged 13–19). The study also examined how adolescent adjustment and young adult relationship quality varied across the different relationship patterns or constellations. The current study used latent class analysis and data from Add Health (n = 4,233), a national U.S. longitudinal study that spans adolescence and young adulthood, to uncover heterogeneity in adolescent relations with parents, friends, romantic partners, peers, and teachers. As predicted, patterns of both convergence and non-convergence were found, though patterns of non-convergence were more common than expected. Some patterns of non-convergence appear more stable (i.e., similar pattern found during both adolescence and young adulthood) than others. Also, no “high” converging pattern was found, indicating that few adolescents have “first-rate” relations in every relational domain. PMID:22334764

  13. Identity and Intimacy during Adolescence: Connections among Identity Styles, Romantic Attachment and Identity Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Pittman, Joe F.; Cadely, Hans Saint-Eloi; Tuggle, Felicia J.; Harrell-Levy, Marinda K.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of adult attachment and psychosocial development theories suggests that adolescence is a time when capacities for romantic intimacy and identity formation are co-evolving. The current study addressed direct, indirect and moderated associations among identity and romantic attachment constructs with a diverse sample of 2178 middle…

  14. Self-perceptions of romantic appeal in adolescents with a cleft lip and/or palate.

    PubMed

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie; Sharratt, Nicholas David; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2016-09-01

    During adolescence, romantic relationships are a key developmental milestone. Coupled with the increasing salience of appearance and social acceptance, adolescents with an appearance-altering condition may feel particularly vulnerable when it comes to romantic relationships. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of romantic experiences among adolescents with a cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P), and to investigate how these experiences could be related to depressive symptoms and global self-worth. The study included 661 Norwegian adolescents with CL/P, who were compared to a large national sample. The prevalence of romantic relationships was lower among adolescents with CL/P compared to the reference group, although the overall impact on depressive symptoms and global self-worth appeared to be low. This study is one of few to explore the impact of a congenital visible condition on experiences of romantic relationships and provides preliminary insight into a significant, yet complex topic.

  15. Self-perceptions of romantic appeal in adolescents with a cleft lip and/or palate.

    PubMed

    Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Stock, Nicola Marie; Sharratt, Nicholas David; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2016-09-01

    During adolescence, romantic relationships are a key developmental milestone. Coupled with the increasing salience of appearance and social acceptance, adolescents with an appearance-altering condition may feel particularly vulnerable when it comes to romantic relationships. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of romantic experiences among adolescents with a cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P), and to investigate how these experiences could be related to depressive symptoms and global self-worth. The study included 661 Norwegian adolescents with CL/P, who were compared to a large national sample. The prevalence of romantic relationships was lower among adolescents with CL/P compared to the reference group, although the overall impact on depressive symptoms and global self-worth appeared to be low. This study is one of few to explore the impact of a congenital visible condition on experiences of romantic relationships and provides preliminary insight into a significant, yet complex topic. PMID:27459395

  16. The Relationship between Anomia and Participation in Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harold; Hensley, James

    The influence of participation in adult basic education on attitudinal changes among a selected group of adults from rural Appalachia was studied. Specific aims of the study were: (1) to determine the relationship between participation in ABE and change in anomia, (2) to determine the extent of anomia among rural Appalachian adults with…

  17. Adult Sibling Relationships with Brothers and Sisters with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…

  18. Bouncing Back from a Breakup: Attachment, Time Perspective, Mental Health, and Romantic Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Steven P.; Sifers, Sarah K.

    2011-01-01

    Coping with a romantic breakup is a normal developmental task of emerging adulthood. Because of their role in influencing interpersonal relationships and adjustment, attachment history and time perspectives may influence resilience to romantic loss. In an online survey of 1,404 university students ages 18-25 who reported experiencing recent…

  19. Adults and Children with Asperger Syndrome: Exploring Adult Attachment Style, Marital Satisfaction and Satisfaction with Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Winnie; Peterson, Candida C.

    2011-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a disorder resembling autism in its problems with social interaction and cognitive flexibility. Today, a number of adults with AS marry and rear children. Yet there has been little research into the quality of their marital and parental relationships. This study explored romantic attachment style, marital satisfaction and…

  20. Maternal and Paternal Parenting during Adolescence: Forecasting Early Adult Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of maternal and paternal parenting behavior during adolescence to four domains of early adult functioning. Higher levels of maternal firm control were associated with more secure early adult romantic attachment and lower levels of educational achievement. There were no main effects for fathers, but paternal parenting…

  1. Romantic love modulates women's identification of men's body odors.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Johan N; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn

    2009-02-01

    Romantic love is one of our most potent and powerful emotions, but very little is known with respect to the hormonal and psychological mechanisms in play. Romantic love is thought to help intimate partners stay committed to each other and two mechanisms have been proposed to mediate this commitment: increased attention towards one's partner or deflected attention away from other potential partners. Both mechanisms find support in the literature. We explored the potential influence of each of these mechanisms by assessing women's ability to identify (ID) body odors originating from their boyfriend, a same-sex friend, and an opposite-sex friend and the relationship between this ability and the degree of romantic love expressed towards their boyfriend. We hypothesized that an increase in attention towards one's partner would render a positive correlation between ID of a boyfriend's body odor and degree of romantic love; conversely, we hypothesized that attention deflected away from other potential partners would render a negative correlation between ID of an opposite-sex friend's body odor and degree of romantic love for the boyfriend. Our results supported the deflection theory as we found a negative correlation between the degree of romantic love for the subjects' boyfriends and their ability to ID the body odor of an opposite-sex friend but not of their boyfriend or same-sex friend. Our results indicate that romantic love deflects attention away from potential new partners rather than towards the present partner. These changes are likely mediated by circulating neuropeptides and a testable model is suggested.

  2. The Relationships among Anomia, Attitude toward Adult Education, and Nonparticipation in Formal Adult Education Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garry, Mark W.

    A study was conducted to explore the relationship between anomia (a feeling of alienation, of being cut off from society), attitude toward adult education, and nonparticipation in formal adult education activities. The subjects of the study were adults who lived in a specific area in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which had the following characteristics:…

  3. More Bridges: Investigating the Relevance of Self-Report and Interview Measures of Adult Attachment for Marital and Caregiving Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Matte-Gagne, Celia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this report was to investigate the associations between attachment state of mind, romantic attachment style, and indices of maternal functioning in two relational spheres: the mother-child relationship (i.e., maternal sensitivity and child attachment security) and the marital relationship (i.e., mothers' and their partners' marital…

  4. Older Adults' Perceptions of Closeness in Sibling Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Helgola G.; And Others

    Decreasing numbers of peers in the lives of older adults give a special meaning to closeness in their sibling relationships. Interviews elicited perceptions of closeness from 30 adults. Content analyses revealed several patterns, i.e., participants perceived themselves as always having been close, as having grown more or less close over time, or…

  5. Relationships with Adult Children: Support Functions and Vulnerabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jeanne L.; And Others

    The family is the primary source of supportive services to the aged in this country. A study was undertaken to examine two issues related to developmental functions of relationships with adult children: the parent's view of assistance received from adult children, and age differences in those views; and, secondly, the functions of assistance…

  6. Family Relationships in Realistic Young Adult Fiction, 1987 to 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Cathie

    The purpose of this study was to determine how parents and family relationships are characterized in realistic young adult fiction. A random sample of 20 realistic young adult novels was selected from the American Library Association's Best Lists for the years 1987-1991. A content analysis of the novels focused on the following: (1) whether…

  7. Significance of Individuation in Adult Child--Parent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhl, Heike M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the significance of adult children's individuation for the adult child--parent relationship. Following Youniss, individuation was assessed via its dimensions of both connectedness and individuality. A sample of 349 participants between 20 and 47 years of age were given questionnaires containing scales from the Network of…

  8. Intergenerational Relationships and Affectual Solidarity between Grandparents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monserud, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether both parents' relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for young adults' perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18-23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: young adults with married biological parents (N =…

  9. Relationship Between Performance and Interest in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Thomas P.

    Focusing on readability and interest factors of instructional materials for adult education, the study examined the possible relationships between performance and expressed interest in individual reading passages and in categories of passages. Passages on one of three levels of difficulty were administered to 180 adult education students from…

  10. Sexual communication, satisfaction, and condom use behavior in friends with benefits and romantic partners.

    PubMed

    Lehmiller, Justin J; Vanderdrift, Laura E; Kelly, Janice R

    2014-01-01

    Although "friends with benefits" relationships (FWBRs) are common and have been the subject of significant media and research attention, relatively little is known about them, especially in terms of how they differ from other types of relationships. The present research sought to compare the sexual outcomes of FWBRs to those of traditional romantic relationships via an online survey. Results revealed that FWBR partners were less likely to be sexually exclusive, had a lower frequency of sexual interaction, were less sexually satisfied, and generally communicated less about sex than romantic partners did. However, compared to romantic partners, FWBR partners devoted relatively more of the time spent together to sexual activity, practiced safe sex more frequently, communicated more often about extradyadic sexual experiences, and reported a greater number of lifetime casual sex partners. These findings indicate that the sexual outcomes of FWBRs and romantic relationships are quite distinct and provide evidence of the potential public health implications associated with both casual and committed sexual relationships.

  11. The relationship of adult attachment dimensions to pain-related fear, hypervigilance, and catastrophizing.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2007-01-01

    Despite the prominence of fear-avoidance models of chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding the origins of pain-related fear. Based on the premise that insecure attachment could be a developmentally based origin of elevated fear of pain, associations between adult attachment dimensions and constructs included in fear-avoidance models of chronic pain were investigated. Consistent with Bartholomew and Horowitz's [Bartholomew K, Horowitz LM. Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model. J Pers Soc Psychol 1991;61:226-44.] model, attachment was conceptualized as being comprised of a model of self dimension (i.e., degree of anxiety regarding rejection based on beliefs of personal unworthiness) and a model of others dimension (i.e., degree of interpersonal mistrust and discomfort with interpersonal closeness). A large university student sample free of chronic pain (N=278) completed a measure of adult romantic attachment (i.e., Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire; [Brennan KA, Clark CL, Shaver PR. Self-report measurement of adult attachment: an integrative overview. In: Simpson JA, Rholes WS, editors. Attachment theory and close relationships. New York: The Guilford Press, 1998. p. 46-76.]), the Fear of Pain Questionnaire-III [McNeil DW, Rainwater AJ. Development of the fear of pain questionnaire - III. J Behav Med 1998;21:389-410.], the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire [McCracken LM. Attention to pain in persons with chronic pain: a behavioural approach. Behav Ther 1997;28:271-84.], and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale [Sullivan MJ, Bishop SR, Pivik J. The pain catastrophizing scale: development and validation. Psychol Assess 1995;7:24-532.]. It was hypothesized that insecure attachment would be positively associated with reports of pain-related fear, hypervigilance, and catastrophizing and that the model of self dimension would be the attachment variable most strongly associated with these variables

  12. Older Romantic Partners and Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Abigail A.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2010-01-01

    Although developmental theory predicts that adolescent romantic relationships have important benefits, empirical evidence suggests that they may also carry substantial psychosocial risk. This study uses data from 4,948 respondents (50% female) in Wave I and Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine the association…

  13. Adolescent Romantic Couples Influence on Substance Use in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudonis-Miller, Lauren C.; Lewis, Lisa; Tong, Yan; Tu, Wanzhu; Aalsma, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescent peer group affiliations are consistent predictors of substance use initiation and maintenance; it is less clear how adolescent "romantic" relationships influence substance use behavior. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Participants in the final dataset for the…

  14. Investigation of Starting Romantic Intimacy in Emerging Adulthood in Terms of Self-Esteem, Gender and Gender Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali; Atak, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims, firstly, to examine whether gender plays a decisive role in starting romantic intimacy during the emerging adulthood period; secondly, to compare emerging adults who are assigned different gender roles, in terms of starting romantic intimacy; and thirdly, to analyze the level at which self-esteem and gender roles predict the…

  15. Mothers' versus Fathers' Alcohol Abuse and Attachment in Adult Daughters of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…

  16. Implicit romantic fantasies and women's interest in personal power: a glass slipper effect?

    PubMed

    Rudman, Laurie A; Heppen, Jessica B

    2003-11-01

    Three experiments investigated the relationship between women's romantic fantasies and their interest in personal power. Romantic fantasies (associating partners with chivalry and heroism) were assessed using the Implicit Association Test and self-reports. In each experiment, women's implicit romantic fantasies were dissociated with their conscious beliefs. More important, implicit (but not explicit) romantic fantasies negatively predicted women's interest in personal power, including projected income, education goal, interest in high-status jobs, and group leadership appeal. By contrast, men's implicit romantic fantasies were not routinely linked to their interest in personal power. In concert, the findings are consistent with positing a "glass slipper" effect for women that may be an implicit barrier to gender equity.

  17. Social-Contextual Influences on Adolescent Romantic Involvement: The Constraints of Being a Numerical Minority.

    PubMed

    Raley, R Kelly; Sullivan, M Kate

    2010-01-01

    This research explores white-black differences in adolescent heterosexual romantic involvement and how these differences are shaped by social context. We find that, parallel to patterns of marriage in adulthood, Non-Hispanic white girls are more likely to be in a romantic relationship than African American girls. This is particularly true when we focus on heterosexual romantic relationships formed with schoolmates. Among boys, African Americans are more likely to be romantically involved than Non-Hispanic whites. We investigate the contribution of two broad types of social-demographic factors to these race-ethnic differences, population composition and normative climate. We develop theory about why being a numerical minority should lead to lower levels of relationship formation, especially when interracial relationships are rare. Results support the population composition hypotheses but not the idea that race-ethnic differences arise because of differences in normative climate.

  18. Romantic partner selection and socialization of young adolescents' substance use and behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Wargo Aikins, Julie; Simon, Valerie A; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2010-12-01

    This study examined romantic partner selection and socialization of substance use (cigarettes, alcohol) and behavior problems among a sample of 78 young adolescents (6th-8th graders) over eleven months. Adolescent and romantic partner behaviors were assessed before and after relationships were initiated via school records and self-report. Most selection and socialization effects were apparent for the eighth grade adolescents (at Time 1). Prior to their relationship, eighth graders and romantic partners were alike on alcohol use. In contrast, romantic socialization effects emerged for eighth graders' cigarette use and behavior problems. The nature of the partner socialization effects depended on the combination of adolescents' and partners' pre-relationship behaviors. Eighth graders who dated partners with fewer problems showed the greatest instability in their behavior problems and partner behavior predicted greater decreased in problem behaviors among adolescents with more problems. The implications of these findings are discussed within the broader context of adolescent peer relationships.

  19. Entry into Romantic Partnership is Associated with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    The, Natalie; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2009-01-01

    Body mass index is highly correlated between spouses; however, less is understood about the underlying mechanism(s) by which the development of obesity in one individual increases the risk of obesity in his/her spouse. The objective of this study is to investigate whether romantic partnership and duration of cohabitation are related to incident obesity and obesity-promoting behaviors. We used two datasets from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health: 1) 6,949 U.S. adolescents (wave II, 1996) followed into adulthood (wave III, 2001−02) and 2) 1,293 dating, cohabiting, and married romantic couples from wave III, including measured anthropometry and self-report behavior data. In the longitudinal cohort, we used sex-stratified logistic regression models to examine the risk of incident obesity by longitudinal romantic relationship status and duration of time spent living with a romantic partner. In the Couples Sample, we used multinomial logistic regression to predict concordance in outcomes: obesity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and screen time by romantic partnership and duration of time living with a romantic partner. Individuals who transitioned from single/dating to cohabiting or married were more likely to become obese than those who were dating at both waves. Partner concordance for negative, obesity-related behaviors was strongest for married couples and couples who lived together ≥2 years. The shared household environment may increase the likelihood of becoming obese and influence partner concordance and may be an important target for obesity intervention. PMID:19360012

  20. Pay attention to me! Late ERPs reveal gender differences in attention allocated to romantic partners.

    PubMed

    Burdwood, Erin N; Simons, Robert F

    2016-04-01

    The present study employed late ERPs to examine differences in the association between neural responses to romantic partners and relationship quality factors across men and women. Participants passively viewed photos of their romantic partners, celebrities, and strangers during a computerized facial processing task. All participants demonstrated enhanced positivity to partner faces at late ERP components (P3 and LPP), furthering the notion that significant others elicit more motivated and sustained attention than do other familiar or unfamiliar individuals. Neural responses to romantic partner faces were influenced by factors including overall relationship quality, investment, and communication quality, with associations varying by gender. Results highlight the key role that relationship quality factors play in the immediate processing of romantic partners-a finding with implications for couples counseling and research. PMID:26632025

  1. Health-related social control within older adults' relationships.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the size and composition of older adults' social control networks and investigated behavioral and affective responses to the experience of social control. Social control in the health domain refers to regulatory attempts by others (direct), and feelings of obligation and responsibility to others (indirect), that encourage engagement in a healthy lifestyle. Participants were 181 adults aged 65-80 years who completed a mail survey. On average, older adults reported having 3-5 people in their social network who exerted a positive influence on their health behaviors, with the size and composition of this network varying somewhat by marital and parental statuses. Social control was associated with both positive and negative behavioral and affective responses, depending on both the type of social control (direct vs indirect) and level of relationship satisfaction. Results indicate the importance of better understanding the conditions under which social relationships have beneficial versus detrimental effects on the well-being of older adults.

  2. Health-related social control within older adults' relationships.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the size and composition of older adults' social control networks and investigated behavioral and affective responses to the experience of social control. Social control in the health domain refers to regulatory attempts by others (direct), and feelings of obligation and responsibility to others (indirect), that encourage engagement in a healthy lifestyle. Participants were 181 adults aged 65-80 years who completed a mail survey. On average, older adults reported having 3-5 people in their social network who exerted a positive influence on their health behaviors, with the size and composition of this network varying somewhat by marital and parental statuses. Social control was associated with both positive and negative behavioral and affective responses, depending on both the type of social control (direct vs indirect) and level of relationship satisfaction. Results indicate the importance of better understanding the conditions under which social relationships have beneficial versus detrimental effects on the well-being of older adults. PMID:12198097

  3. "Doesn't Everyone Want That? It's Just a Given": Swedish Emerging Adults' Expectations on Future Parenthood and Work/Family Priorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisén, Ann; Carlsson, Johanna; Wängqvist, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated Swedish emerging adults' expectations on future parenthood through interviews with 124 Swedish emerging adults who were not yet parents. Thematic analysis showed that most participants were sure they wanted to become parents, but not right now. First, they wanted a stable financial situation, a romantic relationship,…

  4. The significance of romantic love for marriage.

    PubMed

    Willi, J

    1997-06-01

    In this study, 605 subjects were asked about romantic love and marriage. Married people differentiated themselves from single people with stable partners and divorced people with new partners by more frequently living together with their great love, more reciprocity in that love, and less disappointments in love relationships prior to the current relationship; but they also described themselves as less happy and satisfied than the single and divorced respondents, particularly with regard to tenderness, sex, and conversation with their partners. Independent of marital status, those who were greatly in love with their partners describe themselves as happier. Love at first sight, relative to a gradually developing love, nevertheless, did not have a worse prognosis for happiness in marriage. Being in love seems to be of greater importance for the prognosis of the marriage than marital happiness and satisfaction.

  5. Heterosexual Romantic Involvement and Depressive Symptoms in Black Adolescent Girls: Effects of Menarche and Perceived Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Research has accumulated to demonstrate that depressive symptoms are associated with heterosexual romantic involvement during adolescence, but relatively little work has linked this body of literature to the existing literature on associations between early pubertal timing and adolescent depressive symptoms. This study extends prior research by examining whether early menarche and heterosexual romantic involvement interact to predict depressive symptoms in a national sample of Black adolescent girls (N = 607; M age = 15 years; 32 % Caribbean Black and 68 % African American). We further examined whether the adverse effects of heterosexual romantic involvement and early menarche would be mediated by perceived social support from mothers, fathers, and peers. Path analysis results indicated that girls who report current involvement in a heterosexual romantic relationship also reported high levels of perceived peer support than girls with no romantic involvement. High levels of perceived peer support, in turn, predicted low levels of depressive symptoms. Romantically involved girls with an early menarche also reported significantly less depressive symptoms than girls not romantically involved with an early menarche. Neither perceived maternal support nor perceived paternal support mediated associations between heterosexual romantic involvement, menarche, and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that individual and social factors can impede heterosexual romantic involvement effects on depressive symptoms in Black adolescent girls. PMID:25678429

  6. 'Love of the heart': romantic love among young mothers in Mali.

    PubMed

    Sølbeck, Ditte Enemark

    2010-05-01

    This paper calls attention to an ideal of romantic love among young unmarried mothers in Mali. It demonstrates that romantic love constitutes a motivating force for the agency of young Malian mothers who invest themselves in hopes of romantic outcomes from their relationships. Like the majority of people in Mali, the young mothers in this study dedicated a considerable time each weekday to watching a Venezuelan soap opera, which could be regarded as offering a modern version of Romeo and Juliet. Yet, romance is not the only thing that matters in young mothers' ideals of love. Materiality plays an important role as well. Thus, young mothers have multiple motives for engaging in relationships with men: they seek both romance and material stability, which is why an either love or exchange perspective is insufficient when examining the topic of romantic love in a Malian context. PMID:20169480

  7. 'Love of the heart': romantic love among young mothers in Mali.

    PubMed

    Sølbeck, Ditte Enemark

    2010-05-01

    This paper calls attention to an ideal of romantic love among young unmarried mothers in Mali. It demonstrates that romantic love constitutes a motivating force for the agency of young Malian mothers who invest themselves in hopes of romantic outcomes from their relationships. Like the majority of people in Mali, the young mothers in this study dedicated a considerable time each weekday to watching a Venezuelan soap opera, which could be regarded as offering a modern version of Romeo and Juliet. Yet, romance is not the only thing that matters in young mothers' ideals of love. Materiality plays an important role as well. Thus, young mothers have multiple motives for engaging in relationships with men: they seek both romance and material stability, which is why an either love or exchange perspective is insufficient when examining the topic of romantic love in a Malian context.

  8. Romantic Love vs. Drug Addiction May Inspire a New Treatment for Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Zhang, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses the evidences from our recent studies to compare the neural alterations between romantic love and drug addiction, moreover we also compare the behavioral and neurochemical alterations between romantic love and drug addiction. From the behavioral comparisons we find that there are many similarities between the early stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage romantic love is considered as a behavioral addiction, while significant differences exist between the later stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage of romantic love eventually developed into a prosocial behavior. The neuroimaging comparisons suggest that romantic love and drug addiction both display the functional enhancement in reward and emotion regulation network. Except the similar neural changes, romantic love display special function enhancement in social cognition network, while drug addiction display special dysfunction in cognitive control network. The neurochemical comparisons show that there are many similarities in the dopamine (DA) system, while significant differences in oxytocin (OT) system for romantic love and drug addiction. These findings indicate that the functional alterations in reward and emotion regulation network and the DA system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a behavioral addiction, and the functional alterations in social cognition network and the OT system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a prosocial behavior. It

  9. Constraints on the adult-offspring size relationship in protists.

    PubMed

    Caval-Holme, Franklin; Payne, Jonathan; Skotheim, Jan M

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between adult and offspring size is an important aspect of reproductive strategy. Although this filial relationship has been extensively examined in plants and animals, we currently lack comparable data for protists, whose strategies may differ due to the distinct ecological and physiological constraints on single-celled organisms. Here, we report measurements of adult and offspring sizes in 3888 species and subspecies of foraminifera, a class of large marine protists. Foraminifera exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies; species of similar adult size may have offspring whose sizes vary 100-fold. Yet, a robust pattern emerges. The minimum (5th percentile), median, and maximum (95th percentile) offspring sizes exhibit a consistent pattern of increase with adult size independent of environmental change and taxonomic variation over the past 400 million years. The consistency of this pattern may arise from evolutionary optimization of the offspring size-fecundity trade-off and/or from cell-biological constraints that limit the range of reproductive strategies available to single-celled organisms. When compared with plants and animals, foraminifera extend the evidence that offspring size covaries with adult size across an additional five orders of magnitude in organism size.

  10. Long-distance romantic couples: an attachment theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Carole Pistole, M

    2010-04-01

    This article provides an attachment theoretical perspective of long-distance romantic relationships (LDRs). Attachment applies specifically to the separation-reunion cycle that is an inherent aspect of LDRs. Attachment theory components and normative functioning are presented along with illustrative examples from LDR reports to demonstrate the theory's relevance. Counseling implications, related to proximity maintenance and separation protest, the attachment-caregiving interface, and other issues (e.g., culture), are followed by research considerations and the conclusion. PMID:20433590

  11. Long-distance romantic couples: an attachment theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Carole Pistole, M

    2010-04-01

    This article provides an attachment theoretical perspective of long-distance romantic relationships (LDRs). Attachment applies specifically to the separation-reunion cycle that is an inherent aspect of LDRs. Attachment theory components and normative functioning are presented along with illustrative examples from LDR reports to demonstrate the theory's relevance. Counseling implications, related to proximity maintenance and separation protest, the attachment-caregiving interface, and other issues (e.g., culture), are followed by research considerations and the conclusion.

  12. The Nature of Attachment Relationships and Grief Responses in Older Adults: An Attachment Path Model of Grief

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Yan; Kane, Robert T.; Priddis, Lynn; Hudson, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Background Various researchers have theorized that bereaved adults who report non-secure attachment are at higher risk of pathological grief. Yet past findings on avoidant attachment representations and grief have yielded limited and contradictory outcomes. Little research has been conducted with older adults to identify the psychological processes that mediate between self-reported attachment representations and the patterns of grief. Objective To examine the impacts of avoidant attachment and anxious attachment dimensions on emotion and non-acceptance, in response to the loss of a conjugal partner, and the mediating effect of yearning thoughts. Design Men (N = 21) and women (N = 68) aged 60 years and above who had lost a partner within the last 12 to 72 months were invited to participate. Participants rated their levels of yearning thoughts about the deceased, emotions and non-acceptance on the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG-Present), and their type and level of general romantic attachment on the Experiences In Close Relationship questionnaire (ECR). Results Structural equation modelling (SEM) indicated that individuals who reported higher levels of avoidant attachment reported less emotional responses and less non-acceptance. SEM also showed that individuals who reported higher levels of anxious attachment reported greater emotional responses and greater non-acceptance. SEM further indicated that these relationships were mediated by yearning thoughts. Conclusion People adopt different grief coping patterns according to their self-reported attachment representations, with the nature of their yearning thoughts influencing the process. Grief therapy may be organized according to individual differences in attachment representations. PMID:26462062

  13. Relationships among abilities in elderly adults: a time lag analysis.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, B; Brookshire, R G

    1985-11-01

    Previous research has suggested that relationships among primary abilities said to measure crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) intelligences remain the same across cohorts if age is held constant, despite generational changes in the levels of abilities. The present study assessed differences in relationship among several components of Gf/Gc in two independent samples of elderly adults, tested in 1975 and 1979 by the same investigator. The 1975 sample consisted of 54 elderly adults aged 59 to 76 years (M = 67.7); the 1979 sample of 50 elderly adults was aged 55 to 82 (M = 69.4). Time-lagged differences in relationships among abilities measuring Gf and Gc (induction, figural relations, and verbal comprehension) were investigated using confirmatory factor analytic procedures. Although a two factor (Gf, Gc) model was common to both the 1975 and 1979 samples, significant differences in unique variances were observed across samples. Some, albeit weaker, evidence was found suggesting time-lagged differences in factor covariances. These data, for the most part, support previous research with younger individuals, suggesting consistency in factor structure across time and cohort.

  14. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  15. Intimacy motivations and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adoption intentions among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in romantic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Golub, Sarit A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the United States, men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary partnerships are at elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new biomedical prevention strategy, has potential to reduce HIV transmission. This study examined predictors of PrEP adoption intentions among HIV-negative MSM in primary partnerships. Methods The sample included HIV-negative MSM (n = 164) who participated in an ongoing cross-sectional study with an in-person interview examining PrEP adoption intentions. Results Higher HIV risk perception, intimacy motivations for condomless sex, recent condomless anal sex with outside partners, education, and age were each independently associated with PrEP adoption intentions. In a multivariate model, only age, education, and intimacy motivations for condomless sex were significantly associated with PrEP adoption intentions. Conclusions Intimacy motivations may play a central role in PrEP adoption for MSM couples. Incorporating relationship dynamics into biomedical strategies is a promising avenue for research and intervention. PMID:25124457

  16. Contributors to Adult Sibling Relationships and Intention to Care of Siblings of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of childhood sibling relationships to adult sibling relationships and intention to provide care was investigated in a sample in which one member of each dyad had Down syndrome. Thirty-nine adult siblings of an adult with Down syndrome who had participated in a study of sibling relationships in childhood/adolescence provided data…

  17. Ideals as Anchors for Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Margaret; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Research on young-adult sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa typically conceptualizes sex as an individual-level risk behavior. We introduce a new approach that connects the conditions surrounding the initiation of sex with subsequent relationship well-being, examines relationships as sequences of interdependent events, and indexes relationship experiences to individually held ideals. New card-sort data from southern Malawi capture young women’s relationship experiences and their ideals in a sequential framework. Using optimal matching, we measure the distance between ideal and experienced relationship sequences to (1) assess the associations between ideological congruence and perceived relationship well-being, (2) compare this ideal-based approach to other experience-based alternatives, and (3) identify individual- and couple-level correlates of congruence between ideals and experiences in the romantic realm. We show that congruence between ideals and experiences conveys relationship well-being along four dimensions: expressions of love and support, robust communication habits, perceived biological safety, and perceived relationship stability. We further show that congruence is patterned by socioeconomic status and supported by shared ideals within romantic dyads. We argue that conceiving of ideals as anchors for how sexual experiences are manifest advances current understandings of romantic relationships, and we suggest that this approach has applications for other domains of life. PMID:27110031

  18. Establishment of safety paradigms and trust in emerging adult relationships

    PubMed Central

    Mullinax, Margo; Sanders, Stephanie; Higgins, Jenny; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2016-01-01

    There is a critical need to understand the interplay between relationship trust and public health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of emerging adult women’s processes of establishing trust in sexual relationships. Twenty-five women aged 18–24 years participated in semi-structured interviews. Throughout the interviews, women compared and contrasted experiences in which they felt comfortable engaging in sexual intercourse with a partner versus times in which they did not feel comfortable. Analysis was based on a critical qualitative research orientation. When asked to speak to instances when they felt comfortable having sex, most women spoke about relationship trust. Many participants conceptualised trust based on past experiences with bad relationships or sexual violence. Based on their previous experiences of feeling unsafe or undervalued, emotional and physical security became prioritised in relationship development. Trust was developed through friendship, communication over time, and through shared life experiences. This research is among the first to qualitatively investigate trust formation and other impersonal dynamics related to sexual health decision-making. Insights from this study should be translated into future action by public health practitioners to promote healthy sexual relationships and communication about sexual health topics as a form of trust building. PMID:26943023

  19. Social Relationships, Leisure Activity, and Health in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Methods Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modelling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. Results The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. Discussion & Conclusions The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. PMID:24884905

  20. Humor in romantic contexts: do men participate and women evaluate?

    PubMed

    Wilbur, Christopher J; Campbell, Lorne

    2011-07-01

    Several lines of research illustrate that humor plays a pivotal role in relationship initiation. The current article applies sexual selection theory to argue that humor production is a fitness indicator, allowing men to transmit information tacitly about their underlying qualities. And whereas prior research has emphasized women's appreciation of humor as a signal of interest, the focus here is on how women evaluate prospective suitors' humorous offerings. Two studies, including an ecologically valid study of online dating advertisements, provided evidence for men's production and women's evaluation of humor in romantic contexts. A third study revealed that women's evaluations of potential mates' humor are predictive of their romantic interest. Moreover, this article shows that preferences for and perceptions of humor are associated with preferences for and perceptions of intelligence and warmth, consistent with the argument that one function of humor is as a fitness indicator that provides information about underlying mate quality.

  1. Complicated Grief & Depression in Young Adults: Personality & Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Herberman Mash, Holly B.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Shear, M. Katherine; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Young adults experience problematic responses to loss more often than is commonly recognized. Few empirical studies have examined the contribution of intra- and interpersonal characteristics to grief and depression in bereaved young adults. This study investigated the association of dependency and quality of the relationship with the deceased (i.e., depth and conflict) with complicated grief (CG) and depression. Participants were 157 young adults aged 17–29 who experienced loss of a family member or close friend within the past three years (M = 1.74 years). Participants completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief, Beck Depression Inventory, Depth and Conflict subscales of the Quality of Relationships Inventory, and the Dependency subscale of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire. Relationships among dependency and interpersonal depth and conflict and CG and depression were examined through analyses of covariance. Sixteen percent of participants met criteria for CG and 34% had mild to severe depression. Dependency and depth were independently related to CG and dependency was related to depression, but the pattern of associations was somewhat different for each outcome. Greater depth was associated with CG, at both high and low levels of dependency. High levels of dependency were related to more depressive symptoms. Interpretation of the findings is limited by the relatively small sample size and cross-sectional design. CG and depression are related but distinct responses to loss. Although dependency is associated with both CG and depression following loss, relationships between the bereaved and deceased that are characterized by high levels of depth are particularly related to the development of CG symptoms. PMID:24921421

  2. Health and Well-Being in Emerging Adults’ Same-Sex Relationships: Critical Questions and Directions for Research in Developmental Science

    PubMed Central

    Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Hammack, Phillip L.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have yet to account for the potentially unique experiences of emerging adults who are in or seeking to be in a relationship with a same-sex romantic partner. This paper articulates an agenda for research focused on better understanding and addressing the health and well-being of emerging adults in or pursuing same-sex romantic relationships. We provide a general summary of what is known about health and well-being in same-sex relationships, followed by an overview of the current and changing social climate surrounding same-sex relationships. We point out how recent historical changes present sexual minority emerging adults with unique relational benefits and challenges that have not been examined within the social and health sciences. We conclude by proposing a set of research questions to help develop knowledge needed to improve the health and well-being of emerging adults in or pursuing same-sex relationships. PMID:27588221

  3. Machiavellianism and Adult Attachment in General Interpersonal Relationships and Close Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Ináncsi, Tamás; Láng, András; Bereczkei, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Up to the present, the relationship between Machiavellianism and adult attachment has remained a question to be answered in the psychological literature. That is why this study focused on the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment towards significant others in general interpersonal relationships and in intimate-close relationships. Two attachment tests (Relationship Questionnaire and long-form of Experiences in Close Relationship) and the Mach-IV test were conducted on a sample consisting of 185 subjects. Results have revealed that Machiavellian subjects show a dismissing-avoidant attachment style in their general interpersonal relationships, while avoidance is further accompanied by some characteristics of attachment anxiety in their intimate-close relationships. Our findings further refine the relationship between Machiavellianism and dismissing-avoidant attachment. Machiavellian individuals not only have a negative representation of significant others, but they also tend to seek symbiotic closeness in order to exploit their partners. This ambitendency in distance regulation might be particularly important in understanding the vulnerability of Machiavellian individuals. PMID:27247647

  4. Parenting across Racial and Class Lines: Assortative Mating Patterns of New Parents Who Are Married, Cohabiting, Dating or No Longer Romantically Involved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Joshua R.; Harknett, Kristen

    2006-01-01

    We examine the assortative mating patterns of new parents who are married, cohabiting, romantically involved and no longer romantically involved. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study, we find that relationship status at the time of a birth depends mainly on father's race rather than on whether mother and father's…

  5. Parental Romantic Expectations and Parent-Child Sexuality Communication in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Laura G.; Himle, Michael B.; Strassberg, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, parental romantic expectations, and parental provision of sexuality and relationship education in an online sample of 190 parents of youth 12-18 years of age with a parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Regression analyses were conducted…

  6. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners

    PubMed Central

    Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

  7. Multidimensional Architecture of Love: From Romantic Narratives to Psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Karandashev, Victor; Clapp, Stuart

    2015-12-01

    Romantic love has been explored by writers for centuries revealing multiple emotions and feelings related to this phenomenon. Scientific efforts to understand love began in the mid-twentieth century and greatly advanced the topic in the past few decades. Several instruments measuring love were developed. They are still, however, limited in their scope. The purpose of our study was to explore love's emotional complexity through discourse analysis of romantic narratives and apply the constructs identified in those narratives to the reality of love relationships. In the first study, the discourse analysis of quotes selected from a representative sample of romantic narratives lead to a comprehensive set of items measuring the variety of love constructs. Second and third studies, utilizing 498 participants of various ages, empirically explored the diversity of love constructs and their architecture. The study brought many constructs to the arena of love research. A hierarchical cluster analysis allowed depicting these dimensions in varying models. Mental representations of love structures varied depending on the participants' mental complexity and other factors.

  8. Regulation of Romantic Love Feelings: Preconceptions, Strategies, and Feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Langeslag, Sandra J. E.; van Strien, Jan W.

    2016-01-01

    Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new) activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP) amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300–400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700–3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700–3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative effects of

  9. Regulation of Romantic Love Feelings: Preconceptions, Strategies, and Feasibility.

    PubMed

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van Strien, Jan W

    2016-01-01

    Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new) activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP) amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300-400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative effects of romantic

  10. Regulation of Romantic Love Feelings: Preconceptions, Strategies, and Feasibility.

    PubMed

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van Strien, Jan W

    2016-01-01

    Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new) activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP) amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300-400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative effects of romantic

  11. The Role of Important Non-Parental Adults (VIPs) in the Lives of Older Adolescents: A Comparison of Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The…

  12. The Role of Romantic Partners, Family, and Peer Networks in Dating Couples' Views about Cohabitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Wendy D.; Cohen, Jessica A.; Smock, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging adults are increasingly cohabiting, but few studies have considered the role of social context in the formation of their views of cohabitation. Drawing on 40 semistructured interviews with dating couples, we explored the role of romantic partners, family, and peers on evaluations of cohabitation. In couples where each member had a…

  13. Older Men's and Women's Relationships with Adult Kin: How Equitable Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Peterson, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Sought global assessments of marital equitability from 62 older adults, and compared men's and women's global equity feelings concerning their relationships with spouses, aged parents, and adult children. Forty younger adults rated equity of their marriages and relationships with parents and grandparents. Majority of both generations' involvements…

  14. Between-sex differences in romantic jealousy: substance or spin? A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Fussell, Nicola J; Stollery, Brian T

    2012-01-01

    An influential evolutionary account of romantic jealousy proposes that natural selection shaped a specific sexually-dimorphic psychological mechanism in response to relationship threat. However, this account has faced considerable theoretical and methodological criticism and it remains unclear whether putative sex differences in romantic jealousy actually exist and, if they do, whether they are consistent with its predictions. Given the multidimensional nature of romantic jealousy, the current study employed a qualitative design to examine these issues. We report the results of sixteen semi-structured interviews that were conducted with heterosexual men and women with the purpose of exploring the emotions, cognitions and behaviors that formed their subjective, lived experience in response to relationship threat. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed four super-ordinate themes ("threat appraisal", "emotional episodes", "sex-specific threat" and "forgive and forget") and unequivocal sex differences in romantic jealousy consistent with the evolutionary account. Self-esteem, particularly when conceptualized as an index of mate value, emerged as an important proximal mediator for both sexes. However, specific outcomes were dependent upon domains central to the individual's self concept that were primarily sex-specific. The findings are integrated within the context of existing self-esteem and evolutionary theory and future directions for romantic jealousy research are suggested. PMID:22833855

  15. Implicit and explicit preferences for physical attractiveness in a romantic partner: a double dissociation in predictive validity.

    PubMed

    Eastwick, Paul W; Eagly, Alice H; Finkel, Eli J; Johnson, Sarah E

    2011-11-01

    Five studies develop and examine the predictive validity of an implicit measure of the preference for physical attractiveness in a romantic partner. Three hypotheses were generally supported. First, 2 variants of the go/no-go association task revealed that participants, on average, demonstrate an implicit preference (i.e., a positive spontaneous affective reaction) for physical attractiveness in a romantic partner. Second, these implicit measures were not redundant with a traditional explicit measure: The correlation between these constructs was .00 on average, and the implicit measures revealed no reliable sex differences, unlike the explicit measure. Third, explicit and implicit measures exhibited a double dissociation in predictive validity. Specifically, explicit preferences predicted the extent to which attractiveness was associated with participants' romantic interest in opposite-sex photographs but not their romantic interest in real-life opposite-sex speed-daters or confederates. Implicit preferences showed the opposite pattern. This research extends prior work on implicit processes in romantic relationships and offers the first demonstration that any measure of a preference for a particular characteristic in a romantic partner (an implicit measure of physical attractiveness, in this case) predicts individuals' evaluation of live potential romantic partners.

  16. Implicit and explicit preferences for physical attractiveness in a romantic partner: a double dissociation in predictive validity.

    PubMed

    Eastwick, Paul W; Eagly, Alice H; Finkel, Eli J; Johnson, Sarah E

    2011-11-01

    Five studies develop and examine the predictive validity of an implicit measure of the preference for physical attractiveness in a romantic partner. Three hypotheses were generally supported. First, 2 variants of the go/no-go association task revealed that participants, on average, demonstrate an implicit preference (i.e., a positive spontaneous affective reaction) for physical attractiveness in a romantic partner. Second, these implicit measures were not redundant with a traditional explicit measure: The correlation between these constructs was .00 on average, and the implicit measures revealed no reliable sex differences, unlike the explicit measure. Third, explicit and implicit measures exhibited a double dissociation in predictive validity. Specifically, explicit preferences predicted the extent to which attractiveness was associated with participants' romantic interest in opposite-sex photographs but not their romantic interest in real-life opposite-sex speed-daters or confederates. Implicit preferences showed the opposite pattern. This research extends prior work on implicit processes in romantic relationships and offers the first demonstration that any measure of a preference for a particular characteristic in a romantic partner (an implicit measure of physical attractiveness, in this case) predicts individuals' evaluation of live potential romantic partners. PMID:21767032

  17. Adult Relationships in Multiple Contexts and Associations with Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capp, Gordon; Berkowitz, Ruth; Sullivan, Kathrine; Astor, Ron Avi; De Pedro, Kris; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Benbenishty, Rami; Rice, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Adult relationships provide critical support for adolescents because of their potential to foster positive development and provide protective influences. Few studies examine multiple ecological layers of adult relationships in connection with well-being and depression. This study examines the influence of relationships from multiple…

  18. Adult Children of Divorce and Relationship Education: Implications for Counselors and Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veronica I.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the impact of relationship education on young adults' optimism about relationships and attitudes toward marriage whose parents were divorced and offers implications and suggestions for counselors and counselor educators. Previous research in the area of intimate and family relationships has demonstrated that adults who have…

  19. Relationship Duration Moderation of Identity Status Differences in Emerging Adults' Same-Sex Friendship Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, H. Durell

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has not yielded consistent identity and intimacy associations for female and male emerging adults. Intimacy varies with time spent in a relationship, and relationship duration may explain variations in the identity process association with intimacy. Data from 278 female and 156 male emerging adults revealed relationship duration…

  20. Interpersonal Effects of Suffering in Older Adult Caregiving Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Monin, Joan K.; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Examining the interpersonal effects of suffering in the context of family caregiving is an important step to a broader understanding of how exposure to suffering affects humans. In this review article, we first describe existing evidence that being exposed to the suffering of a care recipient (conceptualized as psychological distress, physical symptoms, and existential/spiritual distress) directly influences caregivers’ emotional experiences. Drawing from past theory and research, we propose that caregivers experience similar, complementary, and/or defensive emotions in response to care recipient suffering through mechanisms such as cognitive empathy, mimicry, and conditioned learning, placing caregivers at risk for psychological and physical morbidity. We then describe how gender, relationship closeness, caregiving efficacy, and individual differences in emotion regulation moderate these processes. Finally, we provide directions for future research to deepen our understanding of interpersonal phenomena among older adults, and we discuss implications for clinical interventions to alleviate the suffering of both caregivers and care recipients. PMID:19739924

  1. Contributors to Adult Sibling Relationships and Intention to Care of Siblings of Individuals With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cuskelly, Monica

    2016-05-01

    The contribution of childhood sibling relationships to adult sibling relationships and intention to provide care was investigated in a sample in which one member of each dyad had Down syndrome. Thirty-nine adult siblings of an adult with Down syndrome who had participated in a study of sibling relationships in childhood/adolescence provided data about the quality of current relationships and of their intention to provide care for their brother/sister with Down syndrome in the future. Only behavior problems in the child with Down syndrome predicted warmth of the current adult relationship. Although adult sibling relationships were reported to be warm, the quality of neither the current nor the past relationship was associated with the reported intention to provide care.

  2. Relationship between childhood body mass index and young adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Minto; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Nageotte, Christian G.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R.; Zoratti, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between obesity and asthma is an area of debate. Objective To investigate the association of elevated body mass index (BMI) at a young age and young adult asthma. Methods BMI, questionnaires, and serologic tests results were analyzed in participants of a predominantly white, middle-class, population-based birth cohort from Detroit, Michigan at 6 to 8 and 18 years of age. Asthma diagnosis was based on medical record data. Allergen specific IgE was analyzed using UniCAP, with atopy defined as 1 or more allergen specific IgE levels of 0.35 kU/L or higher. Overweight was defined as a BMI in 85th percentile or higher. Results A total of 10.6% of overweight males at 6 to 8 years of age had current asthma at 18 to 20 years of age compared with 3.2% of males who were normal or underweight (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–11.0; P=.048). A total of 19.6% of females who were overweight at 6 to 8 years of age had asthma compared with 10.3% of females who were normal or underweight (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9–3.9; P=.09). After adjustment for atopy at 6 to 8 years of age, overweight males had an adjusted RR of 4.7 (95% CI, 1.4–16.2; P=.01), and overweight females had an adjusted RR of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P=.15). Change in BMI between 6 to 8 years of age and 18 to 20 years of age was also examined. Patients with persistently elevated BMI exhibited increased risk of asthma as young adults (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7) but not with an increasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2) or a decreasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2). Conclusion Overweight males 6 to 8 years of age have increased risk of asthma as young adults. Being overweight remains a predictor of asthma after adjustment for early atopy. A similar but not statistically significant trend was also seen among overweight females. Overweight body habitus throughout childhood is a risk factor for young adult asthma. PMID:23176878

  3. Intergenerational Transmission of Relationship Aggression: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ming; Durtschi, Jared A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether physical and verbal aggression in the family of origin were associated with similar patterns of aggression in young adult couples. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 focal individuals who were followed from adolescence to adulthood. Results suggested that aggression in the family when focal participants were adolescents predicted aggression with romantic partners when participants were adults. The association between interparental aggression and later aggression in adult romantic unions was partially mediated through parents’ aggression to focal participants when they were adolescents. Both physical and verbal aggression revealed the same pattern of findings. All together, these findings are consistent with a developmental-interactional perspective (Capaldi & Gorman-Smith, 2003) concerning the developmental origins of aggression in intimate relationships. PMID:21171767

  4. A prospective study of intraindividual and peer influences on adolescents' heterosexual romantic and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Siebenbruner, Jessica; Collins, W Andrew

    2004-08-01

    Theories and empirical studies of adolescent sexual behavior have identified the contributions of personal attributes and social experiences; however, it is rare that models have clarified developmental pathways to adolescent sexual behavior that include (1) factors assessed prior to and early in adolescence and (2) dyadic experiences in adolescence that provide the opportunity for sexual behavior (i.e., dating). Using data from a prospective study, structural equation modeling was used to test a model predicting adolescent sexual behavior at age 19, denoted by the number of lifetime sexual partners. Predictors examined were sociability and impulsivity assessed at 30 months of age, physical characteristics and experiences with peers measured at age 12-13, the age of first romantic relationship, and frequency of alcohol use at age 16. The pathway to greater sexual involvement was marked by some desired personal attributes (e.g., sociability) and peer experiences (e.g., higher quality friendships). These associations were mediated, however, by earlier initiation of romantic relationships and more frequent use of alcohol in middle adolescence. Earlier initiation of romantic relationships and more frequent alcohol use were predicted by greater sociability and less impulsivity in childhood, higher quality friendships and greater peer acceptance in early adolescence, and a more mature appearance and physical attractiveness (among females) at age 13. The findings imply a complex pathway that leads to a greater accumulation of sexual partners by age 19. This pathway begins in childhood and includes individual qualities, peer acceptance, romantic relationships, and alcohol use. PMID:15162084

  5. Adolescents' Anxiety in Dating Situations: The Potential Role of Friends and Romantic Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Mackey, Eleanor Race

    2007-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interpersonal functioning, including the qualities of their closest friendships and romantic relationships, as predictors of dating/heterosocial anxiety. An ethnically diverse sample of 781 adolescents (57% girls; ages 15-19 years) completed measures that assessed the number and type of close friends, the presence…

  6. Peripubertal Girls' Romantic and Platonic Involvement with Boys: Associations with Body Image and Depression Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compian, Laura; Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the relationship of both romantic and platonic involvement with boys, as well as pubertal status, to body image and depression symptoms among an ethnically diverse sample of sixth-grade girls. Participants were 157 early adolescent girls (ages 10-13) who completed self-report measures designed to assess girls' level of…

  7. The Relation between Identity Status and Romantic Attachment Style in Middle and Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Steven L.; Weems, Carl F.; Rodriguez, Eileen T.; Zamora, Irving J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the linkages between identity formation and romantic attachment in an ethnically diverse sample of high school (n=189) and college students (n=324). Individuals in the foreclosed identity status group had significantly lower relationship avoidance scores than the diffused identity status group, and the foreclosed group had…

  8. Family Cohesion and Romantic and Sexual Initiation: A Three Wave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Graaf, Hanneke; van de Schoot, Rens; Woertman, Liesbeth; Hawk, Skyler T.; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Although the relation between family relationships and the timing of sexual debut has been the focus of many studies, research on mediating factors is scarce. This study examines whether low levels of family cohesion result in an earlier onset of romantic and sexual experiences, and whether the link between family cohesion and an early sexual…

  9. Predicting Responses to Bids for Sexual and Romantic Escalation in Cross-Sex Friendships.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Valerie; Weger, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The transition from a platonic cross-sex friendship to a more intimate sexual and/or romantic relationship is an interesting, yet somewhat understudied, phenomenon. In this study, we introduce and test relationship adaptation theory to predict cross-sex friends' predispositions for reciprocating a bid for escalation to an exclusive dating or friends with benefits (FWB) relationship. Analyses of data collected from 288 participants found participants' dating status, anticipated rewards from escalating the relationship, expected social disapproval, friendship quality, and their friend's attractiveness predicted disposition to reciprocating a cross-sex friend's hypothetical bid for escalation to an exclusive romantic escalation. In addition, participants' biological sex, anticipated rewards from escalating the relationship, expected social disapproval, sexual permissiveness, and their friend's attractiveness emerged as predictors of disposition toward a friend's hypothetical bid to escalate a platonic friendship to a FWB relationship. PMID:26133674

  10. Negative childhood experiences and adult love relationships: the role of internal working models of attachment.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Gerard; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated links between internal working models of attachment and the quality of adult love relationships in a high risk sample of women (n = 34), all of whom reported negative parenting in childhood. Half of the sample was identified as having a history of satisfying adult love relationships, while the remainder had experienced ongoing adult relationship problems. Measures of internal working models of attachment were made using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). A strong association was found between attachment classifications and the quality of adult love relationships. In addition, women with satisfying love relationships demonstrated significantly higher coherence of mind ratings than those with poor relationship histories. Insecure working models of attachment were associated with problems in adult love relationships. Although secure/autonomous attachment status was linked to optimal adult relationship outcomes, some women with a history of satisfying love relationships had insecure working models of attachment. These results suggest that the ways that adults process early experiences may influence later psychosocial functioning.

  11. Relationship Characteristics and the Relationship Context of Nonmarital First Births Among Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Manlove, Jennifer; Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Welti, Kate; Scott, Mindy E.; Ikramullah, Erum

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine whether and how characteristics of the relationship dyad are linked to nonmarital childbearing among young adult women, additionally distinguishing between cohabiting and nonunion births. Methods We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort and discrete-time event history methods to examine these objectives. Results Our analyses found that similarities and differences between women and their most recent sexual partner in educational attainment, disengagement from work or school, race/ethnicity, and age were linked to the risk and context of nonmarital childbearing. For example, partner disengagement (from school and work) was associated with increased odds of a nonmarital birth regardless of whether the woman herself was disengaged. Additionally, having a partner of a different race/ethnicity was associated with nonmarital childbearing for whites, but not for blacks and Hispanics. Conclusions We conclude that relationship characteristics are an important dimension of the lives of young adults that influence their odds of having a birth outside of marriage. PMID:22942478

  12. Journal Writing for Improved Learning and Classroom Relationships in Public Schools: Applications for Disadvantaged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores-Isom, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    This review is an exploration into whether classroom methods similar to those applied by K-12 teachers are valid for adults and can be successfully applied to classrooms for disadvantaged adults: specifically, journal writing as a tool for improving learning and classroom relationships. The literature dispels the myth that teaching adults differs…

  13. A Phenomenological Study of Falling out of Romantic Love

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailor, Joanni L.

    2013-01-01

    Romantic love is considered a necessary ingredient in marriage. In this study, the experience of falling out of romantic love with one's spouse was examined. Eight individuals who had fallen out of romantic love with their spouse were interviewed. By using Moustakas' Transcendental Phenomenological method, several themes emerged which provided a…

  14. Adult Children and Their Fathers: Relationship Changes 20 Years after Parental Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrons, Constance R.; Tanner, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines adult children's reports of relationship changes with their fathers were 20 years after their parents' divorce. Findings indicated that most adult children felt that their relationships with their fathers had either improved or remained stable over time. Custody did not directly affect reported changes in the quality of their relationship…

  15. Control, Attachment Style, and Relationship Satisfaction among Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beesley, Denise; Stoltenberg, Cal D.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates possible differences in need for control, attachment style, and relationship satisfaction between a sample of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children of nonalcoholics. Analyses reveals that ACOAs reported a significantly higher need for control and significantly lower relationship satisfaction. Includes a discussion of…

  16. Intimate Adult Relationships, Quality of Life and Psychological Adjusment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleque, Abdul

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess relations between adult intimacy, quality of life, and psychological adjustment. Data were collected in the United States from a sample of 64 college students. The measuring instruments used were Personal Information Sheet, Adult version of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (Adult PAQ), Intimate…

  17. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers

    PubMed Central

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A.; Stoyanov, Stoyan R.

    2016-01-01

    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10–18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs. PMID:27164149

  18. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers.

    PubMed

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A; Stoyanov, Stoyan R

    2016-01-01

    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10-18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs. PMID:27164149

  19. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers.

    PubMed

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A; Stoyanov, Stoyan R

    2016-05-06

    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10-18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs.

  20. Measuring Love: Sexual Minority Male Youths' Ideal Romantic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Johns, Michelle M; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna; Santana, Matt Leslie; Zimmerman, Marc

    2011-04-01

    Research examining how sexual minorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, we examined the validity of Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love in a sample of sexual minority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, we examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and tested whether the three underlying constructs of the theory (Intimacy, Passion, and Commitment) emerged when participants were asked to consider their ideal relationship with another man. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we found support for the three-factor solution to characterize sexual minority male youths' ideal romantic relationship, after minimizing item cross-loadings and adapting the content of the Passion subscale. We discuss the implications of our findings regarding the measurement of the TLS among sexual minority male youth and propose ways to enhance its measurement in future research. PMID:21709758

  1. Measuring Love: Sexual Minority Male Youths’ Ideal Romantic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna; Santana, Matt Leslie; Zimmerman, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Research examining how sexual minorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, we examined the validity of Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love in a sample of sexual minority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, we examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and tested whether the three underlying constructs of the theory (Intimacy, Passion, and Commitment) emerged when participants were asked to consider their ideal relationship with another man. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we found support for the three-factor solution to characterize sexual minority male youths’ ideal romantic relationship, after minimizing item cross-loadings and adapting the content of the Passion subscale. We discuss the implications of our findings regarding the measurement of the TLS among sexual minority male youth and propose ways to enhance its measurement in future research. PMID:21709758

  2. The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Andreas; Zeki, Semir

    2004-03-01

    Romantic and maternal love are highly rewarding experiences. Both are linked to the perpetuation of the species and therefore have a closely linked biological function of crucial evolutionary importance. Yet almost nothing is known about their neural correlates in the human. We therefore used fMRI to measure brain activity in mothers while they viewed pictures of their own and of acquainted children, and of their best friend and of acquainted adults as additional controls. The activity specific to maternal attachment was compared to that associated to romantic love described in our earlier study and to the distribution of attachment-mediating neurohormones established by other studies. Both types of attachment activated regions specific to each, as well as overlapping regions in the brain's reward system that coincide with areas rich in oxytocin and vasopressin receptors. Both deactivated a common set of regions associated with negative emotions, social judgment and 'mentalizing', that is, the assessment of other people's intentions and emotions. We conclude that human attachment employs a push-pull mechanism that overcomes social distance by deactivating networks used for critical social assessment and negative emotions, while it bonds individuals through the involvement of the reward circuitry, explaining the power of love to motivate and exhilarate.

  3. Adult Romantic Relationships as Contexts of Human Development: A Multimethod Comparison of Same-Sex Couples with Opposite-Sex Dating, Engaged, and Married Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Clausell, Eric; Holland, Ashley; Fortuna, Keren; Elieff, Chryle

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a multimethod, multi-informant comparison of community samples of committed gay male (n=30) and lesbian (n=30) couples with both committed (n=50 young engaged and n=40 older married) and noncommitted (n=109 exclusively dating) heterosexual pairs. Specifically, in this study the quality of same- and opposite-sex relationships…

  4. Touching moments: desire modulates the neural anticipation of active romantic caress

    PubMed Central

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J.; Ferri, Francesca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    A romantic caress is a basic expression of affiliative behavior and a primary reinforcer. Given its inherent affective valence, its performance also would imply the prediction of reward values. For example, touching a person for whom one has strong passionate feelings likely is motivated by a strong desire for physical contact and associated with the anticipation of hedonic experiences. The present study aims at investigating how the anticipatory neural processes of active romantic caress are modulated by the intensity of the desire for affective contact as reflected by passionate feelings for the other. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning was performed in romantically involved partners using a paradigm that allowed to isolate the specific anticipatory representations of active romantic caress, compared with control caress, while testing for the relationship between neural activity and measures of feelings of passionate love for the other. The results demonstrated that right posterior insula activity in anticipation of romantic caress significantly co-varied with the intensity of desire for union with the other. This effect was independent of the sensory-affective properties of the performed touch, like its pleasantness. Furthermore, functional connectivity analysis showed that the same posterior insula cluster interacted with brain regions related to sensory-motor functions as well as to the processing and anticipation of reward. The findings provide insight on the neural substrate mediating between the desire for and the performance of romantic caress. In particular, we propose that anticipatory activity patterns in posterior insula may modulate subsequent sensory-affective processing of skin-to-skin contact. PMID:24616676

  5. Need fulfillment in polyamorous relationships.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Melissa E; Bartholomew, Kim; Cobb, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    Polyamory is characterized by simultaneous consensual romantic relationships with multiple partners. Polyamory allows individuals to fulfill their relationship needs with multiple romantic partners, yet researchers have not identified how having needs met in one romantic relationship may be related to relationship outcomes in a concurrent relationship. Polyamorous individuals (N=1,093) completed online measures of need fulfillment, relationship satisfaction, and commitment for two concurrent romantic relationships. Participants reported high levels of need fulfillment and satisfaction in both relationships. Need fulfillment with one partner negatively predicted approximately 1% of the variance in relationship satisfaction with the other partner; however, there was no association between need fulfillment with one partner and commitment to the other. Generally, the findings suggest that polyamorous relationships are relatively independent of one another. This study provides initial evidence that polyamory may be a viable and fulfilling alternative way of conducting intimate relationships.

  6. Implications of Marital/Partner Relationship Quality and Perceived Stress for Blood Pressure Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Although higher quality marriages are associated with better health outcomes, less is known about the mechanisms accounting for this association. This study examines links among marital/partner quality, stress, and blood pressure and considers both main and moderating effects. Method. Participants from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (N = 1,854; aged 57–85 years) completed in-person interviews regarding their marital/romantic partner relationships and perceived stress. Interviews included blood pressure assessments. Results. Linear regression models revealed no main effects of spousal/partner quality or stress on blood pressure. However, spousal/partner quality moderated the link between stress and blood pressure. Specifically, there were negative associations between stress and blood pressure among people reporting more confiding, less reliance, and greater demands from spouses/partners. Discussion. Findings highlight the complexity of relationship quality. Individuals appeared to benefit from aspects of both high- and low-quality spouse/partner relations but only under high levels of stress. Findings are inconsistent with traditional moderation hypotheses, which suggest that better quality ties buffer the stress–health link and lower quality ties exacerbate the stress–health link. Results offer preliminary evidence concerning how spousal ties “get under the skin” to influence physical health. PMID:23275499

  7. Educational Alliance: The Importance of Relationships in Adult Education with Court-Mandated Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottern, Ron

    2012-01-01

    This conceptual study examines the importance of relationships between teachers and students in court-mandated adult education settings. Although research has been done on the importance of relationships between teachers and incarcerated students, there have been no outstanding studies on the relationships developed between teachers and students…

  8. The Relationships between Cognitive Ability and Dental Status in a National Sample of USA Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbah, Wael; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2010-01-01

    There are very few studies on the relationship between cognitive ability and dental status in middle aged and younger adults. We postulate that lower cognitive ability is directly related to poorer dental status and that this relationship operates through the relationship between cognitive ability and health-related behaviors. The objectives of…

  9. Examining Student-Adult Relationships during K-12 School Age Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappi, Shelly J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between dependent and independent variables and the effects relationships have on K-12 students as they struggle through life stressors. Thus, the research study was based upon this over arching question: How does having positive student-adult relationships impact a student's ability to cope with life…

  10. Marriage following Adolescent Parenthood: Relationship to Adult Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Lee, Jungeun; Morrison, Diane M.; Lindhorst, Taryn

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that adult marriages confer benefits. Does marriage following a teenage birth confer benefits similar to those observed for adults? Longitudinal data from a community sample of 235 young women who gave birth as unmarried adolescents were used to examine this question. Controlling for socioeconomic status and preexisting…

  11. The Relationship between Resourcefulness and Persistence in Adult Autonomous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Michael K; Derrick, M. Gail; Carr, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the tenability of a proposed path-analytic model relating resourcefulness and persistence in the context of adult autonomous learning. Data collected from a nonprobability sample of 492 American adults using valid and reliable measures for resourcefulness and persistence were analyzed. Results suggest…

  12. Fueling the Flames of the Green-Eyed Monster: The Role of Ruminative Thought in Reaction to Romantic Jealousy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Christine L.; Cupach, William R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines factors predicted to influence individuals' responses to romantic jealousy. Details a study in which undergraduate students completed scales measuring relationship-specific linking, relationship-specific rumination, possessiveness, trust, and communicative responses to jealousy. Suggests that jealous rumination is an important cognitive…

  13. Romanticism and Romantic Science: Their Contribution to Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Schulz, Roland

    2014-10-01

    The unique contributions of romanticism and romantic science have been generally ignored or undervalued in history and philosophy of science studies and science education. Although more recent research in history of science has come to delineate the value of both topics for the development of modern science, their merit for the educational field has not been explored. Romanticism was not only an obvious historical period, but a particular state of mind with its own extraordinary emotional sensitivity towards nature. It is especially the latter which we hope to revisit and reclaim for science education. After discussing several key historical contributions, we describe nine characteristics of `Romantic Science' in order to focus on six ideas/possibilities that we believe hold much value for transforming current science education: (1) the emotional sensitivity toward nature, (2) the centrality of sense experience, (3) the importance of "holistic experience", (4) the importance of the notions of mystery and wonder, (5) the power of science to transform people's outlook on the natural world, and (6) the importance of the relationship between science and philosophy. It is argued that in view of a pragmatist/utilitarian conception of school science prevalent today the aforementioned ideas (especially the notion of wonder and the poetic/non-analytical mode of knowledge), can provide food for thought for both science teachers and researchers seeking to work out an aesthetic conception, one that complements current approaches such as inquiry science and conceptual change.

  14. Romanticism and Romantic Science: Their Contribution to Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Schulz, Roland

    2014-09-01

    The unique contributions of romanticism and romantic science have been generally ignored or undervalued in history and philosophy of science studies and science education. Although more recent research in history of science has come to delineate the value of both topics for the development of modern science, their merit for the educational field has not been explored. Romanticism was not only an obvious historical period, but a particular state of mind with its own extraordinary emotional sensitivity towards nature. It is especially the latter which we hope to revisit and reclaim for science education. After discussing several key historical contributions, we describe nine characteristics of `Romantic Science' in order to focus on six ideas/possibilities that we believe hold much value for transforming current science education: (1) the emotional sensitivity toward nature, (2) the centrality of sense experience, (3) the importance of "holistic experience", (4) the importance of the notions of mystery and wonder, (5) the power of science to transform people's outlook on the natural world, and (6) the importance of the relationship between science and philosophy. It is argued that in view of a pragmatist/utilitarian conception of school science prevalent today the aforementioned ideas (especially the notion of wonder and the poetic/non-analytical mode of knowledge), can provide food for thought for both science teachers and researchers seeking to work out an aesthetic conception, one that complements current approaches such as inquiry science and conceptual change.

  15. Exploring linguistic correlates of social anxiety in romantic stories.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Katya C; Gordon, Elizabeth A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Heimberg, Richard G

    2016-09-01

    The current study used computerized linguistic analysis of stories about either going on a date or taking a walk down a street to examine linguistic correlates of social anxiety in a sample of undergraduate students. In general, linguistic analysis revealed associations of social anxiety with several linguistic variables, including negative emotion, affect, and anxiety words. Participants higher in social anxiety wrote fewer affect words. The relationship between social anxiety and anxiety words depended on gender, whereas the relationship between social anxiety and negative emotion words depended on both gender and the nature of primes (supraliminal vs. subliminal) received. Overall, our findings highlight the potential utility and benefits of using linguistic analysis as another source of information about how individuals higher in social anxiety process romantic stimuli. PMID:27216791

  16. Relationship Between Dyslipidemia and Albuminuria in Hypertensive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Yang-Hyun; Roh, Yong Kyun; Ju, Sang Yhun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Nam, Ga-Eun; Choi, Jun-Seok; Lee, Jong-Eun; Sang, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to estimate the relationship between various lipid abnormalities and albuminuria in hypertensive Korean adults. Data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 to 2012 were analyzed. The study included 2330 hypertensive participants. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured. Dyslipidemia parameters were defined as high TG ≥200 mg/dL, low HDL-C as HDL-C <40 mg/dL, high TC/HDL-C as TC/HDL-C ratio ≥4, high TG/HDL-C as TG/HDL-C ratio ≥3.8, and high LDL-C/HDL-C as LDL-C/HDL-C ratio ≥2.5. Albuminuria was defined as a urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥30 mg/g. Women with albuminuria showed significantly higher levels of TG, TC/HDL-C, and TG/HDL-C and a lower level of HDL-C than women without albuminuria (all P < 0.05). LogTG, TC/HDL-C, and logTG/HDL-C were positively correlated with ACR in both men and women; however, HDL-C was negatively correlated with ACR in women and non-HDL-C was positively correlated with ACR in men. In men, there was no association between ACR and lipid parameters. However, in women, higher values for logTG, TC/HDL-C, and logTG/HDL-C were associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) for albuminuria (OR [95% confidence interval]: 1.53 [1.06–2.21], 1.21 [1.02–1.45], and 1.78 [1.21–2.63], respectively) and HDL-C with a decreased OR for albuminuria (0.78 [0.67–0.92]) after adjusting for all covariates. LogTG, TC/HDL-C, and logTG/HDL-C were associated with an increased prevalence of albuminuria in hypertensive women. Screening and treatment for dyslipidemia may be necessary for hypertensive women to address potential albuminuria. PMID:27100412

  17. Loneliness mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and adult psychopathology: evidence from the adult psychiatric morbidity survey.

    PubMed

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Murphy, Jamie

    2015-04-01

    Childhood abuse (CA) has been found to be related to the development of a variety of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Although CA is also associated with adult loneliness, few studies have investigated the role of loneliness as a mediator in the relationship between CA and adult psychopathology. Using data from a large, general population sample a mediation model was proposed and tested. Controlling for a range of background variables, the results from a series of regression analyses found that loneliness mediated the association between CA and six adult psychiatric disorders. The findings of this study highlight the importance of loneliness to the development of psychopathology. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  18. Parental romantic expectations and parent-child sexuality communication in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Laura G; Himle, Michael B; Strassberg, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, parental romantic expectations, and parental provision of sexuality and relationship education in an online sample of 190 parents of youth 12-18 years of age with a parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Regression analyses were conducted separately for youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported average or above IQ and youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported below average IQ. For youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported average or above IQ, autism spectrum disorder severity predicted parental romantic expectations, but not parental provision of sexuality and relationship education. For youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported below average IQ, parental romantic expectations mediated the relationship between autism spectrum disorder severity and parent provision of sexuality and relationship education. This supports the importance of carefully considering intellectual functioning in autism spectrum disorder sexuality research and suggests that acknowledging and addressing parent expectations may be important for parent-focused sexuality and relationship education interventions.

  19. Personality and Adult Sibling Relationships: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noberini, Mary Rose; And Others

    The limited research that exists about sibling relationships during adulthood has employed primarily sociological variables. Psychological aspects of the sibling relationship were explored in a sample of 35 women and 9 men with a mean age of 59. Subjects completed the California Psychological Inventory, the Scale of Sibling Relationships, and the…

  20. Hybrid Governance in an Adult Program: A Nuanced Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockley, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Eastern Mennonite University's adult program uses a hybrid governance structure. Functions separated from the traditional program include marketing, admissions, and student advising. Functions that remain connected to the traditional program include the registrar, financial aid, and student business accounts.

  1. Aspects of love: the effect of mortality salience and attachment style on romantic beliefs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca; Massey, Emma

    Two studies are reported which explore romance as a means of terror management for participants with secure and insecure attachment styles. Mikulincer and Florian (2000) have shown that while mortality salience increases the desire for intimacy in securely attached individuals, the insecurely attached use cultural world views rather than close relationships to cope with fear of death. Study 1 used the romantic belief scale to compare the effects of attachment style and mortality salience on the cultural aspects of close relationships and showed that the only the insecurely attached were more romantic following mortality salience. Study 2 replicated this effect and demonstrated that this difference was not simply due to lower self-esteem in the insecurely attached. The additional inclusion of the Relationship assessment questionnaire failed to provide any evidence that the securely attached were affected by the mortality salience manipulation, even on a more interpersonal measure. PMID:23472322

  2. Gender differences in implicit self-esteem following a romantic partner's success or failure.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Kate A; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2013-10-01

    This research examined the influence of a romantic partner's success or failure on one's own implicit and explicit self-esteem. In Experiment 1, men had lower implicit self-esteem when their partner did well at a "social intelligence" task than when their partner did poorly. Women's implicit self-esteem was unaffected by partner performance. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that Dutch men's implicit self-esteem was negatively affected by their romantic partner's success. In Experiment 4, we replicated Experiments 1-3 in both the academic and social domains, and in Experiment 5, we demonstrated that men's implicit self-esteem is negatively influenced by thinking about a romantic partner's success both when the success is relative and when it is not. In sum, men's implicit self-esteem is lower when a partner succeeds than when a partner fails, whereas women's implicit self-esteem is not. These gender differences have important implications for understanding social comparison in romantic relationships.

  3. Parents, friends, and romantic partners: enmeshment in deviant networks and adolescent delinquency involvement.

    PubMed

    Lonardo, Robert A; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D

    2009-03-01

    Adolescent networks include parents, friends, and romantic partners, but research on the social learning mechanisms related to delinquency has not typically examined the characteristics of all three domains simultaneously. Analyses draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 957), and our analytic sample contains 51% male and 49% female as well as 69% white, 24% African-American, and 7% Latino respondents. Parents,' peers,' and partners' deviance are each related to respondents' delinquency, and affiliation with a greater number of deviant networks is associated with higher self-reported involvement. Analyses that consider enmeshment type indicate that those with both above average romantic partner and friend delinquency report especially high levels of self-reported involvement. In all comparisons, adolescents with deviant romantic partners are more delinquent than those youths with more prosocial partners, regardless of friends' and parents' behavior. Findings highlight the importance of capturing the adolescent's entire network of affiliations, rather than viewing these in isolation, and suggest the need for additional research on romantic partner influences on delinquent behavior and other adolescent outcomes.

  4. When the Relationship becomes Her: Revisiting Women's Body Concerns from a Relationship Contingency Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Diana T.; Kwang, Tracy

    2007-01-01

    Given women's communally oriented socialization and social pressures to find romantic partners, many heterosexual women may derive self-worth from having romantic relationships (relationship contingency). Across two studies, we explored whether relationship contingency heightens women's body shame. Studies 1A and 1B found that relationship…

  5. The Relationship between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Pae, Hye K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer…

  6. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  7. The Relationship between the Self-Efficacy and Life Satisfaction of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakar, Firdevs Savi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and life satisfaction of young adults. This study is cross-sectional study and variables. Data were collected between March 2012 and April 2012 from young adults who were bachelor degree and attending the Celal Bayar University Pedagogical Formation Program the academic…

  8. The Longitudinal Relationships between Rural Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…

  9. Universities and Adult Literacy in South Africa: An Exploration of Their Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxenham, John; French, Edward

    Observations of the relationship between South Africa's universities and adult literacy are offered by a British Council consultant after a visit to South Africa. The purpose was to help university lecturers design and develop an adult literacy course and to give seminars to local literacy groups. Impressions are described on the state of…

  10. Word Reading and Word Spelling in French Adult Literacy Students: The Relationship with Oral Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eme, Elsa; Lambert, Eric; Alamargot, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We analysed word reading and spelling in French adults with low levels of literacy (A-IL). As well as examining phonological and lexical processes, we explored the relationship between literacy and oral language skills. Fifty-two adult literacy students were compared with reading level-matched pupils in Years 1-3 of primary school on reading tasks…

  11. Adult Attachment and Parental Bonding: Correlations between Perceived Relationship Qualities and Self-Reported Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambruster, Ellen W.; Witherington, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Adult attachment and parental bonding have been linked to anxiety disorders, but rarely have these associations been demonstrated in the same study. To fill this gap in the research literature, we utilized several different self-report measures to examine the relationships among adult attachment style, memories of early bonding experiences, and…

  12. Attachment States of Mind and the Quality of Young Adults' Sibling Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Groh, Ashley M.; Holland, Ashley S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines young adults' states of mind regarding their early attachment experiences in relation to the observed and perceived quality of their sibling relationships. Sixty sibling pairs (18-25 years of age) were (a) administered the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985), (b) videotaped during a conflict resolution…

  13. Adult Children of Divorce and Intimate Relationships: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Teresa M.; Brooks, Morgan C.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research specific to the effects of parental divorce on adults in terms of relationship issues. Specific purposes of this review are to (a) explore research specific to intimacy and marital attitudes in adult children of divorce, (b) inform couple and family counselors of effects of parental divorce, and (c) relay implications for…

  14. Historical and Contemporary Aspects of the Relationship between the State and Adult Education in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    An outgrowth of earlier research on historical and contemporary adult education in Greece, this paper provides highlights of the relationship between the state and adult education in that country. The highlights are organized by the following historical periods: prehistory (c. 3000-1100 B.C.); early and archaic Greece (c. 1100-700 B.C.);…

  15. Individuation in Slovene emerging adults: its associations with demographics, transitional markers, achieved criteria for adulthood, and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Maja; Komidar, Luka; Levpušček, Melita Puklek

    2014-12-01

    The study investigated associations of Slovene emerging adults' age, gender, living situation, romantic relationship, and employment status with aspects of individuation in relation to mother and father. Controlling for demographic variables and transitional markers of adulthood, we further explored the contribution of individuation measures to individuals' perceptions of achieved criteria for adulthood and life satisfaction. The participants provided self-reports on the Individuation Test for Emerging Adults, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the list of Achieved Criteria for Adulthood. Age and living out of parental home were positively associated with self-reliance in relation to both parents, whereas female gender was related to higher levels of connectedness and seeking parental support. Along with age and involvement in a romantic relationship, connectedness and self-reliance predicted adulthood criteria attainment and life satisfaction. The results support the models of individuation that emphasize growing autonomy and retaining connectedness to parents as pathways towards personal adjustments.

  16. Toward a physiology of the romantic imagination.

    PubMed

    Sha, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    If historicist studies have equated the Romantic imagination with ideology, this essay seeks to recover a physiological imagination. Such recovery will show that historicist studies of the imagination have not been historical enough. Even as physiology attempted to make a science out of the living as opposed to the dead, it turned to concepts like life, predisposition, and potentiality to give the imagination a curious immaterial materiality, one that made materiality a site of possibility rather than determinism.

  17. Attachment Relationships and Psychological Adjustment of Married Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleque, Abdul; Shirin, Anjuman; Uddin, Muhammad Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored relations among remembered parental (paternal and maternal) acceptance in childhood, spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment of adults. It also explored whether remembered childhood experiences of parental acceptance mediate the relation between perceived spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment. The sample…

  18. Sexual Relationships in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Understanding the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, A. C.; Murphy, G. H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are known to be very vulnerable to sexual abuse. This may result partly from their lack of sexual knowledge and their powerless position in society. It could also be exacerbated by an ignorance of the law. This study investigates their understanding of the law relating to sexuality. Method:…

  19. Menstrual cycle effects on attitudes toward romantic kissing.

    PubMed

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2013-12-01

    Hormonal changes associated with the human menstrual cycle have been previously found to affect female mate preference, whereby women in the late follicular phase of their cycle (i.e., at higher risk of conception) prefer males displaying putative signals of underlying genetic fitness. Past research also suggests that romantic kissing is utilized in human mating contexts to assess potential mating partners. The current study examined whether women in their late follicular cycle phase place greater value on kissing at times when it might help serve mate assessment functions. Using an international online questionnaire, results showed that women in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle felt that kissing was more important at initial stages of a relationship than women in the luteal phase of their cycle. Furthermore, it was found that estimated progesterone levels were a significant negative predictor for these ratings.

  20. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Attitudes toward Romantic Kissing

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Hormonal changes associated with the human menstrual cycle have been previously found to affect female mate preference, whereby women in the late follicular phase of their cycle (i.e., at higher risk of conception) prefer males displaying putative signals of underlying genetic fitness. Past research also suggests that romantic kissing is utilized in human mating contexts to assess potential mating partners. The current study examined whether women in their late follicular cycle phase place greater value on kissing at times when it might help serve mate assessment functions. Using an international online questionnaire, results showed that women in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle felt that kissing was more important at initial stages of a relationship than women in the luteal phase of their cycle. Furthermore, it was found that estimated progesterone levels were a significant negative predictor for these ratings. PMID:24078298

  1. Adult family relationships in the context of friendship

    PubMed Central

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R.; Webster, Noah; Antonucci, Toni C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the complex way in which relationships with family and friends shape health and well-being in adulthood over time. Specifically, we explored whether the longitudinal effects of positive and negative family relationship quality on health and well-being differ in the context of varying levels of positive friend relationships. Data were from two waves (1992/1993 and 2005) of the Social Relations, Aging and Health Study. The sample included respondents aged 18 and older at Wave 1 who reported having a best friend at both waves (N = 455), and consisted of 291 (64%) women and 164 (36%) men. Wave 1 friend positivity and family positivity interacted to predict self-rated health but not self-esteem, indicating that among respondents with a less positive friend relationship, more positive family relationships were related to worse health at Wave 2. Wave 1 friend positivity and family negativity significantly interacted to predict self-rated health and self-esteem at Wave 2. The nature of the interactions were consistent in that among respondents with a more highly positive friend relationship, less negative family relationships were linked to better health and self-esteem at Wave 2. Findings provide insight into the complex way in which social relations impact positive outcomes in adulthood. Previous studies have documented the consistent and straightforward manner in which negative relationships impact health and well-being, whereas this study illustrates that the role of positive social relations is more variable and dependent on multiple relationship contexts. PMID:24273462

  2. Adult family relationships in the context of friendship.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R; Webster, Noah; Antonucci, Toni C

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the complex way in which relationships with family and friends shape health and well-being in adulthood over time. Specifically, we explored whether the longitudinal effects of positive and negative family relationship quality on health and well-being differ in the context of varying levels of positive friend relationships. Data were from two waves (1992/1993 and 2005) of the Social Relations, Aging and Health Study. The sample included respondents aged 18 and older at Wave 1 who reported having a best friend at both waves (N = 455), and consisted of 291 (64%) women and 164 (36%) men. Wave 1 friend positivity and family positivity interacted to predict self-rated health but not self-esteem, indicating that among respondents with a less positive friend relationship, more positive family relationships were related to worse health at Wave 2. Wave 1 friend positivity and family negativity significantly interacted to predict self-rated health and self-esteem at Wave 2. The nature of the interactions were consistent in that among respondents with a more highly positive friend relationship, less negative family relationships were linked to better health and self-esteem at Wave 2. Findings provide insight into the complex way in which social relations impact positive outcomes in adulthood. Previous studies have documented the consistent and straightforward manner in which negative relationships impact health and well-being, whereas this study illustrates that the role of positive social relations is more variable and dependent on multiple relationship contexts.

  3. Serum Uric Acid and Hypertension in Adults: a Paradoxical Relationship in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bjornstad, Petter; Wadwa, R. Paul; Sirota, Jeffrey C.; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; McFann, Kimberly; Rewers, Marian; Rivard, Christopher J.; Jalal, Diana; Chonchol, Michel B.; Johnson, Richard J.; Maahs, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Adults with type 1 diabetes have lower serum uric acid levels compared to non-diabetic adults. Little is known about the relationship between serum uric acid and blood pressure in type 1 diabetes and whether it differs from the positive relationship found in non-diabetic adults. We assessed the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships over 6-years between serum uric acid and blood pressure in adults with (35±9 years, n=393) and without (38±9 years n=685) T1D in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study. In non-diabetic adults, serum uric acid was associated with systolic blood pressure in multivariable-models adjusted for cardiovascular risk-factors. In adults with type 1 diabetes, a negative association was observed between serum uric acid and systolic blood pressure after multivariable-adjustments. A positive association was observed between serum uric acid and systolic blood pressure in non-diabetic adults. In contrast, an inverse relationship was demonstrated after multivariable-adjustments in type 1 diabetes. PMID:24667019

  4. Serum uric acid and hypertension in adults: a paradoxical relationship in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bjornstad, Petter; Paul Wadwa, R; Sirota, Jeffrey C; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; McFann, Kimberly; Rewers, Marian; Rivard, Christopher J; Jalal, Diana; Chonchol, Michel B; Johnson, Richard J; Maahs, David M

    2014-04-01

    Adults with type 1 diabetes have lower serum uric acid levels compared with nondiabetic adults. Little is known about the relationship between serum uric acid and blood pressure in type 1 diabetes and whether it differs from the positive relationship found in nondiabetic adults. The authors assessed the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships over 6 years between serum uric acid and blood pressure in adults with (35±9 years [n=393]) and without (38±9 years [n=685]) type 1 diabetes in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study. In nondiabetic adults, serum uric acid was associated with systolic blood pressure in multivariable models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. In adults with type 1 diabetes, a negative association was observed between serum uric acid and systolic blood pressure after multivariable adjustments. A positive association was observed between serum uric acid and systolic blood pressure in nondiabetic adults. In contrast, an inverse relationship was demonstrated after multivariable adjustments in type 1 diabetes. PMID:24667019

  5. A Model of Processes that Underpin Positive Relationships for Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hilary; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine; Iacono, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Relationships develop through social interaction and assist with participation and inclusion. Little is known about how relationships develop between people with severe intellectual disability who have limited communication and others. Method: Interactions were observed between 6 adults with severe intellectual disability and paid…

  6. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Adult Intimate Relationships: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…

  7. Proximity as a Mediating Influence on the Perceived Aging Parent-Adult Child Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Joyce McDonough; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined proximity and relationship between aging parents (N=224) and adult children. Found no difference in quality of relationships between parents whose children lived near and those whose children lived over 60 miles away. Significant predictors for proximate group were personal sense of control and education; for distant group, child gender…

  8. Middle School Children's Career Aspirations: Relationship to Adult Occupations and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuette, Christine T.; Ponton, Michael K.; Charlton, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between the career aspirations of 89 preadolescents from low socioeconomic backgrounds and the actual occupations of the working adults in their homes with regard to status, job gender identification, and interest (Holland, 1997). There was a significant relationship between boys' career aspirations and the…

  9. Relationships among Cortical Thickness, Reading Skill, and Print Exposure in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jason G.; Manis, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among cortical thickness in the left-hemisphere reading network, and reading skill and experience in adult nonimpaired readers. Given the relationship between print exposure and reading, it is possible that print exposure is related to cortical structure. The pattern of correlations indicated that individuals…

  10. Evaluating the relationship between inattention and impulsivity-related falls in hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Barbara E; Ferrari, Marisa; Campbell, Cathy; Maddens, Michael; Whall, Ann L

    2010-01-01

    Impulsivity in older adults is poorly understood and there is limited literature on the relationship between impulsivity and falls. This retrospective study evaluated the relationship between of inattention and impulsivity related falls (IRF) in hospitalized older adults. The sample (N = 192) included patients 65 years and older with a documented in-patient fall in 2007. "Impaired judgment" was identified as the critical attribute of IRF. The Confusion Assessment Method item for inattention was extracted as the variable for inattention. Twenty-eight percent (28%) of falls were classified as IRF. A significant relationship was found between inattention on the shift prior to a fall and the fall being an IRF (Chi-square = 45.5, df = 1, p = .00, Phi = .54, p = .00). Early identification of older adults with impaired attention has potential to reduce IRF when nursing uses this assessment to implement additional safety interventions for hospitalized older adults. PMID:20159349

  11. Script-like attachment representations in dreams containing current romantic partners.

    PubMed

    Selterman, Dylan; Apetroaia, Adela; Waters, Everett

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated parallels between romantic attachment styles and general dream content. The current study examined partner-specific attachment representations alongside dreams that contained significant others. The general prediction was that dreams would follow the "secure base script," and a general correspondence would emerge between secure attachment cognitions in waking life and in dreams. Sixty-one undergraduate student participants in committed dating relationships of six months duration or longer completed the Secure Base Script Narrative Assessment at Time 1, and then completed a dream diary for 14 consecutive days. Blind coders scored dreams that contained significant others using the same criteria for secure base content in laboratory narratives. Results revealed a significant association between relationship-specific attachment security and the degree to which dreams about romantic partners followed the secure base script. The findings illuminate our understanding of mental representations with regards to specific attachment figures. Implications for attachment theory and clinical applications are discussed.

  12. The Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Adult Personality Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Kelly E.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.; Gagne, Gerard G.; Mello, Andrea F.; Mello, Marcelo F.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorder symptomatology in a community sample of healthy adults without diagnosable DSM-IV-TR Axis I psychiatric disorders who reported a history of childhood abuse. Twenty-eight subjects with a history of moderate to severe physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse according to the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were compared to 33 subjects without an abuse history on symptoms of personality disorders. Subjects in the Abuse group were more likely to report subclinical symptoms of paranoid, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, obsessive compulsive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorders. These findings link reports of childhood abuse with symptoms of personality disorders in the absence of Axis I psychiatric disorders in a community sample of healthy adults. PMID:17685839

  13. Relationships among reading skills of adults with low literacy.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, John P; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Shore, Jane R; Scarborough, Hollis S

    2010-01-01

    In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the interrelationships among latent factors of the simple view model of reading comprehension (word recognition and language comprehension) and hypothesized additional factors (vocabulary and reading fluency) in a sample of 476 adult learners with low literacy levels. The results provided evidence for reliable distinctions between word recognition, fluency, language comprehension, and vocabulary skills as components of reading. Even so, the data did not support the hypothesis that the simple view needs to be expanded to include vocabulary or fluency factors, as has been posited in a few prior studies of younger and more able readers. Rather, word recognition and language comprehension alone were found to account adequately for variation in reading comprehension in adults with low literacy.

  14. Adult Daughters' Descriptions of Their Mother-Daughter Relationship in the Context of Chronic Conflict.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Carolyn E Z; Mentes, Janet C; Moon, Ailee; Pieters, Huibrie C; Phillips, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe, from the perspective of the adult daughter, the mother-daughter relationship in the context of chronic conflict. Grounded theory methodology was used. An online recruitment strategy was used to identify a sample of adult daughters (N = 13) who self-identified as having an abusive relationship with their aging mother. Data collection was completed through semi-structured telephone interviews. Daughters framed their relationship around their perceptions of past childhood injustices. These injustices invoked strong negative emotions. Daughters had equally strong motivations for sustaining the relationship, driven by desire to reconcile their negative experience through seeking validation and futile-hoping as well as a sense of obligation to do due diligence. Together these factors created an environment of inevitable confrontation and a relationship defined by chronic conflict. Findings from the study provide theoretical insights to the conceptualization of aggression, power relationships, and the development of elder abuse and neglect. PMID:26421508

  15. Adult Daughters' Descriptions of Their Mother-Daughter Relationship in the Context of Chronic Conflict.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Carolyn E Z; Mentes, Janet C; Moon, Ailee; Pieters, Huibrie C; Phillips, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe, from the perspective of the adult daughter, the mother-daughter relationship in the context of chronic conflict. Grounded theory methodology was used. An online recruitment strategy was used to identify a sample of adult daughters (N = 13) who self-identified as having an abusive relationship with their aging mother. Data collection was completed through semi-structured telephone interviews. Daughters framed their relationship around their perceptions of past childhood injustices. These injustices invoked strong negative emotions. Daughters had equally strong motivations for sustaining the relationship, driven by desire to reconcile their negative experience through seeking validation and futile-hoping as well as a sense of obligation to do due diligence. Together these factors created an environment of inevitable confrontation and a relationship defined by chronic conflict. Findings from the study provide theoretical insights to the conceptualization of aggression, power relationships, and the development of elder abuse and neglect.

  16. Projection of Romantic and Sexual Desire in Opposite-Sex Friendships: How Wishful Thinking Creates a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Edward P; Wolf, Noah R

    2016-07-01

    In two studies, the authors examined the projection of romantic and sexual desire in opposite-sex friendships. In both studies, perceivers who strongly desired their friends projected this desire onto their friends, believing that their desire was more reciprocated than was actually the case. In turn, projection of desire appeared to motivate perceivers into enacting relationship initiation behaviors, which predicted changes in targets' romantic and sexual desires over time (Study 2). Projection was elevated for perceivers who saw themselves as high in mate value, and targets appeared to be influenced by perceivers' overtures primarily when they believed perceivers were high in mate value. This research suggests that, for perceivers high in mate value, romantic and sexual desire creates biased perceptions that initiate self-fulfilling prophecies. PMID:27189004

  17. Mr. Right and Mr. Right Now: romantic and casual partner-seeking online among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Leslie-Santana, Matthew; Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna

    2011-02-01

    Dating is a normative behavior for youth, yet few studies have examined the relationship between romantic partner-seeking and sexual behavior among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). This omission is most notable across studies examining YMSM's partner-seeking behaviors online. In this study, we examined the relationship between sexual behaviors and online partner-seeking behaviors for casual and romantic partners in a sample of YMSM (N = 431; M = 21.49 years old, SD = 1.94) who reported using the Internet to meet other men. Using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), we found YMSM in the High Romantic/High Casual group had more unprotected partners than YMSM in other categories. YMSM in the High Romantic/Low Casual group had fewer unprotected partners than the High Romantic/High Casual group. We discuss the implications of our findings and conclude that there is a need to further examine romantic partner-seeking among YMSM.

  18. Art Education, Romantic Idealism, and Work: Comparing Ruskin's Ideas to Those Found in Nineteenth Century Nova Scotia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amburgy, Patricia; Soucy, Donald

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship between romantic idealism and vocational goals of art education in nineteenth-century Nova Scotia, Canada. Compares these ideas with those of John Ruskin concerning art and morality. Discusses the views of the Nova Scotian educators relative to issues of contemporary art education. (KO)

  19. Pair-bonding, romantic love, and evolution: the curious case of Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Campbell, Lorne; Overall, Nickola C

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates a thesis containing three interconnected propositions. First, romantic love is a "commitment device" for motivating pair-bonding in humans. Second, pair-bonding facilitated the idiosyncratic life history of hominins, helping to provide the massive investment required to rear children. Third, managing long-term pair bonds (along with family relationships) facilitated the evolution of social intelligence and cooperative skills. We evaluate this thesis by integrating evidence from a broad range of scientific disciplines. First, consistent with the claim that romantic love is an evolved commitment device, our review suggests that it is universal; suppresses mate-search mechanisms; has specific behavioral, hormonal, and neuropsychological signatures; and is linked to better health and survival. Second, we consider challenges to this thesis posed by the existence of arranged marriage, polygyny, divorce, and infidelity. Third, we show how the intimate relationship mind seems to be built to regulate and monitor relationships. Fourth, we review comparative evidence concerning links among mating systems, reproductive biology, and brain size. Finally, we discuss evidence regarding the evolutionary timing of shifts to pair-bonding in hominins. We conclude there is interdisciplinary support for the claim that romantic love and pair-bonding, along with alloparenting, played critical roles in the evolution of Homo sapiens.

  20. Pair-bonding, romantic love, and evolution: the curious case of Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Campbell, Lorne; Overall, Nickola C

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates a thesis containing three interconnected propositions. First, romantic love is a "commitment device" for motivating pair-bonding in humans. Second, pair-bonding facilitated the idiosyncratic life history of hominins, helping to provide the massive investment required to rear children. Third, managing long-term pair bonds (along with family relationships) facilitated the evolution of social intelligence and cooperative skills. We evaluate this thesis by integrating evidence from a broad range of scientific disciplines. First, consistent with the claim that romantic love is an evolved commitment device, our review suggests that it is universal; suppresses mate-search mechanisms; has specific behavioral, hormonal, and neuropsychological signatures; and is linked to better health and survival. Second, we consider challenges to this thesis posed by the existence of arranged marriage, polygyny, divorce, and infidelity. Third, we show how the intimate relationship mind seems to be built to regulate and monitor relationships. Fourth, we review comparative evidence concerning links among mating systems, reproductive biology, and brain size. Finally, we discuss evidence regarding the evolutionary timing of shifts to pair-bonding in hominins. We conclude there is interdisciplinary support for the claim that romantic love and pair-bonding, along with alloparenting, played critical roles in the evolution of Homo sapiens. PMID:25910380

  1. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  2. The Relationship between Learning Disabilities and Homelessness in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markos, Patricia A.; Strawser, Sherri

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the relationship between learning disabilities (LD) and homelessness. Research describing the connection between disabilities and homelessness has focused on individuals presenting with disabilities such as mental illness, physical disabilities, medical disabilities, or substance abuse. At this time, the presence of LD in…

  3. Unresolved Issues in Adult Children's Marital Relationships Involving Intergenerational Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, John M.; Norris, Joan E.; Pratt, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    When their first child was 5, 30 couples discussed an unresolved issue in their marital relationship that involved one of their parents, and how they would resolve this issue. Five intergenerational themes were identified in these disagreements: balancing nuclear vs. extended family time, changing rules and roles, pleasing parents vs. spouse,…

  4. Aggression in Adolescent Dating Relationships: Predictors and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of romantic relationships is one of the most striking features of adolescence. By the late adolescent years, most teenagers have been in a romantic relationship at least once and roughly half of teens are dating currently. Alarmingly though, in many of these relationships adolescents act aggressively toward each other and this…

  5. Romantic Knowledge. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.5.15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelfrey, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    While British Romantic literature provides ample evidence of the pleasures of knowledge, it also reveals strong counter-evidence of its power to inflict a sense of intellectual impairment and diminution. This Romantic ambivalence sprang from a complex of ideas and anxieties about the potentially corrosive effects of certain kinds of education and…

  6. Adolescents' Explanations for Romantic Dissolutions: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Jennifer; McIsaac, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the prevalence and developmental significance of romantic break-ups in adolescence, a relatively unexplored area of study. We examined their occurrence in a sample of 910 adolescents, first noting the frequency of these events across age, gender, and romantic experience, and then analyzing the dissolution explanations…

  7. Romantic Experience and Psychosocial Adjustment in Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Wyndol; Low, Sabina; Ho, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent and longitudinal relations between the amount of romantic experience and psychosocial adjustment were examined in a 1-year study of a community based sample of 200 tenth graders. Adolescents, parents, and friends completed measures of psychosocial adjustment. The amount of romantic experience was associated with higher reports of social…

  8. Romantic Love: A Special Case of Social Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, James D.

    Two different clinical models provide different explanations of the interactions that typically occur in romantic love. One portrays love as one of the great delusions of the human experience, while the other suggests that romantic love is one of the great possibilities of the human experience. The delusional hypothesis, presented by Casler (1973)…

  9. Relationships among stress, infectious illness, and religiousness/spirituality in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Callen, Bonnie L; Mefford, Linda; Groër, Maureen; Thomas, Sandra P

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among stress, infectious illness, and religiousness/spirituality in community-dwelling older adults in the southeastern United States. Four assessment tools were completed by 82 older adults (mean age = 74, age range = 65 to 91): the Perceived Stress Scale, the Carr Infection Symptom Checklist (SCL), the Brief Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality, and a demographic form. A significant correlation was found between stress and SCL scores; however, four dimensions of religiousness/spirituality moderated the relationship between stress and infection. Older adults who were unable to forgive themselves or forgive others, or feel forgiven by God, were more likely to have had an infection in the previous month. Increased infections also occurred when older participants did not feel they had religious support from their congregations. Using these findings, gerontological nurses are well positioned to deliver tailored stress management and forgiveness interventions when older adults report increased stress.

  10. "Family Comes First!" Relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Meeus, Wim

    2014-12-01

    We conducted two studies to examine relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults, paying attention to the potential moderating role of gender and occupational status. In Study I, we aimed at capturing emerging adults' perspective on interactions with both family and friends by means of a qualitative approach. Participants were 39 emerging adults (51% males), who were interviewed individually or within a focus group. In Study II, we sought to examine how family and friend importance to identity were related to life satisfaction through a quantitative approach. Participants were 474 (47.3% males) emerging adults who filled a self-report questionnaire. Overall, findings indicated solid family ties and a strong impact of family importance to identity for life satisfaction. Results were independent of gender and occupational status (university students vs. workers). Thus, findings highlighted that in the Italian context young people's transition to adulthood is strongly intertwined with family relationships.

  11. Relationship between Perceived Discrimination and Sedentary Behavior in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Womack, Veronica Y.; Ning, Hongyan; Lewis, Cora E.; Loucks, Eric B.; Puterman, Eli; Reis, Jared; Siddique, Juned; Sternfeld, Barbara; Van Horn, Linda; Carnethon, Mercedes R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify psychosocial factors associated with sedentary behavior, we tested whether perceived discrimination is associated with sedentary behavior. Methods Black and white men and women (N = 3270) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study reported experiences of discrimination and time engaged in total and screen time sedentary behaviors in 2010–11. Results There were no associations of discriminatory experiences with total sedentary behavior time. However, discriminatory experiences were positively associated with screen time for black men (OR 1.81, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.86) and white women (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.00) after adjusting for demographic and traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Conclusion Among black men and white women, discriminatory experiences were correlated with more screen time sedentary behavior. PMID:24933133

  12. Parental divorce during early adolescence in Caucasian families: the role of family process variables in predicting the long-term consequences for early adult psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Summers, P; Forehand, R; Armistead, L; Tannenbaum, L

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between parental divorce occurring during adolescence and young adult psychosocial adjustment was examined, as was the role of family process variables in clarifying this relationship. Participants were young Caucasian adults from divorced (n = 119) and married (n = 123) families. Assessments were conducted during adolescence and 6 years later during early adulthood. Young adults from married families reported more secure romantic attachments than those from divorced families; however, differences were not evident in other domains of psychosocial adjustment after demographic variables were controlled. Three family process variables (parent-adolescent relationship, interparental conflict, and maternal depressive symptoms) were examined as potential mediators and moderators of the association between parental divorce and young adult adjustment. No evidence supporting mediation or moderation was found; however, the parent-adolescent and parent-young adult relationships, particularly when the identified parent was the father, emerged as significant predictors of young adult psychosocial adjustment. PMID:9583336

  13. Appetitive traits and relationships with BMI in adults: Development of the Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Hunot, Claudia; Fildes, Alison; Croker, Helen; Llewellyn, Clare H; Wardle, Jane; Beeken, Rebecca J

    2016-10-01

    The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a validated parent-report measure of appetitive traits associated with weight in childhood. There is currently no matched measure for use in adults. The aim of this study was to adapt the CEBQ into a self-report Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (AEBQ) to explore whether the associations between appetitive traits and BMI observed in children are present in adults. Two adult samples were recruited one year apart from an online survey panel in 2013 (n = 708) and 2014 (n = 954). Both samples completed the AEBQ and self-reported their weight and height. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to derive 35 items for the AEBQ in Sample 1 and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to replicate the factor structure in Sample 2. Reliability of the AEBQ was assessed using Cronbach's α and a two week test-retest in a sub-sample of 93 participants. Correlations between appetitive traits measured by the AEBQ and BMI were calculated. PCA and CFA results showed the AEBQ to be a reliable questionnaire (Cronbach's α > 0.70) measuring 8 appetitive traits similar to the CEBQ [Hunger (H), Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Over-Eating (EOE), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Emotional Under-eating (EUE), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE)]. Associations with BMI showed FR, EF (p < 0.05) and EOE (p < 0.01) were positively associated and SR, EUE and SE (p < 0.01) were negatively associated. Overall, the AEBQ appears to be a reliable measure of appetitive traits in adults which translates well from the validated child measure. Adults with a higher BMI had higher scores for 'food approach' traits (FR, EOE and EF) and lower scores for 'food avoidance' traits (SR, EUE and SE). PMID:27215837

  14. Relationships of individual, social, and physical environmental factors with older adults' television viewing time.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Donder, Liesbeth; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting) can be associated detrimentally with health outcomes. Older adults, the most sedentary age group, are especially at risk due to their high levels of television viewing time. This study examined individual, social, and physical environmental correlates of older adults' television viewing. Data on daily television viewing time, plus individual, social, and physical environmental factors were collected from 50,986 noninstitutionalized older adults (≥ 65 years) in Flanders (Belgium). The results showed significant relationships between television viewing time and individual, social, and physical environmental factors. Subgroups at risk for high levels of television viewing were those who were functionally limited, less educated, widowed, and (semi)urban-dwelling older adults. Our findings illustrate a cross-sectional link between older adults' television viewing time and social composition of their neighborhood, formal participation, access to alternative activities, and safety from crime.

  15. Relationship between social capital indicators and lifestyle in Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Loch, Mathias Roberto; Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno de; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Martinez-Gómez, David; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined the relationship between indicators of social capital and health-related behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1,062 participants representative of the population aged 40 years or older from a city in Southern Brazil. The following indicators of social capital were examined: number of friends, number of people they could borrow money from when in need; extent of trust in community members; number of times members of the community help each other; community safety; and extent of membership in community activities. Also, an overall score of social capital including all indicators was calculated. A poor social capital was associated with insufficient leisure-time physical activity (OR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.07-2.70), low consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR = 1.53; 95%CI: 1.05-2.24), and smoking (OR = 1.97; 95%CI: 1.21-3.21). No clear association was found between capital social and binge drinking. A score of social capital showed an inverse relationship with the number of prevalent risk behaviors (p < 0.001). These results reinforce that policies to promote health should consider social capital.

  16. Social dominance orientation predicts heterosexual men's adverse reactions to romantic rejection.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ashleigh J; Dubbs, Shelli L; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2015-05-01

    We examined the role of social dominance orientation (SDO) as a predictor of men's reactions to romantic rejection and attitudes toward female sexuality. In Study 1 (n = 158), we found that men who scored higher in SDO were more likely to blame women for romantic rejection, and report having responded to women's past rejection with persistence and manipulation (e.g., convincing her to "give him another chance"), as well as with aggression and threats of violence. In Study 2 (n = 398), we replicated these findings, and further found that men higher in SDO were more likely to endorse rape myths (e.g., believing that sometimes a woman's barriers need to be "broken down" in order to attain sex), and to want to lower the legal age of sexual consent in women. Two mediators explained this relationship, hostile sexism and the belief that insubordinate women need to be disciplined. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  17. A Darker Shade of Love: Machiavellianism and Positive Assortative Mating Based on Romantic Ideals.

    PubMed

    Ináncsi, Tamás; Láng, András; Bereczkei, Tamás

    2016-02-01

    Machiavellianism is a personality trait that is characterized by manipulative and exploitative attitude toward others, lack of empathy, and a cynical view of human nature. In itself or as part of the Dark Triad it has been the target of several studies investigating romantic relations. Nevertheless, the relationship between Machiavellianism and romantic ideals has not been revealed yet. An undergraduate sample of 143 (92 females) with an average age of 19.83 years (SD = 1.51 years) filled out self-report measures of Machiavellianism (Mach-IV Scale) and romantic ideals (Ideal Standards Scale and NEO-FFI-IDEAL). According to our results, Machiavellianism correlated negatively with the importance of partner's warmth-trustworthiness, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and with the importance of intimacy and loyalty in their ideal relationships. Machiavellianism correlated positively with the ideal partner's possession over status and resources. Explorative factor analysis revealed three components of ideal partner's characteristics. Machiavellianism loaded significantly on two out of three components. Results are discussed with regard to Ideal Standards Model and the Big Five model of personality. PMID:27247697

  18. A Darker Shade of Love: Machiavellianism and Positive Assortative Mating Based on Romantic Ideals

    PubMed Central

    Ináncsi, Tamás; Láng, András; Bereczkei, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Machiavellianism is a personality trait that is characterized by manipulative and exploitative attitude toward others, lack of empathy, and a cynical view of human nature. In itself or as part of the Dark Triad it has been the target of several studies investigating romantic relations. Nevertheless, the relationship between Machiavellianism and romantic ideals has not been revealed yet. An undergraduate sample of 143 (92 females) with an average age of 19.83 years (SD = 1.51 years) filled out self-report measures of Machiavellianism (Mach-IV Scale) and romantic ideals (Ideal Standards Scale and NEO-FFI-IDEAL). According to our results, Machiavellianism correlated negatively with the importance of partner’s warmth-trustworthiness, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and with the importance of intimacy and loyalty in their ideal relationships. Machiavellianism correlated positively with the ideal partner’s possession over status and resources. Explorative factor analysis revealed three components of ideal partner’s characteristics. Machiavellianism loaded significantly on two out of three components. Results are discussed with regard to Ideal Standards Model and the Big Five model of personality. PMID:27247697

  19. Turkish and Moroccan Young Adults in the Netherlands: The Relationship Between Acculturation and Psychological Problems.

    PubMed

    Özbek, Emel; Bongers, Ilja L; Lobbestael, Jill; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and psychological problems in Turkish and Moroccan young adults living in the Netherlands. A sample of 131 healthy young adults aged between 18 and 24 years old, with a Turkish or Moroccan background was recruited using snowball sampling. Data on acculturation, internalizing and externalizing problems, beliefs about psychological problems, attributions of psychological problems and barriers to care were collected and analyzed using Latent Class Analysis and multinomial logistic regression. Three acculturation classes were identified in moderately to highly educated, healthy Turkish or Moroccan young adults: integration, separation and diffusion. None of the participants in the sample were marginalized or assimilated. Young adults reporting diffuse acculturation reported more internalizing and externalizing problems than those who were integrated or separated. Separated young adults reported experiencing more practical barriers to care than integrated young adults. Further research with a larger sample, including young adult migrants using mental health services, is required to improve our understanding of acculturation, psychological problems and barriers to care in this population. Including experiences of discrimination in the model might improve our understanding of the relationship between different forms of acculturation and psychological problems.

  20. Relationship between perceived sleep and polysomnography in older adult patients

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Silva, Mayra; Bazzana, Caroline Moreira; de Souza, Altay Lino; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Lucchesi, Lígia M.; Lopes, Guiomar Silva

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Aging is a multifactorial process that elicits changes in the duration and quality of sleep. Polysomnography is considered to be the standard examination for the analysis of sleep and consists of the simultaneous recording of selected physiological variables during sleep. Objective The objective of this study was to use polysomnography to compare sleep reported by senior citizens. Methods We selected 40 patients, both male and female, with ages ranging from 64 to 89 years from the Center for the Study of Aging at the Federal University of São Paulo. Patients answered questions about sleep on the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment and underwent polysomnography. Results The results were compared, and agreement between perceived sleep and polysomnography was found in several areas. There was an association between difficulty sleeping and sleep onset latency (p=0.015), waking up at night with sleep onset latency (p=0.005), total sleep time with daytime sleepiness (0.005) and snoring (0.027), sleep efficiency with sleepiness (0.004), snoring (0.033) and pause in breathing (p=0.024), awakenings with snoring (p=0.012) and sleep apnea with pauses in breathing (p=0.001). Conclusion These results suggest that the older adult population have a good perception of their sleep. The questionnaires aimed at this population should be used as an alternative to polysomnography. PMID:26483948

  1. Adult Children of Gay and Lesbian Parents: Religion and the Parent-Child Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Megan C.; Foley, Pamela F.; Aster, Amanda M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous scholars have explored various challenges facing children of gay and lesbian individuals, and some have explored the impact of a parent’s sexual orientation on the parent-child relationship. However, the impact of religion on the parent-child relationships of adult children with a gay or lesbian parent has been overlooked. In this study, 10 adult children with both a gay or lesbian parent and a heterosexual parent were interviewed and asked to retrospectively explore how religion impacted their parent-child relationships. The following themes emerged from phenomenological analysis of the interviews: (a) family break-up more difficult than the parents’ coming out; (b) discovery that parent was gay or lesbian; (c) initial shame over having gay or lesbian parent; (d) positive aspects of having a gay or lesbian parent; (e) redefined relationship with religion; and (f) impact of culture on how gay and lesbian individuals are viewed. PMID:25477556

  2. Adult Children of Gay and Lesbian Parents: Religion and the Parent-Child Relationship.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Megan C; Foley, Pamela F; Aster, Amanda M

    2013-05-01

    Previous scholars have explored various challenges facing children of gay and lesbian individuals, and some have explored the impact of a parent's sexual orientation on the parent-child relationship. However, the impact of religion on the parent-child relationships of adult children with a gay or lesbian parent has been overlooked. In this study, 10 adult children with both a gay or lesbian parent and a heterosexual parent were interviewed and asked to retrospectively explore how religion impacted their parent-child relationships. The following themes emerged from phenomenological analysis of the interviews: (a) family break-up more difficult than the parents' coming out; (b) discovery that parent was gay or lesbian; (c) initial shame over having gay or lesbian parent; (d) positive aspects of having a gay or lesbian parent; (e) redefined relationship with religion; and (f) impact of culture on how gay and lesbian individuals are viewed.

  3. Tensions in the Parent and Adult Child Relationship: Links to Solidarity and Ambivalence

    PubMed Central

    Birditt, Kira S.; Miller, Laura M.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2009-01-01

    Tensions are normative in the parent and adult child relationship, but there is little research on the topics that cause the most tension or whether tensions are associated with overall relationship quality. Adult sons and daughters, aged 22 to 49, and their mothers and fathers (N = 158 families, 474 individuals) reported the intensity of different tension topics and relationship quality (solidarity and ambivalence) with one another. Tensions varied between and within families by generation, gender and age of offspring. In comparison to tensions regarding individual issues, tensions regarding the relationship were associated with lower affective solidarity and greater ambivalence. Findings are consistent with the developmental schism hypothesis, which indicates that parent-child tensions are common and are the result of discrepancies in developmental needs which vary by generation, gender, and age. PMID:19485648

  4. Sibling Relationships during the Transition to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Conger, Katherine Jewsbury; Little, Wendy M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shed new light on individual development during the early adulthood years, yet few investigators have examined sibling relationships during this stage of life. These relationships undergo transformations as individuals enter adult roles and orient their lives towards friends and romantic partners and establish independence from parents and siblings. This review examines major life events and role transitions such as leaving home, completing school, obtaining employment, getting married, and having children that influence individuals and their sibling relationships. In addition, the review considers how sibling relationships may affect individuals during the transition to adulthood, and considers the context of family and culture. The article concludes with suggestions for future research on sibling relationships during early adulthood and beyond. PMID:20700389

  5. The relationship between child maltreatment and substance abuse treatment outcomes among emerging adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment.

  6. Romantic Ideation, Partner-Seeking, and HIV Risk among Young Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Structural changes in the acceptability of same-sex relationships may provide young gay and bisexual men (YGBM) with opportunities to develop expectations about their ideal future relationships. Expectations about the future may act as a promotive factor in youths’ lives and reduce HIV risk-taking behaviors; however, few studies have examined the relationship between ideation of a future relationship and sexual behaviors of YGBM. In this study, we examined the relationship between romantic ideation (i.e., intimacy, passion, and commitment) and number of sexual partners in a sample of young men (N = 431; M age = 21.49 years; 88% self-identified as gay) who reported using the Internet to meet other men. Using multivariate Poisson regressions, we found a negative association between commitment and number of partners for unprotected sex, both receptive and insertive, in the past two months. We found similar results when we examined the association between relationship exclusivity and number of partners. These associations persisted after accounting for age, race/ethnicity, sexual identity, and hours spent seeking casual and romantic partners online. We found no significant association between number of partners and ideation of an intimate or passionate relationship, respectively. We discuss the implications of our findings and conclude that there is a need to consider and include YGBM's expectations about the future in on-going HIV prevention programs. PMID:21394660

  7. Relationships between Childhood and Adult Physical Activity Patterns in a Community Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarine, Roland J.; Polkinghorne, Ori

    This study examined the relationship between adult physical activity levels and patterns of activity that were established during childhood. A random digit telephone survey was conducted of noninstitutionalized residents in a medium sized California city. Subjects ages 18 and over who volunteered to participate were questioned about their…

  8. RELATIONSHIP OF AMEBOCYTES AND TERRESTRIAL ELEMENTS TO ADULT SHELL DEPOSITION IN EASTERN OYSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fisher, William S. Submitted. Relationship of Amebocytes and Terrestrial Elements to Adult Shell Deposition in Eastern Oysters. J. Shellfish Res. 30 p. (ERL,GB 1197).

    Freshwater runoff contains terrestrial elements from geological deposits that may be vital to eastern oys...

  9. Adaptive Behavior among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Its Relationship to Community Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and…

  10. The Interactive Effects of Marital Conflict and Divorce on Parent-Adult Children's Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Tianyi; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines main effect and interactive models of the relations between marital conflict, divorce, and parent-adult child relationships and gender differences in these relations. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of a community sample (N = 585). Parental marital conflict and divorce were measured from age 5 through age 17 years.…

  11. Struggling to Recognize Their Existence: Examining Student-Adult Relationships in the Urban High School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Louie F.

    2008-01-01

    In today's reform context, much attention is placed on policies and outcomes and far less emphasis on understanding the social and cultural processes in schools. Using case-study methodology, I examine relationships between low-income, urban high school students of color, and the school adults with whom they interact. Using grounded theory,…

  12. The Relationship of Perceived Social Support with Well-Being in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerette, Amy R.; Smedema, Susan Miller

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between perceived social support and multiple indicators of well-being in adults with visual impairments was investigated. The results included significant correlation of social support and depressive symptoms, satisfaction with life, as well as with physical, psychological, economic, family, and social well-being. Implications…

  13. Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; Martens, Patricia M.; Dyslin, Christopher W.; Guimond, Jennifer M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although the intergenerational transmission of family violence has been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been fully determined. The present study examined whether trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between a childhood history of child physical abuse (CPA) and adult CPA risk, and whether any such…

  14. Relationships between Recreation and Levels of Self-Determination for Adolescents and Young Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Jayne; McDonnell, John

    2008-01-01

    Self-determination continues to be a focus for secondary students who have intellectual disabilities. This study examined the relationship between recreation and self-determination for adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities. Students from secondary and post-high school special education programs tracked their involvement in…

  15. Secondary Traumatization among Adult Children of PTSD Veterans: The Role of Mother-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinshtein, Yula; Dekel, Rachel; Polliack, Miki

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the level of secondary traumatization among adult children of Israeli war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as manifested in emotional distress, stress resulting from terrorist attacks, and capacity for intimacy. In addition, the role of the mother-child relationship as a moderator of these manifestations of…

  16. The Relationship of Group Structure, Task Performance, and Leadership Recognition Among Adult Basic Education Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gordon A.

    A study investigated the relationship between group structure and leader recognition and compared task performance with group structure and leader recognition to obtain a better understanding of the adult basic education participant. Fifteen women were randomly assigned to three groups and each given a list of six symbols. Their task was to…

  17. Suicide Ideation in Older Adults: Relationship to Mental Health Problems and Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corna, Laurie M.; Cairney, John; Streiner, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence of suicide ideation among community-dwelling older adults and the relationship between suicide ideation, major psychiatric disorder, and mental health service use. Design and Methods: We use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2: Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS 1.2). We estimate the prevalence of…

  18. Structural Relationships between Social Activities and Longitudinal Trajectories of Depression among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Song-Iee; Hasche, Leslie; Bowland, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the structural relationships between social activities and trajectories of late-life depression. Design and Methods: Latent class analysis was used with a nationally representative sample of older adults (N = 5,294) from the Longitudinal Study on Aging II to classify patterns of social activities. A latent growth curve…

  19. Psychological Abuse Perpetration in College Dating Relationships: Contributions of Gender, Stress, and Adult Attachment Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether gender, stressful problems common among college students, and adult attachment orientations (anxiety and avoidance) contributed to self-reported perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships among 127 college students. College men's stress levels were the strongest predictor of perpetration of…

  20. The Relationships of Drug Items Communicated by Tenenaged Interviewees to Teenaged and Adult Interviewers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward V.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses relationships of drug items communicated by teenaged interviewees to teenaged and adult interviewers. The subjects were teenagers in East, Central and West Harlem. A pool of 298 interview tapes was gathered from which 70 tapes were randomly selected. Teenagers' explanations for drug use included 10 categories established by…

  1. Support and Conflict in Ethnically Diverse Young Adults' Relationships with Parents and Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    We examined support and conflict with parents and close friends in a sample of ethnically diverse young adults (European-, Asian-, Cuban-, Latin-, and Mexican Americans). College students (N = 495) completed six subscales from the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). Friends were rated higher than parents on global…

  2. The Relationship between Self-Directed Learning Readiness and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Ralph G.

    1985-01-01

    Readiness for self-directed learning and perceived life satisfaction were explored among a sample of 64 adults over 60 years of age. A significant positive relationship was found between learning readiness and life satisfaction. Though not related to chronological age, learning readiness is connected to previous formal schooling. Self-directedness…

  3. Young Adult Relationship Values at the Intersection of Gender and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Ann; Hull, Kathleen E.; Ortyl, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent decades have brought significant social changes in the industrialized West that may influence young adults' attitudes about intimate relationships, including changes in gender expectations and behaviors and changes in sexual attitudes and practices. We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 14,121) to…

  4. Relationships between Adult Workers' Spiritual Well-Being and Job Satisfaction: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Tracey E.; Young, J. Scott; Kelly, Virginia A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors studied the relationships between adult workers' spiritual well-being and job satisfaction. Two hundred participants completed 2 instruments: the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (C. W. Ellison & R. F. Paloutzian, 1982) and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form (D. J. Weiss, R. V. Dawis, G. W. England, & L. H. Lofquist, 1967).…

  5. The Relationship between Grey-Matter and ASD and ADHD Traits in Typical Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Scholte, H. Steven

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether in 85 healthy adults (18-29 years) there is a relationship between grey-matter (GM) volume and autism and ADHD symptom severity. The structural MRI findings and autism and ADHD self-reports revealed that autism and ADHD symptom severity was correlated with GM volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Autism symptom-severity was…

  6. The long reach of childhood. Childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life.

    PubMed

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Jak, Suzanne

    2013-09-01

    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in their association with satisfaction in the romantic relationship, the quality of adult family ties and the perceived quality of the social network, i.e. loneliness in adulthood. Based on data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (N=3980) structural equation models were estimated to predict adult relationships and loneliness with childhood experiences. Positive attachment experiences with parents, such as reliability, closeness and supportiveness during childhood were associated with greater satisfaction in the romantic relationship, stronger family ties and less loneliness, whereas stressful childhood experiences, such as conflicts and violence negatively predicted the quality of adult relationships. Life span theoretical perspectives, such as attachment theory are discussed as useful unifying framework to study social relationships, their interconnectedness and association with outcome during all phases of life.

  7. The Protective Effects of Intimate Partner Relationships on Depressive Symptomatology among Adult Parents Maltreated as Children

    PubMed Central

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Lee, Rosalyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined whether intimate partner relationships in general, and satisfying and stable intimate partner relationships in particular, protect victims of child maltreatment from depressive symptoms during young adulthood. Methods Prospective, longitudinal data on 485 parents, 99 maltreated during childhood, were used. Longitudinal multilevel models (12 annual interviews, conducted from 1999 to 2010, nested in individuals) were specified to estimate the effects of relationship characteristics on depressive symptomatology by maltreatment status. Results Relationship characteristics operated as direct protective factors for maltreated and not maltreated individuals. Higher relationship satisfaction and stability were prospectively predictive of less depressive symptomatology. Models of inter and intra-individual variability were also consistent with significant direct protective effects. Between persons, a more satisfying and stable relationship was associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Within person, periods when an individual moved into a relationship, and periods of enhanced satisfaction and stability were associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Relationship satisfaction and stability operated as significant buffering protective factors for the effect of maltreatment on depressive symptoms in most models, suggesting that positive intimate partner relationships may reduce the risk that childhood maltreatment poses for adult depressive symptoms. Conclusions The CDC identifies safe, stable, and nurturing relationships (SSNRs) as key in preventing maltreatment and its consequences. This study adds to the evidence on the protective role of SSNRs by identifying intimate partner relationship factors that may protect parents who were maltreated during childhood from depressive symptoms. PMID:25912653

  8. What’s in a Kiss? The Effect of Romantic Kissing on Mate Desirability

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarski, Rafael; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Past research suggests that various courtship rituals, such as romantic kissing, may convey useful mate quality information. Two studies were carried out to examine how purported romantic kissing abilities, as a potential cue to some form of mate information, affect appraisals of potential mating partners. In Experiment 1, 724 participants were presented with vignette descriptions of potential mating partners and were asked to rate partner desirability for various mating-related situations. The primary result of this experiment was that purported kissing ability increased mate desirability in “casual sex” mating situations for women to a greater extent than for men. Experiment 2 repeated the same procedure with another 178 participants, this time including visual information alongside vignette descriptions containing kissing-related information to examine the relative effects of these two modalities. It was found that the presence of a picture alongside a descriptive vignette negated the effect of kissing-related information only when rating potential partners on attractiveness or desirability for further courtship, though not when evaluating partners for casual sex or long-term relationship scenarios. Visual information containing “attractive” photos of potential partners was also found to have a greater effect on men’s ratings of partner desirability than on women’s ratings of partner desirability. The results are discussed in light of romantic kissing’s potential function of conveying important mate quality and desirability information, and its relative role in the presence of additional visual mate cues. PMID:25299759

  9. Spatial relationship between adult malaria vector abundance and environmental factors in western Kenya highlands.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guofa; Munga, Stephen; Minakawa, Noboru; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2007-07-01

    Information on the spatial relationships between disease vectors and environmental factors is fundamental to vector-borne disease control. Although it is well known that mosquito abundance is associated with the amount of rainfall and thus the number of larval breeding sites, the spatial relationship between larval habitat availability and adult mosquito abundance is not clear. We investigated the impact of environmental heterogeneity and larval habitats on the spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae s. s. and An. funestus adult mosquitoes, the most important malaria vectors in the highlands of western Kenya. Mosquito sampling was conducted in May, August, and November 2002, and February 2003. Geographic information system layers of larval habitats, land use type, human population distribution, house structure, and hydrologic schemes were overlaid with adult mosquito abundance. Correlography was used to determine the spatial autocorrelation in adult mosquito abundance among houses and the cross-correlation between adult mosquito abundance and environmental factors. Getis' G(i)(*)(d) index was used to define focal adult mosquito abundance clusters. We found a significant autocorrelation in the vector population and a significant cross-correlation between the vector population and larval habitat availability. The threshold distances of both autocorrelation and cross-correlation were significantly varied among seasons. Focal clustering analysis revealed that the adult vector population was concentrated along the Yala River Valley where most larval habitats were found. Regression analysis found that distance of a house to the Yala River, age of the house, elevation, house structure, and tree canopy coverage significantly affected adult mosquito abundance. Our results suggest that vector control targeted at malaria transmission hotspots and supplemented by larval control may be an effective approach for epidemic malaria control in the western Kenya highlands.

  10. The relationship between adenovirus-36 seropositivity, obesity and metabolic profile in Turkish children and adults.

    PubMed

    Karamese, M; Altoparlak, U; Turgut, A; Aydogdu, S; Karamese, S Aksak

    2015-12-01

    Obesity potentially arising from viral infection is known as 'infectobesity'. The latest reports suggest that adenovirus-36 (Adv36) is related to obesity in adults and children. Our aim was not only to determine the Adv36 seropositivity in both obese and non-obese children and adults, but also to investigate correlations between antibody positivity and serum lipid profiles. Both Adv36 positivity and tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha, leptin and interleukin-6 levels were detected in blood samples collected from 146 children and 130 adults by ELISA. Fasting plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels were also measured. Adv36 positivity was determined to be 27·1% and 6% in obese and non-obese children and 17·5% and 4% in obese and non-obese adults, respectively. There was no difference with regard to total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels (P > 0·05). However, there was a significant difference between groups in terms of leptin levels (P < 0·05). We determined the prevalence of Adv36 positivity in obese children and adults. Our results showed that Adv36 may be an obesity agent for both adults and children, parallel with current literature data. However, the available data on a possible relationship between Adv36 infection and obesity both in children and adults do not completely solve the problem.

  11. Effects of methylphenidate and MDMA on appraisal of erotic stimuli and intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Yasmin; Hysek, Cédric M; Preller, Katrin H; Bosch, Oliver G; Bilderbeck, Amy C; Rogers, Robert D; Quednow, Boris B; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate mainly enhances dopamine neurotransmission whereas 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") mainly enhances serotonin neurotransmission. However, both drugs also induce a weaker increase of cerebral noradrenaline exerting sympathomimetic properties. Dopaminergic psychostimulants are reported to increase sexual drive, while serotonergic drugs typically impair sexual arousal and functions. Additionally, serotonin has also been shown to modulate cognitive perception of romantic relationships. Whether methylphenidate or MDMA alter sexual arousal or cognitive appraisal of intimate relationships is not known. Thus, we evaluated effects of methylphenidate (40 mg) and MDMA (75 mg) on subjective sexual arousal by viewing erotic pictures and on perception of romantic relationships of unknown couples in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 30 healthy adults. Methylphenidate, but not MDMA, increased ratings of sexual arousal for explicit sexual stimuli. The participants also sought to increase the presentation time of implicit sexual stimuli by button press after methylphenidate treatment compared with placebo. Plasma levels of testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone were not associated with sexual arousal ratings. Neither MDMA nor methylphenidate altered appraisal of romantic relationships of others. The findings indicate that pharmacological stimulation of dopaminergic but not of serotonergic neurotransmission enhances sexual drive. Whether sexual perception is altered in subjects misusing methylphenidate e.g., for cognitive enhancement or as treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is of high interest and warrants further investigation. PMID:25498417

  12. Effects of methylphenidate and MDMA on appraisal of erotic stimuli and intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Yasmin; Hysek, Cédric M; Preller, Katrin H; Bosch, Oliver G; Bilderbeck, Amy C; Rogers, Robert D; Quednow, Boris B; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate mainly enhances dopamine neurotransmission whereas 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") mainly enhances serotonin neurotransmission. However, both drugs also induce a weaker increase of cerebral noradrenaline exerting sympathomimetic properties. Dopaminergic psychostimulants are reported to increase sexual drive, while serotonergic drugs typically impair sexual arousal and functions. Additionally, serotonin has also been shown to modulate cognitive perception of romantic relationships. Whether methylphenidate or MDMA alter sexual arousal or cognitive appraisal of intimate relationships is not known. Thus, we evaluated effects of methylphenidate (40 mg) and MDMA (75 mg) on subjective sexual arousal by viewing erotic pictures and on perception of romantic relationships of unknown couples in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 30 healthy adults. Methylphenidate, but not MDMA, increased ratings of sexual arousal for explicit sexual stimuli. The participants also sought to increase the presentation time of implicit sexual stimuli by button press after methylphenidate treatment compared with placebo. Plasma levels of testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone were not associated with sexual arousal ratings. Neither MDMA nor methylphenidate altered appraisal of romantic relationships of others. The findings indicate that pharmacological stimulation of dopaminergic but not of serotonergic neurotransmission enhances sexual drive. Whether sexual perception is altered in subjects misusing methylphenidate e.g., for cognitive enhancement or as treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is of high interest and warrants further investigation.

  13. The Longitudinal Relationship between the Use of Long-Term Care and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pot, Anne Margriet; Deeg, Dorly J.H.; Twisk, Jos W.R.; Beekman, Aartjan T.F.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to estimate the longitudinal relationship between transitions in the use of long-term care and older adults' depressive symptoms and to investigate whether this relationship could be explained by markers of older adults' underlying health, or other variables including demographics, personality, and partner…

  14. Self-Esteem of Young Adults Experiencing Interparental Violence and Child Physical Maltreatment: Parental and Peer Relationships as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…

  15. Protective Parenting, Relationship Power Equity, and Condom Use Among Rural African American Emerging Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Chen, Yifu; Burwell, Stephanie; Brody, Gene H.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections disproportionately affect African Americans, particularly young women. The influence of a set of interrelated protective parenting processes—instrumental and emotional support, sexual risk communication, and encouragement of goals for employment or education—on emerging adult women was examined. Parenting was hypothesized to affect consistent condom use through its association with women’s reports of power equity in their intimate relationships. Hypotheses were tested with 135 sexually active women 18 to 21 years of age living in rural southern communities. Structural equation modeling indicated that (a) parenting processes predicted women’s self-reported relationship power equity and consistent condom use, and (b) relationship power equity predicted consistent condom use. Limited support emerged for a mediational role of relationship power equity in explaining the influence of parenting on consistent condom use. Parental involvement and young women’s establishment of personal control in their intimate relationships are important goals for sexual risk reduction programs. PMID:23729949

  16. [Close relationships in childhood and adulthood from the viewpoint of structural analysis of social behavior (SASB) and attachment theory].

    PubMed

    Neumann, Eva; Tress, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Two theoretical approaches to interpersonal experiences and behavior are empirically related to each other: Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) and attachment theory. The focus is on the most important relationships during life-span: relationships with mother and father in childhood, which were measured retrospectively, and romantic relationships in adulthood. 93 outpatients of a psychosomatic clinic took part in the study. Self-report measures were used to assess SASB-dimensions affiliation and autonomy and attachment variables (Intrex short form, Short measure of attachment to parents, Bochum Adult Attachment Questionnaire). Affiliation was strongly related to attachment to mother, father and romantic partner. Subjects classified as secure with respect to attachment to parents reported higher levels of affiliation than subjects classified as anxious or avoidant. Correspondingly, affiliation was negatively correlated with avoidance and anxiety in adult attachment to the romantic partner. On the other hand, autonomy was shown to be unrelated to attachment variables. Results indicate that the SASB-dimension affiliation and attachment security are closely associated.

  17. Romantic Partner Monitoring After Breakups: Attachment, Dependence, Distress, and Post-Dissolution Online Surveillance via Social Networking Sites.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jesse; Tokunaga, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Romantic relationship dissolution can be stressful, and social networking sites make it difficult to separate from a romantic partner online as well as offline. An online survey (N = 431) tested a model synthesizing attachment, investment model variables, and post-dissolution emotional distress as predictors of interpersonal surveillance (i.e., "Facebook stalking") of one's ex-partner on Facebook after a breakup. Results indicated that anxious attachment predicted relational investment but also seeking relationship alternatives; avoidant attachment was negatively related to investment but positively related to seeking alternatives. Investment predicted commitment, whereas seeking alternatives was negatively related to commitment. Commitment predicted emotional distress after the breakup. Distress predicted partner monitoring immediately following the breakup, particularly for those who did not initiate the breakup, as well as current partner monitoring. Given their affordances, social media are discussed as potentially unhealthy enablers for online surveillance after relationship termination.

  18. Disparities in Health and Disability Among Older Adults in Same-Sex Cohabiting Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study compared indicators of impaired health and disability between older adults in same-sex cohabiting relationships and their peers in opposite-sex cohabiting relationships. Methods Data were obtained on men (n=698) and women (n=630) aged 50 years and older and in self-reported same-sex relationships from the National Health Interview Survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate differences in physical health, mental health and disability status. Results Compared to their peers in married opposite-sex relationships, older men in same-sex relationships exhibited greater odds of psychological distress, and older women in same-sex relationships experienced elevated odds of poor/fair health, needing help with ADLs and IADLs, functional limitations, and psychological distress. Discussion This study adds to the limited information on health and disability among older lesbian, gay and bisexual adults. As this population grows, gerontologists must develop a better understanding of the unique issues and challenges facing them and their families. PMID:25253727

  19. Adult attachment among partnered gay men: patterns and associations with sexual relationship quality.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found secure adult attachment to be associated positively with dimensions of main partner relationship quality and negatively with sexual risk taking and sex with casual partners among heterosexuals in primary relationships. Potential associations between adult attachment and aspects of relationship functioning have received limited attention among gay men. Data were collected from both members of 344 gay male couples as part of a community survey (M age = 38.6, SD = 9.4). Participants completed a shortened version of the Adult Attachment Inventory (Collins & Read, 1990) and the Dyadic Sexual Communication Scale (Catania, 1998). They reported the frequency of sex with main partners and the number of casual male unprotected sex partners. Data were analyzed using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Securely attached individuals reported the highest levels of sexual communication and men with securely attached partners were the most likely to report having sex with their partners as least once per week. Avoidantly attached men reported significantly more casual unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) partners compared to other attachment styles. Having an avoidantly attached partner was also associated with an increase in the number of UAI partners reported. Attachment style is relevant to the sexual relationship quality and sexual safety of partnered gay men. Cognitive-interpersonal intervention approaches developed to target attachment-related cognitions and behaviors may be relevant to HIV prevention efforts in this population.

  20. A REVIEW OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEG POWER AND SELECTED CHRONIC DISEASE IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    STROLLO, S.E.; CASEROTTI, P.; WARD, R.E.; GLYNN, N.W.; GOODPASTER, B.H.; STROTMEYER, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This review investigates the relationship between leg muscle power and the chronic conditions of osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease among older adults. Current literature assessing the impact of chronic disease on leg power has not yet been comprehensively characterized. Importantly, individuals with these conditions have shown improved leg power with training. Methods A search was performed using PubMed to identify original studies published in English from January 1998 to August 2013. Leg power studies, among older adults ≥ 50 years of age, which assessed associations with osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and/or cardiovascular disease were selected. Studies concerning post-surgery rehabilitation, case studies, and articles that did not measure primary results were excluded. Results Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria, addressing osteoarthritis (n=5), diabetes mellitus (n=5), and cardiovascular disease (n=6). Studies generally supported associations of lower leg power among older adults with chronic disease, although small sample sizes, cross-sectional data, homogenous populations, varied disease definitions, and inconsistent leg power methods limited conclusions. Conclusions Studies suggest that osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease are associated with lower leg power compared to older adults without these conditions. These studies are limited, however, by the heterogeneity in study populations and a lack of standardized measurements of leg power. Future larger studies of more diverse older adults with well-defined chronic disease using standard measures of leg power and interventions to improve leg power in these older adults with chronic disease are needed. PMID:25651453