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Sample records for adult salmon returning

  1. Multivariate Models of Adult Pacific Salmon Returns

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Brian J.; Peterson, William T.; Beckman, Brian R.; Morgan, Cheryl; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Litz, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Most modeling and statistical approaches encourage simplicity, yet ecological processes are often complex, as they are influenced by numerous dynamic environmental and biological factors. Pacific salmon abundance has been highly variable over the last few decades and most forecasting models have proven inadequate, primarily because of a lack of understanding of the processes affecting variability in survival. Better methods and data for predicting the abundance of returning adults are therefore required to effectively manage the species. We combined 31 distinct indicators of the marine environment collected over an 11-year period into a multivariate analysis to summarize and predict adult spring Chinook salmon returns to the Columbia River in 2012. In addition to forecasts, this tool quantifies the strength of the relationship between various ecological indicators and salmon returns, allowing interpretation of ecosystem processes. The relative importance of indicators varied, but a few trends emerged. Adult returns of spring Chinook salmon were best described using indicators of bottom-up ecological processes such as composition and abundance of zooplankton and fish prey as well as measures of individual fish, such as growth and condition. Local indicators of temperature or coastal upwelling did not contribute as much as large-scale indicators of temperature variability, matching the spatial scale over which salmon spend the majority of their ocean residence. Results suggest that effective management of Pacific salmon requires multiple types of data and that no single indicator can represent the complex early-ocean ecology of salmon. PMID:23326586

  2. Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Maki, Alan W; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams. PMID:16487548

  3. Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Maki, Alan W; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams.

  4. Transportation of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, smolts in the Columbia River and effects on adult returns

    SciTech Connect

    Ebel, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri, were captured at Little Goose Dam in the Snake River during their seaward migration and transported 400 km downstream to the lower Columbia River below Bonneville Dam. Their survival was increased from 1.1 to 15 times as compared with control fish which passed by seven mainstem low-level dams and reservoirs. Variations in survival were mainly dependent on species and environmental conditions in the river during the period fish were transported. The homing ability of the adult fish was not significantly diminished; less than 0.2% of strays occurred among adult returns from groups transported. Transportation did not affect ocean age or size of returning adult steelhead, but ocean age of returning adult chinook salmon may have been affected. Steelhead returned to Little Goose Dam at a substantially higher rate (1.4 to 2.7%) than chinook salmon (0.1 to 0.8%) from groups transported. The timing of adult returns of both species to Little Goose Dam was not related to the time of capture and downstream release of smolts.

  5. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the seventh season (1997-2003) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the fifth season (1999-2003) of acclimating the resultant progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2003, acclimation of

  6. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2007 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eleventh season (1997-2007) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the ninth season (1999-2007) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2007

  7. Salmon lice increase the age of returning Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Vollset, Knut Wiik; Barlaup, Bjørn Torgeir; Skoglund, Helge; Normann, Eirik Straume; Skilbrei, Ove Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The global increase in the production of domestic farmed fish in open net pens has created concerns about the resilience of wild populations owing to shifts in host-parasite systems in coastal ecosystems. However, little is known about the effects of increased parasite abundance on life-history traits in wild fish populations. Here, we report the results of two separate studies in which 379 779 hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts were treated (or not) against salmon lice, marked and released. Adults were later recaptured, and we specifically tested whether the age distribution of the returning spawners was affected by the treatment. The estimates of parasite-induced mortality were 31.9% and 0.6% in the River Vosso and River Dale stock experiments, respectively. Age of returning salmon was on average higher in untreated [corrected] versus untreated fish. The percentages of fish returning after one winter at sea were 37.5% and 29.9% for the treated and untreated groups, respectively. We conclude that salmon lice increase the age of returning salmon, either by affecting their age at maturity or by disproportionately increasing mortality in fish that mature early.

  8. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2006 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the tenth season (1997-2006) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the eighth season (1999-2006) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2006

  9. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2004 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eighth season (1997-2004) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the sixth season (1999-2004) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progency for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2004

  10. Recurrent die-offs of adult coho salmon returning to spawn in Puget Sound lowland urban streams.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Nathaniel L; Myers, Mark S; McCarthy, Sarah G; Labenia, Jana S; McIntyre, Jenifer K; Ylitalo, Gina M; Rhodes, Linda D; Laetz, Cathy A; Stehr, Carla M; French, Barbara L; McMillan, Bill; Wilson, Dean; Reed, Laura; Lynch, Katherine D; Damm, Steve; Davis, Jay W; Collier, Tracy K

    2011-01-01

    Several Seattle-area streams in Puget Sound were the focus of habitat restoration projects in the 1990s. Post-project effectiveness monitoring surveys revealed anomalous behaviors among adult coho salmon returning to spawn in restored reaches. These included erratic surface swimming, gaping, fin splaying, and loss of orientation and equilibrium. Affected fish died within hours, and female carcasses generally showed high rates (>90%) of egg retention. Beginning in the fall of 2002, systematic spawner surveys were conducted to 1) assess the severity of the adult die-offs, 2) compare spawner mortality in urban vs. non-urban streams, and 3) identify water quality and spawner condition factors that might be associated with the recurrent fish kills. The forensic investigation focused on conventional water quality parameters (e.g., dissolved oxygen, temperature, ammonia), fish condition, pathogen exposure and disease status, and exposures to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and current use pesticides. Daily surveys of a representative urban stream (Longfellow Creek) from 2002-2009 revealed premature spawner mortality rates that ranged from 60-100% of each fall run. The comparable rate in a non-urban stream was <1% (Fortson Creek, surveyed in 2002). Conventional water quality, pesticide exposure, disease, and spawner condition showed no relationship to the syndrome. Coho salmon did show evidence of exposure to metals and petroleum hydrocarbons, both of which commonly originate from motor vehicles in urban landscapes. The weight of evidence suggests that freshwater-transitional coho are particularly vulnerable to an as-yet unidentified toxic contaminant (or contaminant mixture) in urban runoff. Stormwater may therefore place important constraints on efforts to conserve and recover coho populations in urban and urbanizing watersheds throughout the western United States.

  11. Recurrent Die-Offs of Adult Coho Salmon Returning to Spawn in Puget Sound Lowland Urban Streams

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Myers, Mark S.; McCarthy, Sarah G.; Labenia, Jana S.; McIntyre, Jenifer K.; Ylitalo, Gina M.; Rhodes, Linda D.; Laetz, Cathy A.; Stehr, Carla M.; French, Barbara L.; McMillan, Bill; Wilson, Dean; Reed, Laura; Lynch, Katherine D.; Damm, Steve; Davis, Jay W.; Collier, Tracy K.

    2011-01-01

    Several Seattle-area streams in Puget Sound were the focus of habitat restoration projects in the 1990s. Post-project effectiveness monitoring surveys revealed anomalous behaviors among adult coho salmon returning to spawn in restored reaches. These included erratic surface swimming, gaping, fin splaying, and loss of orientation and equilibrium. Affected fish died within hours, and female carcasses generally showed high rates (>90%) of egg retention. Beginning in the fall of 2002, systematic spawner surveys were conducted to 1) assess the severity of the adult die-offs, 2) compare spawner mortality in urban vs. non-urban streams, and 3) identify water quality and spawner condition factors that might be associated with the recurrent fish kills. The forensic investigation focused on conventional water quality parameters (e.g., dissolved oxygen, temperature, ammonia), fish condition, pathogen exposure and disease status, and exposures to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and current use pesticides. Daily surveys of a representative urban stream (Longfellow Creek) from 2002–2009 revealed premature spawner mortality rates that ranged from 60–100% of each fall run. The comparable rate in a non-urban stream was <1% (Fortson Creek, surveyed in 2002). Conventional water quality, pesticide exposure, disease, and spawner condition showed no relationship to the syndrome. Coho salmon did show evidence of exposure to metals and petroleum hydrocarbons, both of which commonly originate from motor vehicles in urban landscapes. The weight of evidence suggests that freshwater-transitional coho are particularly vulnerable to an as-yet unidentified toxic contaminant (or contaminant mixture) in urban runoff. Stormwater may therefore place important constraints on efforts to conserve and recover coho populations in urban and urbanizing watersheds throughout the western United States. PMID:22194802

  12. Growth, smoltification, and smolt-to-adult return of spring chinook salmon from hatcheries on the Deschutes river, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckman, B.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Zaugg, W.S.; Sharpe, C.; Hirtzel, S.; Schrock, R.; Larsen, D.A.; Ewing, R.D.; Palmisano, A.; Schreck, C.B.; Mahnken, C.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between smoltification and smolt-to-adult return (SAR) of spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Deschutes River, Oregon, was examined for four release groups in each of three successive years. Fish were reared, marked with coded wire tags, and released from Round Butte Hatchery, Pelton Ladder rearing facility, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery. Smolt releases occurred in nearly the same place at similar times, allowing a direct comparison of SAR to several characters representing smolt quality. Return rates varied significantly among facilities, varying over an order of magnitude each year. The highest average SAR was from Pelton Ladder, the lowest was from Warm Springs. Each of the characters used as metrics of smoltification - fish size, spring growth rate (February-April), condition factor, plasma hormone concentration (thyroxine, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor-I [IGF-I]), stress challenge, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and liver glycogen concentration - varied significantly among facilities and seasonally within hatchery groups. However, only spring growth rate, gill ATPase activity, and plasma IGF-I concentration showed significant relationships to SAR. These characters and SAR itself were consistently lower for fish released from Warm Springs Hatchery than for fish from Round Butte Hatchery and Pelton Ladder. This demonstrates that differences in the quality of fish released by facilities may have profound effects on subsequent survival and suggests that manipulations of spring growth rate may be used to influence the quality of smolts released from facilities.

  13. Mycobacterial infections in adult salmon and steelhead trout returning to the Columbia River Basin and other areas in 1957

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1959-01-01

    The degree of incidence of acid -fast bacillus infections in adult salmonid fishes was determined. The disease was shown to be widely distributed in the area examined. It is believed the primary source of infection is derived from the hatchery practice of feeding infected salmon products to juvenile fish. One group of marked adults that had been hatchery reared for 370 days showed a 62 percent incidence of infection. A statistical analysis indicated that length of fish is independent of infection

  14. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Michael L.; Soderlund, K.; Thomann, E.; Schreck, Carl B.; Sharpton, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected upon

  15. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Kent, M L; Soderlund, K; Thomann, Estela; Schreck, C B; Sharpton, T J

    2014-10-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon, Sawtooth Valley Project : 1992 Juvenile and Adult Trapping Program : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs in the Snake River Basin have severely declined. Redfish Lake near Stanley, Idaho is the only lake in the drainage known to still support a run. In 1989, two adults were observed returning to this lake and in 1990, none returned. In the summer of 1991, only four adults returned. If no action is taken, the Snake River sockeye salmon will probably cease to exist. On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared the Snake River sockeye salmon ``endangered`` (effective December 20, 1991), pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. In 1991, in response to a request from the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded efforts to conserve and begin rebuilding the Snake River sockeye salmon run. The initial efforts were focused on Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Valley of southcentral Idaho. The 1991 measures involved: trapping some of the juvenile outmigrants (O. nerka) from Redfish Lake and rearing them in the Eagle Fish Health Facility (Idaho Department of Fish and Game) near Boise, Idaho; Upgrading of the Eagle Facility where the outmigrants are being reared; and trapping adult Snake River sockeye salmon returning to Redfish Lake and holding and spawning them at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental effects of the proposed actions for 1992. It has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and section 7 of the ESA of 1973.

  17. Anxiety and the Newly Returned Adult Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Michelle Navarre

    2012-01-01

    Based on interviews with students who had recently returned to school, this essay demonstrates the need for, challenges of, and ways to respond to the writing anxiety many adults bring with them back to school. Jessica and Sam were two of twenty-five newly returned adult students whom the author spent over sixty hours interviewing in the fall of…

  18. The administration of sulfonamide drugs to adult salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, D.F.; Fryer, J.L.

    1968-01-01

    Mass treatment is the most convenient way to combat fish diseases. For example, drugs can be administered per os in diets, or chemicals can be added to the water. These methods are mostly ineffective in treating systemic infections of adult salmon because mature salmon do not feed, and many fish diseases cannot be controlled by chemical baths. Thus, effective treatment would require administering drugs to each individual.

  19. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave

    2002-12-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time- lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999 and 2001. The adult salmon spawner escapement estimate into Lake Creek in 2001 was 697 fish, the largest escapement since the project began. Jack salmon comprised 10% of the spring migration. Snow pack in the drainage was 38% of the average during the winter of 2000/2001. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 9, 19 days after installation of the fish counting station and two weeks earlier than previously reported. Peak net upstream movement of 52 adults occurred on June 22. Peak of total movement activity was July 3. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 6. Redd count expansion methods were compared to underwater video determined salmon spawner abundance in Lake Creek in 2001. Expanded index area redd count point estimates and intensive area redd counts in 2001, estimated from 1.3 percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers in Lake Creek have varied widely. In 2001 there were 2.07 fish per redd. In 1999, there were 3.58 fish per redd, and in 1998, with no jacks returning to spawn, there were 1.02 fish per redd. Migrating salmon in Lake Creek

  20. The return on the blueback salmon to the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Frederick S.

    1948-01-01

    THE year 1941 was a crucial one for the blueback salmon of the Columbia River. During that year, one brood came closer to extinction than was realized by more than a few individuals. The immediate causes were not overfishing, hydroelectric power development, or irrigation—although these factors continued to exert their long-standing effects. The direct causes can be attributed to an “act of God” plus—in large measure--lack of knowledge concerning the basic principles of effective artificial propagation. With the security and assurance provided by subsequent developments, those concerned with the Columbia River blueback salmon may be interested in a brief recapitulation of events that transpired during the early 1940s. This particular piece of fishery history bears upon the problems of the immediate future on the Columbia River.

  1. Predictability of Bristol Bay, Alaska, sockeye salmon returns one to four years in the future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adkison, M.D.; Peterman, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Historically, forecast error for returns of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka to Bristol Bay, Alaska, has been large. Using cross-validation forecast error as our criterion, we selected forecast models for each of the nine principal Bristol Bay drainages. Competing forecast models included stock-recruitment relationships, environmental variables, prior returns of siblings, or combinations of these predictors. For most stocks, we found prior returns of siblings to be the best single predictor of returns; however, forecast accuracy was low even when multiple predictors were considered. For a typical drainage, an 80% confidence interval ranged from one half to double the point forecast. These confidence intervals appeared to be appropriately wide.

  2. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul

    2003-11-01

    areas in Lake Creek have varied widely. In 2002 there were 2.05 fish per redd. There were 2.07 fish per redd in 2001, 3.58 in 1999 and in 1998, with no jacks returning to spawn, there were 1.02 fish per redd. Migrating salmon in Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement in 2002. Mainly upstream only movement of both sexes characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with less net upstream movement and appeared to correspond with the time of active spawning. The fish counting stations did not impede salmon movements, nor was spawning displaced downstream. Fish moved freely upstream and downstream through the fish counting structures. The downstream movement of salmon afforded by this fish counting station design may be an important factor in the reproductive success of listed salmon. This methodology provides more accurate salmon spawner abundance information than expansion of single-pass and multiple-pass redd counts. Accurate adult escapement information would allow managers to determine if recovery actions benefited listed chinook salmon in tributary streams.

  3. Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

    2002-04-16

    The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting done

  4. Transcriptomics of environmental acclimatization and survival in wild adult Pacific sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during spawning migration.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tyler G; Hammill, Edd; Kaukinen, Karia; Schulze, Angela D; Patterson, David A; English, Karl K; Curtis, Janelle M R; Miller, Kristina M

    2011-11-01

    Environmental shifts accompanying salmon spawning migrations from ocean feeding grounds to natal freshwater streams can be severe, with the underlying stress often cited as a cause of increased mortality. Here, a salmonid microarray was used to characterize changes in gene expression occurring between ocean and river habitats in gill and liver tissues of wild migrating sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka Walbaum) returning to spawn in the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada. Expression profiles indicate that the transcriptome of migrating salmon is strongly affected by shifting abiotic and biotic conditions encountered along migration routes. Conspicuous shifts in gene expression associated with changing salinity, temperature, pathogen exposure and dissolved oxygen indicate that these environmental variables most strongly impact physiology during spawning migrations. Notably, transcriptional changes related to osmoregulation were largely preparatory and occurred well before salmon encountered freshwater. In the river environment, differential expression of genes linked with elevated temperatures indicated that thermal regimes within the Fraser River are approaching tolerance limits for adult salmon. To empirically correlate gene expression with survival, biopsy sampling of gill tissue and transcriptomic profiling were combined with telemetry. Many genes correlated with environmental variables were differentially expressed between premature mortalities and successful migrants. Parametric survival analyses demonstrated a broad-scale transcriptional regulator, cofactor required for Sp1 transcriptional activation (CRSP), to be significantly predictive of survival. As the environmental characteristics of salmon habitats continue to change, establishing how current environmental conditions influence salmon physiology under natural conditions is critical to conserving this ecologically and economically important fish species.

  5. Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) return after an absence of nearly 90 years: A case of reversion to anadromy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godbout, L.; Wood, C.C.; Withler, R.E.; Latham, S.; Nelson, R.J.; Wetzel, L.; Barnett-Johnson, R.; Grove, M.J.; Schmitt, A.K.; McKeegan, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    We document the recent reappearance of anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) that were thought to have been extirpated by the construction of hydroelectric dams on the Coquitlam and Alouette rivers in British Columbia, Canada, in 1914 and 1927, respectively. Unexpected downstream migrations of juveniles during experimental water releases into both rivers in 2005 and 2006 preceded upstream return migrations of adults in 2007 and 2008. Genetic (microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA) markers and stable isotope (??34S and 87Sr/86Sr) patterns in otoliths confirm that both the juvenile downstream migrants and adult upstream migrants were progeny of nonanadromous sockeye salmon (kokanee) that inhabit Coquitlam and Alouette reservoirs. Low genetic diversity and evidence of genetic bottlenecks suggest that the kokanee populations in both reservoirs originated from relatively few anadromous individuals that residualized after downstream migration was largely prevented by the construction of dams. Once given an opportunity for upstream and downstream migration, both populations appear capable of reverting to a successful anadromous form, even after 25 generations.

  6. Migratory Behavior of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River and its Tributaries: Completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.

    1994-01-01

    Migration patterns of adult spring chinook salmon above Willamette Falls differed depending on when the fish passed the Falls, with considerable among-fish variability. Early-run fish often terminated their migration for extended periods of time, in association with increased flows and decreased temperatures. Mid-run fish tended to migrate steadily upstream at a rate of 30-40 km/day. Late-run fish frequently ceased migrating or fell back downstream after migrating 10-200 km up the Willamette River or its tributaries; this appeared to be associated with warming water during summer and resulted in considerable mortality. Up to 40% of the adult salmon entering the Willamette River System above Willamette Falls (i.e. counted at the ladder) may die before reaching upriver spawning areas. Up to 10% of the fish passing up over Willamette Falls may fall-back below the Falls; some migrate to the Columbia River or lower Willamette River tributaries. If rearing conditions at hatcheries affect timing of adult returns because of different juvenile development rates and improper timing of smolt releases, then differential mortality in the freshwater segment of the adult migrations may confound interpretation of studies evaluating rearing practices.

  7. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms, and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R. ); Brown, Richard S. ); Cullinan, Valerie I. ); Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A. )

    2003-10-01

    We measured oxygen consumption rates of adult spring Chinook salmon and compared these values to other species of Pacific salmon. Our results indicated that adult salmon achieve their maximum level of oxygen consumption at about their upper critical swim speed. It is also at this speed that the majority of the energy supplied to the swimming fish switches from red muscle (powered by aerobic metabolism) to white muscle (powered by anaerobic metabolism). Determining the swimming performance of adult salmon will assist managers in developing fishways and other means to safely pass fish over hydroelectric dams and other man-made structures.

  8. Bacterial infections of Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), returning to gamete collecting weirs in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Loch, T P; Scribner, K; Tempelman, R; Whelan, G; Faisal, M

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we describe the prevalence of bacterial infections in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), returning to spawn in two tributaries within the Lake Michigan watershed. Ten bacterial genera, including Renibacterium, Aeromonas, Carnobacterium, Serratia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Hafnia, Salmonella, Shewanella and Morganella, were detected in the kidneys of Chinook salmon (n = 480) using culture, serological and molecular analyses. Among these, Aeromonas salmonicida was detected at a prevalence of ∼15%. Analyses revealed significant interactions between location/time of collection and gender for these infections, whereby overall infection prevalence increased greatly later in the spawning run and was significantly higher in females. Renibacterium salmoninarum was detected in fish kidneys at an overall prevalence of >25%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that R. salmoninarum prevalence differed significantly by location/time of collection and gender, with a higher likelihood of infection later in the spawning season and in females vs. males. Chi-square analyses quantifying non-independence of infection by multiple pathogens revealed a significant association between R. salmoninarum and motile aeromonad infections. Additionally, greater numbers of fish were found to be co-infected by multiple bacterial species than would be expected by chance alone. The findings of this study suggest a potential synergism between bacteria infecting spawning Chinook salmon.

  9. Changes in Size and Age of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Bert; Grant, W Stewart; Brenner, Richard E; Hamazaki, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    The average sizes of Pacific salmon have declined in some areas in the Northeast Pacific over the past few decades, but the extent and geographic distribution of these declines in Alaska is uncertain. Here, we used regression analyses to quantify decadal trends in length and age at maturity in ten datasets from commercial harvests, weirs, and spawner abundance surveys of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha throughout Alaska. We found that on average these fish have become smaller over the past 30 years (~6 generations), because of a decline in the predominant age at maturity and because of a decrease in age-specific length. The proportion of older and larger 4-ocean age fish in the population declined significantly (P < 0.05) in all stocks examined by return year or brood year. Our analyses also indicated that the age-specific lengths of 4-ocean fish (9 of 10 stocks) and of 3-ocean fish (5 of 10 stocks) have declined significantly (P < 0.05). Size-selective harvest may be driving earlier maturation and declines in size, but the evidence is not conclusive, and additional factors, such as ocean conditions or competitive interactions with other species of salmon, may also be responsible. Regardless of the cause, these wide-spread phenotypic shifts influence fecundity and population abundance, and ultimately may put populations and associated fisheries at risk of decline. PMID:26090990

  10. Temporal variation in selection on body length and date of return in a wild population of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of studies have measured selection in nature to understand how populations adapt to their environment; however, the temporal dynamics of selection are rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the temporal variation in selection by comparing the mode, direction and strength of selection on fitness-related traits between two cohorts of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Specifically, we quantified individual reproductive success and examined selection on date of return and body length in a wild population at Big Beef Creek, Washington (USA). Results Reproductive success and the mode, direction and strength of selection on date of return and body length differed between two cohorts sampled in 2006 and 2007. Adults of the first brood year had greater success over those of the second. In 2006, disruptive selection favored early and late returning individuals in 2-year-old males, and earlier returning 3-year-old males had higher fitness. No evidence of selection on date of return was detected in females. In 2007, selection on date of return was not observed in males of either age class, but stabilizing selection on date of return was observed in females. No selection on body length was detected in males of both age classes in 2006, and large size was associated with higher fitness in females. In 2007, selection favored larger size in 3-year-old males and intermediate size in females. Correlational selection between date of return and body length was observed only in 2-year-old males in 2006. Conclusions We found evidence of selection on body length and date of return to the spawning ground, both of which are important fitness-related traits in salmonid species, but this selection varied over time. Fluctuation in the mode, direction and strength of selection between two cohorts was likely to be due to factors such as changes in precipitation, occurrence of catastrophic events (flooding), the proportion of younger- versus older

  11. Cardiorespiratory collapse at high temperature in swimming adult sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Erika J; Clark, Timothy D; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    Elevated summer river temperatures are associated with high in-river mortality in adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during their once-in-a-lifetime spawning migration up the Fraser River (British Columbia, Canada). However, the mechanisms underlying the decrease in whole-animal performance and cardiorespiratory collapse above optimal temperatures for aerobic scope (T opt) remain elusive for aquatic ectotherms. This is in part because all the relevant cardiorespiratory variables have rarely been measured directly and simultaneously during exercise at supra-optimal temperatures. Using the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance hypothesis as a framework, this study simultaneously and directly measured oxygen consumption rate (MO2), cardiac output [Formula: see text], heart rate (f H), and cardiac stroke volume (V s), as well as arterial and venous blood oxygen status in adult sockeye salmon swimming at temperatures that bracketed T opt to elucidate possible limitations in oxygen uptake into the blood or internal delivery through the oxygen cascade. Above T opt, the decline in MO2max and aerobic scope was best explained by a cardiac limitation, triggered by reduced scope for f H. The highest test temperatures were characterized by a negative scope for f H, dramatic decreases in maximal [Formula: see text] and maximal V s, and cardiac dysrhythmias. In contrast, arterial blood oxygen content and partial pressure were almost insensitive to supra-optimal temperature, suggesting that oxygen delivery to and uptake by the gill were not a limiting factor. We propose that the high-temperature-induced en route mortality in migrating sockeye salmon may be at least partly attributed to physiological limitations in aerobic performance due to cardiac collapse via insufficient scope for f H. Furthermore, this improved mechanistic understanding of cardiorespiratory collapse at high temperature is likely to have broader application to other salmonids and perhaps other

  12. Migratory Patterns of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to a Large, Free-flowing River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eiler, John H.; Evans, Allison N.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    Upriver movements were determined for Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon River, a large, virtually pristine river basin. These returns have declined dramatically since the late 1990s, and information is needed to better manage the run and facilitate conservation efforts. A total of 2,860 fish were radio tagged during 2002–2004. Most (97.5%) of the fish tracked upriver to spawning areas displayed continual upriver movements and strong fidelity to the terminal tributaries entered. Movement rates were substantially slower for fish spawning in lower river tributaries (28–40 km d-1) compared to upper basin stocks (52–62 km d-1). Three distinct migratory patterns were observed, including a gradual decline, pronounced decline, and substantial increase in movement rate as the fish moved upriver. Stocks destined for the same region exhibited similar migratory patterns. Individual fish within a stock showed substantial variation, but tended to reflect the regional pattern. Differences between consistently faster and slower fish explained 74% of the within-stock variation, whereas relative shifts in sequential movement rates between “hares” (faster fish becoming slower) and “tortoises” (slow but steady fish) explained 22% of the variation. Pulses of fish moving upriver were not cohesive. Fish tagged over a 4-day period took 16 days to pass a site 872 km upriver. Movement rates were substantially faster and the percentage of atypical movements considerably less than reported in more southerly drainages, but may reflect the pristine conditions within the Yukon River, wild origins of the fish, and discrete run timing of the returns. Movement data can provide numerous insights into the status and management of salmon returns, particularly in large river drainages with widely scattered fisheries where management actions in the lower river potentially impact harvests and escapement farther upstream. However, the substantial variation

  13. The contribution of estuary-resident life histories to the return of adult Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    PubMed

    Jones, K K; Cornwell, T J; Bottom, D L; Campbell, L A; Stein, S

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated estuarine habitat use, life-history composition, growth and survival of four successive broods of coho salmon Oncoryhnchus kisutch in Salmon River, Oregon, U.S.A. Subyearling and yearling O. kisutch used restored and natural estuarine wetlands, particularly in the spring and winter. Stream-reared yearling smolts spent an average of 2 weeks in the estuary growing rapidly before entering the ocean. Emergent fry also entered the estuary in the spring, and some resided in a tidal marsh throughout the summer, even as salinities increased to >20. A significant portion of the summer stream-resident population of juvenile O. kisutch migrated out of the catchment in the autumn and winter and used estuary wetlands and adjacent streams as alternative winter-rearing habitats until the spring when they entered the ocean as yearling smolts. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag returns and juvenile life-history reconstructions from otoliths of returning adults revealed that four juvenile life-history types contributed to the adult population. Estuarine-associated life-history strategies accounted for 20-35% of the adults returning to spawn in the four brood years, indicating that a sizable proportion of the total O. kisutch production is ignored by conventional estimates based on stream habitat capacity. Juvenile O. kisutch responses to the reconnection of previously unavailable estuarine habitats have led to greater life-history diversity in the population and reflect greater phenotypic plasticity of the species in the U.S. Pacific Northwest than previously recognized.

  14. Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

  15. Consequences of high temperatures and premature mortality on the transcriptome and blood physiology of wild adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Ken M; Hinch, Scott G; Sierocinski, Thomas; Clark, Timothy D; Eliason, Erika J; Donaldson, Michael R; Li, Shaorong; Pavlidis, Paul; Miller, Kristi M

    2012-01-01

    Elevated river water temperature in the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada, has been associated with enhanced mortality of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during their upriver migration to spawning grounds. We undertook a study to assess the effects of elevated water temperatures on the gill transcriptome and blood plasma variables in wild-caught sockeye salmon. Naturally migrating sockeye salmon returning to the Fraser River were collected and held at ecologically relevant temperatures of 14°C and 19°C for seven days, a period representing a significant portion of their upstream migration. After seven days, sockeye salmon held at 19°C stimulated heat shock response genes as well as many genes associated with an immune response when compared with fish held at 14°C. Additionally, fish at 19°C had elevated plasma chloride and lactate, suggestive of a disturbance in osmoregulatory homeostasis and a stress response detectable in the blood plasma. Fish that died prematurely over the course of the holding study were compared with time-matched surviving fish; the former fish were characterized by an upregulation of several transcription factors associated with apoptosis and downregulation of genes involved in immune function and antioxidant activity. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) was the most significantly upregulated gene in dying salmon, which suggests an association with cellular apoptosis. We hypothesize that the observed decrease in plasma ions and increases in plasma cortisol that occur in dying fish may be linked to the increase in ODC1. By highlighting these underlying physiological mechanisms, this study enhances our understanding of the processes involved in premature mortality and temperature stress in Pacific salmon during migration to spawning grounds. PMID:22957178

  16. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in adult sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon following critical speed swimming.

    PubMed

    Lee, C G; Farrell, A P; Lotto, A; Hinch, S G; Healey, M C

    2003-09-01

    The present study measured the excess post-exercise oxygen cost (EPOC) following tests at critical swimming speed (Ucrit) in three stocks of adult, wild, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) and used EPOC to estimate the time required to return to their routine level of oxygen consumption (recovery time) and the total oxygen cost of swimming to Ucrit. Following exhaustion at Ucrit, recovery time was 42-78 min, depending upon the fish stock. The recovery times are several-fold shorter than previously reported for juvenile, hatchery-raised salmonids. EPOC varied fivefold among the fish stocks, being greatest for Gates Creek sockeye salmon (O. nerka), which was the salmon stock that had the longest in-river migration, experienced the warmest temperature and achieved the highest maximum oxygen consumption compared with the other salmon stocks that were studied. EPOC was related to Ucrit, which in turn was directly influenced by ambient test temperature. The non-aerobic cost of swimming to Ucrit was estimated to add an additional 21.4-50.5% to the oxygen consumption measured at Ucrit. While these non-aerobic contributions to swimming did not affect the minimum cost of transport, they were up to three times higher than the value used previously for an energetic model of salmon migration in the Fraser River, BC, Canada. As such, the underestimate of non-aerobic swimming costs may require a reevaluation of the importance of how in-river barriers like rapids and bypass facilities at dams, and year-to-year changes in river flows and temperatures, affect energy use and hence migration success.

  17. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in adult sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon following critical speed swimming.

    PubMed

    Lee, C G; Farrell, A P; Lotto, A; Hinch, S G; Healey, M C

    2003-09-01

    The present study measured the excess post-exercise oxygen cost (EPOC) following tests at critical swimming speed (Ucrit) in three stocks of adult, wild, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) and used EPOC to estimate the time required to return to their routine level of oxygen consumption (recovery time) and the total oxygen cost of swimming to Ucrit. Following exhaustion at Ucrit, recovery time was 42-78 min, depending upon the fish stock. The recovery times are several-fold shorter than previously reported for juvenile, hatchery-raised salmonids. EPOC varied fivefold among the fish stocks, being greatest for Gates Creek sockeye salmon (O. nerka), which was the salmon stock that had the longest in-river migration, experienced the warmest temperature and achieved the highest maximum oxygen consumption compared with the other salmon stocks that were studied. EPOC was related to Ucrit, which in turn was directly influenced by ambient test temperature. The non-aerobic cost of swimming to Ucrit was estimated to add an additional 21.4-50.5% to the oxygen consumption measured at Ucrit. While these non-aerobic contributions to swimming did not affect the minimum cost of transport, they were up to three times higher than the value used previously for an energetic model of salmon migration in the Fraser River, BC, Canada. As such, the underestimate of non-aerobic swimming costs may require a reevaluation of the importance of how in-river barriers like rapids and bypass facilities at dams, and year-to-year changes in river flows and temperatures, affect energy use and hence migration success. PMID:12909706

  18. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-05-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control population under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has demonstrated the successful application of underwater video adult salmon abundance monitoring technology in Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999. Emphasis of the project in 2000 was to determine if the temporary fish counting station could be installed early enough to successfully estimate adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River (a larger stream). Snow pack in the drainage was 93% of the average during the winter of 1999/2000, providing an opportunity to test the temporary count station structure. The temporary fish counting station was not the appropriate technology to determine adult salmon spawner abundance in the Secesh River. Due to its temporary nature it could not be installed early enough, due to high stream discharge, to capture the first upstream migrating salmon. A more permanent structure used with underwater video, or other technology needs to be utilized for accurate salmon escapement monitoring in the Secesh River. A minimum of 813 adult chinook salmon spawners migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. Of these fish, more than 324 migrated upstream into Lake Creek. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River and Lake Creek sites prior to operation of the fish counting stations on June 22. This was 17 and 19 days earlier than the first fish arrival at Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999

  19. Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K.W.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rogers, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

  20. The contribution of estuary-resident life histories to the return of adult Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    PubMed

    Jones, K K; Cornwell, T J; Bottom, D L; Campbell, L A; Stein, S

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated estuarine habitat use, life-history composition, growth and survival of four successive broods of coho salmon Oncoryhnchus kisutch in Salmon River, Oregon, U.S.A. Subyearling and yearling O. kisutch used restored and natural estuarine wetlands, particularly in the spring and winter. Stream-reared yearling smolts spent an average of 2 weeks in the estuary growing rapidly before entering the ocean. Emergent fry also entered the estuary in the spring, and some resided in a tidal marsh throughout the summer, even as salinities increased to >20. A significant portion of the summer stream-resident population of juvenile O. kisutch migrated out of the catchment in the autumn and winter and used estuary wetlands and adjacent streams as alternative winter-rearing habitats until the spring when they entered the ocean as yearling smolts. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag returns and juvenile life-history reconstructions from otoliths of returning adults revealed that four juvenile life-history types contributed to the adult population. Estuarine-associated life-history strategies accounted for 20-35% of the adults returning to spawn in the four brood years, indicating that a sizable proportion of the total O. kisutch production is ignored by conventional estimates based on stream habitat capacity. Juvenile O. kisutch responses to the reconnection of previously unavailable estuarine habitats have led to greater life-history diversity in the population and reflect greater phenotypic plasticity of the species in the U.S. Pacific Northwest than previously recognized. PMID:24766645

  1. Cardiorespiratory performance and blood chemistry during swimming and recovery in three populations of elite swimmers: Adult sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Erika J; Clark, Timothy D; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2013-10-01

    Every year, millions of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) perform an arduous, once-in-a-lifetime migration up the Fraser River (BC, Canada) to return to their natal stream to spawn. The changes in heart rate, stroke volume, and arterio-venous oxygen extraction (i.e., factors determining rates of oxygen delivery to the tissues by the cardiovascular system) have never been directly and simultaneously measured along with whole animal oxygen uptake in a maximally swimming fish. Here, such measurements were made using three sockeye salmon populations (Early Stuart, Chilko and Quesnel), which each performed two consecutive critical swimming speed (Ucrit) challenges to provide a comprehensive quantification of cardiovascular physiology, oxygen status and blood chemistry associated with swimming and recovery. Swim performance, oxygen uptake, cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume did not significantly vary at rest, during swimming or during recovery between populations or sexes. Despite incomplete metabolic recovery between swim challenges, all fish repeated their swim performance and similar quantitative changes in the cardiorespiratory variables were observed for each swim challenge. The high maximum cardiorespiratory performance and excellent repeat swim performance are clearly beneficial in allowing the salmon to maintain steady ground speeds and reach the distant spawning grounds in a timely manner. PMID:23880060

  2. Cardiorespiratory performance and blood chemistry during swimming and recovery in three populations of elite swimmers: Adult sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Erika J; Clark, Timothy D; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2013-10-01

    Every year, millions of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) perform an arduous, once-in-a-lifetime migration up the Fraser River (BC, Canada) to return to their natal stream to spawn. The changes in heart rate, stroke volume, and arterio-venous oxygen extraction (i.e., factors determining rates of oxygen delivery to the tissues by the cardiovascular system) have never been directly and simultaneously measured along with whole animal oxygen uptake in a maximally swimming fish. Here, such measurements were made using three sockeye salmon populations (Early Stuart, Chilko and Quesnel), which each performed two consecutive critical swimming speed (Ucrit) challenges to provide a comprehensive quantification of cardiovascular physiology, oxygen status and blood chemistry associated with swimming and recovery. Swim performance, oxygen uptake, cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume did not significantly vary at rest, during swimming or during recovery between populations or sexes. Despite incomplete metabolic recovery between swim challenges, all fish repeated their swim performance and similar quantitative changes in the cardiorespiratory variables were observed for each swim challenge. The high maximum cardiorespiratory performance and excellent repeat swim performance are clearly beneficial in allowing the salmon to maintain steady ground speeds and reach the distant spawning grounds in a timely manner.

  3. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Brian P; Fisher, Kathleen M; Colvin, Michael E; Benda, Susan E; Peterson, James T; Kent, Michael L; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning.

  4. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Brian P; Fisher, Kathleen M; Colvin, Michael E; Benda, Susan E; Peterson, James T; Kent, Michael L; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning. PMID:26581919

  5. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolan, Brian P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Colvin, Michael E.; Benda, Susan E.; Peterson, James T.; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning.

  6. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ryan P; Ellison, Stephen C; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David A

    2015-05-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon

  7. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Ellison, Stephen; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon

  8. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ryan P; Ellison, Stephen C; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David A

    2015-05-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon

  9. Freirean Literacy and the Liberal Arts: Empowering the Returning Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivisonno, Ann

    The "problem-posing" education model of Paulo Freire takes as its departure point the life experience of the learner, rather than the teacher's knowledge. Ursuline College (Cleveland, Ohio) created several courses for returning adult students that were based on Freire's ideas. One course called "Humanities Focus on Life" is for adults who are new…

  10. Stock-specific migration timing of adult spring-summer Chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, M.L.; Peery, C.A.; Jepson, M.A.; Tolotti, K.R.; Bjornn, T.C.; Stuehrenberg, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of the migration timing patterns of Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss is important for managing complex mixed-stock fisheries and preserving genetic and life history diversity. We examined adult return timing for 3,317 radio-tagged fish from 38 stocks of Columbia River basin spring-summer Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha over 5 years. Stock composition varied widely within and between years depending on the strength of influential populations. Most individual stocks migrated at similar times each year relative to overall runs, supporting the hypotheses that run timing is predictable, is at least partially due to genetic adaptation, and can be used to differentiate between some conspecific populations. Arrival timing of both aggregated radio-tagged stocks and annual runs was strongly correlated with river discharge; stocks arrived earlier at Bonneville Dam and at upstream dams in years with low discharge. Migration timing analyses identified many between-stock and between-year differences in anadromous salmonid return behavior and should and managers interested in protection and recovery of evolutionary significant populations.

  11. An assessment of oil-spill effects on pink salmon populations following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 2: Adults and escapement

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, A.W.; Brannon, E.J.; Gilbertson, L.G.; Moulton, L.L.; Skalski, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents results of a field program designed to monitor the status of wildstock pink salmon populations in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Field counts of spawning salmon were conducted each year from 1989 through 1992 to test for spill effects o the distribution nd abundance of pink salmon adults spawning in selected streams in the southwestern portion of Prince William Sound, including streams from the most heavily oiled areas. Counts of whole-stream and intertidal escapement density were statistically compared for 40 study streams in 1989 and for a subset of those streams in successive years. Measurements of residual hydrocarbons were made from stream-bed sediments to test for correlations with spawning behavior. Adult pink salmon in the postspill years of 1990 and 1991, progeny of the year classes considered most vulnerable to the oil spill, returned in high numbers, with the wildstock spawners exceeding their parent year returns. In 1989, adult returns reflected the relatively weak run for that year with a mean spawner density of 0.68 fish/m{sup 2} in reference streams and 0.69 fish/m{sup 2} in oiled streams. In 1990, mean escapement density for reference streams was 1.40 fish/m{sup 2} and 1.55 fish/m{sup 2} for oiled streams, indicating the strongest run of the four study years. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations for the majority of oiled streams show a general decline from 1989 to background levels by 1990. 45 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Thermal exposure of adult Chinook salmon in the Willamette River basin.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Matthew L; Clabough, Tami S; Jepson, Michael A; Naughton, George P; Blubaugh, Timothy J; Joosten, Daniel C; Caudill, Christopher C

    2015-02-01

    Radiotelemetry and archival temperature loggers were used to reconstruct the thermal experience of adult spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the highly regulated Willamette River system in Oregon. The study population is threatened and recovery efforts have been hampered by episodically high prespawn mortality that is likely temperature mediated. Over three years, 310 salmon were released with thermal loggers and 68 were recovered in spawning tributaries, primarily at hatchery trapping facilities downstream from high-head dams. More than 190,000 internal body temperature records were collected (mean ~2800 per fish) and associated with 14 main stem and tributary reaches. Most salmon experienced a wide temperature range (minima ~8-10 °C; maxima ~13-22 °C) and 65% encountered potentially stressful conditions (≥18 °C). The warmest salmon temperatures were in lower Willamette River reaches, where some fish exhibited short-duration behavioral thermoregulation. Cumulative temperature exposure, measured by degree days (DD) above 0 °C, varied more than seven-fold among individuals (range=208-1498 DDs) and more than two-fold among sub-basin populations, on average. Overall, ~72% of DDs accrued in tributaries and ~28% were in the Willamette River main stem. DD differences among individuals and populations were related to migration distance, migration duration, and salmon trapping protocols (i.e., extended pre-collection holding in tributaries versus hatchery collection shortly after tributary entry). The combined data provide spatially- and temporally-referenced information on both short-duration stressful temperature exposure and the biologically important total exposure. Thermal exposure in this population complex proximately influences adult salmon physiology, maturation, and disease processes and ultimately affects prespawn mortality and fitness. The results should help managers develop more effective salmon recovery plans in basins with marginal

  13. Radio tag retention and tag-related mortality among adult sockeye salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramstad, K.M.; Woody, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Tag retention and tag-related mortality are concerns for any tagging study but are rarely estimated. We assessed retention and mortality rates for esophageal radio tag implants in adult sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. Migrating sockeye salmon captured at the outlet of Lake Clark, Alaska, were implanted with one of four different radio tags (14.5 ?? 43 mm [diameter ?? length], 14.5 ?? 49 mm, 16 ?? 46 mm, and 19 ?? 51 mm). Fish were observed for 15 to 35 d after tagging to determine retention and mortality rates. The overall tag retention rate was high (0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.00; minimum, 33 d), with one loss of a 19-mm ?? 51-mm tag. Mortality of tagged sockeye salmon (0.02; 95% CI, 0-0.08) was similar to that of untagged controls (0.03 [0-0.15]). Sockeye salmon with body lengths (mid-eye to tail fork) of 585-649 mm retained tags as large as 19 ?? 51 mm and those with body lengths of 499-628 mm retained tags as small as 14.5 ?? 43 mm for a minimum of 33 d with no increase in mortality. The tags used in this study represent a suite of radio tags that vary in size, operational life, and cost but that are effective in tracking adult anadromous salmon with little tag loss or increase in fish mortality.

  14. Exxon Valdez oil spill: State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Effects of pink salmon (oncorhynchus gorbuscha) escapement level on egg retention, preemergent fry, and adult returns to the kodiak and chignik management areas caused by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Fish/shellfish study numbers 7b and 8b. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-01

    As a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, commercial salmon fishing in and around the Kodiak and Chignik areas was severely restricted throughout the 1989 season. Consequently, pink salmon escapements for these areas greatly exceeded targeted escapement objectives. Investigations were conducted within the Kodiak and Chignik Management Areas during 1989 and 1990 to determine if negative impacts on future odd-year brood line pink salmon production occurred as a result of overescapement in 1989.

  15. Cryopreservation of Adult Male Spring and Summer Chinook Salmon Gametes in the Snake River Basin, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.; Armstrong, Robyn D.

    1998-06-01

    Chinook salmon populations in the Northwest are decreasing in number. The Nez Perce Tribe was funded in 1997 by the Bonneville Power Administration to coordinate and initiate gene banking of adult male gametes from Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed spring and summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin.

  16. Migratory Patterns of Wild Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to a Large, Free-Flowing River Basin.

    PubMed

    Eiler, John H; Evans, Allison N; Schreck, Carl B

    2014-01-01

    Upriver movements were determined for Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon River, a large, virtually pristine river basin. These returns have declined dramatically since the late 1990s, and information is needed to better manage the run and facilitate conservation efforts. A total of 2,860 fish were radio tagged during 2002-2004. Most (97.5%) of the fish tracked upriver to spawning areas displayed continual upriver movements and strong fidelity to the terminal tributaries entered. Movement rates were substantially slower for fish spawning in lower river tributaries (28-40 km d-1) compared to upper basin stocks (52-62 km d-1). Three distinct migratory patterns were observed, including a gradual decline, pronounced decline, and substantial increase in movement rate as the fish moved upriver. Stocks destined for the same region exhibited similar migratory patterns. Individual fish within a stock showed substantial variation, but tended to reflect the regional pattern. Differences between consistently faster and slower fish explained 74% of the within-stock variation, whereas relative shifts in sequential movement rates between "hares" (faster fish becoming slower) and "tortoises" (slow but steady fish) explained 22% of the variation. Pulses of fish moving upriver were not cohesive. Fish tagged over a 4-day period took 16 days to pass a site 872 km upriver. Movement rates were substantially faster and the percentage of atypical movements considerably less than reported in more southerly drainages, but may reflect the pristine conditions within the Yukon River, wild origins of the fish, and discrete run timing of the returns. Movement data can provide numerous insights into the status and management of salmon returns, particularly in large river drainages with widely scattered fisheries where management actions in the lower river potentially impact harvests and escapement farther upstream. However, the substantial variation exhibited among

  17. Migratory Patterns of Wild Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to a Large, Free-Flowing River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Eiler, John H.; Evans, Allison N.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    Upriver movements were determined for Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon River, a large, virtually pristine river basin. These returns have declined dramatically since the late 1990s, and information is needed to better manage the run and facilitate conservation efforts. A total of 2,860 fish were radio tagged during 2002–2004. Most (97.5%) of the fish tracked upriver to spawning areas displayed continual upriver movements and strong fidelity to the terminal tributaries entered. Movement rates were substantially slower for fish spawning in lower river tributaries (28–40 km d-1) compared to upper basin stocks (52–62 km d-1). Three distinct migratory patterns were observed, including a gradual decline, pronounced decline, and substantial increase in movement rate as the fish moved upriver. Stocks destined for the same region exhibited similar migratory patterns. Individual fish within a stock showed substantial variation, but tended to reflect the regional pattern. Differences between consistently faster and slower fish explained 74% of the within-stock variation, whereas relative shifts in sequential movement rates between “hares” (faster fish becoming slower) and “tortoises” (slow but steady fish) explained 22% of the variation. Pulses of fish moving upriver were not cohesive. Fish tagged over a 4-day period took 16 days to pass a site 872 km upriver. Movement rates were substantially faster and the percentage of atypical movements considerably less than reported in more southerly drainages, but may reflect the pristine conditions within the Yukon River, wild origins of the fish, and discrete run timing of the returns. Movement data can provide numerous insights into the status and management of salmon returns, particularly in large river drainages with widely scattered fisheries where management actions in the lower river potentially impact harvests and escapement farther upstream. However, the substantial variation

  18. Adult Literacy, Heterogeneity and Returns to Schooling in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Sakellariou, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We examine the importance of adult functional literacy skills for individuals using a quantile regression methodology. The inclusion of the direct measure of basic skills reduces the return to schooling by 27%, equivalent to two additional years of schooling, while a one standard deviation increase in the score increases earnings by 20%. For those…

  19. Relationships Between Metabolic Rate, Muscle Electromyograms and Swim Performance of Adult Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Brown, Richard S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Mesa, Matthew G.; VanderKooi, S P.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2003-10-01

    In 2000 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated a two-year study to investigate the metabolic rate and swimming performance and to estimate the total energy used (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic) by adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream through a large hydropower dam on the Columbia River. The investigation involved one year of laboratory study and one year of field study at Bonneville Dam. The objectives of the laboratory study, reported here, were to (1) measure active rates of oxygen consumption of adult spring chinook salmon at three water temperatures over a range of swimming speeds; (2) estimate the Ucrit of adult spring chinook salmon; and (3) monitor EMGs of red and white muscle in the salmon over a range of swimming speeds. Future papers will report on the results of the field study. Our results indicated that the rate of oxygen consumption and red and white muscle activity in adult spring chinook salmon were strongly correlated with swimming speed over a range of fish sizes and at three different temperatures. Active oxygen consumption increased linearly with swim speed before leveling off at speeds at or above Ucrit. This pattern was similar at each water temperature and indicated that fish were approaching their maximal aerobic oxygen consumption at higher swim speeds. Modeling showed that temperature, but not size or sex, influenced the relation between V02 and swim speed, thus a V02-swim speed model based on temperature (but independent of sex and size) should be a biologically relevant way of estimating the energy use of fish in the wild.

  20. Behavior and movements of adult spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Chehalis River Basin, southwestern Washington, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Holt, Curt; Jennings, Lyle

    2016-09-14

    Recent interest in flood control and restoration strategies in the Chehalis River Basin has increased the need to understand the current status and ecology of spring Chinook salmon. Based on the extended period between freshwater entry and spawn timing, spring Chinook salmon have the longest exposure of all adult Chinook salmon life histories to the low-flow and high water temperature conditions that typically occur during summer. About 100 adult spring Chinook salmon were found dead in the Chehalis River in July and August 2009. Adult Chinook salmon are known to hold in cool-water refugia during warm summer months, but the extent to which spring Chinook salmon might use thermal refugia in the Chehalis River is unknown. The movements and temperature exposures of adult spring Chinook salmon following their return to the Chehalis River were investigated using radiotelemetry and transmitters equipped with temperature sensors, combined with water temperature monitoring throughout the basin. A total of 23 spring Chinook salmon were radio-tagged between April and early July 2015; 11 were captured and released in the main-stem Chehalis River, and 12 were captured and released in the South Fork Newaukum River. Tagged fish were monitored with a combination of fixed-site monitoring locations and regular mobile tracking, from freshwater entry through the spawning period.Water temperature and flow conditions in the main-stem Chehalis River during 2015 were atypical compared to historical averages. Mean monthly water temperatures between March and July 2015 were higher than any decade since 1960 and mean daily flows were 30–70 percent of the flows in previous years. Overall, 96 percent of the tagged fish were detected, with a mean of 62 d in the detection history of tagged fish. Of the 11 fish released in the main-stem Chehalis River, six fish (55 percent) moved upstream, either shortly after release (2–7 d, 50 percent), or following a short delay (12–18 d, 50 percent

  1. Escapement Monitoring of Adult Chinook Salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-04-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were

  2. Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

    1993-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

  3. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine the

  4. Yukon River King Salmon - Ichthyophonus Pilot Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    A method for non-lethal sampling of adult spawning Chinook salmon for Ichthyophonus was developed using known infected fish and live returning spawners. The method consisted of taking punch biopsies of skin and muscle and culturing the biopsy tissue in vitro. A 100% correlation was made between known infected fish and cultured biopsy tissue. 

  5. Trapping and Transportation of Adult and Juvenile Salmon in the Lower Umatilla River in Northeast Oregon: Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program, October 1994-September 1995.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    1995-09-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from August 26, 1994 to June 27, 1995. A total of 1,531 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 688 adult, 236 jack, and 368 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawvtscha); 984 adult and 62 jack coho (O. kisutch) ; and 388 adult and 108 jack spring chinook (O. tshawvtscha) were collected. All fish were trapped at the east bank facility. Of the fish collected, 971 summer steelhead; 581 adult and 27 jack fall chinook; 500 adult and 22 jack coho; and 363 adult and 61 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were also 373 summer steelhead; 12 adult, 186 jack and 317 subjack fall chinook; 379 adult and 32 jack coho; and 15 adult and one jack spring chinook released at Threemile Dam. In addition, 154 summer steelhead were hauled to Bonifer and Minthorn for brood. The Westland Canal facility, located near the town of Echo, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The facility operated for a total of 179 days between December 2, 1994 and July 19, 1995. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 137 days and were trapped 42 days. Three steelhead kelts and an estimated 1,560 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from the Westland Canal trap to the Umatilla River boat ramp at rivermile 0.5. Approximately 98% of the fish transported this year were salmonids. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass began operating March 25, 1995 and was closed on June 16, 1995. The juvenile trap was operated by Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife research personnel from April 1, 1995 through the summer to monitor juvenile outmigration.

  6. Calibrating acoustic acceleration transmitters for estimating energy use by wild adult Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S M; Hinch, S G; Eliason, E J; Farrell, A P; Cooke, S J

    2013-03-01

    This study is the first to calibrate acceleration transmitters with energy expenditure using a vertebrate model species. We quantified the relationship between acoustic accelerometer output and oxygen consumption across a range of swim speeds and water temperatures for Harrison River adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). First, we verified that acceleration transmitters with a sampling frequency of 10 Hz could be used as a proxy for movement in sockeye salmon. Using a mixed effects model, we determined that tailbeat frequency and acceleration were positively correlated (p<0.0001), independent of tag ID. Acceleration (p<0.0001) was positively related to swim speed while fork length (p=0.051) was negatively related to swim speed. Oxygen consumption and accelerometer output (p<0.0001) had a positive linear relationship and were temperature dependent (p<0.0001). There were no differences in swim performance (F(2,12)=1.023, p=0.820) or oxygen consumption (F(1,12)=0.054, p=0.332) between tagged and untagged individuals. Five tagged fish were released into the Fraser River estuary and manually tracked. Of the five fish, three were successfully tracked for 1h. The above relationships were used to determine that the average swim speed was 1.25±0.03 body lengths s(-1) and cost of transport was 3.39±0.17 mg O(2) kg(-1)min(-1), averaged across the three detected fish. Acceleration transmitters can be effectively used to remotely evaluate fine-scale behavior and estimate energy consumption of adult Pacific salmon throughout their homeward spawning migration. PMID:23247092

  7. Calibrating acoustic acceleration transmitters for estimating energy use by wild adult Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S M; Hinch, S G; Eliason, E J; Farrell, A P; Cooke, S J

    2013-03-01

    This study is the first to calibrate acceleration transmitters with energy expenditure using a vertebrate model species. We quantified the relationship between acoustic accelerometer output and oxygen consumption across a range of swim speeds and water temperatures for Harrison River adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). First, we verified that acceleration transmitters with a sampling frequency of 10 Hz could be used as a proxy for movement in sockeye salmon. Using a mixed effects model, we determined that tailbeat frequency and acceleration were positively correlated (p<0.0001), independent of tag ID. Acceleration (p<0.0001) was positively related to swim speed while fork length (p=0.051) was negatively related to swim speed. Oxygen consumption and accelerometer output (p<0.0001) had a positive linear relationship and were temperature dependent (p<0.0001). There were no differences in swim performance (F(2,12)=1.023, p=0.820) or oxygen consumption (F(1,12)=0.054, p=0.332) between tagged and untagged individuals. Five tagged fish were released into the Fraser River estuary and manually tracked. Of the five fish, three were successfully tracked for 1h. The above relationships were used to determine that the average swim speed was 1.25±0.03 body lengths s(-1) and cost of transport was 3.39±0.17 mg O(2) kg(-1)min(-1), averaged across the three detected fish. Acceleration transmitters can be effectively used to remotely evaluate fine-scale behavior and estimate energy consumption of adult Pacific salmon throughout their homeward spawning migration.

  8. Behavior patterns and fates of adult steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon released into the upper Cowlitz River Basin, 2005–09 and 2012, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike

    2016-01-01

    A multiyear radiotelemetry evaluation was conducted to monitor adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) behavior and movement patterns in the upper Cowlitz River Basin. Volitional passage to this area was eliminated by dam construction in the mid-1960s, and a reintroduction program began in the mid-1990s. Fish are transported around the dams using a trap-and-haul program, and adult release sites are located in Lake Scanewa, the uppermost reservoir in the system, and in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers. Our goal was to estimate the proportion of tagged fish that fell back downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam before the spawning period and to determine the proportion that were present in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers during the spawning period. Fallback is important because Cowlitz Falls Dam does not have upstream fish passage, so fish that pass the dam are unable to move back upstream and spawn. A total of 2,051 steelhead and salmon were tagged for the study, which was conducted during 2005–09 and 2012, and 173 (8.4 percent) of these regurgitated their transmitter prior to, or shortly after release. Once these fish were removed from the dataset, the final number of fish that was monitored totaled 1,878 fish, including 647 steelhead, 770 Chinook salmon, and 461 coho salmon.Hatchery-origin (HOR) and natural-origin (NOR) steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon behaved differently following release into Lake Scanewa. Detection records showed that the percentage of HOR fish that moved upstream and entered the Cowlitz River or Cispus River after release was relatively low (steelhead = 38 percent; Chinook salmon = 67 percent; coho salmon = 41 percent) compared to NOR fish (steelhead = 84 percent; Chinook salmon = 82 percent; coho salmon = 76 percent). The elapsed time from release to river entry was significantly lower for NOR fish than for HOR fish for all three species. Tagged fish entered the Cowlitz River in

  9. Behavior patterns and fates of adult steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon released into the upper Cowlitz River Basin, 2005–09 and 2012, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike

    2016-08-26

    A multiyear radiotelemetry evaluation was conducted to monitor adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) behavior and movement patterns in the upper Cowlitz River Basin. Volitional passage to this area was eliminated by dam construction in the mid-1960s, and a reintroduction program began in the mid-1990s. Fish are transported around the dams using a trap-and-haul program, and adult release sites are located in Lake Scanewa, the uppermost reservoir in the system, and in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers. Our goal was to estimate the proportion of tagged fish that fell back downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam before the spawning period and to determine the proportion that were present in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers during the spawning period. Fallback is important because Cowlitz Falls Dam does not have upstream fish passage, so fish that pass the dam are unable to move back upstream and spawn. A total of 2,051 steelhead and salmon were tagged for the study, which was conducted during 2005–09 and 2012, and 173 (8.4 percent) of these regurgitated their transmitter prior to, or shortly after release. Once these fish were removed from the dataset, the final number of fish that was monitored totaled 1,878 fish, including 647 steelhead, 770 Chinook salmon, and 461 coho salmon.Hatchery-origin (HOR) and natural-origin (NOR) steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon behaved differently following release into Lake Scanewa. Detection records showed that the percentage of HOR fish that moved upstream and entered the Cowlitz River or Cispus River after release was relatively low (steelhead = 38 percent; Chinook salmon = 67 percent; coho salmon = 41 percent) compared to NOR fish (steelhead = 84 percent; Chinook salmon = 82 percent; coho salmon = 76 percent). The elapsed time from release to river entry was significantly lower for NOR fish than for HOR fish for all three species. Tagged fish entered the Cowlitz River in

  10. Burst swimming in areas of high flow: delayed consequences of anaerobiosis in wild adult sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Nicholas J; Hinch, Scott G; Braun, Douglas C; Casselman, Matthew T; Middleton, Collin T; Wilson, Samantha M; Cooke, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Wild riverine fishes are known to rely on burst swimming to traverse hydraulically challenging reaches, and yet there has been little investigation as to whether swimming anaerobically in areas of high flow can lead to delayed mortality. Using acoustic accelerometer transmitters, we estimated the anaerobic activity of anadromous adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in the tailrace of a diversion dam in British Columbia, Canada, and its effects on the remaining 50 km of their freshwater spawning migration. Consistent with our hypothesis, migrants that elicited burst swimming behaviors in high flows were more likely to succumb to mortality following dam passage. Females swam with more anaerobic effort compared to males, providing a mechanism for the female-biased migration mortality observed in this watershed. Alterations to dam operations prevented the release of hypolimnetic water from an upstream lake, exposing some migrants to supraoptimal, near-lethal water temperatures (i.e., 24°C) that inhibited their ability to locate, enter, and ascend a vertical-slot fishway. Findings from this study have shown delayed post-dam passage survival consequences of high-flow-induced burst swimming in sockeye salmon. We highlight the need for studies to investigate whether dams can impose other carryover effects on wild aquatic animals. PMID:25244372

  11. Pathogenesis of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.M.; Burke, J.; Pascho, R.J.; Jenes, C.K.

    1982-01-01

    The concentration of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus was determined in eight organs and two body fluids from each of 60 adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Included in the sample were 4 males and 56 prespawning, spawning, or spent female fish. All fish were infected, and virus was present in nearly all organs. There was an overall tendency for the mean concentration to increase in many of the organs over time as the fish progressed in ripeness. In prespawning females, IHN virus could be detected in all organs and in ovarian fluid but not in serum; the incidences were highest in the gills, spleen, and pyloric ceca, and the titers were highest in the pyloric ceca and liver. Incidences of infection in the organs were higher in spawning than in prespawning females and higher still in spent females in which the incidence of virus was 100% in all organs except brains (78%) and sera (67%). Virus concentrations in organs or fluids ranged from 5 to 4.0 × 109 plaque-forming units per millilitre. In males, the highest incidences of virus were found in gills, pyloric ceca, and liver. The gills were the only organ in which the virus concentration in males exceeded that of females.Key words: infectious hematopoietic necrosis, IHN, fish virus, viral pathogenesis, sockeye salmon

  12. Impacts of Climatic Change and Fishing on Pacific Salmon Abundance Over the Past 300 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, Bruce P.; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Sweetman, Jon; Douglas, Marianne S. V.; Smol, John P.

    2000-10-01

    The effects of climate variability on Pacific salmon abundance are uncertain because historical records are short and are complicated by commercial harvesting and habitat alteration. We use lake sediment records of δ15N and biological indicators to reconstruct sockeye salmon abundance in the Bristol Bay and Kodiak Island regions of Alaska over the past 300 years. Marked shifts in populations occurred over decades during this period, and some pronounced changes appear to be related to climatic change. Variations in salmon returns due to climate or harvesting can have strong impacts on sockeye nursery lake productivity in systems where adult salmon carcasses are important nutrient sources.

  13. Relationships between metabolic rate, muscle electromyograms and swim performance of adult chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, D.R.; Brown, R.S.; Cullinan, V.I.; Mesa, M.G.; VanderKooi, S.P.; McKinstry, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen consumption rates of adult spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha increased with swim speed and, depending on temperature and fish mass, ranged from 609 mg O2 h-1 at 30 cm s-1 (c. 0.5 BLs-1) to 3347 mg O2 h-1 at 170 cm s -1 (c. 2.3 BLs-1). Corrected for fish mass, these values ranged from 122 to 670 mg O2 kg-1 h-1, and were similar to other Oncorhynchus species. At all temperatures (8, 12.5 and 17??C), maximum oxygen consumption values levelled off and slightly declined with increasing swim speed >170 cm s-1, and a third-order polynomial regression model fitted the data best. The upper critical swim speed (Ucrit) of fish tested at two laboratories averaged 155 cm s -1 (2.1 BLs-1), but Ucrit of fish tested at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were significantly higher (mean 165 cm s-1) than those from fish tested at the Columbia River Research Laboratory (mean 140 cm s-1). Swim trials using fish that had electromyogram (EMG) transmitters implanted in them suggested that at a swim speed of c. 135 cm s-1, red muscle EMG pulse rates slowed and white muscle EMG pulse rates increased. Although there was significant variation between individual fish, this swim speed was c. 80% of the Ucrit for the fish used in the EMG trials (mean Ucrit 168.2 cm s-1). Bioenergetic modelling of the upstream migration of adult chinook salmon should consider incorporating an anaerobic fraction of the energy budget when swim speeds are ???80% of the Ucrit. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  15. Unraveling the estrogen receptor (er) genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reveals expression differences between the two adult life stages but little impact from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load.

    PubMed

    Nikoleris, Lina; Hansson, Maria C

    2015-01-15

    Estrogen receptors (ers) not only are activated by hormones but also interact with many human-derived environmental contaminants. Here, we present evidence for four expressed er genes in Atlantic salmon cDNA - two more ers (erα2 and erβ2) than previously published. To determine if er gene expression differs between two adult life-stages we sampled 20 adult salmon from the feeding phase in the Baltic Sea and during migration in the River Mörrum, Sweden. Results show that all four er genes are present in the investigated tissues, except for erα2 not appearing in the spleen. Overall, a profile analysis reveals the erα1 gene to be the most highly expressed er gene in both female and male Baltic Sea salmon tissues, and also in female River Mörrum salmon. In contrast, this gene has the lowest gene expression level of the four er genes in male salmon from the River Mörrum. The erα2 gene is expressed at the lowest levels in both female/male Baltic Sea salmon and in female River Mörrum salmon. Statistical analyses indicate a significant and complex interaction where both sex and adult life stage can impact er gene expression. Regression analyses did not demonstrate any significant relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden and er gene expression level, suggesting that accumulated pollutants from the Baltic Sea may be deactivated inside the salmon's lipid tissues and have limited impact on er activity. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of four er gene expression levels in two wild salmon populations from two different adult life stages where information about PCB load is also available.

  16. Movements of adult chinook salmon during spawning migration in a metals-contaminated system, Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, J.N.; Woodward, D.F.; Farag, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Spawning migration of adult male chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha was monitored by radio telemetry to determine their response to the presence of metals contamination in the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho. The North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River is relatively free of metals contamination and was used as a control. In all, 45 Chinook salmon were transported from their natal stream. Wolf Lodge Creek, tagged with radio transmitters, and released in the Coeur d'Alene River 2 km downstream of the confluence of the South Fork and the North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River. Fixed telemetry receivers were used to monitor the upstream movement of the tagged chinook salmon through the confluence area for 3 weeks after release. During this period, general water quality and metals concentrations were monitored in the study area. Of the 23 chinook salmon observed to move upstream from the release site and through the confluence area, the majority (16 fish, 70%) moved up the North Fork, and only 7 fish (30%) moved up the South Fork, where greater metals concentrations were observed. Our results agree with laboratory findings and suggest that natural fish populations will avoid tributaries with high metals contamination.

  17. Estimating Adult Chinook Salmon Exposure to Dissolved Gas Supersaturation Downstream of Hydroelectric Dams Using Telemetry and Hydrodynamic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Eric L.; Clabough, Tami S.; Peery, Christopher A.; Bennett, David H.; bjornn, Theodore C.; Caudill, Christopher C.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-11-01

    Gas bubble disease (GBD) has been recognized for years as a potential problem for fishes in the Columbia River basin. GBD results from exposure to gas supersaturated water created by discharge over dam spillways. Spill typically creates a downstream plume of water with high total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) that may be positioned along either shore or mid-channel, depending on dam operations. We obtained spatial data on fish migration paths and migration depths for 228 adult spring and summer Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, during 2000. Migration paths were compared to output from a two-dimensional hydrodynamic and dissolved gas model to estimate the potential for GBD expression and to test for behavioral avoidance of the high TDGS plume in unrestrained fish migrating under field conditions. Consistent with our previous estimates using single-location estimates of TDGS, we observed salmon swam sufficiently deep in the water column to receive complete hydrostatic compensation 95.9% of time spent in the Bonneville tailrace and 88.1% of the time in the Ice Harbor tailrace. The majority of depth uncompensated exposure occurred at TDGS levels > 115%. Adult spring and summer Chinook salmon tended to migrate near the shoreline. Adults moved into the high dissolved gas plume as often as they moved out of it downstream of Bonneville Dam, providing no evidence that adults moved laterally to avoid areas with elevated dissolved gas levels. The strong influence of dam operations on the position of the high-TDGS plume and shoreline-orientation behaviors of adults suggest that exposure of adult salmonids to high-TDGS conditions may be minimized using operational conditions that direct the plume mid-channel, particularly during periods of high discharge and spill. More generally, our approach illustrates the potential for combined field and modeling efforts to estimate the fine-scale environmental conditions encountered by fishes in natural and regulated rivers.

  18. Survival and behavioral effects of exposure to a hydrokinetic turbine on juvenile Atlantic salmon and adult American shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Haro, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments designed to measure the effect of exposure to a full-scale, vertical axis hydrokinetic turbine on downstream migrating juvenile Atlantic salmon (N=75) and upstream migrating adult American shad (N=208). Controlled studies were performed in a large-scale, open-channel flume, and all individuals approached the turbine under volitional control. No injuries were observed, and there was no measurable increase in mortality associated with turbine passage. Exposure to the turbine elicited behavioral responses from both species, however, with salmon passing primarily over the downrunning blades. Shad movement was impeded by the device, as indicated by fewer attempts of shorter duration and reduced distance of ascent up the flume. More work should be performed in both laboratory and field conditions to determine to what extent these effects are likely to influence free-swimming fish.

  19. Is fishing selective for physiological and energetic characteristics in migratory adult sockeye salmon?

    PubMed

    Cooke, Steven J; Donaldson, Michael R; Hinch, Scott G; Crossin, Glenn T; Patterson, David A; Hanson, Kyle C; English, Karl K; Shrimpton, J Mark; Farrell, Anthony P

    2009-08-01

    There is extensive evidence that fishing is often selective for specific phenotypic characteristics, and that selective harvest can thus result in genotypic change. To date, however, there are no studies that evaluate whether fishing is selective for certain physiological or energetic characteristics that may influence fish behaviour and thus vulnerability to capture. Here, adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were used as a model to test the null hypothesis that fishing is not selective for specific physiological or energetic traits. Fish were intercepted during their spawning migrations, implanted with a gastric radio transmitter, and biopsied (i.e., non-lethally sampled for blood, gill tissue and quantification of energetic status). In both 2003 and 2006, we tagged and biopsied 301 and 770 sockeye salmon, respectively, in the marine environment en route to their natal river system to spawn. In 2006 an additional 378 individuals were tagged and biopsied in freshwater. We found that 23 (7.6%) of the marine fish tagged in 2003, 78 (10.1%) of the marine fish tagged in 2006 and 57 (15.1%) of the freshwater fish tagged in 2006 were harvested by one of three fisheries sectors that operate in the coastal marine environment and the Fraser River (i.e. commercial, recreational or First Nations fisheries between the site of release and Hell's Gate in the Fraser River, approximately 250 km upriver and 465 km from the ocean tagging site). However, fisheries were not open continually or consistently in different locations and for different fisheries sectors necessitating a paired analytical approach. As such, for statistical analyses we paired individual fish that were harvested with another fish of the same genetic stock that was released on the same date and exhibited similar migration behaviour, except that they successfully evaded capture and reached natal spawning grounds. Using two-tailed Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank tests, we revealed that the physiological

  20. Return to Learning, Return to Work: Helping Low-Qualified Adults Out of Unemployment. Briefing Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, the question uppermost in policymakers' minds has understandably been the explosive growth of youth unemployment. But the crisis has also severely affected low-qualified adults, who face the highest rate of unemployment across Europe. A recent Cedefop study confirms that work-based training programmes can address the particular needs…

  1. Comment on "Declining wild salmon populations in relation to parasites from farm salmon".

    PubMed

    Riddell, Brian E; Beamish, Richard J; Richards, Laura J; Candy, John R

    2008-12-19

    Krkosek et al. (Reports, 14 December 2007, p. 1772) claimed that sea lice spread from salmon farms placed wild pink salmon populations "on a trajectory toward rapid local extinction." Their prediction is inconsistent with observed pink salmon returns and overstates the risks from sea lice and salmon farming.

  2. Adults returning to school: the impact on family and work.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Peter G; Biever, Joan L; Martinez, Isaac G; Gómez, John P

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of attending a Weekend College (WEC) program on adult students' family, work, and social life. Student participants responded to a 26-item questionnaire and three open-ended questions. Regression analyses of the 566 completed surveys revealed that satisfaction with school and support from family and the work place were predictive of lower levels of stress. Content analyses of responses to open-ended questions showed that expected stress was the result of time constraints but also highlighted the positive aspects of continuing one's education. The study includes suggestions for designing programs to meet the needs of adult students.

  3. Summer movements of sub-adult brook trout, landlocked Atlantic salmon, and smallmouth bass in the Rapid River, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, Casey A. L.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Summer movement patterns and spatial overlap of native sub-adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), non-native landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and non-native smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the Rapid River, Maine, were investigated with radio telemetry in 2005. Fishes were captured by angling, surgically implanted with radio transmitters, and tracked actively from June through September. Most brook trout (96%) and landlocked salmon (72%) displayed long distance movements (>1 km) to open water bodies (28 June to 4 July) followed by periods of time spent in presumed thermal refigia (5 July to 16 September). Summer water temperature rose above 25 °C, near the reported lethal limits for these coldwater species. In contrast, the majority of smallmouth bass (68%), a warrnwater species, did not make long distance movements from areas of initial capture, remaining in mainstem sections of the river (28 June to 16 September). Spatial overlap of smallmouth bass and brook trout in the summer is unlikely because brook trout presumably move to thermal rehgia during this time. However, interspecific competition between brook trout and landlocked salmon may occur since they select similar habitats June through September.

  4. Use of Dual Frequency Identification Sonar to Determine Adult Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Escapement in the Secesh River, Idaho ; Annual Report, January 2008 – December 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Kucera, Paul A.

    2009-06-26

    Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin were listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1992 (NMFS 1992). The Secesh River represents the only stream in the Snake River basin where natural origin (wild) salmon escapement monitoring occurs at the population level, absent a supplementation program. As such the Secesh River has been identified as a long term salmon escapement and productivity monitoring site by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management. Salmon managers will use this data for effective population management and evaluation of the effect of conservation actions on a natural origin salmon population. The Secesh River also acts as a reference stream for supplementation program comparison. Dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) was used to determine adult spring and summer Chinook salmon escapement in the Secesh River in 2008. DIDSON technology was selected because it provided a non-invasive method for escapement monitoring that avoided listed species trapping and handling incidental mortality, and fish impedance related concerns. The DIDSON monitoring site was operated continuously from June 13 to September 14. The first salmon passage was observed on July 3. DIDSON site total estimated salmon escapement, natural and hatchery fish, was 888 fish {+-} 65 fish (95% confidence interval). Coefficient of variation associated with the escapement estimate was 3.7%. The DIDSON unit was operational 98.1% of the salmon migration period. Adult salmon migration timing in the Secesh River occurred over 74 days from July 3 to September 14, with 5,262 total fish passages observed. The spawning migration had 10%, median, and 90% passage dates of July 8, July 16, and August 12, respectively. The maximum number of net upstream migrating salmon was above the DIDSON monitoring site on August 27. Validation monitoring of DIDSON target counts with underwater optical cameras occurred for species identification. A total of 860 optical

  5. Comparison of electronarcosis and carbon dioxide sedation effects on travel time in adult Chinook and Coho Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keep, Shane G; Allen, M. Brady; Zendt, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    The immobilization of fish during handling is crucial in avoiding injury to fish and is thought to reduce handling stress. Chemical sedatives have been a primary choice for fish immobilization. However, most chemical sedatives accumulate in tissues, and often food fishes must be held until accumulations degrade to levels safe for human consumption. Historically, there have been few options for nonchemical sedation. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been widely used for decades as a sedative, and while it does not require a degradation period, it does have drawbacks. The use of electronarcosis is another nonchemical option that does not require degradation time. However, little is known about the latent and delayed effects on migration rates of adult salmonids that have been immobilized with electricity. We compared the travel times of adult Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and Coho Salmon O. kisutch through a fishway at river kilometer (rkm) 4, and to rkm 16 and rkm 32 after being immobilized with either CO2 or electronarcosis. Travel times of fish treated with either CO2 or electronarcosis were similar within species. Because of the nearly instantaneous induction of and recovery from electronarcosis, we recommend it as an alternative to CO2 for handling large adult salmonids.

  6. Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations.

    PubMed

    Marty, Gary D; Saksida, Sonja M; Quinn, Terrance J

    2010-12-28

    Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10-20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon--proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment--will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability.

  7. Interactions between brown bears and chum salmon at McNeil River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peirce, Joshua M.; Otis, Edward O.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Follmann, Erich H.

    2013-01-01

    Predation on returning runs of adult salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can have a large influence on their spawning success. At McNeil River State Game Sanctuary (MRSGS), Alaska, brown bears (Ursus arctos) congregate in high numbers annually along the lower McNeil River to prey upon returning adult chum salmon (O. keta). Low chum salmon escapements into McNeil River since the late 1990s have been proposed as a potential factor contributing to concurrent declines in bear numbers. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of bear predation on chum salmon in McNeil River, especially on pre-spawning fish, and use those data to adjust the escapement goal for the river. In 2005 and 2006, 105 chum salmon were radiotagged at the river mouth and tracked to determine cause and location of death. Below the falls, predators consumed 99% of tagged fish, killing 59% of them before they spawned. Subsequently, the escapement goal was nearly doubled to account for this pre-spawning mortality and to ensure enough salmon to sustain both predators and prey. This approach to integrated fish and wildlife management at MRSGS can serve as a model for other systems where current salmon escapement goals may not account for pre-spawning mortality.

  8. The Not-So-Empty-Nest: The Return of the Fledgling Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Audra W.; Axelson, Leland J.

    1985-01-01

    Adult children who return home are responding to unemployment and financial need, but factors such as dependence, protection needs, and parental happiness appear to be involved in long-term stays. This paper combines survey data to identify factors for successful living arrangements, and areas of conflict and dissatisfaction. (Author/NRB)

  9. Patterns of Learning in a Sample of Adult Returners to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Anthony; Johnston, Bill; McDonald, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This article presents empirical research exploring adult returner students' patterns of learning via qualitative analysis of a series of semi-structured interviews. Interviewees' comments shed light on the relation between patterns of learning on the one hand, and study skills, epistemological issues and attitudes to peer interaction on…

  10. Trapping and Transportation of Adult and Juvenile Salmon in the Lower Umatilla River in Northeast Oregon, 1995-1996 : Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program : Annual Progress Report, October 1995-September 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    1996-09-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from September 5, 1995 to July 1, 1996. A total of 2,081 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 603 adult, 288 jack, and 338 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 946 adult and 53 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,152 adult and 121 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were collected. All fish were trapped at the east bank facility. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was operated from September 8 to October 13, 1995 and from March 18 to June 30, 1996. The juvenile trap was operated from July 1 to July 11. Daily operations at the facility were conducted by the ODFW Fish Passage Research project to monitor juvenile outmigration.

  11. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XV; Appraisal of the Relationship between Tag Detection Efficiency at Bonneville Dam and the Precision of In-River Survival Estimates of Returning PIT-Tagged Chinook Salmon, 2000 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Comas, Joes A.; Skalski, John R.

    2000-07-01

    In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam, this report provides guidance on the anticipated precision of in-river survival estimates for returning adult salmonids, between Bonneville and Lower Granite dams, for various levels of system-wide adult detection probability at Bonneville Dam. Precision was characterized by the standard error of the survival estimates and the coefficient of variation of the survival estimates. The anticipated precision of in-river survival estimates for returning adult salmonids was directly proportional to the number of PIT-tagged smolts released and to the system-wide adult detection efficiency at Bonneville Dam, as well as to the in-river juvenile survival above Lower Granite Dam. Moreover, for a given release size and system-wide adult detection efficiency at Bonneville Dam, higher estuarine and marine survival rates also produced more precise survival estimates. With a system-wide detection probability of P{sub BA} = 1 at Bonneville Dam, the anticipated CVs for in-river survival estimate ranged between 9.4 and 20% with release sizes of 10,000 smolts. Moreover, if the system-wide adult detection efficiency at Bonneville Dam is less than maximum (i.e., P{sub BA} < 1), precision of CV {le} 20% could still be attained. For example, for releases of 10,000 PIT-tagged fish a CV of 20% in the estimates of in-river survival for returning adult salmon could be reach with system-wide detection probabilities of 0.2 {le} P{sub BA} {le} 0.6, depending on the tagging scenario.

  12. Linkages between Alaskan sockeye salmon abundance, growth at sea, and climate, 1955 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggerone, G. T.; Nielsen, J. L.; Bumgarner, J.

    2007-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased growth of salmon during early marine life contributed to greater survival and abundance of salmon following the 1976/1977 climate regime shift and that this, in turn, led to density-dependent reductions in growth during late marine stages. Annual measurements of Bristol Bay (Bering Sea) and Chignik (Gulf of Alaska) sockeye salmon scale growth from 1955 to 2002 were used as indices of body growth. During the first and second years at sea, growth of both stocks tended to be higher after the 1976-1977 climate shift, whereas growth during the third year and homeward migration was often below average. Multiple regression models indicated that return per spawner of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon and adult abundance of western and central Alaska sockeye salmon were positively correlated with growth during the first 2 years at sea and negatively correlated with growth during later life stages. After accounting for competition between Bristol Bay sockeye and Asian pink salmon, age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon increased after the 1976-1977 regime shift, then decreased after the 1989 climate shift. Late marine growth and age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon was exceptionally low after 1989, possibly reducing their reproductive potential. These findings support the hypothesis that greater marine growth during the first 2 years at sea contributed to greater salmon survival and abundance, which in turn led to density-dependent growth during later life stages when size-related mortality was likely lower. Our findings provide new evidence supporting the importance of bottom-up control in marine ecosystems and highlight the complex dynamics of species interactions that continually change as salmon grow and mature in the ocean.

  13. Linkages between Alaskan sockeye salmon abundance, growth at sea, and climate, 1955-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Bumgarner, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased growth of salmon during early marine life contributed to greater survival and abundance of salmon following the 1976/1977 climate regime shift and that this, in turn, led to density-dependent reductions in growth during late marine stages. Annual measurements of Bristol Bay (Bering Sea) and Chignik (Gulf of Alaska) sockeye salmon scale growth from 1955 to 2002 were used as indices of body growth. During the first and second years at sea, growth of both stocks tended to be higher after the 1976-1977 climate shift, whereas growth during the third year and homeward migration was often below average. Multiple regression models indicated that return per spawner of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon and adult abundance of western and central Alaska sockeye salmon were positively correlated with growth during the first 2 years at sea and negatively correlated with growth during later life stages. After accounting for competition between Bristol Bay sockeye and Asian pink salmon, age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon increased after the 1976-1977 regime shift, then decreased after the 1989 climate shift. Late marine growth and age-specific adult length of Bristol Bay salmon was exceptionally low after 1989, possibly reducing their reproductive potential. These findings support the hypothesis that greater marine growth during the first 2 years at sea contributed to greater salmon survival and abundance, which in turn led to density-dependent growth during later life stages when size-related mortality was likely lower. Our findings provide new evidence supporting the importance of bottom-up control in marine ecosystems and highlight the complex dynamics of species interactions that continually change as salmon grow and mature in the ocean. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  15. Clove oil as an anaesthetic for adult sockeye salmon: Field trials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, C.A.; Nelson, Jack L.; Ramstad, K.

    2002-01-01

    Wild migrating sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka exposed to 20, 50 and 80 mg 1-1 of clove oil could be handled within 3 min, recovered within 10 min, and survived 15 min exposure trials. Fish tested at 110 mg 1-1 did not recover from 15 min exposure trials. Response curves developed for induction and recovery time considered the following predictors: clove oil concentration, sex, fish length and depth. A significant positive dependence was observed between induction time and fish length for 20, 50 and 80 mg 1-1 test concentrations; no dependence was observed between induction time and length at 110 and 140 mg 1-1. Recovery time differed as a function of clove oil concentration, but not fish size. A concentration of 50 mg 1-1 is recommended for anaesthetizing sockeye salmon ranging in length from 400 to 550 mm at water temperatures averaging 9-10??C.

  16. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1986-1987 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, C. Samuel

    1987-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, is subject to heat damage during drying and chemical interaction of fat oxidation products with proteins. Protein bioavailability is reduced and dietary stress may be introduced into hatchery feeds. This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. Improved survival production would be better able to reestablish natural runs of salmon in the Columbia River system and maintain and improve the genetic integrity of specific stocks. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985-broods of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986-broods of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1985-brood coho and the 1986-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon.

  17. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1985-1986 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, C. Samuel

    1987-04-01

    This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, and 1984-brood replicates of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-brood replicates of fall chinook (tule stock salmon; and the 1985-brood of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. The 1985-brood year replicate of coho salmon is presently being reared and has been tagged for release in April 1987. The rearing of the 1986-brood replicate of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon has been initiated. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1984-brood coho and the 1985-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) level, gill Na/sup +//K/sup +/-ATPase, osmoregulatory performance, immunocompetency and total hepatic/gill microsomal lipid content were monitored from early June to mid-October 1986 to assess the physiological condition of fall chinook salmon. Results indicated that on several sampling dates early in the 1986 rearing period fish supplied the control ration were physiologically different than fish receiving the salmon meal ration. Incomplete recovery of coded wire tags from 1982 and 1983-broods of coho salmon (Sandy stock) revealed an improved (P greater than or equal to .05) survival for fish supplied test rations.

  18. Genetic analysis of paramyxovirus isolates from pacific salmon reveals two independently co-circulating lineages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batts, W.N.; Falk, K.; Winton, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Viruses with the morphological and biochemical characteristics of the family Paramyxoviridae (paramyxoviruses) have been isolated from adult salmon returning to rivers along the Pacific coast of North America since 1982. These Pacific salmon paramyxoviruses (PSPV), which have mainly been isolated from Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, grow slowly in established fish cell lines and have not been associated with disease. Genetic analysis of a 505-base-pair region of the polymerase gene from 47 PsPV isolates produced 17 nucleotide sequence types that could be grouped into two major sublineages, designated A and B. The two independently co-circulating sublineages differed by 12.1-13.9% at the nucleotide level but by only 1.2% at the amino acid level. Isolates of PSPV from adult Pacific salmon returning to rivers from Alaska to California over a 25-year period showed little evidence of geographic or temporal grouping. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these paramyxoviruses of Pacific salmon were most closely related to the Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV) from Norway, having a maximum nucleotide diversity of 26.1 % and an amino acid diversity of 19.0%. When compared with homologous sequences of other paramyxoviruses, PSPV and ASPV were sufficiently distinct to suggest that they are not clearly members of any of the established genera in the family Paramyxoviridae. in the course of this study, a polymerase chain reaction assay was developed that can be used for confirmatory identification of PSPV. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  19. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production, Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook salmon and steelhead trout adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production and develop habitat enhancement mitigation accounting based on increases in wild/natural smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects. The project to date has developed good information on the relationship between chinook salmon adult escapement and smolt production at low to medium seeding levels. Adult chinook salmon escapements have been too low for us to test carrying capacity. For steelhead trout, they have developed a relationship between parr populations and smolt production at low to high seeding levels, with limited information on carrying capacity.

  20. Early life history study of Grande Ronde River Basin chinook salmon. Annual progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, M.; Anderson, D.J.; Carmichasel, R.W.; Jonasson, B.C.

    1996-06-01

    The Grande Ronde River originates in the Blue Mountains in northeast Oregon and flows 334 kilometers to its confluence with the Snake River near Rogersburg, Washington. Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. It is estimated that prior to the construction of the Columbia and Snake River dams, more than 20,000 adult spring chinook salmon returned to spawn in the Grande Ronde River basin. A spawning escapement of 12,200 adults was estimated for the Grande Ronde River basin in 1957. Recent population estimates have been variable year to year, yet remain a degree of magnitude lower than historic estimates. In 1992, the escapement estimate for the basin was 1,022 adults (2.4 {times} number of redds observed). In addition to a decline in population abundance, a constriction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde basin. Historically, 21 streams supported spawning chinook salmon, yet today the majority of production is limited to eight tributary streams and the mainstem upper Grande Ronde River. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. More than 80% of anadromous fish habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River is considered to be degraded.

  1. Historical analysis of sockeye salmon growth among populations affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill and large spawning escapements. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project 86048-BAA: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Rogers, D.E.

    1998-12-01

    Adult sockeye salmon scales, which provide an index of annual salmon growth in fresh and marine waters during 1965--1997, were measured to examine the effects on growth and adult returns of large spawning escapements influenced by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Scale growth in freshwater was significantly reduced by the large 1989 spawning escapements in the Kenai River system, Red Lake, and Akalura Lake, but not in Chignik Lake. These data suggest that sockeye growth in freshwater may be less stable following the large escapement. Furthermore, the observations of large escapement adversely affecting growth of adjacent brood years of salmon has important implications for stock-recruitment modeling. In Prince William Sound, Coghill Lake sockeye salmon that migrated through oil-contaminated waters did not exhibit noticeably reduced marine growth, but a model was developed that might explain low adult returns in recent years.

  2. Going Back: Adults Talk about What They're Doing in College and How They Feel about Returning to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, John M.

    This book consists of the edited transcripts of 19 interviews conducted with two- and four-year college students ranging in age from 25 to 65, who returned to school to complete degrees, work toward new degrees, or merely take classes. Drawing from the interviews, introductory comments offer generalizations about adult students returning to…

  3. Exploring the Processes of Self-Development Encountered by Adult Returners to Higher Education: A Lifespan Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Evidence indicates that non-traditional adult returners describe returning to education as a period of self-development and growth. However, lifespan psychology perspectives also show that successful growth and change involves periods of conflict. This paper will explore both the nature of self-development and conflicts experienced by a sample of…

  4. Comparison of five techniques for the detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in adult coho salmon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pascho, R.J.; Elliott, D.G.; Mallett, R.W.; Mulcahy, D.

    1987-01-01

    Samples of kidney, spleen, coelomic fluid, and blood from 56 sexually mature coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were examined for infection by Renibacterium salmoninarum by five methods. The overall prevalence (all sample types combined) of R. salmoninarum in the fish was 100% by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 86% by the combined results of the direct fluorescent antibody and the direct filtration-fluorescent antibody techniques, 39% by culture, 11% by counterimmunoelectrophoresis, and 5% by agarose gel immunodiffusion. There was a significant positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay absorbance levels and the counts by fluorescent antibody techniques for kidney, spleen, and coelomic fluid, and significant positive correlations (P < 0.001) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay absorbance levels for all four of the sample types.

  5. Migration of precocious male hatchery chinook salmon in the Umatilla River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, C.E.; Stonecypher, R.W.; Hayes, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Between 1993 and 2000, precocious yearling males of hatchery-produced fall and spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha composed 3.6-82.1% of chinook salmon runs to the Umatilla River, Oregon. These yearling males are smaller than typical jack salmon, which spend a full winter in the ocean, and are commonly referred to as "mini jacks." Minijack fall chinook salmon are characterized by enlarged testes and an increased gonadosomatic index. Our goal was to determine if minijacks migrated to saltwater between the time they are released from the hatchery and the time they return to the Umatilla River, a period of 4-6 months. During 1999-2000, we collected otoliths from an adult male fall chinook salmon, 12 spring chinook salmon minijacks, and 10 fall chinook salmon minijacks. We measured strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios from the age-1 annulus to the edge of the otolith to determine whether these fish had migrated to the ocean. The Sr:Ca ratios increased from low values near the age-1 annulus, similar to ratios expected from freshwaters, to higher values near the edge of the otolith. The Sr:Ca ratios increased to levels similar to ratios expected in saltwater, indicating that these fish had migrated to saltwater before returning to the Umatilla River. Analysis of published water chemistry data from the Columbia and Snake rivers and rearing experiments in the main-stem Columbia River confirmed that high Sr:Ca ratios measured in otoliths were not the result of high strontium levels encountered in the freshwater environment. Previously assumed to remain within freshwater and near the point of release, our results suggest these minijack salmon migrated at least 800 km and past three hydroelectric dams to reach saltwater and return to the Umatilla River.

  6. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1954-01-01

    A variety of bacteria has been found responsible for outbreaks of disease in salmon in sea water. The most important of these is a species of Vibrio. Tuberculosis has been found in adult chinook salmon and the evidence indicates that the disease was contracted at sea.

  7. Salmon Patch

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head. Salmon patches are different from port-wine stains (discussed as a separate topic) in that ... difference between a salmon patch and a port-wine stain. In the past, port-wine stains and ...

  8. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M

    2013-04-23

    Multiple dam passage during seaward migration is thought to reduce the subsequent survival of Snake River Chinook salmon. This hypothesis developed because juvenile Chinook salmon from the Snake River, the Columbia River's largest tributary, migrate >700 km through eight hydropower dams and have lower adult return rates than downstream populations that migrate through only 3 or 4 dams. Using a large-scale telemetry array, we tested whether survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon is reduced in the estuary and coastal ocean relative to a downstream, hatchery-reared population from the Yakima River. During the initial 750-km, 1-mo-long migration through the estuary and coastal ocean, we found no evidence of differential survival; therefore, poorer adult returns of Snake River Chinook may develop far from the Columbia River. Thus, hydrosystem mitigation efforts may be ineffective if differential mortality rates develop in the North Pacific Ocean for reasons unrelated to dam passage.

  9. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M

    2013-04-23

    Multiple dam passage during seaward migration is thought to reduce the subsequent survival of Snake River Chinook salmon. This hypothesis developed because juvenile Chinook salmon from the Snake River, the Columbia River's largest tributary, migrate >700 km through eight hydropower dams and have lower adult return rates than downstream populations that migrate through only 3 or 4 dams. Using a large-scale telemetry array, we tested whether survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon is reduced in the estuary and coastal ocean relative to a downstream, hatchery-reared population from the Yakima River. During the initial 750-km, 1-mo-long migration through the estuary and coastal ocean, we found no evidence of differential survival; therefore, poorer adult returns of Snake River Chinook may develop far from the Columbia River. Thus, hydrosystem mitigation efforts may be ineffective if differential mortality rates develop in the North Pacific Ocean for reasons unrelated to dam passage. PMID:23576733

  10. Migratory Characteristics of Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River : Completion Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.; Snelling, J.C.; Ewing, R.E.; Bradford, C.S.; Davis, L.E.; Slater, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine in detail the migration of juvenile spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. The authors wanted to determine characteristics of seaward migration of spring chinook smolts in relation to the oxygen supplementation practices at the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Willamette Hatchery and use this information to strengthen the design of the oxygen supplementation project. There is little information available on the effects of oxygen supplementation at hatcheries on the migratory characteristics of juvenile salmon. Such information is required to assess the use of oxygen supplementation as a means of improving hatchery production, its effect on imprinting of juveniles, and finally the return of adults. In the event that oxygen supplementation provides for improved production and survival of juvenile chinook salmon at Willamette Hatchery, background information on the migration characteristics of these fish will be required to effectively utilize the increased production within the goals of the Willamette Fish Management Plan. Furthermore this technology may be instrumental in the goal of doubling the runs of spring Chinook salmon in the Columbia River. While evaluation of success is dependent on evaluation of the return of adults with coded wire tags, examination of the migratory characteristics of hatchery smolts may prove to be equally informative. Through this research it is possible to determine the rate at which individuals from various oxygenation treatment groups leave the Willamette River system, a factor which may be strongly related to adult return rate.

  11. FDA Approved Registration of Erythromycin for Treatment of Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD) in Juvenile and Adult Chinook Salmon : Annual Report, Reporting Period March 10, 1989 to March 9, 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Moffitt, Christine A.

    1991-04-01

    Erythromycin is a therapeutic substance useful against bacterial kidney disease in salmon. In 1989 we began a multi year project to learn more about erythromycin applied to juvenile and adult salmon, with the goal of achieving registration of erythromycin with the US Food and Drug Administration. To begin the study, we studied the pharmacokinetics of erythromycin administered to both adult and juvenile chinook salmon. We monitored blood plasmas time curves from individual adult fish injected with two forms of injectable erythromycin using one of three routes of administration. In addition, we began experiments to evaluate hatchery applications of erythromycin to individually marked adult salmon, and we recovered blood tissues from these fish at the time of spawning. To determine how to use erythromycin in juvenile salmon, we evaluated the adsorption and elimination of erythromycin applied arterially and orally to individual juvenile fish. In feeding trials we determined the palatability to juvenile chinook salmon of feed made with one of two different carriers for erythromycin thiocyanate. 35 refs., 4 figs. , 3 tabs.

  12. Immune and endocrine responses of adult spring Chinook salmon during freshwater migration and sexual maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, A.G.; Schrock, R.M.; Slater, C.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Schreck, C. B.

    1996-01-01

    The immune –endocrine responses in spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were examined during their freshwater migration and final maturation. In 1990, migrating fish had high plasma cortisol titres (means 200 ng ml−1) and generated relatively few antibody-producing cells (APC) from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) (100 –200 per culture). After three weeks acclimation in constant environmental conditions, plasma cortisol was reduced and APC increased. There were no changes in number or affinity of glucocorticoid receptors. Concentrations of several sex steroids correlated with APC in females, but there were no such correlations in males. In 1993, fish in a hatchery had significantly greater cortisol concentrations in primary circulation than in secondary circulation, but sex steroid concentrations did not differ between circulations. Mean lysozyme activity in the primary and secondary circulation did not differ in June. In August, activity in the primary circulation was significantly less than that of the secondary, perhaps the result of acute stress associated with sampling. While some sex steroids correlated with lysozyme activity, the fact that in both years all endocrine and immune variables that correlated with each other also correlated with the date of sample, raises the question as to whether or not these are cause-and-effect relations.

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  14. Inclusion of Atlantic salmon in the Chinese diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk markers in dyslipidemic adult men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Song, Pengkun; Meng, Liping; Du, Zhen-Yu; Frøyland, Livar

    2010-07-01

    Although the beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids on several physiologic functions have been widely reported, information about the effects of oily fish in the Asian diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is diminutive. We hypothesize that daily inclusion of oily fish for 8 weeks in the Chinese diet will elevate serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and reduce CVD risk markers in dyslipidemic adult men, comparable with the effects generally observed by inclusion of oily fish in the Western diet. In this 8-week randomized, parallel-arm, food-based intervention study, lunches were prepared with 500 g pork/chicken/beef, typically consumed fish (hairtail and freshwater carp), or oily fish (salmon). Male subjects aged between 35 and 70 years with hyperlipidemia were randomly assigned to eat lunches with pork/chicken/beef (n = 30 subjects at 8 weeks), freshwater fish (n = 30), or oily fish (n = 32). Circulating markers were measured at baseline and at 8 weeks. In the oily fish diet, dietary EPA and DHA levels were significantly increased as compared with other diets; and the n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio was decreased (P < .05). Thus, the oily fish diet significantly elevated serum EPA and DHA concentrations (P < .01) and lowered serum n-6:n-3 ratio at 8 weeks (P < .05). Furthermore, oily fish intake significantly reduced serum levels of triglycerides (P < .05) and interleukin-6 (P < .01) and increased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .01). In conclusion, daily inclusion of oily fish as part of the Chinese diet for 8 weeks is sufficient to significantly increase the serum content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduce levels of CVD risk markers in dyslipidemic adult men. PMID:20797476

  15. ELISA-Based Segregation of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon for Control of Bacterial Kidney Disease: Annual Report 1991.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaattari, Stephen L.

    1993-02-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum (RS), a serious disease of salmonid fish worldwide. The disease has a major impact on spring chinook salmon populations in the Columbia River system. There is strong evidence that RS can be transmitted from parent to progeny, and segregation of progeny based on levels of antigen detected in adult fish may obviate this mode of transmission. Results are presented from the third year of a four year study to investigate segregation of broodstock as a tool for controlling BKD. Segregation of adult fish infected with RS has been achieved using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELlSAs) optimized in the first and second year of this project. Gametes from both 1990 and 1991 broodstock, either injected with erythromycin or receiving no antibiotic injection were successfully segregated into groups having either high or low levels of the RS soluble antigen. Offspring have been monitored every three months from the 1990 broodstock and are being monitored from the 1991 broodstock. Antigen levels in the offspring from the 1990 segregation experiment at Marion Forks Hatchery were low and clinical BKD was not observed in any of the juvenile fish. At Carson National Fish Hatchery, antigen levels were also low in fish which were sampled December 1990 through July 1991. Total mortality was low throughout these sampling periods. An increase in mortality was observed in November-December 1991, and preliminary evidence suggests that motality may have been due BKD. The epizootic appears to have equally effected both offspring from high and low RS antigen level parents. Antigen levels in moribund fish are being examined to confirm the prevalence of RS infection.

  16. Inclusion of Atlantic salmon in the Chinese diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk markers in dyslipidemic adult men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Song, Pengkun; Meng, Liping; Du, Zhen-Yu; Frøyland, Livar

    2010-07-01

    Although the beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids on several physiologic functions have been widely reported, information about the effects of oily fish in the Asian diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is diminutive. We hypothesize that daily inclusion of oily fish for 8 weeks in the Chinese diet will elevate serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and reduce CVD risk markers in dyslipidemic adult men, comparable with the effects generally observed by inclusion of oily fish in the Western diet. In this 8-week randomized, parallel-arm, food-based intervention study, lunches were prepared with 500 g pork/chicken/beef, typically consumed fish (hairtail and freshwater carp), or oily fish (salmon). Male subjects aged between 35 and 70 years with hyperlipidemia were randomly assigned to eat lunches with pork/chicken/beef (n = 30 subjects at 8 weeks), freshwater fish (n = 30), or oily fish (n = 32). Circulating markers were measured at baseline and at 8 weeks. In the oily fish diet, dietary EPA and DHA levels were significantly increased as compared with other diets; and the n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio was decreased (P < .05). Thus, the oily fish diet significantly elevated serum EPA and DHA concentrations (P < .01) and lowered serum n-6:n-3 ratio at 8 weeks (P < .05). Furthermore, oily fish intake significantly reduced serum levels of triglycerides (P < .05) and interleukin-6 (P < .01) and increased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .01). In conclusion, daily inclusion of oily fish as part of the Chinese diet for 8 weeks is sufficient to significantly increase the serum content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduce levels of CVD risk markers in dyslipidemic adult men.

  17. ADULT COHO SALMON AND STEELHEAD USE OF BOULDER WEIRS IN SOUTHWEST OREGON STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The placement of log and boulder structures in streams is a common and often effective technique for improving juvenile salmonid rearing habitat and increasing fish densities. Less frequently examined has been the use of these structures by adult salmonids. In 2004, spawner densi...

  18. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production, Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout 0. mykiss adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production, and develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects.

  19. Warming Ocean Conditions Relate to Increased Trophic Requirements of Threatened and Endangered Salmon.

    PubMed

    Daly, Elizabeth A; Brodeur, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The trophic habits, size and condition of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) caught early in their marine residence were examined during 19 survey years (1981-1985; 1998-2011). Juvenile salmon consumed distinct highly piscivorous diets in cold and warm ocean regimes with major differences between ocean regimes driven by changes in consumption of juvenile rockfishes, followed by several other fish prey, adult euphausiids and decapod larvae. Notable, Chinook salmon consumed 30% more food in the warm versus cold ocean regime in both May and June. Additionally, there were about 30% fewer empty stomachs in the warm ocean regime in May, and 10% fewer in warm June periods. The total prey energy density consumed during the warmer ocean regime was also significantly higher than in cold. Chinook salmon had lower condition factor and were smaller in fork length during the warm ocean regime, and were longer and heavier for their size during the cold ocean regime. The significant increase in foraging during the warm ocean regime occurred concurrently with lower available prey biomass. Adult return rates of juvenile Chinook salmon that entered the ocean during a warm ocean regime were lower. Notably, our long term data set contradicts the long held assertion that juvenile salmon eat less in a warm ocean regime when low growth and survival is observed, and when available prey are reduced. Comparing diet changes between decades under variable ocean conditions may assist us in understanding the effects of projected warming ocean regimes on juvenile Chinook salmon and their survival in the ocean environment. Bioenergetically, the salmon appear to require more food resources during warm ocean regimes. PMID:26675673

  20. Warming Ocean Conditions Relate to Increased Trophic Requirements of Threatened and Endangered Salmon.

    PubMed

    Daly, Elizabeth A; Brodeur, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The trophic habits, size and condition of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) caught early in their marine residence were examined during 19 survey years (1981-1985; 1998-2011). Juvenile salmon consumed distinct highly piscivorous diets in cold and warm ocean regimes with major differences between ocean regimes driven by changes in consumption of juvenile rockfishes, followed by several other fish prey, adult euphausiids and decapod larvae. Notable, Chinook salmon consumed 30% more food in the warm versus cold ocean regime in both May and June. Additionally, there were about 30% fewer empty stomachs in the warm ocean regime in May, and 10% fewer in warm June periods. The total prey energy density consumed during the warmer ocean regime was also significantly higher than in cold. Chinook salmon had lower condition factor and were smaller in fork length during the warm ocean regime, and were longer and heavier for their size during the cold ocean regime. The significant increase in foraging during the warm ocean regime occurred concurrently with lower available prey biomass. Adult return rates of juvenile Chinook salmon that entered the ocean during a warm ocean regime were lower. Notably, our long term data set contradicts the long held assertion that juvenile salmon eat less in a warm ocean regime when low growth and survival is observed, and when available prey are reduced. Comparing diet changes between decades under variable ocean conditions may assist us in understanding the effects of projected warming ocean regimes on juvenile Chinook salmon and their survival in the ocean environment. Bioenergetically, the salmon appear to require more food resources during warm ocean regimes.

  1. Warming Ocean Conditions Relate to Increased Trophic Requirements of Threatened and Endangered Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Elizabeth A.; Brodeur, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    The trophic habits, size and condition of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) caught early in their marine residence were examined during 19 survey years (1981–1985; 1998–2011). Juvenile salmon consumed distinct highly piscivorous diets in cold and warm ocean regimes with major differences between ocean regimes driven by changes in consumption of juvenile rockfishes, followed by several other fish prey, adult euphausiids and decapod larvae. Notable, Chinook salmon consumed 30% more food in the warm versus cold ocean regime in both May and June. Additionally, there were about 30% fewer empty stomachs in the warm ocean regime in May, and 10% fewer in warm June periods. The total prey energy density consumed during the warmer ocean regime was also significantly higher than in cold. Chinook salmon had lower condition factor and were smaller in fork length during the warm ocean regime, and were longer and heavier for their size during the cold ocean regime. The significant increase in foraging during the warm ocean regime occurred concurrently with lower available prey biomass. Adult return rates of juvenile Chinook salmon that entered the ocean during a warm ocean regime were lower. Notably, our long term data set contradicts the long held assertion that juvenile salmon eat less in a warm ocean regime when low growth and survival is observed, and when available prey are reduced. Comparing diet changes between decades under variable ocean conditions may assist us in understanding the effects of projected warming ocean regimes on juvenile Chinook salmon and their survival in the ocean environment. Bioenergetically, the salmon appear to require more food resources during warm ocean regimes. PMID:26675673

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  3. Effects of Flow on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Fall and Summer Chinook Salmon in John Day Reservoir : Annual Report 1985. [Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David R.; Giorgi, Albert E.

    1985-12-01

    As part of a study to define the effects of instream flows on the passage time, migration behavior, and survival of phi age chinook salmon migrating through John Day Reservoir from June through August juvenile fish were tagged and released below McNary Dam in 1981. This report discusses adult returns through 1984. (ACR)

  4. The Use of Electromyogram (EMG) Telemetry to Assess Swimming Activity and Energy Use of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon Migrating through the Tailraces, Fishways, and Forebays of Bonneville Dam, 2000 and 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Geist, David R.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2002-10-16

    In 2000, PNNL conducted a two-year study for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to investigate energy use and swimming performance of adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawystcha) migrating upstream through a large hydropower dam on the Columbia River. The investigation involved one year of laboratory study and one year of field study at Bonneville Dam. The objectives of the laboratory study were to 1) measure active rates of oxygen consumption of adult spring chinook salmon at three water temperatures over a range of swimming speeds; 2) estimate the upper critical swimming speed (Ucrit) of adult spring chinook salmon; and 3) monitor electromyograms (EMGs) of red and white muscle in the salmon over a range of swimming speeds. Laboratory results showed rate of oxygen consumption and red and white muscle activity in adult spring chinook salmon were strongly correlated with swimming speed over a range of fish sizes and at three different temperatures. In the field studies at Bonneville Dam, EMG radiotelemetry was used to examine the amount of energy spring chinook salmon expend while migrating upstream past the dam?s tailraces, fishways, and forebays. Aerobic and anaerobic energy use rates were determined. Energy use was estimated for different specific sections of each fishway also. The rates of energy used (kcal/kg/h) by spring chinook salmon were significantly higher in the tailraces (2.80 kcal/kg/h) than in other parts of the dam. Among all fishway areas, Cascade Island fishway appears to be more energetically costly than other fishways. Also, section 12 of the Washington shore fishway appears costly. Energy used during fallouts was substantial (11.5% to 18.8% of the amount of energy used for successful fishway passages).

  5. Post-release behavior and movement patterns of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after capture using alternative commercial fish gear, lower Columbia River, Washington and Oregon, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Evans, Scott D.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, WDFW conducted post-release mortality studies of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) that were captured using beach or purse seines. These studies were comprised of two groups of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags): (1) treatment fish that were captured by one of the gear types 9–25 river kilometers (rkm) downstream of Bonneville Dam (rkm 234); and (2) control fish that were captured at the Adult Fish Facility near the Washington shore fish ladder at Bonneville Dam, and then transported and released 8 rkm downstream of the Bonneville Dam. Fish were confirmed to have survived if they moved upstream and were detected on PIT-tag antennas at or upstream of Bonneville Dam, were recovered at hatcheries or at the dam, or were captured by commercial or sport fishers. Post-release survival estimates were higher for steelhead (89–98 percent) than for Chinook salmon and coho salmon (50–90 percent; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpub. data, 2014). However, some Chinook salmon and coho salmon return to hatcheries, or spawn in the mainstem Columbia River and in tributaries downstream of Bonneville Dam. The proportion of Chinook salmon and coho salmon in the treatment group that were destined for areas downstream of Bonneville Dam likely was higher than in the control group because the control fish were collected as they were attempting to pass the dam. If this assertion was true, mortality would have been overestimated in these studies, so WDFW developed a study plan to determine the post-release movements and intended location of Chinook salmon and coho salmon collected with beach and purse seines in the lower Columbia River.

  6. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1987-1988 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Richard D.

    1988-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation tests the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. Rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985 broods of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984 broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986 broods of fall chinook (upriver bright stock) salmon. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected through September 1988.

  7. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1988-1989 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Richard D.

    1990-03-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness'' of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation test the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. Rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985 broods of coho salmon (Sandy stock); the 1983 and 1984 broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986 broods of fall chinook (upriver bright stock) salmon. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected through September 1989. 2 tabs.

  8. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Engagement, and Achievement: A Test of Dweck's Model with Returning to School Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Marine, Claudette

    2005-01-01

    This study tested and extended Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation with adults who deliberately chose to face the challenge of returning to school. We examined the relationships among beliefs (implicit theories) on the nature of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement in learning, and achievement using path analyses.…

  9. Spawning Distribution of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Aaron P.

    1999-03-01

    In 1998 data was collected on the spawning distribution of the first adult fall chinook salmon to return from releases of yearling hatchery fish upriver of Lower Granite Dam. Yearling fish were released at three locations with the intent of distributing spawning throughout the existing habitat. The project was designed to use radio-telemetry to determine if the use of multiple release sites resulted in widespread spawning.

  10. Temporal and spatial estimates of adult striped bass mortality from telemetry and transmitter return data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of total mortality, fishing mortality, and natural mortality in the fishery for the adult striped bass Morone saxatilis in J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir, South Carolina-Georgia, were determined from long-term radiotelemetry data and high-reward radio transmitter return data using catch curve analyses. Annual total mortality rates were 0.81 ?? 0.06 (mean ?? SE) for year 1 (July 1999-June 2000) and 0.42 ?? 0.04 for year 2 (July 2000-June 2001). We observed that the force of fishing was much greater than the force of natural death on total mortality in this fishery. Total exploitation of all implanted striped bass over the 2-year study period was 48%. Fishing mortality rates were 0.67 ?? 0.04 for year 1 and 0.33 ?? 0.02 for year 2, and natural mortality rates were 0.14 ?? 0.02 for year 1 and 0.09 ?? 0.02 for year 2. We also identified seasonal increases in total and fishing mortality rates from July to September. Fishing mortality was highest temporally and spatially during late spring and late summer near the tailrace below Richard B. Russell Dam owing to high angling pressure for striped bass while the fish were congregated in summer refugia. Natural mortality occurred only during mid to late summer in the middle section of the reservoir. These deaths were attributed to striped bass's becoming trapped in unsuitable summer habitat in the lower and middle sections of the reservoir. Mean postsurgery growth from 15 harvested study fish at large for a mean of 1.16 ?? 0.81 years was estimated to be 1.71 ?? 0.73 kg/year. Internal implantation of telemetry devices appeared to have no negative effect on long-term growth, health, and survival of adult striped bass and did not bias mortality and survival estimates.

  11. Indirect Effects of Impoundment on Migrating Fish: Temperature Gradients in Fish Ladders Slow Dam Passage by Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead

    PubMed Central

    Caudill, Christopher C.; Keefer, Matthew L.; Clabough, Tami S.; Naughton, George P.; Burke, Brian J.; Peery, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species. PMID:24392020

  12. Indirect effects of impoundment on migrating fish: temperature gradients in fish ladders slow dam passage by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Christopher C; Keefer, Matthew L; Clabough, Tami S; Naughton, George P; Burke, Brian J; Peery, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species. PMID:24392020

  13. Indirect effects of impoundment on migrating fish: temperature gradients in fish ladders slow dam passage by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Christopher C; Keefer, Matthew L; Clabough, Tami S; Naughton, George P; Burke, Brian J; Peery, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T) at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss) experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species.

  14. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason

    2004-06-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers. The

  15. Parasite burdens in experimental families of coho salmon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasutake, W.T.; McIntyre, J.D.; Hemmingsen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    We examined the possibility that parasites affect survival rates of anadromous hatchery coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch during their period in the wild. Survival was estimated from the rates at which adults returned to the hatchery. The frequency of infection of heart tissue by metacercariae of Nanophyetus sp. was higher in individuals from families with relatively high survival. Various degrees of parasitic and bacterial infection were observed in all groups. We frequently saw extensive infection and tissue reaction to trophozoites of Ceratomyxa sp. (probably C. shasta) in the apparent absence of spores, suggesting that the clinical method now used to determine the presence of Ceratomyxa infection needs to be reassessed.

  16. Self-sustaining populations, population sinks or aggregates of strays: chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Wood River system, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jocelyn E; Hilborn, Ray; Quinn, Thomas P; Hauser, Lorenz

    2011-12-01

    Small populations can provide insights into ecological and evolutionary aspects of species distributions over space and time. In the Wood River system in Alaska, USA, small aggregates of Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) spawn in an area dominated by sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Our objective was to determine whether these Chinook and chum salmon are reproductively isolated, self-sustaining populations, population sinks that produce returning adults but receive immigration, or strays from other systems that do not produce returning adults. DNA samples collected from adult chum salmon from 16 streams and Chinook salmon from four streams in the Wood River system over 3 years were compared to samples from large populations in the nearby Nushagak River system, a likely source of strays. For both species, microsatellite markers indicated no significant genetic differentiation between the two systems. Simulations of microsatellite data in a large source and a smaller sink population suggested that considerable immigration would be required to counteract the diverging effects of genetic drift and produce genetic distances as small as those observed, considering the small census sizes of the two species in the Wood River system. Thus, the Wood River system likely receives substantial immigration from neighbouring watersheds, such as the Nushagak River system, which supports highly productive runs. Although no data on population productivity in the Wood River system exist, our results suggest source-sink dynamics for the two species, a finding relevant to other systems where salmonid population sizes are limited by habitat factors.

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of histology for diagnoses of four common pathogens and detection of nontarget pathogens in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Kent, Michael L; Benda, Susan; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Schreck, Carl B

    2013-05-01

    Histology is often underutilized in aquatic animal disease screening and diagnostics. The agreement between histological classifications of infection and results using diagnostic testing from the American Fisheries Society's Blue Book was conducted with 4 common salmon pathogens: Aeromonas salmonicida, Renibacterium salmoninarum, Ceratomyxa shasta, and Nanophyetus salmincola. Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Oregon were evaluated, and agreement between tests was calculated. Live and dead (both pre- and postspawning) salmon were collected from the Willamette River, Oregon, its tributaries, the Willamette Hatchery, and after holding in cool, pathogen-free water during maturation at Oregon State University. Sensitivity and specificity of histology compared to Blue Book methods for all fish, live fish only, and dead (pre- and postspawned combined) fish only were, respectively, as follows: A. salmonicida (n = 105): specificity 87.5%, 87.5%, 87.5% and sensitivity 38.6%, 14.8%, 60.0%; R. salmoninarum (n = 111): specificity 91.9%, 85.7%, 97.7% and sensitivity 16.0%, 7.1%, 27.2%; C. shasta (n = 136): specificity 56.0%, 63.3%, 28.6% and sensitivity 83.3%, 86.2%, 71.4%; N. salmincola (n = 228): specificity 68.2%, 66.7%, not possible to calculate for dead fish and sensitivity 83.5%, 80.5%, 87.3%. The specificity was good for bacterial pathogens. This was not the case for C. shasta, likely due to detection of presporogenic forms only by histology. Sensitivity of histology for bacterial pathogens was low with the exception of dead fish with A. salmonicida. Kappa analysis for agreement between Blue Book and histology methods was poor to moderate. However, histological observations revealed the presence of other pathogens that would not be detected by other methods.

  18. Migratory Characteristics of Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River : Annual Report 1991.

    SciTech Connect

    Snelling, John C.

    1993-05-01

    This report documents our research to examine in detail the migration of juvenile and adult spring chinook salmon in the Willamette River. We seek to determine characteristics of seaward migration of spring chinook smolts in relation to oxygen supplementation practices at Willamette Hatchery, and to identify potential sources of adult spring chinook mortality in the Willamette River above Willamette Falls and use this information towards analysis of the study on efficiency of oxygen supplementation. The majority of juvenile spring chinook salmon released from Willamette hatchery in 1991 begin downstream movement immediately upon liberation. They travel at a rate of 1.25 to 3.5 miles per hour during the first 48 hours post-release. Considerably slower than the water velocities available to them. Juveniles feed actively during migration, primarily on aquatic insects. Na{sup +}/K{sup +} gill ATPase and cortisol are significantly reduced in juveniles reared in the third pass of the Michigan series with triple density and oxygen supplementation, suggesting that these fish were not as well developed as those reared under other treatments. Returning adult spring chinook salmon migrate upstream at an average rate of about 10 to 20 miles per day, but there is considerable between fish variation. Returning adults exhibit a high incidence of wandering in and out of the Willamette River system above and below Willamette Falls.

  19. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    .8% - natural chinook salmon, 68.1% - hatchery chinook salmon, 69.9% natural steelhead, and 78.0% - hatchery steelhead. A smolt-to-adult return rate (SAR) index from LGR to LGR was calculated for migrating pre-smolt and smolt natural chinook salmon, that were PIT tagged in the fall and spring at the lower trap, for brood years 1996 to 1998 (migration years 1998 to 2000). The SARs are representative of in-river Imnaha natural chinook salmon. The LGR to LGR SAR index for presmolt chinook salmon is as follows: 3.08% (BY 1996), 2.41% (BY 1997), and 2.98% (BY 1998). Smolt-to-adult return rate index for spring tagged smolts was lower: 1.75% (BY 1996), 2.24% (BY 1997) and 2.94% (BY 1998). Fall tagged natural chinook salmon from the upper and lower trap and spring tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower trap all had significantly different (p < 0.05) median and cumulative arrival timing at LGR during migration year 2001.

  20. Use of electromyogram telemetry to assess swimming activity of adult spring Chinook salmon migrating past a Columbia River dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.S.; Geist, D.R.; Mesa, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Electromyogram (EMG) radiotelemetry was used to estimate the swim speeds of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha migrating upstream past a Columbia River dam. Electrodes from EMG transmitters were surgically implanted in the red muscle of fish captured at Bonneville Dam, and output from the tags was calibrated to defined swim speeds for each fish in a tunnel respirometer. The fish were then released below Bonneville Dam and radio-tracked as they migrated through the tailraces, fishways, and forebays of the dam. On average, swim speed was significantly higher when tagged salmon were moving through tailraces than when they were moving through other parts of the dam. Specifically, swim speeds for fish in tailraces (106.4 cm/s) were 23% higher than those of fish in fishways (84.9 cm/s) and 32% higher than those of fish in forebays (80.2 cm/s). Swim speeds were higher in fishways during the day than during the night, but there were no diel differences in swim speeds in tailraces and forebays. During dam passage, Chinook salmon spent the most time in tailraces, followed by fishways and forebays. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  1. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2005-11-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report and those since the last project review period (FY 2003) are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: (i) Developed tools for monitoring the spawning success of captively reared Chinook salmon that can now be used for evaluating the reintroduction success of ESA-listed captive broodstocks in their natal habitats. (ii) Developed an automated temperature controlled rearing system to test the effects of seawater rearing temperature on reproductive success of Chinook salmon. Objective 2: (i) Determined that Columbia River sockeye salmon imprint at multiple developmental stages and the length of exposure to home water is important for successful imprinting. These results can be utilized for developing successful reintroduction strategies to minimize straying by ESA-listed sockeye salmon. (ii) Developed behavioral and physiological assays for imprinting in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: (i) Developed growth regime to reduce age-two male maturation in spring Chinook salmon, (ii) described reproductive cycle of returning hatchery Snake River spring Chinook salmon relative to captive broodstock, and (iii) found delays in egg development in captive broodstock prior to entry to fresh water. (iv) Determined that loss of Redfish Lake sockeye embryos prior to hatch is largely due to lack of egg fertilization rather than embryonic mortality. Objective 4 : (i) Demonstrated safety and efficacy limits against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in fall Chinook of attenuated R. salmoninarum vaccine and commercial vaccine Renogen, (ii) improved prophylactic and therapeutic

  2. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1981-1990 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Richard D.

    1990-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and ``fitness`` of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation tests the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected 1982 through September 1990.

  3. Behavior and movement of formerly landlocked juvenile coho salmon after release into the free-flowing Cowlitz River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Henning, Julie A.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Royer, Ida M.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    Formerly landlocked Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) juveniles (age 2) were monitored following release into the free-flowing Cowlitz River to determine if they remained in the river or resumed seaward migration. Juvenile Coho Salmon were tagged with a radio transmitter (30 fish) or Floy tag (1050 fish) and their behavior was monitored in the lower Cowlitz River. We found that 97% of the radio-tagged fish remained in the Cowlitz River beyond the juvenile outmigration period, and the number of fish dispersing downstream decreased with increasing distance from the release site. None of the tagged fish returned as spawning adults in the 2 y following release. We suspect that fish in our study failed to migrate because they exceeded a threshold in size, age, or physiological status. Tagged fish in our study primarily remained in the Cowlitz River, thus it is possible that these fish presented challenges to juvenile salmon migrating through the system either directly by predation or indirectly by competition for food or habitat. Given these findings, returning formerly landlocked Coho Salmon juveniles to the free-flowing river apparently provided no benefit to the anadromous population. These findings have management implications in locations where landlocked salmon have the potential to interact with anadromous species of concern.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): implications for resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters.

    PubMed

    Cullon, Donna L; Yunker, Mark B; Alleyne, Carl; Dangerfield, Neil J; O'Neill, Sandra; Whiticar, Michael J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-01-01

    We measured persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in order to characterize dietary exposure in the highly contaminated, salmon-eating northeastern Pacific resident killer whales. We estimate that 97 to 99% of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in returning adult chinook were acquired during their time at sea. Highest POP concentrations (including PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and DDT) and lowest lipids were observed in the more southerly chinook sampled. While feeding by salmon as they enter some more POP-contaminated near-shore environments inevitably contribute to their contamination, relationships observed between POP patterns and both lipid content and delta13C also suggest a migration-related metabolism and loss of the less-chlorinated PCB congeners. This has implications for killer whales, with the more PCB-contaminated salmon stocks in the south partly explaining the 4.0 to 6.6 times higher estimated daily intake for sigmaPCBs in southern resident killer whales compared to northern residents. We hypothesize that the lower lipid content of southerly chinook stocks may cause southern resident killer whales to increase their salmon consumption by as much as 50%, which would further increase their exposure to POPs.

  5. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Research Element : Project Progress Report, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason; Kline, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2000, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: eyed-eggs were placed in Pettit Lake; age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish and Alturas lakes for volitional spawning in September. Anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to all three lakes. Total kokanee abundance in Redfish Lake was estimated at 10,268, which was the lowest abundance since 1991. Abundance of kokanee in Alturas Lake was estimated at 125,462, which was one of the highest values recorded since 1991. Abundance of kokanee in Pettit Lake was estimated at 40,599, which is the third highest value recorded since 1991. Upon the recommendation of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee, the National Marine Fisheries Service reopened the kokanee fishery on Redfish Lake in 1995 in an attempt to reduce kokanee numbers. Anglers fished an estimated 3,063 hours and harvested approximately 67 kokanee during the 2000 season. Angler effort and harvest were also monitored on Alturas Lake during 2000. Effort on Alturas Lake was 5,190 hours, and harvest of kokanee

  6. Recovery from sports-related concussion: Days to return to neurocognitive baseline in adolescents versus young adults

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Scott L.; Lee, Young M.; Odom, Mitchell J.; Solomon, Gary S.; Forbes, Jonathan A.; Sills, Allen K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sports-related concussions (SRC) among high school and collegiate athletes represent a significant public health concern. The Concussion in Sport Group (CIS) recommended greater caution regarding return to play with children and adolescents. We hypothesized that younger athletes would take longer to return to neurocognitive baseline than older athletes after a SRC. Methods: Two hundred adolescent and young adult athletes who suffered a SRC were included in our clinical research cohort. Of the total participants, 100 were assigned to the 13-16 year age group and 100 to the 18-22 year age group and were matched on the number of prior concussions. Each participant completed baseline and postconcussion neurocognitive testing using the Immediate Post-Concussion assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test battery. Return to baseline was defined operationally as post-concussion neurocognitive and symptom scores being equivalent to baseline using reliable change index (RCI) criteria. For each group, the average number of days to return to cognitive and symptom baseline were calculated. Independent sample t-tests were used to compare the mean number of days to return to baseline. Results: Significant differences were found for days to return to baseline between 13-16 year olds and 18-22 year olds in three out of four neurocognitive measures and on the total symptom score. The average number of days to return to baseline was greater for 13-16 year olds than for 18-22 year olds on the following variables: Verbal memory (7.2 vs. 4.7, P = 0.001), visual memory (7.1 vs. 4.7, P = 0.002), reaction time (7.2 vs. 5.1 P = 0.01), and postconcussion symptom scale (8.1 vs. 6.1, P = 0.026). In both groups, greater than 90% of athletes returned to neurocognitive and symptom baseline within 1 month. Conclusions: Our results in this clinical research study show that in SRC, athletes 13-16 years old take longer to return to their neurocognitive and symptom baselines than

  7. Invitation to a Roundtable: A Discussion of Return-on-Investment in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, James; Spangenberg, Gail

    2014-01-01

    In September 2013, based on a national survey of state Adult Basic Education (ABE) directors or designates, Council for Advancement of Adult Literacy (CAAL) published "Stepping Up to ROI on Adult Education: A Survey of State Activity." This paper reported on the states' activity, from the perspective of the respondents, in collecting and…

  8. Early marine growth of pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal gulf of Alaska during years of low and high survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, A.D.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Myers, K.W.; Moss, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Although early marine growth has repeatedly been correlated with overall survival in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of smolt-to-adult survival. Smolt-to-adult survival of pink salmon O. gorbuscha returning to Prince William Sound was lower than average for juveniles that entered marine waters in 2001 and 2003 (3% in both years), and high for those that entered the ocean in 2002 (9%) and 2004 (8%). We used circulus patterns from scales to determine how the early marine growth of juvenile pink salmon differed (1) seasonally during May-October, the period hypothesized to be critical for survival; (2) between years of low and high survival; and (3) between hatchery and wild fish. Juvenile pink salmon exhibited larger average size, migrated onto the continental shelf and out of the sampling area more quickly, and survived better during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003. Pink salmon were consistently larger throughout the summer and early fall during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003, indicating that larger, faster-growing juveniles experienced higher survival. Wild juvenile pink salmon were larger than hatchery fish during low-survival years, but no difference was observed during high-survival years. Differences in size among years were determined by some combination of growing conditions and early mortality, the strength of which could vary significantly among years. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  9. Evaluate the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Habitat, Status Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T.P.

    2009-01-08

    estimates for fall of 2000 indicate more than 9000 adult fall Chinook salmon returned to this area, accounting for more than 2100 redds within a 5 km section of river.

  10. John Day Fall Chinook/Salmon Mitigation Plan Acclimation and Imprinting Site Feasibility Study: Summary Report : Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Sverdrup Corporation; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this Plan is to replace upriver bright fall chinook salmon which were lost by construction of the John Day Dam. This will be accomplished by releasing salmon fry and smolts, incubated in the Spring Creek and Bonneville Hatcheries, at several upriver locations. Prior to release it is desired to feed and acclimate the juvenile fish to relieve the stress of truck transport, and to imprint them to the release site. This will ultimately produce adult chinook salmon that return to their historic spawning areas through traditional common property fisheries. It will also provide sexually mature broodstock fish that can be captured and spawned to supplement continued hatchery operation. This report summarizes results of an engineering feasibility study done for 10 potential acclimation sites on the Columbia, Yakima and Walla Walla Rivers. A detailed report has been prepared for each site and each is bound separately.

  11. Effect of salinity changes on olfactory memory-related genes and hormones in adult chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Lim, Sang-Gu; Jeong, Minhwan; Jin, Deuk-Hee; Choi, Cheol Young

    2015-09-01

    Studies of memory formation have recently concentrated on the possible role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NRs). We examined changes in the expression of three NRs (NR1, NR2B, and NR2C), olfactory receptor (OR), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) during salinity change (seawater→50% seawater→freshwater). NRs were significantly detected in the diencephalon and telencephalon and OR was significantly detected in the olfactory epithelium. The expression of NRs, OR, and ACTH increased after the transition to freshwater. We also determined that treatment with MK-801, an antagonist of NRs, decreased NRs in telencephalon cells. In addition, a reduction in salinity was associated with increased levels of dopamine, ACTH, and cortisol (in vivo). Reductions in salinity evidently caused NRs and OR to increase the expression of cortisol and dopamine. We concluded that memory capacity and olfactory imprinting of salmon is related to the salinity of the environment during the migration to spawning sites. Furthermore, salinity affects the memory/imprinting and olfactory abilities, and cortisol and dopamine is also related with olfactory-related memories during migration.

  12. Etiology of sockeye salmon "virus" disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1959-01-01

    Violent epizootics among hatchery reared sockeye salmon fingerLings ( Oncorhynchus nerka) caused by a filterable agent have occurred. In 1954, one source of this infectious, filterable agent was found to be adult sockeye viscera used in the diet for the fingerlings. The results of observations on an epizootic in 1958 indicate that the infection may be transmitted to fingerlings from a water supply to which adult sockeye salmon have access.

  13. River temperature drives salmon survivorship: is it determined prior to ocean entry?

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Kentaro; Ayumi, Nakashima; Kikuchi, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Early life is believed to be a critical stage for determining survivorship in all fish. Many studies have suggested that environmental conditions in the ocean determine the fry-to-adult survival rate of Pacific salmon but few investigations have been conducted on the importance of the brief freshwater period during the seaward migration on overall survivorship. Here, we found that most of the variation in survivorship of hatchery-reared chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) was explained by river temperature during the fry stage, despite spending most of their life (approx. 99%) at sea. After the annual release of a constant number of fry, the number of fry moving through the river at a downstream location varied greatly. The number of returning adults was positively correlated with the number of fry moving downstream. This result suggests that most salmon mortality occurred prior to ocean entry, and that short-term mortality in the river is a key factor determining major fluctuations in total mortality. Although marine mortality is often invoked in the literature as a key factor determining total mortality of chum salmon, attention should also be paid to freshwater mortality to understand the population dynamics of this species. PMID:26064583

  14. Salmon's Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents Paul Salmon's old-fashioned, common-sense guidelines for success in practical school administration. The maxims advise on problem ownership; the value of selective neglect; the importance of empowerment, enthusiasm, and effective communication; and the need for positive reinforcement, cultivation of support, and good relations with media,…

  15. Second Chances: Making Meaning from Adult Literacy Students Returning to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Helene Joyce

    2012-01-01

    Sokolowski (2000) summarized the phenomenological attitude by saying, "We look at what we normally look through" (p. 50). Through interviews and document analysis, this study looked at the lives of six students and their decision to return to their education to earn a high school diploma. The purpose of this study was to illuminate how…

  16. Hospital Readmission among Older Adults Who Return Home with Unmet Need for ADL Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Glen; Xu, Huiping; Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Craig, Bruce A.; Stallard, Eric; Thomas, Joseph, III.; Sands, Laura P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study determined whether returning to the community from a recent hospitalization with unmet activities of daily living (ADL) need was associated with probability of readmission. Methods: A total of 584 respondents to the 1994, 1999, and/or 2004 National Long-Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) who were hospitalized within 90 days prior to the…

  17. To Knock Down Barriers for Returning Adult Learners, RI Tries Something New

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, Tracy; Littky, Dennis; Bush, Adam

    2015-01-01

    In a historic unanimous vote on May 20, 2015, the Rhode Island Council on Postsecondary Education welcomed College Unbound as a degree-granting postsecondary option in the state, designed to serve the more than 110,000 Rhode Island adults who began but did not complete bachelor's degrees. The college is the adult-learning initiative of Big Picture…

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A.

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  19. Acoustic tracking of migrating salmon.

    PubMed

    Kupilik, Matthew J; Petersen, Todd

    2014-10-01

    Annual salmon migrations vary significantly in annual return numbers from year to year. In order to determine when a species' sustainable return size has been met, a method for counting and sizing the spawning animals is required. This project implements a probability hypothesis density tracker on data from a dual frequency identification sonar to automate the process of counting and sizing the fish crossing an insonified area. Data processing on the sonar data creates intensity images from which possible fish locations can be extracted using image processing. These locations become the input to the tracker. The probability hypothesis density tracker then solves the multiple target tracking problem and creates fish tracks from which length information is calculated using image segmentation. The algorithm is tested on data from the 2010 salmon run on the Kenai river in Alaska and compares favorably with statistical models from sub-sampling and manual measurements.

  20. Time-Delayed Subsidies: Interspecies Population Effects in Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle C.; Reynolds, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-boundary nutrient inputs can enhance and sustain populations of organisms in nutrient-poor recipient ecosystems. For example, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can deliver large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to freshwater ecosystems through their eggs, excretion, or carcasses. This has led to the question of whether nutrients from one generation of salmon can benefit juvenile salmon from subsequent generations. In a study of 12 streams on the central coast of British Columbia, we found that the abundance of juvenile coho salmon was most closely correlated with the abundance of adult pink salmon from previous years. There was a secondary role for adult chum salmon and watershed size, followed by other physical characteristics of streams. Most of the coho sampled emerged in the spring, and had little to no direct contact with spawning salmon nutrients at the time of sampling in the summer and fall. A combination of techniques suggest that subsidies from spawning salmon can have a strong, positive, time-delayed influence on the productivity of salmon-bearing streams through indirect effects from previous spawning events. This is the first study on the impacts of nutrients from naturally-occurring spawning salmon on juvenile population abundance of other salmon species. PMID:24911974

  1. "Starting from Ground Zero:" Constraints and Experiences of Adult Women Returning to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Nancy L.; Schmertz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Women adult students face particular constraints when pursuing degrees. This paper uses focus group data to explore the educational pathways, barriers, and supports of women students. Women's educations are shaped by personal and structural gendered forces, including family, economic, and workplace issues. Women report conflict over short-term…

  2. Researching Returns Emanating from Participation in Adult Education Courses: A Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panitsides, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Throughout contemporary literature, participants in adult education courses have been reported to acquire knowledge and skills, develop understanding and enhance self-confidence, parameters that induce changes in their personal lives, while enabling them to play a more active role in their family, community or work. In this vein, a large-scale,…

  3. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  4. Discovering Alaska's Salmon: A Children's Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Laurel

    This children's activity book helps students discover Alaska's salmon. Information is provided about salmon and where they live. The salmon life cycle and food chains are also discussed. Different kinds of salmon such as Chum Salmon, Chinook Salmon, Coho Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Pink Salmon are introduced, and various activities on salmon are…

  5. Radio-Tracking Studies of Adult Chinook Salmon and Steelhead to Determine the Effect of ''Zero'' River Flow During Water Storage at Little Goose Dam on the Lower Snake River, Final Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Liscom, Kenneth

    1985-09-01

    Allowable instantaneous minimum river flows are established in the Columbia and Snake Rivers to ensure safe passage of anadromous fish during their migration to the spawning grounds. However, water storage during periods of low power demands (at night and on weekends) would be beneficial to the power producers. This storage procedure is called ''zero'' river flow and is now permitted on a limited basis when there are few if any actively migrating anadromous fish present in the river system. Requests were made to extend ''zero'' river flow into periods when anadromous fish were actively migrating and a study was initiated. Radio-tracking studies were conducted on the Snake River between Lower Monumental and Little Goose Dams to determine the effect of ''zero'' river flow on the migration of adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead, Salmo gairdneri. From July through September, 1981, a total of 258 steelhead and 32 chinook salmon were radio-tagged. The rate of migration was used to determine differences between test and control fish and a gamma distribution model was used to describe the migration rate for radio-tagged fish. Estimates of the parameters of the model were used to statistically compare ''zero'' flow and normal river flow conditions for the radio-tagged fish. The results show that the ''zero'' flow condition delays the migration of adult chinook salmon and steelhead; therefore, extended periods of ''zero'' flow to store water are not recommended when fish are actively migrating in the river system. 16 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Epizootic ameloblastomas in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) of the northwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Grim, K C; Wolfe, M J; Edwards, M; Kaufman, J; Onjukka, S; Moran, P; Wolf, J C

    2009-07-01

    Abnormal growths were observed on the lips and in the oral cavities of 2- and 3-year-old Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) maintained in one freshwater and one saltwater captive fish-rearing facility in the Columbia River (Pacific Northwest). Initially presenting as bilaterally symmetrical, red, irregular plaques on oral mucosal surfaces, the lesions developed progressively into large, disfiguring masses. Of the 502 natural parr collected for captive broodstock, 432 (86%) displayed these tumors, whereas cohort salmon (i.e., same year classes) in these same facilities remained unaffected. Morphologically similar neoplasms were collected occasionally from adult Chinook salmon that had returned to their natal streams. Histologic features of the tumors suggested that they were derived from the portion of dental lamina destined to form tooth root sulci; therefore, these neoplasms were diagnosed as ameloblastomas. The lesions also resembled archived specimens of Chinook salmon oral tumors, which had been described decades earlier. Etiologic investigations performed during the current outbreak included bacteriologic, virologic, genetic, ultrastructural analyses, and cohabitation exposure studies. Results of these efforts did not indicate an obvious genetic basis for this syndrome, attempts to isolate potentially causative viruses or bacteria were negative, and disease transmission to naïve fish was unsuccessful. A few intracytoplasmic hexagonal structures, possibly consistent with viral particles (approximately 100 nm), were observed ultrastructurally in a tumor cell from 1 of 6 specimens submitted for transmission electron microscopy. Although the presence of these particles does not constitute sufficient evidence for causality, an infectious or multifactorial etiology seems plausible.

  7. Comparison of polyunsaturated fatty acids content in filets of anadromous and landlocked sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Lepskaya, Ekaterina V; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S; Malyshevskaya, Kseniya K; Markevich, Grigory N

    2012-12-01

    Fatty acid composition and content of 2 forms of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from lakes in Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) were compared. One form of sockeye salmon was anadromous ("marine"), that is, adult fish migrated in ocean to feed and grow and than return in the lake to breed. Fish of another form, kokanee, never migrate in the ocean. Per cent levels of the main indicators of nutritive value, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), were significantly higher in the landlocked O. nerka. However, concentrations of EPA and DHA per wet weight of filets were higher in the marine form, because of the relatively higher content of sum of fatty acids in their muscle tissue. As concluded, fish fed in marine environment had higher contents of long-chain n-3 fatty acids per wet weight than fish of the same species, fed in fresh waters. In general, both the anadromous sockeye salmon and the landlocked kokanee salmon can be recommended for human diet as a valuable product concerning contents of EPA and DHA. PMID:23240970

  8. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  9. Physiological effects of thermomechanical newsprint mill effluent on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Linton, E D; Scuton, D A; McKinley, R S

    2005-11-01

    Anadramous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) returning to Exploits River, Newfoundland, Canada, to spawn encounter low concentrations of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) effluent as they migrate upstream past an integrated newsprint mill. Various physiological responses of adult Atlantic salmon from the Exploits River were studied under laboratory conditions. The effects of a 6-h exposure to 0%, 6%, 12%, or 25% (v/v) TMP effluent or an increasing concentration gradient of effluent (0-25%) on cardiac output (Q ), critical swimming performance (U(crit)), hematocrit, and blood glucose, cortisol, lactate, and osmolality were examined. Relative to other treatment groups, Q during routine and low-level activity was 7-10% higher in fish exposed to at least 12% effluent. The 25% exposure group had a distinctly lower U(crit) and scope for increase in Q than the other treatment groups. These findings suggest that effluent exposure elevates physiological maintenance and repair costs, resulting in a reallocation of energetic resources.

  10. Evaluation of energy expenditure in adult spring Chinook salmon migrating upstream in the Columbia River Basin: an assessment based on sequential proximate analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Magie, C.D.

    2006-01-01

    The upstream migration of adult anadromous salmonids in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) has been dramatically altered and fish may be experiencing energetically costly delays at dams. To explore this notion, we estimated the energetic costs of migration and reproduction of Yakima River-bound spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha using a sequential analysis of their proximate composition (i.e., percent water, fat, protein, and ash). Tissues (muscle, viscera, and gonad) were sampled from fish near the start of their migration (Bonneville Dam), at a mid point (Roza Dam, 510 km upstream from Bonneville Dam) and from fresh carcasses on the spawning grounds (about 100 km above Roza Dam). At Bonneville Dam, the energy reserves of these fish were remarkably high, primarily due to the high percentage of fat in the muscle (18-20%; energy content over 11 kJ g-1). The median travel time for fish from Bonneville to Roza Dam was 27 d and ranged from 18 to 42 d. Fish lost from 6 to 17% of their energy density in muscle, depending on travel time. On average, fish taking a relatively long time for migration between dams used from 5 to 8% more energy from the muscle than faster fish. From the time they passed Bonneville Dam to death, these fish, depending on gender, used 95-99% of their muscle and 73-86% of their viscera lipid stores. Also, both sexes used about 32% of their muscular and very little of their visceral protein stores. However, we were unable to relate energy use and reproductive success to migration history. Our results suggest a possible influence of the CRB hydroelectric system on adult salmonid energetics.

  11. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  12. Growth and smolting in lower-mode Atlantic Salmon stocked into the Penobscot River, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; O'Malley, Andrew; Cox, Oliver; Ruksznis, Peter; Trial, Joan G.

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar in Maine has relied on hatchery-produced fry and smolts for critical stocking strategies. Stocking fry minimizes domestication selection, but these fish have poor survival. Conversely, stocked smolts have little freshwater experience but provide higher adult returns. Lower-mode (LM) fish, those not growing fast enough to ensure smolting by the time of stocking, are a by-product of the smolt program and are an intermediate hatchery product. From 2002 to 2009, between 70,000 and 170,000 marked LM Atlantic Salmon were stocked into the Pleasant River (a tributary in the Penobscot River drainage, Maine) in late September to early October. These fish were recaptured as actively migrating smolts (screw trapping), as nonmigrants (electrofishing), and as returning adults to the Penobscot River (Veazie Dam trap). Fork length (FL) was measured and a scale sample was taken to retrospectively estimate FL at winter annulus one (FW1) using the intercept-corrected direct proportion model. The LM fish were observed to migrate as age-1, age-2, and infrequently as age-3 smolts. Those migrating as age-1 smolts had a distinctly larger estimated FL at FW1 (>112 mm) than those that remained in the river for at least one additional year. At the time of migration, age-2 and age-3 smolts were substantially larger than age-1 smolts. Returning adult Atlantic Salmon of LM origin had estimated FLs at FW1 that corresponded to smolt age (greater FL for age 1 than age 2). The LM product produces both age-1 and age-2 smolts that have greater freshwater experience than hatchery smolts and may have growth and fitness advantages. The data from this study will allow managers to better assess the probability of smolting age and manipulate hatchery growth rates to produce a targeted-size LM product.

  13. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1984-1985 Progress (Annual) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, David L.

    1986-04-01

    It is believed that hatchery feed nutritional quality plays an important role in determining the health and fitness of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, is subject to heat damage during drying and chemical interaction of fat oxidation products with meal proteins. Protein bioavailability is reduced and dietary stress may be introduced into hatchery feeds. The basic hypothesis of this investigation is that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. Improved hatchery production would be better able to reestablish natural runs of salmon in the Columbia River and its tributaries and maintain and improve the genetic integrity of specific stocks. The general approach being used to prove this hypothesis involves a comparison of the hatchery growth response, survival and return of coho and chinook salmon reared on nutrient dense rations containing a very high quality fish protein complement and commercial ration relying on commercial fish meals as a source of protein. Coded wire tagging experiments are being conducted on replicate brood years of test and control fish to determine the influence of ration protein on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982 and 1983-brood replicates of coho salmon and 1983 and 1984-brood replicates of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon. The 1984-brood year replicate of coho salmon is presently being reared and has been tagged for release in April 1986. Planning was completed for rearing a 1985-brood replicate of fall chinook (upriver bright stock) salmon. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1983-brood coho and the 1984-brood fall chinook (tule stock) replicates. Duplicate lots of coho salmon were reared on two test rations containing vacuum dried salmon and hake meals and a control ration composed of the Sandy hatchery supply of Oregon pellet feed system rations from 1 June 1984 to release on 30 April 1985

  14. Historical record of Yersinia ruckeri and Aeromonas salmonicida among sea-run Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Penobscot River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.; Coll, J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite restoration efforts, only about 2,000 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) salmon have annually returned to New England Rivers and more than 71% of these fish migrate to the Penobscot River alone. This report provides a historical compilation on the prevalence's of both Yersinia ruckeri, cause of enteric redmouth disease, and Aeromonas salmonicida, cause of furunculosis, among mature sea-run Atlantic salmon that returned to the Penobscot River from 1976 to 2003. Aeromonas salmonicida was detected in 28.6% and Yersinia ruckeri was detected among 50% of the yearly returns. Consequently, Atlantic salmon that return to the river are potential reservoirs of infection.

  15. Antibody against infectious salmon anaemia virus among feral Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Archived sera from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that returned to the Penobscot River (Maine), Merrimack River (Massachusetts), and Connecticut River (in Massachusetts) from 1995 to 2002 were analysed for antibodies against infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Up to 60 samples were archived per river system per year. In a given year, the number of fish sampled by ELISA for ISAV antibodies in the Penobscot River ranged from 2.9 to 11.2, and the range of salmon sampled in the Merrimack River and the Connecticut River was 31.3-100 and 20.0-67.5, respectively. Archived sera were not available for the 1995 and 2002 year classes from the Connecticut River. In all, 1141 samples were processed; 14 serum samples tested positive for antibodies to ISAV. In the Penobscot River, serum from one fish tested positive in each of the 1995 and 1999 year-class returns, and sera from two fish tested positive in the 1998 returns. In the Merrimack River, sera from four fish tested positive in each of the 1996 and 1997 returns, and sera from two fish were positive in the 2002 return. None of the archived sera from Atlantic salmon that returned to the Connecticut River tested positive. ?? 2009 United States Government, Department of the Interior.

  16. ELISA-Based Segregation of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon for Control of Bacterial Kidney Disease, Annual Report FY 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaattari, Stephen L.; Winton, James R.

    1989-12-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, is a serious disease of salmonid fish worldwide. The disease has a major impact on spring chinook salmon populations in the Columbia River system. There is strong evidence that R. safmoninarum can be transmitted from parent to progeny, and therefore culling of gametes from infected parents should obviate this mode of transmission. This report presents the results from the first year of our four year study to investigate segregation of broodstock as a tool for controlling BKD. The segregations will use Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) as detection systems to identify, in tissues of infected fish, proteins produced by R. salmoninarum. A first step in the development of the described detection systems was the optimization of the production of important antigenic proteins from R. salmoninarum. Different culture media were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated for their ability to support production of cellular and soluble proteins. The major factor affecting antigen quality was the presence and absence of calf serum. Media components and R. salmoninarum growth products could not be separated during harvest of proteins from the cultures containing serum. This caused problems with the quantitation of actual bacterial proteins in the preparation. Thus media without serum is currently employed. Two independent ELISA techniques for the identification of infected parents were examined. One technique is based on polyclonal antisera produced in rabbits and the second is based on mouse monoclonal antibodies (Mabs). To develop the latter system, several Mabs against a major R. salmoninarum antigenic protein were produced. These Mabs were used for the detection of R. salmoninarum antigens in infected fish and also to characterize proteins produced by the bacterium. Both ELISAs were deemed suitable for the segregation of parents into the high and low BKD groups required for this study. An

  17. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A.

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  18. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rechisky, Erin L.; Welch, David W.; Porter, Aswea D.; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C.; Winchell, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple dam passage during seaward migration is thought to reduce the subsequent survival of Snake River Chinook salmon. This hypothesis developed because juvenile Chinook salmon from the Snake River, the Columbia River’s largest tributary, migrate >700 km through eight hydropower dams and have lower adult return rates than downstream populations that migrate through only 3 or 4 dams. Using a large-scale telemetry array, we tested whether survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon is reduced in the estuary and coastal ocean relative to a downstream, hatchery-reared population from the Yakima River. During the initial 750-km, 1-mo-long migration through the estuary and coastal ocean, we found no evidence of differential survival; therefore, poorer adult returns of Snake River Chinook may develop far from the Columbia River. Thus, hydrosystem mitigation efforts may be ineffective if differential mortality rates develop in the North Pacific Ocean for reasons unrelated to dam passage. PMID:23576733

  19. Intensive Evaluation and Monitoring of Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production, Crooked River and Upper Salmon River Sites, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production, and develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations in Idaho are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects. This project to date has developed good information on the relationship between adult chinook salmon escapement and smolt production at low to medium seeding levels. This information for steelhead includes a fair estimate of carrying capacity. To date, we have been unable to accurately estimate egg-to-parr survival for steelhead. Future efforts will include determining the relationship between adult steelhead trout escapement and age 1 + parr production, determining environmental and habitat factors that affect smolt production, and developing project results to help the region make good management decisions for anadromous fish.

  20. Estuarine Ecology of Juvenile Salmon in Western Alaska: a Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Hillgruber, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1990s and early 2000s, large declines in numbers of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha returning to the Arctic-YukonKuskokwim (AYK) region (Alaska, USA) illuminated the need for an improved understanding of the variables controlling salmon abundance at all life stages. In addressing questions about salmon abundance, large gaps in our knowledge of basic salmon life history and the critical early marine life stage were revealed. In this paper, results from studies conducted on the estuarine ecology of juvenile salmon in western Alaska are summarized and compared, emphasizing timing and distribution during outmigration, environmental conditions, age and growth, feeding, and energy content of salmon smolts. In western Alaska, water temperature dramatically changes with season, ranging from 0°C after ice melt in late spring/early summer to 19°C in July. Juvenile salmon were found in AYK estuaries from early May until August or September, but to date no information is available on their residence duration or survival probability. Chum salmon were the most abundant juvenile salmon reported, ranging in percent catch from <0.1% to 4.7% and most research effort has focused on this species. Abundances of Chinook salmon, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and pink salmon O. gorbuscha varied among estuaries, while coho salmon O. kisutch juveniles were consistently rare, never amounting to more than 0.8% of the catch. Dietary composition of juvenile salmon was highly variable and a shift was commonly reported from epibenthic and neustonic prey in lower salinity water to pelagic prey in higher salinity water. Gaps in the knowledge of AYK salmon estuarine ecology are still evident. For example, data on outmigration patterns and residence timing and duration, rearing conditions and their effect on diet, growth, and survival are often completely lacking or available only for few selected years and sites. Filling gaps in knowledge concerning salmon

  1. Impact of parasites on salmon recruitment in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Krkosek, Martin; Revie, Crawford W; Gargan, Patrick G; Skilbrei, Ove T; Finstad, Bengt; Todd, Christopher D

    2013-01-01

    Parasites may have large effects on host population dynamics, marine fisheries and conservation, but a clear elucidation of their impact is limited by a lack of ecosystem-scale experimental data. We conducted a meta-analysis of replicated manipulative field experiments concerning the influence of parasitism by crustaceans on the marine survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The data include 24 trials in which tagged smolts (totalling 283 347 fish; 1996-2008) were released as paired control and parasiticide-treated groups into 10 areas of Ireland and Norway. All experimental fish were infection-free when released into freshwater, and a proportion of each group was recovered as adult recruits returning to coastal waters 1 or more years later. Treatment had a significant positive effect on survival to recruitment, with an overall effect size (odds ratio) of 1.29 that corresponds to an estimated loss of 39 per cent (95% CI: 18-55%) of adult salmon recruitment. The parasitic crustaceans were probably acquired during early marine migration in areas that host large aquaculture populations of domesticated salmon, which elevate local abundances of ectoparasitic copepods-particularly Lepeophtheirus salmonis. These results provide experimental evidence from a large marine ecosystem that parasites can have large impacts on fish recruitment, fisheries and conservation.

  2. SALMON 2100 PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty eight salmon scientists and policy experts have joined forces in an innovative project to identify ways that, if adopted, likely would restore and sustain wild salmon runs in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia.

  3. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to ...

  4. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1993-02-02

    This is the first annual summary of results for chinook salmon supplementation studies in Idaho Rivers conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Management. The Nez Perce Tribe has coordinated chinook salmon supplementation research activities with the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, U. S. Forest Service, and the Shoshone Bannock Tribe. The project is a cooperative effort involving members of the Idaho Supplementation Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC). This project has also been extensively coordinated with the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) which identified specific research needs and integrated and coordinated supplementation research activities through development of a five year work plan. In this study we are assessing what strategies, both brood stock and release stage, are best for supplementing natural or depleted spring and summer chinook populations and what effect supplementation has on these populations. This research should identify which of the supplementation strategies employed are beneficial in terms of increasing adult returns and the ability of these returns to sustain themselves. Biological evaluation points will be parr density, survival to Lower Granite Dam, adult return to weirs, redd counts and presmolt and smolt yield from both treatment and control streams. Genetic monitoring of treatment and control populations will also occur. The supplementation research study has the following objectives: (1) Monitor and evaluate the effect of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon. (2) Monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation. (3) Determine which supplementation strategies (brood stock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural

  5. Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, D.R. )

    1990-03-01

    Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were tested for five minutes per day in a modified open field for one or three days. Lake Ontario salmon diets consistently produced significantly lower activity, rearing, and nosepoke behaviors in comparison with ocean salmon or rat chow diet conditions. A dose-response effect for concentration of lake salmon was obtained, and the attenuation effect occurred in males, females, adult or young animals, and postweaning females, with fish sampled over a five-year period. While only two of several potential contaminants were tested, both fish and brain analyses of mirex and PCBs relate to the behavioral effects.

  6. Vulnerability of Fraser River sockeye salmon to climate change: a life cycle perspective using expert judgments.

    PubMed

    McDaniels, Tim; Wilmot, Sarah; Healey, Michael; Hinch, Scott

    2010-12-01

    Fraser River sockeye salmon have been the basis for a major commercial fishery shared by Canada and the United States, and an important cultural foundation for many aboriginal groups; they are also of huge ecological significance throughout the Fraser Basin. The potential for altered aquatic habitat and temperature regimes due to climate change is an important concern for Fraser River sockeye salmon. This paper characterizes the vulnerability of Fraser River sockeye salmon to future climate change using an approach that is novel on three counts. First, previous efforts to assess the vulnerability of salmon to climate change have largely focused on only part of the life cycle, whereas we consider climate vulnerability at all stages in the life cycle. Second, we use the available scientific literature to provide a basis for structuring and eliciting judgments from fisheries science and management experts who research and manage these systems. Third, we consider prospects for mitigating the effects of climate change on sockeye salmon. Tests showed that participants' judgments differentiated in statistically significant ways among questions that varied in terms of life stages, spawning regions and climate scenarios. The consensus among participants was that Fraser River sockeye are most vulnerable to climate change during the egg and returning adult stages of the life cycle. A high temperature scenario was seen as imposing the greatest risk on sockeye stocks, particularly those that migrate to the upper reaches of the Fraser River system and spawn earlier in the summer. The inability to alter water temperature and the highly constrained nature of sockeye management, with competing gear types and sequential fisheries over a long distance, suggest the potential to mitigate adverse effects is limited. Fraser River sockeye already demonstrate a great deal of adaptive capacity in utilizing heterogeneous habitats in different river sub-basins. This adaptability points to the

  7. Partial migration in introduced wild chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) of southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Miguel; Niklitschek, Edwin J.; Secor, Dave H.; Piccoli, Philip M.

    2014-08-01

    Partial migration, the incidence of opposing migration behaviors within the same population, has been a key factor in the invasive ecology of Pacific salmon within South America. Here, we examined such life-cycle variation in of an introduced chinook salmon population in the Aysén watershed, one of the largest fjord systems in NW Patagonia. The chinook salmon is the most successful invasive salmonid species in Patagonia and has recently colonized numerous Patagonian watersheds of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Using analyses of fish scales and otolith strontium:calcium ratios, our results suggest the presence of two distinct ecotypes in the chinook population, an ocean type and a stream type, in a 3:2 ratio. The distribution of back-calculated length at the time of emigration from river to marine habitats showed a mode of 14 cm for the ocean ecotype and 30 cm for the stream ecotype. River residence time for the ocean ecotype ranged from 1 to 10 months, while that of the stream ecotype varied between 14 and 20 months. Returning adults reproduced in riverine habitats between August and March, but reproduction by the stream ecotype was limited to the period between October and February. Our results show that exotic chinook salmon populations established in NW Patagonia present a diversity of life-history strategies, which seems to be as large as the ones exhibited by the species in its native distribution range and in other invaded ecosystems. Chinook salmon have successfully invaded most major rivers in Patagonia, placing priority on science and conservation related to their ecological impact.

  8. It's a Salmon's Life!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

    1998-01-01

    Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

  9. Echo characteristics of two salmon species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nealson, Patrick A.; Horne, John K.; Burwen, Debby L.

    2005-04-01

    The Alaska Department of Fish and Game relies on split-beam hydroacoustic techniques to estimate Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returns to the Kenai River. Chinook counts are periodically confounded by large numbers of smaller sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Echo target-strength has been used to distinguish fish length classes, but was too variable to separate Kenai River chinook and sockeye distributions. To evaluate the efficacy of alternate echo metrics, controlled acoustic measurements of tethered chinook and sockeye salmon were collected at 200 kHz. Echo returns were digitally sampled at 48 kHz. A suite of descriptive metrics were collected from a series of 1,000 echoes per fish. Measurements of echo width were least variable at the -3 dB power point. Initial results show echo elongation and ping-to-ping variability in echo envelope width were significantly greater for chinook than for sockeye salmon. Chinook were also observed to return multiple discrete peaks from a single broadcast echo. These characteristics were attributed to the physical width of chinook exceeding half of the broadcast echo pulse width at certain orientations. Echo phase variability, correlation coefficient and fractal dimension distributions did not demonstrate significant discriminatory power between the two species. [Work supported by ADF&G, ONR.

  10. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; Artificial Imprinting and Smoltification in Juvenile Kokanee Salmon Implications for Operating Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Salmon Hatcheries; 1994 Supplement Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tilson, Mary Beth; Scholz, Allan T.; White, Ronald J.

    1995-02-01

    At the kokanee salmon hatcheries on Lake Roosevelt, constructed as partial mitigation for effects from Grand Coulee Dam, adult returns have been poor. The reason may be in the imprinting or in the smoltification. A study was initiated in 1992 to determine if there was a critical period for thyroxine induced alfactory imprinting in kokanee salmon; experiments were conducted on imprinting to morpholine and phenethyl alcohol. Other results showed that chemical imprinting coincided with elevated thyroxine levels in 1991 kokanee exposed to synthetic chemicals in 1992. In this report, imprinting experiments were repeated; results showed that imprinting occurred concomitant with elevated thyroxine levels in 1991 kokanee exposed to synthetic chemicals in 1992 and tested in 1994 as age 3 spawners. Imprinting also occurred at the same time as thyroxine peaks in 1992 kokanee exposed to synthetic chemicals in 1993 and tested as age 2 spawners. In both groups fish that had the highest whole body thyroxine content (swimup stage) also had the highest percentage of fish that were attracted to their exposure odor in behavioral tests. So, kokanee salmon imprinted to chemical cues during two sensitive periods during development, at the alevin/swimup and smolt stages. A field test was conducted in Lake Roosevelt on coded wire tagged fish. Smoltification experiments were conducted from 1992 to 1994. Recommendations are made for the Lake Roosevelt kokanee hatcheries.

  11. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Bellmore, James R.; Watson, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to <10% of their historical abundance, with subsequent declines of marine derived nutrients once provided by large salmon runs. We explored whether low densities (<0.001 spawners/m2) of naturally spawning Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) can affect ecosystem metabolism. We measured gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) continuously before, during, and after salmon spawning. We compared downstream reaches with low densities of spawning salmon to upstream reaches with fewer or no spawners in 3 mid-sized (4th-order) rivers in northern Washington. In addition, we measured chemical, physical, and biological factors that may be important in controlling rates of GPP and ER. We observed that low densities of spawning salmon can increase GPP by 46% during spawning, but values quickly return to those observed before spawning. No difference in ER was observed between up- and downstream reaches. Based on our results, salmon density, temperature, and the proximity to salmon redds were the most important factors controlling rates of GPP, whereas temperature was most important for ER. These results suggest that even at low spawning densities, salmon can stimulate basal resources that may propagate up the food web. Understanding how recipient ecosystems respond to low levels of marine derived nutrients may inform nutrient augmentation studies aimed at enhancing fish populations.

  12. Does catch and release affect the mating system and individual reproductive success of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)?

    PubMed

    Richard, Antoine; Dionne, Mélanie; Wang, Jinliang; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we documented the breeding system of a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by genetically sampling every returning adult and assessed the determinants of individual fitness. We then quantified the impacts of catch and release (C&R) on mating and reproductive success. Both sexes showed high variance in individual reproductive success, and the estimated standardized variance was higher for males (2.86) than for females (0.73). We found a weak positive relationship between body size and fitness and observed that fitness was positively correlated with the number of mates, especially in males. Mature male parr sired 44% of the analysed offspring. The impact of C&R on the number of offspring was size dependent, as the reproductive success of larger fish was more impaired than smaller ones. Also, there was an interactive negative effect of water temperature and air exposure time on reproductive success of C&R salmon. This study improves our understanding of the complex reproductive biology of the Atlantic salmon and is the first to investigate the impact of C&R on reproductive success. Our study expands the management toolbox of appropriate C&R practices that promote conservation of salmon populations and limit negative impacts on mating and reproductive success.

  13. Adaptive genetic markers discriminate migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid continued gene flow

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kathleen G; Jacobson, Dave P; Kurth, Ryon; Dill, Allen J; Banks, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Neutral genetic markers are routinely used to define distinct units within species that warrant discrete management. Human-induced changes to gene flow however may reduce the power of such an approach. We tested the efficiency of adaptive versus neutral genetic markers in differentiating temporally divergent migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid high gene flow owing to artificial propagation and habitat alteration. We compared seven putative migration timing genes to ten microsatellite loci in delineating three migratory groups of Chinook in the Feather River, CA: offspring of fall-run hatchery broodstock that returned as adults to freshwater in fall (fall run), spring-run offspring that returned in spring (spring run), and fall-run offspring that returned in spring (FRS). We found evidence for significant differentiation between the fall and federally listed threatened spring groups based on divergence at three circadian clock genes (OtsClock1b, OmyFbxw11, and Omy1009UW), but not neutral markers. We thus demonstrate the importance of genetic marker choice in resolving complex life history types. These findings directly impact conservation management strategies and add to previous evidence from Pacific and Atlantic salmon indicating that circadian clock genes influence migration timing. PMID:24478800

  14. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1994-12-01

    Recovery efforts for the endangered fall chinook salmon necessitates knowledge of the factors limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which affect spawning of the fish in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing seward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs. The spawning was generally a November event in 1993, with some activity in late Oct. and early Dec. Spawning habitat availability was assessed by applying hydraulic and habitat models to known fall chinook salmon spawning sites. Juveniles were seined and PIT tagged in the free-flowing Snake River, and in the Columbia River in he Hanford Reach and in McNary Reservoir. Subyearling fish were marked at McNary Dam to relate river flow and migration patterns of juveniles to adult returns. Hydroacoustic surveys were conducted on McNary and John Day reservoirs and in net pens.

  15. Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 1998: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 1998-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John

    2003-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon collection and spawning began in 1998. A total of 114 fish were collected from Johnson Creek and 54 fish (20 males and 34 females) were retained for Broodstock. All broodstock were transported to Lower Snake River Compensation Plan's South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility, operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. The remaining 60 fish were released to spawn naturally. An estimated 155,870 eggs from Johnson Creek chinook spawned at the South Fork Salmon River facility were transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for rearing. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,871. Approximately 20,500 eggs from females with high levels of Bacterial Kidney Disease were culled. This, combined with green-egg to eyed-egg survival of 62%, resulted in about 84,000 eyed eggs produced in 1998. Resulting juveniles were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery in 1999. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags and 8,043 were also PIT tagged. A total of 78,950 smolts were transported from the McCall Fish Hatchery and released directly into Johnson Creek on March 27, 28, 29, and 30, 2000.

  16. Physiological development and migratory behavior of subyearling fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Wagner, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the migratory behavior and physiological development of subyearling fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha migrating through John Day Reservoir on the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon. Fish were freeze-branded and coded-wire-tagged at McNary Dam, Oregon, from 1991 to 1994, to determine travel time to John Day Dam and subsequent adult contribution. Stepwise multiple regression showed that 47% of the variation in subyearling fall chinook salmon travel time was explained by the reciprocal of minimum flow and fish size. Smoltification, as measured by gill Na+-K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, was not important in explaining variability in travel time of subyearling chinook salmon. Fish marked early in the out-migration generally traveled faster than middle and late migrants. Seawater challenges were used to describe physiological development and showed that osmoregulatory competence of premigrants in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River increased with fish size and gill ATPase activity. Once active migrants began passing McNary Dam, fish generally had survival exceeding 90% and were able to regulate their blood plasma Na+ in seawater. Gill ATPase activity increased as premigrants, reared in nearshore areas of the Hanford Reach, reached a peak among active migrants in late June and early July then decreased through the remainder of the out-migration. Salinity preference also peaked in subyearling fall chinook salmon during late June to mid July in 1995. Return of adults from marked groups showed no consistent patterns that would suggest a survival advantage for any portion of the juvenile out-migration. Presumed wild migrants from the middle and late portions of the out-migration were primary contributors to all fisheries, except the Priest Rapids Hatchery. As such, fishery managers should take action to ensure the survival of these fish, especially because they migrate under more unfavorable environmental conditions than early

  17. Status and Monitoring of Natural and Supplemented Chinook Salmon in Johnson Creek, Idaho, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rabe, Craig D.; Nelson, Douglas D.

    2008-11-17

    were 120,415 HOR supplementation smolts released into Johnson Creek during the week of March 12, 2007. Life stage-specific juvenile survival from Johnson Creek to Lower Granite and McNary dams was calculated for brood year 2005 NOR and HOR supplementation juvenile Chinook salmon. Survival of NOR parr Chinook salmon migrating from Johnson Creek to Lower Granite and McNary dams was 28.2% and 16.2%. Survival of NOR presmolt Chinook salmon migrating from Johnson Creek to Lower Granite and McNary dams was 28.2% and 22.3%. Survival of NOR smolt Chinook salmon migrating from Johnson Creek to Lower Granite and McNary dams was 44.7% and 32.9%. Survival of HOR smolt Chinook salmon migrating from Johnson Creek to Lower Granite and McNary dams was 31.9% and 26.2%. Multi-year analysis on smolt to adult return rate's (SAR's) and progeny to parent ratio's (P:P's) were calculated for NOR and HOR supplementation Brood Year 2002 Chinook salmon. SAR's were calculated from Johnson Creek to Johnson Creek (JC to JC), Lower Granite Dam to Lower Granite (LGD to LGD), and Lower Granite Dam to Johnson Creek (LGD to JC); for NOR fish SAR's were 0.16%, 1.16% and 1.12%, while HOR supplementation SAR's from JC to JC, LGD to LGD and LGD to JC were 0.04%, 0.19% and 0.13%. P:P's for all returning NOR and HOR supplemented adults were under replacement levels at 0.13 and 0.65, respectively. Recruit per spawner estimates (R/S) for Brood Year 2005 adult Chinook salmon were also calculated for NOR and HOR supplemented Chinook salmon at JC and LGD. R/S estimates for NOR and HOR supplemented fish at JC were 231 and 1,745, while R/S estimates at LGD were 67 and 557. Management recommendations address (1) effectiveness of data collection methods, (2) sufficiency of data quality (statistical power) to enable management recommendations, (3) removal of uncertainty and subsequent cessation of M&E activities, and (4) sufficiency of findings for program modifications prior to five-year review.

  18. Growth and survival of pacific coho salmon smolts exposed as juveniles to pesticides within urban streams in western Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Fisk, Robert J; Conquest, Loveday L

    2014-07-01

    Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams, with concentrations often exceeding those reported in surface waters within agricultural areas. The authors studied growth, survival, and return rates of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) smolts exposed to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of the pesticides most frequently reported within urban streams in western Washington State, USA, in fall through early spring. Exposure concentrations were selected to represent a reasonable worst-case scenario based on field monitoring data. Smolts were continuously exposed to pulses of the cocktail either from fertilization through swim-up (2007-2008) or from fertilization through smoltification (2007-2008 and 2008-2009), coded wire tagged, and released in 2008 and 2009. Pre-release endpoints (growth, survival, sex ratio, brain acetylcholinesterase activity, and gonado- and hepatosomatic indices) were not affected. However, the number of returning adults exposed to the cocktail to swim-up (0.90%, n = 42) was more than double that of unexposed controls (0.38%, n = 26) in 2008, whereas in 2009, fish exposed through smoltification returned in lower numbers (0.15%, n = 18) than controls (0.37%, n = 30). Variability in return rates among treatments between years was comparable to that observed in previous whole life cycle studies with Pacific salmon and other contaminants. Results suggest that exposure to pesticides in urban streams does not directly impair early life stages of coho salmon, and that additional studies incorporating releases of larger numbers of smolts across several years are necessary to adequately quantify effects on return rates.

  19. An Investigation into the Poor Survival of an Endangered Coho Salmon Population

    PubMed Central

    Chittenden, Cedar M.; Melnychuk, Michael C.; Welch, David W.; McKinley, R. Scott

    2010-01-01

    To investigate reasons for the decline of an endangered population of coho salmon (O. kisutch), 190 smolts were acoustically tagged during three consecutive years and their movements and survival were estimated using the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking project (POST) array. Median travel times of the Thompson River coho salmon smolts to the lower Fraser River sub-array were 16, 12 and 10 days during 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. Few smolts were recorded on marine arrays. Freshwater survival rates of the tagged smolts during their downstream migration were 0.0–5.6% (0.0–9.0% s.e.) in 2004, 7.0% (6.2% s.e.) in 2005, and 50.9% (18.6% s.e.) in 2006. Overall smolt-to-adult return rates exhibited a similar pattern, which suggests that low freshwater survival rates of out-migrating smolts may be a primary reason for the poor conservation status of this endangered coho salmon population. PMID:20526367

  20. The use of geographic information systems technology for salmon habitat analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.J.; Gordon, J.V.; Mavros, W.V.; Perry, E.M.; Pinney, C.

    1994-04-01

    Although Geographic Information Systems (GISs) have traditionally been used to analyze terrestrial animal habitats, identify migration patterns, and monitor ecosystems, they have rarely been used to understand aquatic species. The US Army Corps of Engineers is working with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and other government agencies to exploit GIS technology for improving the survival of threatened and endangered salmon in the Snake River in the states of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. The customized GIS will be used to map the physical environment of the river, to map the current biological environment, and to analyze potential impacts to both of these environments from several mitigation options. Data in both digital and textual formats have been obtained from scientists across the Pacific Northwest who are analyzing the habitats, limnology, and hydrology of the Snake River. The mitigation options focus on studying the effects of lowering the reservoirs of the Snake River in an effort to speed juvenile salmon towards the ocean. The hypothesis being examined is that faster juvenile salmon travel to the ocean may result in higher juvenile survival and greater smolt-to-adult return ratios. Lowering the Snake River reservoirs is expected to have a variety of impacts to the physical environment, including changes to water velocity, temperature, dissolved gasses, and turbidity. Each of these potential changes is being examined to assess their effects on the surrounding terrestrial wildlife and on both the anadromous and resident fish of the Snake River.

  1. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1996-09-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye salmon conducted by IDFG during the period of April 1994 to April 1995 are covered by this report. One female anadromous adult returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year. She was spawned at Eagle Fish Hatchery on October 21, 1994. Her fecundity was 2,896. The mean fertilization rate and percent swim-up were 96% and 95%, respectively. Four hundred eighty eyed eggs were shipped to the NMFS Big Beef Creek Fish Hatchery in Washington state, leaving 2,028 fish on site at Eagle. Additionally, captive broodstock and wild residual sockeye salmon (captured at Redfish Lake) were spawned. Spawning data from 234 females spawned during this period are included in this report. Other spawning data (i.e., genetic cross and incubation temperature) are included in the Captive Broodstock Research section of this report.

  2. Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhards, John S.; Hill, Robert; Daniel, Mitch

    2009-02-19

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek to spawn through artificial propagation. This was the sixth season of adult chinook broodstock collection in Johnson Creek following collections in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Weir installation was completed on June 21, 2004 with the first chinook captured on June 22, 2004 and the last fish captured on September 6, 2004. The weir was removed on September 18, 2004. A total of 338 adult chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. Of these, 211 were of natural origin, 111 were hatchery origin Johnson Creek supplementation fish, and 16 were adipose fin clipped fish from other hatchery operations and therefore strays into Johnson Creek. Over the course of the run, 57 natural origin Johnson Creek adult chinook were retained for broodstock, transported to the South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility and held until spawned. The remaining natural origin Johnson Creek fish along with all the Johnson Creek supplementation fish were released upstream of the weir to spawn naturally. Twenty-seven Johnson Creek females were artificially spawned with 25 Johnson Creek males. Four females were diagnosed with high bacterial kidney disease levels resulting in their eggs being culled. The 27 females produced 116,598 green eggs, 16,531 green eggs were culled, with an average eye-up rate of 90.6% resulting in 90,647 eyed eggs. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery until November 2005 and then transferred to the outdoor rearing facilities during the Visual Implant Elastomer tagging operation

  3. Making the Commitment to Return to School and Managing Learning. Final Research Report on the Educational Development of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia Educational Lab., Charleston, WV.

    Studies of the educational development of adults were conducted to (1) identify adults' perceptions of the personal and institutional factors that help and/or impede them in successfully completing the admissions process for entry into postsecondary education and (2) develop and validate interventions that will enhance adults' decision and…

  4. Effects of Renibacterium salmoninarum on olfactory organs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) marked with coded wire tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Diane G.; Conway, Carla M.; Bruno, D.W.; Elliott, D.G.; Nowak, B.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum can cause significant morbidity and mortality in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), particularly in Chinook salmon of the stream (spring) life history type, which migrate to sea as yearlings rather than subyearlings. R. salmoninarum can be transmitted vertically from the female parent to the progeny in association with the egg, as well as horizontally from fish to fish. This study was conducted as part of a research project to investigate whether the prevalence and intensity of R. salmoninarum infections in adult spring Chinook salmon could affect the survival and pathogen prevalence and intensity in their progeny (Pascho et al., 1991, 1993; Elliott et al., 1995). Fish from two brood years (1988 and 1989) were reared at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery (Idaho, USA) for about 1-1/2 years, released as yearling smolts, and allowed to migrate to the Pacific Ocean for maturation. The majority of progeny fish were marked with coded wire tags (CWTs) about 4 months before they were released from the hatchery so that adult returns could be monitored. The CWTs were implanted in the snouts of the fish by an experienced team of fish markers using automated wire-tagging machines. The intended placement site was the cartilage, skeletal muscle or loose connective tissue of the snout.

  5. Variability in stream discharge and temperatures during ecologically sensitive time periods: a preliminary assessment of the implications for Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Youngson, A. F.; Gibbins, C.; Bacon, P. J.; Malcolm, I. A.; Langan, S.

    2005-05-01

    This study focused on improving the understanding of the temporal variability in hydrological and thermal conditions and their potential influences on two life stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - stream resident juveniles and returning adult spawners. Stream discharges and temperatures in the Girnock Burn, NE Scotland, a small nursery stream, were characterised over a time period of ten hydrological years (1994/95-2003/04). Frequency, magnitude, duration and timing of thermal, hydraulic and hydrological conditions were examined using data with a high temporal resolution (hourly and subhourly). Particular attention was focussed on assessing variations during ecologically sensitive time periods when salmon behaviour is most susceptible to environmental perturbations. The Girnock Burn was characterised by a strong inter- and intra-annual variability in the hydrological and thermal regime. This has clear implications for the likely feeding opportunities for juvenile fish in winter and early spring and the emergence of fry in the late spring. The movement of adult spawners towards breeding areas showed a complex dependence on hydrological variability. If discharges were low, fish movement was increasingly triggered by suboptimal flow increases as spawning time approached. Elucidating links between discharge/temperature variability and salmon habitat availability and utilization at appropriately fine temporal scales is a prerequisite to the development of better conservation management strategies and more biologically meaningful flow regimes in regulated river systems.

  6. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  7. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  8. Homing in Pacific salmon: mechanisms and ecological basis

    PubMed

    Dittman; Quinn

    1996-01-01

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are famous for their homing migrations from oceanic feeding grounds to their natal river to spawn. During these migrations, salmon travel through diverse habitats (e.g. oceans, lakes, rivers), each offering distinct orientation clues and, perhaps, requiring distinct sensory capabilities for navigation. Despite these challenges, homing is generally precise and this philopatry has resulted in reproductively isolated spawning populations with specialized adaptations for their natal habitat. This paper reviews the mechanisms underlying all aspects of salmon homing but emphasizes the final, freshwater phase governed by olfactory recognition of homestream water. Prior to their seaward migration, juvenile salmon learn (imprint on) odors associated with their natal site and later, as adults, use these odor memories for homing. Our understanding of this imprinting process is derived primarily from studies using artificial odorants and hatchery-reared salmon. Recent findings suggest, however, that such studies may underestimate the complexity of the imprinting process in nature.

  9. Evaluating relationships between wild Skeena river sockeye salmon productivity and the abundance of spawning channel enhanced sockeye smolts.

    PubMed

    Price, Michael H H; Connors, Brendan M

    2014-01-01

    The enhancement of salmon populations has long been used to increase the abundance of salmon returning to spawn and/or to be captured in fisheries. However, in some instances enhancement can have adverse impacts on adjacent non-enhanced populations. In Canada's Skeena watershed, smolt-to-adult survival of Babine Lake sockeye from 1962-2002 was inversely related to the abundance of sockeye smolts leaving Babine Lake. This relationship has led to the concern that Babine Lake smolt production, which is primarily enhanced by spawning channels, may depress wild Skeena (Babine and non-Babine) sockeye populations as a result of increased competition between wild and enhanced sockeye smolts as they leave their natal lakes and co-migrate to sea. To test this hypothesis we used data on Skeena sockeye populations and oceanographic conditions to statistically examine the relationship between Skeena sockeye productivity (adult salmon produced per spawner) and an index of Babine Lake enhanced smolt abundance while accounting for the potential influence of early marine conditions. While we had relatively high power to detect large effects, we did not find support for the hypothesis that the productivity of wild Skeena sockeye is inversely related to the abundance of enhanced sockeye smolts leaving Babine Lake in a given year. Importantly, life-time productivity of Skeena sockeye is only partially explained by marine survival, and likely is an unreliable measure of the influence of smolt abundance. Limitations to our analyses, which include: (1) the reliance upon adult salmon produced per spawner (rather than per smolt) as an index of marine survival, and (2) incomplete age structure for most of the populations considered, highlight uncertainties that should be addressed if understanding relationships between wild and enhanced sockeye is a priority in the Skeena.

  10. Evaluating relationships between wild Skeena river sockeye salmon productivity and the abundance of spawning channel enhanced sockeye smolts.

    PubMed

    Price, Michael H H; Connors, Brendan M

    2014-01-01

    The enhancement of salmon populations has long been used to increase the abundance of salmon returning to spawn and/or to be captured in fisheries. However, in some instances enhancement can have adverse impacts on adjacent non-enhanced populations. In Canada's Skeena watershed, smolt-to-adult survival of Babine Lake sockeye from 1962-2002 was inversely related to the abundance of sockeye smolts leaving Babine Lake. This relationship has led to the concern that Babine Lake smolt production, which is primarily enhanced by spawning channels, may depress wild Skeena (Babine and non-Babine) sockeye populations as a result of increased competition between wild and enhanced sockeye smolts as they leave their natal lakes and co-migrate to sea. To test this hypothesis we used data on Skeena sockeye populations and oceanographic conditions to statistically examine the relationship between Skeena sockeye productivity (adult salmon produced per spawner) and an index of Babine Lake enhanced smolt abundance while accounting for the potential influence of early marine conditions. While we had relatively high power to detect large effects, we did not find support for the hypothesis that the productivity of wild Skeena sockeye is inversely related to the abundance of enhanced sockeye smolts leaving Babine Lake in a given year. Importantly, life-time productivity of Skeena sockeye is only partially explained by marine survival, and likely is an unreliable measure of the influence of smolt abundance. Limitations to our analyses, which include: (1) the reliance upon adult salmon produced per spawner (rather than per smolt) as an index of marine survival, and (2) incomplete age structure for most of the populations considered, highlight uncertainties that should be addressed if understanding relationships between wild and enhanced sockeye is a priority in the Skeena. PMID:24760007

  11. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pravecek, Jay J.

    1997-07-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game at the Eagle Fish Hatchery during the period April 1, 1995 to April 1, 1996 are covered by this report. The performance of all captive broodstock groups held at Eagle Fish Hatchery is included in this report. No anadromous adults returned to Redfish Lake in 1995. Three adult residual males were captured in a merwin trap and used in the spawning of captive residual females held at Eagle Fish Hatchery.

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Research Elements : 2007 Annual Project Progess Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mike; Plaster, Kurtis; Redfield, Laura; Heindel, Jeff; Kline, Paul

    2008-12-17

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2007, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: (1) eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in November; (2) age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October; (3) age-1 smolts were released into Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River in May; and (4) hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2007. Population abundances were estimated at 73,702 fish for Redfish Lake, 124,073 fish for Alturas Lake, and 14,746 fish for Pettit Lake. Angler surveys were conducted from May 26 through August 7, 2007 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 102 anglers and estimated that 56 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.03 fish/hour for each kokanee kept. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 14 to June 13, 2007. We estimated that 5,280 natural origin and 14,256 hatchery origin sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from

  13. Evolutionary responses by native species to major anthropogenic changes to their ecosystems: Pacific salmon in the Columbia River hydropower system.

    PubMed

    Waples, Robin S; Zabel, Richard W; Scheuerell, Mark D; Sanderson, Beth L

    2008-01-01

    The human footprint is now large in all the Earth's ecosystems, and construction of large dams in major river basins is among the anthropogenic changes that have had the most profound ecological consequences, particularly for migratory fishes. In the Columbia River basin of the western USA, considerable effort has been directed toward evaluating demographic effects of dams, yet little attention has been paid to evolutionary responses of migratory salmon to altered selective regimes. Here we make a first attempt to address this information gap. Transformation of the free-flowing Columbia River into a series of slack-water reservoirs has relaxed selection for adults capable of migrating long distances upstream against strong flows; conditions now favour fish capable of migrating through lakes and finding and navigating fish ladders. Juveniles must now be capable of surviving passage through multiple dams or collection and transportation around the dams. River flow patterns deliver some groups of juvenile salmon to the estuary later than is optimal for ocean survival, but countervailing selective pressures might constrain an evolutionary response toward earlier migration timing. Dams have increased the cost of migration, which reduces energy available for sexual selection and favours a nonmigratory life history. Reservoirs are a benign environment for many non-native species that are competitors with or predators on salmon, and evolutionary responses are likely (but undocumented). More research is needed to tease apart the relative importance of evolutionary vs. plastic responses of salmon to these environmental changes; this research is logistically challenging for species with life histories like Pacific salmon, but results should substantially improve our understanding of key processes. If the Columbia River is ever returned to a quasinatural, free-flowing state, remaining populations might face a Darwinian debt (and temporarily reduced fitness) as they struggle to

  14. Evolutionary responses by native species to major anthropogenic changes to their ecosystems: Pacific salmon in the Columbia River hydropower system.

    PubMed

    Waples, Robin S; Zabel, Richard W; Scheuerell, Mark D; Sanderson, Beth L

    2008-01-01

    The human footprint is now large in all the Earth's ecosystems, and construction of large dams in major river basins is among the anthropogenic changes that have had the most profound ecological consequences, particularly for migratory fishes. In the Columbia River basin of the western USA, considerable effort has been directed toward evaluating demographic effects of dams, yet little attention has been paid to evolutionary responses of migratory salmon to altered selective regimes. Here we make a first attempt to address this information gap. Transformation of the free-flowing Columbia River into a series of slack-water reservoirs has relaxed selection for adults capable of migrating long distances upstream against strong flows; conditions now favour fish capable of migrating through lakes and finding and navigating fish ladders. Juveniles must now be capable of surviving passage through multiple dams or collection and transportation around the dams. River flow patterns deliver some groups of juvenile salmon to the estuary later than is optimal for ocean survival, but countervailing selective pressures might constrain an evolutionary response toward earlier migration timing. Dams have increased the cost of migration, which reduces energy available for sexual selection and favours a nonmigratory life history. Reservoirs are a benign environment for many non-native species that are competitors with or predators on salmon, and evolutionary responses are likely (but undocumented). More research is needed to tease apart the relative importance of evolutionary vs. plastic responses of salmon to these environmental changes; this research is logistically challenging for species with life histories like Pacific salmon, but results should substantially improve our understanding of key processes. If the Columbia River is ever returned to a quasinatural, free-flowing state, remaining populations might face a Darwinian debt (and temporarily reduced fitness) as they struggle to

  15. Survival of migrating salmon smolts in large rivers with and without dams.

    PubMed

    Welch, David W; Rechisky, Erin L; Melnychuk, Michael C; Porter, Aswea D; Walters, Carl J; Clements, Shaun; Clemens, Benjamin J; McKinley, R Scott; Schreck, Carl

    2008-10-28

    The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River.

  16. Ichthyophoniasis: An emerging disease of Chinook salmon in the Yukon River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Hershberger, P.; Winton, J.

    2004-01-01

    Before 1985, Ichthyophonus was unreported among Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. from the Yukon River; now it infects more than 40% of returning adult Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha. Overall infection prevalence reached about 45% in the Yukon River and about 30% in the Tanana River between 1999 and 2003. Mean infection prevalence was greater in females than males in the main-stem Yukon River during each of the 5 years of the study, but the infection prevalence in males increased each year until the difference was no longer significant. Clinical signs of ichthyophoniasis (presence of visible punctate white lesions in internal organs) were least at the mouth of the Yukon River (∼10%) but increased to 29% when fish reached the middle Yukon River and was 22% at the upper Tanana River. However, clinical signs increased each year from 7% in 1999 to 27% in 2003 at the mouth of the river. As fish approached the upper reaches of the Yukon River (Canada) and the spawning areas of the Chena and Salcha rivers (Alaska), infection prevalence dropped significantly to less than 15% in females on the Yukon River and less than 10% for both sexes in the Chena and Salcha rivers, presumably because of mortality among infected prespawn fish. Age was not a factor in infection prevalence, nor was the position of fish within the run. The source of infection was not determined, but Ichthyophonus was not found in 400 Pacific herring Clupea pallasi from the Bering Sea or in 120 outmigrating juvenile Chinook salmon from two drainages in Alaska and Canada. Freshwater burbot Lota lota from the middle Yukon River were subclinically infected with Ichthyophonus, but the origin and relationship of this agent to the Chinook salmon isolate is unknown.

  17. Survival of migrating salmon smolts in large rivers with and without dams.

    PubMed

    Welch, David W; Rechisky, Erin L; Melnychuk, Michael C; Porter, Aswea D; Walters, Carl J; Clements, Shaun; Clemens, Benjamin J; McKinley, R Scott; Schreck, Carl

    2008-10-28

    The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River. PMID:18959485

  18. Angler harvest, hatchery return, and tributary stray rates of recycled adult summer steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Gleizes, Chris; Dammers, Wolf; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2016-01-01

    Hatchery ‘recycling’ programs have been used to increase angling opportunities by re-releasing fish into a river after they returned to a hatchery or fish trap. Recycling is intended to increase opportunities for fishermen, but this strategy could affect wild fish populations if some recycled fish remain in the river and interact with wild fish populations. To quantify hatchery return and angler harvest rates of recycled steelhead, we conducted a 2-year study on the Cowlitz River, Washington. A total of 1051 steelhead were recycled, including 218 fish that were radio-tagged. Fates of recycled steelhead were similar between years: 48.4% returned to the hatchery, 19.2% were reported captured by anglers, and 32.4% remained in the river. A multistate model quantified the effects of covariates on hatchery return and angler harvest rates, which were positively affected by river discharge and negatively affected by time since release. However, hatchery return rates increased and angler harvest rates decreased during periods of increasing discharge. A total of 21.1% (46 fish) of the radio-tagged steelhead failed to return to the hatchery or be reported by anglers, but nearly half of those fish (20 fish) appeared to be harvested and not reported. The remaining tagged fish (11.9% of the radio-tagged population) were monitored into the spawning period, but only five fish (2.3% of the radio-tagged population) entered tributaries where wild steelhead spawning occurs. Future research focused on straying behaviour, and spawning success of recycled steelhead may further advance the understanding of the effects of recycling as a management strategy.

  19. Saving the Salmon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprangers, Donald

    2004-01-01

    In November 2000, wild Atlantic salmon were placed under the protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Washington Academy (WA) in Maine has played an integral role in the education and restoration of this species. Efforts to restore the salmon's dwindling population, enhance critical habitat areas, and educate and inform the public require…

  20. Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation and Enhancement Project Operations and Maintenance Program; Brood Year 2000: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation, Biennial Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Mitch; Gebhards, John; Hill, Robert

    2003-05-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek through artificial propagation. Adult chinook salmon trapping, broodstock selection, and spawning was first implemented in 1998, did not occur in 1999, and was resumed in 2000. A total of 152 salmon were trapped in Johnson Creek in 2000, of which 73 (25 males, 16 females, and 32 jacks) fish were transported to Idaho Fish and Game=s South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility for artificial propagation purposes. The remaining 79 (29 males, 16 females, and 24 jacks) fish were released above the weir to spawn naturally. A total of 65,060 green eggs were taken from 16 female salmon and transported to the McCall Fish Hatchery for incubation and rearing. Egg counts indicated an average eye-up rate of 86.0% for 55,971 eyed eggs. Average fecundity for Johnson Creek females was 4,066 eggs per female. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery through November 2001. These fish were transferred to outdoor rearing facilities in December 2001 where they remained until release in March 2002. All of these fish were marked with Coded Wire Tags and Visual Implant Elastomer tags. In addition 9,987 were also PIT tagged. Hand counts provided by marking crews were used to amend the number of juvenile salmon released from the original egg count. A total of 57,392 smolts were released into a temporary acclimation channel in Johnson Creek on March 18, 19, 20, 2002. These fish were held in this facility until a fish screen was removed on March 22, 2002 and the fish were allowed to emigrate.

  1. Performance of salmon fishery portfolios across western North America

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Scheuerell, Mark D; Whited, Diane C; Clark, Robert A; Hilborn, Ray; Holt, Carrie A; Lindley, Steven T; Stanford, Jack A; Volk, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio theory provides a framework to characterize the relative performance among ecosystems and the processes that drive differences in performance. We assessed Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. portfolio performance across their native latitudinal range focusing on the reliability of salmon returns as a metric with which to assess the function of salmon ecosystems and their services to humans. We used the Sharpe ratio (e.g. the size of the total salmon return to the portfolio relative to its variability (risk)) to evaluate the performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios across the west coast of North America. We evaluated the effects on portfolio performance from the variance of and covariance among salmon returns within each portfolio, and the association between portfolio performance and watershed attributes. We found a positive latitudinal trend in the risk-adjusted performance of Chinook and sockeye salmon portfolios that also correlated negatively with anthropogenic impact on watersheds (e.g. dams and land-use change). High-latitude Chinook salmon portfolios were on average 2·5 times more reliable, and their portfolio risk was mainly due to low variance in the individual assets. Sockeye salmon portfolios were also more reliable at higher latitudes, but sources of risk varied among the highest performing portfolios. Synthesis and applications. Portfolio theory provides a straightforward method for characterizing the resilience of salmon ecosystems and their services. Natural variability in portfolio performance among undeveloped watersheds provides a benchmark for restoration efforts. Locally and regionally

  2. Return migration.

    PubMed

    Gmelch, G

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews the findings of the growing literature on return migration. Topics covered include typologies of return migrants, reasons for return, adaptation and readjustment of returnees, and the impact of return migration on the migrants' home societies. The focus of the study is on international return migration, migration to Northern Europe and northeastern North America, and return migration to the southern and eastern fringes of Europe and the Caribbean

  3. Biotic disturbance and benthic community dynamics in salmon-bearing streams.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jonathan W; Schindler, Daniel E

    2008-03-01

    1. Organisms can impact ecosystems via multiple pathways, often with positive and negative impacts on inhabitants. Understanding the context dependency of these types of impacts remains challenging. For example, organisms may perform different functions at different densities. 2. Anadromous salmon accumulate > 99% of their lifetime growth in marine ecosystems, and then return to spawn, often at high densities, in relatively confined freshwaters. While previous research has focused on how salmon nutrients can fertilize benthic communities, we examined how an ecosystem engineer, sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka, influences seasonal dynamics of stream benthic communities through their nest-digging activities in south-western Alaska, USA. Benthic invertebrate and algal abundance were quantified every 7-14 days during the open water seasons of 10 streams in riffle and run habitats across multiple years, leading to 25 different stream-year combinations that spanned a large gradient of salmon density. 3. In streams with few or no salmon, benthic algal and insect biomass were fairly constant throughout the season. However, in streams with more than 0.1 salmon m(-2), algal and insect biomass decreased by an average of 75-85% during salmon spawning. Algal biomass recovered quickly following salmon disturbance, occasionally reaching pre-salmon biomass. In contrast, in streams with more than 0.1 salmon m(-2), aquatic insect populations did not recover to pre-salmon levels within the same season. We observed no positive impacts of salmon on algae or insects via fertilization from carcass nutrients. 4. Salmon, when their populations exceed thresholds in spawning density, are an important component of stream disturbance regimes and influence seasonal dynamics of benthic communities. Human activities that drive salmon densities below threshold densities, as has likely happened in many streams, will lead to altered seasonal dynamics of stream communities. Human activities that

  4. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  5. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  6. Evidence for size-selective mortality after the first summer of ocean growth by pink salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, J.H.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Cross, A.D.; Myers, K.W.; Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, J.M.; Helle, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Pink salmon Onchorhynchus gorbuscha with identifiable thermal otolith marks from Prince William Sound hatchery release groups during 2001 were used to test the hypothesis that faster-growing fish during their first summer in the ocean had higher survival rates than slower-growing fish. Marked juvenile pink salmon were sampled monthly in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska, and adults that survived to maturity were recovered at hatchery release sites the following year. Surviving fish exhibited significantly wider circuli spacing on the region of the scale formed during early marine residence than did juveniles collected at sea during their first ocean summer, indicating that marine survival after the first growing season was related to increases in early marine growth. At the same circuli, a significantly larger average scale radius for returning adults than for juveniles from the same hatchery would suggest that larger, faster-growing juveniles had a higher survival rate and that significant size-selective mortality occurred after the juveniles were sampled. Growth patterns inferred from intercirculi spacing on scales varied among hatchery release groups, suggesting that density-dependent processes differed among release groups and occurred across Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska. These observations support other studies that have found that larger, faster-growing fish are more likely to survive until maturity. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  7. Reproductive success of captively bred and naturally spawned Chinook salmon colonizing newly accessible habitat.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joseph H; Faulds, Paul L; Atlas, William I; Quinn, Thomas P

    2013-02-01

    Captively reared animals can provide an immediate demographic boost in reintroduction programs, but may also reduce the fitness of colonizing populations. Construction of a fish passage facility at Landsburg Diversion Dam on the Cedar River, WA, USA, provided a unique opportunity to explore this trade-off. We thoroughly sampled adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at the onset of colonization (2003-2009), constructed a pedigree from genotypes at 10 microsatellite loci, and calculated reproductive success (RS) as the total number of returning adult offspring. Hatchery males were consistently but not significantly less productive than naturally spawned males (range in relative RS: 0.70-0.90), but the pattern for females varied between years. The sex ratio was heavily biased toward males; therefore, inclusion of the hatchery males increased the risk of a genetic fitness cost with little demographic benefit. Measurements of natural selection indicated that larger salmon had higher RS than smaller fish. Fish that arrived early to the spawning grounds tended to be more productive than later fish, although in some years, RS was maximized at intermediate dates. Our results underscore the importance of natural and sexual selection in promoting adaptation during reintroductions. PMID:23467446

  8. Reproductive success of captively bred and naturally spawned Chinook salmon colonizing newly accessible habitat.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joseph H; Faulds, Paul L; Atlas, William I; Quinn, Thomas P

    2013-02-01

    Captively reared animals can provide an immediate demographic boost in reintroduction programs, but may also reduce the fitness of colonizing populations. Construction of a fish passage facility at Landsburg Diversion Dam on the Cedar River, WA, USA, provided a unique opportunity to explore this trade-off. We thoroughly sampled adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at the onset of colonization (2003-2009), constructed a pedigree from genotypes at 10 microsatellite loci, and calculated reproductive success (RS) as the total number of returning adult offspring. Hatchery males were consistently but not significantly less productive than naturally spawned males (range in relative RS: 0.70-0.90), but the pattern for females varied between years. The sex ratio was heavily biased toward males; therefore, inclusion of the hatchery males increased the risk of a genetic fitness cost with little demographic benefit. Measurements of natural selection indicated that larger salmon had higher RS than smaller fish. Fish that arrived early to the spawning grounds tended to be more productive than later fish, although in some years, RS was maximized at intermediate dates. Our results underscore the importance of natural and sexual selection in promoting adaptation during reintroductions.

  9. Linking marine and freshwater growth in western Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.; Agler, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    The hypothesis that growth in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. is dependent on previous growth was tested using annual scale growth measurements of wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, Alaska, from 1964 to 2004. First-year marine growth in individual O. tshawytscha was significantly correlated with growth in fresh water. Furthermore, growth during each of 3 or 4 years at sea was related to growth during the previous year. The magnitude of the growth response to the previous year's growth was greater when mean year-class growth during the previous year was relatively low. Length (eye to tail fork, LETF) of adult O. tshawytscha was correlated with cumulative scale growth after the first year at sea. Adult LETF was also weakly correlated with scale growth that occurred during freshwater residence 4 to 5 years earlier, indicating the importance of growth in fresh water. Positive growth response to previous growth in O. tshawytscha was probably related to piscivorous diet and foraging benefits of large body size. Faster growth among O. tshawytscha year classes that initially grew slowly may reflect high mortality in slow growing fish and subsequent compensatory growth in survivors. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in this study exhibited complex growth patterns showing a positive relationship with previous growth and a possible compensatory response to environmental factors affecting growth of the age class.

  10. Pen Rearing and Imprinting of Fall Chinook Salmon, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeman, John W.; Novotny, Jerry F.

    1990-02-01

    The goal of this project is to compare net-pen rearing methods to traditional hatchery methods of rearing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawvtscha). Fish were reared at several densities in net pens at three Columbia River backwater sites during 1984-1987, and in a barrier net at one site during 1984-1986; methods included both fed and unfed treatments. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results obtained from the unfed treatments and the current return of adults from all fed treatments and the barrier net. Zooplankton were the primary food item of unfed fish. Fish reared in net pens utilized insects colonizing the nets as an additional food source, whereas those reared in the barrier net did not. Growth and production of fish reared in the unfed treatments were low. Instantaneous growth rates of unfed fish were much lower than those of the fed treatments and hatchery controls except when zooplankton densities were high and chironomid larvae were important in the diet of unfed fish reared in pens. Only fish in the barrier net treatment resulted in consistent net gains in growth and production over the rearing periods. Adult returns of fish from all fed and unfed treatments are lower than those of control fish reared at the hatchery. Returns appear to be inversely related to rearing density. Even though adult returns are lower than those of traditional hatchery methods, a cost-benefit analysis, as return data becomes more complete, may prove these methods to be an economical means of expanding current hatchery production, particularly if thinning releases were used.

  11. Estuarine and early-marine survival of transported and in-river migrant Snake River spring Chinook salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M; McKern, John L

    2012-01-01

    Many juvenile Snake River Chinook salmon are transported downriver to avoid hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River basin. As mortality to the final dam is ∼50%, transported fish should return as adults at roughly double the rate of nontransported fish; however, the benefit of transportation has not been realized consistently. "Delayed" mortality caused by transportation-induced stress is one hypothesis to explain reduced returns of transported fish. Differential timing of ocean entry is another. We used a large-scale acoustic telemetry array to test whether survival of transported juvenile spring Chinook is reduced relative to in-river migrant control groups after synchronizing ocean entry timing. During the initial 750 km, 1 month long migration after release, we found no evidence of decreased estuarine or ocean survival of transported groups; therefore, decreased survival to adulthood for transported Chinook is likely caused by factors other than delayed effects of transportation, such as earlier ocean entry.

  12. Estuarine and early-marine survival of transported and in-river migrant Snake River spring Chinook salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M; McKern, John L

    2012-01-01

    Many juvenile Snake River Chinook salmon are transported downriver to avoid hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River basin. As mortality to the final dam is ∼50%, transported fish should return as adults at roughly double the rate of nontransported fish; however, the benefit of transportation has not been realized consistently. "Delayed" mortality caused by transportation-induced stress is one hypothesis to explain reduced returns of transported fish. Differential timing of ocean entry is another. We used a large-scale acoustic telemetry array to test whether survival of transported juvenile spring Chinook is reduced relative to in-river migrant control groups after synchronizing ocean entry timing. During the initial 750 km, 1 month long migration after release, we found no evidence of decreased estuarine or ocean survival of transported groups; therefore, decreased survival to adulthood for transported Chinook is likely caused by factors other than delayed effects of transportation, such as earlier ocean entry. PMID:22690317

  13. College Affordability for Low-Income Adults: Improving Returns on Investment for Families and Society. Report #C412

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Barbara; Reichlin, Lindsey; Román, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This report examines how efforts to understand and improve college affordability can be informed by the experiences and circumstances of low-income adults, students of color, and students with dependent children. The report discusses how the time and financial demands associated with financial independence, parenthood, and work affect a student's…

  14. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  15. Salmon lice--impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-03-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion.

  16. PACIFIC SALMON: LESSONS LEARNED FOR RECOVERING ATLANTIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    n evaluation of the history of efforts to reverse the long-term decline of Pacific Salmon provides instructive policy lessons for recovering Atlantic Salmon. From California to southern British Columbia, wild runs of Pacific salmon have universally declined and many have disappe...

  17. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  18. Searching for a life history approach to salmon escapement management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, E.E.; Symmes, E.W.; Margraf, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    A number of Pacific salmon populations have already been lost and many others throughout the range are in various states of decline. Recent research has documented that Pacific salmon carcasses serve as a key delivery vector of marine-derived nutrients into the freshwater portions of their ecosystems. This nutrient supply plays a critical biological feedback role in salmon sustainability by supporting juvenile salmon production. We first demonstrate how nutrient feedback potential to juvenile production may be unaccounted for in spawner-recruit models of populations under long-term exploitation. We then present a heuristic, life history-based, spreadsheet survival model that incorporates salmon carcass-driven nutrient feedback to the freshwater components of the salmon ecosystem. The productivity of a hypothetical coho salmon population was simulated using rates from the literature for survival from spawner to egg, egg to fry, fry to smolt, and smolt to adult. The effects of climate variation and nutrient feedback on survival were incorporated, as were density-dependent effects of the numbers of spawners and fry on freshwater survival of eggs and juveniles. The unexploited equilibrium population was subjected to 100 years of 20, 40, 60, and 80% harvest. Each harvest scenario greater than 20% brought the population to a reduced steady state, regardless of generous compensatory survival at low population sizes. Increasing harvest reduced the positive effects of nutrient contributions to population growth. Salmon researchers should further explore this modeling approach for establishing escapement goals. Given the importance of nutrient feedback, managers should strive for generous escapements that support nutrient rebuilding, as well as egg deposition, to ensure strong future salmon production.

  19. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, Catherine; Plaster, Kurtis; Castillo, Jason

    2005-01-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2003, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using three strategies: eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit and Alturas lakes in November and December, age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2003. Age-0 through age-4 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 81,727 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 46,234 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 11,961 fish. Angler surveys were conducted from May 25 through August 7, 2003 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 179 anglers and estimated that 424 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.09 fish/hour. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 15 to May 29

  20. Family size and effective population size in a hatchery stock of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, R.C.; McIntyre, J.D.; Hemmingsen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Means and variances of family size measured in five year-classes of wire-tagged coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were linearly related. Population effective size was calculated by using estimated means and variances of family size in a 25-yr data set. Although numbers of age 3 adults returning to the hatchery appeared to be large enough to avoid inbreeding problems (the 25-yr mean exceeded 4500), the numbers actually contributing to the hatchery production may be too low. Several strategies are proposed to correct the problem perceived. Argument is given to support the contention that the problem of effective size is fairly general and is not confined to the present study population.

  1. The gill maggot Salmincola salmoneus as an indicator of repeat spawning in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Kusterle, S; Halttunen, E; Thorstad, E B; Naesje, T F; Jensen, J L A; Gallo-Bueno, A; Olague, E; Rikardsen, A H

    2013-03-01

    The potential of the gill maggot Salmincola salmoneus for use as an indicator of repeat spawning in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar was studied in adult fish captured during their return migration to the River Alta (n = 659) and River Namsen (n = 540) in Norway. Eighty-eight and 49% of previous spawners identified by scale readings were infected with S. salmoneus in the two rivers, respectively. Salmincola salmoneus can be used as a reliable, rapid and objective field indicator of repeat spawning in S. salar as nearly all infected fish (99·4%) were identified as repeat spawners, although it is important to have appropriate background information on S. salmoneus prevalence on the postspawning individuals within the same population. PMID:23464562

  2. Effects of Marine Mammals on Columbia River Salmon Listed under the Endangered Species Act : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 3 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Donn L.

    1993-06-01

    Most research on the Columbia and Snake Rivers in recent years has been directed to downstream migrant salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) losses at dams. Comparatively little attentions has been given to adult losses. Recently an estimated 378,4000 adult salmon and steelhead (O. mykiss) were unaccounted-for from Bonneville Dam to terminal areas upstream. It is now apparent that some of this loss was due to delayed mortality from wounded by marine mammals. This report reviews the recent literature to define predatory effects of marine mammals on Columbia River salmon.

  3. Using otolith chemical and structural analysis to investigate reservoir habitat use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    PubMed

    Bourret, S L; Kennedy, B P; Caudill, C C; Chittaro, P M

    2014-11-01

    Isotopic composition of (87) Sr:(86) Sr and natural elemental tracers (Sr, Ba, Mg, Mn and Ca) were quantified from otoliths in juvenile and adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to assess the ability of otolith microchemistry and microstructure to reconstruct juvenile O. tshawytscha rearing habitat and growth. Daily increments were measured to assess relative growth between natal rearing habitats. Otolith microchemistry was able to resolve juvenile habitat use between reservoir and natal tributary rearing habitats (within headwater basins), but not among catchments. Results suggest that 90% (n = 18) of sampled non-hatchery adults returning to the Middle Fork Willamette River were reared in a reservoir and 10% (n = 2) in natal tributary habitat upstream from the reservoir. Juveniles collected in reservoirs had higher growth rates than juveniles reared in natal streams. The results demonstrate the utility of otolith microchemistry and microstructure to distinguish among rearing habitats, including habitats in highly altered systems. PMID:25229130

  4. Variability in stream discharge and temperature: a preliminary assessment of the implications for juvenile and spawning Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Youngson, A. F.; Gibbins, C.; Bacon, P. J.; Malcolm, I. A.; Langan, S.

    2005-09-01

    This study focuses on understanding the temporal variability in hydrological and thermal conditions in a small mountain stream and its potential implication for two life stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - stream resident juveniles and returning adult spawners. Stream discharge and temperature in the Girnock Burn, NE Scotland, were characterised over ten hydrological years (1994/1995-2003/2004). Attention was focussed on assessing variations during particular ecologically "sensitive" time periods when selected life-stages of salmon behaviour may be especially influenced by hydrological and thermal conditions. Empirical discharge data were used to derive hydraulic parameters to predict the Critical Displacement Velocity (CDV) of juvenile salmon. This is the velocity above which fish may no longer be able to hold station in the water column and thus can be used as an index of time periods where feeding behaviour might be constrained. In the Girnock Burn, strong inter- and intra-annual variability in hydrological and thermal conditions may have important implications for feeding opportunities for juvenile fish; both during important growth periods in late winter and early spring, and the emergence of fry in the late spring. Time periods when foraging behaviour of juvenile salmon may be constrained by hydraulic conditions were assessed as the percentage time when CDV for 0+ and 1+ fish were exceeded by mean daily stream velocities. Clear seasonal patterns of CDV were apparent, with higher summer values driven by higher stream temperatures and fish length. Inter-annual variability in the time when mean stream velocity exceeded CDV for 0+ fish ranged between 29.3% (1997/1998) and 44.7% (2000/2001). For 1+ fish mean stream velocity exceeded CDV between 14.5% (1997/1998) and 30.7% (2000/2001) of the time. The movement of adult spawners into the Girnock Burn in preparation for autumn spawning (late October to mid-November) exhibited a complex relationship with

  5. Wild Steelhead Studies, Salmon and Clearwater Rivers, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Holubetz, Terry B; Leth, Brian D.

    1997-05-01

    To enumerate chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss adult escapements, weirs were operated in Marsh, Chamberlain, West Fork Chamberlain, and Running creeks. Beginning in late July 1994, a juvenile trap was installed in Running Creek to estimate juvenile outmigrants. Plans have been completed to install a weir in Rush Creek to enumerate steelhead adult escapement beginning in spring 1995. Design and agreements are being developed for Johnson Creek and Captain John Creek. Data collected in 1993 and 1994 indicate that spring chinook salmon and group-B steelhead populations and truly nearing extinction levels. For example, no adult salmon or steelhead were passed above the West Fork Chamberlain Creek weir in 1984, and only 6 steelhead and 16 chinook salmon were passed into the important spawning area on upper Marsh Creek. Group-A steelhead are considerably below desirable production levels, but in much better status than group-B stocks. Production of both group-A and group-B steelhead is being limited by low spawning escapements. Studies have not been initiated on wild summer chinook salmon stocks.

  6. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program; Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance, 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie

    2006-01-01

    prompting an early release. The total mortality for the acclimation period was 49 (0.05 %). The total number of fish released from the acclimation facility during the late period was 105,369. Maintenance and repair activities were conducted at the acclimation facilities in 2005. Facility maintenance work consisted of snow removal, installation of drainage lines, removal of gravel from intake area, installation of new gate at the CCAF, and complete overhaul of 2 travel trailers. The Catherine Creek Adult Capture Facility (CCACF) was put into operation on 11 February 2005. The first adult summer steelhead was captured on 4 March. A total of 190 adult summer steelhead were trapped and released from 4 March to 16 May 2005. Peak arrival at the trap was the week of 8 April. The first adult spring Chinook salmon was captured at CCACF on 6 May 2005. A total of 226 spring Chinook salmon were trapped from 6 May to 8 July 2005. There were 56 adults and 4 jacks unmarked and 136 adult and 30 jack marked spring Chinook salmon trapped. Peak arrival at the trap was the week of 10 June for the unmarked and marked fish. None of the captive broodstock returns were collected for broodstock. Broodstock was collected systematically over the entire return from 31 May to 6 July 2005. Ten of the 34 broodstock collected and transported from CCACF to LGH were unmarked fish trapped. About 18% of the naturally produced adult males and females trapped were taken to LGH for broodstock. One jack was collected for every 5 adult males that were taken to LGH. A total of 30 age 4 and 5 and 4 age 3 fish were transported to LGH for broodstock. The hatchery component of the broodstock was 66.7%. Five weekly spawning surveys were conducted below the weir on Catherine Creek beginning 30 June 2005. During these surveys no live or dead fish were observed. The trap was removed from Catherine Creek on 3 August 2005. Temperatures at the CCACF ranged from -0.1 C on 14 February to 23.7 C on 21 July. The hourly

  7. Reduced fitness of Atlantic salmon released in the wild after one generation of captive breeding.

    PubMed

    Milot, Emmanuel; Perrier, Charles; Papillon, Lucie; Dodson, Julian J; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-04-01

    Salmonids rank among the most socioeconomically valuable fishes and the most targeted species by stocking with hatchery-reared individuals. Here, we used molecular parentage analysis to assess the reproductive success of wild- and hatchery-born Atlantic salmon over three consecutive years in a small river in Québec. Yearly restocking in this river follows a single generation of captive breeding. Among the adults returning to the river to spawn, between 11% and 41% each year were born in hatchery. Their relative reproductive success (RRS) was nearly half that of wild-born fish (0.55). RRS varied with life stage, being 0.71 for fish released at the fry stage and 0.42 for fish released as smolt. The lower reproductive success of salmon released as smolt was partly mediated by the modification of the proportion of single-sea-winter/multi-sea-winter fish. Overall, our results suggest that modifications in survival and growth rates alter the life-history strategies of these fish at the cost of their reproductive success. Our results underline the potential fitness decrease, warn on long-term evolutionary consequences for the population of repeated stocking and support the adoption of more natural rearing conditions for captive juveniles and their release at a younger stage, such as unfed fry.

  8. Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Brauner, C J; Sackville, M; Gallagher, Z; Tang, S; Nendick, L; Farrell, A P

    2012-06-19

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how 'no effect' thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations.

  9. Landscape ecotoxicology of coho salmon spawner mortality in urban streams.

    PubMed

    Feist, Blake E; Buhle, Eric R; Arnold, Paul; Davis, Jay W; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2011-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) returning from the ocean to spawn in urban basins of the Puget Sound region have been prematurely dying at high rates (up to 90% of the total runs) for more than a decade. The current weight of evidence indicates that coho deaths are caused by toxic chemical contaminants in land-based runoff to urban streams during the fall spawning season. Non-point source pollution in urban landscapes typically originates from discrete urban and residential land use activities. In the present study we conducted a series of spatial analyses to identify correlations between land use and land cover (roadways, impervious surfaces, forests, etc.) and the magnitude of coho mortality in six streams with different drainage basin characteristics. We found that spawner mortality was most closely and positively correlated with the relative proportion of local roads, impervious surfaces, and commercial property within a basin. These and other correlated variables were used to identify unmonitored basins in the greater Seattle metropolitan area where recurrent coho spawner die-offs may be likely. This predictive map indicates a substantial geographic area of vulnerability for the Puget Sound coho population segment, a species of concern under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Our spatial risk representation has numerous applications for urban growth management, coho conservation, and basin restoration (e.g., avoiding the unintentional creation of ecological traps). Moreover, the approach and tools are transferable to areas supporting coho throughout western North America.

  10. Landscape Ecotoxicology of Coho Salmon Spawner Mortality in Urban Streams

    PubMed Central

    Feist, Blake E.; Buhle, Eric R.; Arnold, Paul; Davis, Jay W.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2011-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) returning from the ocean to spawn in urban basins of the Puget Sound region have been prematurely dying at high rates (up to 90% of the total runs) for more than a decade. The current weight of evidence indicates that coho deaths are caused by toxic chemical contaminants in land-based runoff to urban streams during the fall spawning season. Non-point source pollution in urban landscapes typically originates from discrete urban and residential land use activities. In the present study we conducted a series of spatial analyses to identify correlations between land use and land cover (roadways, impervious surfaces, forests, etc.) and the magnitude of coho mortality in six streams with different drainage basin characteristics. We found that spawner mortality was most closely and positively correlated with the relative proportion of local roads, impervious surfaces, and commercial property within a basin. These and other correlated variables were used to identify unmonitored basins in the greater Seattle metropolitan area where recurrent coho spawner die-offs may be likely. This predictive map indicates a substantial geographic area of vulnerability for the Puget Sound coho population segment, a species of concern under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Our spatial risk representation has numerous applications for urban growth management, coho conservation, and basin restoration (e.g., avoiding the unintentional creation of ecological traps). Moreover, the approach and tools are transferable to areas supporting coho throughout western North America. PMID:21858112

  11. Changes in ligand binding to GABAA receptor sites in pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus) brain during spawning migration and "aging".

    PubMed

    Erdö, S L; Meyer, D L; Malz, C R; Hofmann, M H; Ebbesson, S O

    1992-01-01

    When several years old, pacific salmon return to the site of birth, to spawn. At this time, a rapid aging process begins and the fish die within a few weeks after reproducing. Age-related changes of high and low affinity GABA binding sites were studied in salmon brains at three different phases of the spawning migration, i.e. shortly after returning to the natal stream, at the time of spawning, and thereafter. High affinity GABA binding slightly increased while the fish deteriorated. The low affinity component showed a remarkable decrease in density and a concomitant increase in affinity during this final episode of salmon life.

  12. Development of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis and its effects on juvenile sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    PubMed

    Jakob, E; Sweeten, T; Bennett, W; Jones, S R M

    2013-11-01

    Responses of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka during infection with Lepeophtheirus salmonis were assessed in controlled laboratory trials. Juvenile salmon were exposed to 100 copepodids fish-1 (Trials 1 and 2) or 300 copepodids fish-1 (Trial 3) at mean weights of approximately 40, 80 and 135 g, respectively. Infections occurred on all salmon in all trials, and mean abundances (infection densities) ranged between 3.3 and 19.4 lice fish-1 (0.08 and 0.44 lice g-1 fish) in Trial 1, between 7.2 and 18.3 (0.09 and 0.22) in Trial 2 and between 19.5 and 60.7 (0.15 and 0.46) in Trial 3. A cumulative mortality of 24.4% occurred in Trial 3. At attachment sites on gills, we observed hyperplasia of basal epithelial cells and fusion of secondary lamellae occasionally associated with a cellular infiltrate. At attachment sites on fins, partial to complete skin erosion occurred, with limited evidence of hyperplasia or inflammation. Scale loss and abrasions coincided with pre-adult lice around 20 d post infection (dpi). Plasma osmolality was significantly elevated in exposed fish in Trials 1 (21 dpi), 2 (15 and 36 dpi) and 3 (20 dpi), whereas haematocrit was significantly depressed in exposed fish in Trials 1 (21 and 28 dpi) and 3 (20 dpi). Plasma cortisol was significantly elevated in exposed fish at 20 dpi (Trial 3). Physiological changes and mortality were related to the intensity of infection and became most prominent with pre-adult stages, suggesting patterns of infection and response in sockeye salmon similar to those reported for Atlantic and Chinook salmon. PMID:24191999

  13. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  14. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program : Facility Operation and Maintenance Facilities, Annual Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Michael L.; Seeger, Ryan; Hewitt, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    in future artificial propagation programs. The GRESCSSP was implemented in three Grande Ronde River basin tributaries; the Lostine and upper Grande Ronde rivers and Catherine Creek. The GRESCSSP employs two broodstock strategies utilizing captive and conventional brood sources. The captive brood program began in 1995, with the collection of parr from the three tributary areas. The conventional broodstock component of the program began in 1997 with the collection of natural adults returning to these tributary areas. Although LGH was available as the primary production facility for spring chinook programs in the Grande Ronde Basin, there were never any adult or juvenile satellite facilities developed in the tributary areas that were to be supplemented. An essential part of the GRESCSSP was the construction of adult traps and juvenile acclimation facilities in these tributary areas. Weirs were installed in 1997 for the collection of adult broodstock for the conventional component of the program. Juvenile facilities were built in 2000 for acclimation of the smolts produced by the captive and conventional broodstock programs and as release sites within the natural production areas of their natal streams. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) operate both the juvenile acclimation and adult trapping facilities located on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River under this project. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) operate the facilities on the Lostine River under a sister project. Hatcheries were also built in Oregon, Washington and Idaho under the LSRCP to compensate for losses of summer steelhead due to the construction and operation of the lowest four Snake River dams. Despite these harvest-driven hatchery programs, natural summer steelhead populations continued to decline as evidenced by declining counts at Lower Granite Dam since 1995 (Columbia River Data Access in Real Time, DART) and low steelhead redd counts on index streams in the

  15. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  16. Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2009-06-12

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to

  17. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Progam; Thyroid-Induced Chemical Imprinting in Early Life Stages and Assessment of Smoltification in Kokanee Salmon Implications for Operating Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Salmon Hatcheries; 1993 Supplement Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tilson, Mary Beth; Galloway, Heather; Scholz, Allan T.

    1994-06-01

    In 1991, two hatcheries were built to provide a kokanee salmon and rainbow trout fishery for Lake Roosevelt as partial mitigation for the loss of anadromous salmon and steelhead caused by construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The Sherman Creek Hatchery, located on a tributary of Lake Roosevelt to provide an egg collection and imprinting site, is small with limited rearing capability. The second hatchery was located on the Spokane Indian Reservation because of a spring water source that supplied cold, pure water for incubating and rearing eggs.`The Spokane Tribal Hatchery thus serves as the production facility. Fish reared there are released into Sherman Creek and other tributary streams as 7-9 month old fry. However, to date, returns of adult fish to release sites has been poor. If hatchery reared kokanee imprint to the hatchery water at egg or swim up stages before 3 months of age, they may not be imprinting as 7-9 month old fry at the time of stocking. In addition, if these fish undergo a smolt phase in the reservoir when they are 1.5 years old, they could migrate below Grand Coulee Dam and out of the Lake Roosevelt system. In the present investigation, which is part of the Lake Roosevelt monitoring program to assess hatchery effectiveness, kokanee salmon were tested to determine if they experienced thyroxine-induced chemical imprinting and smoltification similar to anadromous salmonids. Determination of the critical period for olfactory imprinting was determined by exposing kokanee to different synthetic chemicals (morpholine or phenethyl alcohol) at different life stages, and then measuring the ability to discriminate the chemicals as sexually mature adults. Whole body thyroxine content and blood plasma thyroxine concentration was measured to determine if peak thyroid activity coincided with imprinting or other morphological, physiological or behavioral transitions associated with smoltification.

  18. MHC-mediated mate choice increases parasite resistance in salmon.

    PubMed

    Consuegra, Sofia; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos

    2008-06-22

    Natural (parasite-driven) and sexual selection are thought to maintain high polymorphism in the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), but support for a link between mate choice, MHC variation and increased parasite resistance is circumstantial. We compared MHC diversity and Anisakis loads among anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) returning to four rivers to spawn, which had originated from natural spawning (parents allowed to mate freely) or artificial crosses (parents deprived from the potential benefits of mate choice). We found that the offspring of artificially bred salmon had higher parasite loads and were almost four times more likely to be infected than free-mating salmon, despite having similar levels of MHC diversity. Moreover, the offspring of wild salmon were more MHC dissimilar than the offspring of artificially crossed salmon, and uninfected fish were more dissimilar for MHC than infected fish. Thus, our results suggest a link between disassortative mating and offspring benefits and indicate that MHC-mediated mate choice and natural (parasite-driven) selection act in combination to maintain MHC diversity, and hence fitness. Therefore, artificial breeding programmes that negate the potential genetic benefits of mate choice may result in inherently inferior offspring, regardless of population size, rearing conditions or genetic diversity.

  19. Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim Salmon Research and Restoration Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim Sustainable Salmon Initiative (AYK SSI) is an innovative partnership between public and private institutions which provides a forum for non-governmental organizations and state and federal agencies to cooperatively identify and address salmon research and restoration needs. The affected region encompasses over 40% of the State of Alaska; the AYK region includes the watersheds of the Norton Sound region up to and including the village of Shishmaref, the Yukon River Watershed within Alaska, and the Kuskokwim River Watershed (including the coastal watersheds north of Cape Newenham), plus the Bering Sea marine ecosystem. The AYK SSI is a response to disastrously low salmon returns to western Alaska in the late 1990s and early 2000s, which created numerous hardships for the people and communities that depend heavily on the salmon fishery. Some stocks in the region have been in a decline for more than a decade and a half, leading to severe restrictions on commercial and subsistence fisheries. The first step for the AYK SSI has been to collaboratively develop and implement a comprehensive research plan to understand the causes of the declines and recoveries of AYK salmon.

  20. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Schrank, Candy S; Begnoche, Linda J; Elliott, Robert F; Quintal, Richard T

    2010-03-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994-1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  1. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  2. Differential modulation of resistance biomarkers in skin of juvenile and mature pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha by the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    PubMed

    Braden, Laura M; Barker, Duane E; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-11-01

    Juvenile pink salmon larger than 0.7 g reject the sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, and are considered resistant to the infection. Robust innate defense responses in the skin contribute to the observed resistance. In contrast adult pink salmon captured at sea or shortly before spawning carry large numbers of the parasite, suggesting inability to control the infection. The purpose of this research is to better understand these apparently contradictory conclusions by comparing a suite of genetic and cellular markers of resistance to L. salmonis in the skin of juvenile and mature pink salmon. The expression of major histocompatibility factor II, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1β, interleukin-8 and cyclooxygenase-2 was down-regulated in mature but not juvenile pink salmon. Similarly, skin at the site of parasite attachment in juvenile salmon was highly populated with MHIIβ(+) and IL-1β(+) cells that were either absent, or at reduced levels at similar sites in mature salmon. In addition, mucocyte density was relatively low in the skin of mature salmon, irrespective of louse infection. In juveniles, the higher mucocyte density decreased following louse attachment. We show that in mature pink salmon, genetic and histological responses in skin are depressed and speculate that salmonid defense against L. salmonis is modulated by maturation.

  3. Spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Supplementation in the Clearwater Subbasin ; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, Thomas; Sprague, Sherman; Bretz, Justin

    2009-06-10

    per fish, and Meadow Creek received 53,425 BY 2006 direct stream release parr at an average of 4.7 grams per fish. Natural and hatchery origin spring Chinook salmon pre-smolt emigrants were monitored from September - November 2006 and smolts from March-June 2007. Data on adult returns were collected from May-September. A suite of performance measures were calculated including total adult and spawner escapement, juvenile production, and survival probabilities. These measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of supplementation and provide information on the capacity of the natural environment to assimilate and support supplemented salmon populations.

  4. Fitness reduction and potential extinction of wild populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, as a result of interactions with escaped farm salmon.

    PubMed

    McGinnity, Philip; Prodöhl, Paulo; Ferguson, Andy; Hynes, Rosaleen; Maoiléidigh, Niall O; Baker, Natalie; Cotter, Deirdre; O'Hea, Brendan; Cooke, Declan; Rogan, Ger; Taggart, John; Cross, Tom

    2003-12-01

    The high level of escapes from Atlantic salmon farms, up to two million fishes per year in the North Atlantic, has raised concern about the potential impact on wild populations. We report on a two-generation experiment examining the estimated lifetime successes, relative to wild natives, of farm, F(1) and F(2) hybrids and BC(1) backcrosses to wild and farm salmon. Offspring of farm and "hybrids" (i.e. all F(1), F(2) and BC(1) groups) showed reduced survival compared with wild salmon but grew faster as juveniles and displaced wild parr, which as a group were significantly smaller. Where suitable habitat for these emigrant parr is absent, this competition would result in reduced wild smolt production. In the experimental conditions, where emigrants survived downstream, the relative estimated lifetime success ranged from 2% (farm) to 89% (BC(1) wild) of that of wild salmon, indicating additive genetic variation for survival. Wild salmon primarily returned to fresh water after one sea winter (1SW) but farm and 'hybrids' produced proportionately more 2SW salmon. However, lower overall survival means that this would result in reduced recruitment despite increased 2SW fecundity. We thus demonstrate that interaction of farm with wild salmon results in lowered fitness, with repeated escapes causing cumulative fitness depression and potentially an extinction vortex in vulnerable populations.

  5. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program: Monitoring and Evaluation, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Stephen J.; Weldert, Rey F.; Crump, Carrie A.

    2003-03-01

    This is the fifth annual report of a multi-year project to operate adult collection and juvenile acclimation facilities on Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River for Snake River spring chinook salmon. These two streams have historically supported populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries. Conventional and captive broodstock supplementation techniques are being used to restore spring chinook salmon fisheries in these streams. Statement of Work Objectives for 2002: (1) Plan for, administer, coordinate and assist comanagers in GRESCP M&E activities. (2) Evaluate performance of supplemented juvenile spring chinook salmon. (3) Evaluate life history differences between wild and hatchery-origin (F{sub 1}) adult spring chinook salmon. (4) Describe life history characteristics and genetics of adult summer steelhead collected at weirs.

  6. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andy; Taki, Doug; Teton, Angelo

    2001-11-01

    As part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies, fisheries crews from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes have been snorkeling tributaries of the Salmon River to estimate chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) parr abundance; conducting surveys of spawning adult chinook salmon to determine the number of redds constructed and collect carcass information; operating a rotary screw trap on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag emigrating juvenile chinook salmon; and collecting and PIT-tagging juvenile chinook salmon on tributaries of the Salmon River. The Tribes work in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River. Snorkeling was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. However, using the relatively vigorous methods described in the ISS experimental design to estimate summer chinook parr populations, results on a project-wide basis showed extraordinarily large confidence intervals and coefficients of variation. ISS cooperators modified their sampling design over a few years to reduce the variation around parr population estimates without success. Consequently, in 1998 snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was discontinued and only General Parr Monitoring (GPM) sites are snorkeled. The number of redds observed in SBT-ISS streams has continued to decline as determined by five year cycles. Relatively weak strongholds continue to occur in the South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek. A rotary screw trap was operated on the West Fork Yankee Fork during the spring and fall of 1999 and the spring of 2000 to monitor juvenile chinook migration. A screw trap was also operated on the East Fork of the Salmon River during the spring and fall from 1993 to 1997 and 1999 (fall only) to 2000. Significant supplementation treatments have occurred in the South

  7. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason; Willard, Catherine

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999, when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2001, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October and to Pettit and Alturas lakes in July; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September along with anadromous adult sockeye salmon that returned to the Sawtooth basin and were not incorporated into the captive broodstock program. Kokanee population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September. Only age-0 and age-1 kokanee were captured on Redfish Lake, resulting in a population estimate of 12,980 kokanee. This was the second lowest kokanee abundance estimated since 1990. On Alturas Lake age-0, age-1, and age-2 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population was estimated at 70,159. This is a mid range kokanee population estimate for Alturas Lake, which has been sampled yearly since 1990. On Pettit Lake only age-1 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population estimate was 16,931. This estimate is in the midrange of estimates of the kokanee population in Pettit Lake, which has been sampled

  8. Energy economy of salmon aquaculture in the Baltic sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folke, Carl

    1988-07-01

    Resource utilization in Atlantic salmon aquaculture in the Baltic Sea was investigated by means of an energy analysis. A comparison was made between cage farming and sea ranching enterprises each with yearly yields of 40 t of Atlantic salmon. A variety of sea ranching options were evaluated, including (a) conventional ranching, (b) ranching employing a delayed release to the sea of young smolts, (c) harvesting salmon both by offshore fishing fleets and as they return to coastal areas, and (d) when offshore fishing is banned, harvesting salmon only as they return to coastal areas where released. Inputs both from natural ecosystems (i.e., fish consumed by ranched salmon while in the sea and raw materials used for producing dry food pellets) and from the economy (i.e., fossil fuels and energy embodied in economic goods and services) were quantified in tonnes for food energy and as direct plus indirect energy cost (embodied energy). The fixed solar energy (estimated as primary production) and the direct and indirect auxiliary energy requirements per unit of fish output were expressed in similar units. Similar quantities of living resources in tonnes per unit of salmon biomass output are required whether the salmon are feeding in the sea or are caged farmed. Cage farming is about 10 times more dependent on auxiliary energies than sea ranching. Sea ranching applying delayed release of smolts is 35 45% more efficient in the use of auxiliary energies than conventional sea ranching and cage farming. Restriction of offshore fishing would make sea ranching 3 to 6.5 times more efficient than cage farming. The fixed solar energy input to Atlantic salmon aquaculture is 4 to 63 times larger than the inputs of auxiliary energy. Thus, cage farming and sea ranching are both heavily dependent on the productivity of natural ecosystems. It is concluded that sustainable development of the aquaculture industry must be founded on ecologically integrated technologies which utilize the free

  9. Gene expression in five salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Krøyer 1837) tissues.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Rolf Brudvik; Dalvin, Sussie; Furmanek, Tomasz; Malde, Ketil; Mæhle, Stig; Kvamme, Bjørn Olav; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L, is an important species both for traditional fishery and fish farming. Many Atlantic salmon stocks have been declining and a suspected main contributor to this decline is the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis); a parasitic copepod living off the salmonid hosts epidermal tissues and blood. Contributing to the growing body of knowledge on the molecular biology of the salmon louse we have utilized a microarray containing 11,100 salmon louse genes to study the gene expression patterns in selected tissues. This approach has yielded information about potential functions of the transcripts and tissues. Microarray analyses were preformed on subcuticular and frontal (neuronal and gland enriched tissue) tissues, as well as gut, ovary and testes of adult lice. Tissue specific transcriptomes were evident, allowing us to address main traits of functional partitioning between tissues and providing valuable insight into the biology of the louse. The results furthermore represent an important tool and resource for further experiments. PMID:24999079

  10. Aniakchak sockeye salmon investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamon, Troy R.; Pavey, Scott A.; Miller, Joe L.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve provides unusual and dramatic landscapes shaped by numerous volcanic eruptions, a massive flood, enormous landslides, and ongoing geological change. The focal point of the monument is Aniakchak Caldera, a restless volcano that embodies the instability of the Alaska Peninsula. This geological instability creates a dynamic and challenging environment for the biological occupants of Aniakchak and unparalleled opportunities for scientists to measure the adaptability of organisms and ecosystems to change. The sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) is one member of the Aniakchak ecosystem that has managed to adapt to geologic upheaval and is now thriving in the park. Aside from just surviving in the harsh environment, these salmon are also noteworthy for providing essential marinederived nutrients to plants and animals and as a source of food for historic and present day people in the region.

  11. Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rolland, J.B.; Winton, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

  12. SALMON 2100 PROJECT: LIKELY SCENARIOS FOR WILD SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and British Columbia. The Project does not support o...

  13. Juvenile habitat partitioning and relative productivity in allochronically isolated sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, EK Fillatre; Bradbury, IR; Heath, DD

    2011-01-01

    Allochronic divergence, like spatial isolation, may contribute to population diversity and adaptation, however the challenges for tracking habitat utilization in shared environments are far greater. Adult Klukshu River (Yukon, Canada) sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, return as genetically distinct “early” and “late” runs. Early and late adult spawning populations (1999 and 2000) and their subsequent fry (sampled at 7 sites in 2000 and at 8 sites in 2001 throughout Klukshu Lake and River) were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian assignment was used to determine the spatial distribution of early versus late fry; although intermixed, the distribution of fry significantly differed in Klukshu Lake and in the Klukshu River in 2001, based on crosstab analyses. Late-run fry predominated in Klukshu Lake at all sites, while early-run fry were most common in the north and south of Klukshu Lake and in Klukshu River. Early-run spawners had significantly higher relative productivity (early life survival) than late-run fish (2.9 times more fry produced per early-run adult in 2000, and 9.2 times more in 2001). This study demonstrates spatial habitat partitioning and differences in the contribution of allochronically isolated populations to fry abundance, and highlights annual variability that likely contributes to recruitment variation. PMID:22393527

  14. Multiscale thermal refugia and stream habitat associations of chinook salmon in northwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Price, David M.; Li, Hiram W.; McIntosh, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    We quantified distribution and behavior of adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) related to patterns of stream temperature and physical habitat at channel-unit, reach-, and section-level spatial scales in a wilderness stream and a disturbed stream in the John Day River basin in northeastern Oregon. We investigated the effectiveness of thermal remote sensing for analyzing spatial patterns of stream temperature and assessed habitat selection by spring chinook salmon, evaluating whether thermal refugia might be responsible for the persistence of these stocks in rivers where water temperatures frequently exceed their upper tolerance levels (25A?C) during spawning migration. By presenting stream temperature and the ecology of chinook salmon in a historical context, we could evaluate how changes in riverine habitat and thermal spatial structure, which can be caused by land-use practices, may influence distributional patterns of chinook salmon. Thermal remote sensing provided spatially continuous maps of stream temperature for reaches used by chinook salmon in the upper subbasins of the Middle Fork and North Fork John Day River. Electivity analysis and logistic regression were used to test for associations between the longitudinal distribution of salmon and cool-water areas and stream habitat characteristics. Chinook salmon were distributed nonuniformly in reaches throughout each stream. Salmon distribution and cool water temperature patterns were most strongly related at reach-level spatial scales in the warm stream, the Middle Fork (maximum likelihood ratio: P 0.30). Pools were preferred by adult chinook salmon in both subbasins (Bonferroni confidence interval: P a?? 0.05); however, riffles were used proportionately more frequently in the North Fork than in the Middle Fork. Our observations of thermal refugia and their use by chinook salmon at multiple spatial scales reveal that, although heterogeneity in the longitudinal stream temperature profile may

  15. Predation of Karluk River sockeye salmon by coho salmon and char

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, J.D.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Emlen, J.M.; Wilmot, R.L.; Finn, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The number of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, in Alaska's Karluk River (Fig. 1) declined from millions to thousands during the early part of the present century. Rounsefell (1958) discussed alternative explanations for the decline including a general loss offertility ofthe system as the number of salmon carcasses declined, competition, overfishing, subtle changes in climate, and predation; he concluded that the combined effect of predation and fishing was the most probable explanation. Later, Van Cleave and Bevan (1973) suggested that the weir constructed in the river each year to facilitate counting the fish as they entered the system was the most probable cause ofthe decline. Itprevented free movement of both adults and juveniles in the river. All of these hypotheses remain as potential explanations for the decline

  16. Reconstructing the Migratory Behavior and Long-Term Survivorship of Juvenile Chinook Salmon under Contrasting Hydrologic Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, Anna M.; Wikert, J. D.; Heyne, Timothy; Mesick, Carl; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hinkelman, Travis M.; Weber, Peter K.; Whitman, George E.; Glessner, Justin J.; Johnson, Rachel C.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of genetic and life history diversity has been documented across many taxonomic groups, and is considered a leading cause of increased extinction risk. Juvenile salmon leave their natal rivers at different sizes, ages and times of the year, and it is thought that this life history variation contributes to their population sustainability, and is thus central to many recovery efforts. However, in order to preserve and restore diversity in life history traits, it is necessary to first understand how environmental factors affect their expression and success. We used otolith 87Sr/86Sr in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha) returning to the Stanislaus River in the California Central Valley (USA) to reconstruct the sizes at which they outmigrated as juveniles in a wetter (2000) and drier (2003) year. We compared rotary screw trap-derived estimates of outmigrant timing, abundance and size with those reconstructed in the adults from the same cohort. This allowed us to estimate the relative survival and contribution of migratory phenotypes (fry, parr, smolts) to the adult spawning population under different flow regimes. Juvenile abundance and outmigration behavior varied with hydroclimatic regime, while downstream survival appeared to be driven by size- and time-selective mortality. Although fry survival is generally assumed to be negligible in this system, >20% of the adult spawners from outmigration year 2000 had outmigrated as fry. In both years, all three phenotypes contributed to the spawning population, however their relative proportions differed, reflecting greater fry contributions in the wetter year (23% vs. 10%) and greater smolt contributions in the drier year (13% vs. 44%). These data demonstrate that the expression and success of migratory phenotypes vary with hydrologic regime, emphasizing the importance of maintaining diversity in a changing climate. PMID:25992556

  17. Reconstructing the Migratory Behavior and Long-Term Survivorship of Juvenile Chinook Salmon under Contrasting Hydrologic Regimes.

    PubMed

    Sturrock, Anna M; Wikert, J D; Heyne, Timothy; Mesick, Carl; Hubbard, Alan E; Hinkelman, Travis M; Weber, Peter K; Whitman, George E; Glessner, Justin J; Johnson, Rachel C

    2015-01-01

    The loss of genetic and life history diversity has been documented across many taxonomic groups, and is considered a leading cause of increased extinction risk. Juvenile salmon leave their natal rivers at different sizes, ages and times of the year, and it is thought that this life history variation contributes to their population sustainability, and is thus central to many recovery efforts. However, in order to preserve and restore diversity in life history traits, it is necessary to first understand how environmental factors affect their expression and success. We used otolith (87)Sr/(86)Sr in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha) returning to the Stanislaus River in the California Central Valley (USA) to reconstruct the sizes at which they outmigrated as juveniles in a wetter (2000) and drier (2003) year. We compared rotary screw trap-derived estimates of outmigrant timing, abundance and size with those reconstructed in the adults from the same cohort. This allowed us to estimate the relative survival and contribution of migratory phenotypes (fry, parr, smolts) to the adult spawning population under different flow regimes. Juvenile abundance and outmigration behavior varied with hydroclimatic regime, while downstream survival appeared to be driven by size- and time-selective mortality. Although fry survival is generally assumed to be negligible in this system, >20% of the adult spawners from outmigration year 2000 had outmigrated as fry. In both years, all three phenotypes contributed to the spawning population, however their relative proportions differed, reflecting greater fry contributions in the wetter year (23% vs. 10%) and greater smolt contributions in the drier year (13% vs. 44%). These data demonstrate that the expression and success of migratory phenotypes vary with hydrologic regime, emphasizing the importance of maintaining diversity in a changing climate.

  18. Reconstructing the Migratory Behavior and Long-Term Survivorship of Juvenile Chinook Salmon under Contrasting Hydrologic Regimes.

    PubMed

    Sturrock, Anna M; Wikert, J D; Heyne, Timothy; Mesick, Carl; Hubbard, Alan E; Hinkelman, Travis M; Weber, Peter K; Whitman, George E; Glessner, Justin J; Johnson, Rachel C

    2015-01-01

    The loss of genetic and life history diversity has been documented across many taxonomic groups, and is considered a leading cause of increased extinction risk. Juvenile salmon leave their natal rivers at different sizes, ages and times of the year, and it is thought that this life history variation contributes to their population sustainability, and is thus central to many recovery efforts. However, in order to preserve and restore diversity in life history traits, it is necessary to first understand how environmental factors affect their expression and success. We used otolith (87)Sr/(86)Sr in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha) returning to the Stanislaus River in the California Central Valley (USA) to reconstruct the sizes at which they outmigrated as juveniles in a wetter (2000) and drier (2003) year. We compared rotary screw trap-derived estimates of outmigrant timing, abundance and size with those reconstructed in the adults from the same cohort. This allowed us to estimate the relative survival and contribution of migratory phenotypes (fry, parr, smolts) to the adult spawning population under different flow regimes. Juvenile abundance and outmigration behavior varied with hydroclimatic regime, while downstream survival appeared to be driven by size- and time-selective mortality. Although fry survival is generally assumed to be negligible in this system, >20% of the adult spawners from outmigration year 2000 had outmigrated as fry. In both years, all three phenotypes contributed to the spawning population, however their relative proportions differed, reflecting greater fry contributions in the wetter year (23% vs. 10%) and greater smolt contributions in the drier year (13% vs. 44%). These data demonstrate that the expression and success of migratory phenotypes vary with hydrologic regime, emphasizing the importance of maintaining diversity in a changing climate. PMID:25992556

  19. Reconstructing the Migratory Behavior and Long-Term Survivorship of Juvenile Chinook Salmon under Contrasting Hydrologic Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, Anna M.; Wikert, J. D.; Heyne, Timothy; Mesick, Carl; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hinkelman, Travis M.; Weber, Peter K.; Whitman, George E.; Glessner, Justin J.; Johnson, Rachel C.

    2015-05-20

    The loss of genetic and life history diversity has been documented across many taxonomic groups, and is considered a leading cause of increased extinction risk. Juvenile salmon leave their natal rivers at different sizes, ages and times of the year, and it is thought that this life history variation contributes to their population sustainability, and is thus central to many recovery efforts. However, in order to preserve and restore diversity in life history traits, it is necessary to first understand how environmental factors affect their expression and success. We used otolith 87Sr/86Sr in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha) returning to the Stanislaus River in the California Central Valley (USA) to reconstruct the sizes at which they outmigrated as juveniles in a wetter (2000) and drier (2003) year. We compared rotary screw trap-derived estimates of outmigrant timing, abundance and size with those reconstructed in the adults from the same cohort. This allowed us to estimate the relative survival and contribution of migratory phenotypes (fry, parr, smolts) to the adult spawning population under different flow regimes. Juvenile abundance and outmigration behavior varied with hydroclimatic regime, while downstream survival appeared to be driven by size- and time-selective mortality. Although fry survival is generally assumed to be negligible in this system, >20% of the adult spawners from outmigration year 2000 had outmigrated as fry. In both years, all three phenotypes contributed to the spawning population, however their relative proportions differed, reflecting greater fry contributions in the wetter year (23% vs. 10%) and greater smolt contributions in the drier year (13% vs. 44%). In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the expression and success of migratory phenotypes vary with hydrologic regime, emphasizing the importance of maintaining diversity in a changing climate.

  20. Reconstructing the Migratory Behavior and Long-Term Survivorship of Juvenile Chinook Salmon under Contrasting Hydrologic Regimes

    DOE PAGES

    Sturrock, Anna M.; Wikert, J. D.; Heyne, Timothy; Mesick, Carl; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hinkelman, Travis M.; Weber, Peter K.; Whitman, George E.; Glessner, Justin J.; Johnson, Rachel C.

    2015-05-20

    The loss of genetic and life history diversity has been documented across many taxonomic groups, and is considered a leading cause of increased extinction risk. Juvenile salmon leave their natal rivers at different sizes, ages and times of the year, and it is thought that this life history variation contributes to their population sustainability, and is thus central to many recovery efforts. However, in order to preserve and restore diversity in life history traits, it is necessary to first understand how environmental factors affect their expression and success. We used otolith 87Sr/86Sr in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha) returning tomore » the Stanislaus River in the California Central Valley (USA) to reconstruct the sizes at which they outmigrated as juveniles in a wetter (2000) and drier (2003) year. We compared rotary screw trap-derived estimates of outmigrant timing, abundance and size with those reconstructed in the adults from the same cohort. This allowed us to estimate the relative survival and contribution of migratory phenotypes (fry, parr, smolts) to the adult spawning population under different flow regimes. Juvenile abundance and outmigration behavior varied with hydroclimatic regime, while downstream survival appeared to be driven by size- and time-selective mortality. Although fry survival is generally assumed to be negligible in this system, >20% of the adult spawners from outmigration year 2000 had outmigrated as fry. In both years, all three phenotypes contributed to the spawning population, however their relative proportions differed, reflecting greater fry contributions in the wetter year (23% vs. 10%) and greater smolt contributions in the drier year (13% vs. 44%). In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the expression and success of migratory phenotypes vary with hydrologic regime, emphasizing the importance of maintaining diversity in a changing climate.« less

  1. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pink salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Bonar, S.A.; Pauley, G.B.; Thomas, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The pink salmon, often called humpback salmon or humpy, is easily identified by its extremely small scales (150 to 205) on the lateral line. They are the most abundant of the Pacific salmon species and spawn in North American and Asian streams bordering the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. They have a very simple two-year life cycle, which is so invariable that fish running in odd-numbered years are isolated from fish running in even-numbered years so that no gene flow occurs between them. Adults spawn in the fall and the young fry emerge in the spring. The pink salmon is less desirable in commercial and sport catches than most other salmon because of its small size and its soft pale flesh. The Puget Sound region of Washington State is the southern geographic limit of streams supporting major pink salmon runs in the eastern North Pacific. Pink salmon runs are presently only in odd-numbered years in this region. Optimum water temperatures for spawning range from 7.2 to 12.8/degree/C. Productive pink salmon streams have less than 5.0% by volume of fine sediments (less than or equal to0.8 mm). 87 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Identification of a Sex-Linked SNP Marker in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Using RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Taggart, John B.; Christie, Hayden R. L.; Bassett, David I.; Bron, James E.; Skuce, Philip J.; Gharbi, Karim; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Sturm, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837)) is a parasitic copepod that can, if untreated, cause considerable damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758) and incurs significant costs to the Atlantic salmon mariculture industry. Salmon lice are gonochoristic and normally show sex ratios close to 1:1. While this observation suggests that sex determination in salmon lice is genetic, with only minor environmental influences, the mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse is unknown. This paper describes the identification of a sex-linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker, providing the first evidence for a genetic mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was used to isolate SNP markers in a laboratory-maintained salmon louse strain. A total of 85 million raw Illumina 100 base paired-end reads produced 281,838 unique RAD-tags across 24 unrelated individuals. RAD marker Lsa101901 showed complete association with phenotypic sex for all individuals analysed, being heterozygous in females and homozygous in males. Using an allele-specific PCR assay for genotyping, this SNP association pattern was further confirmed for three unrelated salmon louse strains, displaying complete association with phenotypic sex in a total of 96 genotyped individuals. The marker Lsa101901 was located in the coding region of the prohibitin-2 gene, which showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels determined by RT-qPCR about 1.8-fold higher in adult female than adult male salmon lice. This study’s observations of a novel sex-linked SNP marker are consistent with sex determination in the salmon louse being genetic and following a female heterozygous system. Marker Lsa101901 provides a tool to determine the genetic sex of salmon lice, and could be useful in the development of control strategies. PMID:24147087

  3. Does salmon brain produce insulin?

    PubMed

    Plisetskaya, E M; Bondareva, V M; Duan, C; Duguay, S J

    1993-07-01

    To address the question whether fish brain can produce insulin, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbusha) brains were extracted and processed according to the procedure developed for purification of pancreatic insulin (Rusakov and Bondareva, 1979). Biological and immunological activity of the resulting material was evaluated respectively by a cartilage sulfation assay and by radioimmunoassay homologous for salmon insulin. Preparations from salmon brain stimulated the [35S]sulfate uptake into salmon branchial cartilage with a potency comparable to pure mammalian or salmon insulins but lower than that of mammalian insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I). In contrast, only trace amounts of radioimmunoreactive insulin could be detected by homologous radioimmunoassay. To determine whether insulin mRNA was present in salmon brain, primers specific for salmon proinsulin and salmon prepro-IGF-I were designed to amplify corresponding cDNA regions by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Insulin mRNA was found only in the endocrine pancreas (Brockmann body) while IGF-I mRNA was detected in the brain, liver, and the Brockmann body. Our results suggest that in fish pancreatic-type insulin is most likely produced only in the endocrine pancreas and then transported to the brain through blood/cerebrospinal fluid system. However, it does not exclude a possibility that some yet unknown insulin-like substances may be expressed in the neural system of ectotherm vertebrates.

  4. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  5. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, Deborah A.; McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.

    2002-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from 1 September 2000 to 31 August 2001 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 in both the captive broodstock and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  6. WILD SALMON RESTORATION: IS IT WORTH IT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon and Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon are found on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean, but have declined precipitously compared to the size of runs prior to the 1700s. The largest (though small by historic ...

  7. Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, 1995-2002 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffnagle, Timothy; Carmichael, Richard; Noll, William

    2003-12-01

    areas in 1995 from as high as 1,205 redds in the same area in 1969 (Table 1). All streams reached low points (0-6 redds in the index areas) in the 1990's, except those in which no redds were found for several years and surveys were discontinued, such as Spring, Sheep and Indian creeks which had a total of 109 redds in 1969. The Minam and Wenaha rivers are tributaries of the Grande Ronde River located primarily in wilderness areas. Chinook salmon numbers in these two streams (based on redd counts) also decreased dramatically beginning in the early 1970's (Table 1). Since then there have been a few years of increasing numbers of redds but counts have generally been 25-40% of the number seen in the 1960's. No hatchery fish have been released into either of these streams and we monitor them during spawning ground surveys for the presence of hatchery strays. These populations will be used as a type of control for evaluating our supplementation efforts in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River. In this way, we can attempt to filter out the effects of downstream variables, over which we have no control, when we interpret the results of the captive broodstock program as the F1 and F2 generations spawn and complete their life cycles in the wild. The Grande Ronde Basin Captive Broodstock Program was initiated because these chinook salmon populations had reached critical levels where dramatic and unprecedented efforts were needed to prevent extinction and preserve any future options for use of endemic fish for artificial propagation programs for recovery and mitigation. This program was designed to quickly increase numbers of returning adults, while maintaining the genetic integrity of each endemic population.

  8. Lifetime success and interactions of farm salmon invading a native population.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, I A; Hindar, K; Mjølnerød, I B; Jonsson, B; Balstad, T; Lamberg, A

    2000-01-01

    Farm Atlantic salmon escape and invade rivers throughout the North Atlantic annually, which has generated growing concern about their impacts on native salmon populations. A large-scale experiment was therefore undertaken in order to quantify the lifetime success and interactions of farm salmon invading a Norwegian river. Sexually mature farm and native salmon were genetically screened, radio tagged and released into the River Imsa where no other salmon had been allowed to ascend. The farm fishes were competitively and reproductively inferior, achieving less than one-third the breeding success of the native fishes. Moreover, this inferiority was sex biased, being more pronounced in farm males than females, resulting in the principal route of gene flow involving native males mating with farm females. There were also indications of selection against farm genotypes during early survival but not thereafter. However, evidence of resource competition and competitive displacement existed as the productivity of the native population was depressed by more than 30%. Ultimately, the lifetime reproductive success (adult to adult) of the farm fishes was 16% that of the native salmon. Our results indicate that such annual invasions have the potential for impacting on population productivity, disrupting local adaptations and reducing the genetic diversity of wild salmon populations. PMID:11007327

  9. Effects of oil-contaminated prey on the feeding, growth, and related energetics on pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry were exposed to oil contaminated prey (OCP) in a series of experiments to determine the effect of oil exposure via the diet on the ability of pink fry to survive. Brine shrimp, Artemia salina, nauplii were contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons by exposure to the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Cook Inlet crude oil and fed to the fish. Feeding rates were measured for 10 days using OCP and for 5 days using uncontaminated prey (post-exposure period). In a separate experiment, fry growth was measured over a 50 day period. In another experiment, fry oxygen consumption, food absorption and utilization, and ammonia excretion was measured to determine the effects of OCP on fry metabolic activity. Results indicate that exposure to OCP can reduce fry growth primarily by reducing food intake, but additional nutrition is lost from the non-absorption of ingested food. Reductions in growth could decrease fry survival, and thereby reduce the number of returning adult pink salmon.

  10. Recovery and management options for spring/summer chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin.

    PubMed

    Kareiva, P; Marvier, M; McClure, M

    2000-11-01

    Construction of four dams on the lower Snake River (in northwestern United States) between 1961 and 1975 altered salmon spawning habitat, elevated smolt and adult migration mortality, and contributed to severe declines of Snake River salmon populations. By applying a matrix model to long-term population data, we found that (i) dam passage improvements have dramatically mitigated direct mortality associated with dams; (ii) even if main stem survival were elevated to 100%, Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) would probably continue to decline toward extinction; and (iii) modest reductions in first-year mortality or estuarine mortality would reverse current population declines. PMID:11062128

  11. Recovery and management options for spring/summer chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin.

    PubMed

    Kareiva, P; Marvier, M; McClure, M

    2000-11-01

    Construction of four dams on the lower Snake River (in northwestern United States) between 1961 and 1975 altered salmon spawning habitat, elevated smolt and adult migration mortality, and contributed to severe declines of Snake River salmon populations. By applying a matrix model to long-term population data, we found that (i) dam passage improvements have dramatically mitigated direct mortality associated with dams; (ii) even if main stem survival were elevated to 100%, Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) would probably continue to decline toward extinction; and (iii) modest reductions in first-year mortality or estuarine mortality would reverse current population declines.

  12. Tatanka Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes efforts of the InterTribal Bison Cooperative (Rapid City, SD) to reintroduce the buffalo for cultural purposes to American Indian reservations. Explains how the buffalo's return is contributing to community wellness. Discusses career opportunities for both Native and non-Native people in buffalo management. (LP)

  13. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallinat, Michael P.; Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood during 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program will collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2001 BY fish have been selected. As of Jan 1, 2002, WDFW has 17 BY 1997, 159 BY 1998, 316 BY 1999, 448 BY 2000, and approximately 1,200 BY 2001 fish on hand at LFH. The 2001 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 4) was 233,894 eggs from 125 ripe females. Egg survival was 69%. Mean fecundity based on the 105 fully spawned females was 1,990 eggs/female. The 2001 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 3) was 47,409 eggs from 41 ripe females. Egg survival was 81%. Mean fecundity based on the 39 fully spawned females was 1,160 eggs/female. The total 2001 eggtake from the captive brood program was 281,303 eggs. As of May 1, 2002 we have 171,495 BY 2001 captive brood progeny on hand. A total of 20,592 excess fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and will be released during early May, 2002 into the Tucannon River (rkm 40-45). This will allow us to stay within our maximum allowed number (150,000) of smolts released. During April 2002, WDFW volitionally

  14. Journey of the Oncorhynchus: A Story of the Pacific Northwest Salmon.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-06-01

    This report tells the story of the Pacific Northwest salmon in words that children can understand. The life cycle of chinook salmon is depicted through pictures and elementary language from the egg to juvenile fish in fresh water, to maturing fish in the ocean, and the adults migrating back up to spawning grounds in the Columbia River. This can be very useful in the education of children.

  15. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVI : Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.

    2007-12-07

    In 2005, the University of Washington developed a new statistical model to analyze the combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged salmon migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine), has been used to estimate survival and transportation effects on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged hatchery spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin from 1996 to 2003. Those results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on both a systemwide basis, incorporating all transport dams analyzed, and a dam-specific basis. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 5,000 tagged smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few tagged hatchery steelhead were transported in these years, no transportation effects are estimated for steelhead. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Annual estimates of SAR from Lower Granite back to Lower Granite averaged 0.71% with a standard error (SE) of 0.18% for spring Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin for tagged groups released from 1996 through 2003, omitting age-1-ocean (jack) returns. For summer Chinook salmon from the Snake River Basin, the estimates of annual SAR averaged 1.15% (SE=0.31%). Only for the release years 1999 and 2000 did the Chinook SAR approach the target value of 2%, identified by the NPCC as the minimum SAR necessary for recovery. Annual estimates of SAR for hatchery steelhead from the

  16. Two alternative juvenile life history types for fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, W.P.; Sneva, J.G.; Tiffan, K.F.; Steinhorst, R.K.; Ross, D.

    2005-01-01

    Fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Snake River basin were listed under the Endangered Species Act in 1992. At the time of listing, it was assumed that fall Chinook salmon juveniles in the Snake River basin adhered strictly to an ocean-type life history characterized by saltwater entry at age 0 and first-year wintering in the ocean. Research showed, however, that some fall Chinook salmon juveniles in the Snake River basin spent their first winter in a reservoir and resumed seaward movement the following spring at age 1 (hereafter, reservoir-type juveniles). We collected wild and hatchery ocean-type fall Chinook salmon juveniles in 1997 and wild and hatchery reservoir-type juveniles in 1998 to assess the condition of the reservoir-type juveniles at the onset of seaward movement. The ocean-type juveniles averaged 112-139 mm fork length, and the reservoir-type juveniles averaged 222-224 mm fork length. The large size of the reservoir-type juveniles suggested a high potential for survival to salt water and subsequent return to freshwater. Scale pattern analyses of the fall Chinook salmon spawners we collected during 1998-2003 supported this point. Of the spawners sampled, an overall average of 41% of the wild fish and 51% of the hatchery fish had been reservoir-type juveniles. Males that had been reservoir-type juveniles often returned as small "minijacks" (wild, 16% of total; hatchery, 40% of total), but 84% of the wild males, 60% of the hatchery males, and 100% of the wild and hatchery females that had been reservoir-type juveniles returned at ages and fork lengths commonly observed in populations of Chinook salmon. We conclude that fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin exhibit two alternative juvenile life histories, namely ocean-type and reservoir-type. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  17. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed

  18. Reconstruction of Pacific salmon abundance from riparian tree-ring growth.

    PubMed

    Drake, D C; Naiman, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    We use relationships between modern Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) escapement (migrating adults counted at weirs or dams) and riparian tree-ring growth to reconstruct the abundance of stream-spawning salmon over 150-350 years. After examining nine sites, we produced reconstructions for five mid-order rivers and four salmon species over a large geographic range in the Pacific Northwest: chinook (O. tschwatcha) in the Umpqua River, Oregon, USA; sockeye (O. nerka) in Drinkwater Creek, British Columbia, Canada; pink (O. gorbuscha) in Sashin Creek, southeastern Alaska, USA; chum (O. keta) in Disappearance Creek, southeastern Alaska, USA; and pink and chum in the Kadashan River, southeastern Alaska, USA. We first derived stand-level, non-climatic growth chronologies from riparian trees using standard dendroecology methods and differencing. When the chronologies were compared to 18-55 years of adult salmon escapement we detected positive, significant correlations at five of the nine sites. Regression models relating escapement to tree-ring growth at the five sites were applied to the differenced chronologies to reconstruct salmon abundance. Each reconstruction contains unique patterns characteristic of the site and salmon species. Reconstructions were validated by comparison to local histories (e.g., construction of dams and salmon canneries) and regional fisheries data such as salmon landings and aerial surveys and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation climate index. The reconstructions capture lower-frequency cycles better than extremes and are most useful for determination and comparison of relative abundance, cycles, and the effects of interventions. Reconstructions show lower population cycle maxima in both Umpqua River chinook and Sashin Creek pink salmon in recent decades. The Drinkwater Creek reconstruction suggests that sockeye abundance since the mid-1990s has been 15-25% higher than at any time since 1850, while no long-term deviations from natural cycles are

  19. Evaluate Factors Limiting Columbia River Gorge Chum Salmon Populations; FY 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Uusitalo, Nancy M.

    2003-01-30

    Adult and juvenile chum salmon were monitored from October 2001 through September 2002 to evaluate factors limiting production. In 2001, 6 and 69 adult chum salmon were captured in the Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs weirs, respectively. In 2001, 285 and 328 chum salmon carcasses were recovered during spawning ground surveys in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs, respectively. Twenty-eight fish captured in the mainstem Columbia River, Hamilton Springs, and Hardy Creek were implanted with radio tags and tracked via an array of fixed aerial, underwater antennas and a mobile tracking unit. Using the Area-Under-the-Curve program population estimates of adult chum salmon were 835 in Hardy Creek and 617 in Hamilton Springs. Juvenile chum salmon migration was monitored from March-June 2002. Total catches for Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs were 103,315 and 140,220, respectively. Estimates of juvenile chum salmon emigration were 450,195 ({+-}21,793) in Hardy Creek and 561,462 ({+-}21,423) in Hamilton Springs.

  20. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XVI; Alternative Designs for Future Adult PIT-Tag Detection Studies, 2000 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R.

    2000-09-25

    In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam (BON), and other CRB dams, this overview describes in general terms what can and cannot be estimated under seven different scenarios of adult PIT-tag detection capabilities in the CRB. Moreover, this overview attempted to identify minimal adult PIT-tag detection configurations required by the ten threatened Columbia River Basin (CRB) chinook and steelhead ESUs. A minimal adult PIT-tag detection configuration will require the installation of adult PIT-tag detection facilities at Bonneville Dam and another dam above BON. Thus, the Snake River spring/summer and fall chinook salmon, and the Snake River steelhead will require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities to guarantee estimates of ''ocean survival'' and at least of one independent, in-river returning adult survival (e.g., adult PIT-tag detection facilities at BON and LGR dams and at any other intermediary dam such as IHR). The Upper Columbia River spring chinook salmon and steelhead will also require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and two other dams on the BON-WEL reach. The current CRB dam system configuration and BPA's and COE's commitment to install adult PIT-tag detectors only in major CRB projects will not allow the estimation of an ''ocean survival'' and of any in-river adult survival for the Lower Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead. The Middle Columbia River steelhead ESU will require a minimum of two dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and another upstream dam on the BON-McN reach. Finally, in spite of their importance in terms of releases, PIT-tag survival studies for the Upper Willamette chinook and Upper Willamette steelhead ESUs cannot be perform with the current CRB dam system configuration and PIT-tag detection capabilities.

  1. Healthy migrant and salmon bias hypotheses: a study of health and internal migration in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Qin, Lijian

    2014-02-01

    The existing literature has often underscored the "healthy migrant" effect and the "salmon bias" in understanding the health of migrants. Nevertheless, direct evidence for these two hypotheses, particularly the "salmon bias," is limited. Using data from a national longitudinal survey conducted between 2003 and 2007 in China, we provide tests of these hypotheses in the case of internal migration in China. To examine the healthy migrant effect, we study how pre-migration self-reported health is associated with an individual's decision to migrate and the distance of migration. To test the salmon bias hypothesis, we compare the self-reported health of migrants who stay in destinations and who return or move closer to home villages. The results provide support for both hypotheses. Specifically, healthier individuals are more likely to migrate and to move further away from home. Among migrants, those with poorer health are more likely to return or to move closer to their origin communities. PMID:24565140

  2. Healthy migrant and salmon bias hypotheses: a study of health and internal migration in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Qin, Lijian

    2014-02-01

    The existing literature has often underscored the "healthy migrant" effect and the "salmon bias" in understanding the health of migrants. Nevertheless, direct evidence for these two hypotheses, particularly the "salmon bias," is limited. Using data from a national longitudinal survey conducted between 2003 and 2007 in China, we provide tests of these hypotheses in the case of internal migration in China. To examine the healthy migrant effect, we study how pre-migration self-reported health is associated with an individual's decision to migrate and the distance of migration. To test the salmon bias hypothesis, we compare the self-reported health of migrants who stay in destinations and who return or move closer to home villages. The results provide support for both hypotheses. Specifically, healthier individuals are more likely to migrate and to move further away from home. Among migrants, those with poorer health are more likely to return or to move closer to their origin communities.

  3. The signature of fine scale local adaptation in Atlantic salmon revealed from common garden experiments in nature

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, Ciar L; Reed, Thomas E; Bailie, Deborah; Bradley, Caroline; Cotter, Deirdre; Coughlan, Jamie; Cross, Tom; Dillane, Eileen; McEvoy, Sarah; Ó Maoiléidigh, Niall; Prodöhl, Paulo; Rogan, Ger; McGinnity, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the extent, scale and genetic basis of local adaptation (LA) is important for conservation and management. Its relevance in salmonids at microgeographic scales, where dispersal (and hence potential gene flow) can be substantial, has however been questioned. Here, we compare the fitness of communally reared offspring of local and foreign Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from adjacent Irish rivers and reciprocal F1 hybrid crosses between them, in the wild ‘home’ environment of the local population. Experimental groups did not differ in wild smolt output but a catastrophic flood event may have limited our ability to detect freshwater performance differences, which were evident in a previous study. Foreign parr exhibited higher, and hybrids intermediate, emigration rates from the natal stream relative to local parr, consistent with genetically based behavioural differences. Adult return rates were lower for the foreign compared to the local group. Overall lifetime success of foreigners and hybrids relative to locals was estimated at 31% and 40% (mean of both hybrid groups), respectively. The results imply a genetic basis to fitness differences among populations separated by only 50 km, driven largely by variation in smolt to adult return rates. Hence even if supplementary stocking programs obtain broodstock from neighbouring rivers, the risk of extrinsic outbreeding depression may be high. PMID:26495041

  4. Salmon, Mississippi Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-04

    The Salmon, Mississippi, Site, also called the Tatum Dome Test Site, is a 1,470-acre tract of land in Lamar County, Mississippi, 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. The nearest town is Purvis, about 10 miles east of the site. The site is in a forested region known as the long-leaf pine belt of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elevations in the area range from about 240 to 350 feet above sea level. The site overlies a salt formation called the Tatum Salt Dome. Land around the Salmon site has residential, industrial, and commercial use, although no one lives within the boundary of the site itself. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense conducted two underground nuclear tests at the site under the designation of Project Dribble, part of a larger program known as the Vela Uniform program. Two gas explosive tests, designated Project Miracle Play, were also conducted at the site.

  5. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary Dams; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant

    1999-12-01

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 1998 to 30 September 1999. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations; and (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates. Specific tasks conducted by ODFW and WDFW during this period were: (1) Documentation of fall chinook and chum spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams using on-water observations; (2) Collection of biological data to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (3) Determination of spawning population estimates and age composition, average size at return, and sex ratios in order to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (4) Collection of data to determine stock origin of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1; (5) Determination of possible stock origins of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1 using tag rates based on coded-wire tag recoveries and genetic baseline analysis; (6) Determination of emergence timing and hatching rate of juvenile fall chinook and chum below Bonneville Dam; (7) Determination of migration time and size for juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (8) Investigation of feasibility of determining stock composition of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6

  6. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Dams; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Clark, Roy; Spellman, Bryant

    2002-09-17

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 2000 to 30 September 2001. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations. (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates. Specific tasks conducted by ODFW and WDFW during this period were: (1) Documentation of fall chinook and chum spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams using on-water observations; (2) Collection of biological data to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (3) Determination of spawning population estimates and age composition, average size at return, and sex ratios in order to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (4) Collection of data to determine stock origin of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1; (5) Determination of possible stock origins of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1 using tag rates based on coded-wire tag recoveries and genetic baseline analysis; (6) Determination of emergence timing and hatching rate of juvenile fall chinook and chum below Bonneville Dam; (7) Determination of migration time and size for juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (8) Investigation of feasibility of determining stock composition of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (9

  7. SALMON 2100: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  8. The influence of maternal condition on offspring performance in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    PubMed

    Tierney, K B; Patterson, D A; Kennedy, C J

    2009-10-01

    Eggs were taken from adult sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka that had reached their journey's end in spawn-ready and moribund condition, and fertilized by healthy males. Egg number, size, hatching success and offspring growth did not differ with maternal condition, which suggests the absence of any persisting physiological maternal effects. Differences were noted in the swimming behaviour and physiology of the offspring at parr stage. In a 30 min schooling test conducted using groups of five in a flume, parr from moribund females were more likely to fatigue, were not as tightly schooled, and had a diminished startle response, both in the per cent responding and the burst distance. In individual, confined swimming tests conducted within a tube, post-exercise plasma lactate concentration, which is an indicator of white muscle use, was greater for parr from moribund adult females. The moribund females also had elevated lactate following exercise (their migration), which suggests heritable differences may exist in muscle use. This study shows that juvenile O. nerka artificially propagated from females exhausted by their return migration can exhibit swimming performance differences, indicating that maternal condition may need to be considered in breeding programmes.

  9. Coded wire tag recoveries from pink salmon in Prince William sound salmon fisheries, 1993. Restoration project 93067. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharr, S.; Peckham, C.J.; Sharp, D.G.; Evans, D.G.; Bue, B.G.

    1995-11-01

    Coded wire tags applied to pink salmon fry in 1992 at four hatcheries in Prince William Sound were recovered in the commercial catch of 1993 and used to provide inseason estimates of hatchery contributions. These estimates were used by fishery managers to target the numerically superior hatchery returns, and reduce the pressure on oil-damaged wild stocks. Inseason estimates were made in two stages. The postseason analysis revealed that of a catch of 3.51 million pink salmon, 1.12 million were estimated to be of wild origin.

  10. Stream flow, salmon and beaver dams: roles in the structuring of stream fish communities within an anadromous salmon dominated stream.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sean C; Cunjak, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    The current paradigm of fish community distribution is one of a downstream increase in species richness by addition, but this concept is based on a small number of streams from the mid-west and southern United States, which are dominated by cyprinids. Further, the measure of species richness traditionally used, without including evenness, may not be providing an accurate reflection of the fish community. We hypothesize that in streams dominated by anadromous salmonids, fish community diversity will be affected by the presence of the anadromous species, and therefore be influenced by those factors affecting the salmonid population. Catamaran Brook, New Brunswick, Canada, provides a long-term data set to evaluate fish community diversity upstream and downstream of an obstruction (North American beaver Castor canadensis dam complex), which affects distribution of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. The Shannon Weiner diversity index and community evenness were calculated for sample sites distributed throughout the brook and over 15 years. Fish community diversity was greatest upstream of the beaver dams and in the absence of Atlantic salmon. The salmon appear to depress the evenness of the community but do not affect species richness. The community upstream of the beaver dams changes due to replacement of slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus by salmon, rather than addition, when access is provided. Within Catamaran Brook, location of beaver dams and autumn streamflow interact to govern adult Atlantic salmon spawner distribution, which then dictates juvenile production and effects on fish community. These communities in an anadromous Atlantic salmon dominated stream do not follow the species richness gradient pattern shown in cyprinid-dominated streams and an alternative model for stream fish community distribution in streams dominated by anadromous salmonids is presented. This alternative model suggests that community distribution may be a function of semipermeable obstructions

  11. Sockeye salmon evolution, ecology, and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann

    2007-01-01

    This collection of articles and photographs gives managers a good idea of recent research into what the sockeye salmon is and does, covering such topics as the vulnerability and value of sockeye salmon ecotypes, their homing ability, using new technologies to monitor reproduction, DNA and a founder event in the Lake Clark sockeye salmon, marine-derived nutrients, the exploitation of large prey, dynamic lake spawning migrations by females, variability of sockeye salmon residence, expression profiling using cDNA microarray technology, learning from stable isotropic records of native otolith hatcheries, the amount of data needed to manage sockeye salmon and estimating salmon "escapement." 

  12. Spawning sockeye salmon fossils in Pleistocene lake beds of Skokomish Valley, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gerald R.; Montgomery, David R.; Peterson, N. Phil; Crowley, Bruce

    2007-09-01

    An assemblage of fossil sockeye salmon was discovered in Pleistocene lake sediments along the South Fork Skokomish River, Olympic Peninsula, Washington. The fossils were abundant near the head of a former glacial lake at 115 m elevation. Large adult salmon are concentrated in a sequence of death assemblages that include individuals with enlarged breeding teeth and worn caudal fins indicating migration, nest digging, and spawning prior to death. The specimens were 4 yr old and 45-70 cm in total length, similar in size to modern sockeye salmon, not landlocked kokanee. The fossils possess most of the characteristics of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, but with several minor traits suggestive of pink salmon, O. gorbuscha. This suggests the degree of divergence of these species at about 1 million yr ago, when geological evidence indicates the salmon were deposited at the head of a proglacial lake impounded by the Salmon Springs advance of the Puget lobe ice sheet. Surficial geology and topography record a complicated history of glacial damming and river diversion that implies incision of the modern gorge of the South Fork Skokomish River after deposition of the fossil-bearing sediments.

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) Habitat/Limnologic Research : Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Spaulding, Scott

    1993-05-01

    This report outlines long-term planning and monitoring activities that occurred in 1991 and 1992 in the Stanley Basin Lakes of the upper Salmon River, Idaho for the purpose of sockeye salmon nerka) recovery. Limnological monitoring and experimental sampling protocol, designed to establish a limnological baseline and to evaluate sockeye salmon production capability of the lakes, are presented. Also presented are recommended passage improvements for current fish passage barriers/impediments on migratory routes to the lakes. We initiated O. nerka population evaluations for Redfish and Alturas lakes; this included population estimates of emerging kokanee fry entering each lake in the spring and adult kokanee spawning surveys in tributary streams during the fall. Gill net evaluations of Alturas, Pettit, and Stanley lakes were done in September, 1992 to assess the relative abundance of fish species among the Stanley Basin lakes. Fish population data will be used to predict sockeye salmon production potential within a lake, as well as a baseline to monitor long-term fish community changes as a result of sockeye salmon recovery activities. Also included is a paper that reviews sockeye salmon enhancement activities in British Columbia and Alaska and recommends strategies for the release of age-0 sockeye salmon that will be produced from the current captive broodstock.

  14. Global assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in farmed and wild salmon.

    PubMed

    Hites, Ronald A; Foran, Jeffery A; Schwager, Steven J; Knuth, Barbara A; Hamilton, M Coreen; Carpenter, David O

    2004-10-01

    We have shown recently that levels of persistent, bioaccumulative contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, and several chlorinated pesticides) are significantly higher in farmed than in wild salmon and that European farm-raised salmon have significantly greater toxic contaminant loads than those raised in North and South America. In this paper, we extend these results to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and show that farm-raised salmon have higher levels of these compounds than wild salmon. We also show that farm-raised salmon from Europe have higher PBDE levels than those raised in North America and that both European and North American farm-raised salmon have higher PBDE levels than those farm-raised in Chile. Among the species of wild salmon, chinook had significantly elevated PBDE levels relative to the other wild species. These elevated PBDE levels may be related to chinook's feeding behavior and trophic level. Among all of the wild species we studied, chinook tend to feed higher in the food web throughout their adult life and grow to be larger individuals.

  15. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVIII: Survival and Transportation Effects of Migrating Snake River Wild Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates From 1996-2004 and Comparison to Hatchery Results. Draft.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Skalski, John R.; Broms, Kristin

    2008-12-03

    The combined juvenile and adult detection histories of PIT-tagged wild salmonids migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) were analyzed using the ROSTER (River-Ocean Survival and Transportation Effects Routine) statistical release-recapture model. This model, implemented by software Program ROSTER, was used to estimate survival on large temporal and spatial scales for PIT-tagged wild spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead released in the Snake River Basin upstream of Lower Granite Dam from 1996 to 2004. In addition, annual results from wild salmonids were compared with results from hatchery salmonids, which were presented in a previous report in this series (Buchanan, R. A., Skalski, J. R., Lady, J. L., Westhagen, P., Griswold, J., and Smith, S. 2007, 'Survival and Transportation Effects for Migrating Snake River Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead: Historical Estimates from 1996-2003', Technical report, Bonneville Power Administration, Project 1991-051-00). These results are reported here. Annual estimates of the smolt-to-adult return ratio (SAR), juvenile inriver survival from Lower Granite to Bonneville, the ocean return probability from Bonneville to Bonneville, and adult upriver survival from Bonneville to Lower Granite are reported. Annual estimates of transport-inriver (T/I) ratios and differential post-Bonneville mortality (D) are reported on a dam-specific basis for release years with sufficient numbers of wild PIT-tagged smolts transported. Transportation effects are estimated only for dams where at least 1,000 tagged wild smolts were transported from a given upstream release group. Because few wild Chinook salmon and steelhead tagged upstream of Lower Granite Dam were transported before the 2003 release year, T/I and D were estimated only for the 2003 and 2004 release years. Performance measures include age-1-ocean adult returns for steelhead, but not for Chinook salmon. Spring and summer Chinook salmon release groups

  16. Relative yield of two transferrin phenotypes in coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, John D.; Johnson, A. Kenneth

    1977-01-01

    Experimental groups of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) of transferring types AA and AC were compared to determine relative growth and survival before release, yields from the fishery, and returns of fish to the hatchery as 2- and 3-yr-olds. In the hatchery, growth was faster and survival higher in the AA than in the AC types. However, yields of AA and AC types were equal, although the yield of AC types as 3-yr-olds was greater than that of AA types because more of the AA males matured in 2 years. We concluded that it would be futile to attempt to increase the yield of coho salmon by maximizing the frequency of biochemical phenotypes that display only a temporary advantage over other types.

  17. Mortality of seabirds in high-seas salmon gillnets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ainley, D.G.; DeGange, A.R.; Jones, L.L.; Beach, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1952, the Japanese have operated a large salmon driftnet.fishery in the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. This fishery is divided into two components: the high-seas mothership fleet, which consists of several processing ships and their numerous, smaller catcher boats that remain at sea during the entire fishing season, and the land-based fleet, which consists of independent fishing boats that catch and store their own fish and return to Japan at more frequent intervals (Sanger 1976; Fredin et al. 2 ). A similar fishery in the North Atlantic between 1965 and 1976 was responsible for the deaths of large numbers of the thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia, and significant reductions in its breeding populations (Tull et al. 1972). Recent work in the North Pacific and Bering Sea by Sana (1978) and King et al. (1979) indicated that large numbers of seabirds are killed annually in the Japanese salmon fishery also.

  18. Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, E. Eric; Steward, C.R.; MacDonald, Donald; Williams, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    What has happened to the salmon resource in the Pacific Northwest? Who is responsible and what can be done to reverse the decline in salmon populations? The responsibly falls on everyone involved - fishermen, resource managers and concerned citizens alike - to take the steps necessary to ensure that salmon populations make a full recovery. This collection of papers examines the state of the salmon fisheries in the Pacific Northwest. They cover existing methods and supply model approaches for alternative solutions. The editors stress the importance of input from and cooperation with all parties involved to create a viable solution. Grass roots education and participation is the key to public support - and ultimately the success - of whatever management solutions are developed. A unique and valuable scientific publication, Sustainable Fisheries Management: Pacific Salmon clearly articulates the current state of the Pacific salmon resource, describes the key features of its management, and provides important guidance on how we can make the transition towards sustainable fisheries. The solutions presented in this book provide the basis of a strategy for sustainable fisheries, requiring society and governmental agencies to establish a shared vision, common policies, and a process for collaborative management.

  19. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2002-10-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 spawners present day (Johnson et al. 1997). Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline in this species in the Columbia River. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of chum salmon (Johnson et al. 1997). This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River chum as outlined in the Hatchery Genetic Management Plan (HGMP) for the Grays River project has four main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of Lower Columbia River chum salmon exist in Lower Columbia River tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans that would involve habitat restoration including the creation of spawning refugias, supplementation if necessary and a habitat and fish monitoring and evaluation plan. If chum have been extirpated from previously utilized streams, develop re-introduction plans that utilize appropriate genetic donor stock(s) of Lower Columbia River chum salmon and integrate habitat improvement and fry-to-adult survival evaluations. Third, reduce the extinction risk to Grays River chum salmon population by randomly capturing adults in the basin for use in a supplementation program and reintroduction of Lower Columbia River chum salmon into the Chinook River basin. The

  20. In stream habitat and stock restoration for salmon otter creek barrier bypass subproject. Restoration project 94139-b1. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wedemeyer, K.; Gillikin, D.

    1995-05-01

    In 1994, two barrier falls on Otter Creek, Bay of Isles, Knight Island, Prince William Sound were modified to provide upstream passage to adult pink salmon (Onchorhynchus gorbuscha). The falls were modified by using wire basket gabions, rock drills and wooden weir structures. In addition, an existing set of Alaska steeppasses were maintained and slightly modified for efficient passage of salmon.

  1. Outbreeding depression in hybrids between odd-and even-broodyear pink salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gharrett, A.J.; Smoker, W.W.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Taylor, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    Fewer F2 hybrids between even- and odd-broodline pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), which are lines that are genetically isolated by their strict two-year life cycle, survived than did F2 controls, indicating outbreeding depression. Cryopreserved sperm of 40 broodyear 1990 males and of 40 broodyear 1991 males fertilized equal subsamples of eggs from 40 broodyear 1992 females. Return rates of F1 hybrids (1.73%) and controls (1.63%) in 1994 did not differ significantly (P=0.30). F2 hybrid and control crosses were made from 40 males and 40 females selected at random from each return group. Offspring were differentially marked and released. In 1996, returns differed significantly (P=0.011) between hybrids (n=34, 0.34%) and controls (n=44, 0.42%). The low rate of return of the control fish was similar to the measured return of a much larger group of tagged Auke Creek pink salmon, and probably not an artifact of the experiment. Although no increase in fluctuating asymmetry of paired meristic counts was observed in either F1or F2 hybrids, size and some meristic counts of hybrids exceed measurements of controls, suggesting heterosis for those traits. The observations of decreased survival in F2 hybrids confirm previous work [Gharrett, A.J., Smoker, W.W., 1991. Two generations of hybrids between even- and odd-year pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 48(9) 1744–1749]. Although genetic divergence between pink salmon broodlines is large and outbreeding depression might be expected in such unlikely hybrids, the results document the occurrence of outbreeding depression in salmon and signal caution in making management and aquacultural decisions that may create the possibility of outbreeding depression in self-sustaining or cultured populations.

  2. Yakima River Radio-Telemetry Study: Spring Chinook Salmon, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hockersmith, Eric

    1994-09-01

    As part of the presupplementation planning, baseline data on the productivity of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River have been collected. However, for adult salmonids, data on habitat use, delays in passage at irrigation diversions, migration rates, and substock separation had not been previously collected. In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service began a 2-year radio-telemetry study of adult spring chinook salmon in the Yakima River Basin. Specific objectives addressed in this study were: to determine spawning populations` run timing, passage patterns at irrigation diversion dams, and morphometric characteristics to determine where and when substocks become separated; to evaluate fish passage at Yakima River Basin diversion dams including Prosser, Sunnyside, Wapato, Roza, Town Diversion, Easton, Cowiche, and Wapatox Dams; to determine spring chinook salmon migration rates between Yakima River Basin dams, prespawning behavior, temporal distribution, and habitat utilization; to identify spawning distribution and timing of spring chinook salmon; to determine the amount and cause of prespawning mortality of spring chinook salmon; and to evaluate adult fish-handling procedures for the right-bank, adult-trapping facility at Prosser Dam.

  3. Involvement of hormones in olfactory imprinting and homing in chum salmon

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shingo; Nakamura, Taro; Inada, Kaoru; Okubo, Takashi; Furukawa, Naohiro; Murakami, Reiichi; Tsuchida, Shigeo; Zohar, Yonathan; Konno, Kotaro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory hypothesis for salmon imprinting and homing to their natal stream is well known, but the endocrine hormonal control mechanisms of olfactory memory formation in juveniles and retrieval in adults remain unclear. In brains of hatchery-reared underyearling juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression increased immediately after release from a hatchery into the natal stream, and the expression of the essential NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor increased during downstream migration. Gene expression of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) and NR1 increased in the adult chum salmon brain during homing from the Bering Sea to the natal hatchery. Thyroid hormone treatment in juveniles enhanced NR1 gene activation, and GnRHa treatment in adults improved stream odour discrimination. Olfactory memory formation during juvenile downstream migration and retrieval during adult homing migration of chum salmon might be controlled by endocrine hormones and could be clarified using NR1 as a molecular marker. PMID:26879952

  4. Imprinting Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, 1979 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Slatick, Emil

    1980-08-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), under contract to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), is conducting research on imprinting Pacific salmon and steelhead for homing. Imprinting is defined as a rapid and irreversible learning experience that provides fish with the ability to return to natal streams or a preselected site. The ability to activate the imprint mechanism at the proper time should assure a suitable homing cue that coupled with transportation (Park et al. 1979) will result in high smolt survival and ensure adequate returns to the homing site or hatchery. in our study, we use single imprints and sequential imprints. Single imprinting is cueing fish to a unique, single water supply prior to release. Various mechanical stimuli may be used in combination with the unique water source to achieve the single imprint. Sequential imprinting is cueing fish to two or more water sources in a step-by-step process which establishes a series of signposts for the route ''home''. The primary objectives of our homing research are as follows: (1) Determine whether a single imprint or a series of stimuli (sequential imprinting) are necessary to assure homing for various stocks of salmonids. (2) Determine a triggering mechanism to activate the homing imprint in salmonids. (3) Determine the relationship between the physiological condition of fish (gill Na+-K+ ATPase activity , etc.) and their ability to imprint. Our study began in 1978, and the first year's activities were reported by Slatick et al. (1979) and Sovotny and Zaugg (1979). This report covers the research for the second year (1979). The specific activities of the second year's research were divided into three categories: (1) mark and release additional groups of juvenile salmonids to test imprinting techniques; (2) determine health profiles and monitor smoltification status of juvenile test fish; and (3) monitor and evaluate adult returns, from juveniles marked and released in 1978, to determine

  5. Fuzzy modelling of Atlantic salmon physical habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Hilaire, André; Mocq, Julien; Cunjak, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Fish habitat models typically attempt to quantify the amount of available river habitat for a given fish species for various flow and hydraulic conditions. To achieve this, information on the preferred range of values of key physical habitat variables (e.g. water level, velocity, substrate diameter) for the targeted fishs pecies need to be modelled. In this context, we developed several habitat suitability indices sets for three Atlantic salmon life stages (young-of-the-year (YOY), parr, spawning adults) with the help of fuzzy logic modeling. Using the knowledge of twenty-seven experts, from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, we defined fuzzy sets of four variables (depth, substrate size, velocity and Habitat Suitability Index, or HSI) and associated fuzzy rules. When applied to the Romaine River (Canada), median curves of standardized Weighted Usable Area (WUA) were calculated and a confidence interval was obtained by bootstrap resampling. Despite the large range of WUA covered by the expert WUA curves, confidence intervals were relatively narrow: an average width of 0.095 (on a scale of 0 to 1) for spawning habitat, 0.155 for parr rearing habitat and 0.160 for YOY rearing habitat. When considering an environmental flow value corresponding to 90% of the maximum reached by WUA curve, results seem acceptable for the Romaine River. Generally, this proposed fuzzy logic method seems suitable to model habitat availability for the three life stages, while also providing an estimate of uncertainty in salmon preferences.

  6. Declining wild salmon populations in relation to parasites from farm salmon.

    PubMed

    Krkosek, Martin; Ford, Jennifer S; Morton, Alexandra; Lele, Subhash; Myers, Ransom A; Lewis, Mark A

    2007-12-14

    Rather than benefiting wild fish, industrial aquaculture may contribute to declines in ocean fisheries and ecosystems. Farm salmon are commonly infected with salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), which are native ectoparasitic copepods. We show that recurrent louse infestations of wild juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), all associated with salmon farms, have depressed wild pink salmon populations and placed them on a trajectory toward rapid local extinction. The louse-induced mortality of pink salmon is commonly over 80% and exceeds previous fishing mortality. If outbreaks continue, then local extinction is certain, and a 99% collapse in pink salmon population abundance is expected in four salmon generations. These results suggest that salmon farms can cause parasite outbreaks that erode the capacity of a coastal ecosystem to support wild salmon populations.

  7. Monitoring and Evaluation of Supplemented Spring Chinook Salmon and Life Histories of Wild Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde Basin, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Stephen J.; Crump, Carrie A.; Weldert, Rey L.

    2009-04-10

    This is the ninth annual report for a multi-year project designed to monitor and evaluate supplementation of endemic spring Chinook salmon in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River. These two streams historically supported anadromous fish populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries, but in recent years, have experienced severe declines in abundance. Conventional and captive broodstock supplementation methods are being used to restore these spring Chinook salmon populations. Spring Chinook salmon populations in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River, and other streams in the Snake River Basin have experienced severe declines in abundance over the past two decades (Nehlsen et al. 1991). A supplementation program was initiated in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River, incorporating the use of both captive and conventional broodstock methods, in order to prevent extinction in the short term and eventually rebuild populations. The captive broodstock component of the program (BPA Project 199801001) uses natural-origin parr collected by seining and reared to maturity at facilities near Seattle, Washington (Manchester Marine Laboratory) and Hood River, Oregon (Bonneville Hatchery). Spawning occurs at Bonneville Hatchery, and resulting progeny are reared in hatcheries. Shortly before outmigration in the spring, juveniles are transferred to acclimation facilities. After an acclimation period of about 2-4 weeks, volitional release begins. Any juveniles remaining after the volitional release period are forced out. The conventional broodstock component uses returning adults collected at traps near the spawning areas, transported to Lookingglass Hatchery near Elgin, Oregon, held, and later spawned. The resulting progeny are reared, acclimated, and released similar to the captive broodstock component. All progeny released receive one or more marks including a fin (adipose) clip, codedwire tag, PIT tag, or visual implant

  8. John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzycki, James R.; Wilson, Wayne H.; Carmichael, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    The John Day River basin supports one of the healthiest populations of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the entire Columbia River basin. Spring chinook salmon in this basin are therefore, used as an important index stock to measure the effects of future management actions on other salmon stocks in the Columbia basin. To meet the data requirements as an index stock, we estimated annual spawner escapement, age-structure, and smolt-to-adult survival. This information will allow us to estimate progeny-to-parent production for each brood year. To estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates, 1,852 chinook smolts were tagged with PIT tags from 3 March to 5 May, 2000. Length of captured smolts varied, ranging from 80 to 147 mm fork length (mean = 113 mm). These fish will be monitored for PIT tags as returning adults at dams and during future spawning ground surveys. During spawning ground surveys, a total of 351.3 km of stream were surveyed resulting in the observation of 478 redds. When expanded, we estimated total number of redds at 481 and total number of spawners at 1,583 fish in the John Day River basin. We estimated that 13% of the redds were in the mainstem John Day, 27% in the Middle Fork, 34% in the North Fork, and 26% were in the Granite Creek basin. Sampled carcasses had a sex ratio comprised of 53% females and 47% males with an age structure comprised of 0.5% age-2, 6.3% age-3, 88.7% age-4, and 4.5% age-5 fish. Five of the 405 carcasses examined had fin clips suggesting they were of hatchery origin. The 1999 index redd count total for the North Fork, Mainstem, and Granite Creek was lower than the 1999 average (535) but well within the range of annual redd counts during this period. The index redd count for the Middle Fork was higher than the 1990's average (92) but considerably lower than the average from 1978-1985 (401). Although quite variable over the past 40 years, the number of redds in the John Day River basin during 1999 was well within the

  9. Species and life-history affects the utility of otolith chemical composition to determine natal stream-of-origin in Pacific salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Swanson, Heidi K.; Volk, Eric C.; Kent, Adam J.R.

    2013-01-01

    To test the utility of otolith chemical composition as a tool for determining the natal stream of origin for salmon, we examined water chemistry and otoliths of juvenile and adult Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Coho Salmon O. kisutch from three watersheds (five rivers) in the Norton Sound region of Alaska. The two species are characterized by different life histories: Coho Salmon rear in freshwater for up to 3 years, whereas Chum Salmon emigrate from freshwater shortly after emergence. We used laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) to quantify element: Ca ratios for Mg, Mn, Zn, Sr, and Ba, and we used multicollector LA-ICP-MS to determine 87Sr:86Sr ratios in otolith regions corresponding to the period of freshwater residence. Significant differences existed in both water and otolith elemental composition, suggesting that otolith composition could be used to discriminate the natal origin of Coho Salmon and Chum Salmon but only when 87Sr:86Sr ratios were included in the discriminant function analyses. The best discriminant model included 87Sr:86Sr ratios, and without 87Sr:86Sr ratios it was difficult to discriminate among watersheds and rivers. Classification accuracy was 80% for Coho Salmon and 68% for Chum Salmon, indicating that this method does not provide sufficient sensitivity to estimate straying rates of Pacific salmon at the scale we studied.

  10. A model of salmon louse production in Norway: effects of increasing salmon production and public management measures.

    PubMed

    Heuch, P A; Mo, T A

    2001-06-20

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer have caused disease problems in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. since the mid-1970s in Norway. High infection intensities and premature return of wild sea trout Salmo trutta L. were first reported in 1992. Later emaciated wild Atlantic salmon smolts carrying large amounts of lice have been observed both in fjords and offshore. The Norwegian Animal Health Authority regulations to control the problem, which came into operation in 1998, included compulsory louse level monitoring in farms and maximum legal numbers of lice per fish. Here, we present a model of salmon louse egg production in Norway and show that the effect of the current public management strategy is critically dependent on the yearly increase in salmon production. This is because the infection pressure is the product of the number of fish in the system, and the number of lice per fish. Due to the much larger number of farmed than wild salmonids, it is highly likely that lice originating from farmed salmon infect wild stock. Estimated tolerance limits for wild salmonids vary widely, and the level of louse egg production in farms which would be needed to decimate wild populations is not known. Two possible thresholds for total lice egg production are investigated: (1) 1986 to 1987 level (i.e. before adverse effects on sea trout were recorded), and (2) a level corresponding to a doubling of the estimated natural infection pressure. The farm lice per fish limits that would have to be observed to keep louse production within the 2 thresholds are calculated for the period 1986 to 2005. A steady decrease in the permitted number of lice per fish may keep the total louse production stable, but the number of salmon required for verification of lice numbers will increase as the prevalence to be verified is decreased. At threshold (2), the model estimated that lice limits should have been 0.05 louse per fish in 1999. This would require 60 fish from each pen to be

  11. Minthorn Springs Creek Summer Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facility; Operation, Maintenance and Evaluation of the Bonifer and Minthorn Springs Juvenile Release and Adult Collection Facilities, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lofy, Peter T.; Rowan, Gerald D.

    1990-03-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) are cooperating in a joint effort to increase steelhead and re-establish salmon runs in the Umatilla River Basin. As part of this program, Bonifer and Minthorn Acclimation Facilities are operated for holding and spawning adult steelhead and acclimation and release of juvenile salmon and steelhead. Regularly-scheduled maintenance was completed in 1989. Equipment and pumps received maintenance and repair. An automatic dialing system was incorporated into the alarm system at the Minthorn facility. A security company has replaced the function of the Umatilla Tribal Police which was to contact fisheries personnel in case of an alarm. The configuration of the alarm system was upgraded to activate the alarm faster and provide better access to project personnel with a pager system. A survey was completed in 1988 by Thomas Bumstead of Albrook Hydraulics Lab in Pullman, WA. to determine potential measures to address the change in course of the Umatilla River around Minthorn as a result of the flood of 1986. Options and recommendations were submitted in a report in 1989. Fish Management Consultants Inc. submitted the final reports of evaluations for both the Bonifer and Minthorn facilities. A total of 150 adult steelhead were collected for broodstock at Threemile Dam from December through March and held at Minthorn. Forty-two pairs were spawned (37 pairs from Minthorn and 5 pairs collected and immediately spawned at Threemile Dam). The 241,682 eggs were transferred to Irrigon Hatchery for incubation and later moved to Oak Springs Hatchery for rearing. An estimated 368 adult hatchery steelhead returned to the Umatilla River in 1988-89 (based on Threemile Dam trap counts and harvest below Threemile Dam) these, and 349 were released upriver. Of seven returned to the Bonifer trap where the smolts were initially released. Acclimation of 79,984 spring chinook salmon and 22

  12. Assessment of High Rates of Precocious Male Maturation in a Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Hatchery Program, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Donald; Beckman, Brian; Cooper, Kathleen

    2003-08-01

    The Yakima River Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project in Washington State is currently one of the most ambitious efforts to enhance a natural salmon population in the United States. Over the past five years we have conducted research to characterize the developmental physiology of naturally- and hatchery-reared wild progeny spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River basin. Fish were sampled at the main hatchery in Cle Elum, at remote acclimation sites and, during smolt migration, at downstream dams. Throughout these studies the maturational state of all fish was characterized using combinations of visual and histological analysis of testes, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and measurement of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We established that a plasma 11-KT threshold of 0.8 ng/ml could be used to designate male fish as either immature or precociously maturing approximately 8 months prior to final maturation (1-2 months prior to release as 'smolts'). Our analyses revealed that 37-49% of the hatchery-reared males from this program undergo precocious maturation at 2 years of age and a proportion of these fish appear to residualize in the upper Yakima River basin throughout the summer. An unnaturally high incidence of precocious male maturation may result in loss of potential returning anadromous adults, skewing of female: male sex ratios, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations and other native species. Precocious male maturation is significantly influenced by growth rate at specific times of year and future studies will be conducted to alter maturation rates through seasonal growth rate manipulations.

  13. Mineral resource appraisal of the Salmon National Forest, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Rick; Close, Terry; McHugh, Ed

    1998-01-01

    The Salmon National Forest administers 1,776,994 net acres of mountainous terrain located in east-central Idaho. Most of the Forest is in Lemhi County; only a small portion falls within Idaho and Valley Counties. Approximately 426,114 acres of the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness extends into the western part of the Forest and mineral entry is severely restricted. Because of its location within the Salmon River drainage, the Forest also is subject to numerous issues surrounding restoration of anadromous fish runs. Mineral production from the Salmon National Forest began during 1866 when placer gold was discovered in Leesburg Basin. Hardrock mining quickly spread throughout the Forest and many deposits containing a wide range of commodities were discovered and developed. Although early records are sketchy, production is estimated to include 940,000 ounces gold, 654,000 ounces silver, 61.9 million pounds copper, 8.9 million pounds lead, 13.9 million pounds cobalt, 208,000 pounds zinc, and 37,000 tons fluorite mill feed. Mineral resources are large, diverse, and occur in many deposit types including exhalative, stockwork, disseminated, vein, replacement, sedimentary, skarn, breccia pipe, porphyry, and placer. The largest cobalt resource in the United States occurs in the Blackbird Mining District. Other resources include gold, silver, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphate, manganese, iron, fluorite, uranium, thorium, rare earth oxides, and barite.

  14. Genetic assessment of a summer chum salmon metapopulation in recovery

    PubMed Central

    Small, Maureen P; Johnson, Thom H; Bowman, Cherril; Martinez, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Programs to rebuild imperiled wild fish populations often include hatchery-born fish derived from wild populations to supplement natural spawner abundance. These programs require monitoring to determine their demographic, biological, and genetic effects. In 1990s in Washington State, the Summer Chum Salmon Conservation Initiative developed a recovery program for the threatened Hood Canal summer chum salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) (the metapopulation) that used in-river spawners (wild fish) for each respective supplementation broodstock in six tributaries. Returning spawners (wild-born and hatchery-born) composed subsequent broodstocks, and tributary-specific supplementation was limited to three generations. We assessed impacts of the programs on neutral genetic diversity in this metapopulation using 16 microsatellite loci and a thirty-year dataset spanning before and after supplementation, roughly eight generations. Following supplementation, differentiation among subpopulations decreased (but not significantly) and isolation by distance patterns remained unchanged. There was no decline in genetic diversity in wild-born fish, but hatchery-born fish sampled in the same spawning areas had significantly lower genetic diversity and unequal family representation. Despite potential for negative effects from supplementation programs, few were detected in wild-born fish. We hypothesize that chum salmon natural history makes them less vulnerable to negative impacts from hatchery supplementation. PMID:24567747

  15. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2003-10-15

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present day spawners. Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline of Columbia River chum salmon. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Currently, only two main populations are recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning has been documented in most lower Columbia River tributaries. The first is located in the Grays River (RKm 34) (Grays population), a tributary of the Columbia, and the second is a group of spawners that utilize the Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks (Lower Gorge population). A possible third population of mainstem spawners, found in the fall of 1999, were located spawning above the I-205 bridge (approximately RKm 182), this aggregation is referred to as the Woods Landing/Rivershore population or the I-205 group. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum as outlined in Hatchery Genetic Management Plans (HGMP) has three main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of LCR chum salmon exist in LCR tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans involving habitat restoration including the creation of

  16. Comparison of genetic diversity in the recently founded Connecticut River Atlantic salmon population to that of its primary donor stock, Maine's Penobscot River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spidle, A.P.; King, T.L.; Letcher, B.H.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to the Connecticut River (CR) from 1996 to 1999 were assayed for variability at nine microsatellite DNA loci. Heterozygosity and allele frequencies were compared to the anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to Maine's Penobscot River from 1998 to 2000. The Penobscot River was the primary source of the salmon used to found the previously extirpated population in the Connecticut River. While there were no significant differences in heterozygosity between the source population and the Connecticut River sea-run spawners, microsatellite allele frequencies were significantly different between the populations. Two techniques of estimating effective population size (Ne) suggested a healthy level of genetic variation in the Connecticut River population of anadromous Atlantic salmon. This is significant because the sea-run population is maintained almost entirely through hatchery production. Healthy ratios of Ne to N indicate that hatchery production has not resulted in excessive inbreeding to date. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence for episodic acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J T; Lerner, D T; O'Dea, M F; Regish, A M; Monette, M Y; Hawkes, J P; Nislow, K H; McCormick, S D

    2015-11-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine levels of gill aluminium as an index of acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the north-eastern U.S.A. along mainstem river migration corridors in several major river basins. Smolts emigrating from the Connecticut River, where most (but not all) tributaries were well buffered, had low or undetectable levels of gill aluminium and high gill Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase (NKA) activity. In contrast, smolts emigrating from the upper Merrimack River basin where most tributaries are characterized by low pH and high inorganic aluminium had consistently elevated gill aluminium and lower gill NKA activity, which may explain the low adult return rates of S. salar stocked into the upper Merrimack catchment. In the Sheepscot, Narraguagus and Penobscot Rivers in Maine, river and year-specific effects on gill aluminium were detected that appeared to be driven by underlying geology and high spring discharge. The results indicate that episodic acidification is affecting S. salar smolts in poorly buffered streams in New England and may help explain variation in S. salar survival and abundance among rivers and among years, with implications for the conservation and recovery of S. salar in the north-eastern U.S.A. These results suggest that the physiological condition of outmigrating smolts may serve as a large-scale sentinel of landscape-level recovery of atmospheric pollution in this and other parts of the North Atlantic region. PMID:26399385

  18. Evidence for episodic acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J T; Lerner, D T; O'Dea, M F; Regish, A M; Monette, M Y; Hawkes, J P; Nislow, K H; McCormick, S D

    2015-11-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine levels of gill aluminium as an index of acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the north-eastern U.S.A. along mainstem river migration corridors in several major river basins. Smolts emigrating from the Connecticut River, where most (but not all) tributaries were well buffered, had low or undetectable levels of gill aluminium and high gill Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase (NKA) activity. In contrast, smolts emigrating from the upper Merrimack River basin where most tributaries are characterized by low pH and high inorganic aluminium had consistently elevated gill aluminium and lower gill NKA activity, which may explain the low adult return rates of S. salar stocked into the upper Merrimack catchment. In the Sheepscot, Narraguagus and Penobscot Rivers in Maine, river and year-specific effects on gill aluminium were detected that appeared to be driven by underlying geology and high spring discharge. The results indicate that episodic acidification is affecting S. salar smolts in poorly buffered streams in New England and may help explain variation in S. salar survival and abundance among rivers and among years, with implications for the conservation and recovery of S. salar in the north-eastern U.S.A. These results suggest that the physiological condition of outmigrating smolts may serve as a large-scale sentinel of landscape-level recovery of atmospheric pollution in this and other parts of the North Atlantic region.

  19. Long-Term Studies of the Effects of Salmon Spawners on Stream Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaloner, D. T.; Lamberti, G. A.; Cak, A. D.; Edwards, R. T.

    2005-05-01

    To determine the ecological effects of salmon-derived nutrients (SDN) transported into fresh waters by spawning adult Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), we monitored several ecological parameters in Fish Creek, Southeast Alaska from 2000 to 2004. Pink and chum salmon spawn in the lower reach of Fish Creek, but cannot move further upstream because of a waterfall, 4 km from saltwater. We estimated spawner densities and measured dissolved nutrient concentrations and epilithon abundance before, during, and after the salmon run, in reaches above and below the waterfall barrier. Salmon spawners increased streamwater concentrations of ammonium (2.3 - 148x) and soluble reactive phosphorus (0.4 - 17x), and epilithon chlorophyll a (14 - 29x) and ash-free dry mass (1.4 - 4x) in lower reaches. However, the duration and magnitude of these effects varied widely among years, and did not appear to vary solely with spawner densities. Our results suggest that although SDN can stimulate primary production through increased nutrient concentrations, other environmental factors, such as temperature, irradiance, and discharge, can modulate the influence of salmon spawners on stream ecosystems. To better assess the ecological influence of SDN, future studies should consider the influence of key environmental factors and their temporal and spatial dynamics.

  20. A three-species model explaining cyclic dominance of Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Guill, Christian; Drossel, Barbara; Just, Wolfram; Carmack, Eddy

    2011-05-01

    The four-year oscillations of the number of spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) that return to their native stream within the Fraser River basin in Canada are a striking example of population oscillations. The period of the oscillation corresponds to the dominant generation time of these fish. Various-not fully convincing-explanations for these oscillations have been proposed, including stochastic influences, depensatory fishing, or genetic effects. Here, we show that the oscillations can be explained as an attractor of the population dynamics, resulting from a strong resonance near a Neimark Sacker bifurcation. This explains not only the long-term persistence of these oscillations, but also reproduces correctly the empirical sequence of salmon abundance within one period of the oscillations. Furthermore, it explains the observation that these oscillations occur only in sockeye stocks originating from large oligotrophic lakes, and that they are usually not observed in salmon species that have a longer generation time.

  1. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Aamelfot, Maria; McBeath, Alastair; Christiansen, Debes H; Matejusova, Iveta; Falk, Knut

    2015-01-01

    All viruses infecting fish must cross the surface mucosal barrier to successfully enter a host. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), the causative agent of the economically important infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., has been shown to use the gills as its entry point. However, other entry ports have not been investigated despite the expression of virus receptors on the surface of epithelial cells in the skin, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the conjunctiva. Here we investigate the ISAV mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon after experimental immersion (bath) challenge and in farmed fish collected from a confirmed outbreak of ISA in Norway. We show for the first time evidence of early replication in several mucosal surfaces in addition to the gills, including the pectoral fin, skin and GI tract suggesting several potential entry points for the virus. Initially, the infection is localized and primarily infecting epithelial cells, however at later stages it becomes systemic, infecting the endothelial cells lining the circulatory system. Viruses of low and high virulence used in the challenge revealed possible variation in virus progression during infection at the mucosal surfaces. PMID:26490835

  2. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry; Tezak, E.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival and the fitness of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. The following summarizes some of the work performed and results from the FY 2001 performance period: (1) The incidence of male maturation of age-1 chinook salmon was significantly reduced by reducing growth in the first year of rearing. (2) Experimentally manipulated growth rates of captively-reared coho salmon had significant effects on female maturation rate, egg size, and fecundity, and the effects were stage-specific (i.e., pre-smolt vs. post-smolt). (3) A combination of Renogen and MT239 vaccination of yearling chinook salmon given an acute R. salmoninarum challenge had a significantly longer survival time than the mock-vaccinated group. The survival time was marginally higher than was seen in acutely challenged fish vaccinated with either Renogen or MT239 alone and suggests that a combination vaccine of Renogen and MT239 may be useful as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against BKD. (4) Full-sib (inbred) groups of chinook salmon have thus far exhibited lower ocean survival than half-sib and non-related groups. Effects of inbreeding on fluctuating asymmetry did not follow expected patterns. (5) Sockeye salmon were exposed to specific odorants at either the alevin/emergent fry stage or the smolt stage to determine the relative importance of odorant exposure during key developmental periods and the importance of exposure duration. (6) Experimental studies to determine the effects of exercise conditioning on steelhead reproductive behavior and the effects of male body size on chinook salmon fertilization success during natural spawning were completed.

  3. Disentangling the roles of air exposure, gill net injury, and facilitated recovery on the postcapture and release mortality and behavior of adult migratory sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in freshwater.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vivian M; Martins, Eduardo G; Robichaud, Dave; Raby, Graham D; Donaldson, Michael R; Lotto, Andrew G; Willmore, William G; Patterson, David A; Farrell, Anthony P; Hinch, Scott G; Cooke, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    We sought to improve the understanding of delayed mortality in migrating sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) captured and released in freshwater fisheries. Using biotelemetry, blood physiology, and reflex assessments, we evaluated the relative roles of gill net injury and air exposure and investigated whether using a recovery box improved survival. Fish (n=238), captured by beach seine, were allocated to four treatment groups: captured only, air exposed, injured, and injured and air exposed. Only half of the fish in each group were provided with a 15-min facilitated recovery. After treatment, fish were radio-tagged and released to resume their migration. Blood status was assessed in 36 additional untagged fish sampled after the four treatments. Compared with fish sampled immediately on capture, all treatments resulted in elevated plasma lactate and cortisol concentrations. After air exposure, plasma osmolality was elevated and reflexes were significantly impaired relative to the control and injured treatments. Injured fish exhibited reduced short-term migration speed by 3.2 km/d and had a 14.5% reduced survival to subnatal watersheds compared to controls. The 15-min facilitated recovery improved reflex assessment relative to fish released immediately but did not affect survival. We suggest that in sockeye salmon migrating in cool water temperatures (∼13°-16°C), delayed mortality can result from injury and air exposure, perhaps through sublethal stress, and that injury created additive delayed mortality likely via secondary infections.

  4. Disentangling the roles of air exposure, gill net injury, and facilitated recovery on the postcapture and release mortality and behavior of adult migratory sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in freshwater.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vivian M; Martins, Eduardo G; Robichaud, Dave; Raby, Graham D; Donaldson, Michael R; Lotto, Andrew G; Willmore, William G; Patterson, David A; Farrell, Anthony P; Hinch, Scott G; Cooke, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    We sought to improve the understanding of delayed mortality in migrating sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) captured and released in freshwater fisheries. Using biotelemetry, blood physiology, and reflex assessments, we evaluated the relative roles of gill net injury and air exposure and investigated whether using a recovery box improved survival. Fish (n=238), captured by beach seine, were allocated to four treatment groups: captured only, air exposed, injured, and injured and air exposed. Only half of the fish in each group were provided with a 15-min facilitated recovery. After treatment, fish were radio-tagged and released to resume their migration. Blood status was assessed in 36 additional untagged fish sampled after the four treatments. Compared with fish sampled immediately on capture, all treatments resulted in elevated plasma lactate and cortisol concentrations. After air exposure, plasma osmolality was elevated and reflexes were significantly impaired relative to the control and injured treatments. Injured fish exhibited reduced short-term migration speed by 3.2 km/d and had a 14.5% reduced survival to subnatal watersheds compared to controls. The 15-min facilitated recovery improved reflex assessment relative to fish released immediately but did not affect survival. We suggest that in sockeye salmon migrating in cool water temperatures (∼13°-16°C), delayed mortality can result from injury and air exposure, perhaps through sublethal stress, and that injury created additive delayed mortality likely via secondary infections. PMID:24457927

  5. The relative stability of salmon redds and unspawned streambeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, Todd H.; Buffington, John M.; Yager, Elowyn M.; Hassan, Marwan A.; Fremier, Alexander K.

    2015-08-01

    Where female salmon build nests ("redds"), streambed material is mixed, fine sediment is winnowed, and bed material is moved into a tailspill mound resembling the shape of a dune. Completed redd surfaces are coarser and better sorted than unspawned beds, which is thought to increase redd stability because larger grains are heavier and harder to move, and sorting increases friction angles for mobility. However, spawning also loosens sediment and creates topography that accelerates flow, which can increase particle mobility. We address these factors controlling the relative stability of redds and unspawned beds in flume experiments where redds were constructed with a dynamic technique that mimics the nesting behavior of female salmon. Although redds exhibited relatively coarse surfaces, measured entrainment forces indicate particle loosening by spawning lowered grain resistance to motion by 12-37% on average compared to unspawned beds. In addition, for the same discharges, boundary shear stress was 13-41% higher on a redd due to flow convergence on the tailspill. Visual measurements of particle entrainment further indicated redd instability, as bed-average shear stress was 22% lower at incipient motion and 29% lower at the discharge that mobilized all grain sizes on a redd. Overall, results demonstrate that redds are unstable compared to unspawned beds, which increases the risk of scour for buried eggs but may facilitate fine sediment flushing and improve the quality of spawning gravels for future generations of spawners. Therefore, managing salmon returns to increase streambed disturbance may be an effective tool for reducing sedimentation impacts on salmon reproduction.

  6. Return to Work: Work-Based Learning and the Reintegration of Unemployed Adults into the Labour Market. Working Paper No 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehmel, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Low-qualified adults have experienced a greater rise in unemployment than any other group in Europe. What particular barriers are they facing in (re-)entering the labour market? How can VET be used in active labour market policies to help overcome these barriers? How can training programmes be designed to address the particular needs of this…

  7. Design, Development, and Evaluation of Career Education Materials for Adult Farmworkers with Limited English-Speaking Ability Who Return to Formal Education. Final Report, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Donald R.

    A project was conducted to design, develop, and evaluate the effectiveness of bilingual (Spanish and English) career education materials for adult farmworkers with limited English-speaking ability. A career education manual, a series of audio- and video-taped interviews with former farmworkers employed in various job cluster areas, and a…

  8. Decisions, Provisions and Disillusionment for Non-Vocational Adult Learning (NVAL) Staff in South-Eastern Europe: A Comparative Appraisal of Some Policy Developments with Diminishing Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarifis, George K.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2000, the European Union has given greater attention to lifelong learning, as expressed in the Lisbon presidency conclusions and the general objectives of the Education and Training 2010 work programme. In September 2007, these policy proposals were further strengthened with the announcement of the "Action Plan on Adult Learning" that sets…

  9. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallinat, Michael; Varney, Michelle

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program during 2002. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon selected from the supplementation program to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts) and wild production, are expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The captive broodstock program collected fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). As of January 1, 2003, WDFW has approximately 11 BY 1998, 194 BY 1999, 314 BY 2000, 447 BY 2001, and 300 BY 2002 (for extra males) fish on hand at LFH. The 2002 eggtake from the 1997 brood year (Age 5) was 13,176 eggs from 10 ripe females. Egg survival was 22%. Mean fecundity based on the 5 fully spawned females was 1,803 eggs/female. The 2002 eggtake from the 1998 brood year (Age 4) was 143,709 eggs from 93 ripe females. Egg survival was 29%. Mean fecundity based on the 81 fully spawned females was 1,650 eggs/female. The 2002 eggtake from the 1999 brood year (Age 3) was 19,659 eggs from 18 ripe females. Egg survival was 55%. Mean fecundity based on the 18 fully spawned fish was 1,092 eggs/female. The total 2002 eggtake from the captive brood program was 176,544 eggs. A total of 120,833 dead eggs (68%) were removed with 55,711 live eggs remaining for the program. As of May 1, 2003 we had 46,417 BY 2002 captive brood progeny on hand A total of 20,592 excess BY 01 fish were marked as parr (AD/CWT) and

  10. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.

    2016-01-01

    months after addition. All taxa returned to background δ15N levels by 7 months. Since this study was conducted, both dams on the Elwha River were removed over 2011–2014 to open over 90% of the basin to anadromous fishes. We anticipate that as the full portfolio of salmon species expands through the basin, nutrient supply and demand will come into better balance.

  11. 1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  12. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  13. Effectiveness of an integrated hatchery program: Can genetic-based performance differences between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon be avoided?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Michael C.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Drake, Deanne C.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Young, Sewall F.

    2013-01-01

    Performance of wild (W) and hatchery (H) spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was evaluated for a sixth generation hatchery program. Management techniques to minimize genetic divergence from the wild stock included regular use of wild broodstock and volitional releases of juveniles. Performance of HH, WW, and HW (hatchery female spawned with wild male) crosses was compared in hatchery and stream environments. The WW juveniles emigrated from the hatchery at two to three times the rate of HH fish in the fall (HW intermediate) and 35% more HH than WW adults returned (27% more HW than WW adults). Performance in the stream did not differ statistically between HH and WW fish, but outmigrants (38% WW, 30% HW, and 32% HH fish) during the first 39 days of the 16-month sampling period composed 74% of total outmigrants. Differences among hatchery-reared crosses were partially due to additive genetic effects, were consistent with domestication (increased fitness for the hatchery population in the hatchery program), and suggested that selection against fall emigration from the hatchery was a possible mechanism of domestication.

  14. Nutrient additions to mitigate for loss of Pacific salmon: consequences for stream biofilm and nutrient dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitigation activities designed to supplement nutrient and organic matter inputs to streams experiencing decline or loss of Pacific salmon typically presuppose that an important pathway by which salmon nutrients are moved to fish (anadromous and/or resident) is via nutrient incorporation by biofilms and subsequent bottom-up stimulation of biofilm production, which is nutrient-limited in many ecosystems where salmon returns have declined. Our objective was to quantify the magnitude of nutrient incorporation and biofilm dynamics that underpin this indirect pathway in response to experimental additions of salmon carcasses and pelletized fish meal (a.k.a., salmon carcass analogs) to 500-m reaches of central Idaho streams over three years. Biofilm standing crops increased 2–8-fold and incorporated marine-derived nutrients (measured using 15N and 13C) in the month following treatment, but these responses did not persist year-to-year. Biofilms were nitrogen (N) limited before treatments, and remained N limited in analog, but not carcass-treated reaches. Despite these biofilm responses, in the month following treatment total N load was equal to 33–47% of the N added to the treated reaches, and N spiraling measurements suggested that as much as 20%, but more likely 2–3% of added N was taken up by microbes. Design of biologically and cost-effective strategies for nutrient addition will require understanding the rates at which stream microbes take up nutrients and the downstream distance traveled by exported nutrients.

  15. Evidence for geomagnetic imprinting as a homing mechanism in Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Lohmann, Kenneth J; Putman, Emily M; Quinn, Thomas P; Klimley, A Peter; Noakes, David L G

    2013-02-18

    In the final phase of their spawning migration, Pacific salmon use chemical cues to identify their home river, but how they navigate from the open ocean to the correct coastal area has remained enigmatic. To test the hypothesis that salmon imprint on the magnetic field that exists where they first enter the sea and later seek the same field upon return, we analyzed a 56-year fisheries data set on Fraser River sockeye salmon, which must detour around Vancouver Island to approach the river through either a northern or southern passageway. We found that the proportion of salmon using each route was predicted by geomagnetic field drift: the more the field at a passage entrance diverged from the field at the river mouth, the fewer fish used the passage. We also found that more fish used the northern passage in years with warmer sea surface temperature (presumably because fish were constrained to more northern latitudes). Field drift accounted for 16% of the variation in migratory route used, temperature 22%, and the interaction between these variables 28%. These results provide the first empirical evidence of geomagnetic imprinting in any species and imply that forecasting salmon movements is possible using geomagnetic models. PMID:23394828

  16. Cle Elum Lake Sockeye Salmon Restoration Feasibility Study, 1987-1989 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1990-02-01

    This report summarizes research activities conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) from July 1988 through March 1989 relating to the Cle Elum Lake sockeye salmon restoration feasibility study. During this period, efforts focused on collection and spawning of adult sockeye salmon from the Wenatchee River, incubation of eggs from the 1988-brood, and the rearing of juveniles from the 1987-brood. In late July and early August 1988, 520 adult sockeye salmon were captured at fishways on the Wenatchee River and transferred to net-pens in Lake Wenatchee. Fish were held to maturity in late September and early October, spawned, and eggs incubated at a quarantine hatchery in Seattle, WA. The 336 sockeye salmon successfully spawned from the net-pens at Lake Wenatchee were surveyed for the presence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and other replicating viruses. In addition, 13 and 5 sockeye salmon spawners were surveyed from spawning grounds on the White and Little Wenatchee Rivers, respectively, from within the Lake Wenatchee system. 12 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Brood Program, FY 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  18. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  19. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock; Research Element, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1995-12-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game during the period of April 1993 to April 1994 are covered by this report. Eight anadromous adults (two female and six male) returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year and were spawned at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. Fecundity was 3160 for each female. The mean fertilization rate was 52% for female {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and 65% for female {open_quotes}B.{close_quotes} Captive broodstock also spawned as well as residual sockeye captured in a Merwin trap in Redfish Lake. Spawning data from 72 fish spawned during this period is included in this report. Captive broodstock also matured later than normal (winter and spring 1994). Fish were spawned and samples were taken to investigate reasons for poor fertilization rates. Twenty-four out migrants of 1991 were selected for return to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning. Releases were made in August of 1993. All fish were implanted with sonic tags and tracking of this group began soon after the release to identify spawning-related activities. A research project is being conducted on captive broodstock diets. The project will investigate the effect of diet modification on spawn timing, gamete quality, and fertilization rates. A second project used ultrasound to examine fish for sexual maturity. The goal was to obtain a group a fish to be released f or volitional spawning. A total of 44 fish were found to be mature. The performance of all captive groups held at Eagle are included in this report.

  20. PNW WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

  1. WILD SALMON IN 2100: AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON SALMON RECOVERY - MAY 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project does not...

  2. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reighn, Christopher A.; Lewis, Bert; Taki, Doug

    1999-06-01

    Information contained in this report summarizes the work that has been done by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fisheries Department under BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450. Relevant data generated by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe will be collated with other ISS cooperator data collected from the Salmon and Clearwater rivers and tributary streams. A summary of data presented in this report and an initial project-wide level supplementation evaluation will be available in the ISS 5 year report that is currently in progress. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department is responsible for monitoring a variety of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) production parameters as part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies (BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450). Parameters include parr abundance in tributaries to the upper Salmon River; adult chinook salmon spawner abundance, redd counts, and carcass collection. A rotary screw trap is operated on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag chinook smolts. These traps are also used to monitor parr movement, and collect individuals for the State and Tribal chinook salmon captive rearing program. The SBT monitors fisheries parameters in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork. Chinook populations in all SBT-ISS monitored streams continue to decline. The South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek have the strongest remaining populations. Snorkel survey methodology was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. Confidence intervals for the parr population estimates were large, especially when the populations were low. In 1998, based on ISS cooperator agreement, snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was ceased due to the large confidence intervals. A rotary screw trap was

  3. The response of stream periphyton to Pacific salmon: using a model to understand the role of environmental context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellmore, J. Ryan; Fremier, Alexander K.; Mejia, Francine; Newsom, Michael

    2014-01-01

    1. In stream ecosystems, Pacific salmon deliver subsidies of marine-derived nutrients and disturb the stream bed during spawning. The net effect of this nutrient subsidy and physical disturbance on biological communities can be hard to predict and is likely to be mediated by environmental conditions. For periphyton, empirical studies have revealed that the magnitude and direction of the response to salmon varies from one location to the next. Salmon appear to increase periphyton biomass and/or production in some contexts (a positive response), but decrease them in others (a negative response). 2. To reconcile these seemingly conflicting results, we constructed a system dynamics model that links periphyton biomass and production to salmon spawning. We used this model to explore how environmental conditions influence the periphyton response to salmon. 3. Our simulations suggest that the periphyton response to salmon is strongly mediated by both background nutrient concentrations and the proportion of the stream bed suitable for spawning. Positive periphyton responses occurred when both background nutrient concentrations were low (nutrient limiting conditions) and when little of the stream bed was suitable for spawning (because the substratum is too coarse). In contrast, negative responses occurred when nutrient concentrations were higher or a larger proportion of the bed was suitable for spawning. 4. Although periphyton biomass generally remained above or below background conditions for several months following spawning, periphyton production returned quickly to background values shortly afterwards. As a result, based upon our simulations, salmon did not greatly increase or decrease overall annual periphyton production. This suggests that any increase in production by fish or invertebrates in response to returning salmon is more likely to occur via direct consumption of salmon carcasses and/or eggs, rather than the indirect effects of greater periphyton production. 5

  4. Seabird sockeye salmon co-variation in the eastern Bering Sea: Phenology as an ecosystem indicator and salmonid predictor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydeman, William J.; Abraham, Christine L.; Vernon Byrd, G.

    2008-08-01

    Seabirds ( Rissa spp. and Uria spp.) and sockeye salmon ( Onchorhynchus nerka) of the eastern Bering Sea share similarities in their trophic ecology. We tested the role of seabirds as indicators of food web conditions that affect sockeye salmon at sea survival by investigating co-variation between seabirds breeding on the Pribilof Islands and returns of Bristol Bay sockeyes. We examined seabird phenology (hatching dates of eggs) against sockeye returns based on the year of ocean entry. Annual seabird hatching date was inversely related to sockeye returns, with the strongest co-variation found for sockeye which entered the ocean at 2 years of age (age 2 x smolts). The mechanism supporting this co-variation is unknown, but both birds and salmon may be responding to changes in prey availability (a "bottom-up" effect). The co-variation between seabird hatching date and sockeye returns supports the idea that variation in seabird breeding parameters indicates food web conditions that also affect other upper trophic level predators in marine systems. Coupling seabird phenology with existing annual predictions for Bristol Bay salmon may improve forecasts and fishery management.

  5. Climate variability and the collapse of a Chinook salmon stock (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindley, S.; Mohr, M.; Peterson, W. T.; Grimes, C.; Stein, J.; Anderson, J.; Botsford, L. W.; Bottom, D.; Busack, C.; Collier, T.; Ferguson, J.; Garza, C.; Grover, A.; Hankin, D.; Kope, R.; Lawson, P.; Low, A.; Macfarlane, B.; Moore, K.; Palmer-Zwahlen, M.; Schwing, F. B.; Smith, J.; Tracy, C.; Webb, R. S.; Wells, B.; Williams, T.

    2009-12-01

    As recently as 2002, nearly 1.5 million Sacrament River fall Chinook (SRFC) were caught in fisheries or returned to the Sacramento River basin to spawn. Only 66,000 spawners returned to natural areas and hatcheries in 2008. As a result of this dramatic decline, fisheries for Chinook salmon off California and Oregon were closed to protect SRFC in 2008 and 2009. In this paper, we show that the proximate cause of this unprecedented collapse was unusual but perhaps not unprecedented oceanographic conditions in the coastal ocean that created poor feeding conditions for juvenile salmon. The ultimate cause of the collapse may be the declining resilience of the Central Valley chinook complex that has been driven by a century and a half of land and water development. A simple conceptual model illustrates how the dynamics of a salmon population supplemented by hatchery production are influenced by trends in freshwater environmental quality, hatchery production, fitness, and climate. The model predicts that SRFC will recover to higher levels of abundance when ocean conditions improve (which may already be happening), only to decline sharply when ocean conditions again turn poor. Improving the sustainability of the Chinook salmon fishery depends on reversing trends in freshwater and estuarine habitat quality and quantity, which should also benefit runs of Chinook protected by the Endangered Species Act. Ecosystem-based management and ecological risk assessment will be required to make progress on these challenging problems, which are being exacerbated by climate change and human development.

  6. Maternal consumption of Lake Ontario salmon in rats produces behavioral changes in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Daly, H B; Stewart, P W; Lunkenheimer, L; Sargent, D

    1998-01-01

    The current study assessed the effects of maternal, paternal, or combined parental consumption of Lake Ontario salmon in rats on the behavior of their offspring. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were put on a 30 day diet of either ground rat chow containing 30% Lake Ontario salmon (LAKE) or 30% Pacific Ocean salmon (OCEAN). These females were then mated with adult male rats similarly exposed (LAKE or OCEAN). An additional control group of males and females who were fed ground rat chow (MASH) only were also mated. These pairing combinations resulted in five offspring groups: LAKE-LAKE, LAKE-OCEAN, OCEAN-LAKE, OCEAN-OCEAN, MASH-MASH. When the offspring reached 80 days of age, they were tested for reactivity to frustrative nonreward using runway successive negative contrast, which has been repeatedly shown to be increased in adult rats fed Ontario salmon. Consistent with previous work, results showed that the behavior of the OCEAN-OCEAN rats did not differ from the MASH-MASH group, indicating that a salmon diet per se does not cause behavioral change. However, the offspring of dams who consumed Lake Ontario salmon (LAKE-LAKE and OCEAN-LAKE) showed an increased depression effect relative to controls. There was little evidence of a paternal effect. A follow-up experiment employed cross-fostering to determine the relative contribution of pre- and/or postnatal exposure to Lake Ontario salmon consumption on offspring behavior. Rat pups were cross-fostered to or from dams who consumed Lake Ontario salmon during gestation and parturition. Results from two separate replications indicated that prenatal (LAKE to OCEAN) exposure alone or postnatal (OCEAN to LAKE) exposure alone produced a large increase in successive negative contrast relative to controls (OCEAN to OCEAN). These data are strong evidence of behavioral changes produced by maternal consumption of Lake Ontario salmon in the offspring rat. Further, they indicate that either prenatal or postnatal exposure alone is

  7. Cortisol and Pacific Salmon: A New Look at the Role of Stress Hormones in Olfaction and Home-stream Migration.

    PubMed

    Carruth, Laura L; Jones, Richard E; Norris, David O

    2002-07-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) exhibit an interesting and uncommon life-history pattern that combines semelparity, anadromy, and navigation (homing). During smoltification, young salmon imprint on the chemical composition of their natal stream water (the home-stream olfactory bouquet or "HSOB"); they then migrate to the ocean where they spend a few years feeding prior to migrating back to their natal freshwater stream to spawn. Upstream migration is guided by the amazing ability to discriminate between the chemical compositions of different stream waters and thus identify and travel to their home-stream. Pacific salmon demonstrate marked somatic and neural degeneration changes during home-stream migration and at the spawning grounds. The appearance of these pathologies is correlated with a marked elevation in plasma cortisol levels. While the mechanisms of salmonid homing are not completely understood, it is known that adult salmon continuously utilize two of their primary sensory systems, olfaction and vision, during homing. Olfaction is the primary sensory system involved in freshwater homing and "HSOB" recognition, and will be emphasized here. Previously, we proposed that the increase in plasma cortisol during Pacific salmon home-stream migration is adaptive because it enhances the salmon's ability to recall the imprinted memory of the "HSOB" (Carruth, 1998; Carruth et al., 2000b). Elevated plasma concentrations of cortisol could prime the hippocampus or other olfactory regions of the brain to recall this memory and, therefore, aid in directing the fish to their natal stream. Thus, specific responses of salmon to stressors could enhance reproductive success.

  8. Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis – infected Atlantic salmon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

  9. THE SALMON 2100 PROJECT -- AN ALTERNATIVES FUTURES PERSPECTIVE ON PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

  10. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric...

  11. The return of the house call: the role of internet-based interactivity in bringing health information home to older adults.

    PubMed

    Macias, Wendy; McMillan, Sally

    2008-01-01

    This study provides qualitative insight into how older adults are using the Internet for health communication. The research is framed with theory from several disciplines, including health and interactive communication, as well as related theoretical models. Data from focus groups was used to develop a model of seniors' online health interactions. Three primary themes that emerged in focus groups form the key elements of the model: the health situation, health information, and the medical field. Implications are suggested for advertising and marketing on the Internet, health information providers, and academic researchers in these areas.

  12. The return of the house call: the role of internet-based interactivity in bringing health information home to older adults.

    PubMed

    Macias, Wendy; McMillan, Sally

    2008-01-01

    This study provides qualitative insight into how older adults are using the Internet for health communication. The research is framed with theory from several disciplines, including health and interactive communication, as well as related theoretical models. Data from focus groups was used to develop a model of seniors' online health interactions. Three primary themes that emerged in focus groups form the key elements of the model: the health situation, health information, and the medical field. Implications are suggested for advertising and marketing on the Internet, health information providers, and academic researchers in these areas. PMID:18443991

  13. Dam breaching and Chinook salmon recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Rossignol, Philippe A.; Li, Hiram W.; Emlen, John M.; Kareiva, Peter; Marvier, Michelle; Michelle M. McClure,

    2001-01-01

    The Report by Kareiva et al. on recovery and management options for spring/summer chinook salmon (1) has the potential to have a major impact in deciding whether to breach dams on the Snake River. Based on interpretation of their model results, they argue that dam breaching would be insufficient to reverse the decline of salmon. An examination of the specifics of their model, however, suggests that, despire their argument, dam breaching remains a viable recovery option for chinook salmon.

  14. Analysis of Salmon and Steelhead Supplementation, 1990 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William H.; Coley, Travis C.; Burge, Howard L.

    1990-09-01

    Supplementation or planting salmon and steelhead into various locations in the Columbia River drainage has occurred for over 100 years. All life stages, from eggs to adults, have been used by fishery managers in attempts to establish, rebuild, or maintain anadromous runs. This report summarizes and evaluates results of past and current supplementation of salmon and steelhead. Conclusions and recommendations are made concerning supplementation. Hatchery rearing conditions and stocking methods can affect post released survival of hatchery fish. Stress was considered by many biologists to be a key factor in survival of stocked anadromous fish. Smolts were the most common life stage released and size of smolts correlated positively with survival. Success of hatchery stockings of eggs and presmolts was found to be better if they are put into productive, underseeded habitats. Stocking time, method, species stocked, and environmental conditions of the receiving waters, including other fish species present, are factors to consider in supplementation programs. The unpublished supplementation literature was reviewed primarily by the authors of this report. Direct contact was made in person or by telephone and data compiled on a computer database. Areas covered included Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Alaska, California, British Columbia, and the New England states working with Atlantic salmon. Over 300 projects were reviewed and entered into a computer database. The database information is contained in Appendix A of this report. 6 refs., 9 figs., 21 tabs.

  15. Differential gene expression of bgp and mgp in trabecular and compact bone of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Krossøy, Christel; Ornsrud, Robin; Wargelius, Anna

    2009-12-01

    The tissue-specific gene expression of the vitamin K-dependent proteins bone gamma-carboxyglutamate-protein (BGP) and matrix gamma-carboxyglutamate-protein (MGP) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was investigated. In previous studies, BGP, the most abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, was almost exclusively associated with bone, whereas the non-structural protein MGP has a more widespread tissue distribution. In-situ hybridization of juvenile Atlantic salmon ( approximately 40 g, fresh water) vertebrae demonstrated expression of bgp and mgp mRNA in osteoblasts lining the trabecular bone, whereas no staining was observed in the compact bone. By separating the trabecular and compact bone of both juvenile ( approximately 40 g, fresh water) and adult ( approximately 1000 g, sea water) Atlantic salmon, we observed that the two vertebral bone compartments displayed different levels of bgp, whereas no such differences were seen for mgp. Measurements of the mineral content and Ca/P molar ratio in adult salmon revealed no significant differences between trabecular and compact bone. In conclusion, the osteoblasts covering the salmon vertebrae have unique gene expression patterns and levels of bgp and mgp. Further, the study confirms the presence of mRNA from the vitamin K-dependent proteins BGP and MGP in the vertebrae, fin and gills of Atlantic salmon.

  16. Predation on Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery salmonids and Fallfish in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; McKenna, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally reproduced Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha contribute substantially to the fishery in Lake Ontario. The Salmon River, a Lake Ontario tributary in New York, produces the largest numbers of naturally spawned Chinook Salmon, with parr abundance in the river often exceeding 10 million. In the spring of each year, large numbers of hatchery salmonid yearlings—potential predators of Chinook Salmon parr—are released into the Salmon River by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. We sought to examine predation on Chinook Salmon parr in the Salmon River during May and June prior to out-migration. Over the 4 years examined (2009–2012), annual consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery-released yearling steelhead O. mykiss and Coho Salmon O. kisutch ranged from 1.5 to 3.3 million and from 0.4 to 2.1 million, respectively. In 2009, Fallfish Semotilus corporalis were estimated to consume 2.9 million Chinook Salmon parr. Predation was higher in May, when the average TL of Chinook Salmon parr was 44.5 mm, than in June. Fallfish were also important predators of naturally reproduced steelhead subyearlings, consuming an estimated 800,000 steelhead in 2009. Hatchery-released yearling salmonids consumed 13.8–15.3% of the Chinook Salmon parr that were estimated to be present in the Salmon River during 2010–2012. Earlier releases of hatchery salmonid yearlings could reduce the riverine consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by facilitating the out-migration of yearlings prior to Chinook Salmon emergence.

  17. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

  18. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2001.

  19. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish

  20. Quantifying the behavioral response of spawning chum salmon to elevated discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, K.F.; Haskell, C.A.; Kock, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta that spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River, USA, are periodically subjected to elevated discharges that may alter spawning behaviour. We investigated behavioural responses of spawning chum salmon to increased water velocities associated with experimental increases in tailwater elevation using acoustic telemetry and a dual-frequency identification sonar. Chum salmon primarily remained near their redds at base tailwater elevations (3.5 m above mean sea level), but displayed different movement and behavioural responses as elevations were increased to either 4.1 or 4.7m for 8-h periods. When velocities remained suitable (<0.8m s-1) during elevated-tailwater tests, female chum salmon remained near their redds but exhibited reduced digging activity as water velocities increased. However, when velocities exceeded 0.8m s-1, the females that remained on their redds exhibited increased swimming activity and digging virtually ceased. Female and male chum salmon that left their redds when velocities became unsuitable moved mean distances ranging from 32 to 58 m to occupy suitable velocities, but returned to their redds after tailwaters returned to base levels. Spawning events (i.e. egg deposition) were observed for five of nine pairs of chum salmon following tests indicating any disruptions to normal behaviour caused by elevated tailwaters were likely temporary. We believe a chum salmon's decision to either remain on, or leave, its redd during periods of unsuitably high water velocities reflects time invested in the redd and the associated energetic costs it is willing to incur. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1989 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    In 1979 this study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook salmon from the Columbia River. Coded wire tagging (CWT) of hatchery fall chinook salmon began in 1979 with the 1978 brood and was completed in 1982 with the 1981 brood of fish at rearing facilities on the Columbia River system. From 18 to 20 rearing facilities were involved in the study each brood year. Nearly 14 million tagged fish, about 4% of the production, were released as part of this study over the four years, 1979 through 1982. Sampling for recoveries of these tagged fish occurred from 1980 through 1986 in the sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and returns to hatcheries and adjacent streams. The National Marine Fisheries Service coordinated this study among three fishery agencies: US Fish and Wildfire Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution, fishery contribution, survival, and value of the production of fall chinook salmon from each rearing facility on the Columbia River system to Pacific coast salmon fisheries. To achieve these objectives fish from each hatchery were given a distinctive CWT. 81 refs., 20 figs., 68 tabs.

  2. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M.

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  3. Swimbladder Leiomyosarcoma in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in North America.

    PubMed

    Bowser, Paul R; Casey, James W; Casey, Rufina N; Quackenbush, Sandra L; Lofton, Larry; Coll, John A; Cipriano, Rocco C

    2012-07-01

    Leiomyosarcoma with associated retrovirus were found in North America for the first time in adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) held in a quarantine facility at the North Attleboro National Fish Hatchery (NANFH), Massachusetts, USA. The fish had been collected as age 1-2 yr animals from the Pleasant River, Maine, and were to be used as brood stock in a population augmentation program for that river. Neoplastic disease was observed at NANFH initially in older (age 4 yr) fish, followed by age 3 yr fish. Disease was not observed in age 2 yr fish. The mortality pattern was chronic.

  4. Studies of transmission of mycobacterial infections in Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Johnson, H.E.

    1962-01-01

    THE INCLUSION OF VISCERA AND CARCASSES OF TUBERCULOUS ADULT SALMON IN THE DIET OF JUVENILE SALMONIDS is considered to be the major source of mycobacterial infections in hatchery-reared fish (Wood and Ordal, 1958; Ross, Earp, and Wood, 1959). In considering additional modes of infection, we speculated about transovarian transmission or a mechanical process arising from contamination of the ova at the egg-taking stage with subsequent entry of the bacteria into the egg at the time of fertilization. This paper is a report on observations made during an experiment designed to test the latter theories.

  5. Smolt Quality Assessment of Spring Chinook Salmon : Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zaugg, Waldo S.

    1991-04-01

    The physiological development and physiological condition of spring chinook salmon are being studied at several hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin. The purpose of the study is to determine whether any or several smolt indices can be related to adult recovery and be used to improve hatchery effectiveness. The tests conducted in 1989 on juvenile chinook salmon at Dworshak, Leavenworth, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries, and the Oregon State Willamette Hatchery assessed saltwater tolerance, gill ATPase, cortisol, insulin, thyroid hormones, secondary stress, fish morphology, metabolic energy stores, immune response, blood cell numbers, and plasma ion concentrations. The study showed that smolt development may have occurred before the fish were released from the Willamette Hatchery, but not from the Dworshak, Leavenworth, or Warm Springs Hatcheries. These results will be compared to adult recovery data when they become available, to determine which smolt quality indices may be used to predict adult recovery. The relative rankings of smolt quality at the different hatcheries do not necessarily reflect the competency of the hatchery managers and staff, who have shown a high degree of professionalism and expertise in fish rearing. We believe that the differences in smolt quality are due to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. One aim of this research is to identify factors that influence smolt development and that may be controlled through fish husbandry to regulate smolt development. 35 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake River Chinook salmon: a biological-economic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Halsing, David L; Moore, Michael R

    2008-04-01

    The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can

  7. Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake River Chinook salmon: a biological-economic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Halsing, David L; Moore, Michael R

    2008-04-01

    The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can

  8. Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake river chinook salmon: A biological-economic synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsing, D.L.; Moore, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can

  9. Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

  10. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (Steelhead; Oncorhynchus mykiss) Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon from 5 October 2006 to 21 June 2007, Annual Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, Brian; Espinosa, Neal

    2009-02-18

    This report summarizes the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) Department of Fisheries Resources Management (DFRM) results for the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) Hatchery Evaluation studies and the Imnaha River Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 2007 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies are closely coordinated and provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery spring/summer Naco x (Chinook Salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (steelhead; O. mykiss) biological characteristics, emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam (MCD) on the Columbia River. These studies provide information on listed Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) for the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (NMFS 2000). The Lower Snake River Compensation Plan program's goal is to maintain a hatchery production program of 490,000 Naco x (Chinook salmon) and 330,000 Heeyey (steelhead) for annual release in the Imnaha River (Carmichael et al. 1998, Whitesel et al. 1998). These hatchery releases occur to compensate for fish losses due to the construction and operation of the four lower Snake River hydroelectric facilities. One of the aspects of the LSRCP hatchery evaluation studies in the Imnaha River is to determine natural and hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) smolt performance, emigration characteristics and survival (Kucera and Blenden 1998). A long term monitoring effort was established to document smolt emigrant timing and post release survival within the Imnaha River, estimate smolt survival downstream to McNary Dam, compare natural and hatchery smolt performance, and collect smolt-to-adult return information. This project collects information for, and is part of, a larger effort entitled Smolt Monitoring by Federal and Non-Federal Agencies (BPA Project No. 198712700). This larger project provides data on movement of smolts out of major drainages

  11. Long-term Records of Pacific Salmon Abundance From Sediment Core Analysis: Relationships to Past Climatic Change, and Implications for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, B.

    2002-12-01

    The response of Pacific salmon to future climatic change is uncertain, but will have large impacts on the economy, culture and ecology of the North Pacific Rim. Relationships between sockeye salmon populations and climatic change can be determined by analyzing sediment cores from lakes where sockeye return to spawn. Sockeye salmon return to their natal lake system to spawn and subsequently die following 2 - 3 years of feeding in the North Pacific Ocean. Sockeye salmon abundance can be reconstructed from stable nitrogen isotope analysis of lake sediment cores as returning sockeye transport significant quantities of N, relatively enriched in N-15, from the ocean to freshwater systems. Temporal changes in the input of salmon-derived N, and hence salmon abundance, can be quantified through downcore analysis of N isotopes. Reconstructions of sockeye salmon abundance from lakes in several regions of Alaska show similar temporal patterns, with variability occurring on decadal to millennial timescales. Over the past 2000 years, shifts in sockeye salmon abundance far exceed the historical decadal-scale variability. A decline occurred from about 100 BC - 800 AD, but salmon were consistently more abundant 1200 - 1900 AD. Declines since 1900 AD coincide with the period of extensive commercial fishing. Correspondence between these records and paleoclimatic data suggest that changes in salmon abundance are related to large scale climatic changes over the North Pacific. For example, the increase in salmon abundance c.a. 1200 AD corresponds to a period of glacial advance in southern Alaska, and a shift to drier conditions in western North America. Although the regionally coherent patterns in reconstructed salmon abundance are consistent with the hypothesis that climate is an important driver, the relationships do not always follow patterns observed in the 20th century. A main feature of recorded climate variability in this region is the alternation between multi-decade periods of

  12. Spawning distribution of sockeye salmon in a glacially influenced watershed: The importance of glacial habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, D.B.; Woody, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The spawning distribution of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka was compared between clear and glacially turbid habitats in Lake Clark, Alaska, with the use of radiotelemetry. Tracking of 241 adult sockeye salmon to 27 spawning locations revealed both essential habitats and the relationship between spawn timing and seasonal turbidity cycles. Sixty-six percent of radio-tagged sockeye salmon spawned in turbid waters (???5 nephelometric turbidity units) where visual observation was difficult. Spawning in turbid habitats coincided with seasonal temperature declines and associated declines in turbidity and suspended sediment concentration. Because spawn timing is heritable and influenced by temperature, the observed behavior suggests an adaptive response to glacier-fed habitats, as it would reduce embryonic exposure to the adverse effects of fine sediments. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  13. Socialization Outcomes of Part Time Graduate Professional Social Work Education: A Comparison of Adult Students in Career Transition to Social Work with Returning Adult Students Who Have Undergraduate Training and Practical Experience in Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, David A.; Ross-Gordon, Jovita

    This study compared professional socialization outcomes in two groups of adult students in part time Masters of Social Work programs, 44 with an undergraduate degree in social work and at least 1 year of relevant work experience, and 26 with undergraduate degrees and work experience in other fields. Subjects were given three measures of attitudes…

  14. An Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology of Pacific Salmon, 1995 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnaken, Conrad V.W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides guidance for the refinement and use of captive broodstock technology for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by bringing together information on the husbandry techniques, genetic risks, physiology, nutrition, and pathology affecting captive broodstocks. Captive broodstock rearing of Pacific salmon is an evolving technology, as yet without well defined standards. At present, we regard captive rearing of Pacific salmon as problematic: high mortality rates and low egg viability were common in the programs we reviewed for this report. One of the most important elements in fish husbandry is the culture environment itself. Many captive broodstock programs for Pacific salmon have reared fish from smolt-to-adult in seawater net-pens, and most have shown success in providing gametes for recovery efforts. However, some programs have lost entire brood years to diseases that transmitted rapidly in this medium. Current programs for endangered species of Pacific salmon rear most fish full-term to maturity in fresh well-water, since ground water is low in pathogens and thus helps ensure survival to adulthood. Our review suggested that captive rearing of fish in either freshwater, well-water, or filtered and sterilized seawater supplied to land-based tanks should produce higher survival than culture in seawater net-pens.

  15. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume IX; Comparison of Statistical Methods of Estimating Treatment-Control Ratios Using Coded-Wire Tags, Based on Spring Chinook Salmon on the Columbia River, 1986-1988 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.

    2000-06-01

    The strength of a salmon run is often measured as the adult return rate from some previous brood year (i.e. the percent of a smolt population returning to spawn or captured in fisheries). The U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (ACOE) program of barge transportation of smolts from collector dams is one mitigation measure used to improve smolt survival. Using Coded Wire-tags, the adult return rates of transported and untransported smolt have been tracked. A ratio of the recovered percentages of adult salmon, those transported in the smolt stage over the salmon not transported (controls), is often used to summarize the program effectiveness. There are a number of ways to estimate this transportation/control (T/C) ratio, and this paper explores six alternative statistical models to improve accuracy and precision of the estimate. Assuming the proportion of adult recoveries are binomially distributed, the data were analyzed using linear regression of arc-sine square-root and logit transformations; general linear model regression (GLM) with logit- and log-links; and a maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE) of the T/C ratio. Profile likelihood intervals were calculated to generate 95% confidence interval estimates of the T/C ratio. Depending on the analytical method, T/C ratios varied greatly. Arc-sine square-root and logit transformations gave individual release T/C ratios which ranged from 1.0934 to 4.0076 and {minus}1.2193 to 1.9057, respectively. The negative T/C ratio is due to the back-transformation properties of the logit transformation. The GLM and MLE approaches produced mean T/C ratios (after adjusting for the individual release batch effects) ranging from 1.4964 to 1.4974. The recommended method from this analysis, a binomial maximum likelihood estimate adjusted for over-dispersion, produced a T/C ratio of 1.4965 with a 95% confidence interval of (1.0618, 1.9312).

  16. Can intense predation by bears exert a depensatory effect on recruitment in a Pacific salmon population?

    PubMed

    Quinn, Thomas P; Cunningham, Curry J; Randall, Jessica; Hilborn, Ray

    2014-10-01

    It has long been recognized that, as populations increase in density, ecological processes affecting growth and survival reduce per capita recruitment in the next generation. In contrast to the evidence for such "compensatory" density dependence, the alternative "depensatory" process (reduced per capita recruitment at low density) has proven more difficult to demonstrate in the field. To test for such depensation, we measured the spawner-recruit relationship over five decades for a sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) population in Alaska breeding in high-quality, unaltered habitat. Twenty-five years of detailed estimates of predation by brown bears, Ursus arctos, revealed strong density dependence in predation rate; the bears killed ca. 80% of the salmon in years of low salmon spawning abundance. Nevertheless, the reconstructed spawner-recruit relationship, adjusted to include salmon intercepted in the commercial fishery, provided no evidence of demographic depensation. That is, in years when few salmon returned and the great majority were killed by bears, the few that spawned were successful enough that the population remained highly productive, even when those killed by bears were included as potential spawners. We conclude that the high quality of breeding habitat at this site and the productive nature of semelparous Pacific salmon allowed this population to avoid the hypothesized depressed recruitment from depensatory processes expected at low density. The observed lack of demographic depensation is encouraging from a conservation standpoint because it implies that depleted populations may have the potential to rebound successfully given suitable spawning and rearing habitat, even in the presence of strong predation pressure.

  17. Competing conservation objectives for predators and prey: estimating killer whale prey requirements for Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob; Krkošek, Martin; Ashe, Erin; Branch, Trevor A; Clark, Steve; Hammond, Philip S; Hoyt, Erich; Noren, Dawn P; Rosen, David; Winship, Arliss

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada-US) ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years) implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of conflict

  18. Can intense predation by bears exert a depensatory effect on recruitment in a Pacific salmon population?

    PubMed

    Quinn, Thomas P; Cunningham, Curry J; Randall, Jessica; Hilborn, Ray

    2014-10-01

    It has long been recognized that, as populations increase in density, ecological processes affecting growth and survival reduce per capita recruitment in the next generation. In contrast to the evidence for such "compensatory" density dependence, the alternative "depensatory" process (reduced per capita recruitment at low density) has proven more difficult to demonstrate in the field. To test for such depensation, we measured the spawner-recruit relationship over five decades for a sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) population in Alaska breeding in high-quality, unaltered habitat. Twenty-five years of detailed estimates of predation by brown bears, Ursus arctos, revealed strong density dependence in predation rate; the bears killed ca. 80% of the salmon in years of low salmon spawning abundance. Nevertheless, the reconstructed spawner-recruit relationship, adjusted to include salmon intercepted in the commercial fishery, provided no evidence of demographic depensation. That is, in years when few salmon returned and the great majority were killed by bears, the few that spawned were successful enough that the population remained highly productive, even when those killed by bears were included as potential spawners. We conclude that the high quality of breeding habitat at this site and the productive nature of semelparous Pacific salmon allowed this population to avoid the hypothesized depressed recruitment from depensatory processes expected at low density. The observed lack of demographic depensation is encouraging from a conservation standpoint because it implies that depleted populations may have the potential to rebound successfully given suitable spawning and rearing habitat, even in the presence of strong predation pressure. PMID:25154755

  19. Resurrecting an extinct salmon evolutionarily significant unit: archived scales, historical DNA and implications for restoration.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Eric M; Myers, James M; Gustafson, Richard G

    2012-04-01

    Archival scales from 603 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), sampled from May to July 1924 in the lower Columbia River, were analysed for genetic variability at 12 microsatellite loci and compared to 17 present-day O. nerka populations-exhibiting either anadromous (sockeye salmon) or nonanadromous (kokanee) life histories-from throughout the Columbia River Basin, including areas upstream of impassable dams built subsequent to 1924. Statistical analyses identified four major genetic assemblages of sockeye salmon in the 1924 samples. Two of these putative historical groupings were found to be genetically similar to extant evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) in the Okanogan and Wenatchee Rivers (pairwise F(ST)  = 0.004 and 0.002, respectively), and assignment tests were able to allocate 77% of the fish in these two historical groupings to the contemporary Okanogan River and Lake Wenatchee ESUs. A third historical genetic grouping was most closely aligned with contemporary sockeye salmon in Redfish Lake, Idaho, although the association was less robust (pairwise F(ST)  = 0.060). However, a fourth genetic grouping did not appear to be related to any contemporary sockeye salmon or kokanee population, assigned poorly to the O. nerka baseline, and had distinctive early return migration timing, suggesting that this group represents a historical ESU originating in headwater lakes in British Columbia that was probably extirpated sometime after 1924. The lack of a contemporary O. nerka population possessing the genetic legacy of this extinct ESU indicates that efforts to reestablish early-migrating sockeye salmon to the headwater lakes region of the Columbia River will be difficult. PMID:22221423

  20. Competing Conservation Objectives for Predators and Prey: Estimating Killer Whale Prey Requirements for Chinook Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rob; Krkošek, Martin; Ashe, Erin; Branch, Trevor A.; Clark, Steve; Hammond, Philip S.; Hoyt, Erich; Noren, Dawn P.; Rosen, David; Winship, Arliss

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada–US) ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years) implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of conflict

  1. 150 YEARS OF SALMON RESTORATION: ASSORTED TRUTHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs originally occurred, it...

  2. SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND FAILURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

  3. SALMON: A WORLD AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

  4. SALMON RECOVERY: LEARNING FROM SUCCESSES AND MISTAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline of wild Pacific salmon. Of the Earth's four regions (i.e., Asian Far East, Atlantic Europe, eastern North America, and western North America) where salmon runs occurred originally, it...

  5. THE FOUR NATIONS OF SALMON WORLD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The four nations of Salmon World have existed for 10,000 years. Since the end of the last Ice Age, salmon established naturally substantial populations and prospered in four large regions of the earth: (1) the European side of the North Atlantic; (2) the North American side of...

  6. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  7. Transporting juvenile salmonids around dams impairs adult migration.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Matthew L; Caudill, Christopher C; Peery, Christopher A; Lee, Steven R

    2008-12-01

    Mitigation and ecosystem-restoration efforts may have unintended consequences on both target and nontarget populations. Important effects can be displaced in space and time, making them difficult to detect without monitoring at appropriate scales. Here, we examined the effects of a mitigation program for juvenile salmonids on subsequent adult migration behaviors and survival. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) were collected and uniquely tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at Lower Granite Dam (Washington State, USA) on the Snake River and were then either transported downstream in barges in an effort to reduce out-migration mortality or returned to the river as a control group. Returning adults were collected and radio-tagged at Bonneville Dam (Washington-Oregon, USA) on the Columbia River 1-3 years later and then monitored during approximately 460 km of their homing migrations. The proportion of adults successfully homing was significantly lower, and unaccounted loss and permanent straying into non-natal rivers was higher, for barged fish of both species. On average, barged fish homed to Lower Granite Dam at rates about 10% lower than for in-river migrants. Barged fish were also 1.7-3.4 times more likely than in-river fish to fall back downstream past dams as adults, a behavior strongly associated with lower survival. These results suggest that juvenile transport impaired adult orientation or homing abilities, perhaps by disrupting sequential imprinting processes during juvenile out-migration. While juvenile transportation has clear short-term juvenile-survival benefits, the delayed effects that manifest in adult stages illustrate the need to assess mitigation success throughout the life cycle of target organisms, i.e., the use of fitness-based measures. In the case of Snake River salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act, the increased straying and potential associated genetic and demographic

  8. Transporting juvenile salmonids around dams impairs adult migration.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Matthew L; Caudill, Christopher C; Peery, Christopher A; Lee, Steven R

    2008-12-01

    Mitigation and ecosystem-restoration efforts may have unintended consequences on both target and nontarget populations. Important effects can be displaced in space and time, making them difficult to detect without monitoring at appropriate scales. Here, we examined the effects of a mitigation program for juvenile salmonids on subsequent adult migration behaviors and survival. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) were collected and uniquely tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at Lower Granite Dam (Washington State, USA) on the Snake River and were then either transported downstream in barges in an effort to reduce out-migration mortality or returned to the river as a control group. Returning adults were collected and radio-tagged at Bonneville Dam (Washington-Oregon, USA) on the Columbia River 1-3 years later and then monitored during approximately 460 km of their homing migrations. The proportion of adults successfully homing was significantly lower, and unaccounted loss and permanent straying into non-natal rivers was higher, for barged fish of both species. On average, barged fish homed to Lower Granite Dam at rates about 10% lower than for in-river migrants. Barged fish were also 1.7-3.4 times more likely than in-river fish to fall back downstream past dams as adults, a behavior strongly associated with lower survival. These results suggest that juvenile transport impaired adult orientation or homing abilities, perhaps by disrupting sequential imprinting processes during juvenile out-migration. While juvenile transportation has clear short-term juvenile-survival benefits, the delayed effects that manifest in adult stages illustrate the need to assess mitigation success throughout the life cycle of target organisms, i.e., the use of fitness-based measures. In the case of Snake River salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act, the increased straying and potential associated genetic and demographic

  9. Adult Counseling Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Phil; Davis, Sandy A.

    In order to determine the specific counseling needs of the adult learner, staff of the Adult Counseling Project began by conducting a literature search pertaining to the problems of returning students and those considering a return to school. The review revealed that little is known about the educational and vocational needs of the returning…

  10. Returning to sports after a back injury

    MedlinePlus

    Back injury - returning to sports; Sciatica - returning to sports; Herniated disc - returning to sports; Herniated disk - returning to sports; Spinal stenosis - returning to sports; Back pain - returning ...

  11. Interpopulation Comparison of Sex-Biased Mortality and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Sea-Run Masu Salmon, Oncorhynchus masou.

    PubMed

    Tamate, Tsuyoshi

    2015-08-01

    Evolutionary ecologists often expect that natural and sexual selection result in systematic co-occurrence patterns of sex-biased mortality and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) within animal species. However, whether such patterns actually occur in wild animals is poorly examined. The following expectation, the larger sex suffers higher mortality, was primarily tested here for apparently native sea-run masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) in three populations in Hokkaido, Japan. Field surveys on sex ratios, body sizes, and ages of smolts and returning adults revealed that two of the three populations exhibited an expected pattern, a female-biased marine mortality and SSD, but one population demonstrated an unexpected co-occurrence of male-biased marine mortality and female-biased SSD. These female-biased SSDs were attributed to faster marine growth of females because of no sex difference in smolt body size. It has been previously suggested that breeding selection favoring large size generally act more strongly in females than in males in Japanese anadromous masu, as there is a weak sexual selection on adult males but universally intensive natural selection on adult females. Thus, this hypothesis explains female-biased SSDs well in all study populations. Interpopulation variation in sex-biased mortality found here might result from differences in marine predation and/or fishing pressures, given that selection driving female-biased SSD makes females forage more aggressively than males during the marine phase. Taken together, these results raise the possibility that evolutionary forces have shaped adaptive sex-specific foraging strategies under relationships between growth and mortality, resulting in co-occurrence patterns of sex-biased mortality and SSD within animal species.

  12. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    James, Brenda B.; Pearsons, Todd N.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    1999-12-01

    degree of microhabitat overlap with spring chinook salmon. Abundance of naturally occurring spring chinook salmon residuals (age 1+ during the summer) was low (< 0.007/m), representing less than 2% of the naturally produced spring chinook salmon (age 0+ and age 1+ during the summer). Abundance of naturally occurring spring chinook salmon that complete their life cycle in freshwater was high relative to anadromous adults. The authors observed an average of 9.5 precocially mature spring chinook salmon on redds with anadromous adults. In addition, 87% of the redds with anadromous adults present also had precocial males attending. All findings in this report should be considered preliminary and subject to further revision as more data and analytical results become available.

  13. Atlantic salmon brood stock management and breeding handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kincaid, Harold L.; Stanley, Jon G.

    1989-01-01

    Anadromus runs of Atlantic salmon have been restored to the Connecticut, Merrimack, Pawcatuck, Penobscot, and St. Croix rivers in New England by the stocking of more than 8 million smolts since 1948. Fish-breeding methods have been developed that minimize inbreeding and domestication and enhance natural selection. Methods are available to advance the maturation of brood stock, control the sex of production lots and store gametes. Current hatchery practices emphasize the use of sea-run brood stock trapped upon return to the rivers and a limited number of captive brood stock and rejuvenated kelts. Fish are allowed to mature naturally, after which they are spawned and incubated artificially. Generally, 1-year smolts are produced, and excess fish are stocked as fry in headwater streams. Smolts are stocked during periods of rising water in spring. Self-release pools are planned that enable smolts to choose the emigration time. Culturists keep good records that permit evaluation of the performance of strains and the effects of breeding practices. As Atlantic salmon populations expand, culturists must use sound breeding methods that enhance biotic potential while maintaining genetic diversity and protecting unique gene pools.

  14. Strong resonance explains cycles in sockeye salmon populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guill, Christian; Drossel, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    The number of spawning sockeye salmon that return to their native streams in the Fraser river basin exhibit striking four-year oscillations, the dimension of which being no less notable than the widely known cycles of lynx and snowshoe hare in Canada. The period of the oscillation corresponds to the dominant generation time of these fish, and the phase differs between different stocks. Various not fully convincing explanations have been attempted, ascribing this phenomenon to transient effects, to stochastic influences, to depensatory predation, or to genetic effects. We show that these oscillations can be explained as a stable dynamical attractor of the population dynamics, resulting from a strong resonance near a Neimark Sacker bifurcation. This explains not only the long-term persistence of these oscillations, but also reproduces correctly the sequence of two strong years followed by two weak years. Furthermore, it explains the observations that the oscillations occur only in oligotrophic lakes, and that they do not occur in salmon species that have a longer generation time.

  15. Developmental changes in the pyruvate kinase isozymes of coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H E; Cardenas, J M

    1979-04-01

    Pyruvate kinase exists as two major isozymes in coho salmon. As in mammals and birds, one form is present in the early embryo and maintains a wide tissue distribution in adults. This salmonid type K shows anodal migration during electrophoresis at pH 7.5. The appearence of functional musculature in the developing embryos. In adult animals this second form is the only pyruvate kinase in muscle. Brain, kidney, liver and gill contain primarily the type K pyruvate kinase while heart contains both major forms along with three intermediate forms which presumably constitute a hybrid set. Since there is no additional isozyme restricted to gluconeogenic tissues, we conclude that a type L isozyme has not developed in these animals. The two major isozymes are immunologically distincy. Both forms are dubject to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate activation of phosphoenolpyruvate binding, but the magnitude of the effect is small. The affinities for phosphoenolpyruvate are similar, but salmon type K has hyperbolic saturation curves with this substrate and type M has sigmoidal saturation curves. While the immunological data indicates considerable divergence in structure, the kinetic parameters of the two forms have remained relatively similar. PMID:469475

  16. Why Do Staff Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Connie

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 211 returning staff from 25 camps and interviewed 19 returning staff to study factors that influence a counselor's decision to return to camp. Examined the following dimensions of motivation and hygiene factors: (1) stimulation or inspiration; (2) personal; (3) job-related experience; (4) living conditions and camp life; (5) camp…

  17. Ecology. Can science rescue salmon?

    PubMed

    Mann, C C; Plummer, M L

    2000-08-01

    At a press conference on 27 July, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) released a long-awaited plan to save the Columbia River's endangered salmon by restoring fish habitat, overhauling hatcheries, limiting harvest, and improving river flow. What the plan did not do, however, was call for immediate breaching of four dams on the Snake River, the Columbia's major tributary--an option that has been the subject of a nationwide environmental crusade. The NMFS will hold that option in abeyance while it sees whether the less drastic measures will do the trick. Responses from both sides were immediate and outraged. PMID:10950712

  18. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

    2014-10-01

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

  19. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

    2003-11-01

    During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout

  20. Study of Wild Spring Chinook Salmon in the John Day River System, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, Robert B.

    1986-02-01

    A study of wild spring chinook salmon was conducted in the John Day River, Oregon: (1) recommend harvest regulations to achieve escapement goals in the John Day River; (2) recommend adtustments in timing of fish passage operations at Columbia River dams that will increase survival of John Day migrants; (3) recommend habitat or environmental improvements that will increase production of spring chinook salmon; (4) determine escapement goals for wild spring chinook salmon in the John Day River; and (5) recommend procedures for hatchery supplementation in the John Day River in the event it becomes necessary to artificially maintain the run of spring chinook salmon. Juveniles were captured as smolts during migration and as fingerlings during summer rearing. Juveniles were coded-wire tagged, and recoveries of tagged adults were used to assess contribution to ocean and Columbia River fisheries, timing of adult migrations through the Columbia River in relation to fishing seasons, and age and size of fish in fisheries. Scoop traps and seines were used to determine timing of smolt migrations through the John Day River. In addition, recoveries of tagged smolts at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Jones Beach were used to determine migration timing through the Columbia River. We examined freshwater life history of spring chinook salmon in the John Day River and related it to environmental factors. We looked at adult holding areas, spawning, incubation and emergence, fingerling rearing distribution, size and growth of juveniles and scales. Escapement goals fo the John Day River as well as reasons for declines in John Day stocks were determiend by using stock-recruitment analyses. Recommendations for hatchery supplementation in the John Day were based on results from other study objectives.

  1. Production of Ceratonova shasta Myxospores from Salmon Carcasses: Carcass Removal Is Not a Viable Management Option.

    PubMed

    Foott, J S; Stone, R; Fogerty, R; True, K; Bolick, A; Bartholomew, J L; Hallett, S L; Buckles, G R; Alexander, J D

    2016-06-01

    Severe infection by the endemic myxozoan parasite, Ceratonova (synonym, Ceratomyxa) shasta, has been associated with declines in and impaired recovery efforts of populations of fall-run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Klamath River, California. The parasite has a complex life cycle involving a polychaete worm host as well as a salmon host. Myxospore transmission of this parasite, from salmon to polychaete, is a life cycle step during which there is a potential for applied disease management. A 3-year data set on prevalence, intensity, and spore characteristics of C. shasta myxospores was obtained from adult Chinook Salmon carcasses surveyed in the main stem of the Klamath River and three of its tributaries, Bogus Creek and the Shasta and Trinity rivers. Annual prevalence of myxospore detection in salmon intestines ranged from 22% to 52%, and spore concentration values per intestinal scraping ranged from 3.94 × 10(2) to 1.47 × 10(7) spores. A prevalence of 7.3% of all carcasses examined produced >5.0 × 10(5) spores, and these carcasses with "high" spore counts accounted for 76-95% of the total spores in a given spawning season. Molecular analysis of visually negative carcasses showed that 45-87% of these samples had parasite DNA, indicating they contained either low spore numbers or presporogonic stages of the parasite. Myxospores were rarely found in carcasses of freshly spawned adults but were common in decomposed carcasses of both sexes. The date of collection or age (based indirectly on FL) did not influence detection. The longer prespawn residence time for spring-run Chinook Salmon compared with that for fall-run Chinook Salmon in the Trinity River was associated with higher spore loads. The dye exclusion method for assessing spore viability in fresh smears indicated an inverse relationship in spore integrity and initial spore concentration. A carcass-removal pilot project in Bogus Creek for 6 weeks in the fall of 2008 (907 carcasses removed

  2. Production of Ceratonova shasta Myxospores from Salmon Carcasses: Carcass Removal Is Not a Viable Management Option.

    PubMed

    Foott, J S; Stone, R; Fogerty, R; True, K; Bolick, A; Bartholomew, J L; Hallett, S L; Buckles, G R; Alexander, J D

    2016-06-01

    Severe infection by the endemic myxozoan parasite, Ceratonova (synonym, Ceratomyxa) shasta, has been associated with declines in and impaired recovery efforts of populations of fall-run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Klamath River, California. The parasite has a complex life cycle involving a polychaete worm host as well as a salmon host. Myxospore transmission of this parasite, from salmon to polychaete, is a life cycle step during which there is a potential for applied disease management. A 3-year data set on prevalence, intensity, and spore characteristics of C. shasta myxospores was obtained from adult Chinook Salmon carcasses surveyed in the main stem of the Klamath River and three of its tributaries, Bogus Creek and the Shasta and Trinity rivers. Annual prevalence of myxospore detection in salmon intestines ranged from 22% to 52%, and spore concentration values per intestinal scraping ranged from 3.94 × 10(2) to 1.47 × 10(7) spores. A prevalence of 7.3% of all carcasses examined produced >5.0 × 10(5) spores, and these carcasses with "high" spore counts accounted for 76-95% of the total spores in a given spawning season. Molecular analysis of visually negative carcasses showed that 45-87% of these samples had parasite DNA, indicating they contained either low spore numbers or presporogonic stages of the parasite. Myxospores were rarely found in carcasses of freshly spawned adults but were common in decomposed carcasses of both sexes. The date of collection or age (based indirectly on FL) did not influence detection. The longer prespawn residence time for spring-run Chinook Salmon compared with that for fall-run Chinook Salmon in the Trinity River was associated with higher spore loads. The dye exclusion method for assessing spore viability in fresh smears indicated an inverse relationship in spore integrity and initial spore concentration. A carcass-removal pilot project in Bogus Creek for 6 weeks in the fall of 2008 (907 carcasses removed

  3. Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew JG

    2014-01-01

    Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape. PMID:24822083

  4. Harvest Management and Recovery of Snake River Salmon Stocks : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 7 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Gilbertson, Larry G.

    1993-06-01

    Management measures to regulate salmon fishing harvest have grown increasingly complex over the past decade in response to the needs for improved protection for some salmon runs and to alter harvest sharing between fisheries. The development of management plans that adequately address both needs is an immensely complicated task, one that involves a multitude of stocks, each with its own migration patterns and capacity to sustain exploitation. The fishing industry that relies on these fish populations is also highly diverse. The management task is made especially difficult because the stocks are often intermingled on the fishing grounds, creating highly mixed aggregates of stocks and species on which the fisheries operate. This situation is the one confronting harvest managers attempting to protect Snake River salmon. This report provides an overview of some of the factors that will need to be addressed in assessing the potential for using harvest management measures in the recovery of Snake River salmon stocks. The major sections of the report include the following: perspectives on harvest impacts; ocean distribution and in-river adult migration timing; description of management processes and associated fisheries of interest; and altemative harvest strategies.

  5. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  6. Lessons from sea louse and salmon epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Groner, Maya L; Rogers, Luke A; Bateman, Andrew W; Connors, Brendan M; Frazer, L Neil; Godwin, Sean C; Krkošek, Martin; Lewis, Mark A; Peacock, Stephanie J; Rees, Erin E; Revie, Crawford W; Schlägel, Ulrike E

    2016-03-01

    Effective disease management can benefit from mathematical models that identify drivers of epidemiological change and guide decision-making. This is well illustrated in the host-parasite system of sea lice and salmon, which has been modelled extensively due to the economic costs associated with sea louse infections on salmon farms and the conservation concerns associated with sea louse infections on wild salmon. Consequently, a rich modelling literature devoted to sea louse and salmon epidemiology has been developed. We provide a synthesis of the mathematical and statistical models that have been used to study the epidemiology of sea lice and salmon. These studies span both conceptual and tactical models to quantify the effects of infections on host populations and communities, describe and predict patterns of transmission and dispersal, and guide evidence-based management of wild and farmed salmon. As aquaculture production continues to increase, advances made in modelling sea louse and salmon epidemiology should inform the sustainable management of marine resources. PMID:26880836

  7. Exiting and Returning to the Parental Home for Boomerang Kids

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg-Thoma, Sara E.; Snyder, Anastasia R.; Jang, Bohyun Joy

    2015-01-01

    Young adults commonly exit from and return to the parental home, yet few studies have examined the motivation behind these exits and returns using a life course framework. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the authors examined associations between mental health problems and economic characteristics and exits from (n = 8,162), and returns to (n = 6,530), the parental home during the transition to adulthood. The average age of the respondents was 24 years. The authors found evidence that mental health and economic characteristics were related to home leaving and returning. Emotional distress was associated with earlier exits from, and returns to, the parental home; alcohol problems were associated with earlier returns to the parental home. The findings regarding economic resources were unexpectedly mixed. Greater economic resources were linked to delayed exits from, and earlier returns to, the parental home. The implications of these findings for young adults are discussed. PMID:26023244

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Thomas E.

    1983-01-01

    The coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) is native to the northern Pacific Ocean, spawning and rearing in streams from Monterey Bay, California, to Point Hope, Alaska, and southward along the Asiatic coast to Japan. Its center of abundance in North America is from Oregon to Alaska (Briggs 1953; Godfrey 1965; Hart 1973; Scott and Crossman 1973). Coho salmon have been successfully introduced into the Great Lakes and reservoirs and lakes throughout the United States to provide put-and-grow sport fishing (Scott and Crossman 1973; Wigglesworth and Rawson 1974). No subspecies of coho salmon have been described (Godfrey 1965).

  9. Identification of marine-derived lipids in juvenile coho salmon and aquatic insects through fatty acid analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heintz, Ron A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic benefits enjoyed by consumers in streams with salmon runs depend on how those benefits are accrued. Adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. deliver significant amounts of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon to streams when they spawn and die; these nutrient additions can have demonstrable effects on primary production in streams. Consumption of carcass tissues or eggs provides for direct energy subsidies to consumers and may have significant effects on their condition. In this study, comparisons of juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch and aquatic insects exposed to terrestrial and marine energy sources demonstrated that direct consumption of marine-derived lipids had a significant effect on the lipid reserves of consumers. Direct consumption of marine-derived tissues was verified through fatty acid analysis. Selected aquatic insects and juvenile coho salmon were reared for 6 weeks in experimental streams supplied with terrestrial or marine energy sources. Chironomid midges, nemourid stoneflies, and juvenile coho salmon exposed to the marine energy source altered their fatty acid compositions by incorporating the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are characteristic of marine fish. The fatty acid composition of baetid mayflies was unaffected. The direct movement of specific fatty markers indicated that direct consumption of marine-derived tissues led to increased energy reserves (triacylglycerols) in consumers. Similar results were obtained for juvenile coho salmon sampled from natural streams before and after the arrival of adult salmon runs. These data indicate that marine-derived lipids from anadromous fish runs are an important source of reserve lipids for consumers that overwinter in streams.

  10. Evidence for episodic acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, John T; Lerner, Darrren T.; O'Dea, Michael F.; Regish, Amy M.; Monette, Michelle Y.; Hawkes, J.P.; Nislow, Keith H.; McCormick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine levels of gill aluminium as an index of acidification effects on migrating Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts in the north-eastern U.S.A. along mainstem river migration corridors in several major river basins. Smolts emigrating from the Connecticut River, where most (but not all) tributaries were well buffered, had low or undetectable levels of gill aluminium and high gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity. In contrast, smolts emigrating from the upper Merrimack River basin where most tributaries are characterized by low pH and high inorganic aluminium had consistently elevated gill aluminium and lower gill NKA activity, which may explain the low adult return rates of S. salar stocked into the upper Merrimack catchment. In the Sheepscot, Narraguagus and Penobscot Rivers in Maine, river and year-specific effects on gill aluminium were detected that appeared to be driven by underlying geology and high spring discharge. The results indicate that episodic acidification is affecting S. salar smolts in poorly buffered streams in New England and may help explain variation in S. salar survival and abundance among rivers and among years, with implications for the conservation and recovery of S. salar in the north-eastern U.S.A. These results suggest that the physiological condition of outmigrating smolts may serve as a large-scale sentinel of landscape-level recovery of atmospheric pollution in this and other parts of the North Atlantic region.

  11. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde Riiver Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report 1 September 1995 to 1 August 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.; Carmichael, Richard W.; Keefe, MaryLouise

    1997-09-01

    Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only sustainable stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde River basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. In addition to a decline in population abundance, a reduction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde River basin. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies exhibited by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. During the past year the focus was on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. The study design included three objectives: (1) document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; (2) estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; and (3) determine summer and winter habitat utilization and preference of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek.

  12. Salmon Life Histories, Habitat, and Food Webs in the Columbia River Estuary: An Overview of Research Results, 2002-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Bottom, Daniel L.; Anderson, Greer; Baptisa, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    From 2002 through 2006 we investigated historical and contemporary variations in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha life histories, habitat associations, and food webs in the lower Columbia River estuary (mouth to rkm 101). At near-shore beach-seining sites in the estuary, Chinook salmon occurred during all months of the year, increasing in abundance from January through late spring or early summer and declining rapidly after July. Recently emerged fry dispersed throughout the estuary in early spring, and fry migrants were abundant in the estuary until April or May each year. Each spring, mean salmon size increased from the tidal freshwater zone to the estuary mouth; this trend may reflect estuarine growth and continued entry of smaller individuals from upriver. Most juvenile Chinook salmon in the mainstem estuary fed actively on adult insects and epibenthic amphipods Americorophium spp. Estimated growth rates of juvenile Chinook salmon derived from otolith analysis averaged 0.5 mm d-1, comparable to rates reported for juvenile salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in other Northwest estuaries. Estuarine salmon collections were composed of representatives from a diversity of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) from the lower and upper Columbia Basin. Genetic stock groups in the estuary exhibited distinct seasonal and temporal abundance patterns, including a consistent peak in the Spring Creek Fall Chinook group in May, followed by a peak in the Western Cascades Fall Chinook group in July. The structure of acanthocephalan parasite assemblages in juvenile Chinook salmon from the tidal freshwater zone exhibited a consistent transition in June. This may have reflected changes in stock composition and associated habitat use and feeding histories. From March through July, subyearling Chinook salmon were among the most abundant species in all wetland habitat types (emergent, forested, and scrub/shrub) surveyed in the lower 100 km of the estuary. Salmon densities

  13. Pesticides and PCBs in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and O. kisutch) from Puget Sound, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, S.M.; West, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife initiated a long-term study to monitor levels of contaminants in two species of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and O. kisutch) and other marine fishes of Puget Sound. The study is one component of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP), a multi-agency effort to assess the environmental health of Puget Sound. Here the authors summarize results from their ongoing study of O. tshawytscha and O. kisutch. Samples of muscle tissue were collected for chemical analyses from adult salmon that were purchased from licensed fish buyers or treaty tribal fisherman. From 1992 through 1994, both salmon species were sampled at seven fishing areas in marine waters and river mouths of Puget Sound. 4,4-DDE and 4,4-DDD, metabolites of the pesticide DDT, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) were consistently detected in both species and were consistently higher in O. tshawytscha. Low to moderate concentrations of DDT metabolites (3 to 59 ug/kg wet weight) were detected in the salmon samples but were seldom detected in other fish species sampled by PSAMP. Total PCBs concentrations (Arochlor 1254 + 1260) ranged from 10 to 211 ug/kg wet weight in 0. tshawytscha, with many samples containing PCBs concentrations similar to those detected in benthic flatfish, (Pleuronectes vetulus), sampled from urbanized embayments. A stepwise linear regression model was used to identify parameters correlated with accumulation of PCBs and DDT metabolites in salmon. In addition to species differences, factors such as fish age, percent lipids and sampling location may affect the accumulation of these contaminants. Results of this study are contrasted with contaminant levels previously reported for Canadian and Alaskan Pacific salmon. Possible sources of contaminants are outlined.

  14. Imprinting Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, 1983 Annual Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Slatick, Emil

    1984-09-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), under contract to the Bonneville Power Administration, began conducting research on imprinting Pacific salmon and steelhead for homing in 1978. In the juvenile marking phase, over 4 million juvenile salmon and steelhead were marked and released in 23 experiments. The primary objectives were to determine a triggering mechanism to activate the homing imprint, if a single imprint or a sequential imprint is necessary to assure homing, and the relationship between the physiological condition of fish and their ability to imprint. Ten experimental studies are discussed. Six of the studies employed a variety of techniques for imprinting fish. The remaining four tested the feasibility of imprinting fish by a short-distance voluntary migration before transport. In five experiments, survival was enhanced by the imprint-transportation procedures, and homing to the homing site area was partly successful. Returns from the Astoria, Oregon, release of fall chinook salmon from Big Creek Hatchery (Knappa, Oregon), for example, showed that limited short distance migration imprinting should provide 2-3 time more fish to the various fisheries while providing adequate returns to the hatchery for egg take each year. 21 refs., 12 figs, 12 tabs.

  15. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, Chris; Tabor, R.A.; Kinzer, Ryan

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes brood year 1999 juvenile production and emigration data and adult return information for 2000 for streams studied by the Nez Perce Tribe for the cooperative Idaho Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project. In order to provide inclusive juvenile data for brood year 1999, we include data on parr, presmolt, smolt and yearling captures. Therefore, our reporting period includes juvenile data collected from April 2000 through June 2001 for parr, presmolts, and smolts and through June 2002 for brood year 1999 yearling emigrants. Data presented in this report include; fish outplant data for treatment streams, snorkel and screw trap estimates of juvenile fish abundance, juvenile emigration profiles, juvenile survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ), redd counts, and carcass data. There were no brood year 1999 treatments in Legendary Bear or Fishing Creek. As in previous years, snorkeling methods provided highly variable population estimates. Alternatively, rotary screw traps operated in Lake Creek and the Secesh River provided more precise estimates of juvenile abundance by life history type. Juvenile fish emigration in Lake Creek and the Secesh River peaked during July and August. Juveniles produced in this watershed emigrated primarily at age zero, and apparently reared in downstream habitats before detection as age one or older fish at the Snake and Columbia River dams. Over the course of the ISS study, PIT tag data suggest that smolts typically exhibit the highest relative survival to Lower Granite Dam (LGJ) compared to presmolts and parr, although we observed the opposite trend for brood year 1999 juvenile emigrants from the Secesh River. SURPH2 survival estimates for brood year 1999 Lake Creek parr, presmolt, and smolt PIT tag groups to (LGJ) were 27%, 39%, and 49% respectively, and 14%, 12%, and 5% for the Secesh River. In 2000, we counted 41 redds in Legendary Bear Creek, 4 in Fishing Creek, 5 in Slate Creek, 153 in the

  16. Predator avoidance during reproduction: diel movements by spawning sockeye salmon between stream and lake habitats.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Kale T; Schindler, Daniel E; Cline, Timothy J; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Macias, Daniel; Ciepiela, Lindsy R; Hilborn, Ray

    2014-11-01

    Daily movements of mobile organisms between habitats in response to changing trade-offs between predation risk and foraging gains are well established; however, less in known about whether similar tactics are used during reproduction, a time period when many organisms are particularly vulnerable to predators. We investigated the reproductive behaviour of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and the activity of their principal predator, brown bears (Ursus arctos), on streams in south-western Alaska. Specifically, we continuously monitored movements of salmon between lake habitat, where salmon are invulnerable to bears, and three small streams, where salmon spawn and are highly vulnerable to bears. We conducted our study across 2 years that offered a distinct contrast in bear activity and predation rates. Diel movements by adult sockeye salmon between stream and lake habitat were observed in 51.3% ± 17.7% (mean ± SD) of individuals among years and sites. Fish that moved tended to hold in the lake for most of the day and then migrated into spawning streams during the night, coincident with when bear activity on streams tended to be lowest. Additionally, cyclic movements between lakes and spawning streams were concentrated earlier in the spawning season. Individuals that exhibited diel movements had longer average reproductive life spans than those who made only one directed movement into a stream. However, the relative effect was dependent on the timing of bear predation, which varied between years. When predation pressure primarily occurred early in the spawning run (i.e., during the height of the diel movements), movers lived 120-310% longer than non-movers. If predation pressure was concentrated later in the spawning run (i.e. when most movements had ceased), movers only lived 10-60% longer. Our results suggest a dynamic trade-off in reproductive strategies of sockeye salmon; adults must be in the stream to reproduce, but must also avoid predation long

  17. Predator avoidance during reproduction: diel movements by spawning sockeye salmon between stream and lake habitats.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Kale T; Schindler, Daniel E; Cline, Timothy J; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Macias, Daniel; Ciepiela, Lindsy R; Hilborn, Ray

    2014-11-01

    Daily movements of mobile organisms between habitats in response to changing trade-offs between predation risk and foraging gains are well established; however, less in known about whether similar tactics are used during reproduction, a time period when many organisms are particularly vulnerable to predators. We investigated the reproductive behaviour of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and the activity of their principal predator, brown bears (Ursus arctos), on streams in south-western Alaska. Specifically, we continuously monitored movements of salmon between lake habitat, where salmon are invulnerable to bears, and three small streams, where salmon spawn and are highly vulnerable to bears. We conducted our study across 2 years that offered a distinct contrast in bear activity and predation rates. Diel movements by adult sockeye salmon between stream and lake habitat were observed in 51.3% ± 17.7% (mean ± SD) of individuals among years and sites. Fish that moved tended to hold in the lake for most of the day and then migrated into spawning streams during the night, coincident with when bear activity on streams tended to be lowest. Additionally, cyclic movements between lakes and spawning streams were concentrated earlier in the spawning season. Individuals that exhibited diel movements had longer average reproductive life spans than those who made only one directed movement into a stream. However, the relative effect was dependent on the timing of bear predation, which varied between years. When predation pressure primarily occurred early in the spawning run (i.e., during the height of the diel movements), movers lived 120-310% longer than non-movers. If predation pressure was concentrated later in the spawning run (i.e. when most movements had ceased), movers only lived 10-60% longer. Our results suggest a dynamic trade-off in reproductive strategies of sockeye salmon; adults must be in the stream to reproduce, but must also avoid predation long

  18. Assessment of potential impacts of major groundwater contaminants to fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, D.R.; Poston, T.M.; Dauble, D.D.

    1994-10-01

    Past operations of Hanford Site facilities have contaminated the groundwater adjacent to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, with various chemical and radiological constituents. The groundwater is hydraulically connected to the river and contains concentrations of contaminants that sometimes exceed federal and/or state drinking water standards or standards for the protection of aquatic life. For example, concentrations of chromium in shoreline seeps and springs at most 100 Area operable units exceed concentrations found to be toxic to fish. Nitrate and tritium concentrations in shoreline seeps are generally below drinking water standards and concentrations potentially toxic to aquatic life, but nitrate concentrations may be high enough to synergistically interact with and exacerbate chromium toxicity. The Hanford Reach also supports the largest run of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River Basin. Numbers of fall chinook salmon returning to the Hanford Reach have increased relative to other mainstem populations during the last 30 years. Groundwater discharge appears to occur near some salmon spawning areas, but contaminants are generally not detectable in surface water samples. The concentration and potential toxicity of contaminants in the interstitial waters of the substrate where fall chinook salmon embryogenesis occurs are presently unknown. New tools are required to characterize the extent of groundwater contaminant discharge to the Hanford Reach and to resolve uncertainties associated with assessment of potential impacts to fall chinook salmon.

  19. Imprinting Hatchery Reared Salmon and Steelhead Trout for Homing, Volume I of III; Narrative, 1978-1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Slatick, Emil; Gilbreath, Lyle G.; Harmon, Jerrel R.

    1988-02-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service began conducting homing research on Pacific salmon and steelhead. Over 4 million juvenile salmon and steelhead were marked and released, and 23 individual experiments were conducted. The research had the following objectives: (1) develop the techniques for imprinting homing cues while increasing survival of hatchery reared salmonids and (2) provide fishery managers with the information necessary to increase the returns of salmon and steelhead to the Columbia River system and to effectively distribute these fish to the various user groups. Our imprint methods were grouped into three general categories: (1) natural migration imprint from a hatchery of origin or an alternate homing site (by allowing fish to volitionally travel downstream through the river on their seaward journey), (2) single exposure imprinting (cueing fish to a single unique water supply with or without mechanical stimuli prior to transport and release), and (3) sequential exposure imprinting (cueing fish to two or more water sources in a step-by-step process to establish a series of signposts for the route ''home''). With variations, all three techniques were used with all salmonid groups tested: coho salmon, spring and fall chinook salmon, and steelhead. For the single and sequential imprint, fish were transported around a portion of their normal migration route before releasing them into the Columbia River.

  20. Tracking wild sockeye salmon smolts to the ocean reveals distinct regions of nocturnal movement and high mortality.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy D; Furey, Nathan B; Rechisky, Erin L; Gale, Marika K; Jeffries, Ken M; Porter, Aswea D; Casselman, Matthew T; Lotto, Andrew G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Farrell, Anthony P; Welch, David W; Hinch, Scott G

    2016-06-01

    poorer survival than control fish when transitioned to saltwater in laboratory-based experiments. Current fisheries models for forecasting the number of adult sockeye returning to spawn have been inaccurate in recent years and generally do not incorporate juvenile or smolt survival information. Our results highlight significant potential for early migration conditions to influence adult recruitment. PMID:27509741

  1. Tracking wild sockeye salmon smolts to the ocean reveals distinct regions of nocturnal movement and high mortality.

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy D; Furey, Nathan B; Rechisky, Erin L; Gale, Marika K; Jeffries, Ken M; Porter, Aswea D; Casselman, Matthew T; Lotto, Andrew G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Farrell, Anthony P; Welch, David W; Hinch, Scott G

    2016-06-01

    poorer survival than control fish when transitioned to saltwater in laboratory-based experiments. Current fisheries models for forecasting the number of adult sockeye returning to spawn have been inaccurate in recent years and generally do not incorporate juvenile or smolt survival information. Our results highlight significant potential for early migration conditions to influence adult recruitment.

  2. Systemic granuloma observed in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to market size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic granuloma was observed in sampled adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to harvest size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system. The prevalence of this condition was estimated at 10-20% of the population, with affected individuals grossly demonstrating pathology in varying degre...

  3. Classroom-Community Salmon Enhancement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard-Gray, Sarah

    1988-01-01

    Describes a program in the Bellevue (Washington) public schools in which elementary and middle school teachers and students raise coho and Chinook salmon in the classroom and later release them into a nearby stream. (TW)

  4. A "virus" disease of chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Epizootics among chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman National Fish Hatchery have occurred periodically since 1941. A virus or virus-like filterable agent has been demonstrated to be the causative agent of this disease.

  5. THE CHALLENGE OF RESTORING WILD SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many experts have concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, do not appear likely to sustain biologic...

  6. Salmon habitat assessment for conservation planning in the lower White Salmon River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardiman, Jill M.; Allen, M. Brady

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, Condit Dam was removed from the White Salmon River, Washington. Since dam removal, there has been interest among scientists (State and Federal), Tribes, non-profit organizations, and the general public in assessing Pacific salmon habitat and use in the White Salmon River for conservation planning and potential fishery management actions. The study area extended from the lower 6 miles of the White Salmon River to the confluence with the Columbia River, including the former reservoir area. The Mid-Columbia Fisheries Enhancement Group received a grant to initiate efforts to plan for salmon habitat protection in the lower 6 river miles of the White Salmon River. As part of efforts by the Mid-Columbia Fisheries Enhancement Group to conduct conservation planning, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used current and historical habitat information to assist in the planning process. The USGS compiled existing georeferenced habitat data into a Geographic Information System to identify areas of high quality habitat for salmon, potential areas for restoration/improvement, and areas that could be threatened. The primary sources of georeferenced data for this project include a lidar flight contracted by PacifiCorp, bathymetry from USGS, and fall Chinook salmon redd surveys from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Redd observations provided support that the study area is a migratory corridor for salmon and steelhead and that the lowest 2–3 miles had the highest concentration of documented fall Chinook salmon redds. The study area has potential for restoration/conservation areas to improve/conserve salmon habitat.

  7. Cardiac responses to elevated seawater temperature in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Atlantic salmon aquaculture operations in the Northern hemisphere experience large seasonal fluctuations in seawater temperature. With summer temperatures often peaking around 18-20°C there is growing concern about the effects on fish health and performance. Since the heart has a major role in the physiological plasticity and acclimation to different thermal conditions in fish, we wanted to investigate how three and eight weeks exposure of adult Atlantic salmon to 19°C, previously shown to significantly reduce growth performance, affected expression of relevant genes and proteins in cardiac tissues under experimental conditions. Results Transcriptional responses in cardiac tissues after three and eight weeks exposure to 19°C (compared to thermal preference, 14°C) were analyzed with cDNA microarrays and validated by expression analysis of selected genes and proteins using real-time qPCR and immunofluorescence microscopy. Up-regulation of heat shock proteins and cell signaling genes may indicate involvement of the unfolded protein response in long-term acclimation to elevated temperature. Increased immunofluorescence staining of inducible nitric oxide synthase in spongy and compact myocardium as well as increased staining of vascular endothelial growth factor in epicardium could reflect induced vascularization and vasodilation, possibly related to increased oxygen demand. Increased staining of collagen I in the compact myocardium of 19°C fish may be indicative of a remodeling of connective tissue with long-term warm acclimation. Finally, higher abundance of transcripts for genes involved in innate cellular immunity and lower abundance of transcripts for humoral immune components implied altered immune competence in response to elevated temperature. Conclusions Long-term exposure of Atlantic salmon to 19°C resulted in cardiac gene and protein expression changes indicating that the unfolded protein response, vascularization, remodeling of connective

  8. Interacting effects of translocation, artificial propagation, and environmental conditions on the marine survival of Chinook salmon from the Columbia River, Washington, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Holsman, Kirstin K; Scheuerell, Mark D; Buhle, Eric; Emmett, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Captive rearing and translocation are often used concurrently for species conservation, yet the effects of these practices can interact and lead to unintended outcomes that may undermine species' recovery efforts. Controls in translocation or artificial-propagation programs are uncommon; thus, there have been few studies on the interacting effects of these actions and environmental conditions on survival. The Columbia River basin, which drains 668,000 km(2) of the western United States and Canada, has an extensive network of hydroelectric and other dams, which impede and slow migration of anadromous Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and can increase mortality rates. To mitigate for hydrosystem-induced mortality during juvenile downriver migration, tens of millions of hatchery fish are released each year and a subset of wild- and hatchery-origin juveniles are translocated downstream beyond the hydropower system. We considered how the results of these practices interact with marine environmental conditions to affect the marine survival of Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). We analyzed data from more than 1 million individually tagged fish from 1998 through 2006 to evaluate the probability of an individual fish returning as an adult relative to its rearing (hatchery vs. wild) and translocation histories (translocated vs. in-river migrating fish that traveled downriver through the hydropower system) and a suite of environmental variables. Except during select periods of very low river flow, marine survival of wild translocated fish was approximately two-thirds less than survival of wild in-river migrating fish. For hatchery fish, however, survival was roughly two times higher for translocated fish than for in-river migrants. Competition and predator aggregation negatively affected marine survival, and the magnitude of survival depended on rearing and translocation histories and biological and physical conditions encountered during their first few weeks of residence in

  9. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement. 1990 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Mike

    1991-12-01

    The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

  10. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  11. Return flux experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tveekrem, June L.

    1992-01-01

    All spacecraft emit molecules via outgassing, thruster plumes, vents, etc. The return flux is the portion of those molecules that scatter from the ambient atmosphere and return to the spacecraft. Return flux allows critical spacecraft surfaces to become contaminated even when there is no direct line of sight between the contamination source and the critical surface. Data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) show that contamination of LDEF surfaces could not have come entirely from direct flux. The data suggest significant return flux. Several computer models have been developed to simulate return flux, but the predictions have never been verified in orbit. Large uncertainties in predictions lead to overly conservative spacecraft designs. The purpose of the REturn FLux EXperiment (REFLEX) is to fly a controlled experiment that can be directly compared with predictions from several models.

  12. Return flux experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tveekrem, June L.

    All spacecraft emit molecules via outgassing, thruster plumes, vents, etc. The return flux is the portion of those molecules that scatter from the ambient atmosphere and return to the spacecraft. Return flux allows critical spacecraft surfaces to become contaminated even when there is no direct line of sight between the contamination source and the critical surface. Data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) show that contamination of LDEF surfaces could not have come entirely from direct flux. The data suggest significant return flux. Several computer models have been developed to simulate return flux, but the predictions have never been verified in orbit. Large uncertainties in predictions lead to overly conservative spacecraft designs. The purpose of the REturn FLux EXperiment (REFLEX) is to fly a controlled experiment that can be directly compared with predictions from several models.

  13. Modification of olfactory-related behavior in juvenile Atlantic salmon by changes in pH.

    PubMed

    Royce-Malmgren, C H; Watson, W H

    1987-03-01

    The hypothesis that low pH modifies the response of salmonids to certain olfactory stimuli was tested. An interactive video-computer system was used to monitor the behavior of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). At a pH of 7.6, animals were attracted to glycine and avoidedL-alanine. These effects were dose-dependent, with a threshold of 10(-7) M. The response of the fish to both amino acids changed when the pH of the test chamber was gradually lowered from 7.6 to 5.1; they became attracted toL-alanine and indifferent to glycine. These effects were reversible with a return to pH 7.6. Our findings suggest that acid rain may contribute to reductions in salmonid populations in acidified rivers by impairing the recognition of olfactory cues by salmon during their spawning migration.

  14. Evaluate Factors Limiting Columbia River Gorge Chum Salmon Populations : FY2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Thomas A.

    2001-12-01

    Juvenile and adult chum salmon were monitored in fiscal year 2001 to continue evaluating factors limiting production. Total adult salmon caught (in weirs or by carcass surveys) in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs in 2000 was 25 and 130 fish, respectively. Fifty-two fish captured in the main stem Columbia River, Hamilton Springs, Hardy Creek, or Bonneville Dam were implanted with radio tags and tracked with an array of fixed aerials and underwater antennae. Males tended to move greater distances than females. Population estimates in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs were 37{+-}2 and 157{+-}5, respectively. Chum smolt emigration began in Hamilton Springs 25 February 2001 and 2 March 2001 in Hardy Creek. Total catches in Hardy Creek and Hamilton Springs were 2,955 and 14,967, respectively. Population abundance estimates were 11,586{+-}1,836 in Hardy Creek and 84,520{+-}9,283 in Hamilton Springs.

  15. Pattern of shoreline spawning by sockeye salmon in a glacially turbid lake: evidence for subpopulation differentiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, C.V.; Finn, J.E.; Holland-Bartels, L.

    1995-01-01

    Alaskan sockeye salmon typically spawn in lake tributaries during summer (early run) and along clear-water lake shorelines and outlet rivers during fall (late run). Production at the glacially turbid Tustumena Lake and its outlet, the Kasilof River (south-central Alaska), was thought to be limited to a single run of sockeye salmon that spawned in the lake's clear-water tributaries. However, up to 40% of the returning sockeye salmon enumerated by sonar as they entered the lake could not be accounted for during lake tributary surveys, which suggested either substantial counting errors or that a large number of fish spawned in the lake itself. Lake shoreline spawning had not been documented in a glacially turbid system. We determined the distribution and pattern of sockeye salmon spawning in the Tustumena Lake system from 1989 to 1991 based on fish collected and radiotagged in the Kasilof River. Spawning areas and time were determined for 324 of 413 sockeye salmon tracked upstream into the lake after release. Of these, 224 fish spawned in tributaries by mid-August and 100 spawned along shoreline areas of the lake during late August. In an additional effort, a distinct late run was discovered that spawned in the Kasilof River at the end of September. Between tributary and shoreline spawners, run and spawning time distributions were significantly different. The number of shoreline spawners was relatively stable and independent of annual escapement levels during the study, which suggests that the shoreline spawning component is distinct and not surplus production from an undifferentiated run. Since Tustumena Lake has been fully deglaciated for only about 2,000 years and is still significantly influenced by glacier meltwater, this diversification of spawning populations is probably a relatively recent and ongoing event.

  16. Biogeomorphic impacts of migration and disturbance: Implications of salmon spawning and decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, S. J.; Petticrew, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    Geomorphologic processes often involve a biotic element that acts to regulate landform development. This biotic element can be plant or animal-based with a feedback that ultimately benefits the ecology of the organism. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) are an example of an animal biogeomorphic agent exhibiting such feedbacks and, because of long migrations from the sea to freshwater spawning grounds, are a species of interest that act on both local and regional scales. Upon returning to their natal streams, salmon generate a dual disturbance, resuspending large amounts of sediment as they construct nests while at the same time generating a substantial nutrient pulse through post-spawn die-off and decay. The retention and export of these nutrients are of importance to any hypothesized productivity boost driven by the marine derived nutrients (MDNs). Using experimental enclosures in the Horsefly River spawning channel in north-central British Columbia, our objectives for this study were to i) quantify the magnitude of organic and inorganic sediment export and retention from an active-spawning area and ii) determine the contribution of fine sediment MDN storage. Using a suspended sediment mass balance model, marine isotope enrichment and a time series of gravel bed sediment infiltration, we found strongly linear relationships between sediment infiltration and marine-derived nutrient enrichment. Elevated suspended sediment produced by salmon redd (nest) construction acted as an effective vector for MDN infiltration into the gravel bed. This study demonstrated that localized patterns of sediment deposition are regulated by salmon activity which in turn act to control MDN storage within, and release from, the gravel bed. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the ability of a biogeomorphic agent like salmon to establish a feedback mechanism that creates favorable conditions which ultimately benefit the organism.

  17. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  18. Geomorphology and the Restoration Ecology of Salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    2005-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic influences on watershed processes affect the distribution and abundance of salmon across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from differences in species use and density between individual pools and riffles to regional patterns of threatened, endangered, and extinct runs. The specific impacts of human activities (e.g., mining, logging, and urbanization) vary among regions and watersheds, as well as between different channel reaches in the same watershed. Understanding of both disturbance history and key biophysical processes are important for diagnosing the nature and causes of differences between historical and contemporary fluvial and watershed conditions based on evaluation of both historical and spatial contexts. In order to be most effective, the contribution of geomorphologic insight to salmon recovery efforts requires both assessment protocols commensurate with providing adequate knowledge of historical and spatial context, and experienced practitioners well versed in adapting general theory to local settings. The historical record of salmon management in Europe, New England and the Pacific Northwest indicates that there is substantial need to incorporate geomorphic insights on the effects of changes in watershed processes on salmon habitat and salmon abundance into salmon recovery efforts.

  19. Assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (Inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (Inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (Inventor); Ross, Brian P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

  20. Predation by fallfish (Semotilus corporalis) on Pacific salmon eggs in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; Nack, C.C.; Chalupnicki, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Fallfish (Semotilus corporalis) are the largest native cyprinid in the northeastern United States and are the most abundant native species in the Salmon River, New York. The Salmon River is a high-quality spawning and nursery river for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migrating from Lake Ontario. Because of the large number of Pacific salmon spawning in the river in the fall extensive redd superimposition occurs resulting in salmonid eggs being available on the substrate. We examined the fall diet of 647 fallfish in 2007 and 2008 to determine the extent of predation on Pacific salmon eggs. The contribution of eggs in the diet significantly increased once fallfish attained a size of 100 mm total length. The largest size category of fallfish examined (≥150 mm) had the highest proportion (86.1%) of salmon eggs in their diet. The contribution of Zooplankton and chironomids in the diet of fallfish decreased with fish size. Except for the two largest groups of fallfish examined (i.e., 100–149 mm and ≥150 mm) diet overlap among size groups was low. The high contribution in the diet during the fall and high caloric value of Pacific salmon eggs could increase growth and survival of this species in the Salmon River.

  1. John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.; Claire, Glenda M.; Seals, Jason

    2002-01-01

    The four objectives of this report are: (1) Estimate annual spawner escapement and number of spring chinook salmon redds in the John Day River basin; (2) Determine sex ratio, age composition, length-at-age of spawners, and proportion of natural spawners that are hatchery origin strays; (3) Determine adequacy of historic index surveys for indexing spawner abundance and for detecting changes in spawner distribution through time; and (4) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival for spring chinook salmon emigrating from the John Day River basin.

  2. Characteristics of fall chum salmon spawning habitat on a mainstem river in Interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burril, Sean E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Finn, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) are the most abundant species of salmon spawning in the Yukon River drainage system, and they support important personal use, subsistence, and commercial fisheries. Chum salmon returning to the Tanana River in Interior Alaska are a significant contribution to the overall abundance of Yukon River chum salmon and an improved understanding of habitat use is needed to improve conservation of this important resource. We characterized spawning habitat of chum salmon using the mainstem Tanana River as part of a larger study to document spawning distributions and habitat use in this river. Areas of spawning activity were located using radiotelemetry and aerial helicopter surveys. At 11 spawning sites in the mainstem Tanana River, we recorded inter-gravel and surface-water temperatures and vertical hydraulic gradient (an indication of the direction of water flux) in substrate adjacent to salmon redds. At all locations, vertical hydraulic gradient adjacent to redds was positive, indicating that water was upwelling through the gravel. Inter-gravel temperatures adjacent to redds generally were warmer than surface water at most locations and were more stable than surface-water temperature. Inter-gravel water temperature adjacent to redds ranged from 2.6 to 5.8 degrees Celsius, whereas surface-water temperature ranged from greater than 0 to 5.5 degrees Celsius. Some sites were affected more by extremes in air temperature than others. At these sites, inter-gravel water temperature profiles were variable (with ranges similar to those observed in surface water), suggesting that even though upwelling habitats provide a stable thermal incubation environment, eggs and embryos still may be affected by extremes in air temperature. Fine sand and silt covered redds at multiple sites and were evidence of increased river flow during the winter months, which may be a potential source of increased mortality during egg-to-fry development. This study provides

  3. Identification of Saprolegnia Spp. Pathogenic in Chinook Salmon : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Whisler, Howard C.

    1997-06-01

    This project has developed procedures to assess the role of the fungal parasite, Saprolegnia in the biology of salmon, particularly adult Chinook, in the Columbia River Basin. Both morphological and DNA ``fingerprinting`` surveys reveal that Saprolegnia parasitica (=S. diclina, Type I) is the most common pathogen of these fish. In the first phase of this study 92% of 620 isolates, from salmon lesions, conformed to this taxa of Saprolegnia. In the current phase, the authors have developed variants of DNA fingerprinting (RAPD and SWAPP analysis) that permit examination of the sub-structure of the parasite population. These results confirm the predominance of S. parasitica, and suggest that at least three different sub-groups of this fungus occur in the Pacific N.W., USA. The use of single and paired primers with PCR amplification permits identification of pathogenic types, and distinction from other species of the genus considered to be more saprophytic in character. A year`s survey of saprolegniaceous fungi from Lake Washington indicated that the fish-pathogen was not common in the water column. Where and how fish encounter this parasite can be approached with the molecular tags identified in this project.

  4. Multigenerational outbreeding effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Sarah J; Love, Oliver P; Pitcher, Trevor E; Higgs, Dennis M; Heath, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Outbreeding, mating between genetically divergent individuals, may result in negative fitness consequences for offspring via outbreeding depression. Outbreeding effects are of notable concern in salmonid research as outbreeding can have major implications for salmon aquaculture and conservation management. We therefore quantified outbreeding effects in two generations (F1 hybrids and F2 backcrossed hybrids) of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) derived from captively-reared purebred lines that had been selectively bred for differential performance based on disease resistance and growth rate. Parental lines were crossed in 2009 to create purebred and reciprocal hybrid crosses (n = 53 families), and in 2010 parental and hybrid crosses were crossed to create purebred and backcrossed hybrid crosses (n = 66 families). Although we found significant genetic divergence between the parental lines (FST = 0.130), reciprocal F1 hybrids showed no evidence of outbreeding depression (hybrid breakdown) or favorable heterosis for weight, length, condition or survival. The F2 backcrossed hybrids showed no outbreeding depression for a suite of fitness related traits measured from egg to sexually mature adult life stages. Our study contributes to the current knowledge of outbreeding effects in salmonids and supports the need for more research to better comprehend the mechanisms driving outbreeding depression. PMID:24952720

  5. Chemical physiological and morphological studies of feral baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffering from abnormal fry mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Norrgren, L. . Dept. of Pathology Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm ); Andersson, T. . Dept. of Zoophysiology); Bergqvist, P.A. . Inst. of Environmental Chemistry); Bjoerklund, I. )

    1993-11-01

    In 1974, abnormally high mortality was recorded among yolk-sac fry of Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) originating from feral females manually stripped and fertilized with milt from feral males. The cause of this mortality, designated M74, is unknown. The hypothesis is that xenobiotic compounds responsible for reproduction failure in higher vertebrates in the Baltic Sea also interfere with reproduction in Baltic salmon. The significance of M74 should not be underestimated, because the syndrome has caused up to 75% yearly mortality of developing Baltic salmon yolk-sac larvae in a fish hatchery dedicated to production of smolt during the last two decades. The author cannot exclude the possibility that only a relatively low number of naturally spawned eggs develop normally because of M74. No individual pollutant has been shown to be responsible for the development of M74 syndrome. However, a higher total body burden of organochlorine substances may be responsible for the M74 syndrome. The presence of induced hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes in both yolk-sac fry suffering from M74 and adult feral females producing offspring affected by M74 supports this hypothesis. In addition, the P450 enzyme activity in offspring from feral fish is higher than the activity in yolk-sac fry from hatchery-raised fish, suggesting that feral Baltic salmon are influenced by organic xenobiotics.

  6. Sockeye Salmon Retain Immunoglobulin-Secreting Plasma Cells Throughout Their Spawning Journey And Post-spawning

    PubMed Central

    Schouten, Jonathan; Clister, Terri; Bruce, Amber; Epp, Lidia; Zwollo, Patty

    2013-01-01

    Antibody-producing plasma cells are a major source of protective immunity in vertebrates, including salmon. During the spawning phase, salmon undergo drastic, hormonally driven changes in their physiology, including elevated levels of cortisol, which are known to suppress the immune system. As adult fish need to survive their long journey to the spawning grounds, we hypothesized that humoral immunity, in the form of IgM-secreting plasma cells, remains functional until post-spawning. This was investigated by measuring changes in membrane and secreted immunoglobulin heavy chain mu and Pax5 transcripts in spleen and kidney from migrating sockeye salmon, using real-time qPCR. As an additional measurement, the abundance of developing B, mature B, and plasma cells was determined in spawning fish, using flow cytometry. Immune tissue samples were collected from fish from the Kenai River drainage and Main Bay, Prince William Sound. Our results reveal that spawning fish express high levels of secreted heavy chain mu transcripts in their spleen and anterior kidney throughout the spawning journey. Furthermore, we show that IgM-secreting PCs (HCmu++/Pax5−) remain abundant in anterior kidney and spleen of post-spawning sockeye salmon, with a concomitant loss in developing B cells (HCmu−/Pax5+). This suggests that successful spawners retain their PCs throughout the spawning journey and post-spawning. PMID:23434463

  7. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, Richard W.

    2003-07-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2002. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, they are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, the Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  8. Nutrient fluxes and the recent collapse of coastal California salmon populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Jonathan W.; Hayes, Sean A.; Duffy, Walter; Gallagher, Sean; Michel, Cyril J.; Wright, David

    2011-01-01

    Migratory salmon move nutrients both in and out of fresh waters during the different parts of their life cycle. We used a mass-balance approach to quantify recent changes in phosphorus (P) fluxes in six coastal California, USA, watersheds that have recently experienced dramatic decreases in salmon populations. As adults, semelparous Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon imported 8.3 and 10.4 times more P from the ocean, respectively, than they exported as smolts, while iteroparous steelhead (i.e., sea-run rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) imported only 1.6 times more than they exported as kelts and smolts. Semelparous species whose life histories led them to import more nutrients were also the species whose populations decreased the most dramatically in California in recent years. In addition, the relationship between import and export was nonlinear, with export being proportionally more important at lower levels of import. This pattern was driven by two density-dependent processes — smolts were larger and disproportionately more abundant at lower spawner abundances. In fact, in four of our six streams we found evidence that salmon can drive net export of P at low abundance, evidence for the reversal of the "conveyor belt" of nutrients.

  9. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS : Appendices.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described. The document concludes with an evaluation of the potential effects that could result from implementing proposed actions. The conclusions are based on evaluation of existing data, utilization of numerical models, and application of logical inference. This volume contains the appendices.

  10. Sockeye salmon retain immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells throughout their spawning journey and post-spawning.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Jonathan; Clister, Terri; Bruce, Amber; Epp, Lidia; Zwollo, Patty

    2013-06-01

    Antibody-producing plasma cells are a major source of protective immunity in vertebrates, including salmon. During the spawning phase, salmon undergo drastic, hormonally driven changes in their physiology, including elevated levels of cortisol, which are known to suppress the immune system. As adult fish need to survive their long journey to the spawning grounds, we hypothesized that humoral immunity, in the form of IgM-secreting plasma cells, remains functional until post-spawning. This was investigated by measuring changes in membrane and secreted immunoglobulin heavy chain mu and Pax5 transcripts in spleen and kidney from migrating sockeye salmon, using real-time qPCR. As an additional measurement, the abundance of developing B, mature B, and plasma cells was determined in spawning fish, using flow cytometry. Immune tissue samples were collected from fish from the Kenai River drainage and Main Bay, Prince William Sound. Our results reveal that spawning fish express high levels of secreted heavy chain mu transcripts in their spleen and anterior kidney throughout the spawning journey. Furthermore, we show that IgM-secreting PCs (HCmu++/Pax5-) remain abundant in anterior kidney and spleen of post-spawning sockeye salmon, with a concomitant loss in developing B cells (HCmu-/Pax5+). This suggests that successful spawners retain their PCs throughout the spawning journey and post-spawning. PMID:23434463

  11. Sequencing the genome of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The International Collaboration to Sequence the Atlantic Salmon Genome (ICSASG) will produce a genome sequence that identifies and physically maps all genes in the Atlantic salmon genome and acts as a reference sequence for other salmonids. PMID:20887641