Science.gov

Sample records for adult sand flies

  1. The search for sand fly adults in a village in southern Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are several good papers in the literature describing methods for collecting adult phlebotomine sand flies from habitats putatively used for resting sites. The published data from such searches demonstrate that finding adult sand flies can be quite difficult even when using established methods....

  2. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-31

    submitted for publication. iii 7. Key Words: Sand fly Lutzomyia Phlebotominae Phlebotomus Leishmaniasis 1i Note: Copies of this report are filed with...5 II. Sand Flies of the Central Amazon of Brazil. 2. De- scription of Lutzomyia (Triehophoromyia) ruii n. sp. . 28 III. A New Phlebotomine Sand...previously unknown in the Republic. These are Brvmptomyia hamata, B. galindoi, Lutzomyia odax, L. ovallesi, L. carpenteri, L. shannoni, L. texana, L

  3. Impact of Phlebotomine Sand Flies on U.S. Military Operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 3. Evaluation of Surveillance Devices for the Collection of Adult Sand Flies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    18 attached to a 20- by 7-cm “ cockroach ” sticky trap (Fig. 1). Carbon dioxide or other supplemental attractants were not used. Evaluations were...evaluating newer trap technologies that incorporateCO2orother attractants for the collection of phlebotomine sand ßies. Acknowledgments We thank the...dioxide as attractants for Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in southern Egypt. J. Am.Mosq. Control Assoc. 20: 130Ð133. Coleman, R. E., D. A

  4. Control of Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Iran: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis has long been known as a significant public health challenge in many parts of Iran. Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti are the vectors of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis respectively, and 5 species of sand flies including P. kandelakii, P. neglectus, P. perfiliewi, P. keshishiani and P. alexandri are considered as probable vectors of Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. A literature search was performed of the relevant multiple databases from 1966 to 2013 to include studies on sand flies, vector control, leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus. Sand fly control in Iran began in 1966 by Iranian researchers, and long-term evaluation of its effects was completed in the study areas of the country. Herein, a review of vector control strategies in Iran to combat leishmaniasis including indoor residual spraying, application of chemicals in rodent burrows, impregnation of bed nets and curtains with insecticides, the use of insect repellents, impregnation of dog collars and the susceptibility of sand fly vectors to various insecticides has been summarized thus far. The investigation of the behavioral patterns of the adults of different sand fly species, introduction of biological insecticide agents, the use of insecticidal plants and other novel strategies for the control of sand fly populations have received much attention in the areas of studies, hence should be recommended and improved since they provide optimistic results. PMID:28032095

  5. Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-12

    found naturally in plant and animal tissues was highly effective for linking adult sand flies with their larval diet, without having to locate or capture...on rodent feces. Through the identification of rodent feces as a sand fly larval habitat, we now know that rodent baits containing insecticides that...rodents, and that the elimination of sand flies that feed on rodents can be achieved using baits containing an insecticide that circulates in the blood of

  6. Efficacy of light and nonlighted carbon dioxide-baited traps for adult sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) surveillance in three counties of Mesrata, Libya.

    PubMed

    Obenauer, P J; Annajar, B B; Hanafi, H A; Abdel-Dayem, M S; El-Hossary, S S; Villinski, J

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT. Sand flies are important vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially along coastal towns of northwestern Libya where an estimated 20,000 cases have occurred from 2004 to 2009. Host-seeking traps are an important tool for sampling sand fly populations and surveying the incidence of Leishmania major and L. tropica within a given population. We evaluated the capture efficiency of CO2-baited BG-Sentinel, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light, CDC ultraviolet light, and nonbaited CO2 CDC light traps in 3 coastal townships during June, August, September, and November 2010. A total of 3,248 sand flies, representing 8 species from 2 genera, were collected; most sand flies were identified as either Phlebotomus papatasi or P. longicuspis. Three of the traps captured significantly more sand flies compared to the BG-Sentinel baited with CO2 (P < 0.001). Three of 456 DNA pools extracted from sand flies were positive for Leishmania DNA, indicating a minimum estimated infection rate of 0.83% and 0.47% for P. papatasi and P. longicuspis, respectively.

  7. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leishmaniasis is an insect-borne disease caused by several protozoan species in the genus Leishmania, which are vectored by sand fly species in the genera Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia, depending on the sand fly species geographic range. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. milita...

  8. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-31

    Brazil. 2. Lutzomyia ( Trichophoromyia ) n. sp. Acta Amazonica (in press). 5 PERSONNEL SUPPORTED ON PROJECT D.G. Young, Ph.D., Assistant Research...Fly Lutzomyia Phlebo tominae Leishmaniasis 2. AssrN ACr (M.mA& am ree "mi N nFeey ad Identify by block number) The Technical Bulletin on the...Two other papers, based on field work near Manaus, Brazil in 1979, are in press. A proven vector of leishmania- sis, Lutzomyia wellcomei, and 39 other

  9. Laboratory evaluation of insecticide-treated sugar baits for control of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Mascari, T M; Foil, L D

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of boric acid, imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin incorporated into sugar baits as oral toxicants for adult phlebotomine sand flies. Variable toxicity of insecticide-sugar bait solutions to adult male and female sand flies was demonstrated, based on male female median lethal concentration values of 0.10-0.08, 6.13-9.53, and 9.03-18.11 mg/liter of imidacloprid, ivermectin, and abamectin, respectively. Complete control of sand flies could not be achieved with as high as 40 g/liter of boric acid in sugar bait solution; concentrations >40 g/liter were found repellent to the sand flies. Uranine O (a fluorescent tracer dye that can be used to measure the ingestion of sugar baits by sand flies) did not interact negatively with imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin when it was combined with the insecticides in a sugar bait. Also, incorporation of imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin into sugar baits did not reduce the effect whether adult male and female sand flies fed on these sugar baits. We propose that imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin could be used to control adult sand fly populations with targeted use of insecticide-treated sugar baits.

  10. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) is a major vector of Leishamnia major, the principle causative agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Middle East, southern Europe, northern Africa, and Southern Asia. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. military operations...

  11. Midgut morphological changes and autophagy during metamorphosis in sand flies.

    PubMed

    Malta, Juliana; Heerman, Matthew; Weng, Ju Lin; Fernandes, Kenner M; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2017-03-11

    During metamorphosis, holometabolous insects undergo significant remodeling of their midgut and become able to cope with changes in dietary requirements between larval and adult stages. At this stage, insects must be able to manage and recycle available food resources in order to develop fully into adults, especially when no nutrients are acquired from the environment. Autophagy has been previously suggested to play a crucial role during metamorphosis of the mosquito. Here, we investigate the overall morphological changes of the midgut of the sand fly during metamorphosis and assess the expression profiles of the autophagy-related genes ATG1, ATG6, and ATG8, which are associated with various steps of the autophagic process. Morphological changes in the midgut start during the fourth larval instar, with epithelial degeneration followed by remodeling via the differentiation of regenerative cells in pre-pupal and pupal stages. The changes in the midgut epithelium are paired with the up-regulation of ATG1, ATG6 and ATG8 during the larva-adult transition. Vein, a putative epidermal growth factor involved in regulating epithelial midgut regeneration, is also up-regulated. Autophagy has further been confirmed in sand flies via the presence of autophagosomes residing within the cytoplasmic compartment of the pupal stages. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of this process should aid the future management of this neglected tropical vector.

  12. Natural Breeding Places for Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Semiarid Region of Bahia State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sangiorgi, Bruno; Miranda, Daniel Neves; Oliveira, Diego Ferreira; Santos, Edivaldo Passos; Gomes, Fernanda Regis; Santos, Edna Oliveira; Barral, Aldina; Miranda, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Few microhabitats have been previously identified as natural breeding places for phlebotomine sand flies so far, and little is known about the influence of climate variables in their density. The present study was conducted in a dry region with a semiarid climate, where visceral leishmaniasis occurs in humans and dogs. The occurrence of breeding places in specific microhabitats was investigated in soil samples collected from five houses, which were also the location used for sampling of adults. All the microhabitats sampled by our study were identified as natural breeding places due to the occurrence of immature forms of sand flies. On a weekly basis, the number of adult sand flies captured was positively correlated with the mean temperature from preceding weeks. These results, in addition to promoting an advance in the knowledge of sand flies biology, may furnish a tool for optimizing the control of the sand flies, by indicating the most suitable periods and microhabitats for the application of insecticides. PMID:22529861

  13. Natural breeding places for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: psychodidae) in a semiarid region of bahia state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sangiorgi, Bruno; Miranda, Daniel Neves; Oliveira, Diego Ferreira; Santos, Edivaldo Passos; Gomes, Fernanda Regis; Santos, Edna Oliveira; Barral, Aldina; Miranda, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Few microhabitats have been previously identified as natural breeding places for phlebotomine sand flies so far, and little is known about the influence of climate variables in their density. The present study was conducted in a dry region with a semiarid climate, where visceral leishmaniasis occurs in humans and dogs. The occurrence of breeding places in specific microhabitats was investigated in soil samples collected from five houses, which were also the location used for sampling of adults. All the microhabitats sampled by our study were identified as natural breeding places due to the occurrence of immature forms of sand flies. On a weekly basis, the number of adult sand flies captured was positively correlated with the mean temperature from preceding weeks. These results, in addition to promoting an advance in the knowledge of sand flies biology, may furnish a tool for optimizing the control of the sand flies, by indicating the most suitable periods and microhabitats for the application of insecticides.

  14. Comparative Field Evaluation of Different Traps for Collecting Adult Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Jorge J; Arque-Chunga, Wilfredo; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2016-06-01

    Phlebotominae are the vectors of Leishmania parasites. It is important to have available surveillance and collection methods for the sand fly vectors. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and compare traps for the collection of sand fly species and to analyze trap catches along months and transects. Field evaluations over a year were conducted in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. A randomized-block design was implemented in study area with tropical rainforest vegetation. The study design utilized 4 transects with 11 trap types: 1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap with incandescent bulb (CDC-I), 2) CDC light trap with blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (CDC-B), 3) CDC light trap with white LEDs (CDC-W), 4) CDC light trap with red LEDs (CDC-R), 5) CDC light trap with green LEDs (CDC-G), 6) Disney trap, 7) Disney trap with white LEDs, 8) sticky panels, 9) sticky panels with white LEDs, 10) delta-like trap, and 11) delta-like trap with white LEDs. A total of 1,014 specimens of 13 species and 2 genera (Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia) were collected. There were significant differences in the mean number of sand flies caught with the 11 traps; CDC-I was (P  =  0.0000) more effective than the other traps. Other traps exhibited the following results: CDC-W (17.46%), CDC-B (15.68%), CDC-G (14.89%), and CDC-R (14.30%). The relative abundance of different species varied according to trap types used, and the CDC-I trap attracted more specimens of the known vectors of Leishmania spp., such as like Lutzomyia cruciata, Lu. shannoni, and Lu. ovallesi. Disney trap captured more specimens of Lu. olmeca olmeca. Based on abundance and number of species, CDC light traps and Disney traps appeared to be good candidates for use in vector surveillance programs in this endemic area of Mexico.

  15. Insecticide-Treated Rodent Baits for Sand Fly Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-28

    opposed to the weekly baiting scheme that is needed for ivermectin [9]. Furthermore, rubidium permanently marks sand flies that have taken a bloodmeal...from a rubidium -treated ro- dent, compared to rhodamine B, which marks sand flies for approx- imately 5-d post-bloodmeal. It is possible that the use...of rubidium in future studies could provide a more accurate measurement. Field trials testing these new chemicals currently are being conducted

  16. Characteristics of SCC with Fly Ash and Manufactured Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen Kumar, K.; Radhakrishna

    2016-09-01

    Self compacting concrete (SCC) of M40 grade was designed. The binder in SCC consists of OPC and fly ash in the ratio of 65:35. River sand was replaced by manufactured sand (M-sand) at replacement levels of 20,40,60,80 and 100%. An attempt was made to evaluate the workability and strength characteristics of self compacting concrete with river sand and manufactured sand as fine aggregates. For each replacement level, constant workability was maintained by varying the dosage of superplasticizer. T50 flow time, V Funnel time, V-funnel T5 time as well as compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of SCC were found at each replacement level of M-sand. They were compared to SCC with river sand. Results indicate favourable use of M-sand in preparation of Self Compacting Concrete.

  17. Imidacloprid as a Potential Agent for the Systemic Control of Sand Flies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Imidacloprid as a potential agent for the systemic control of sand flies Gideon Wasserberg1,4*, Richard... imidacloprid as a systemic control agent. First, to evaluate the blood-feeding effect, we fed adult female Phlebotomus papatasi with imidacloprid ...mortality was obtained with a dose of only 250 ppm. Overall, results support the feasibility of imidacloprid as a systemic control agent that

  18. Efficacy of Commercial Mosquito Traps in Capturing Phlebotomine Sand Flies in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult mosquito traps of four types that are marketed for homeowner use in residential settings were compared with a standard CDC light trap for efficacy in collecting phlebotomine sand flies. We evaluated the Mosquito MagnetTM Pro (MMP), the SentinelTM 360 mosquito trap (S360), the BG-SentinelTM mo...

  19. NEW RECORDS OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) FROM ECUADOR.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lynn A; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Beati, Lorenza; Terán, Rommy; León, Renato; Munstermann, Leonard E

    2010-01-01

    The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc).

  20. Sampling strategies for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods.

  1. Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar sands fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueno, C. O.; Spink, D. R.; Rempel, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar sands deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd.—GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it is shown in the present work that such processes are not suitable for recovery of vanadium from the GCOS fly ash. The fact that the GCOS fly ash behaves so differently when compared to other petroleum fly ash is attributed to its high silicon and aluminum contents which tie up the metal values in a silica-alumina matrix. Results of experiments carried out in this investigation indicate that such matrices can be broken down by application of a sodium chloride/water roast of the carbon-free fly ash. Based on results from a series of preliminary studies, a detailed investigation was undertaken in order to define optimum conditions for a vanadium extraction process. The process developed involves a high temperature (875 to 950 °C) roasting of the fly ash in the presence of sodium chloride and water vapor carried out in a rotary screw kiln, followed by dilute sodium hydroxide atmosphereic leaching (98 °C) to solublize about 85 pet of the vanadium originally present in the fly ash. It was found that the salt roasting operation, besides enhancing vanadium recovery, also inhibits silicon dissolution during the subsequent leaching step. The salt roasting treatment is found to improve vanadium recovery significantly when the fly ash is fully oxidized. This is easily achieved by burning off the carbon present in the “as received” fly ash under excess air. The basic leaching used in the new process selectively dissolves vanadium from the roasted ash, leaving nickel and titanium untouched.

  2. Molecular Diversity between Salivary Proteins from New World and Old World Sand Flies with Emphasis on Bichromomyia olmeca, the Sand Fly Vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Shannon; Pasos-Pinto, Silvia; Sanchez, Laura; Rasouli, Manoochehr; B. Guimaraes-Costa, Anderson; Aslan, Hamide; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Becker, Ingeborg; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Jochim, Ryan C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sand fly saliva has been shown to have proteins with potent biological activities, salivary proteins that can be used as biomarkers of vector exposure, and salivary proteins that are candidate vaccines against different forms of leishmaniasis. Sand fly salivary gland transcriptomic approach has contributed significantly to the identification and characterization of many of these salivary proteins from important Leishmania vectors; however, sand fly vectors in some regions of the world are still neglected, as Bichromomyia olmeca (formerly known as Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca), a proven vector of Leishmania mexicana in Mexico and Central America. Despite the importance of this vector in transmitting Leishmania parasite in Mesoamerica there is no information on the repertoire of B. olmeca salivary proteins and their relationship to salivary proteins from other sand fly species. Methods and Findings A cDNA library of the salivary glands of wild-caught B. olmeca was constructed, sequenced, and analyzed. We identified transcripts encoding for novel salivary proteins from this sand fly species and performed a comparative analysis between B. olmeca salivary proteins and those from other sand fly species. With this new information we present an updated catalog of the salivary proteins specific to New World sand flies and salivary proteins common to all sand fly species. We also report in this work the anti-Factor Xa activity of Lofaxin, a salivary anticoagulant protein present in this sand fly species. Conclusions This study provides information on the first transcriptome of a sand fly from Mesoamerica and adds information to the limited repertoire of salivary transcriptomes from the Americas. This comparative analysis also shows a fast degree of evolution in salivary proteins from New World sand flies as compared with Old World sand flies. PMID:27409591

  3. Gene silencing in phlebotomine sand flies: Xanthine dehydrogenase knock down by dsRNA microinjections.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Mauricio R; Alexander, Bruce; Bates, Paul A; Dillon, Rod J

    2008-06-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis are vectors of medically important visceral leishmaniasis in South America. Blood-fed adult females digest large amounts of protein, and xanthine dehydrogenase is thought to be a key enzyme involved in protein catabolism through the production of urate. Large amounts of heme are also released during digestion with potentially damaging consequences, as heme can generate oxygen radicals that damage lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. However, urate is an antioxidant that may prevent such oxidative damage produced by heme. We investigated xanthine dehydrogenase by developing the RNAi technique for sand flies and used this technique to knock down the Lu. longipalpis xanthine dehydrogenase gene to evaluate its role in survival of adult females after blood feeding. The gene sequence of Lu. longipalpis xanthine dehydrogenase is described together with expression in different life cycle stages and RNAi knock down. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR of xanthine dehydrogenase expression showed a significant increase in expression after bloodmeal ingestion. Microinjection of dsRNA via the thorax of 1-day-old adult female sand flies resulted in approximately 40% reduction of xanthine dehydrogenase gene expression in comparison to flies injected with a control dsRNA. A significant reduction of urate in the whole body and excretions of Lu. longipalpis was observed after dsRNA xanthine dehydrogenase microinjection and feeding 96h later on rabbit blood. Sand flies injected with XDH dsRNA also exhibit significantly reduced life span in comparison with the mock-injected group when fed on sucrose or when rabbit blood fed, showing that urate could be indeed an important free radical scavenger in Lu. longipalpis. The demonstration of xanthine dehydrogenase knock down by dsRNA microinjection, low mortality of microinjected insects and the successful bloodfeeding of injected insects demonstrated the utility of RNAi as a tool for functional analysis of genes in phlebotomine

  4. Ivermectin as a Rodent Feed-Through Insecticide for Control of Immature Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    humidity and is protected from extreme temperatures . Adult sand flies live in close proximity to sources of blood (from the rodents living within the... temperature for 7 days and then were stored at 270uC until used. In each experiment, the body weight and daily food intake of hamsters in the 4 diet groups were...LN, Mamigonova RI, Sabatov EA. 1983. Use of D-20 aerosol insecticide smoke pots in controlling burrow sandflies . Med Parazitol Parazit Bolezni 4:78

  5. Epidemiological Study on Sand Flies in an Endemic Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Bushehr City, Southwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Mohammad; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Shahbazi, Farideh; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Jafari, Reza; Soleimani, Hassan; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Nastaran; Khajeian, Mohammad; Darabi, Hossein; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most important health problem in the city of Bushehr, southwestern Iran. The objective of the study was to determine some ecological aspects of sand flies in the city during 2010–2011. Sand flies were collected monthly from outdoors and indoors by sticky traps at four selected districts of the city. They were also dissected and examined by nested-PCR for identification of the parasite during August–September of 2011. A total of 1234 adult sand flies were collected and 6 species including 3 of Genus Phlebotomus and 3 of Genus Sergentomyia were identified. Four species including P. papatasi (3.98%), P. sergenti (1.14%), S. tiberiadis (87.18%), and S. baghdadis (7.7%) were found indoors. Six species including P. papatasi (3.47%), P. sergenti (3.17%), P. alexandri (0.1%), S. tiberiadis (77.74%), S. baghdadis (15.41%), and one female of S. clydei (0.11%) were collected from outdoors. Sand flies started to appear from March and disappear at the end of January. There was only one peak in the density curve in July. The study revealed that S. tiberiadis and S. baghdadis could enter indoors which 89 and 81.8% of them were found blood-fed, respectively. Moreover, P. papatasi, S. tiberiadis, and S. baghdadis were active indoors and outdoors in most months of the year. Nested-PCR of P. papatasi females was positive against kinetoplast DNA of L. major and L. turanica and also mixed natural infections were found by L. gerbilli and L. turanica. Moreover, mixed infections by L. major and L. turanica were observed in this species. Sergentomyia clydei and S. tiberiadis were found to be negative to any DNA of Leishmania species. Phlebotomus sergenti females were found infected with DNA of L. turanica and this is the first report of natural infection and detection of the parasite from this sand fly species in worldwide. PMID:25699245

  6. NEW RECORDS OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) FROM ECUADOR

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lynn A.; Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Beati, Lorenza; Terán, Rommy; León, Renato; Munstermann, Leonard E.

    2012-01-01

    The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc). PMID:22628901

  7. Impact of phlebotomine sand flies on U.S. Military operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 2. Temporal and geographic distribution of sand flies.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Russell E; Burkett, Douglas A; Sherwood, Van; Caci, Jennifer; Spradling, Sharon; Jennings, Barton T; Rowton, Edgar; Gilmore, Wayne; Blount, Keith; White, Charles E; Putnam, John L

    2007-01-01

    CDC miniature light traps were used to evaluate the general biology of phlebotomine sand flies from April 2003 to November 2004 at Tallil Air Base, Iraq. Factors evaluated include species diversity and temporal (daily and seasonal) and geographic distribution of the sand flies. In addition, the abundance of sand flies inside and outside tents and buildings was observed. In total, 61,630 sand flies were collected during 1,174 trap nights (mean 52 per trap, range 0-1,161), with 90% of traps containing sand flies. Sand fly numbers were low in April, rose through May, were highest from mid-June to early September, and dropped rapidly in late September and October. More than 70% of the sand flies were female, and of these sand flies, 8% contained visible blood. Phlebotomus alexandri Sinton, Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot, and Sergentomyia spp. accounted for 30, 24, 1, and 45% of the sand flies that were identified, respectively. P. alexandri was more abundant earlier in the season (April and May) than P. papatasi, whereas P. papatasi predominated later in the season (August and September). Studies on the nocturnal activity of sand flies indicated that they were most active early in the evening during the cooler months, whereas they were more active in the middle of the night during the hotter months. Light traps placed inside tents with and without air conditioners collected 83 and 70% fewer sand flies, respectively, than did light traps placed outside the tents. The implications of these findings to Leishmania transmission in the vicinity of Tallil Air Base are discussed.

  8. Leishmania development in sand flies: parasite-vector interactions overview.

    PubMed

    Dostálová, Anna; Volf, Petr

    2012-12-03

    Leishmaniases are vector-borne parasitic diseases with 0.9 - 1.4 million new human cases each year worldwide. In the vectorial part of the life-cycle, Leishmania development is confined to the digestive tract. During the first few days after blood feeding, natural barriers to Leishmania development include secreted proteolytic enzymes, the peritrophic matrix surrounding the ingested blood meal and sand fly immune reactions. As the blood digestion proceeds, parasites need to bind to the midgut epithelium to avoid being excreted with the blood remnant. This binding is strictly stage-dependent as it is a property of nectomonad and leptomonad forms only. While the attachment in specific vectors (P. papatasi, P. duboscqi and P. sergenti) involves lipophosphoglycan (LPG), this Leishmania molecule is not required for parasite attachment in other sand fly species experimentally permissive for various Leishmania. During late-stage infections, large numbers of parasites accumulate in the anterior midgut and produce filamentous proteophosphoglycan creating a gel-like plug physically obstructing the gut. The parasites attached to the stomodeal valve cause damage to the chitin lining and epithelial cells of the valve, interfering with its function and facilitating reflux of parasites from the midgut. Transformation to metacyclic stages highly infective for the vertebrate host is the other prerequisite for effective transmission. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of molecular interactions occurring in all these distinct phases of parasite colonization of the sand fly gut, highlighting recent discoveries in the field.

  9. Trapping sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Eva; Pilani, Roberto; Carrieri, Marco; Bellini, Romeo

    2007-12-01

    The efficiency and practicality of two trapping methods for adult Phlebotomine sand flies in two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) were evaluated. Suction traps (CO2) and sticky traps (ST) were used to collect sand flies every two weeks, from June to September, 1999, from 16:00 to 07:00. Two CO2 traps were activated at the same time for each area (one with light and one without light), whereas 38 (four with light and 34 without lights) and 48 (four with light and 44 without) sticky traps were activated in Borghi and Longiano, respectively. An Index of Apparent Abundance (IAA) was calculated for each trap type and area. A total of 2,253 sand flies was trapped over the four-month period, with 1,765 collected from Borghi and 488 from Longiano. Phlebotomus perfiliewi was the most abundant species collected, comprising 99.6% and 84.6% of the total flies trapped in Borghi and Longiano, respectively. Other species were also collected within the two areas (Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus mascittii) but were not considered for further analyses due to low catches. Significantly more specimens were caught using CO2 than sticky traps and the addition of a light source also improved the catches, however, a significantly greater number of female specimens were collected by a CO2 trap without a light source. Phlebotomus perfiliewi thus appears to show a photophobic reaction in the case of females when trapped using CO2/light attractants.

  10. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2017-04-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  11. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2016-05-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  12. Sugar feeding in adult stable flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult stable flies, (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)), are known to feed readily on sugars in the laboratory. However, little is known concerning the extent of stable fly sugar feeding in wild populations. We examined the frequency of sugar feeding in stable flies in rural and urban environments. In additi...

  13. Impact of Phlebotomine Sand Flies on U.S. Military Operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 2. Temporal and Geographic Distribution of Sand Flies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    collections, with StudentÐNewmanÐ Keuls test (P 0.05) used to separate mean values. Results TemporalDistribution of Phlebotomine SandFlies at Tallil...each. DielActivity of SandFlies atTallilAirBase. In total, 2,574 phlebotomine sand ßies was collected during 25 trap nights between 6 May 2003 and 30... SandFlies InsideTents at TAB.This studywas conducted between 25May and 30October 2003. Ninety-Þve replicates were conducted in tents that had no air

  14. Impact of phlebotomine sand flies on United States military operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 5. Impact of weather on sand fly activity.

    PubMed

    Colacicco-Mayhugh, Michelle G; Grieco, John P; Putnam, John L; Burkett, Douglas A; Coleman, Russell E

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of weather and moon illumination on sand fly activity, as measured by light trap collections made between 2 May 2003 and 25 October 2004 at Tallil Air Base, Iraq. Wind speed, temperature, dew point, percentage of sky cover, and moon illumination were entered into principal components analysis. The resulting principal components were entered into stepwise regression to develop a model of the impact of the weather on sand fly collections. Wind speed, percentage of sky cover, and moon illumination each had a strong inverse relationship with the number of sand flies collected, whereas temperature displayed a direct relationship to sand fly collections. Our data indicate that sand fly light trap catches at Tallil Air Base are highest on warm, clear nights with low wind speed and minimal illumination from the moon.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of rubidium as a long-lasting marker for bloodfeeding sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Mascari, T M; Stout, R W; Foil, L D

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the trace element rubidium (Rb) as a long-lasting systemic biomarker for bloodfeeding females of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli. Baits containing Rb chloride were found to be palatable to hamsters in this study. We were able to detect Rb using a portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer in all sand flies that fed on Rb-treated hamsters for at least 14 d postbloodmeal. We also detected Rb in sand flies that took a bloodmeal from hamsters up to 10 d after the hamsters were withdrawn from a Rb-treated diet. Results of this study constitute proof of concept for the incorporation of Rb chloride into rodent baits for marking bloodfeeding sand flies, and suggest that Rb marking could be used as a technique for evaluating rodent-targeted sand fly control methods and in ecological studies on sand flies.

  16. Mosquito and sand fly gregarines of the genus Ascogregarina and Psychodiella (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida, Aseptatorina)--overview of their taxonomy, life cycle, host specificity and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Lantova, Lucie; Volf, Petr

    2014-12-01

    Mosquitoes and sand flies are important blood-sucking vectors of human diseases such as malaria or leishmaniasis. Nevertheless, these insects also carry their own parasites, such as gregarines; these monoxenous pathogens are found exclusively in invertebrates, and some of them have been considered useful in biological control. Mosquito and sand fly gregarines originally belonging to a single genus Ascogregarina were recently divided into two genera, Ascogregarina comprising parasites of mosquitoes, bat flies, hump-backed flies and fleas and Psychodiella parasitizing sand flies. Currently, nine mosquito Ascogregarina and five Psychodiella species are described. These gregarines go through an extraordinarily interesting life cycle; the mosquito and sand fly larvae become infected by oocysts, the development continues transtadially through the larval and pupal stages to adults and is followed by transmission to the offspring by genus specific mechanisms. In adult mosquitoes, ascogregarines develop in the Malpighian tubules, and oocysts are defecated, while in the sand flies, the gregarines are located in the body cavity, their oocysts are injected into the accessory glands of females and released during oviposition. These life history differences are strongly supported by phylogenetical study of SSU rDNA proving disparate position of Ascogregarina and Psychodiella gregarines. This work reviews the current knowledge about Ascogregarina and Psychodiella gregarines parasitizing mosquitoes and sand flies, respectively. It gives a comprehensive insight into their taxonomy, life cycle, host specificity and pathogenicity, showing a very close relationship of gregarines with their hosts, which suggests a long and strong parasite-host coevolution.

  17. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND SEASONALITY OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN SATUN PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Panthawong, Amonrat; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Phasuk, Jumnongjit

    2015-09-01

    Leishmaniasis is prevalent mainly in the southern provinces of Thailand where sand flies are considered to be an important vector. Sand flies were collected using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps in Satun Province from June 2013 to July 2014. A total of 1,982 sand flies (1,228 females and 754 males) were collected. Only female sand flies were identified to the species level and were tested for Leishmania infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Morphological identification revealed 2 genera and 9 species: Phlebotomus stantoni, P. argentipes, Sergentomyia gemmea, S. indica, S. barraudi, S. iyengari, S. bailyi, S. perturbans, and S. silvatica. S. gemmea (57.2%) was the most abundant species. The diversity of sand flies was highest in Thung Wa District. The sand flies were most abundant late in the hot season and early in the rainy season (April to June). The highest number of sand flies was collected in June. Significant correlations between the number of female sand flies and rainfall and between S. gemmea and rainfall were found. Of the female sand flies tested, none were positive for Leishmania spp.

  18. Feeding preferences of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector, for Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo-Silva, Virgínia P; Martins, Daniella R A; De Queiroz, Paula Vivianne Souza; Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo G; Freire, Caio C M; Queiroz, José W; Dupnik, Kathryn M; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Ximenes, Maria De Fátima F M

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, is spread mostly by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). We trapped sand flies in endemic neighborhoods near Natal, Brazil, where cases of human and dog VL were documented. Amplification of species-specific cytochrome b (Cyt b) genes by polymerase chain reaction revealed that sand flies from rural and periurban areas harbored blood from different sources. The most common source ofbloodmeal was human, but blood from dog, chicken, and armadillo was also present. We tested the preference for a source of bloodmeal experimentally by feeding L. longipalpis F1 with blood from different animals. There were significant differences between the proportion of flies engorged and number of eggs laid among flies fed on different sources, varying from 8.4 to 19 (P < 0.0001). Blood from guinea pig or horse was best to support sand fly oviposition, but human blood also supported sand fly oviposition well. No sand flies fed on cats, and sand flies feeding on the opossum Monodelphis domestica Wagner produced no eggs. These data support the hypothesis that L. longipalpis is an eclectic feeder, and humans are an important source of blood for this sand fly species in periurban areas of Brazil.

  19. DNA barcoding for identification of sand fly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) from leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Peru.

    PubMed

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Cáceres, Abraham G; Arrunátegui-Jiménez, Martín J; Lañas-Rosas, Máximo F; Yañez-Trujillano, Henrry H; Luna-Caipo, Deysi V; Holguín-Mauricci, Carlos E; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2015-05-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are the only proven vectors of leishmaniases, a group of human and animal diseases. Accurate knowledge of sand fly species identification is essential in understanding the epidemiology of leishmaniasis and vector control in endemic areas. Classical identification of sand fly species based on morphological characteristics often remains difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. Here, we generated DNA barcodes of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene using 159 adult specimens morphologically identified to be 19 species of sand flies, belonging to 6 subgenera/species groups circulating in Peru, including the vector species. Neighbor-joining (NJ) analysis based on Kimura 2-Parameter genetic distances formed non-overlapping clusters for all species. The levels of intraspecific genetic divergence ranged from 0 to 5.96%, whereas interspecific genetic divergence among different species ranged from 8.39 to 19.08%. The generated COI barcodes could discriminate between all the sand fly taxa. Besides its success in separating known species, we found that DNA barcoding is useful in revealing population differentiation and cryptic diversity, and thus promises to be a valuable tool for epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis.

  20. Breeding sites of Phlebotomus sergenti, the sand fly vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Judean Desert.

    PubMed

    Moncaz, Aviad; Faiman, Roy; Kirstein, Oscar; Warburg, Alon

    2012-01-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies transmit Leishmania, phlebo-viruses and Bartonella to humans. A prominent gap in our knowledge of sand fly biology remains the ecology of their immature stages. Sand flies, unlike mosquitoes do not breed in water and only small numbers of larvae have been recovered from diverse habitats that provide stable temperatures, high humidity and decaying organic matter. We describe studies designed to identify and characterize sand fly breeding habitats in a Judean Desert focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. To detect breeding habitats we constructed emergence traps comprising sand fly-proof netting covering defined areas or cave openings. Large size horizontal sticky traps within the confined spaces were used to trap the sand flies. Newly eclosed male sand flies were identified based on their un-rotated genitalia. Cumulative results show that Phlebotomus sergenti the vector of Leishmania tropica rests and breeds inside caves that are also home to rock hyraxes (the reservoir hosts of L. tropica) and several rodent species. Emerging sand flies were also trapped outside covered caves, probably arriving from other caves or from smaller, concealed cracks in the rocky ledges close by. Man-made support walls constructed with large boulders were also identified as breeding habitats for Ph. sergenti albeit less important than caves. Soil samples obtained from caves and burrows were rich in organic matter and salt content. In this study we developed and put into practice a generalized experimental scheme for identifying sand fly breeding habitats and for assessing the quantities of flies that emerge from them. An improved understanding of sand fly larval ecology should facilitate the implementation of effective control strategies of sand fly vectors of Leishmania.

  1. Breeding Sites of Phlebotomus sergenti, the Sand Fly Vector of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Judean Desert

    PubMed Central

    Moncaz, Aviad; Faiman, Roy; Kirstein, Oscar; Warburg, Alon

    2012-01-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies transmit Leishmania, phlebo-viruses and Bartonella to humans. A prominent gap in our knowledge of sand fly biology remains the ecology of their immature stages. Sand flies, unlike mosquitoes do not breed in water and only small numbers of larvae have been recovered from diverse habitats that provide stable temperatures, high humidity and decaying organic matter. We describe studies designed to identify and characterize sand fly breeding habitats in a Judean Desert focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. To detect breeding habitats we constructed emergence traps comprising sand fly-proof netting covering defined areas or cave openings. Large size horizontal sticky traps within the confined spaces were used to trap the sand flies. Newly eclosed male sand flies were identified based on their un-rotated genitalia. Cumulative results show that Phlebotomus sergenti the vector of Leishmania tropica rests and breeds inside caves that are also home to rock hyraxes (the reservoir hosts of L. tropica) and several rodent species. Emerging sand flies were also trapped outside covered caves, probably arriving from other caves or from smaller, concealed cracks in the rocky ledges close by. Man-made support walls constructed with large boulders were also identified as breeding habitats for Ph. sergenti albeit less important than caves. Soil samples obtained from caves and burrows were rich in organic matter and salt content. In this study we developed and put into practice a generalized experimental scheme for identifying sand fly breeding habitats and for assessing the quantities of flies that emerge from them. An improved understanding of sand fly larval ecology should facilitate the implementation of effective control strategies of sand fly vectors of Leishmania. PMID:22802981

  2. Evaluation of ULV applications against Old World sand fly species in equatorial Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing populations of phlebotomine sand flies in areas prevalent for leishmaniases is of ongoing importance to U.S. military operations. Collateral reduction of sand flies or human cases of leishmaniases during pesticide campaigns against vectors of malaria indicate that residuals like DDT can be ...

  3. Reducing Sand Fly Numbers in Leishmania Endemic Regions in Kenya with Insecticide Treated Camouflage Screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current US military operations in deserts face persistent threats from sand flies that transmit human Leishmania. Methods to reduce the risk of human infection from leishmaniasis by reducing the number of sand fly vectors were investigated in Kenya. Bifenthrin treated and un-treated camouflage netti...

  4. Sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Goytacazes National Forest and surrounding areas of southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    das Virgens, Thieres Marassati; Rezende, Helder Ricas; de Souza Pinto, Israel; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2015-06-01

    Most studies of the sand fly fauna in southeastern Brazil are conducted in the peridomiciliary environment of leishmaniasis endemic regions. Therefore, to increase the knowledge about diversity and richness of sand fly conservation areas, we describe here the sand fly fauna from the National Forest of Goytacazes (NFG), state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and its surroundings areas. We also used sand fly fauna records from eight conservations units within the state of Espírito Santo to understand the similarity and relationships among them. The sand flies were simultaneously collected from June, 2008 to May, 2009 in two different environments: a preserved environment represented by the NFG and a modified environment represented by a peridomicile. To establish the similarity among the conservation units, we used a method very similar to parsimony analysis of endemism. We collected 2,466 sand fly specimens belonging to 13 species. Pressatia choti and Nyssomyia intermedia were the most abundant sand fly species. Ny. intermedia is a known vector of Leishmania braziliensis and epidemiological surveillance must be conducted in the area. We discuss aspects regarding the diversity of sand flies as well as the risk of transmission of Leishmania parasites in the area. We also provide for the first time a hypothesis of similarity relationships among conservation units within the state of Espírito Santo.

  5. Evaluation of ULV applications against Old World sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) species in equatorial Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing populations of phlebotomine sand flies in areas prevalent for human leishmaniases is of ongoing importance to US military operations and civilian populations in endemic regions. Collateral reduction of sand flies or human cases of leishmaniases during pesticide campaigns against vectors of ...

  6. Seasonal Dynamics of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species Proven Vectors of Mediterranean Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Alten, Bulent; Maia, Carla; Afonso, Maria Odete; Campino, Lenea; Jiménez, Maribel; González, Estela; Molina, Ricardo; Bañuls, Anne Laure; Prudhomme, Jorian; Vergnes, Baptiste; Toty, Celine; Cassan, Cécile; Rahola, Nil; Thierry, Magali; Sereno, Denis; Bongiorno, Gioia; Bianchi, Riccardo; Khoury, Cristina; Tsirigotakis, Nikolaos; Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Antoniou, Maria; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Mazeris, Apostolos; Karakus, Mehmet; Ozbel, Yusuf; Arserim, Suha K.; Erisoz Kasap, Ozge; Gunay, Filiz; Oguz, Gizem; Kaynas, Sinan; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Tskhvaradze, Lamzira; Gramiccia, Marina; Volf, Petr; Gradoni, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent geographical expansion of phlebotomine vectors of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean subregion has been attributed to ongoing climate changes. At these latitudes, the activity of sand flies is typically seasonal; because seasonal phenomena are also sensitive to general variations in climate, current phenological data sets can provide a baseline for continuing investigations on sand fly population dynamics that may impact on future scenarios of leishmaniasis transmission. With this aim, in 2011–2013 a consortium of partners from eight Mediterranean countries carried out entomological investigations in sites where L. infantum transmission was recently reported. Methods/Principal Findings A common protocol for sand fly collection included monthly captures by CDC light traps, complemented by sticky traps in most of the sites. Collections were replicated for more than one season in order to reduce the effects of local weather events. In each site, the trapping effort was left unchanged throughout the survey to legitimate inter-seasonal comparisons. Data from 99,000 collected specimens were analyzed, resulting in the description of seasonal dynamics of 56,000 sand flies belonging to L. infantum vector species throughout a wide geographical area, namely P. perniciosus (Portugal, Spain and Italy), P. ariasi (France), P. neglectus (Greece), P. tobbi (Cyprus and Turkey), P. balcanicus and P. kandelakii (Georgia). Time of sand fly appearance/disappearance in collections differed between sites, and seasonal densities showed variations in each site. Significant correlations were found between latitude/mean annual temperature of sites and i) the first month of sand fly appearance, that ranged from early April to the first half of June; ii) the type of density trend, varying from a single peak in July/August to multiple peaks increasing in magnitude from May through September. A 3-modal trend, recorded for P. tobbi in Cyprus, represents a novel

  7. Significance of bacteria in oviposition and larval development of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Microbial ecology of phlebotomine sand flies is not well understood although bacteria likely play an important role in the sand fly biology and vector capacity for Leishmania parasites. In this study, we assessed the significance of the microbial community of rabbit feces in oviposition and larval development of Lutzomyia longipalpis as well as bacterial colonization of the gut of freshly emerged flies. Methods Sterile (by autoclaving) and non-sterile (control) rabbit feces were used in the two-choice assay to determine their oviposition attractiveness to sand fly females. Bacteria were identified by amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene with universal eubacterial primers. Sterile, control (non-sterile), and sterilized and inoculated rabbit feces were used to assess the significance of bacteria in L. longipalpis development. Newly emerged adult flies were surface-sterilized and screened for the bacterial population size and diversity by the culturing approach. The digestive tract of L4 sterile and control larvae was incubated with Phalloidin to visualize muscle tissues and DAPI to visualize nuclei. Results Two-choice behavioural assays revealed a great preference of L. longipalpis to lay eggs on rabbit feces with an active complex bacterial community (control) (85.8 % of eggs) in comparison to that of sterile (autoclaved) rabbit feces (14.2 %). Bioassays demonstrated that L. longipalpis larvae can develop in sterile rabbit feces although development time to adult stage was greatly extended (47 days) and survival of larvae was significantly lower (77.8 %) compared to that of larvae developing in the control rabbit feces (32 days and 91.7 %). Larval survival on sterilized rabbit feces inoculated with the individual bacterial isolates originating from this substrate varied greatly depending on a bacterial strain. Rhizobium radiobacter supported larval development to adult stage into the greatest extent (39 days, 88.0 %) in

  8. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight was studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observati...

  9. Vector soup: high-throughput identification of Neotropical phlebotomine sand flies using metabarcoding.

    PubMed

    Kocher, Arthur; Gantier, Jean-Charles; Gaborit, Pascal; Zinger, Lucie; Holota, Helene; Valiere, Sophie; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Murienne, Jerome

    2017-03-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are haematophagous dipterans of primary medical importance. They represent the only proven vectors of leishmaniasis worldwide and are involved in the transmission of various other pathogens. Studying the ecology of sand flies is crucial to understand the epidemiology of leishmaniasis and further control this disease. A major limitation in this regard is that traditional morphological-based methods for sand fly species identifications are time-consuming and require taxonomic expertise. DNA metabarcoding holds great promise in overcoming this issue by allowing the identification of multiple species from a single bulk sample. Here, we assessed the reliability of a short insect metabarcode located in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA for the identification of Neotropical sand flies, and constructed a reference database for 40 species found in French Guiana. Then, we conducted a metabarcoding experiment on sand flies mixtures of known content and showed that the method allows an accurate identification of specimens in pools. Finally, we applied metabarcoding to field samples caught in a 1-ha forest plot in French Guiana. Besides providing reliable molecular data for species-level assignations of phlebotomine sand flies, our study proves the efficiency of metabarcoding based on the mitochondrial 16S rRNA for studying sand fly diversity from bulk samples. The application of this high-throughput identification procedure to field samples can provide great opportunities for vector monitoring and eco-epidemiological studies.

  10. Fly-ash-amended sand as filter media in bioretention cells to improve phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Brown, Glenn O; Storm, Daniel E; Zhang, Hailin

    2008-06-01

    This study identified material with high phosphorus sorption suitable for bioretention filter media. Materials examined were fly ash, two expanded shales, peat moss, limestone, and two common Oklahoma soils--Teller loam and Dougherty sand. The peat moss was a phosphorus source, while the two soils, limestone, and one expanded shale had only modest sorption capacity. One expanded shale and the fly ash had significant phosphorus sorption. Fly ash is unsuitable for use in a pure form, as a result of its low permeability, but phosphorus sorption on the sand was increased significantly with the incorporation of small amounts of fly ash. Column leaching experiments found that the sand with 2.5 and 5% fly ash and the better expanded shale had linear, non-equilibrium transport retardation factors of 272, 1618, and 185, with first-order rate coefficients of 0.153, 0.0752, and 0.113 hour(-1), respectively. Desorption experiments showed that the phosphorus sorption on the sand/fly ash mixture is largely nonreversible. Transport simulation assuming a 1-m-deep sand/fly ash treatment layer, with 5% of the watershed area, showed that the sand/fly ash filter media could effectively treat 1 mg/L influent for 12 years in a paved watershed and 34 years in a grassed watershed before exceeding Oklahoma's scenic rivers' phosphorus criterion of 0.037 mg/L. Significant phosphorus removal would continue for over 100 years.

  11. Evaluation of Insecticides, Clothing Repellents, and Other Approaches to the Control of Coastal Sand Flies, Culicoides spp.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    coastal sand flies, CuLicoides spp Sept.30, 1981 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(,) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) Daniel L. Kline and R. H...AA * u* Comparison of Techniques for Trapping Adult Culicoides spp . In order to evaluate the effectiveness of any control procedure there is a need...75. MANUSCRIPTS Kline, D. L. and R. H. Roberts. Daily and seasonal abundance of Culicoides spp . biting midges in selected mangrove areas in Lee County

  12. Efficacy of Different Sampling Methods of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Endemic Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Kashan District, Isfahan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hesam-Mohammadi, Marzieh; Rassi, Yavar; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Karimi, Fatemeh; Rafizadeh, Sina; Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza; Sharafkhah, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency and practicality of seven trapping methods for adult phlebotominae sand flies. The results of this investigation provide information to determine the species composition and nocturnal activity pattern of different sand fly species. Methods: The study was carried out in both plain region (about 5km far from northeast) and mountainous region (about 40km far from southwest of Kashan City). Seven traps were selected as sampling methods and sand flies were collected during 5 interval times starting July to September 2011 and from 8:00PM to 6:00AM in outdoors habitats. The traps include: sticky traps (4 papers for 2 hours), Disney trap, Malaise, CDC and CO2 light traps, Shannon traps (black and white nets) and animal-baited trap. Results: A total of 1445 sand flies belonging to 15 species of Phlebotomus spp. and five of Sergentomyia spp. were collected. Females and males comprised 44.91% and 55.09% of catches, respectively. Of the collected specimens, Se. sintoni was found to be the most prevalent (37.86%) species, while Ph. papatasi, accounted for 31.76% of the sand flies. Conclusion: Disney trap and sticky traps exhibited the most productivity than other traps. In addition, in terms of the efficiency of sampling method, these two trapping methods appeared to be the most productive for both estimating the number of sand flies and the species composition in the study area. PMID:26114129

  13. The Diversity of Yellow-Related Proteins in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Michal; Novotny, Marian; Pravda, Lukas; Sumova, Petra; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Yellow-related proteins (YRPs) present in sand fly saliva act as affinity binders of bioamines, and help the fly to complete a bloodmeal by scavenging the physiological signals of damaged cells. They are also the main antigens in sand fly saliva and their recombinant form is used as a marker of host exposure to sand flies. Moreover, several salivary proteins and plasmids coding these proteins induce strong immune response in hosts bitten by sand flies and are being used to design protecting vaccines against Leishmania parasites. In this study, thirty two 3D models of different yellow-related proteins from thirteen sand fly species of two genera were constructed based on the known protein structure from Lutzomyia longipalpis. We also studied evolutionary relationships among species based on protein sequences as well as sequence and structural variability of their ligand-binding site. All of these 33 sand fly YRPs shared a similar structure, including a unique tunnel that connects the ligand-binding site with the solvent by two independent paths. However, intraspecific modifications found among these proteins affects the charges of the entrances to the tunnel, the length of the tunnel and its hydrophobicity. We suggest that these structural and sequential differences influence the ligand-binding abilities of these proteins and provide sand flies with a greater number of YRP paralogs with more nuanced answers to bioamines. All these characteristics allow us to better evaluate these proteins with respect to their potential use as part of anti-Leishmania vaccines or as an antigen to measure host exposure to sand flies. PMID:27812196

  14. [Rearing immature horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) by using a substrate of bryophytes and sand].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ruth L M; Rafael, José A

    2006-01-01

    A new method for rearing immature horse flies by using a substrate of bryophytes and sand is described and the advantages of such substrate for maintenance of species with long development periods are discussed.

  15. Distribution of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) species and efficiency of capturing methods in Sanliurfa province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Sahin; Ozer, Nurdan

    2007-01-01

    The population dynamics of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were studied in Sanliurfa province in southeastern Turkey, in the country's largest focus of typical anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, during 2000-2002. Sand flies were collected at nine different sampling stations, located throughout the city, representing a cross section of urban and rural habitats. In total, 29,771 sand flies were collected, 45.35% of which were Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli. In this study, the overall sand fly species diversity, relative abundance of each species, biodiversity, and similarity indices among sampling stations and efficiency of trapping methods were evaluated. Among the sampling stations, Sanliurfa city center and Suruç were shown to have the highest number of sand fly species; Harran-Akcakale and Hilvan habitats produced the largest number of individuals. The greatest similarity rates (80%) in terms of sand fly species were observed between Hilvan and city center, Harran-Akcakale and city center, Harran-Akcakale and Yenice, and Siverek and Viransehir. The lowest similarity rate (16%) was observed between Bozova-Birecik and city center. Comparison of biodiversity and similarity indices between the various sampling stations reveals the distribution of the suspected vector species and provides basic knowledge required to develop logical and effective control strategies. Among the trapping methods used, light traps showed the highest capture efficiency, above aspirators and sticky papers. It was concluded that light traps alone were sufficient to determine the sand fly fauna of the study area. It is recommended that the spatial and temporal dynamics of sand fly populations be monitored throughout the southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) construction period, considering the potential impact the project may have on mean temperature, humidity, and human population movements.

  16. DNA Barcoding for the Identification of Sand Fly Species (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Contreras Gutiérrez, María Angélica; Vivero, Rafael J.; Vélez, Iván D.; Porter, Charles H.; Uribe, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Sand flies include a group of insects that are of medical importance and that vary in geographic distribution, ecology, and pathogen transmission. Approximately 163 species of sand flies have been reported in Colombia. Surveillance of the presence of sand fly species and the actualization of species distribution are important for predicting risks for and monitoring the expansion of diseases which sand flies can transmit. Currently, the identification of phlebotomine sand flies is based on morphological characters. However, morphological identification requires considerable skills and taxonomic expertise. In addition, significant morphological similarity between some species, especially among females, may cause difficulties during the identification process. DNA-based approaches have become increasingly useful and promising tools for estimating sand fly diversity and for ensuring the rapid and accurate identification of species. A partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I (COI) is currently being used to differentiate species in different animal taxa, including insects, and it is referred as a barcoding sequence. The present study explored the utility of the DNA barcode approach for the identification of phlebotomine sand flies in Colombia. We sequenced 700 bp of the COI gene from 36 species collected from different geographic localities. The COI barcode sequence divergence within a single species was <2% in most cases, whereas this divergence ranged from 9% to 26.6% among different species. These results indicated that the barcoding gene correctly discriminated among the previously morphologically identified species with an efficacy of nearly 100%. Analyses of the generated sequences indicated that the observed species groupings were consistent with the morphological identifications. In conclusion, the barcoding gene was useful for species discrimination in sand flies from Colombia. PMID:24454877

  17. Seasonal Variation in the Prevalence of Sand Flies Infected with Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Tiwary, Puja; Kumar, Dinesh; Mishra, Mukesh; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Rai, Madhukar; Sundar, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a life threatening neglected infectious disease in the Indian subcontinent, transmitted by the bite of female sand flies. Estimation of the infectivity in the vector population, collected in different seasons, may be useful to better understanding the transmission dynamics of VL as well as to plan vector control measures. Methodology We collected sand flies from highly endemic regions of Bihar state, India for one year over three seasons. The species of the sand flies were confirmed by species-specific PCR-RFLP. Leishmania donovani infection was investigated in 1397 female Phlebotomus argentipes using PCR, targeting the Leishmania specific minicircle of the kDNA region. Further, the parasitic load in the infected sand flies was measured using quantitative PCR. Conclusion Though sand flies were most abundant in the rainy season, the highest rate of infection was detected in the winter season with 2.84% sand flies infected followed by the summer and rainy seasons respectively. This study can help in vector elimination programmes and to reduce disease transmission. PMID:23585896

  18. Spatial Distribution of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Qom Province, Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Saghafipour, Abedin; Vatandoost, Hassan; Zahraei-Ramazani, Ali Reza; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Rassi, Yavar; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand fly bites. ZCL is a major health problem in Iran, where basic knowledge gaps about sand fly species diversity persist in some ZCL-endemic areas. This paper describes the richness and spatial distribution of sand fly species, collected with sticky traps, in Qom province, a ZCL-endemic area in central Iran, where sand fly fauna has been poorly studied. Collected species were mapped on urban and rural digital maps based on a scale of 1/50,000. All analyses were undertaken with rural- and urban-level precision, i.e., rural and urban levels were our basic units of analysis. After identifying the sand flies, high-risk foci were determined. For spatial analysis of vector species population, the entomological sampling sites were geo-referenced using GPS. Arc GIS 9.3 software was used to determine the foci with leishmaniasis vector species. Following the analyses, two genera (Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia) and 14 species were identified. Based on the mapping and sand fly dispersion analysis, the rural districts were categorized into three groups-infection reported, without infection, and no report. Based on Geographical Information System analyses, Kahak and Markazi districts were identified as high-risk foci with leishmaniasis vector species. These findings can act as a help guide to direct active control measures to the identified high-risk foci and, eventually, lead to reduction in incidence of the disease.

  19. Seasonal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Tham Phra Phothisat temple, Saraburi province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Polseela, R; Apiwathnasorn, C; Samung, Y

    2011-08-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies have long been incriminated as vectors of leishmaniasis in various parts of both the Old and New World. Prompted by recent indigenous cases of leishmaniasis in Thailand, a bionomic study of sand flies was undertaken in Tham Phra Phothisat temple, Saraburi province. In this study, sand flies were collected using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, to clarify the activity patterns and species composition of the sand flies. Traps were laid from August 2005 to July 2006. The insects were collected monthly between 1800-0600 hours. A total of 8,131 sand flies were collected with a female:male ratio of 1.9:1. Sixteen species were identified, of which 5 belonged to the genus Phlebotomus, 9 to Sergentomyia and 1 to Chinius. Species comprised the abundant species (Sergentomyia silvatica 35.6%, Sergentomyia barraudi 18.1%, Sergentomyia anodontis, 17.1%, Sergentomyia iyengari 11.9%, and Sergentomyia gemmea 11.2%); the less common species (<2%) were Sergentomyia dentata 1.8%, Phlebotomus stantoni 1.1%, Sergentomyia indica 1.0%, Phlebotomus argentipes 0.8%, Sergentomyia perturbans 0.4%, Chinius barbazani 0.3%, Phlebotomus asperulus 0.2%, Phlebotomus philippinensis gouldi 0.1%, Phlebotomus major major 0.1%, Sergentomyia quatei 0.1% and Sergentomyia bailyi 0.1%. The results revealed seasonal variation in sand fly prevalence, with the highest peak in July. Soil samples collected were characterized by alkaline (pH 7.6).

  20. The Immune Response to Sand Fly Salivary Proteins and Its Influence on Leishmania Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Regis; Oliveira, Fabiano

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by bites of phlebotomine sand flies. During Leishmania transmission, sand fly saliva is co-inoculated with parasites into the skin of the mammalian host. Sand fly saliva consists of roughly thirty different salivary proteins, many with known roles linked to blood feeding facilitation. Apart from the anti-hemostatic capacity of saliva, several sand fly salivary proteins have been shown to be immunogenic. Immunization with a single salivary protein or exposure to uninfected bites was shown to result in a protective immune response against leishmaniasis. Antibodies to saliva were not required for this protection. A strong body of evidence points to the role for saliva-specific T cells producing IFN-γ in the form of a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction at the bite site as the main protective response. Herein, we review the immunity to sand fly salivary proteins in the context of its vector–parasite–host combinations and their vaccine potential, as well as some recent advances to shed light on the mechanism of how an immune response to sand fly saliva protects against leishmaniasis. PMID:22593758

  1. Spatial Distribution of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Qom Province, Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Saghafipour, Abedin; Vatandoost, Hassan; Zahraei-Ramazani, Ali Reza; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Rassi, Yavar; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad

    2016-09-28

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand fly bites. ZCL is a major health problem in Iran, where basic knowledge gaps about sand fly species diversity persist in some ZCL-endemic areas. This paper describes the richness and spatial distribution of sand fly species, collected with sticky traps, in Qom province, a ZCL-endemic area in central Iran, where sand fly fauna has been poorly studied. Collected species were mapped on urban and rural digital maps based on a scale of 1/50,000. All analyses were undertaken with rural- and urban-level precision, i.e., rural and urban levels were our basic units of analysis. After identifying the sand flies, high-risk foci were determined. For spatial analysis of vector species population, the entomological sampling sites were geo-referenced using GPS. Arc GIS 9.3 software was used to determine the foci with leishmaniasis vector species. Following the analyses, two genera (Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia) and 14 species were identified. Based on the mapping and sand fly dispersion analysis, the rural districts were categorized into three groups-infection reported, without infection, and no report. Based on Geographical Information System analyses, Kahak and Markazi districts were identified as high-risk foci with leishmaniasis vector species. These findings can act as a help guide to direct active control measures to the identified high-risk foci and, eventually, lead to reduction in incidence of the disease.

  2. Discovery of diurnal resting sites of phlebotomine sand flies in a village in southern Egypt.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are serious pests of humans in Egypt and other parts of the Middle East. These flies are persistent biters and can transmit diseases such as Leishmaniasis. Because they are considered to be weak fliers, it is suspected that daytime resting sites are close to their nighttime...

  3. DISTRIBUTION OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA:PSYCHODIDAE) IN LIMESTONE CAVES, KHAO PATHAWI, UTHAI THANI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Polseela, R; Vitta, A; Apiwathnasorn, C

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the species composition and density of the sand flies found inside four limestone caves at Khao Pathawi, Thap Than District, Uthai Thani Province. Sand flies were collected using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps from October 2012 to September 2013. The sand flies were captured between 06:00 PM - 06:00 AM. A total of 11,817 sand flies were collected with a male:female ratio of 1.0:1.2 (5,325:6,492). The specimens were identified as eight species belonging to three genera Phlebotomus, Sergentomyia, Chinius, and comprised of S. anodontis, P. argentipes, P. stantoni, S. barraudi, S. silvatica, S. gemmea, S. indica, and C. barbazani. Sergentomyia anodontis (55.0%) was the predominant species followed by P. argentipes (33.6%) and others. Five species of sand fly were found throughout the year in this area: P. argentipes, P. stantoni, S. anodontis, S. barraudi and S. gemmea. The highest average density of sand flies was found in Ratree cave (35.0 sand flies per trap per night) and lowest in Bandai cave (29.0 sand flies per trap per night). The population of sand fly fluctuated from the highest peak in December (28.5%) to the lowest peak in May (2.3%). The distribution of sand fly species in attraction areas is important for the control program of infection risk of leishmaniasis.

  4. Identification of Sand flies of the Subgenus Larroussius based on Molecular and Morphological Characters in North Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Absavaran, A; Rassi, Y; Parvizi, P; Oshaghi, MA; Abaie, MR; Rafizadeh, S; Mohebali, M; Zarea, Z; Javadian, E

    2009-01-01

    Background: The adult female sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of the subgenus Larroussius are important vectors of Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Tripanosomatidae) in Meshkinshahr district, Northwest of Iran. Four Phlebotomus (Larroussius) species are present in this area, i.e. Phlebotomus (Larroussius) kandelakii, P. (La.) major, P. (La.) perfiliewi and P. (La.) tobbi. The objective of the present study was to identify and distinguish the females of P. perfiliewi, P. major and P. tobbi, in this district. Methods: Adult sand flies were collected with sticky papers, CDC light traps, and aspirator in 2006. Individual sand flies of this four species from thirty different locations were characterized morphologically and by comparative DNA sequences analyses of a fragment of mitochondrial gene Cytochrome b (Cyt b) and nuclear gene Elongation Factor 1-alpha (EF-1α). PCR amplification was carried out for all three species P. major, P. perfiliewi and P. tobbi in the subgenus Larroussius. Results: Phylogenetic analyses of P. major populations in this study displayed two different populations and genetic diversity. Spermathecal segment number, pharyngeal armature and other morphological characters of these three species were examined and found to present consistent interspecific differences. Conclusion: According to our findings, the phylogeny of Cyt b and EF-1α haplotypes confirms the relationships between P. major, P. tobbi and P. perfiliewi as already defined by their morphological similarities. PMID:22808379

  5. The role of Palmyra palm trees (Borassus flabellifer) and sand fly distribution in northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Poché, Richard M; Garlapati, Rajesh; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A; Perry, Diana; Poché, David

    2012-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), known as Kala-azar in India, is a parasite transmitted by the bite of the sand fly vector Phlebotomus argentipes. Published information on the species indicates it is a poor flyer, mainly hopping and gliding. This study describes the vector as more arboreal than previously documented. Data collected indicate the ability of P. argentipes and Sergentomyia spp to attain vertical heights in Palmyra palm trees Borassus flabellifer up to 18.4 m above ground level. To determine if sand flies were either climbing the tree trunk to rest in the canopy or flying, sticky traps were set around the tree trunk and checked for captures overnight. CDC traps set in the palm tree canopy resulted in the capture of 5,067 sand flies, 3,990 of which were P. argentipes. Traps were set during daylight hours to determine if sand flies remained and rested in the canopy. A total of 128 sand flies were trapped over 29 trap days in the palm trees. With the CDC traps, 130 P. argentipes and no Sergentomyia spp were captured. The converse was true for the sticky traps set around tree trunks 3 m below the CDC traps. Of the 105 sand flies collected, only one was P. argentipes and 104 were Sergentomyia spp. As reported elsewhere, this indicates Sergentomyia spp tend to climb and hop, wheareas P. argentipes are capable of longer and more sustained flight. Data presented herein suggest that P. argentipes is more exophylic and exophagic than previously reported. These findings have implications for sand fly control.

  6. Improving phosphate removal of sand infiltration system using alkaline fly ash.

    PubMed

    Cheung, K C; Venkitachalam, T H

    2000-07-01

    Septic tank effluent is customarily disposed of by soil infiltration. Coarse, sandy soil such as those found in Perth, Western Australia, exhibit low attenuation capabilities for phosphate (PO4(3-)) during effluent infiltration. Amendment of such soil with different amounts of alkaline precipitator and lagoon fly ashes was investigated as a means of reducing phosphorus (P) leakage to ground water. Alkaline precipitator fly ash possessed the highest P sorption capacity in terms of its Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm parameters during initial batch tests. The test materials were repeatedly contacted with fresh PO4(3-) solutions over 90 contacting cycles to gain a better indication of long-term P sorption capability. Again, precipitator fly ash exhibited higher P sorption capacity than lagoon fly ash and Spearwood sand. Column studies assessed the influence of various application rates of alkaline precipitator and lagoon fly ashes on the P removal of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent was applied at the rate of 4 cm/day to the column for 12 weeks. Concentrations of P were monitored in the column effluent. All the fly ash columns were more efficient in reducing P migration compared to the sand column. Increased levels of fly ash in the soil columns resulted in increased P attenuation. Lagoon fly ash was inferior to precipitator fly ash for P removal; high application rates of fly ash caused clogging of the infiltration bed apparently due to their lower permeability. It is reasoned that 5-15% precipitator fly ash, and less than 30% lagoon fly ash could be added to coarse sands to produce an infiltration bed, which would result in a better quality effluent than can be obtained with untreated sand alone.

  7. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, David S.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Black, William C.; Bernhardt, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose–response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. PMID:26336231

  8. Infection Parameters in the Sand Fly Vector That Predict Transmission of Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Stamper, Lisa W.; Patrick, Rachel L.; Fay, Michael P.; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A.; Secundino, Nagila; Debrabant, Alain; Sacks, David L.; Peters, Nathan C.

    2011-01-01

    To identify parameters of Leishmania infection within a population of infected sand flies that reliably predict subsequent transmission to the mammalian host, we sampled groups of infected flies and compared infection intensity and degree of metacyclogenesis with the frequency of transmission. The percentage of parasites within the midgut that were metacyclic promastigotes had the highest correlation with the frequency of transmission. Meta-analysis of multiple transmission experiments allowed us to establish a percent-metacyclic “cutoff” value that predicted transmission competence. Sand fly infections initiated with variable doses of parasites resulted in correspondingly altered percentages of metacyclic promastigotes, resulting in altered transmission frequency and disease severity. Lastly, alteration of sand fly oviposition status and environmental conditions at the time of transmission also influenced transmission frequency. These observations have implications for transmission of Leishmania by the sand fly vector in both the laboratory and in nature, including how the number of organisms acquired by the sand fly from an infection reservoir may influence the clinical outcome of infection following transmission by bite. PMID:21886852

  9. Sand fly Surveillance within an Emerging Epidemic Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi-Ershadi, MR; Hakimiparizi, M; Zahraei-Ramazani, AR; Abdoli, H; Akhavan, AA; Aghasi, M; Arandian, MH; Ranjbar, AA

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major has become a hot topic in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine some ecological aspects of sand flies in the study area. Methods: Sand flies were collected biweekly from indoors and outdoors fixed places in the selected villages, using 30 sticky paper traps from the beginning to the end of the active season of 2006 in Kerman Province, south of Iran. The flies were mounted and identified. Some blood fed and gravid female sand flies of rodent burrows and indoors were dissected and examined microscopically for natural promastigote infection of Leishmania parasite during August to September. Results: In total, 2439 specimens comprising 8 species (3 Phlebotomus and 5 Sergentomyia) were identified. The most common sand fly was P. papatasi and represented 87.1% of sand flies from indoors and 57.2% from outdoors. The activity of the species extended from April to end October. There are two peaks in the density curve of this species, one in June and the second in August. Natural promastigote infection was found in P. papatasi (12.7%). Conclusion: Phlebotomus papatasi is considered as a probable vector among gerbils and to humans with a high percentage of promastigote infection in this new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The Bahraman area which until recently was unknown as an endemic area seems now to represent a focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in Iran. PMID:22808384

  10. Spatial and temporal distributions of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), vectors of leishmaniasis, in Iran.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ameneh; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Ghezelbash, Zahra

    2014-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major vector-borne disease and health problem in Iran. Studies on sand flies, as the vectors of the disease, began in the Northern and Western parts of the country in 1930 and have been continued up to now. Concerning many published information in the field of sand flies, providing a digital database for the country will help the public health authorities to make more correct and prompt decisions for planning leishmaniasis control programs as well as modeling and forecasting of transmission potential across the country. All published data on phlebotomine sand flies of Iran were collected. A database was then designed in Excel format, including all available information regarding sand flies. The valid data were transferred to ArcGIS9.3 to prepare the first spatial database of sand flies of Iran. The IrSandflybase includes 131 papers, 2 abstracts and 71 PhD/MSc theses, reporting studies conducted during 1930-2012. This database contains different available data covering all aspects of ecology and biology of 50 sand fly species in two genera of Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia in the country. The temporal activity of sand flies is reported 9 months in warm regions of the southern part, while it may reduce to 7-8 months in central plateau or 4-5 months in cold areas of the northwest. Occasional studies reported rare species from the borderlines of Iran. It seems that changing the climate due to global warming may affect the spatial distribution of different species and expand it into the country, the issue that can be followed by an updated database.

  11. Impact of urbanization on the sand fly Phlebotomus langeroni nitzulescu in an old focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hala A; El Nogoumy, Nihad N; El Sawaf, Bahira M

    2012-12-01

    Changes in the environment often cause changes in disease transmission. Land use change especially urbanization can have a huge impact on transmission of vector-borne diseases. This study investigated the effect of urban development on the abundance of sand flies, in an old endemic focus of infantile visceral leishmaniasis in the north coast of Egypt. Sand fly abundance obtained in this study was compared to those obtained in 1984. In context remote sensing techniques are used to identify landscape features that might have influenced the spatial distribution of the sand fly vector in the area. In 2005, sand flies were completely absent from El Agamy. Sand fly habitat in El Agamy entirely changed and was replaced by urban settlements. Through the analysis of satellite imagery taken before and after, land use/land cover modification together with entomological data, the factors underlying the bionomics of sand flies are discussed.

  12. Solid phase microextraction, sand flies, oviposition pheromones, plaster of Paris and siloxanes-What is in common?

    PubMed

    Goulart, Thais Marchi; Tosta, Christiann Davis; Machado, Vicente Estevam; da Rocha Silva, Flávia Benini; de Castro, Camila Feitosa; Ortiz, Dennys Ghenry Samillan; Oliveira, Wanderson Henrique Cruz; Pinto, Mara Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Sand flies are natural hosts of various microorganisms. Due to their epidemiological importance, sand fly colonies are kept in laboratories to be studied in terms of their biology and vector/host/parasite interactions. In order to investigate the presence of oviposition pheromones in Nyssomyia neivai, experiments using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) were performed. However, siloxanes which is an external class of contamination, present in breeding containers made by plaster used to maintain sand flies in colonies, may be hindered the experiments.

  13. Identification of Algerian Field-Caught Phlebotomine Sand Fly Vectors by MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Lafri, Ismail; Almeras, Lionel; Bitam, Idir; Caputo, Aurelia; Yssouf, Amina; Forestier, Claire-Lise; Izri, Arezki; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background Phlebotomine sand flies are known to transmit Leishmania parasites, bacteria and viruses that affect humans and animals in many countries worldwide. Precise sand fly identification is essential to prevent phlebotomine-borne diseases. Over the past two decades, progress in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as an accurate tool for arthropod identification. The objective of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a tool for identifying field-caught phlebotomine. Methodology/Principal Findings Sand flies were captured in four sites in north Algeria. A subset was morphologically and genetically identified. Six species were found in these areas and a total of 28 stored frozen specimens were used for the creation of the reference spectrum database. The relevance of this original method for sand fly identification was validated by two successive blind tests including the morphological identification of 80 new specimens which were stored at -80°C, and 292 unknown specimens, including engorged specimens, which were preserved under different conditions. Intra-species reproducibility and inter-species specificity of the protein profiles were obtained, allowing us to distinguish specimens at the gender level. Querying of the sand fly database using the MS spectra from the blind test groups revealed concordant results between morphological and MALDI-TOF MS identification. However, MS identification results were less efficient for specimens which were engorged or stored in alcohol. Identification of 362 phlebotomine sand flies, captured at four Algerian sites, by MALDI-TOF MS, revealed that the subgenus Larroussius was predominant at all the study sites, except for in M’sila where P. (Phlebotomus) papatasi was the only sand fly species detected. Conclusion The present study highlights the application of MALDI-TOF MS for monitoring sand fly fauna captured in the field

  14. Anthropic effects on sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) abundance and diversity in an Amazonian rural settlement, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Walkyria Rodrigues; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia María; Marialva, Eric Fabrício; Desmouliére, Sylvain J M; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa

    2014-11-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are responsible for the transmission of protozoan parasites that cause leishmaniases. They are found predominantly in forests, but some species exploit environments that have been subject to deforestation and subsequent human colonization. Studies conducted in Brazil over the past 30 years show that some species are adapting to peri-urban and urban settings. We evaluated sand fly diversity and abundance in the rural settlement of Rio Pardo, Presidente Figueiredo Municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. Settlement households were divided into four categories. These categories were determined by the human population density and the degree of deforestation in the immediate area. We used CDC light traps to sample the area surrounding 24 households (6 households in each category). Samples were taken on six occasions during September-November 2009 and June-August 2010. A total of 3074 sand fly specimens were collected, including 1163 females and 1911 males. These were classified into 13 genera and 52 species. The greatest abundance of sand flies and the greatest richness of species were observed in areas where human population density was highest. Our results show that changes in the human occupancy and vegetation management in rural settlements may affect the population dynamics and distribution of sand fly species, thereby affecting the local transmission of cutaneous leishmaniases.

  15. Bacterial Infection and Immune Responses in Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Fly Larvae Midgut

    PubMed Central

    Heerman, Matthew; Weng, Ju-Lin; Hurwitz, Ivy; Durvasula, Ravi; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The midgut microbial community in insect vectors of disease is crucial for an effective immune response against infection with various human and animal pathogens. Depending on the aspects of their development, insects can acquire microbes present in soil, water, and plants. Sand flies are major vectors of leishmaniasis, and shown to harbor a wide variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Sand fly larval stages acquire microorganisms from the soil, and the abundance and distribution of these microorganisms may vary depending on the sand fly species or the breeding site. Here, we assess the distribution of two bacteria commonly found within the gut of sand flies, Pantoea agglomerans and Bacillus subtilis. We demonstrate that these bacteria are able to differentially infect the larval digestive tract, and regulate the immune response in sand fly larvae. Moreover, bacterial distribution, and likely the ability to colonize the gut, is driven, at least in part, by a gradient of pH present in the gut. PMID:26154607

  16. Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Iran and their Role on Leishmania Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi-Ershadi, MR

    2012-01-01

    Sand fly research has a long history in Iran beginning with the work of Adler, Theodor and Lourie in 1930 and followed by Mesghali’s foundational taxonomic work on sand flies in 1943. Since then, research has been continued unabated throughout the country and official publications report the existence of at least 44 species of sand flies (26 of the genus Phlebotomus and 18 of genus Sergentomyia) in Iran. So far, seven Phlebotomus species and one Sergentomyia species have been collected and described by Iranian researchers for the first time. Natural promastigote infections have been repeatedly found in 13 species of sand flies and modern molecular techniques are used routinely to characterize Leishmania parasite isolates from endemic areas of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Because of anthropogenic environmental modifications or human population movements, data on phlebotomine sand flies should be regularly updated and verified at least every five years by fieldwork and taxonomy in foci of leishmaniasis, to incriminate vector species of relevance to the ecology of transmission and to support development and implementation of control programs. PMID:23293774

  17. Influence of the lunar cycle on the activity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Santos-De Marco, Tania; De Mello Gaia, Marília Carla; Peçanha Brazil, Reginaldo

    2002-06-01

    The influence of lunar phases on the activity of phlebotomine sand flies was evaluated in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The insects were collected by illuminated Shannon traps and Falcão light traps, between 1830 and 2230 h on 44 nights, divided between the dry and rainy seasons, and among each of the 4 lunar phases. A total of 888 sand flies was collected, belonging to 10 Lutzomyia species. The dominant species in both seasons of the year and in all lunar phases was Lutzomyia intermedia. A significant difference was found in the abundance of L. whitmani among lunar phases. No significant difference was found in frequency of sand flies collected among lunar phases. Females of L. intermedia initiated activity earlier during the crescent and full moon phases than during three-quarter and new phases. Based on the premise that sand flies would exhibit normal phototaxis in the absence of moonlight, activity should be unaffected under a new moon, whereas light reflected by the moon in its brightest phases (crescent and full) should shift the period of activity of the sand flies so that it does not coincide with the period in which the moon is visible, or should reduce attractiveness of light traps to the insects by providing less background contrast.

  18. Sand fly fauna in Chapare, Bolivia: an endemic focus of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Marinely; Diaz, Mery; Espinoza, Jorge; Parrado, Rudy; Reithinger, Richard; García, Ana Lineth

    2012-09-01

    Data on the distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia spp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bolivia is scarce. Sand flies from an area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis endemicity in the Isiboro-Secure National Park in the Department of Cochabamba were captured and identified to species. In total, 945 sand flies (789 females and 156 males) belonging to 15 species were collected from the four collection points in two study villages in 2007. With 549 (58.1%) specimens, Lutzomyia shawi was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) sp. (22.2%), Lutzomyia llanosmartinsi (8.3%), Lutzomyia antunesi (4.3%), and Lutzomyia olmeca (2.1%). Abundance and species composition varied between rainy and dry seasons, with 99.3% of all sand flies being collected outdoors. Because of species abundance and confirmed Leishmania infection in previous entomological collections, we believe Lu. shawi is the vector of L. (Viannia) braziliensis in Isiboro-Secure National Park.

  19. [Study of phlebotomines sand fly wildlife suburban location of Bamako (Mali) presence of Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) duboscqi].

    PubMed

    Demba-Kodindo, I; Cheick-Coulibaly, A; Traoré, B; Sissoko, I; Samake, S; Doumbia, S

    2015-03-01

    During three months of sampling, one thousand nine hundred and thirty five sand flies belonging to thirteen species of Phlebotomine sandflies were collected in suburban location of Bamako. Phlebotomus duboscqi, which is the common vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mali, was found for the first time in Bamako mostly within human houses, which can confirm the possibility of a local transmission of Leishmania major. Sergentomyia freetownensis was found for the first time in Mali, which raises to 15 the number of sand flies species identified in Mali.

  20. Comparison of LAMP and PCR for molecular mass screening of sand flies for Leishmania martiniquensis infection

    PubMed Central

    Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Kato, Hirotomo; Yeewa, Ranchana; Muengpan, Amontip; Polseela, Raxsina; Leelayoova, Saovanee

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania martiniquensis infection has been reported in human and domestic animals of Martinique Island, Germany, Switzerland, USA, Myanmar and Thailand. The peculiar clinical features of disseminated cutaneous and visceral forms co-existence render the urgent need of specific diagnostic tool to identify the natural sand fly vectors for effective prevention and control strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of 18S rRNA gene as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of minicircle kinetoplast DNA gene (PCR-mkDNA) have never been applied to detect L. martiniquensis and L. siamensis in sand fly vectors. OBJECTIVE The present study was aimed to validate malachite green-LAMP (MG-LAMP) and PCR-mkDNA techniques to detect L. martiniquensis in sand fly vectors, compared with the conventional PCR of internal transcribed spacer 1 (PCR-ITS1). METHODS We compared the validity of LAMP of 18S rRNA gene and PCR-mkDNA, to PCR-ITS1 in simulation model of L. martiniquensis infection in Sergentomyia gemmea sand flies. Attributable to the sensitivity and specificity, PCR-mkDNA was consecutively applied to detect L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals captured in the newly identified affected region of Lamphun Province, Thailand. FINDINGS AND MAIN CONCLUSIONS Results showed that PCR-mkDNA could detect at least one promastigote per sand fly, which was 10-time superior to LAMP and PCR-ITS1. In addition, PCR-mkDNA was more specific, able to differentiate L. martiniquensis from other viscerotropic Leishmania species, such as L. siamensis, L. (L.) donovani, and L. (L.) infantum. Consecutively, mass screening of L. martiniquensis in 380 female sand fly individuals by PCR-mkDNA was implemented in a new affected area of Thailand where a patient with leishmaniasis/HIV co-infection resides; however Leishmania DNA was undetected. In conclusion, PCR-mkDNA is a promising tool for molecular mass screening of L. martiniquensis

  1. The Role of Leishmania Proteophosphoglycans in Sand Fly Transmission and Infection of the Mammalian Host

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania are transmitted by the bite of their sand fly vector and this has a significant influence on the virulence of the resulting infection. From our studies into the interaction between parasite, vector, and host we have uncovered an important missing ingredient during Leishmania transmission. Leishmania actively adapt their sand fly hosts into efficient vectors by secreting Promastigote Secretory Gel (PSG), a proteophosphoglycan (PPG)-rich, mucin-like gel which accumulates in sand fly gut and mouthparts. This has the effect of blocking the fly, such that during bloodfeeding both parasites and gel are co-transmitted in an act of regurgitation. We are discovering that this has further implications for the mammalian infection, again, in favor of the parasite. Experimentally, PSG exacerbates cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis and can promote the chronicity of Leishmania infection, even in mouse strains normally capable of controlling leishmaniasis. The underlying mechanism of PSG’s action is a major focus of our ongoing work. This review aims to synthesize what is known about the role and action of PSG and its constituent proteophosphoglycans, for parasite colonization of the sand fly, transmission, and mammalian infection. Lastly, we discuss potential exploitation of this important vector-transmitted product and future avenues of research. PMID:22754550

  2. Acetylcholinesterase of the Sand Fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli): cDNA Sequence, Baculovirus Expression and Biochemical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of people and domestic animals around the world are affected by leishmaniasis, a disease caused by various species of flagellated protozoans in the genus Leishmania that are transmitted by several sand fly species. Insecticides are widely used for sand fly population control to try to reduc...

  3. Diversity of bacteriome associated with Phlebotomus chinensis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sand flies in two wild populations from China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaili; Chen, Huiying; Jiang, Jinjin; Li, Xiangyu; Xu, Jiannong; Ma, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    Sand fly Phlebotomus chinensis is a primary vector of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in China. The sand flies have adapted to various ecological niches in distinct ecosystems. Characterization of the microbial structure and function will greatly facilitate the understanding of the sand fly ecology, which would provide critical information for developing intervention strategy for sand fly control. In this study we compared the bacterial composition between two populations of Ph. chinensis from Henan and Sichuan, China. The phylotypes were taxonomically assigned to 29 genera of 19 families in 9 classes of 5 phyla. The core bacteria include Pseudomonas and enterobacteria, both are shared in the sand flies in the two regions. Interestingly, the endosymbionts Wolbachia and Rickettsia were detected only in Henan, while the Rickettsiella and Diplorickettsia only in Sichuan. The intracellular bacteria Rickettsia, Rickettsiella and Diplorickettsia were reported for the first time in sand flies. The influence of sex and feeding status on the microbial structure was also detected in the two populations. The findings suggest that the ecological diversity of sand fly in Sichuan and Henan may contribute to shaping the structure of associated microbiota. The structural classification paves the way to function characterization of the sand fly associated microbiome. PMID:27819272

  4. The effect of temperature on Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) development in sand flies.

    PubMed

    Hlavacova, J; Votypka, J; Volf, P

    2013-09-01

    The spread of leishmaniasis to areas where it was previously considered nonendemic has been recently found in the New and Old Worlds, and climate changes are suspected as a crucial factor responsible for this spread. Ambient temperature is known to significantly affect the metabolism of sand flies and their developmental times, but little is known about the effect of temperature on the Leishmania life cycle in vectors. This study assesses the effect of temperature on the development of two closely related New World Viannia species, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania peruviana, in the permissive vector Lutzomyia longipalpis, and on the development of New and Old World Leishmania infantum in its natural vectors Lu. longipalpis and Phlebotomus perniciosus, respectively. The mountain species L. peruviana developed well in sand fly females kept at 20 degrees C, whereas at 26 degrees C, most infections were lost during the defecation ofbloodmeal remains; this suggests an adaptation to the slower metabolism of sand flies living at lower ambient temperature. On the contrary, L. infantum and L. braziliensis developed well at both temperatures tested; heavy late-stage infections were observed in a majority of sand fly females maintained at 20 degrees C as well 26 degrees C. Frequent fully developed infections of L. infantum and L. braziliensis at 20 degrees C suggest a certain risk of the spread of these two Leishmania species to higher latitudes and altitudes.

  5. The seasonal abundance of phlebotomine sand flies, Lutzomyia species in Florida.

    PubMed

    Mann, Rajinder S; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2010-03-01

    The seasonality of phlebotomine sand flies was studied in Florida, utilizing colored light-emitting diode- and attractant-baited Mosquito Magnet MM-X traps from September 2006 to September 2008 at San Felasco Hammock Preserve State Park, Gainesville, FL. A total of 6,278 sand flies were collected from 314 actual nights and 1,692 total trap-nights, yielding 3.7 sand flies per trap-night. Lutzomyia shannoni was the predominant species, constituting 55% to 80% of the total sand fly populations collected during the studies. Both L. shannoni and L. vexator populations were highly seasonal and were moderately influenced by weather factors. Lutzomyia shannoni populations peaked in May and showed reduced activity during December, January, and February. This species was active throughout the year and showed positive and negative correlations with average monthly temperature and relative humidity, respectively. Lutzomyia vexator showed peak activity during August and October with an activity lull from December to March. This species showed a positive correlation with average monthly temperature. No correlations were observed with either species for average daily, weekly, or 1- to 8-wk-lagging precipitation, number of rainy days, wind speed, or lunar phases. Lutzomyia shannoni abundance was weakly correlated to L. vexator abundance. No other Lutzomyia spp. were collected during the study.

  6. Sand fly control in Kenya with residual pesticide application on HESCO barriers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US military operations in hot-arid regions still face significant impacts from mosquito and sand fly vectors of diseases. Personal protective measures (PPM) such as DEET or treated bed nets and clothing can reduce contact with disease vectors and nuisance insects; however, irregular use of PPM coupl...

  7. Insecticide Treated Camouflage Sceening Reduces Sand Fly Numbers in Leishmania-Endemic Regions in Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current U.S. military operations in deserts face persistent threats from sand flies that transmit human Leishmania. In this study we investigated the efficacy of artificial barriers treated with residual insecticide to potentially reduce the risk of human infection from leishmaniasis by reducing the...

  8. Richness and diversity of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Israel Souza; Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2010-12-01

    Our objective was to study and evaluate the richness and diversity of Phlebotominae fauna in the Duas Bocas Biological Reserve (DBBR) in the state of Espírito Santo, in southeastern Brazil. Sand fly collections were carried out during four consecutive nights each month between August 2007 and July 2008 at DBBR by using CDC automatic light traps and an illuminated Shannon trap. Specific richness (S) and Shannon diversity index (H) was calculated for each trap. We collected 18,868 sand flies belonging to 29 species and 13 genera. Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli was the most abundant species followed by Psychodopygus ayrozai, Ps. hirsutus, Psathyromyia pascalei, and Ps. matosi. We recorded Brumptomyia cardosoi, Br. troglodytes, and Ps. geniculatus for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo. We discuss the differences in diversity and richness of the sand flies in both traps and in relation to other Brazilian localities and biomes. We also discuss the possibility of wild transmission of Leishmania in the DBBR and the influence of the sand fly species in leishmaniasis transmission to the adjacent areas of the reserve.

  9. Recent advances in phlebotomine sand fly research related to leishmaniasis control.

    PubMed

    Bates, Paul A; Depaquit, Jerôme; Galati, Eunice A B; Kamhawi, Shaden; Maroli, Michele; McDowell, Mary Ann; Picado, Albert; Ready, Paul D; Salomón, O Daniel; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Traub-Csekö, Yara M; Warburg, Alon

    2015-02-27

    Phlebotomine sand flies are the subject of much research because of the role of their females as the only proven natural vectors of Leishmania species, the parasitic protozoans that are the causative agents of the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. Activity in this field was highlighted by the eighth International Symposium on Phlebotomine Sand flies (ISOPS) held in September 2014, which prompted this review focusing on vector control. Topics reviewed include: Taxonomy and phylogenetics, Vector competence, Genetics, genomics and transcriptomics, Eco-epidemiology, and Vector control. Research on sand flies as leishmaniasis vectors has revealed a diverse array of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission cycles, mostly in subtropical and tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America, but also in Mediterranean Europe. The challenge is to progress beyond descriptive eco-epidemiology, in order to separate vectors of biomedical importance from the sand fly species that are competent vectors but lack the vectorial capacity to cause much human disease. Transmission modelling is required to identify the vectors that are a public health priority, the ones that must be controlled as part of the integrated control of leishmaniasis. Effective modelling of transmission will require the use of entomological indices more precise than those usually reported in the leishmaniasis literature.

  10. Composition of the sand fly fauna in Khash County, Southeast Iran.

    PubMed

    Kassiri, Hamid; Javadian, Ezatoeddin

    2012-01-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) are the biological vectors of leishmaniasis all around the world. In 1997, sand flies were collected in 14 cities and villages of Khash County in southeastern Iran, using 848 sticky traps (castor oil-coated white papers 20 × 30 cm). In this study, a total of 4673 sand flies, with 25.23% females and 74.77% males, were collected and identified to species mainly from mountainous areas. The 21 species of sand flies belonged to the genus Phlebotomus (nine species) and the genus Sergentomyia (12 species). The following 14 species were reported for the first time in Khash County: P. papatasi, P. bergeroti, P. eleanorae, P. halepensis, P. major, P. mesghali, S. hodgsoni, S. mervynae, S. dreyfussi, S. iranica, S. theodori, S. africana, S. clydei, and S. christophersi. The composition of species in Khash County is similar to other parts of Iran. However, the dominance of P. kazeruni in Khash County may suggest that this species should be considered as a potential vector in the region of Khash.

  11. Sand Fly Surveillance and Control on Camp Ramadi, Iraq, as Part of a Leishmaniasis Control Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Santos De-Marco et al. 2002). Moon illumination and other environmental factors, such as temperature and wind speed, also affect sand fly behavior...the U.S. government as part of that person’s official duties. REFERENCES CITED Alexander, B. 2000. Sampling methods for phlebotomine sandflies . Med

  12. Relationships of new world phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) based on fossil evidence.

    PubMed

    Filho, José Dilermando Andrade; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2003-01-01

    The fossil record and systematics of phlebotomid sand flies, vectors of leishmaniasis and arbovirus in several regions of the world, strongly support that living genera existed long before the Oligocene (38 million years, myr). A common Phlebotominae ancestor was present in the Triassic period before the separations of continents (248 myr).

  13. A Sand Fly Salivary Protein Vaccine Shows Efficacy Against Vector-Transmitted Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Nonhuman Primates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-03

    with salivary protein PdSP15 are protected against cutaneous leishmaniasis initiated by infected bites. Uninfected sand fly–exposed and 7 of 10...transmitted by the bite of infected phlebotomine sand flies. As infected females feed on mammalian hosts, they inject saliva, counteracting hemostasis and...improving blood feeding success. Leishmania infected sand flies regurgitate parasites together with the salivary proteins into the bite wound

  14. Optimization of fly ash as sand replacement materials (SRM) in cement composites containing coconut fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadzri, N. I. M.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Mazlee, M. N.; Jamal, Z. A. Z.

    2016-07-01

    The need of utilizing industrial and agricultural wastes is very important to maintain sustainability. These wastes are often incorporated with cement composites to improve performances in term of physical and mechanical properties. This study presents the results of the investigation of the response of cement composites containing coconut fiber as reinforcement and fly ash use as substitution of sand at different hardening days. Hardening periods of time (7, 14 and 28 days) were selected to study the properties of cement composites. Optimization result showed that 20 wt. % of fly ash (FA) is a suitable material for sand replacement (SRM). Meanwhile 14 days of hardening period gave highest compressive strength (70.12 MPa) from the cement composite containing 9 wt. % of coconut fiber and fly ash. This strength was comparable with the cement without coconut fiber (74.19 MPa) after 28 days of curing.

  15. Phlebotomine sand fly population dynamics in a leishmaniasis endemic peri-urban area in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Tarallo, Viviana D; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

    2010-12-01

    A 2-year survey was carried out from May to November 2008 and 2009 to study the sand fly species composition, its seasonal phenology and density in Apulia region (southern, Italy). The study was conducted in a dog shelter located in a new residential urban district where Leishmania infantum is endemic. Sand flies were collected using sticky traps from May to November, at about 7-day intervals. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded daily. In December 2008, general environmental improvements (e.g., the ground was covered with gravel and the vegetation present inside the cages was removed to facilitate cleaning) were made in the study area. The most diffused species during the whole study period were Phlebotomus perniciosus (2008, n=248, 49.4%; 2009, n=254, 50.6%) followed by Phlebotomus neglectus (2008, n=76, 39.8%; 2009, n=115, 60.2%) and Phlebotomus papatasi (2008, n=5, 50.0%; 2009, n=5, 50.0%). Four specimens of Phlebotomus perfiliewi were collected only in the first year. The number of Sergentomyia minuta specimens collected increased considerably in the second (n=548, 86.2%) in comparison to the first year (n=88, 13.8%). The highest number of phlebotomine sand flies was collected in July and August when a mean temperature from 27.09 to 28.02°C and mean relative humidity from 47.28 to 56.36% were recorded. The variations in phlebotomine sand fly species diversity and abundance recorded in this study were related to climatic and environmental factors. Data here presented confirm that sand flies easily adapt to the urban environments and that the may represent a public health concern for L. infantum and other pathogen transmission also in similar urban environment of southern Europe.

  16. Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists.

  17. Sand fly saliva: effects on host immune response and Leishmania transmission.

    PubMed

    Rohousová, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2006-09-01

    The feeding success of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) is linked to the vast array of pharmacological substances in their saliva, which interferes with the host haemostasis and immune response. Modification of feeding site plays also an important role in Leishmania transmission. In naive hosts, co-inoculation of saliva and Leishmania parasites increases the chance of successful transmission. Disease exacerbation seems to be associated with enhanced production of type 2 cytokines and selective inhibition of some macrophage functions including the production of NO and H202. On the other hand, hosts repeatedly exposed to sand fly bites develop anti-saliva immune response that results in a protection against Leishmania infection. This led to a new interesting approach to anti-Leishmania vaccine--using salivary components to block parasite transmission. The review is therefore focused on the interactions that run between immunomodulatory molecules in sand fly saliva and host immune response, with the impact on Leishmania infection development. Recent studies revealed that saliva-based vaccine for leishmaniasis might be effective and feasible, however, several questions still require to be solved. The knowledge based on experimental mouse model cannot be fully extrapolated to dogs or humans and due to differences in salivary antigens between sand fly species the protective effect is species-specific. On the other hand, the specificity of salivary antigens enables the use of anti-saliva antibodies for monitoring the exposure of hosts to sand fly bites and might be used as a marker of risks for Leishmania transmission in endemic areas.

  18. Sand Flies of the Subgenus Adlerius (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Introduction of Phlebotomus (Adlerius) comatus as a New Record for Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zahraei-Ramazani, Ali Reza; Kumar, Dinesh; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Naghian, Abdollah; Jafari, Reza; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Abdoli, Hamid; Soleimani, Hassan; Shareghi, Niloofar; Ghanei, Maryam; Arandian, Mohammad Hossein; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sand flies of subgenus Adlerius has a wide geographical distribution in Iran and are mostly found in wild form in mountainous areas. They are always considered as probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to determine the Adlerius species and its composition in an endemic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in northwest of the country. Methods: Sand flies were collected from 6 different areas of Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province using sticky paper traps from August to September which is active season for sand flies in this area, in 2009. The flies were mounted and identified. The length of third antennal segments, ascoid, labrum, coxite, surstyle, style, aedeagus, genital filament, genital pump, width of style, and the end of aedeagus were measured and the number of costal hairs group was also counted as the morphological characters. Results: A total of 30 adult sand flies, (26 males and 4 females) including Phlebotomus halepensis (46.8%), P. longiductus (13.3%), P. balcanicus (23.3%), P. comatus (3.3%), and Adlerius spp. (13.3%) belong to subgenus Adlerius were identified respectively in 6 counties. One P. comatus male was captured in front of a cave located in the hillside of a mountain covered with the vegetation in Varzeqan area. Conclusion: The presence of at least 5 species of the subgenus Adlerius in Azarbaijan-e-Sharqi Province, an endemic focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Iran, shows that the risk of parasite transmission among man and reservoir animals is high during the active season of sand flies. P. comatus is a new record for Iran and needs to be added to the list of Iranian phlebotomines of subgenus Adlerius. PMID:23785689

  19. Impact of Phlebotomine Sand Flies on U.S. Military Operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 4. Detection and Identification of Leishmania Parasites in Sand Flies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    l ofAEbufferwas added, followed by incubation at room temperature for 5 min and centrifugion at 8,000 rpm for 1 min in a microcentrifuge. An...additional 50 l of AE buffer was added to the QIAamp Spin Column, followed by in- cubation at room temperature for 5 min and centri- fugion at 8,000 rpm for...FLIES 653 addition, DNA from three species of phlebotomine sand ßies Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva), P. papatasi, and Phlebotomus argentipes

  20. Performance of light-emitting diode traps for collecting sand flies in entomological surveys in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Soledad; Martínez, Mariela Florencia; Pérez, Adriana Alicia; Santini, María Soledad; Gould, Ignacio Tomás; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The performance of two light-emitting diode traps with white and black light for capturing phlebotomine sand flies, developed by the Argentinean Leishmaniasis Research Network (REDILA-WL and REDILA-BL traps), were compared with the traditional CDC incandescent light trap. Entomological data were obtained from six sand fly surveys conducted in Argentina in different environments. Data analyses were conducted for the presence and the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis, Migonemyia migonei, and Nyssomyia whitmani (106 sites). No differences were found in presence/absence among the three types of traps for all sand fly species (p>0.05). The collection mean of Lu. longipalpis from the REDILA-BL didn´t differ from the CDC trap means, nor were differences seen between the REDILA-WL and the CDC trap collection means (p>0.05), but collections were larger from the REDILA-BL trap compared to the REDILA-WL trap (p<0.05). For Mg. migonei and Ny. whitmani, no differences were found among the three types of traps in the number of individuals captured (p>0.05). These results suggest that both REDILA traps could be used as an alternative capture tool to the original CDC trap for surveillance of these species, and that the REDILA-BL will also allow a comparable estimation of the abundance of these flies to the CDC light trap captures. In addition, the REDILA-BL has better performance than the REDILA-WL, at least for Lu. longipalpis.

  1. DNA Barcoding of Neotropical Sand Flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae): Species Identification and Discovery within Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Israel de Souza; Chagas, Bruna Dias das; Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Rezende, Helder Ricas; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Falqueto, Aloisio; Andrade-Filho, José Dilermando; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Shimabukuro, Paloma Helena Fernandes; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcoding has been an effective tool for species identification in several animal groups. Here, we used DNA barcoding to discriminate between 47 morphologically distinct species of Brazilian sand flies. DNA barcodes correctly identified approximately 90% of the sampled taxa (42 morphologically distinct species) using clustering based on neighbor-joining distance, of which four species showed comparatively higher maximum values of divergence (range 4.23-19.04%), indicating cryptic diversity. The DNA barcodes also corroborated the resurrection of two species within the shannoni complex and provided an efficient tool to differentiate between morphologically indistinguishable females of closely related species. Taken together, our results validate the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for species identification and the discovery of cryptic diversity in sand flies from Brazil.

  2. DNA Barcoding of Neotropical Sand Flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae): Species Identification and Discovery within Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Israel de Souza; Chagas, Bruna Dias das; Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Rezende, Helder Ricas; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Falqueto, Aloisio; Andrade-Filho, José Dilermando; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Shimabukuro, Paloma Helena Fernandes; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcoding has been an effective tool for species identification in several animal groups. Here, we used DNA barcoding to discriminate between 47 morphologically distinct species of Brazilian sand flies. DNA barcodes correctly identified approximately 90% of the sampled taxa (42 morphologically distinct species) using clustering based on neighbor-joining distance, of which four species showed comparatively higher maximum values of divergence (range 4.23–19.04%), indicating cryptic diversity. The DNA barcodes also corroborated the resurrection of two species within the shannoni complex and provided an efficient tool to differentiate between morphologically indistinguishable females of closely related species. Taken together, our results validate the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for species identification and the discovery of cryptic diversity in sand flies from Brazil. PMID:26506007

  3. Effect of Lures and Trap Placement on Sand Fly and Mosquito Traps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    in CO, traps baited with three different lures and an unbaited control were compared. The lures examined were carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide plus l...caught in the unbaited control trap. The mean numbers of sand flies trapped using each lure did not differ significantly. Key Words Phlebotomus papatasi...common control methods have not been as effective in preventing disease transmission in recent years (Maroli and Khoury, 2006; Orshan et al., 2006

  4. Influence of the Microenvironment in the Transcriptome of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes: Sand Fly versus Culture

    PubMed Central

    Alcolea, Pedro J.; Alonso, Ana; Domínguez, Mercedes; Parro, Víctor; Jiménez, Maribel; Molina, Ricardo; Larraga, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin, where domestic dogs and wild canids are the main reservoirs. The promastigote stage replicates and develops within the gut of blood-sucking phlebotomine sand flies. Mature promastigotes are injected in the dermis of the mammalian host and differentiate into the amastigote stage within parasitophorous vacuoles of phagocytic cells. The major vector of L. infantum in Spain is Phlebotomus perniciosus. Promastigotes are routinely axenized and cultured to mimic in vitro the conditions inside the insect gut, which allows for most molecular, cellular, immunological and therapeutical studies otherwise inviable. Culture passages are known to decrease infectivity, which is restored by passage through laboratory animals. The most appropriate source of promastigotes is the gut of the vector host but isolation of the parasite is technically challenging. In fact, this option is not viable unless small samples are sufficient for downstream applications like promastigote cultures and nucleic acid amplification. In this study, in vitro infectivity and differential gene expression have been studied in cultured promastigotes at the stationary phase and in promastigotes isolated from the stomodeal valve of the sand fly P. perniciosus. About 20 ng RNA per sample could be isolated. Each sample contained L. infantum promastigotes from 20 sand flies. RNA was successfully amplified and processed for shotgun genome microarray hybridization analysis. Most differentially regulated genes are involved in regulation of gene expression, intracellular signaling, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of surface molecules. Interestingly, meta-analysis by hierarchical clustering supports that up-regulation of 22.4% of the differentially regulated genes is specifically enhanced by the microenvironment (i.e. sand fly gut or culture). The correlation between cultured and naturally

  5. Influence of the Microenvironment in the Transcriptome of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes: Sand Fly versus Culture.

    PubMed

    Alcolea, Pedro J; Alonso, Ana; Domínguez, Mercedes; Parro, Víctor; Jiménez, Maribel; Molina, Ricardo; Larraga, Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin, where domestic dogs and wild canids are the main reservoirs. The promastigote stage replicates and develops within the gut of blood-sucking phlebotomine sand flies. Mature promastigotes are injected in the dermis of the mammalian host and differentiate into the amastigote stage within parasitophorous vacuoles of phagocytic cells. The major vector of L. infantum in Spain is Phlebotomus perniciosus. Promastigotes are routinely axenized and cultured to mimic in vitro the conditions inside the insect gut, which allows for most molecular, cellular, immunological and therapeutical studies otherwise inviable. Culture passages are known to decrease infectivity, which is restored by passage through laboratory animals. The most appropriate source of promastigotes is the gut of the vector host but isolation of the parasite is technically challenging. In fact, this option is not viable unless small samples are sufficient for downstream applications like promastigote cultures and nucleic acid amplification. In this study, in vitro infectivity and differential gene expression have been studied in cultured promastigotes at the stationary phase and in promastigotes isolated from the stomodeal valve of the sand fly P. perniciosus. About 20 ng RNA per sample could be isolated. Each sample contained L. infantum promastigotes from 20 sand flies. RNA was successfully amplified and processed for shotgun genome microarray hybridization analysis. Most differentially regulated genes are involved in regulation of gene expression, intracellular signaling, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of surface molecules. Interestingly, meta-analysis by hierarchical clustering supports that up-regulation of 22.4% of the differentially regulated genes is specifically enhanced by the microenvironment (i.e. sand fly gut or culture). The correlation between cultured and naturally

  6. Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae): Significance, Surveillance, and Control in Contingency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    crowns of palm trees may harbor sand flies (Poche et al. 2012). Caves, rocky outcroppings, rock walls, termite mounds and animal burrows are...Ethiopia and Kenya, and a suspected vector in Somalia and Uganda. Habitat is desert vegetation associated with Macrotermes termite mounds, which are...thought to provide ideal breeding and resting habitats. However, termite mounds are more widespread than both the vector and the disease. 18

  7. Comparison of three carbon dioxide sources on phlebotomine sand fly capture in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hoel, D F; Zollner, G E; El-Hossary, S S; Fawaz, E Y; Watany, N; Hanafi, H A; Obenauer, P J; Kirsch, P

    2011-09-01

    Lighted Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps were baited with carbon dioxide (CO2) produced from three different sources to compare the efficacy of each in collecting phlebotomine sand flies in Bahrif village, Aswan Governorate, Egypt. Treatments consisted of compressed CO2 gas released at a rate of 250 ml/min, 1.5 kg of dry ice (replaced daily) sublimating from an insulated plastic container, CO2 gas produced from a prototype FASTGAS (FG) CO2 generator system (APTIV Inc., Portland, OR), and a CDC light trap without a CO2 source. Carbon dioxide was released above each treatment trap's catch opening. Traps were placed in a 4 x 4 Latin square designed study with three replications completed after four consecutive nights in August 2007. During the study, 1,842 phlebotomine sand flies were collected from two genera and five species. Traps collected 1,739 (94.4%) Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli), 19 (1.0%) Phlebotomus sergenti, 64 (3.5%) Sergentomyia schwetzi, 16 (0.9%) Sergentomyia palestinensis, and four (0.2%) Sergentomyia tiberiadis. Overall treatment results were dry ice (541) > FG (504) > compressed gas (454) > no CO2 (343). Total catches of P. papatasi were not significantly different between treatments, although CO2-baited traps collected 23-34% more sand flies than the unbaited (control) trap. Results indicate that the traps baited with a prototype CO2 generator were as attractive as traps supplied with CO2 sources traditionally used in sand fly surveillance efforts. Field-deployable CO2 generators are particularly advantageous in remote areas where dry ice or compressed gas is difficult to obtain.

  8. Study on phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) fauna in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carina Margonari de; Pessanha, Jose Eduardo; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Monteiro, Erika Michalsky; Costa, Daniela Carmargos; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2004-12-01

    A study on the phlebotomine sand fly fauna in Belo Horizonte city, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was carried out. From April 2001 to March 2003, monthly systematic collections were performed in three houses from each of the nine regions of the city, using CDC light traps for four consecutive days. The traps were set into the houses and in peridomestic areas totaling 54 traps. A number of 3871 sand fly specimens of the genera Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia were collected. Sixty eight percent of the specimens were L. longipalpis and 16% L. whitmani, insect vectors of visceral and American cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and frequency of precipitation suggest that the number of insects increases after rainy periods. During the same period mentioned above, seasonal captures were carried out in parks and green areas of Belo Horizonte, using Shannon trap. A total of 579 phlebotomine sand flies were collected from which 398 (68.7%) were females with the predominance of L. whitmani and L. monticola. Those specimens were used for natural infection examination, by polymerase chain reaction. No Leishmania DNA was present in any of the specimens tested.

  9. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in urban rainforest fragments, Manaus -- Amazonas State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Liliane Coelho; de Freitas, Rui Alves; Franco, Antonia Maria Ramos

    2013-05-01

    The non-flooded upland rainforest fragment in the Federal University of Amazonas Campus is considered one of the world's largest urban tropical woodland areas and Brazil's second largest one in an urban setting. It is located in the city of Manaus, State of Amazonas at 03° 04' 34″ S, 59° 57' 30″ W, in an area covering nearly 800 hectares. Forty-one (41) sand fly species belonging to genus Lutzomyia were found attaining a total of 4662 specimens collected. Lutzomyia umbratilis was the dominant species at all heights, followed by Lutzomyia anduzei and Lutzomyia claustrei. The fauna alpha diversity index showed to be 6.4, which is not much lower than that reported for areas of continuous forest in this Amazonian region. This data provides additional evidence on Phlebotomine sand flies found to transmit Leishmania and other trypanosomatids to humans and other animals circulating in this area. This is the first study being reported on sand flies collected in an urban rainforest fragment in Amazonia.

  10. Changes of Sand Fly Populations and Leishmania infantum Infection Rates in an Irrigated Village Located in Arid Central Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Barhoumi, Walid; Fares, Wasfi; Cherni, Saifedine; Derbali, Mohamed; Dachraoui, Khalil; Chelbi, Ifhem; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo; Beier, John C.; Zhioua, Elyes

    2016-01-01

    The current spread of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) throughout arid areas of Central Tunisia is a major public health concern. The main objective of this study is to investigate whether the development of irrigation in arid bio-geographical areas in Central Tunisia have led to the establishment of a stable cycle involving sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius and Leishmania infantum, and subsequently to the emergence of ZVL. Sand flies were collected from the village of Saddaguia, a highly irrigated zone located within an arid bio-geographical area of Central Tunisia by using modified Centers for Diseases Control (CDC) light traps. Morphological keys were used to identify sand flies. Collected sand flies were pooled with up to 30 specimens per pool according to date and tested by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) DNA sequencing from positive pools was used to identify Leishmania spp. A total of 4915 sand flies (2422 females and 2493 males) were collected from Saddaguia in September and in October 2014. Morphological identification confirmed sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius to be predominant. PCR analysis followed by DNA sequencing indicated that 15 pools were infected with L. infantum yielding an overall infection rate of 0.6%. The majority of the infected pools were of sand fly species belonging to subgenus Larroussius. Intense irrigation applied to the arid bio-geographical areas in Central Tunisia is at the origin of the development of an environment capable of sustaining important populations of sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius. This has led to the establishment of stable transmission cycles of L. infantum and subsequently to the emergence of ZVL. PMID:26999176

  11. Breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and efficiency of extraction techniques for immature stages in terra-firme forest in Amazonas State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Ronildo Baiatone; de Queiroz, Raul Guerra; Barrett, Toby Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Information on natural breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies is scanty, due to the difficulties of isolation of immatures from the soil where they occur. The present study investigated breeding sites in several microhabitats in a "terra-firme" forest in Pitinga, Amazonas State, Brazil. Results on the efficacy of different extraction techniques used for isolating sand flies, and the temperature and the pH of the samples collected, are presented. Samples of soil and organic matter from different microhabitats, processed by floatation-sieving, direct examination, Berlese-Tullgren, and emergence cages, revealed, for the first time in Amazonas, breeding sites in five microhabitats (tree bases, unsheltered forest floor, soil from under fallen logs, soil from under roots, and palm-tree bases). Overall, 138 immatures and 29 newly emerged adults were recovered from these microhabitats. The abundance of immatures in samples close to tree bases was significantly higher than in more open sites not adjacent to tree bases. Floatation-sieving and direct examination were the most effective techniques for immature extraction and survival, respectively. Eleven species of the genus Lutzomyia s.l. were identified, with Lutzomyia monstruosa (Floch & Abonnenc) and Lutzomyia georgii Freitas & Barrett being the most abundant. Differences in the specific composition and relative abundance of the immature and adult sand flies on tree bases suggest that breeding sites may be distant from resting or aggregation sites of adults. The pH, which revealed a slightly acidic soil, as well as the temperature, did not show any significant correlation with the number of immature sand flies collected.

  12. Current knowledge of sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of northwestern Yemen and how it relates to leishmaniasis transmission.

    PubMed

    El Sawaf, Bahira M; Kassem, Hala A; Mogalli, Nabil M; El Hossary, Shabaan S; Ramadan, Nadia F

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the results of the first entomological survey of the sand fly fauna in northwestern Yemen. Sand flies were collected using sticky paper traps and CDC light traps from Hajjah governorate, a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus due to Leishmania tropica. Six Phlebotomus species: P. alexandri, P. arabicus. P. bergeroti, P. orientalis, P. papatasi, P. sergenti and ten Sergentomyia species: S. africana, S. antennata, S. christophersi, S. dolichopa, S. dreyfussi, S. fallax, S. multidens, S. taizi, S. tiberiadis, S. yusafi were identified. P. alexandri was the most predominant Phlebotomus species and P. papatasi was a scarce species. S. fallax was the principal Sergentomyia species and S. dolichopa was the least species encountered. The diversity of the sand fly fauna within and among three altitudinal ranges using Simpson index and Jaccard's diversity coefficient respectively were measured. High species diversity was found in all altitude ranges. There seemed to be more association between sand fly fauna in higher altitudes with fauna from moderate altitudes. Sand fly seasonal activity showed a mono-modal trend in the lowland and a confluent bimodal trend in the highlands. Leishmania DNA could not be detected from 150 Phlebotomus females using PCR-RFLP. A possible zoonotic cutaneous transmission cycle due to Leishmania tropica in northwestern Yemen would involve P. arabicus as the sand fly vector and the rock hyrax as the reservoir host. The vector competence for P. alexandri as a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Hajjah governorate is discussed.

  13. Relative attraction of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi to local flowering plants in the Dead Sea region.

    PubMed

    Müller, Günter C; Revay, Edita E; Schlein, Yosef

    2011-03-01

    Sugar is the main source of energy for the daily activities of sand flies. Considering its importance, there is surprisingly little information on sugar meal specific sources and sand fly attraction to plants, particularly in the field. In this study, we first needed to develop an effective sand fly trap that would be suitable for mass screening of potentially attractive flowering plants. Next, we used this trap to screen a total of 56 different flowering plant species and five plant species soiled with different types of honeydew. The plant baited traps together caught 21,978 P. papatasi. Out of the 56 types of flowering plants which were tested, 13 were shown to bait significantly more female sand flies, and 11 baited more male sand flies than the control. Based on an attraction index, the top three attractive plants in this study were the flowering plants Ochradenus baccatus, Prosopis farcta, and Tamirix nilotica. We believe that plants and phyto-chemicals have untapped potentials to attract sand flies. These could be used for control and, in combination with simple glue traps, as an alternative for existing monitoring systems.

  14. Expression and Biochemical Properties of a Recombinant Acetylcholinesterase 1 of the Sand Fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) Insensitive to Organophosphate Inhibition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are small hematophagous flies present throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world and are vectors of human and zoonotic leishmaniases. Human cutaneous leishmaniasis is a debilitating disease presenting major problems for U.S. military operations in the Middle East,...

  15. Recombinant acetylcholinesterase 1 of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli): expression, biochemical properties, and insensitivity to organophosphate inhibition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies are small hematophagous vectors of human and zoonotic leishmaniases present throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. These flies present serious problems for military operations and resident populations in the Middle East and other areas where they are endemic....

  16. Comparative demography of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) at constant temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kasap, Ozge Erisoz; Alten, Bulent

    2006-12-01

    We measured reproductive and population parameters of adult sand flies, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli, 1786) (Diptera: Psychodidae), in environmental chambers maintained at temperatures of 15, 18, 20, 25, 28, and 32 degrees C. Based on cohorts of adults at each temperature regime, horizontal life tables were constructed using established laboratory colonies initiated from specimens collected in Sanliurfa Province, southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. The fecundity and longevity of the insects were both highly variable, depending on the temperature. At 15 degrees C, all of the cohort females died before laying eggs, so the construction of a life table for this temperature regime was not possible. Within a range of 18 to 32 degrees C, the longevity of adult P. papatasi increased as the temperature decreased; at 15 degrees C, the mean survival times of females and males were 19.04 +/- 6.94 days (9-35) and 17.84 +/- 7.11 days (9-33), respectively. While the highest number of eggs was found in the cohort at 28 degrees C (44.08 +/- 7.79), this was only 3.60 +/- 1.55 in the cohort at 32 degrees C and 2.8 +/- 0.9 in the cohort at 18 degrees C. This result showed that extreme temperatures negatively affect the fecundity of this species. The cohort reared at 28 degrees C exhibited the highest intrinsic rates of population increase (r(m)) for P. papatasi. The r(m) ranged from 0.098 at 28 degrees C to 0.007 at 18 degrees C. The cohort placed at 28 degrees C was found to be significantly different (P < 0.01) from the other cohorts producing the fewest progeny in terms of net reproductive rate, R(0), (15.87). The values for mean generation time (T) were estimated to vary from 36 days to 271 days depending on temperature. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) confirmed results from the previous studies that the cohort at 28 degrees C orientated and clustered as a distinct group along the first two PCs.

  17. Peridomiciliary Breeding Sites of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Vivaldo Pim; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Biral dos Santos, Claudiney; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in areas modified by humans indicates that phlebotomine sand fly vectors breed close to human habitations. Potential peridomiciliary breeding sites of phlebotomines were sampled in an area of transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil. Three concentric circles rounding houses and domestic animal shelters, with radii of 20, 40, and 60 m, defined the area to be monitored using adult emergence traps. Of the 67 phlebotomines collected, Lutzomyia intermedia comprised 71.6%; Lutzomyia schreiberi, 20.9%; and Lutzomyia migonei, 4.5%. The predominance of L. intermedia, the main species suspected of transmitting L. (V.) braziliensis in Southeastern Brazil, indicates its participation in the domiciliary transmission of ACL, providing evidence that the domiciliary ACL transmission cycle might be maintained by phlebotomines that breed close to human habitations. This finding might also help in planning measures that would make the peridomiciliary environment less favorable for phlebotomine breeding sites. PMID:23091196

  18. Impact of phlebotomine sand flies on U.S. military operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 4. Detection and identification of leishmania parasites in sand flies.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Russell E; Hochberg, Lisa P; Swanson, Katherine I; Lee, John S; McAvin, James C; Moulton, John K; Eddington, David O; Groebner, Jennifer L; O'Guinn, Monica L; Putnam, John L

    2009-05-01

    Sand flies collected between April 2003 and November 2004 at Tallil Air Base, Iraq, were evaluated for the presence of Leishmania parasites using a combination of a real-time Leishmania-generic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and sequencing of a 360-bp fragment of the glucose-6-phosphate-isomerase (GPI) gene. A total of 2,505 pools containing 26,574 sand flies were tested using the real-time PCR assay. Leishmania DNA was initially detected in 536 pools; however, after extensive retesting with the real-time PCR assay, a total of 456 pools were considered positive and 80 were considered indeterminate. A total of 532 samples were evaluated for Leishmania GPI by sequencing, to include 439 PCR-positive samples, 80 PCR-indeterminate samples, and 13 PCR-negative samples. Leishmania GPI was detected in 284 samples that were sequenced, to include 281 (64%) of the PCR-positive samples and 3 (4%) of the PCR-indeterminate samples. Of the 284 sequences identified as Leishmania, 261 (91.9%) were L. tarentolae, 18 (6.3%) were L. donovani-complex parasites, 3 (1.1%) were L. tropica, and 2 were similar to both L. major and L. tropica. Minimum field infection rates were 0.09% for L. donovani-complex parasites, 0.02% for L. tropica, and 0.01% for the L. major/tropica-like parasite. Subsequent sequencing of a 600-bp region of the "Hyper" gene of 12 of the L. donovani-complex parasites showed that all 12 parasites were L. infantum. These data suggest that L. infantum was the primary leishmanial threat to U.S. military personnel deployed to Tallil Air Base. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Molecular characterization of gregarines from sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and description of Psychodiella n. g. (Apicomplexa: Gregarinida).

    PubMed

    Votýpka, Jan; Lantová, Lucie; Ghosh, Kashinath; Braig, Henk; Volf, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Sand fly and mosquito gregarines have been lumped for a long time in the single genus Ascogregarina and on the basis of their morphological characters and the lack of merogony been placed into the eugregarine family Lecudinidae. Phylogenetic analyses performed in this study clearly demonstrated paraphyly of the current genus Ascogregarina and revealed disparate phylogenetic positions of gregarines parasitizing mosquitoes and gregarines retrieved from sand flies. Therefore, we reclassified the genus Ascogregarina and created a new genus Psychodiella to accommodate gregarines from sand flies. The genus Psychodiella is distinguished from all other related gregarine genera by the characteristic localization of oocysts in accessory glands of female hosts, distinctive nucleotide sequences of the small subunit rDNA, and host specificity to flies belonging to the subfamily Phlebotominae. The genus comprises three described species: the type species for the new genus--Psychodiella chagasi (Adler and Mayrink 1961) n. comb., Psychodiella mackiei (Shortt and Swaminath 1927) n. comb., and Psychodiella saraviae (Ostrovska, Warburg, and Montoya-Lerma 1990) n. comb. Its creation is additionally supported by sequencing data from other gregarine species originating from the sand fly Phlebotomus sergenti. In the evolutionary context, both genera of gregarines from mosquitoes (Ascogregarina) and sand flies (Psychodiella) have a close relationship to neogregarines; the genera represent clades distinct from the other previously sequenced gregarines.

  20. Evaluation of the fungus Beauveria bassiana as a potential biological control agent against phlebotomine sand flies in Colombian coffee plantations.

    PubMed

    Reithinger, R; Davies, C R; Cadena, H; Alexander, B

    1997-09-01

    In Colombia, the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) is widely used to control the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in coffee plantations. Recent studies suggested that this fungus is also pathogenic to several important vectors of disease, including Phlebotomus papatasi and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae). The present study evaluated the use of B. bassiana as a potential biological control agent against phlebotomine sand flies in Colombian coffee plantations. Histopathologic examination indicates that B. bassiana is unable to infect sand flies under natural conditions, although dead sand flies were shown to be readily infected. In addition, laboratory bioassays where flies were exposed to the fungus applied onto coffee plants (though not filter paper) showed lower mean survival times than the control.

  1. Photoperiod Differences in Sand Fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) Species Richness and Abundance in Caves in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, A M; Dos Santos, C L C; Stumpp, R; Da Silva, L H D; Maia, R A; Paglia, A P; Andrade Filho, J D

    2017-01-01

    Caves are unique habitats that are inhabited by a diverse and singular biota. Among these inhabitants are sand flies, which are of great epidemiological interest in the Neotropical region because they are vectors of Leishmania The period of activity of these insects is usually crepuscular and nocturnal, but there are reports of diurnal activity of sand flies in caves. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the periodicity of daily activity of sand flies in cave environments in the municipality of Pains, Minas Gerais. Sand flies were collected with light traps, which were operated for 5 consecutive days in the rainy season and in the dry season. Samples were collected every 12 h and separated between photophase and scotophase periods. In total, 1,777 sand flies of 23 species were collected. The most abundant species was Lutzomyia renei (Martins, Falcão, and Silva) (44%), followed by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (15%), Evandromyia edwardsi (Mangabeira) (11%), and Micropygomyia quinquefer (Costa Lima) (6%). The richness and abundance of total sand flies and the abundance of male and female sand flies in the aphotic zone of the caves did not differ between the photophase and scotophase, but differed between photoperiods at the entrance and at sites surrounding the caves. From our study of the daily activity of these insects in this ecotope, it will be possible to know which period of the day is of greatest risk of exposure of vertebrates who visit or live in these environments, including the human population.

  2. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Leishmania infection in Gafanhoto Park, Divinópolis, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Margonari, C; Soares, R P; Andrade-Filho, J D; Xavier, D C; Saraiva, L; Fonseca, A L; Silva, R A; Oliveira, M E; Borges, E C; Sanguinette, C C; Melo, M N

    2010-11-01

    The potential of Gafanhoto Park as an American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) focus was evaluated by examination of sand fly vectors of the Leishmania parasite. This forest remnant is located in a periurban area of Divin6polis, Brazil, where autochthonous cases of ACL have been reported. Sand fly populations were monitored over a 2-yr period (2006-2008) by using light traps (HP and Shannon). During systematic collections with HP traps, 824 specimens in total (342 males and 482 females) of 21 species were captured. Most prevalent species were as follows: Brumptomyia brumpti (Larrouse), Lutzomyia aragaoi (Costa Lima), Lutzomyia lutziana (Costa Lima), Lutzomyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte), and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho). Using Shannon traps, 257 specimens representing 15 species were collected (159 females and 98 males), with a high prevalence of L. whitmani and Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto), both vectors of Leishmania braziliensis (Vianna). To ascertain the level of natural infection, a sample of females captured in Shannon traps was assayed for the presence of Leishmania by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, where 39% of insects were positive. The most infected species was L. whitmani (29 sand flies; 18.2%), followed by L. neivai (21; 13.2%), Lutzomyia christenseni (Young & Duncan) (five; 3.1%), Lutzomyia pessoai (Coutinho & Barreto) (three; 1.9%), L. aragaoi (one; 0.6%), Lutzomyia fischeri (Pinto) (one; 0.6%), Lutzomyia lenti (Mangabeira) (one; 0.6%), L. lutziana (one; 0.6%), and Lutzomyia monticula (Costa Lima) (one; 0.6%). The finding of potential and incriminated vectors naturally infected with Leishmania reinforces the need of epidemiologic surveillance in the area.

  3. Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis by Real-Time PCR in Naturally Infected Sand Flies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Probe/Primer Data and tested. Lutzomyia verrucarum sand flies were collected from an endemic focus of bartonellosis in and around Caraz, Ancash...14 Real-Time PCR………………………………………………………….15 Annealing Temperature and Primer Design …………………………….16 Probe Selection TaqMan® Probe...results by houses. Table 7. Field sample results. List of Figures Figure 1. Correlation of bartonellosis cases with Lutzomyia verrucarum

  4. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; da Silva, Fernando José; Figueredo, Luciana Aguiar; de Melo, Fábio Lopes; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Andrade, Maria Sandra; Brandão-Filho, Sinval P

    2017-02-27

    Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a horse stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683) predominated over females (n = 11,923). Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691) and April 2013 (n = 3,324). Lutzomyia choti (72.9%) was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%), Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%), representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents.

  5. Exosome Secretion by the Parasitic Protozoan Leishmania within the Sand Fly Midgut.

    PubMed

    Atayde, Vanessa Diniz; Aslan, Hamide; Townsend, Shannon; Hassani, Kasra; Kamhawi, Shaden; Olivier, Martin

    2015-11-03

    Despite several studies describing the secretion of exosomes by Leishmania in vitro, observation of their formation and release in vivo has remained a major challenge. Herein, we show that Leishmania constitutively secretes exosomes within the lumen of the sand fly midgut through a mechanism homologous to the mammalian pathway. Through egestion experiments, we demonstrate that Leishmania exosomes are part of the sand fly inoculum and are co-egested with the parasite during the insect's bite, possibly influencing the host infectious process. Indeed, co-inoculation of mice footpads with L. major plus midgut-isolated or in-vitro-isolated L. major exosomes resulted in a significant increase in footpad swelling. Notably, co-injections produced exacerbated lesions through overinduction of inflammatory cytokines, in particular IL-17a. Our data indicate that Leishmania exosomes are an integral part of the parasite's infectious life cycle, and we propose to add these vesicles to the repertoire of virulence factors associated with vector-transmitted infections.

  6. SALO, a novel classical pathway complement inhibitor from saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Viviana P; Fazito Vale, Vladimir; Pangburn, Michael K; Abdeladhim, Maha; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio Ferreira; Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Rasouli, Manoochehr; Brandt, Elizabeth A; Meneses, Claudio; Lima, Kolyvan Ferreira; Nascimento Araújo, Ricardo; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Gontijo, Nelder F; Collin, Nicolas; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2016-01-13

    Blood-feeding insects inject potent salivary components including complement inhibitors into their host's skin to acquire a blood meal. Sand fly saliva was shown to inhibit the classical pathway of complement; however, the molecular identity of the inhibitor remains unknown. Here, we identified SALO as the classical pathway complement inhibitor. SALO, an 11 kDa protein, has no homology to proteins of any other organism apart from New World sand flies. rSALO anti-complement activity has the same chromatographic properties as the Lu. longipalpis salivary gland homogenate (SGH)counterparts and anti-rSALO antibodies blocked the classical pathway complement activity of rSALO and SGH. Both rSALO and SGH inhibited C4b deposition and cleavage of C4. rSALO, however, did not inhibit the protease activity of C1s nor the enzymatic activity of factor Xa, uPA, thrombin, kallikrein, trypsin and plasmin. Importantly, rSALO did not inhibit the alternative or the lectin pathway of complement. In conclusion our data shows that SALO is a specific classical pathway complement inhibitor present in the saliva of Lu. longipalpis. Importantly, due to its small size and specificity, SALO may offer a therapeutic alternative for complement classical pathway-mediated pathogenic effects in human diseases.

  7. Exosome secretion by the parasitic protozoan Leishmania within the sand fly midgut

    PubMed Central

    Atayde, Vanessa Diniz; Suau, Hamide Aslan; Townsend, Shannon; Hassani, Kasra; Kamhawi, Shaden; Olivier, Martin

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite several studies describing the secretion of exosomes by Leishmania in vitro, observation of their formation and release in vivo has remained a major challenge. Herein, we show that Leishmania constitutively secretes exosomes within the lumen of the sand fly midgut through a mechanism homologous to the mammalian pathway. Through egestion experiments, we demonstrate that Leishmania exosomes are part of the sand fly inoculum and are co-egested with the parasite during the insect’s bite possibly influencing the host infectious process. Indeed, co-inoculation of mice footpads with L. major plus midgut-isolated or in vitro-isolated L. major exosomes resulted in a significant increase in footpad swelling. Notably, co-injections produced exacerbated lesions through overinduction of inflammatory cytokines, in particular IL-17a. Our data indicate that Leishmania exosomes are an integral part of the parasite’s infectious life cycle and propose to add these vesicles to the repertoire of virulence factors associated to vector-transmitted infections. PMID:26565909

  8. Phlebotominae sand flies associated with a tegumentary leishmaniasis outbreak, Tucumán Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Quintana, María Gabriela; Flores, Isolina; Andina, Ana María; Molina, Silvia; Montivero, Lucía; Rosales, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of sand flies and cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis in the area surrounding JB Alberd city, and the proximities of Catamarca province were studied, after an increase of reported cases from JB Alberdi, Tucumán province, in 2003. Of 14 confirmed cases, 57% were females and 57% were less than 15 years old, suggesting peridomestic transmission. However, 86% of them lived close to the Marapa river forest gallery and related wooded areas. Over 1,013 sand flies were collected; Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) was prevalent at all the sites (92.3%), while Lutzomyia migonei (França, 1920) (6.7%) and Lu. cortelezzii (Brèthes, 1923) (1%) were also found. The spatial distribution of Lu. neivai overlapped that of the cases, with higher abundance in microfocal hot spots close to the river in stable vegetated habitats or modified habitats with shadow and animal blood sources. The cumulative outcome of anthropic, ecological and climatic factors could have contributed to the onset of the outbreak.

  9. SALO, a novel classical pathway complement inhibitor from saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Viviana P.; Fazito Vale, Vladimir; Pangburn, Michael K.; Abdeladhim, Maha; Ferreira Mendes-Sousa, Antonio; Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V.; Rasouli, Manoochehr; Brandt, Elizabeth A.; Meneses, Claudio; Lima, Kolyvan Ferreira; Nascimento Araújo, Ricardo; Horácio Pereira, Marcos; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Gontijo, Nelder F.; Collin, Nicolas; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2016-01-01

    Blood-feeding insects inject potent salivary components including complement inhibitors into their host’s skin to acquire a blood meal. Sand fly saliva was shown to inhibit the classical pathway of complement; however, the molecular identity of the inhibitor remains unknown. Here, we identified SALO as the classical pathway complement inhibitor. SALO, an 11 kDa protein, has no homology to proteins of any other organism apart from New World sand flies. rSALO anti-complement activity has the same chromatographic properties as the Lu. longipalpis salivary gland homogenate (SGH)counterparts and anti-rSALO antibodies blocked the classical pathway complement activity of rSALO and SGH. Both rSALO and SGH inhibited C4b deposition and cleavage of C4. rSALO, however, did not inhibit the protease activity of C1s nor the enzymatic activity of factor Xa, uPA, thrombin, kallikrein, trypsin and plasmin. Importantly, rSALO did not inhibit the alternative or the lectin pathway of complement. In conclusion our data shows that SALO is a specific classical pathway complement inhibitor present in the saliva of Lu. longipalpis. Importantly, due to its small size and specificity, SALO may offer a therapeutic alternative for complement classical pathway-mediated pathogenic effects in human diseases. PMID:26758086

  10. First Human Cases of Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni Infection and a Search for the Vector Sand Flies in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Bone, Abdon E; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Shiguango, Gonzalo F; Gonzales, Silvio V; Velez, Lenin N; Guevara, Angel G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-05-01

    An epidemiological study of leishmaniasis was performed in Amazonian areas of Ecuador since little information on the prevalent Leishmania and sand fly species responsible for the transmission is available. Of 33 clinical specimens from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), causative parasites were identified in 25 samples based on cytochrome b gene analysis. As reported previously, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis were among the causative agents identified. In addition, L. (V.) lainsoni, for which infection is reported in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Suriname, and French Guiana, was identified in patients with CL from geographically separate areas in the Ecuadorian Amazon, corroborating the notion that L. (V.) lainsoni is widely distributed in South America. Sand flies were surveyed around the area where a patient with L. (V.) lainsoni was suspected to have been infected. However, natural infection of sand flies by L. (V.) lainsoni was not detected. Further extensive vector searches are necessary to define the transmission cycle of L. (V.) lainsoni in Ecuador.

  11. The Transcriptome of Leishmania major Developmental Stages in Their Natural Sand Fly Vector.

    PubMed

    Inbar, Ehud; Hughitt, V Keith; Dillon, Laura A L; Ghosh, Kashinath; El-Sayed, Najib M; Sacks, David L

    2017-04-04

    The life cycle of the Leishmania parasite in the sand fly vector involves differentiation into several distinctive forms, each thought to represent an adaptation to specific microenvironments in the midgut of the fly. Based on transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) results, we describe the first high-resolution analysis of the transcriptome dynamics of four distinct stages of Leishmania major as they develop in a natural vector, Phlebotomus duboscqi The early transformation from tissue amastigotes to procyclic promastigotes in the blood-fed midgut was accompanied by the greatest number of differentially expressed genes, including the downregulation of amastins, and upregulation of multiple cell surface proteins, sugar and amino acid transporters, and genes related to glucose metabolism and cell cycle progression. The global changes accompanying post-blood meal differentiation of procyclic promastigotes to the nectomonad and metacyclic stages were less extensive, though each displayed a unique signature. The transcriptome of nectomonads, which has not been studied previously, revealed changes consistent with cell cycle arrest and the upregulation of genes associated with starvation and stress, including autophagic pathways of protein recycling. Maturation to the infective, metacyclic stage was accompanied by changes suggesting preadaptation to the intracellular environment of the mammalian host, demonstrated by the amastigote-like profiles of surface proteins and metabolism-related genes. Finally, a direct comparison between sand fly-derived and culture-derived metacyclics revealed a reassuring similarity between the two forms, with the in vivo forms distinguished mainly by a stronger upregulation of transcripts associated with nutrient stress.IMPORTANCE The life cycle of Leishmania parasites in the sand fly vector includes their growth and development as morphologically distinct forms of extracellular promastigotes found within the different microenvironments of the

  12. Diversity of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in southwest Iran with emphasis on synanthropy of Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus alexandri.

    PubMed

    Jahanifard, Elham; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Rassi, Yavar; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Ameneh

    2014-12-01

    Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is still a serious health problem in Iran. The objective of the study was to determine the differences in sand fly biodiversity in Shush (plain) and Khorramshahr (littoral) Counties, Khuzestan Province, southwest Iran. Sand flies were collected using sticky paper traps from urban, semi urban, agricultural and natural ecotypes. Alpha and beta diversity were calculated using Shannon-Weiner index and Jaccard's and Sorensen's coefficients, respectively. Synanthropic index was determined for the first time for Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus alexandri in different land use categories in Iran. Totally 11213 specimens, 68.47% in Shush and 31.53% in Khorramshahr, were collected. Eleven species of sand flies including, 2 of genus Phlebotomus and 9 of genus Sergentomyia were identified. Sergentomyia christophersi was found as a new record. Dominant species were P. papatasi and Sergentomyia sintoni. Shannon-Weiner index, richness and evenness in semi urban area of Shush County were more than other habitats. The analysis of α biodiversity showed that agricultural ecosystem of Khorramshahr County had the highest diversity due to maximal richness and diversity and also relatively high evenness. Comparison of similarity of the sand flies population composition between Shush and Khorramshahr indicated the maximum similarity between the urban area of Shush and the semi urban area of Khorramshahr (Sj=75% and Ss=86%). Synanthropic index of P. papatasi and P. alexandri were calculated to be -83.34 and -91.18, respectively in Shush County. Estimated synanthropic indices for P. papatasi and P. alexandri in three habitats (natural, semi urban and urban) of Khorramshahr County were -69.84 and -85.89, in the same order. The factors for having high diversity of sand flies in the plain area studied may be due to higher annual precipitation, the related land use and land cover. The changes on the composition of sand flies are perhaps due to human

  13. The Transcriptome of Leishmania major Developmental Stages in Their Natural Sand Fly Vector

    PubMed Central

    Inbar, Ehud; Hughitt, V. Keith; Dillon, Laura A. L.; Ghosh, Kashinath

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The life cycle of the Leishmania parasite in the sand fly vector involves differentiation into several distinctive forms, each thought to represent an adaptation to specific microenvironments in the midgut of the fly. Based on transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) results, we describe the first high-resolution analysis of the transcriptome dynamics of four distinct stages of Leishmania major as they develop in a natural vector, Phlebotomus duboscqi. The early transformation from tissue amastigotes to procyclic promastigotes in the blood-fed midgut was accompanied by the greatest number of differentially expressed genes, including the downregulation of amastins, and upregulation of multiple cell surface proteins, sugar and amino acid transporters, and genes related to glucose metabolism and cell cycle progression. The global changes accompanying post-blood meal differentiation of procyclic promastigotes to the nectomonad and metacyclic stages were less extensive, though each displayed a unique signature. The transcriptome of nectomonads, which has not been studied previously, revealed changes consistent with cell cycle arrest and the upregulation of genes associated with starvation and stress, including autophagic pathways of protein recycling. Maturation to the infective, metacyclic stage was accompanied by changes suggesting preadaptation to the intracellular environment of the mammalian host, demonstrated by the amastigote-like profiles of surface proteins and metabolism-related genes. Finally, a direct comparison between sand fly-derived and culture-derived metacyclics revealed a reassuring similarity between the two forms, with the in vivo forms distinguished mainly by a stronger upregulation of transcripts associated with nutrient stress. PMID:28377524

  14. Direct Multiplex PCR (dmPCR) for the Identification of Six Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species (Diptera: Psychodidae), Including Major Leishmania Vectors of the Mediterranean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, subfamily Phlebotominae) are haematophagous insects that are known to transmit several anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases. Reliable identification of sand flies at species level is crucial for their surveillance, the detection and spread of their pathogens and the ...

  15. Evaluation of insecticides and repellents for the control of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi to protect deployed U.S. Military personnel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies, including Phlebotomus papatasi, are important blood feeders and vectors that transmit the disease agents (Leishmania) that cause Leishmaniasis. Deployed U.S. Military Personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan suffered from sand fly bites and the disease they transmit. A USDA-DoD joi...

  16. Ground ULV and thermal fog applications against Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania in a hot arid environment in western Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania continue to threaten US military operations in Africa, Southwest Asia, and the Middle East. Ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog pesticide dispersal are potentially effective against sand flies, but operational guidance is thinly based on mosquito con...

  17. Flagellate infections of Brazilian sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae): isolation in vitro and biochemical identification of Endotrypanum and Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Arias, J R; Miles, M A; Naiff, R D; Povoa, M M; de Freitas, R A; Biancardi, C B; Castellon, E G

    1985-11-01

    Flagellate infections were found in 1,063 of 18,895 sand flies collected in the states of Amazonas, Pará, Rondonia and Acre, Brazil. Infection rates were 13.4% (species group Shannoni); 7.5% (subgenus Nyssomyia); 6.7% (subgenus Lutzomyia series Cruciata); 0.5% (genus Psychodopygus) and 3.1% for other sand flies (various subgenera). Leishmania braziliensis guyanensis and L. mexicana amazonensis were isolated, respectively, from the known vectors, Lutzomyia umbratilis and L. flaviscutellata. Single stocks of L. braziliensis-like and L. mexicana-like organisms were isolated, respectively, from L. whitmani and L. yuilli. Thirty-eight flagellate stocks, isolated by direct culture from sand flies were characterized in detail by morphology in culture, behavior in hamsters and mice and by enzyme profiles. Sixteen stocks from Lutzomyia sp. (Shannoni group) were identified as Endotrypanum schaudinni; 8 stocks from Lutzomyia sp. (Shannoni group) were identified as Endotrypanum sp.; 7 stocks from Psychodopygus ayrozai and P. paraensis were identified as Leishmania sp. previously isolated from the armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus; 2 stocks of Trypanosoma rangeli were isolated from recently fed Lutzomyia sp. (Shannoni group) sand flies; the remaining 5 stocks from L. umbratilis and L. yuilli could not be identified. Observations suggested that Shannoni group sand flies were the natural vectors of Endotrypanum. Leishmania sp. infections in the man-biting flies P. ayrozai and P. paraensis were restricted to the midgut and associated with recent bloodmeals. Unidentified flagellates in L. umbratilis and L. yuilli were distributed throughout the digestive tract with no trace of bloodmeals.

  18. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas.

  19. [Milestones and major results of studies on leishmaniasis and sand fly fevers in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Ponirovskiĭ, E N; Kondrashin, A V; Erokhin, P I; Annacharyeva, D

    2010-01-01

    Among the countries endemic for tropical diseases, Turkmenistan along with Uzbekistan has a special role to play in having basic scientific knowledge of leishmaniasis. This article summarizes the principal scientific findings in the course of the 20th century in respect of leishmaniasis and sand fly fevers. The most important results of studies on cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are cited. The role of different researchers in the epidemiology, epizootology, natural focality of these diseases, their clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are described in detail. The paper gives information obtained by the latest studies on the etiology of leishmaniasis. The most important publications on this topic are assessed. Particular emphasis is laid on the results of the Anti-Leishmaniasis Expedition carried out by the researchers of the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine to the Tedjen oasis of Turkmenistan.

  20. Description of the female of the Peruvian sand fly Lutzomyia reclusa (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Cáceres, Abraham G

    2011-03-01

    The female of the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia reclusa Fernández & Rogers 1991 [= Pintomyia (Pifanomyia) reclusa (Fernández & Rogers) sensu Galati], is described for the first time, based on specimens collected in the Department of Cajamarca, in northern Peru. The female can be recognized from other species of the series pia, species group Verrucarum, by wing venation with beta shorter than half of alpha, labrum just shorter than head width but longer than flagellomere 1, palpomere 5 much longer than palpomere 3, arrangement of cibarial armature, and form of spermathecae and relative size of spermathecal ducts. Diagnostic characters and measurements of the male of Lu. reclusa are provided as well.

  1. DNA sequencing confirms PCR-RFLP identification of wild caught Larroussius sand flies from Crete and Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Dokianakis, Emmanouil; Tsirigotakis, Nikolaos; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Poulakakis, Nikos; Antoniou, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Many Phlebotomine sand fly species (Diptera, Psychodidae) are vectors of the protozoan parasite Leishmania causing a group of diseases called the leishmaniases. The subgenus Larroussius includes sand fly vectors found in South East Mediterranean Basin responsible for Visceral (VL) and Cutaneous human leishmaniasis (CL). It is important to monitor these medically important insects in order to safely predict possible Leishmania transmission cycles. Leishmania infantum is endemic in the islands of Crete and Cyprus with increasing VL cases in humans and dogs and in Cyprus the newly introduced Leishmania donovani causes both VL and CL in humans. The morphological identification of the females of the subgenus Larroussius often presents difficulties. Morphology and COI PCR - RFLP were used to identify wild caught Larroussius sand flies belonging to Phlebotomus tobbi, P. perfiliewi, and P. neglectus species from Crete and Cyprus. The identification results were further confirmed by sequencing (DNA barcoding) and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. COI PCR - RFLP, when correctly optimized and with respect to geographical origin, can serve as an initial patterning identification tool when large sand fly numbers need to be identified. It could accurately assign Larroussius females and males to their taxa overcoming the difficulties of morphological identification. Finally, DNA barcoding will contribute to a molecular identification database to be used for in-depth species studies.

  2. Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies and Leishmania infantum infection in a rural area of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Latrofa, Maria S; Falchi, Alessandro; Lia, Riccardo P; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-09-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are insects of major medico-veterinary significance in the Mediterranean region, as they may transmit pathogens to animals and humans, including viruses and protozoa. The present study was conducted in southern Italy, in an area where visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic. Insects were collected monthly during two consecutive years using light traps set in five different ecologic contexts (i.e., a stonewall near a woodhouse, a tree near volcanic rocks in a high-altitude area, a tree trunk in a meadow habitat, a sheep stable, and a chicken coop) and weekly in one site (the garage of a private house). A total of 13,087 specimens were collected and six species identified (i.e., Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus mascittii, and Sergentomyia minuta), representing 75% of the total number of phlebotomine species found in Italy. P. perfiliewi was the most abundant species, comprising 88.14% of the specimens identified. The greatest species diversity and abundance was recorded in human dwellings and in animal sheds. Sand flies were active from June to October, peaking in July-August in 2010 and July-September in 2011. Part of the females (n=8865) was grouped into 617 pools (range, 1-10 insects each) according to species, feeding status, day and site of collection. A total of four pools (10 non-engorged specimens each) and one engorged female of P. perfiliewi were positive for L. infantum. This study confirms that phlebotomine vectors in southern Italy are highly adapted to human-modified environments (e.g., animal sheds) and that P. perfiliewi is a major vector of L. infantum in some regions of southern Italy.

  3. Survey of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Environmentally Protected Area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva Reis, Alanna; Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Jeronimo; Sampaio Pereira, Agnes Antônia; Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Vianna Mariano da Rocha Lima, Ana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important endemic areas for leishmaniasis worldwide. Protected areas that are tourist attractions likely present an important risk of transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Furthermore, with the geographical expansion of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), several studies have recorded the occurrence of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and cases of human and canine VL in such tourist areas. The Parque Estadual do Sumidouro is an environmentally protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado biome and in an important area endemic for leishmaniasis in the state of Minas Gerais. The purpose of this study was to monitor the sand fly fauna in areas of tourist activity in the park. Sampling was performed every month, from September 2011 to August 2013, using CDC light traps at six sites of differing environmental characteristics. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A total of 4,675 sand fly specimens of 25 species belonging to nine genera were collected. The most abundant species were Micropygomyia quinquefer, Lutzomyia renei and Pintomyia pessoai, although only Pi. pessoai is implicated in the transmission of Leishmania braziliensis. The species accumulation curve reached saturation on the 16th sampling event. Species richness, diversity and evenness differed among the sampled areas. The seasonal curve was not determined by a single unique species, and no single species was the most abundant in all environments sampled. The main vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, Lutzomyia longipalpis, accounted for only 5.35% of the specimens collected. Proven or suspected vectors of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were recorded, and one female of the cortellezzii complex tested positive for Le. braziliensis DNA. Even with a low infection rate (0.62%), these data indicate the circulation of the parasite and reinforce

  4. Efficacy and duration of three residual insecticides on cotton duck and vinyl tent surfaces for control of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Zayed, Abdel Baset B; Hoel, David F; Tageldin, Reham A; Fawaz, Emaldeldin Y; Furman, Barry D; Hogsette, Jerome A; Bernier, Ulrich R

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity and duration of 3 residual insecticides against the Old World sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi, an important vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, on 2 types of tent material used by the US military in Afghanistan and the Middle East. Vinyl and cotton duck tent surfaces were treated at maximum labeled rates of lambda-cyhalothrin (Demand CS, Zeneca Inc, Wilmington, DE), bifenthrin (Talstar P Professional, FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA) and permethrin (Insect Repellent, Clothing Application, 40%), then subsequently stored in indoor, shaded spaces at room temperature (60%-70% relative humidity (RH), 22°C-25°C), and under sunlight and ambient air temperatures outdoors (20%-30% RH, 29°C-44°C). Insecticide susceptible colony flies (F110) obtained from the insectary of US Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt, were exposed to treated tent surfaces for 30-minute periods twice monthly for up to 5 months, then once monthly thereafter, using the World Health Organization cone assay. Lambda-cyhalothrin treated cotton duck tent material stored indoors killed P. papatasi for 8 months, while the complementary sun-exposed cotton duck material killed adult flies for 1 month before the efficacy dropped to less than 80%. Sand fly mortality on permethrin- and bifenthrin-treated cotton duck decreased below 80% after 2 weeks exposure to sunlight. Shade-stored permethrin and bifenthrin cotton duck material killed more than 80% of test flies through 5 months before mortality rates decreased substantially. Vinyl tent material provided limited control (less than 50% mortality) for less than 1 month with all treatment and storage regimes. Lambda-cyhalothrin-treated cotton duck tent material provided the longest control and produced the highest overall mortalities (100% for 8 months (shaded), more than 90% for 1 month (sunlight-exposed)) of both cotton duck and vinyl tents.

  5. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; da Silva, Fernando José; Figueredo, Luciana Aguiar; de Melo, Fábio Lopes; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Andrade, Maria Sandra; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2017-01-01

    Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683) predominated over females (n = 11,923). Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691) and April 2013 (n = 3,324). Lutzomyia choti (72.9%) was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%), Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%), representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents. PMID:28241005

  6. Irrigation in the arid regions of Tunisia impacts the abundance and apparent density of sand fly vectors of Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, Walid; Qualls, Whitney A; Archer, Reginald S; Fuller, Douglas O; Chelbi, Ifhem; Cherni, Saifedine; Derbali, Mohamed; Arheart, Kristopher L; Zhioua, Elyes; Beier, John C

    2015-01-01

    The distribution expansion of important human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) and sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis (SCL) vector species, Phlebotomus perfiliewi and P. perniciosus, throughout central Tunisia is a major public health concern. This study was designed to investigate if the expansion of irrigation influences the abundance of sand fly species potentially involved in the transmission of HVL and SCL located in arid bioclimatic regions. Geographic and remote sensing approaches were used to predict the density of visceral leishmaniasis vectors in Tunisia. Entomological investigations were performed in the governorate of Sidi Bouzid, located in the arid bioclimatic region of Tunisia. In 2012, sand flies were collected by CDC light traps located at nine irrigated and nine non-irrigated sites to determine species abundance. Eight species in two genera were collected. Among sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius, P. perfiliewi was the only species collected significantly more in irrigated areas. Trap data were then used to develop Poisson regression models to map the apparent density of important sand fly species as a function of different environmental covariates including climate and vegetation density. The density of P. perfiliewi is predicted to be moderately high in the arid regions. These results highlight that the abundance of P. perfiliewi is associated with the development of irrigated areas and suggests that the expansion of this species will continue to more arid areas of the country as irrigation sites continue to be developed in the region. The continued increase in irrigated areas in the Middle East and North Africa region deserves attention, as it is associated with the spread of L. infantum vector P. perfiliewi. Integrated vector management strategies targeting irrigation structures to reduce sand fly vector populations should be evaluated in light of these findings.

  7. Irrigation in the arid regions of Tunisia impacts the abundance and apparent density of sand fly vectors of Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Barhoumi, Walid; Qualls, Whitney A.; Archer, Reginald; Fuller, Douglas O.; Chelbi, Ifhem; Cherni, Saifedine; Derbali, Mohamed; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Zhioua, Elyes; Beier, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution expansion of important human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) and sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis (SCL) vector species, Phlebotomus perfiliewi and P. perniciosus, throughout central Tunisia is a major public health concern. This study was designed to investigate if the expansion of irrigation influences the abundance of sand fly species potentially involved in the transmission of HVL and SCL located in arid bioclimatic regions. Geographic and remote sensing approaches were used to predict the density of visceral leishmaniasis vectors in Tunisia. Entomological investigations were performed in the governorate of Sidi Bouzid, located in the arid bioclimatic region of Tunisia. In 2012, sand flies were collected by CDC light traps located at nine irrigated and nine non-irrigated sites to determine species abundance. Eight species in two genera were collected. Among sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius, P. perfiliewi was the only species collected significantly more in irrigated areas. Trap data were then used to develop Poisson regression models to map the apparent density of important sand fly species as a function of different environmental covariates including climate and vegetation density. The density of P. perfiliewi is predicted to be moderately high in the arid regions. These results highlight that the abundance of P. perfiliewi is associated with the development of irrigated areas and suggests that the expansion of this species will continue to more arid areas of the country as irrigation sites continue to be developed in the region. The continued increase in irrigated areas in the Middle East and North Africa region deserves attention, as it is associated with the spread of L. infantum vector P. perfiliewi. Integrated vector management strategies targeting irrigation structures to reduce sand fly vector populations should be evaluated in light of these findings. PMID:25447265

  8. Diversity of the Bacterial and Fungal Microflora from the Midgut and Cuticle of Phlebotomine Sand Flies Collected in North-Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Bakhtiari, Rounak; Guillard, Thomas; Baghaei, Ahmad; Tolouei, Reza; Sereno, Denis; Toubas, Dominique; Depaquit, Jérôme; Abyaneh, Mehdi Razzaghi

    2012-01-01

    Background Phlebotomine sand flies are the vectors of the leishmaniases, parasitic diseases caused by Leishmania spp. Little is known about the prevalence and diversity of sand fly microflora colonizing the midgut or the cuticle. Particularly, there is little information on the fungal diversity. This information is important for development of vector control strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings Five sand fly species: Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti, P. kandelakii, P. perfiliewi and P. halepensis were caught in Bileh Savar and Kaleybar in North-Western Iran that are located in endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis. A total of 35 specimens were processed. Bacterial and fungal strains were identified by routine microbiological methods. We characterized 39 fungal isolates from the cuticle and/or the midgut. They belong to six different genera including Penicillium (17 isolates), Aspergillus (14), Acremonium (5), Fusarium (1), Geotrichum (1) and Candida (1). We identified 33 Gram-negative bacteria: Serratia marcescens (9 isolates), Enterobacter cloacae (6), Pseudomonas fluorescens (6), Klebsiella ozaenae (4), Acinetobacter sp. (3), Escherichia coli (3), Asaia sp. (1) and Pantoea sp. (1) as well as Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (5) and Micrococcus luteus (5) in 10 isolates. Conclusion/Significance Our study provides new data on the microbiotic diversity of field-collected sand flies and for the first time, evidence of the presence of Asaia sp. in sand flies. We have also found a link between physiological stages (unfed, fresh fed, semi gravid and gravid) of sand flies and number of bacteria that they carry. Interestingly Pantoea sp. and Klebsiella ozaenae have been isolated in Old World sand fly species. The presence of latter species on sand fly cuticle and in the female midgut suggests a role for this arthropod in dissemination of these pathogenic bacteria in endemic areas. Further experiments are required to clearly delineate the vectorial role

  9. DNA barcode for the identification of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis plant feeding preferences in a tropical urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Leonardo H. G. de M.; Mesquita, Marcelo R.; Skrip, Laura; de Souza Freitas, Moisés T.; Silva, Vladimir C.; Kirstein, Oscar D.; Abassi, Ibrahim; Warburg, Alon; Balbino, Valdir de Q.; Costa, Carlos H. N.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behavior of hematophagous insects that require plant sugar to complete their life cycles. We studied plant feeding of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies, known vectors of Leishmania infantum/chagasi parasites, in a Brazilian city endemic with visceral leishmaniasis. The DNA barcode technique was applied to identify plant food source of wild-caught L. longipalpis using specific primers for a locus from the chloroplast genome, ribulose diphosphate carboxylase. DNA from all trees or shrubs within a 100-meter radius from the trap were collected to build a barcode reference library. While plants from the Anacardiaceae and Meliaceae families were the most abundant at the sampling site (25.4% and 12.7% of the local plant population, respectively), DNA from these plant families was found in few flies; in contrast, despite its low abundance (2.9%), DNA from the Fabaceae family was detected in 94.7% of the sand flies. The proportion of sand flies testing positive for DNA from a given plant family was not significantly associated with abundance, distance from the trap, or average crown expansion of plants from that family. The data suggest that there may indeed be a feeding preference of L. longipalpis for plants in the Fabaceae family. PMID:27435430

  10. Man-biting sand fly species and natural infection with the Leishmania promastigote in leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Eduardo A; Kato, Hirotomo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    A countrywide surveillance of sand flies was performed to obtain information on their geographical distribution and natural infection by Leishmania protozoa in Ecuador. A total of 18,119 sand flies were collected by human landing collections during 32 years from 1982 to 2014, and 29 species were recognized. The most prevalent 10 species were Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. shannoni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. maranonensis, Lu. ayacuchensis, Lu. tortura and Lu. yuilli yuilli, and their topographical and vertical distributions were identified. Among all the sand flies, only 197 (1.09%) flies of four Lutzomyia species, Lu. gomezi, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. tortura and Lu. ayacuchensis, were positive for Leishmania. Endotrypanum, a flagellate parasite not pathogenic to humans, were detected in five Lutzomyia species, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. yuilli yuilli, suggesting wide vector-ranges of Endotrypanum species. These data on the genus Lutzomyia and their natural infections with Leishmania and Endotrypanum will be useful for transmission studies and surveillance of leishmaniasis.

  11. Attraction of Ethiopian phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) to light and sugar-yeast mixtures (CO2)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) known as Kala-Azar is a serious systemic disease caused by Leishmania donovani parasites (Trypanosomatidae: Kinetoplastida). The disease is prevalent in the Indian Sub-continent, East Africa and Brazil. In Africa, the worst affected regions are in Sudan, with an estimated 15,000-20,000 cases annually and Ethiopia with 5,000-7,000 cases a year. The main vector of VL in Sudan and Northern Ethiopia is Phlebotomus orientalis, a sand fly frequently found in association with Acacia spp and Balanite spp woodlands. Methods To optimize sampling of sand flies for epidemiological studies in remote areas we tested different means of attraction. Miniature suction traps employing 2AA batteries (3 V) were deployed in the up-draft orientation and baited with chemical light-sticks (Red, Yellow and Green), or bakers’ yeast in sugar solution (emitting CO2 and perhaps other attractants). These traps were compared with standard CDC incandescent light traps employing 6 V batteries. Trials were conducted during two consecutive years at different localities around Sheraro, a town in West Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Results The sand fly species composition was similar but not identical in the different locations tested with different Sergentomyia spp. predominating. Phlebotomus spp. comprised less than 1% of the catches during the first year trials (November – December 2011) but increased markedly during the second year trials performed later in the dry season at the height of the sand fly season in February 2012. Although there did not appear to be a species bias towards different light wave-lengths, fermenting yeast in sugar solution attracted relatively more Phlebotomus spp. and Sergentomyia schwetzi. Conclusions Although the standard 6 V CDC incandescent light traps captured more sand flies, light-weight (~350 g) 3 V suction traps baited with chemical light-sticks were shown to be effective means of monitoring sand flies. Such traps

  12. Spatial Distribution of Sand Fly Vectors and Eco-Epidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Transmission in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Cristina; López, Marla; Fuya, Patricia; Lugo, Ligia; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; González, Camila

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmania is transmitted by Phlebotominae insects that maintain the enzootic cycle by circulating between sylvatic and domestic mammals; humans enter the cycles as accidental hosts due to the vector’s search for blood source. In Colombia, leishmaniasis is an endemic disease and 95% of all cases are cutaneous (CL), these cases have been reported in several regions of the country where the intervention of sylvatic areas by the introduction of agriculture seem to have an impact on the rearrangement of new transmission cycles. Our study aimed to update vector species distribution in the country and to analyze the relationship between vectors’ distribution, climate, land use and CL prevalence. Methods A database with geographic information was assembled, and ecological niche modeling was performed to explore the potential distribution of each of the 21 species of medical importance in Colombia, using thirteen bioclimatic variables, three topographic and three principal components derived from NDVI. Binary models for each species were obtained and related to both land use coverage, and a CL prevalence map with available epidemiological data. Finally, maps of species potential distribution were summed to define potential species richness in the country. Results In total, 673 single records were obtained with Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psychodopygus panamensis, Psathyromyia shannoni and Pintomyia evansi the species with the highest number of records. Eighteen species had significant models, considering the area under the curve and the jackknife results: L. gomezi and P. panamensis had the widest potential distribution. All sand fly species except for Nyssomyia antunesi are mainly distributed in regions with rates of prevalence between 0.33 to 101.35 cases per 100,000 inhabitants and 76% of collection data points fall into transformed ecosystems. Discussion Distribution ranges of sand flies with medical importance in Colombia correspond

  13. Structure of SALO, a leishmaniasis vaccine candidate from the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    PubMed Central

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Kelleher, Alan; Liu, Zhuyun; Pollet, Jeroen; Hudspeth, Elissa M.; Rezende, Wanderson C.; Groen, Mallory Jo; Seid, Christopher A.; Abdeladhim, Maha; Townsend, Shannon; de Castro, Waldione; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J.; Zhan, Bin; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Immunity to the sand fly salivary protein SALO (Salivary Anticomplement of Lutzomyia longipalpis) protected hamsters against Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis infection and, more recently, a vaccine combination of a genetically modified Leishmania with SALO conferred strong protection against L. donovani infection. Because of the importance of SALO as a potential component of a leishmaniasis vaccine, a plan to produce this recombinant protein for future scale manufacturing as well as knowledge of its structural characteristics are needed to move SALO forward for the clinical path. Methodology/Principal findings Recombinant SALO was expressed as a soluble secreted protein using Pichia pastoris, rSALO(P), with yields of 1g/L and >99% purity as assessed by SEC-MALS and SDS-PAGE. Unlike its native counterpart, rSALO(P) does not inhibit the classical pathway of complement; however, antibodies to rSALO(P) inhibit the anti-complement activity of sand fly salivary gland homogenate. Immunization with rSALO(P) produces a delayed type hypersensitivity response in C57BL/6 mice, suggesting rSALO(P) lacked anti-complement activity but retained its immunogenicity. The structure of rSALO(P) was solved by S-SAD at Cu-Kalpha to 1.94 Å and refined to Rfactor 17%. SALO is ~80% helical, has no appreciable structural similarities to any human protein, and has limited structural similarity in the C-terminus to members of insect odorant binding proteins. SALO has three predicted human CD4+ T cell epitopes on surface exposed helices. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that SALO as expressed and purified from P. pastoris is suitable for further scale-up, manufacturing, and testing. SALO has a novel structure, is not similar to any human proteins, is immunogenic in rodents, and does not have the anti-complement activity observed in the native salivary protein which are all important attributes to move this vaccine candidate forward to the clinical path. PMID

  14. Cutting Edge: Brazilian pemphigus foliaceus anti-desmoglein 1 autoantibodies cross-react with sand fly salivary LJM11 antigen.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ye; Jeong, Joseph S; Maldonado, Mike; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Gomes, Regis; Teixeira, Clarissa; Evangelista, Flor; Qaqish, Bahjat; Aoki, Valeria; Hans, Gunter; Rivitti, Evandro A; Eaton, Donald; Diaz, Luis A

    2012-08-15

    The environmental factors that contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases are largely unknown. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus in humans, known as Fogo Selvagem (FS) in Brazil, is mediated by pathogenic IgG4 autoantibodies against desmoglein 1 (Dsg1). Clusters of FS overlap with those of leishmaniasis, a disease transmitted by sand fly (Lutzomyia longipalpis) bites. In this study, we show that salivary Ags from the sand fly, and specifically the LJM11 salivary protein, are recognized by FS Abs. Anti-Dsg1 monoclonal autoantibodies derived from FS patients also cross-react with LJM11. Mice immunized with LJM11 generate anti-Dsg1 Abs. Thus, insect bites may deliver salivary Ags that initiate a cross-reactive IgG4 Ab response in genetically susceptible individuals and lead to subsequent FS. Our findings establish a clear relationship between an environmental, noninfectious Ag and the development of potentially pathogenic autoantibodies in an autoimmune disease.

  15. Lutzomyia sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from middle and lower Putumayo Department, Colombia, with new records to the country.

    PubMed

    Barreto, M; Burbano, M E; Barreto, P

    2000-01-01

    A total of 4,840 phlebotomine sand flies from 54 localities in Putumayo department (=state), in the Colombian Amazon region, were collected in Shannon traps, CDC light traps, resting places and from human baits. At least 42 Lutzomyia species were registered for the first time to the department. Psychodopygus and Nyssomyia were the subgenera with the greatest number of taxa, the most common species being L. (N.) yuilli and L. (N.) pajoti. They were sympatric in a wide zone of Putumayo, indicating that they should be treated as full species (new status). Among the anthropophilic sand flies, L. gomezi and L. yuilli were found in intradomiciliar, peridomestic, urban or forest habitats. L. richardwardi, L. claustrei, L. nocticola and L. micropyga are reported for the first time in the Colombian Amazon basin. L. pajoti, L. sipani and L. yucumensis are new records for Colombia.

  16. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with changing patterns in the transmission of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Fouque, Florence; Gaborit, Pascal; Issaly, Jean; Carinci, Romuald; Gantier, Jean-Charles; Ravel, Christophe; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

    2007-02-01

    Between March 2000 and December 2001 a survey of the sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) of French Guiana was carried out during 14 nights of captures with CDC light-traps and Malaise traps, and resulted in the collection of 2245 individuals of 38 species. The most abundant species were Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) ininii Floch & Abonnenc, Lu.(Psychodopygus) squamiventris maripaensis Floch & Abonnenc, and Lu .(Nyssomyia) flaviscutellata Mangabeira. Half of the collected sand flies females were dissected under field conditions and five species were found harboring Leishmania-like parasites. The Leishmania (Kinetoplastidae: Trypanosomatidae) species were identified by molecular typing, and for the first time Lu. (Nys.) flaviscutellata was found harboring Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and Lu. (Tri) ininii harboring unknown Leishmania. The first record for French Guiana of Lu. (Psy.) squamiventris maripaensis harboring L. (V.) naiffi, was also reported. The patterns of diversification of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in French Guiana are discussed.

  17. The life cycle and host specificity of Psychodiella sergenti n. sp. and Ps. tobbi n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) in sand flies Phlebotomus sergenti and Ph. tobbi (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Lantová, Lucie; Ghosh, Kashinath; Svobodová, Milena; Braig, Henk R; Rowton, Edgar; Weina, Peter; Volf, Petr; Votýpka, Jan

    2010-10-01

    Two new gregarines in the recently erected genus Psychodiella (formerly Ascogregarina), Psychodiella sergenti n. sp. and Psychodiella tobbi n. sp., are described based on morphology and life cycle observations conducted on larvae and adults of their natural hosts, the sand flies Phlebotomus sergenti and Phlebotomus tobbi, respectively. The phylogenetic analyses inferred from small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences indicate the monophyly of newly described species with Psychodiella chagasi. Ps. sergenti n. sp. and Ps. tobbi n. sp. significantly differ from each other in the life cycle and in the size of life stages. The sexual development of Ps. sergenti n. sp. (syzygy, formation of gametocysts and oocysts) takes place exclusively in blood-fed Ph. sergenti females, while the sexual development of Ps. tobbi n. sp. takes place also in males and unfed females of Ph. tobbi. The susceptibility of Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus papatasi, Ph. sergenti, Ph. tobbi, and Phlebotomus arabicus to both gregarines was examined by exposing 1st instar larvae to parasite oocysts. High host specificity was observed, as both gregarines were able to fully develop and complete regularly the life cycle only in their natural hosts. Both gregarines are considered as serious pathogens in laboratory-reared colonies of Old World sand flies.

  18. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomine sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the urban area of Marrakech, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Boussaa, S; Guernaoui, S; Pesson, B; Boumezzough, A

    2005-08-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were collected continuously, using sticky traps, during 1 year from October 2002 to September 2003, in an urban area of Marrakech city (Morocco). A total of 3277 specimens were collected belonging to five species. Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi (54.6%) is the predominant species followed by Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) minuta (20%), S. (S.) fallax (11.3%), P. (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti (10.3%) and P. (Larroussius) longicuspis (3.8%). Data analyses showed a mono-modal annual pattern for P. sergenti and a bi-modal one for the other species. P. papatasi, the proven vector of Leishmania major in Morocco, was active throughout the year. This species did not diapause in this region. P. papatasi population peaked in June and November, which relating to the periods of risk in this area. Its preferred temperature ranged between 32 and 36 degrees C but no significant correlation was found between its density and the temperature. Considering the high density and long activity period of P. papatasi, the area of Marrakech should be regarded as a potential focus for L. major. This suggests the need for a continuously surveillance to prevent risk of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  19. Leishmaniasis in Central Morocco: Seasonal Fluctuations of Phlebotomine Sand Fly in Aichoun Locality, from Sefrou Province

    PubMed Central

    Talbi, Fatima Zahra; El Ouali Lalami, Abdelhakim; Janati Idrissi, Abdellatif; Sebti, Faiza; Faraj, Chafika

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniases (CL) are endemic in Morocco. They are common in the human population in different localities such as Aichoun in Sefrou province, Morocco. This study was carried out in Aichoun locality from April to October 2012 in order to study the spatiotemporal trends of the main Leishmania phlebotomine vectors in this focus. Overall, 1171 sand flies, belonging to four species, were collected by sticky traps. Phlebotomus sergenti was the predominant species (78.4%) followed by Ph. perniciosus (10.5%), Ph. papatasi (7.94%), and Ph. longicuspis (3.16%). Sandflies were active during 6 months (May–October). Ph. sergenti, Ph. perniciosus, and Ph. papatasi displayed a bimodal distribution with a first peak in July and a second peak in September, while Ph. longicuspis showed a monophasic trend with a peak in August. The high abundance and the lengthy period of activity of Ph. sergenti and Ph. perniciosus, vectors of L. tropica and L. infantum, respectively, are a cause for concern as they indicate the high potential risk of Leishmania transmission in the studied areas. PMID:25741448

  20. Nestedness patterns of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) species in a neotropical semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Añez, Nestor

    2016-01-01

    A common pattern in neotropical Leishmania spp. transmission is the co-occurrence of several sand fly (SF) species at endemic foci. We collected 13 SF spp. by direct aspiration in natural resting places (NRP) and 10 SF spp. with Shannon traps (ST), totaling 15 spp. with both methods, at 6 locations within a semi-arid region with endemic visceral leishmaniasis transmission in Falcón State, Northwestern Venezuela. We used null model testing of species co-occurrence and nestedness metrics estimated with our field data to ask whether SF species composition was segregated/aggregated, and if aggregated whether there was nestedness, i.e., whether species composition across sampling locations could be described by ordered subsets of species from the most species rich location in a landscape. Results showed that SF species were aggregated (P<0.05), i.e., most species were present in species rich locations. Similarly, SF species were significantly nested (P<0.05). Differences in pairwise Sørensen and Simpson indices, estimated with the ST data and the combined ST and NRP data, were positively associated with the distance between sampling locations, suggesting that species nestedness might be partially shaped by dispersal limitation. Our data showed that three species of medical importance were common across the sampling locations: Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia panamensis and Lutzomyia evansi, suporting that vector species do not turnover in the studied setting.

  1. Response of the sand fly Phlebotomuspapatasi to visual, physical and chemical attraction features in the field.

    PubMed

    Müller, Günter C; Hogsette, Jerome A; Kline, Daniel L; Beier, John C; Revay, Edita E; Xue, Rui-De

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 27 CDC traps were modified with various attractive features and compared with a CDC trap with no light source or baits to evaluate the effects on attraction to Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) north of the Dead Sea near Jericho. Attractive features included CO2, lights, colored trap bodies, heat, moisture, chemical lures and different combinations of the same. Traps were placed 20m apart and rotated from one trap location to the next after 24h trapping periods. The most significant attractive feature was CO2, which attracted more sand flies than any other feature evaluated. Ultraviolet light was the next most attractive feature, followed by incandescent light. When evaluated alone, black or white trap bodies, heat and moisture, all influenced trap catch but effects were greater when these attractive features were used together. The results of this study suggest that traps with CO2 and UV light could be used in batteries as control interventions if suitable CO2 sources become available.

  2. Response of Phlebotomine Sand Flies to Light-Emitting Diode-Modified Light Traps in Southern Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    over incandescent light bulbs include greatly reduced power consumption, cooler operating temperatures , extended operational life, less susceptibility...or two stories high and covered with thatch or brick roofs. Summers are very hot with daily temperatures typically ranging from 24 to 45 C; it seldom...light. Only one study has been performed on a New World sand fly ( Lutzomyia Iongipalpis) measuring spectral sensitivity with an electroretinogram

  3. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid mass-screening of sand flies for Leishmania infection.

    PubMed

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Gomez, Eduardo A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Uezato, Hiroshi; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2014-04-01

    Entomological monitoring of Leishmania infection in leishmaniasis endemic areas offers epidemiologic advantages for predicting the risk and expansion of the disease, as well as evaluation of the effectiveness of control programs. In this study, we developed a highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the mass screening of sand flies for Leishmania infection based on the 18S rRNA gene. The LAMP technique could detect 0.01 parasites, which was more sensitive than classical PCR. The method was robust and could amplify the target DNA within 1h from a crude sand fly template without DNA purification. Amplicon detection could be accomplished by the newly developed colorimetric malachite green (MG)--mediated naked eye visualization. Pre-addition of MG to the LAMP reaction solution did not inhibit amplification efficiency. The field applicability of the colorimetric MG-based LAMP assay was demonstrated with 397 field-caught samples from the endemic areas of Ecuador and eight positive sand flies were detected. The robustness, superior sensitivity, and ability to produce better visual discriminatory reaction products than existing LAMP fluorescence and turbidity assays indicated the field potential usefulness of this new method for surveillance and epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis in developing countries.

  4. Lipophosphoglycans from Leishmania amazonensis Strains Display Immunomodulatory Properties via TLR4 and Do Not Affect Sand Fly Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Paula M.; Assis, Rafael R.; Torrecilhas, Ana C.; Saraiva, Elvira M.; Pessoa, Natália L.; Campos, Marco A.; Marialva, Eric F.; Ríos-Velasquez, Cláudia M.; Pessoa, Felipe A.; Secundino, Nágila F.; Rugani, Jerônimo N.; Nieves, Elsa; Turco, Salvatore J.; Melo, Maria N.

    2016-01-01

    The immunomodulatory properties of lipophosphoglycans (LPG) from New World species of Leishmania have been assessed in Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agents of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. This glycoconjugate is highly polymorphic among species with variation in sugars that branch off the conserved Gal(β1,4)Man(α1)-PO4 backbone of repeat units. Here, the immunomodulatory activity of LPGs from Leishmania amazonensis, the causative agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, was evaluated in two strains from Brazil. One strain (PH8) was originally isolated from the sand fly and the other (Josefa) was isolated from a human case. The ability of purified LPGs from both strains was investigated during in vitro interaction with peritoneal murine macrophages and CHO cells and in vivo infection with Lutzomyia migonei. In peritoneal murine macrophages, the LPGs from both strains activated TLR4. Both LPGs equally activate MAPKs and the NF-κB inhibitor p-IκBα, but were not able to translocate NF-κB. In vivo experiments with sand flies showed that both stains were able to sustain infection in L. migonei. A preliminary biochemical analysis indicates intraspecies variation in the LPG sugar moieties. However, they did not result in different activation profiles of the innate immune system. Also those polymorphisms did not affect infectivity to the sand fly. PMID:27508930

  5. Changes in Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species Composition Following Insecticide Thermal Fogging in a Rural Setting of Western Panamá

    PubMed Central

    Calzada, Jose E.; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie; Valderrama, Anayansi; Romero, Luz; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2013-01-01

    American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, ACL, is a zoonotic disease with a large richness of co-occurring vector species in transmission foci. Here, we describe changes in patterns of phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species composition at the village of Trinidad de Las Minas, Capira, Panamá, a hyperendemic focus of ACL transmission, subjected to a vector control intervention with insecticide thermal fogging (ITF). Our study setting consisted of 24 houses, 12 subjected to two rounds of ITF and 12 kept as control. During 15 months (April 2010– June 2011) we monitored sand fly species composition and abundance with modified HP light traps inside (domicile) and outside (peridomicile) the studied houses. From 5628 sand flies collected, we were able to identify 5617 of the samples into 24 species, a number of species close to 25±1.6, the estimate from the Chao2 Index. The most abundant species were Lutzomya trapidoi (20%), Lu. gomezi (20%) and Lu. triramula (20%). Cluster analyses showed that most of the 24 houses had high similarity in relative abundance patterns of the six most common species, with only few peripheral houses not following the main cluster pattern. We also found that species richness was decreased to 22 species in the fogged houses, of which only 19 were found in the domiciliary environment. Changes in species richness were especially notorious at the end of the wet season. Our results suggest that species richness can decrease following ITF in domiciliary environments, primarily affecting the less common species. PMID:23536748

  6. First Human Cases of Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni Infection and a Search for the Vector Sand Flies in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hirotomo; Bone, Abdon E.; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Kazue; Shiguango, Gonzalo F.; Gonzales, Silvio V.; Velez, Lenin N.; Guevara, Angel G.; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of leishmaniasis was performed in Amazonian areas of Ecuador since little information on the prevalent Leishmania and sand fly species responsible for the transmission is available. Of 33 clinical specimens from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), causative parasites were identified in 25 samples based on cytochrome b gene analysis. As reported previously, Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis were among the causative agents identified. In addition, L. (V.) lainsoni, for which infection is reported in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Suriname, and French Guiana, was identified in patients with CL from geographically separate areas in the Ecuadorian Amazon, corroborating the notion that L. (V.) lainsoni is widely distributed in South America. Sand flies were surveyed around the area where a patient with L. (V.) lainsoni was suspected to have been infected. However, natural infection of sand flies by L. (V.) lainsoni was not detected. Further extensive vector searches are necessary to define the transmission cycle of L. (V.) lainsoni in Ecuador. PMID:27191391

  7. Sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) distribution in the endemic and non-endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis in northwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Mirzaei, Asad; Baghaei, Ahmad; Alten, Bulent; Depaquit, Jerome

    2013-06-01

    An entomological study was conducted from June to September, 2010 in rural regions of Azarbayjan-e-sharqi, Azarbayjan-e-qarbi, and Ardabil provinces in northwestern Iran to determine sand fly fauna, diversity, and distribution in different habitats and altitudes using both sticky papers and light traps. Geographical distribution of sand flies and the similarity of populations in different locations were analyzed ecologically based on the Shannon-Wiener Index and Jacard Coefficient, respectively. A total of 3,982 specimens was collected and sixteen species recorded. They belonged to the genera Phlebotomus [subgenus Phlebotomus (P. papatasi), Paraphlebotomus (P. sergenti, P. mongolensis, P. caucasicus, P. jacusieli), Larroussius (P. major s.l., P. tobbi, P. perfiliewi transcaucasicus, P. kandelakii) and Adlerius (P. halepensis, P. brevis, P. longiductus, P. balcanicus)], and Sergentomyia [subgenus Sergentomyia (S. sintoni, S. dentata and S. theodori)]. P. papatasi was the predominant species in all the locations except Bileh Savar, Macu, and Meshkin Shahr, followed by P. perfiliewi transcaucasicus and P. kandelakii. The latter species were caught from different habitats and altitudes with higher frequency than other species of the subgenus Larroussius. The lowest abundance belonged to P. jacusieli. The predominant species of subgenus Adlerius was P. halepensis. Data analysis showed that Meshkin Shahr and Bileh Savar had high and low diversities of sand fly distribution, respectively. Meshkin Shahr and Sarab districts had the highest similarity. Both are located in the foothills of Sabalan Mountain, with high diversity and richness.

  8. Blood Meal Identification in Field-Captured Sand flies: Comparison of PCR-RFLP and ELISA Assays

    PubMed Central

    Maleki-Ravasan, N; Oshaghi, MA; Javadian, E; Rassi, Y; Sadraei, J; Mohtarami, F

    2009-01-01

    Background We aimed to develop a PCR-RFLP assay based on available sequences of putative vertebrate hosts to identify blood meals ingested by field female sand fly in the northwest of Iran. In addition, the utility of PCR-RFLP was compared with ELISA as a standard method. Methods: This experimental study was performed in the Insect Molecular Biology Laboratory of School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2006–2007. For PCR-RFLP a set of conserved vertebrate primers were used to amplify a part of the host mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene followed by digestion of the PCR products by Hae III enzyme. Results: The PCR-RFLP and ELISA assays revealed that 34% and 27% of field-collected sand flies had fed on humans, respectively. Additionally, PCR-RFLP assays could reveal specific host DNA as well as the components of mixed blood meals. Results of PCR-RFLP assay showed that the sand flies had fed on cow (54%), human (10%), dog (4%), human and cow (21%), dog and cow (14%), and human and dog (3%). Conclusion: The results can provide a novel method for rapid diagnosis of blood meal taken by sandflies. The advantages and limitations of PCR and ELISA assays are discussed. PMID:22808367

  9. BluePort: A Platform to Study the Eosinophilic Response of Mice to the Bite of a Vector of Leishmania Parasites, Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Flies

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, J. Santiago; Toot-Zimmer, Amanda L.; Schultheiss, Patricia C.; Beaty, Barry J.; Titus, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Visceral Leishmaniasis is a serious human disease transmitted, in the New World, by Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Natural resistance to Leishmania transmission in residents of endemic areas has been attributed to the acquisition of immunity to sand fly salivary proteins. One theoretical way to accelerate the acquisition of this immunity is to increase the density of antigen-presenting cells at the sand fly bite site. Here we describe a novel tissue platform that can be used for this purpose. Methodology/Principal Findings BluePort is a well-vascularized and macrophage-rich compartment induced in the subcutaneous tissue of mice via injection of agarose beads covered with Cibacron blue. We describe the sequence of inflammatory events leading to its formation and how it can be used to study the dermal response to the bite of L. longipalpis sand flies. Results presented indicate that a shift in the inflammatory response, from neutrophilic to eosinophilic, is the main histopathological feature associated with the immunity acquired through repeated exposure to the bite of sand flies, and that the BluePort tissue compartment could be used to accelerate this process. In addition, changes observed inside the BluePort parenchyma indicate that it could be used to study complex immunobiological processes, and to develop ectopic secondary lymphoid structures. Conclusions/Significance Understanding the characteristics of the dermal response to the bite of sand flies is a critical element of strategies to control leishmaniasis using vaccines that target salivary proteins. Finding that dermal eosinophilia is such a prominent component of the anti-salivary immunity induced by repeated exposure to sand fly bites raises one important consideration: how to avoid the immunological conflict derived from a protective Th2-driven immunity directed to sand fly saliva with a protective Th1-driven immunity directed to the parasite. The BluePort platform is an ideal tool to

  10. Sand Fly Fauna (Diptera, Pcychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Different Leishmaniasis-Endemic Areas of Ecuador, Surveyed Using a Newly Named Mini-Shannon Trap

    PubMed Central

    Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N., Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F., Hipatia; Romero A., Daniel; Gomez L., Eduardo; Martini R., Luiggi; Zambrano C., Flavio; Calvopina H., Manuel; Caceres G., Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named “mini-Shannon trap” and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was performed mainly based on the morphology of spermathecae and cibarium, after dissection of fresh samples. In this study, therefore, only female samples were used for analysis. A total of 1,480 female sand flies belonging to 25 Lutzomyia species were collected. The number of female sand flies collected was 417 (28.2%) using the mini-Shannon trap, 259 (17.5%) using the CDC light trap and 804 (54.3%) by human landing. The total number of sand flies per trap collected by the different methods was markedly affected by the study site, probably because of the various composition of species at each locality. Furthermore, as an additional study, the attraction of sand flies to mini-Shannon traps powered with LED white-light and LED black-light was investigated preliminarily, together with the CDC light trap and human landing. As a result, a total of 426 sand flies of nine Lutzomyia species, including seven man-biting and two non-biting species, were collected during three capture trials in May and June 2014 in an area endemic for leishmaniasis (La Ventura). The black-light proved relatively superior to the white-light with regard to capture numbers, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two traps. PMID:25589880

  11. Sand fly fauna (Diptera, pcychodidae, phlebotominae) in different leishmaniasis-endemic areas of ecuador, surveyed using a newly named mini-shannon trap.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N, Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F, Hipatia; Romero A, Daniel; Gomez L, Eduardo; Martini R, Luiggi; Zambrano C, Flavio; Calvopina H, Manuel; Caceres G, Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named "mini-Shannon trap" and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was performed mainly based on the morphology of spermathecae and cibarium, after dissection of fresh samples. In this study, therefore, only female samples were used for analysis. A total of 1,480 female sand flies belonging to 25 Lutzomyia species were collected. The number of female sand flies collected was 417 (28.2%) using the mini-Shannon trap, 259 (17.5%) using the CDC light trap and 804 (54.3%) by human landing. The total number of sand flies per trap collected by the different methods was markedly affected by the study site, probably because of the various composition of species at each locality. Furthermore, as an additional study, the attraction of sand flies to mini-Shannon traps powered with LED white-light and LED black-light was investigated preliminarily, together with the CDC light trap and human landing. As a result, a total of 426 sand flies of nine Lutzomyia species, including seven man-biting and two non-biting species, were collected during three capture trials in May and June 2014 in an area endemic for leishmaniasis (La Ventura). The black-light proved relatively superior to the white-light with regard to capture numbers, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two traps.

  12. Faunal Distribution and Seasonal Bio-Ecology of Naturally Infected Sand Flies in a New Endemic Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus of Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Kourosh; Parvinjahromi, Hayedeh; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Sarkari, Bahador; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major health problem in Iran in spite of implementation of control program. This infectious disease caused morbidity in less than 27000 people in 2010. This study was set to determine some ecological aspects of sand flies in Fasa district, Fars Province, southern Iran during 2011–2012. Methods: A total of 4792 sand flies were captured by means of sticky paper and CDC miniature light traps in 10 selected villages from the beginning to the end of the active season, from which 1115 specimens were captured for abundance study and 3677 specimens captured for monitoring monthly activities in Fasa. After species identification, extracted DNA was processed for detection of Leishmania parasite infection in sand flies. Results: Twelve species (6 Phlebotomus, 6 Sergentomyia) were identified. The most common sand fly was P. papatasi (82.4%) which represented 86.6% of sand flies from indoors and 82.7% from outdoors. The monthly activity of the species extended from April to the end of November. There were two peaks in the density curve of this species, one in June and the second in September. Natural infection to L. major was detected in P. papatasi (25 out of 130 sand flies, 19.2%). Conclusion: Phlebotomus papatasi is considered as a main vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Fasa, Fars Province, south of Iran. PMID:28032108

  13. A Listeria monocytogenes-Based Vaccine That Secretes Sand Fly Salivary Protein LJM11 Confers Long-Term Protection against Vector-Transmitted Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Abi Abdallah, Delbert S.; Pavinski Bitar, Alan; Oliveira, Fabiano; Meneses, Claudio; Park, Justin J.; Mendez, Susana; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a sand fly-transmitted disease characterized by skin ulcers that carry significant scarring and social stigmatization. Over the past years, there has been cumulative evidence that immunity to specific sand fly salivary proteins confers a significant level of protection against leishmaniasis. In this study, we used an attenuated strain of Listeria monocytogenes as a vaccine expression system for LJM11, a sand fly salivary protein identified as a good vaccine candidate. We observed that mice were best protected against an intradermal needle challenge with Leishmania major and sand fly saliva when vaccinated intravenously. However, this protection was short-lived. Importantly, groups of vaccinated mice were protected long term when challenged with infected sand flies. Protection correlated with smaller lesion size, fewer scars, and better parasite control between 2 and 6 weeks postchallenge compared to the control group of mice vaccinated with the parent L. monocytogenes strain not expressing LJM11. Moreover, protection correlated with high numbers of CD4+, gamma interferon-positive (IFN-γ+), tumor necrosis factor alpha-positive/negative (TNF-α+/−), interleukin-10-negative (IL-10−) cells and low numbers of CD4+ IFN-γ+/− TNF-α− IL-10+ T cells at 2 weeks postchallenge. Overall, our data indicate that delivery of LJM11 by Listeria is a promising vaccination strategy against cutaneous leishmaniasis inducing long-term protection against ulcer formation following a natural challenge with infected sand flies. PMID:24733091

  14. Bacterial flora as indicated by PCR-temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) of 16S rDNA gene fragments from isolated guts of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Guernaoui, S; Garcia, D; Gazanion, E; Ouhdouch, Y; Boumezzough, A; Pesson, B; Fontenille, D; Sereno, D

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we tested the capacity of Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TGGE)-based fingerprinting of 16S rDNA PCR fragments to assess bacterial composition in a single isolated sand fly gut. Bacterial content was studied in different life stages of a laboratory-reared colony of Phlebotomus duboscqi and in a wild-caught Phlebotomus papatasi population. Our study demonstrates that a major reorganization in the gut bacterial community occurs during metamorphosis of sand flies. Chloroflexi spp. was dominant in the guts of pre-imaginal stages, although Microbacterium spp. and another as yet unidentified bacteria were detected in the gut of the adult specimen. Interestingly, Microbacterium spp. was also found in all the adult guts of both species. We demonstrate that the analysis of bacterial diversity in an individualized sand fly gut is possible with fingerprinting of 16S rDNA. The use of such methodology, in conjunction with other culture-based methods, will be of great help in investigating the behavior of the Leishmania-bacterial community in an ecological context.

  15. Current and Future Niche of North and Central American Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Climate Change Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Moo-Llanes, David; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; González, Camila; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological niche models are useful tools to infer potential spatial and temporal distributions in vector species and to measure epidemiological risk for infectious diseases such as the Leishmaniases. The ecological niche of 28 North and Central American sand fly species, including those with epidemiological relevance, can be used to analyze the vector's ecology and its association with transmission risk, and plan integrated regional vector surveillance and control programs. In this study, we model the environmental requirements of the principal North and Central American phlebotomine species and analyze three niche characteristics over future climate change scenarios: i) potential change in niche breadth, ii) direction and magnitude of niche centroid shifts, iii) shifts in elevation range. Niche identity between confirmed or incriminated Leishmania vector sand flies in Mexico, and human cases were analyzed. Niche models were constructed using sand fly occurrence datapoints from Canada, USA, Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Nine non-correlated bioclimatic and four topographic data layers were used as niche components using GARP in OpenModeller. Both B2 and A2 climate change scenarios were used with two general circulation models for each scenario (CSIRO and HadCM3), for 2020, 2050 and 2080. There was an increase in niche breadth to 2080 in both scenarios for all species with the exception of Lutzomyia vexator. The principal direction of niche centroid displacement was to the northwest (64%), while the elevation range decreased greatest for tropical, and least for broad-range species. Lutzomyia cruciata is the only epidemiologically important species with high niche identity with that of Leishmania spp. in Mexico. Continued landscape modification in future climate change will provide an increased opportunity for the geographic expansion of NCA sand flys' ENM and human exposure to vectors of Leishmaniases. PMID:24069478

  16. The flagellar protein FLAG1/SMP1 is a candidate for Leishmania-sand fly interaction.

    PubMed

    Di-Blasi, Tatiana; Lobo, Amanda R; Nascimento, Luanda M; Córdova-Rojas, Jose L; Pestana, Karen; Marín-Villa, Marcel; Tempone, Antonio J; Telleria, Erich L; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo; McMahon-Pratt, Diane; Traub-Csekö, Yara M

    2015-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is a serious problem that affects mostly poor countries. Various species of Leishmania are the agents of the disease, which take different clinical manifestations. The parasite is transmitted by sandflies, predominantly from the Phlebotomus genus in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World. During development in the gut, Leishmania must survive various challenges, which include avoiding being expelled with blood remnants after digestion. It is believed that attachment to the gut epithelium is a necessary step for vector infection, and molecules from parasites and sand flies have been implicated in this attachment. In previous work, monoclonal antibodies were produced against Leishmania. Among these an antibody was obtained against Leishmania braziliensis flagella, which blocked the attachment of Leishmania panamensis flagella to Phlebotomus papatasi guts. The protein recognized by this antibody was identified and named FLAG1, and the complete FLAG1 gene sequence was obtained. This protein was later independently identified as a small, myristoylated protein and called SMP1, so from now on it will be denominated FLAG1/SMP1. The FLAG1/SMP1 gene is expressed in all developmental stages of the parasite, but has higher expression in promastigotes. The anti-FLAG1/SMP1 antibody recognized the flagellum of all Leishmania species tested and generated the expected band by western blots. This antibody was used in attachment and infection blocking experiments. Using the New World vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and Leishmania infantum chagasi, no inhibition of attachment ex vivo or infection in vivo was seen. On the other hand, when the Old World vectors P. papatasi and Leishmania major were used, a significant decrease of both attachment and infection were seen in the presence of the antibody. We propose that FLAG1/SMP1 is involved in the attachment/infection of Leishmania in the strict vector P. papatasi and not the permissive vector L. longipalpis.

  17. Leishmaniasis sand fly vector density reduction is less marked in destitute housing after insecticide thermal fogging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide thermal fogging (ITF) is a tool to control vector borne diseases. Insecticide application success for vector control has been associated with housing materials and architecture. Vector abundance is correlated with weather changes. Nevertheless, housing quality and weather impacts on vector abundance have been unaccounted for in most New World insecticide control trials for leishmaniasis vectors. Methods We conducted a 15 month insecticide control trial that included two deltamethrin [6 mg a.i.m-2] based ITF interventions in 12 of 24 monitored houses at Trinidad de Las Minas, a hyperendemic cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission village in western Panamá. During the study we followed sand fly (SF) abundance, keeping track of rainfall and quantified housing quality using an index based on architecture and construction materials. Results We found a 50 to 80% reduction in SF density in the fogged houses when compared with control houses, while controlling for seasonal changes in SF abundance associated with rainfall. We found heterogeneities in the reductions, as abundance changed according to SF species: Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. dysponeta and Lu. triramula reduced in density between 40% and 90% after ITF. In contrast, Lu. trapidoi density increased 5% after ITF. Differences in the impact of ITF were associated with housing quality, the most destitute houses, i.e., those with features that ease insect entrance, had a disproportionally larger SF abundance, in some cases with increased domiciliary SF density following the ITF. Conclusion Our results suggest the potential of insecticide application to control SF density and leishmaniasis transmission could depend on housing quality beyond insecticide efficiency. PMID:23742709

  18. Dietary wheat germ oil and age influences fatty acid compositions in adult oriental fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sterile Insect Technique programs have been developed for management of several tephritid fruit fly pests. These programs are based on continous production of adult fruit flies. The high expense of mass-rearing oriental fruit flies drive research to improve the cost effectiveness of rearing programs...

  19. Molecular detection of the blood meal source of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baum, Maurício; de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Goulart, Thais Marchi; Baura, Walter; Klisiowicz, Débora do Rocio; Vieira da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara

    2015-03-01

    The feeding behavior of sand flies provides valuable information about the vector/host interactions and elucidates the epidemiological patterns of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission. The aim of this study was to identify the blood meal sources of sand flies in endemic areas of leishmaniasis in Paraná State through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a prepronociceptin (PNOC) gene fragment and its subsequent DNA sequencing. Moreover, molecular assays were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and reproducibility of the PNOC gene amplification. Besides that, a time-course digestion test of the blood using sand flies that fed artificially on BALB/c mice was performed. Of 1263 female sand flies collected in the field, 93 (3.6%) specimens were engorged and 27 allowed efficient amplification of the PNOC gene. These flies had fed on equine (Equus caballus), porcine (Sus scrofa) and canine (Canis lupus familiaris) species. The results also showed that the identification of the blood meal sources of the sand flies using the molecular method was directly linked to the level of digestion of the blood (time-course) and not to the amount of blood that had been ingested or to the presence of inhibitors in the blood.

  20. First Evidence of a Hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana DNA Detected from the Phlebotomine Sand Fly Lutzomyia tejadai in Peru.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hirotomo; Cáceres, Abraham G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania was examined in the Department of Huanuco of Peru, where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana is endemic. A total of 2,997 female sand flies were captured by CDC light traps and Shannon traps, of which 2,931 and 66 flies were identified as Lutzomyia tejadai and Lu fischeri, respectively. Using crude DNA extracted from individual sand flies as a template, Leishmania DNA was detected from one Lu. tejadai. The parasite species was identified as a hybrid of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana on the basis of cytochrome b and mannose phosphate isomerase gene analyses. The result suggested that Lu. tejadai is responsible for the transmission of the hybrid Leishmania circulating in this area.

  1. First Evidence of a Hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana DNA Detected from the Phlebotomine Sand Fly Lutzomyia tejadai in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania was examined in the Department of Huanuco of Peru, where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a hybrid of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana is endemic. A total of 2,997 female sand flies were captured by CDC light traps and Shannon traps, of which 2,931 and 66 flies were identified as Lutzomyia tejadai and Lu fischeri, respectively. Using crude DNA extracted from individual sand flies as a template, Leishmania DNA was detected from one Lu. tejadai. The parasite species was identified as a hybrid of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana on the basis of cytochrome b and mannose phosphate isomerase gene analyses. The result suggested that Lu. tejadai is responsible for the transmission of the hybrid Leishmania circulating in this area. PMID:26735142

  2. Susceptibility of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae and adults to four insecticides.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2002-06-01

    Dosage-mortality regressions were determined for black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed cyromazine or pyriproxifen treated media. Cyromazine LC50 for larvae dying before becoming prepupae ranged from 0.25 to 0.28 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 5.79 and 12.04. Cyromazine LC50s for larvae dying before emergence ranged from 0.13 to 0.19 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 3.94 and 7.69. Pyriproxifen dosage-mortality regressions were not generated for larvae failing to become prepupae since <32% mortality was recorded at the highest concentration of 1,857 ppm. LC50s for larvae failing to become adults ranged from 0.10 to 0.12 ppm with dosage mortality-regression slopes between 1.67 and 2.32. Lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin dosage-mortality regressions were determined for wild adult black soldier flies and house flies, Musca domestica L., and for susceptible house flies. Our results indicate that the wild house fly, unlike the black soldier fly, population was highly resistant to each of these pyrethroids. Regression slopes for black soldier flies exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin were twice as steep as those determined for the wild house fly strain. Accordingly, LC50s for the black soldier fly and susceptible house fly were 10- to 30-fold lower than those determined for wild house flies. The differential sensitivity between wild black soldier flies and house flies might be due to behavioral differences. Adult house flies usually remain in animal facilities with the possibility of every adult receiving pesticide exposure, while black soldier fly adults are typically present only during emergence and oviposition thereby limiting their exposure.

  3. Enhanced Protective Efficacy of Nonpathogenic Recombinant Leishmania tarentolae Expressing Cysteine Proteinases Combined with a Sand Fly Salivary Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Tahereh; Taslimi, Yasaman; Doustdari, Fatemeh; Seyed, Negar; Torkashvand, Fatemeh; Meneses, Claudio; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Rafati, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Background Novel vaccination approaches are needed to prevent leishmaniasis. Live attenuated vaccines are the gold standard for protection against intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania and there have been new developments in this field. The nonpathogenic to humans lizard protozoan parasite, Leishmania (L) tarentolae, has been used effectively as a vaccine platform against visceral leishmaniasis in experimental animal models. Correspondingly, pre-exposure to sand fly saliva or immunization with a salivary protein has been shown to protect mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we tested the efficacy of a novel combination of established protective parasite antigens expressed by L. tarentolae together with a sand fly salivary antigen as a vaccine strategy against L. major infection. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of different DNA/Live and Live/Live prime-boost vaccination modalities with live recombinant L. tarentolae stably expressing cysteine proteinases (type I and II, CPA/CPB) and PpSP15, an immunogenic salivary protein from Phlebotomus papatasi, a natural vector of L. major, were tested both in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice. Both humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed before challenge and at 3 and 10 weeks after Leishmania infection. In both strains of mice, the strongest protective effect was observed when priming with PpSP15 DNA and boosting with PpSP15 DNA and live recombinant L. tarentolae stably expressing cysteine proteinase genes. Conclusion/Significance The present study is the first to use a combination of recombinant L. tarentolae with a sand fly salivary antigen (PpSP15) and represents a novel promising vaccination approach against leishmaniasis. PMID:24675711

  4. Seasonal trends and spatial relations between environmental/meteorological factors and leishmaniosis sand fly vector abundances in Central Spain.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, R; Descalzo, M A; Miró, G; Jiménez, M I; Martín, O; Dos Santos-Brandao, F; Guerrero, I; Cubero, E; Molina, R

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on an entomological survey performed over the period 2006-2008 in Central Spain (mainly in the Madrid province) where canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is endemic. The study area was selected on the grounds of its wide altitude range, which determines both broad climate and vegetation ranges that could affect sand fly distributions. This area was surveyed from NE to SW across its mountain range (Sistema Central) and plateau area using sticky traps mainly on embankments. In 2006 and 2007, 123 sites were sampled (9557 sand flies captured) to establish possible relations between environmental or meteorological factors and vector densities (Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus ariasi). The factors correlated with higher vector densities were: a sample site between villages or at the edge of a village, the lack of a paved road, a rural habitat, an east or south-facing wall or wall sheltered from the wind, the presence of livestock or birds, a holm-oak wood vegetation, a lower summer mean temperature and lower annual mean precipitation. This study was followed by a seasonal survey conducted at 16 selected sites (14,353 sand flies) sampled them monthly from May to November 2008. P. perniciosus showed a diphasic seasonal trend with two abundance peaks in July and September whereas P. ariasi showed a monophasic trend with one peak in August. Comparing with data from studies performed in 1991 in the same area, vector densities are significantly higher. A possible explanation for this is that the vectors (mainly P. ariasi) are moving towards higher altitudes perhaps because of global change. This increasing trend could have an impact on CanL and its geographical distribution.

  5. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Michal; Ferencova, Blanka; Warburg, Alon; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species. Methodology/Principal Findings Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera. Conclusions/Significance Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody

  6. Risk zones of human Leishmaniases in the Western Mediterranean basin: correlations between vector sand flies, bioclimatology and phytosociology.

    PubMed

    Rispail, Philippe; Dereure, Jacques; Jarry, Daniel

    2002-06-01

    Correspondence analysis was applied to sand fly sampling in 865 stations from the Western Mediterranean basin. The position of each of 24 species was determined with respect to the bioclimatic belts. Thus, the multidimensional analyses manifest clear correlations between bioclimatic belts and their expression in the area, the phytosociological groupings, and vector species of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases. The transfer of these data to usual maps allows to delimit the geographical distribution of these diseases in the Western Mediterranean basin and contributes to the determination, in a rational manner, of the high risk zones.

  7. Molecular characterization of Leishmania infection in sand flies from Al-madinah Al-munawarah province, western Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Al-Ali, Khalil H; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2013-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by various species of the genus Leishmania. The disease is considered a major health problem in different areas of Saudi Arabia including Al-madinah Al-munawarah province. We aimed to identify Leishmania species isolated from sand fly vectors by molecular analysis. Sand fly sampling was carried out from May 2010 to October 2010 in province of Al-madinah Al-munawarah from four different localities. Female sand flies collected were subjected to DNA extraction followed by molecular analysis using the semi-nested PCR and conventional PCR protocols, respectively, against minicircle kDNA and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1-rDNA). The PCR positive specimens against ITS1-rDNA locus were digested for further confirmation of species identification. A total of 2910 sand flies were collected. Phlebotomus papatasi accounted for 93.8% (1673 males and 1057 females), however, the number of Phlebotomus sergenti was only 180 (109 males and 71 females). Sixty-two out of 250 (23.7%) female P. papatasi tested for Leishmania parasite were positive for Leishmania major using the semi-nested PCR method against kDNA. All of the 62 positive specimens produced a band size 650 bp. A 31% of female P. sergenti were positive against kDNA of Leishmania tropica and produced a 720 bp band. These positive P. sergenti for L. tropica DNA produced ITS1-PCR-RFLP profile showed two bands of ∼200 bp and 57 bp which are specific for L. tropica, confirming the presence of L. tropica in P. sergenti. However, the ITS1-PCR-RFLP profile showed two bands of ∼203 bp and 132 bp which are specific for L. major in P. papatasi. We concluded that, the semi-nested PCR method against kDNA and the ITS1-PCR-RFLP analysis are useful tools for molecular identification of both L. major and L. tropica. A multicenter study is necessary in order to evaluate the extent of the disease and functional analysis of new Leishmania genes.

  8. Temporal distribution and behaviour of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus of the Kani Tribe settlements in the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep; Selvakumar, M; Edwin, B; Kumar, T Dilip

    2015-08-01

    The temporal distribution of sand flies in relation to environmental factors was studied in the Kani tribe settlements located on the southernmost part of the Western Ghats, Kerala, India, between June 2012 and May 2013. This area is known for occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases. Employing hand-held aspirator, light trap and sticky-trap collection methods, a total of 7874 sand fly specimens, comprising 19 species was collected. Sergentomyia baghdadis was predominant species, followed by Phlebotomus argentipes. Sand fly abundance was significantly higher indoors (χ(2)=9241.8; p=0.0001) than outdoors. Mean density of P. argentipes in human dwellings, cattle sheds and outdoors was 7.2±2.9, 27.33±21.1 and 0.64±0.2 females/per man-hour (MHR), respectively. No sand fly species other than P. argentipes was obtained from cattle sheds. Although, sand fly populations were prevalent throughout the year, their abundance fluctuated with seasonal changes. Multiple regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that the increase in precipitation and relative humidity contributed to a significant positive association with the increase in sand fly abundance, while the increase in temperature showed no association. Fully engorged female sand flies tested for blood meal source showed multiple host-blood feeding. Analysis of resting populations of sand flies collected from human shelters indicated that the populations were found maximum on interior walls at 6-8 and >8 ft height, including ceiling during summer (F=83.7, df=6, p=0.001) and at the lower half of the wall at 0 and 0-2 ft height, during monsoon season (F=41.4, df=6, p=0.001). In cooler months, no preference to any height level (F=1.67, df=6, p=0.2) was observed. Proportion of females sand flies with Sella's classification of abdominal stages, namely full-fed, half-gravid and gravid females did not vary significantly (t=1.98, p=0.13827) indoors, confirming their endophilic behaviour. Risk of CL

  9. Diversity of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Azar Shahr District, East Azarbaijan Province, North West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hazratian, Teimour; Vatandoost, Hasan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Fallah, Esmael; Rafizadeh, Sayena; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Shayeghi, Mansoreh; Akbarzadeh, Kameran; Rassi, Yavar

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are nearly 1000 species of Phlebotomine sand flies in 6 genera, of which only two, Phlebotomus in the old world and Lutzomyia in the new world are medically important. Globally, leishmaniasis prevalent in 98 countries and affects estimated 12 million people with almost two million new cases per year. Some rural areas of Azarshahr District in East Azarbaijan Province have been reported to be endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. This study is the first attempt to determine the species diversity and density in a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Azarshahr District, East Azarbaijan Province, Iran. Methods: Sand flies were collected form indoor and outdoor biweekly using sticky traps. Diversity index of the collected sand flies within different villages were estimated by the Shannon-Weaver. Results: The activity of the sand flies extended from April to October with one peak in August. Diversity of sand flies within study area were estimated as 0.917, 1.867, 1.339, 1.673, and 1.562 in Almalodash, Jaragil, Segaiesh, Amirdizaj, and Germezgol Vvillages, respectively. Conclusion: Identifying the diversity and seasonal abundance of the collected species is of importance for prediction of the period of maximum risk for leishmaniasis transmission and for the successful implementation of a control program. Species diversity is one of the most important factors in ecological studies. PMID:27308291

  10. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis in Experimentally Infected Sand Flies by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) of the Pap31 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn; Atkins, Erin H.; Johnson, Richard N.; Grieco, John P.; Ching, Wei Mei; Chao, Chien Chung

    2014-01-01

    Background Carrion' disease, caused by Bartonella bacilliformis, remains truly neglected due to its focal geographical nature. A wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including asymptomatic bacteremia, and lack of a sensitive diagnostic test can potentially lead to a spread of the disease into non-endemic regions where competent sand fly vectors may be present. A reliable test capable of detecting B. bacilliformis is urgently needed. Our objective is to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the pap31 gene to detect B. bacilliformis. Methods and Findings The sensitivity of the LAMP was evaluated in comparison to qPCR using plasmid DNA containing the target gene and genomic DNA in the absence and presence of human or sand fly DNA. The detection limit of LAMP was 1 to 10 copies/µL, depending on the sample metrics. No cross-reaction was observed when testing against a panel of various closely related bacteria. The utility of the LAMP was further compared to qPCR by the examination of 74 Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies artificially fed on blood spiked with B. bacilliformis and harvested at days (D) 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 post feeding. Only 86% of sand flies at D1 and 63% of flies at D3 were positive by qPCR. LAMP was able to detect B. bacilliformis in all those flies confirmed positive by qPCR. However, none of the flies after D3 were positive by either LAMP or qPCR. In addition to demonstrating the sensitivity of the LAMP assay, these results suggest that B. bacilliformis cannot propagate in artificially fed L. longipalpis. Conclusions The LAMP assay is as sensitive as qPCR for the detection of B. bacilliformis and could be useful to support diagnosis of patients in low-resource settings and also to identify B. bacilliformis in the sand fly vector. PMID:25522230

  11. Molecular detection of Leishmania infection in sand flies in border line of Iran-Turkmenistan: restricted and permissive vectors.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, H; Oshaghi, M A; Abai, M R; Rassi, Y; Akhavan, A A; Sheikh, Z; Mohtarami, F; Saidi, Z; Mirzajani, H; Anjomruz, M

    2013-10-01

    A molecular study was carried out to incriminate sand fly vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in rural areas of Sarakhs district, Khorassane-Razavi Province, northeastern Iran, in 2011. Sand flies of Sergentomyia with three species and Phlebotomus with six species respectively comprised 73.3% and 26.7% of the specimens. Phlebotomus papatasi was the most common Phlebotomine species in outdoor and indoor resting places. Leishmania infection was found at least in 17 (22%) specimens including Ph. papatasi (n=9 pool samples), Phlebotomus caucasicus (n=6), Phlebotomus alexandri (n=1), and Sergentomyia sintoni (n=1). The parasites were found comprised Leishmania major (n=5), Leishmania turanica (n=10), and Leishmania gerbilli (n=4). Infection of Ph. papatasi with both L. major and L. turanica supporting the new suggestion indicating that it is not restricted only with L. major. Circulation of L. major by Ph. alexandri, and both L. gerbilli and L. turanica by Ph. caucasicus, in addition to previous data indicating the ability of Ph. alexandri to circulate Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani, and Ph. caucasicus to circulate L. major, suggests that these two species can be permissive vectors. The results suggest that Ph. papatasi and Ph. alexandri are the primary and secondary vectors of CL where circulating L. major between human and reservoirs, whereas Ph. caucasicus is circulating L. turanica and L. gerbilli between the rodents in the region.

  12. Natural breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) on Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, T L; Figueiredo, F B; Almeida, A B; Benigno, C V; Pontes, C S; Souza, M B

    2014-08-01

    Immature phlebotomine sand flies develop in soils with essential and ideal characteristics for their life cycle, such as organic matter, humidity, temperature and low levels of light. Information regarding the potential breeding places of these dipterans is fundamental to understand the epidemiology and ecology of leishmaniasis, in addition to its importance to control them. In the present study, we aimed to find natural breeding sites of sand flies on Marambaia Island with the aid of emergence traps and direct search of immature forms using the flotation technique with saturated sugar solution in organic substrates of the region. Both methods were effective, with a total of 42 specimens of six different species - including some species that participate in the transmission cycle of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis - collected by the emergence traps, and five immature forms obtained by floatation technique. However, further studies are still necessary, mainly with respect to the ecology and biology of immature sandfly stages, so that control measures focused on breeding sites can produce positive sustainable results in natural environments.

  13. SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LEISHMANIASIS IN AQUIDAUANA MUNICIPALITY, PANTANAL OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL , BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Helen Rezende de; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Infran, Jucelei Oliveira de Moura; Ribeiro, Leticia Moraes; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico Dos Santos; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de

    2016-12-08

    The Aquidauana municipality is considered an endemic area of leishmaniasis and an important tourist site in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The aim of this study was to investigate the sand fly fauna in the city of Aquidauana. Captures were carried out twice a month, from April 2012 to March 2014 with automatic light traps and active aspiration, in the peridomicile and domicile of six residences. A total of 9,338 specimens were collected, 3,179 and 6,159 using light traps and active aspiration, respectively. The fauna consisted of: Brumptomyia brumpti, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Ev. evandroi, Ev. lenti, Ev. orcyi, Ev. sallesi, Ev. termitophila, Ev. walkeri, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Psathyromyia bigeniculata. The most abundant species captured was Lutzomyia longipalpis, present in all the ecotopes, predominantly in peridomicile areas, and mainly males. Leishmania DNA was not detected in the insects. It was observed the abundance of the sand fly fauna in the region, as well as the high frequency of Lu. longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum. The results of this study show the need to increase the monitoring and more effective control measures. It is noteworthy that the studied region presents several activities related to tourism and recreation, increasing the risk of transmission of leishmaniasis to this particular human population.

  14. Species composition of phlebotomine sand fly fauna in an area with sporadic cases of Leishmania infantum human visceral leishmaniasis, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Ouanaimi, Fouad; Boumezzough, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniases are the main endemic vector-born diseases in Morocco. Human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL), by Leishmania infantum, currently presents a significant health problem throughout the country and may constitute factor for death, especially among children with less than 15 years old. In the past, HVL has been basically absent or at least sporadic in Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz region; however it became significant during the last decade. An entomological survey and a retrospective study on L. infantum HVL cases had been carried out to assess the risk of the disease apparition in this region. 7046 sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were collected and studied from twelve localities within Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz region. The result shows the presence of ten sand fly species, 58.76% from the genus Phlebotomus and 41.24% from genus Sergentomyia. A further analysis indicates that Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus longicuspis and Phlebotomus ariasi species, incriminated vectors of L. infantum, are dominant (35.56%), so, we describe their spatial (according to altitude and biotopes) and temporal (seasonal activity) distribution in study area.

  15. SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LEISHMANIASIS IN AQUIDAUANA MUNICIPALITY, PANTANAL OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL , BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de FIGUEIREDO, Helen Rezende; SANTOS, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; CASARIL, Aline Etelvina; INFRAN, Jucelei Oliveira de Moura; RIBEIRO, Leticia Moraes; FERNANDES, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; de OLIVEIRA, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Aquidauana municipality is considered an endemic area of leishmaniasis and an important tourist site in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The aim of this study was to investigate the sand fly fauna in the city of Aquidauana. Captures were carried out twice a month, from April 2012 to March 2014 with automatic light traps and active aspiration, in the peridomicile and domicile of six residences. A total of 9,338 specimens were collected, 3,179 and 6,159 using light traps and active aspiration, respectively. The fauna consisted of: Brumptomyia brumpti, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Ev. evandroi, Ev. lenti, Ev. orcyi, Ev. sallesi, Ev. termitophila, Ev. walkeri, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Psathyromyia bigeniculata. The most abundant species captured was Lutzomyia longipalpis, present in all the ecotopes, predominantly in peridomicile areas, and mainly males. Leishmania DNA was not detected in the insects. It was observed the abundance of the sand fly fauna in the region, as well as the high frequency of Lu. longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum. The results of this study show the need to increase the monitoring and more effective control measures. It is noteworthy that the studied region presents several activities related to tourism and recreation, increasing the risk of transmission of leishmaniasis to this particular human population. PMID:27982353

  16. Non-sand fly transmission of a North American isolate of Leishmania infantum in experimentally infected BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Lindsay, David S

    2005-10-01

    Leishmania infantum, an etiologic agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, is endemic in the foxhound population in the United States and Canada. Leishmaniasis is usually transmitted by blood-feeding sand flies; however, epidemiological data do not support a significant role for sand flies in the maintenance of foxhound infections in North America, and an alternate mode of transmission may exist. The present study was conducted to determine if transplacental or direct transmission occurs in pregnant BALB/c mice experimentally infected with L. infantum isolated from a naturally infected foxhound from Virginia as well as to determine if the parasite was directly transmitted to the males used to breed the mice. Female BALB/c mice were intravenously inoculated with 1 x 10(6) promastigotes of the LIVT-1 strain of L. infantum. Mice were bred to uninfected male BALB/c mice 2 mo postinoculation. Pregnant mice were killed between days 13 and 18 of gestation. Pups and placentas were collected at necropsy, divided, and used for parasite culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. Culture and PCR analyses were performed on spleens from the male mice to determine the possibility of sexual transmission. Leishmania sp. DNA was detected in 4 of 88 pups and 3 of 16 placentas from LIVT-1-inoculated mice. One male mouse used to breed infected females was PCR positive. This work provides evidence for a low level of nonvector transmission of North American L. infantum in a mouse model.

  17. MOLECULAR DETECTION OF Leishmania IN PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES IN A CUTANEOUS AND VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS ENDEMIC AREA IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Costa, Pietra Lemos; da Silva, Fernando José; de Melo, Fábio Lopes; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique Gomes; Brandão, Sinval Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Several phlebotomine sand fly species have been regarded as putative or proven vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania in Brazil, but data for the northeastern region remains incipient. In this study, a total of 600 phlebotomine sand flies were grouped in pools of 10 specimens each and tested by a Leishmania genus-specific PCR and by a PCR targeting Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Fourteen out of 60 pools were positive by the genus-specific PCR, being five pools of L. migonei, seven of L. complexa, one of L. sordellii and one of L. naftalekatzi, which correspond to a minimal infection rate of 2.3% (14/600). Our results, associated with their known anthropophily and their abundance, suggest the participation of L. migonei and L. complexa as vectors of Leishmania in northeastern Brazil. Remarkably, this is the first time in this country that the detection of Leishmania DNA in L. sordellii and L. naftalekatzi has been reported, but future studies are necessary to better understand the significance of these findings. PMID:25076439

  18. High stenghth concrete with high cement substitution by adding fly ash, CaCO3, silica sand, and superplasticizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicaksono, Muchammad Ridho Sigit; Qoly, Amelia; Hidayah, Annisaul; Pangestuti, Endah Kanti

    2017-03-01

    Concrete is a mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water with or without additives. Concrete can be made with substitution of cement with materials like Fly Ash, CaCO3 and silica sand that can increase the binding on pasta and also increase the compressive strength of concrete. The Superplasticizer on a mixture is used to reduce the high water content, improve concrete durability, low permeability concrete by making it more resilient, and improve the quality of concrete. The combination between Fly Ash (30% of cement required), CaCO3 (10% of cement required) and silica sand (5% of cement required) with added MasterGlenium ACE 8595 as much as 1,2% from total cement will produces compressive strength of up to 1080 kN/cm2 or 73,34 Mpa when the concrete is aged at 28 day. By using this technique and innovation, it proves that the cost reduction is calculated at 27%, which is much more efficient. While the strength of the concrete is increased at 5% compared with normal mixture.

  19. Chicken blood provides a suitable meal for the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis and does not inhibit Leishmania development in the gut

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to address the role of chickens as bloodmeal sources for female Lutzomyia longipalpis and to test whether chicken blood is harmful to Leishmania parasite development within the sand flies. Bloodmeal ingestion, excretion of urate, reproduction, fecundity, as well as Leishmania infection and development were compared in sand flies fed on blood from chickens and different mammalian sources. Results Large differences in haemoglobin and protein concentrations in whole blood (dog>human>rabbit> chicken) did not correlate with differences in bloodmeal protein concentrations (dog = chicken>human>rabbit). This indicated that Lu. longipalpis were able to concentrate bloodmeals taken from different hosts using prediuresis and this was confirmed by direct observation. Sand flies fed on chickens or dogs produced significantly more eggs than those fed on human blood. Female Lu. longipalpis retained significantly more urate inside their bodies when fed on chicken blood compared to those fed on rabbit blood. However, when the amounts of urate excreted after feeding were measured, sand flies fed on rabbit blood excreted significantly more than those fed on chicken blood. There was no difference in female longevity after feeding on avian or mammalian blood. Sand flies infected via chicken blood produced Leishmania mexicana infections with a similar developmental pattern but higher overall parasite populations than sand flies infected via rabbit blood. Conclusions The results of this study help to define the role that chickens play in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. The present study using a Lu. longipalpis/L. mexicana model indicates that chickens are suitable hosts to support a Lu. longipalpis population and that chicken blood is likely to support the development of transmissible Leishmania infections in Lu. longipalpis. PMID:20205803

  20. Evaluation of a Metofluthrin Fan Vaporizer Device Against Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus in the Judean Desert, Israel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    sand flies was collected, with male flies representing 98.3% Phlebotomus sergenti and 1.7% P. papatasi. Females comprised 43.0% of the total catch...traps baited with CO2, higher numbers of P. sergenti males and blood-fed females were collected in traps with a blank device compared to traps with a...collected, with male flies representing 98.3% Phlebotomus sergenti and 1.7% P. papatasi. Females comprised 43.0% of the total catch and included 6.7% blood

  1. Entomological studies of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in relation to cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission in Al Rabta, North West of Libya.

    PubMed

    Dokhan, Mostafa Ramahdan; Kenawy, Mohamed Amin; Doha, Said Abdallah; El-Hosary, Shabaan Said; Shaibi, Taher; Annajar, Badereddin Bashir

    2016-02-01

    Al Rabta in the North-West of Libya is a rural area where cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic for long time. Few reports are available on sand flies in this area which is an important focus of CL. Therefore, this study aimed at updating the species composition, and monthly fluctuation of sand flies in this area. Sand flies were biweekly collected by CDC light traps from June to November 2012 and April to November 2013 in two villages, Al Rabta East (RE) and Al Rabta West (RW). Nine species (6 Phlebotomus and 3 Sergentomyia) were reported in the two villages. A total of 5605 and 5446 flies were collected of which Phlebotomus represented 59.30 and 56.63% in RE and RW, respectively. Sergentomyia minuta and Phlebotomus papatasi were the abundant species. Generally, more males were collected than females for all species. The overall ratios (males: females) for most of species were not deviated from the expected 1:1 ratio (Chi-squared, P>0.05). Sand fly abundance (fly/trap) is directly related to the temperature and RH (P<0. 01) while it inversely related to wind velocity (P>0.05). Flies were active from April to November with increased activity from June to October. Prominent peaks were in September and June. The abundance of P. papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti, vectors of CL (August-October) coincided with the reported higher numbers of CL cases (August- November). The obtained results could be important for the successful planning and implementation of leishmaniasis control programs.

  2. The Potential Use of Forensic DNA Methods Applied to Sand Fly Blood Meal Analysis to Identify the Infection Reservoirs of Anthroponotic Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Inbar, Ehud; Lawyer, Philip; Sacks, David; Podini, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Indian sub-continent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala azar, is a fatal form of leishmaniasis caused by the kinetoplastid parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. VL is prevalent in northeast India where it is believed to have an exclusive anthroponotic transmission cycle. There are four distinct cohorts of L. donovani exposed individuals who can potentially serve as infection reservoirs: patients with active disease, cured VL cases, patients with post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), and asymptomatic individuals. The relative contribution of each group to sustaining the transmission cycle of VL is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings To answer this critical epidemiological question, we have addressed the feasibility of an approach that would use forensic DNA methods to recover human DNA profiles from the blood meals of infected sand flies that would then be matched to reference DNA sampled from individuals living or working in the vicinity of the sand fly collections. We found that the ability to obtain readable human DNA fingerprints from sand flies depended entirely on the size of the blood meal and the kinetics of its digestion. Useable profiles were obtained from most flies within the first 24 hours post blood meal (PBM), with a sharp decline at 48 hours and no readable profiles at 72 hours. This early time frame necessitated development of a sensitive, nested-PCR method compatible with detecting L. donovani within a fresh, 24 hours blood meal in flies fed on infected hamsters. Conclusion/Significance Our findings establish the feasibility of the forensic DNA method to directly trace the human source of an infected blood meal, with constraints imposed by the requirement that the flies be recovered for analysis within 24 hours of their infective feed. PMID:27192489

  3. Activating neurons by light in free-moving adult flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming-Chin; Hsiao, Po-Yen; Chu, Li-An; Lin, Yen-Yin; Fu, Chien-Chung; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation, we show our preliminary results which is related to neurons activation in vivo by laser. A laser scanning system was adopted to guide laser beam to an assigned fly and an assigned position. A 473-nm laser can be a heat punishment source to restrain a wild-type fly's moving area. Furthermore, neurons in optogenetics transgene flies can be triggered by the blue laser in this system.

  4. Efficacy of Commercial Mosquito Traps in Capturing Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    baited trap, carbondioxide ,BG-Sentinel trap,MosquitoMagnetPro trap,Phlebotomus papatasi Disease-carrying phlebotomine sand ßies cause an es- timated... strip supplied with the trap was not used because octenol has not been shown to be attractive to P. papatasi in Egypt (Beavers et al. 2004). The MCU trap

  5. Description of Lutzomyia velezi, a new species of phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Department of Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Vivero, Rafael José; Uribe, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia velezi sp.nov. was described and illustrated from male specimens collected by light trap in the Reserva Natural Cañon del Río Claro in the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The new species belongs to the series sanguinaria of the subgenus Helcocyrtomyia, which is represented in Colombia by Lutzomyia cirrita, Lutzomyia hartmanni, Lutzomyia sanguinaria, Lutzomyia scorzai, Lutzomyia sp. of Pichindé and Lutzomyia tortura. The new species can be differentiated from others of the subgenus by the combination of the following characteristics: long antennal ascoids, reaching level of the papilla, coxite with a single basal seta and fifth palpomere longer than or equal to the sum of the lengths of the third and fourth palpomeres.

  6. [An updated checklist of Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from the Colombian Andean coffee-growing region].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Gutiérrez, María Angélica; Vélez, Iván Darío; Porter, Charles; Uribe, Sandra Inés

    2014-01-01

    An updated list of phlebotomine sand flies species in coffee growing areas in the Colombian Andean region is presented. Fifty three species were reported from 12 departments. In addition, species distribution in the region was derived from specimens obtained during intensive field work in five departments, from previously published studies and from the taxonomic revision of specimens in the entomological collection of the Programa de Estudio y Control de Enfermedades Tropicales (PECET). The list includes the genera Brumptomyia (2 species), Lutzomyia (50 species) and Warileya (1 species). The updated list contains eleven new records in the region under study, including Lutzomyia panamensis , a species of medical importance not recorded previously in this zone. Eighteen of the species are considered to be anthropophilic, and many of them have been implicated in the transmission of leishmaniasis.

  7. Seasonal dynamics and altitudinal distributions of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) populations in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Cukurova region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Belen, Aslı; Alten, Bülent

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an entomological survey in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Cukurova region of Turkey. A total of 8,927 specimens belonging to eight Phlebotomus and two Sergentomyia species were captured with sticky papers and CDC light traps from 52 stations. Phlebotomus tobbi Adler, was found to be the most abundant species. Sand fly activity started in May and ended in October. Abundance was highest in August. According to the frequency distributions among certain temperature intervals the observed number of individuals was significantly different from the expected values between 22-24° C and 28-30° C. There was no significant correlation between the abundance of sand flies and altitude. However, sand fly species showed great aggregation at the 100-199 m and 200-299 m altitude intervals. The Shannon-Weinner index indicated no difference between the diversity and abundance of sand flies at different altitudes. Diversity and evenness reached maximum values at 500 m. Jaccard's coefficient indicated that similarity was the highest between 0-99 and 300-399, 0-99 and 500-599 and 100-199 and 200-299 m and lowest between 100-199 and 300-399 and 100-199 and 500-599 m.

  8. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the municipality of Várzea Grande: an area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Missawa, Nanci Akemi; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2007-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been naturally transmitted in periurban areas due to the emergence and reemergence of its vectors in such areas. Aimed to further knowledge on ecological aspects affecting the occurrence of phlebotomine sand flies in VL transmission areas in the municipality of Várzea Grande, state of Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil, sand fly captures were carried out. Monthly collections of sand flies were undertaken with CDC light-traps, which were left in both intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary areas of ten residences during four consecutive days between January 2004 and June 2006. Twenty-two species of genus Lutzomyia and one of Brumptomyia were captured. The most abundant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (65.23%), followed by L. evandroi (16.26%), L. lenti (7.69%), L. whitmani (4.92%), L. sallesi (2.34%) and L. termitophila (1.32%). The highest density of the main VL vector, L. longipalpis, was found in peridomiciliary areas, mostly males. No significant correlation was found between environment (temperature, air relative humidity and rain fall) and phlebotomine density; although a slight increase in sand fly density has been observed in the period following rainfalls, particularly L. longipalpis. No correlation was observed between distribution and density of L. longipalpis, prevalence of human VL cases and the presence of serologically positive dogs. The presence of infected dogs, increased vector density, susceptibility rate and interruption of epidemiological surveillance may raise the risk of VL transmission to man in Várzea Grande.

  9. Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species composition, activity patterns and blood meal analysis of sand fly populations were investigated in the metropolitan region of Thessaloniki, North Greece from May to October 2011. Sampling was conducted weekly in 3 different environments (animal facilities, open fields, residential areas) al...

  10. Efficacy and duration of three residual insecticides on cotton duck and vinyl tent surfaces for control of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many military tents are made of vinyl and cotton duck. Because it is useful to treat exterior tent surfaces to manage phlebotomine sand flies, DoD and ARS scientists evaluated the efficacy of 3 residual insecticides on both tent fabrics. P. papatasi was effectively killed by shade-stored and sun-exp...

  11. Spatial distribution of sand fly species (Psychodidae: Phlebtominae), ecological niche, and climatic regionalization in zoonotic foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis, southwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Sahar; Bordbar, Ali; Rastaghi, Ahmad R Esmaeili; Parvizi, Parviz

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a complex vector-borne disease caused by Leishmania parasites that are transmitted by the bite of several species of infected female phlebotomine sand flies. Monthly factor analysis of climatic variables indicated fundamental variables. Principal component-based regionalization was used for recognition of climatic zones using a clustering integrated method that identified five climatic zones based on factor analysis. To investigate spatial distribution of the sand fly species, the kriging method was used as an advanced geostatistical procedure in the ArcGIS modeling system that is beneficial to design measurement plans and to predict the transmission cycle in various regions of Khuzestan province, southwest of Iran. However, more than an 80% probability of P. papatasi was observed in rainy and temperate bio-climatic zones with a high potential of CL transmission. Finding P. sergenti revealed the probability of transmission and distribution patterns of a non-native vector of CL in related zones. These findings could be used as models indicating climatic zones and environmental variables connected to sand fly presence and vector distribution. Furthermore, this information is appropriate for future research efforts into the ecology of Phlebotomine sand flies and for the prevention of CL vector transmission as a public health priority.

  12. Impact of phlebotomine sand flies on U.S. Military operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 1. background, military situation, and development of a "Leishmaniasis Control Program".

    PubMed

    Coleman, Russell E; Burkett, Douglas A; Putnam, John L; Sherwood, Van; Caci, Jennifer B; Jennings, Barton T; Hochberg, Lisa P; Spradling, Sharon L; Rowton, Edgar D; Blount, Keith; Ploch, John; Hopkins, Grady; Raymond, Jo-Lynne W; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Weina, Peter J

    2006-07-01

    One of the most significant modern day efforts to prevent and control an arthropod-borne disease during a military deployment occurred when a team of U.S. military entomologists led efforts to characterize, prevent, and control leishmaniasis at Tallil Air Base (TAB), Iraq, during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Soon after arriving at TAB on 22 March 2003, military entomologists determined that 1) high numbers of sand flies were present at TAB, 2) individual soldiers were receiving many sand fly bites in a single night, and 3) Leishmania parasites were present in 1.5% of the female sand flies as determined using a real-time (fluorogenic) Leishmania-generic polymerase chain reaction assay. The rapid determination that leishmaniasis was a specific threat in this area allowed for the establishment of a comprehensive Leishmaniasis Control Program (LCP) over 5 mo before the first case of leishmaniasis was confirmed in a U.S. soldier deployed to Iraq. The LCP had four components: 1) risk assessment, 2) enhancement of use of personal protective measures by all personnel at TAB, 3) vector and reservoir control, and 4) education of military personnel about sand flies and leishmaniasis. The establishment of the LCP at TAB before the onset of any human disease conclusively demonstrated that entomologists can play a critical role during military deployments.

  13. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL LURES AND TRAP PLACMENT ON SAND FLY AND MOSQUITO COLLECTIONS WITH MMX TRAPS IN BAHRIF VILLAGE, ASWAN, EGYPT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phlebotomine sand flies, especially Phlebotomus papatasi, in the Middle East are responsible for transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis to humans. Accurate surveillance of these disease vectors is therefore essential to evaluate local populations of these pests for calculating disease risk in a lo...

  14. Natural Leishmania (Viannia) spp. infections in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon region reveal new putative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Jennings, Yara Lúcia Lins; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Barata, Iorlando da Rocha; Silva, Maria das Graças Soares; Lima, José Aprígio Nunes; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In Amazonian Brazil the etiological agents of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) belong to at least seven Leishmania species but little is known about the putative phlebotomine sand fly vectors in different biomes. In 2002–2003 a survey of the phlebotomine fauna was undertaken in the “Floresta Nacional do Tapajós”, Belterra municipality, in the lower Amazon region, western Pará State, Brazil, where we recently confirmed the presence of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis × L. (V.) shawi shawi. Sand flies were collected from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, Shannon traps and by aspiration on tree bases. Females were dissected and attempts to isolate any flagellate infections were made by inoculating homogenized midguts into Difco B45 medium. Isolates were characterized by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzyme electrophoresis. A total of 9,704 sand flies, belonging to 68 species or subspecies, were collected. Infections were found in the following sand flies: L. (V.) naiffi with Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus (1) and Ps. davisi (2); and L. (V.) shawi shawi with Nyssomyia whitmani (3) and Lutzomyia gomezi (1). These results provide strong evidence of new putative transmission cycles for L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) s. shawi. PMID:27235194

  15. First Detection of Leishmania tropica DNA and Trypanosoma Species in Sergentomyia Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from an Outbreak Area of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O.; Kato, Hirotomo; Puplampu, Naiki; Desewu, Kwame; Odoom, Shirley; Wilson, Michael D.; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken; Boakye, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Leishmania major and an uncharacterized species have been reported from human patients in a cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) outbreak area in Ghana. Reports from the area indicate the presence of anthropophilic Sergentomyia species that were found with Leishmania DNA. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA positive sand fly pools by PCR-RFLP and ITS1 gene sequencing. The trypanosome was determined using the SSU rRNA gene sequence. We observed DNA of L. major, L. tropica and Trypanosoma species to be associated with the sand fly infections. This study provides the first detection of L. tropica DNA and Trypanosoma species as well as the confirmation of L. major DNA within Sergentomyia sand flies in Ghana and suggests that S. ingrami and S. hamoni are possible vectors of CL in the study area. Conclusions/Significance The detection of L. tropica DNA in this CL focus is a novel finding in Ghana as well as West Africa. In addition, the unexpected infection of Trypanosoma DNA within S. africana africana indicates that more attention is necessary when identifying parasitic organisms by PCR within sand fly vectors in Ghana and other areas where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:24516676

  16. Blood-meal identification in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Valle Hermoso, a high prevalence zone for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Anaguano, David F; Ponce, Patricio; Baldeón, Manuel E; Santander, Stephanie; Cevallos, Varsovia

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia. In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in the majority of countries. There are no previous reports of phlebotomine sand fly host feeding sources in Ecuador. We identified blood meal sources for phlebotomine sand fly species in Valle Hermoso, a hyper endemic area for leishmaniasis in Ecuador. Phlebotomine sand fly collections were carried out during the dry and rainy seasons. PCR and multiplex PCR were performed from DNA extracted from the abdomens of blood-fed females to specifically identify the avian and mammalian blood meal sources. Avian-blood (77%), mammalian-blood (16%) and mixed avian-mammalian blood (7%) were found in the samples. At the species level, blood from chickens (35.5%), humans (2.8%), cows (2.8%) and dogs (1.9%) was specifically detected. Nyssomyia trapidoi was the most common species of Lutzomyia found that fed on birds. The present results may aid the development of effective strategies to control leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

  17. Seasonality of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Leishmania DNA detection in vector species in an area with endemic visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; de Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Rugani, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade, José Dilermando

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population. METHODS The sampling was carried out using automatic HP light traps at all covered areas of the Venda Nova SD, in a total of eighteen light traps. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A simple environmental description was done for it area and Kernel estimation was used to infer vector density for each study site. FINDINGS A total of 2,427 sand fly specimens belonging to eight species and five genera were collected of which 95.3% were Lutzomyia longipalpis. The seasonal variation curve was delineated by this species. Lu. longipalpis was the most abundant at all collection points and in all months of the study, and exhibited a natural infection rate of 1.01% for Leishmania infantum and 1.77% for Leishmania braziliensis. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The results show the presence and adaptation of Lu. longipalpis to the anthropic environment of BH and reinforces its role as the main vector of L. infantum in the region. PMID:28327794

  18. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Sand Fly Fluctuations Are Associated with El Niño in Panamá

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Calzada, José E.; Valderrama, Anayansí; Saldaña, Azael

    2014-01-01

    Background Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical vector-borne disease. Sand fly vectors (SF) and Leishmania spp parasites are sensitive to changes in weather conditions, rendering disease transmission susceptible to changes in local and global scale climatic patterns. Nevertheless, it is unclear how SF abundance is impacted by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and how these changes might relate to changes in CL transmission. Methodology and Findings We studied association patterns between monthly time series, from January 2000 to December 2010, of: CL cases, rainfall and temperature from Panamá, and an ENSO index. We employed autoregressive models and cross wavelet coherence, to quantify the seasonal and interannual impact of local climate and ENSO on CL dynamics. We employed Poisson Rate Generalized Linear Mixed Models to study SF abundance patterns across ENSO phases, seasons and eco-epidemiological settings, employing records from 640 night-trap sampling collections spanning 2000–2011. We found that ENSO, rainfall and temperature were associated with CL cycles at interannual scales, while seasonal patterns were mainly associated with rainfall and temperature. Sand fly (SF) vector abundance, on average, decreased during the hot and cold ENSO phases, when compared with the normal ENSO phase, yet variability in vector abundance was largest during the cold ENSO phase. Our results showed a three month lagged association between SF vector abundance and CL cases. Conclusion Association patterns of CL with ENSO and local climatic factors in Panamá indicate that interannual CL cycles might be driven by ENSO, while the CL seasonality was mainly associated with temperature and rainfall variability. CL cases and SF abundance were associated in a fashion suggesting that sudden extraordinary changes in vector abundance might increase the potential for CL epidemic outbreaks, given that CL epidemics occur during the cold ENSO phase, a time when SF

  19. Evidence for anthropophily in five species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from northern Colombia, revealed by molecular identification of bloodmeals.

    PubMed

    Paternina, Luís E; Verbel-Vergara, Daniel; Romero-Ricardo, Luís; Pérez-Doria, Alveiro; Paternina-Gómez, Margaret; Martínez, Lily; Bejarano, Eduar E

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the bloodmeal sources of phlebotomine sand flies is fundamental to determining which species are anthropophilic and understanding the transmission of Leishmania parasites in natural epidemiological settings. The objective of this study was to identify sand fly bloodmeals in the mixed leishmaniasis focus of the department of Sucre, northern Colombia. In all 141 engorged female sand flies were analyzed, after being captured in intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary habitats with Shannon and CDC traps and by active searching in diurnal resting sites. Bloodmeals were identified by sequencing and analysis of a 358bp fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome b (CYB) and a 330bp fragment of the nuclear gene prepronociceptin (PNOC). Using both genes 105 vertebrate bloodmeals were identified, with an efficiency of 72% for CYB but only 7% for PNOC. Ten species of vertebrates were identified as providing bloodmeal sources for 8 sand fly species: Homo sapiens (Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia micropyga, Lutzomyia shannoni and Lutzomyia atroclavata), Equus caballus (L. evansi, L. panamensis and Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis), Equus asinus (L. evansi and L. panamensis), Bos taurus (L. evansi, L. panamensis and L. c. cayennensis), Tamandua mexicana (L. shannoni and Lutzomyia trinidadensis), Proechimys guyanensis (L. evansi, L. panamensis and L. c. cayennensis), Mabuya sp. (Lutzomyia micropyga), Anolissp. (L. micropyga), Sus scrofa (L. evansi and Lutzomyia gomezi) and Gallus gallus (L. evansi). Cattle, donkeys, humans and pigs were significantly more important than other animals (P=0.0001) as hosts of L. evansi, this being the most abundant sand fly species. The five Lutzomyia species in which blood samples of human origin were detected included L. micropyga and L. atroclavata, constituting the first evidence of anthropophily in both species.

  20. Molecular Detection of Leishmania DNA in Wild-Caught Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From a Cave in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, G M L; Brazil, R P; Rêgo, F D; Ramos, M C N F; Zenóbio, A P L A; Andrade Filho, J D

    2017-01-01

    Leishmania spp. are distributed throughout the world, and different species are associated with varying degrees of disease severity. In Brazil, Leishmania transmission involves several species of phlebotomine sand flies that are closely associated with different parasites and reservoirs, and thereby giving rise to different transmission cycles. Infection occurs during the bloodmeals of sand flies obtained from a variety of wild and domestic animals, and sometimes from humans. The present study focused on detection of Leishmania DNA in phlebotomine sand flies from a cave in the state of Minas Gerais. Detection of Leishmania in female sand flies was performed with ITS1 PCR-RFLP (internal transcribed spacer 1) using HaeIII enzyme and genetic sequencing for SSUrRNA target. The survey of Leishmania DNA was carried out on 232 pools and the parasite DNA was detected in four: one pool of Lutzomyia cavernicola (Costa Lima, 1932), infected with Le. infantum (ITS1 PCR-RFLP), two pools of Evandromyia sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho, 1939), both infected with Leishmania braziliensis complex (SSUrRNA genetic sequencing analysis), and one pool of Sciopemyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte, 1927), infected with subgenus Leishmania (SSUrRNA genetic sequencing analysis). The present study identified the species for Leishmania DNA detected in four pools of sand flies, all of which were captured inside the cave. These results represent the first molecular detection of Lu cavernicola with Le infantum DNA, Sc sordellii with subgenus Leishmania DNA, and Ev sallesi with Leishmania braziliensis complex DNA. The infection rate in females captured for this study was 0.17%.

  1. Parasite load in the blood and skin of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum is correlated with their capacity to infect sand fly vectors.

    PubMed

    Borja, Lairton Souza; Sousa, Orlando Marcos Farias de; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Bordoni, Marcelo; Magalhães, Jairo Torres; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2016-10-15

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is primarily responsible for the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the New World, and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of this disease. In order to improve the efficacy of control measures, it is essential to assess the transmission capacity of Leishmania infantum to the sand fly vector by naturally infected dogs. The present study investigated the existence of correlations between canine clinical presentation and the intensity of parasite load in the blood, skin and spleen of naturally infected dogs. In addition, we also attempted to establish correlations between the intensity of parasite load in canine tissue and the parasite load detected in sandflies five days after feeding on naturally infected dogs. A total of 23 dogs were examined and classified according to clinical manifestation of canine VL. Blood samples, splenic aspirate and skin biopsies were collected and parasite DNA was quantified by qPCR. Canine capacity to infect Lu. longipalpis with parasites was evaluated by xenodiagnosis and parasite loads were measured five days after feeding. No significant differences were observed with respect to canine clinical manifestation and the parasite loads detected in the blood, skin and spleen samples obtained from naturally infected dogs. Regardless of clinical canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) presentation and the degree of parasite burden, almost half of the dogs successfully infected sandflies with parasites, albeit to a low number of sandflies with correspondingly low parasite loads. Parasite loads in both canine blood and skin were shown to be positively correlated with the canine infectiousness to the sand fly vector, and positive correlations were also observed with respect to these tissues and the sand fly infection rate, as well as the parasite load detected in sandflies following xenodiagnosis. In conclusion, this indicates that parasite loads in both blood and skin can function as

  2. Molecular Detection of Leishmania in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) Collected in the Caititu Indigenous Reserve of the Municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, T R R; Assis, M D G; Freire, M P; Rego, F D; Gontijo, C M F; Shimabukuro, P H F

    2014-11-01

    Phlebotominae sand flies are of medical importance because they are vectors of human pathogens, such as protozoa of the genus Leishmania Ross, etiological agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). In Lábrea, a municipality in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, ACL is primarily associated with subsistence activities, such as collection and extraction of forest products, undertaken by both indigenous and nonindigenous people. Data on ACL in indigenous populations are scarce, such that there is little information on the identity of the etiologic agent(s), reservoir host(s) and insect vector(s). The aim of this work was to study the sand fly fauna collected during an 8-d surveillance of different habitats in the Indigenous Reserve Caititu, Lábrea. In total, 1,267 sand flies were collected in different habitats for eight consecutive days, of which 819 (64.6%) were females and 448 (35.4%) males, from 10 genera and 32 species. The most abundant genera were Psychodopygus (34.3%), Trichophoromyia (22.9%), and Nyssomyia (15.3%). The most abundant species were Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira) (n = 235, 18.5%), Psychodopygus davisi (Root) (n = 228, 18.0%) and Nyssomyia antunesi (Coutinho) (n = 135, 10.7%). Direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products demonstrated the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in the following species of sand flies: Evandromyia apurinan (Shimabukuro, Silveira, & Silva), Nyssomyia umbratilis (Ward & Fraiha), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (Young & Porter), Ps. davisi, Sciopemyia servulolimai (Damasceno & Causey), and Th. ubiquitalis. The presence of natural infection by Leishmania detected in the sand fly species investigated in this study suggests their possible role in the transmission cycle of ACL in the studied area.

  3. Dose-dependent fate of GFP-E. coli in the alimentary canal of adult house flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult house flies (Diptera: Muscidae; Musca domestica L.) disseminate bacteria from microbe-rich substrates to areas where humans and domesticated animals reside. Because bacterial abundance fluctuates widely across substrates, flies encounter and ingest varying amounts of bacteria. We investigated ...

  4. A phylogenetic lineage of closely related trypanosomes (Trypanosomatidae, Kinetoplastida) of anurans and sand flies (Psychodidae, Diptera) sharing the same ecotopes in brazilian amazonia.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Robson C; De Souza, Adelson A; Freitas, Rui A; Campaner, Marta; Takata, Carmem S A; Barrett, Toby V; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among trypanosomes from vertebrates and invertebrates disclosed a new lineage of trypanosomes circulating among anurans and sand flies that share the same ecotopes in Brazilian Amazonia. This assemblage of closely related trypanosomes was determined by comparing whole SSU rDNA sequences of anuran trypanosomes from the Brazilian biomes of Amazonia, the Pantanal, and the Atlantic Forest and from Europe, North America, and Africa, and from trypanosomes of sand flies from Amazonia. Phylogenetic trees based on maximum likelihood and parsimony corroborated the positioning of all new anuran trypanosomes in the aquatic clade but did not support the monophyly of anuran trypanosomes. However, all analyses always supported four major clades (An01-04) of anuran trypanosomes. Clade An04 is composed of trypanosomes from exotic anurans. Isolates in clades An01 and An02 were from Brazilian frogs and toads captured in the three biomes studied, Amazonia, the Pantanal and the Atlantic Forest. Clade An01 contains mostly isolates from Hylidae whereas clade An02 comprises mostly isolates from Bufonidae; and clade An03 contains trypanosomes from sand flies and anurans of Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae, and Leiuperidae exclusively from Amazonia. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing morphological and growth features, and molecular phylogenetic affiliation of trypanosomes from anurans and phlebotomines, incriminating these flies as invertebrate hosts and probably also as important vectors of Amazonian terrestrial anuran trypanosomes.

  5. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  6. Studies on the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in high-transmission areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Republic of Suriname

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are the vectors of Leishmania parasites, the causative agents of leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an increasing public health problem in the Republic of Suriname and is mainly caused by Leishmania (Vianna) guyanensis, but L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (L.) amazonensis, and L. (V.) naiffi also infect humans. Transmission occurs predominantly in the forested hinterland of the country. Information regarding the potential vectors of leishmaniasis in Suriname is limited. This study aims to broaden the knowledge about vectors involved in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Suriname. For this purpose, sand flies were characterized in various foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the country, the districts of Para, Brokopondo, and Sipaliwini. Methods Sand flies were collected in areas around mining plots and villages using CDC light traps in the period between February 2011 and March 2013. They were categorized by examination of the spermathecea (females) and the external genitalia (males). Results A total of 2,743 sand fly specimens belonging to 34 different species were captured, including four species (Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lu. ayrozai, Lu. damascenoi, and Lu. sordellii) that had never before been described for Suriname. Five percent of the catch comprised Lu. squamiventris sensu lato, one female of which was positive with L. (V.) braziliensis and was captured in a gold mining area in Brokopondo. Other sand fly species found positive for Leishmania parasites were Lu. trichopyga, Lu. ininii, and Lu. umbratilis, comprising 32, 8, and 4%, respectively, of the catch. These were captured at gold mining areas in Brokopondo and Sipaliwini, but the Leishmania parasites they had ingested could not be identified due to insufficient amounts of DNA. Conclusions The sand fly fauna in Suriname is highly diverse and comprises Lutzomyia species capable of transmitting Leishmania parasites. Four new Lutzomyia species have been found

  7. Colonization of Lutzomyia verrucarum and Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by Bartonella bacilliformis, the Etiologic Agent of Carrión’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Battisti, James M.; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Minnick, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is a pathogenic bacterium transmitted to humans presumably by bites of phlebotomine sand flies, infection with which results in a bi-phasic syndrome termed Carrión’s disease. After constructing a low-passage GFP-labeled strain of B. bacilliformis, we artificially infected Lutzomyia verrucarum and L. longipalpis populations, and subsequently monitored colonization of sand flies by fluorescence microscopy. Initially, colonization of the two fly species was indistinguishable, with bacteria exhibiting a high degree of motility, yet still confined to the abdominal midgut. After 48h, B. bacilliformis transitioned from bacillus-shape to a non-motile, small coccoid form and appeared to be digested along with the blood meal in both fly species. Differences in colonization patterns became evident at 72h when B. bacilliformis was observed at relatively high density outside the peritrophic membrane in the lumen of the midgut in L. verrucarum, but colonization of L. longipalpis was limited to the blood meal within the intra-peritrophic space of the abdominal midgut, and the majority of bacteria were digested along with the blood meal by day 7. The viability of B. bacilliformis in L. longipalpis was assessed by artificially infecting, homogenizing, and plating for determination of colony-forming units in individual flies over a 13-d time course. Bacteria remained viable at relatively high density for approximately seven days, suggesting that L. longipalpis could potentially serve as a vector. The capacity of L. longipalpis to transmit viable B. bacilliformis from infected to uninfected meals was analyzed via interrupted feeds. No viable bacteria were retrieved from uninfected blood meals in these experiments. This study provides significant information toward understanding colonization of sand flies by B. bacilliformis and also demonstrates the utility of L. longipalpis as a user-friendly, live-vector model system for studying this severely neglected

  8. Colonization of Lutzomyia verrucarum and Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by Bartonella bacilliformis, the Etiologic Agent of Carrión's Disease.

    PubMed

    Battisti, James M; Lawyer, Phillip G; Minnick, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is a pathogenic bacterium transmitted to humans presumably by bites of phlebotomine sand flies, infection with which results in a bi-phasic syndrome termed Carrión's disease. After constructing a low-passage GFP-labeled strain of B. bacilliformis, we artificially infected Lutzomyia verrucarum and L. longipalpis populations, and subsequently monitored colonization of sand flies by fluorescence microscopy. Initially, colonization of the two fly species was indistinguishable, with bacteria exhibiting a high degree of motility, yet still confined to the abdominal midgut. After 48 h, B. bacilliformis transitioned from bacillus-shape to a non-motile, small coccoid form and appeared to be digested along with the blood meal in both fly species. Differences in colonization patterns became evident at 72 h when B. bacilliformis was observed at relatively high density outside the peritrophic membrane in the lumen of the midgut in L. verrucarum, but colonization of L. longipalpis was limited to the blood meal within the intra-peritrophic space of the abdominal midgut, and the majority of bacteria were digested along with the blood meal by day 7. The viability of B. bacilliformis in L. longipalpis was assessed by artificially infecting, homogenizing, and plating for determination of colony-forming units in individual flies over a 13-d time course. Bacteria remained viable at relatively high density for approximately seven days, suggesting that L. longipalpis could potentially serve as a vector. The capacity of L. longipalpis to transmit viable B. bacilliformis from infected to uninfected meals was analyzed via interrupted feeds. No viable bacteria were retrieved from uninfected blood meals in these experiments. This study provides significant information toward understanding colonization of sand flies by B. bacilliformis and also demonstrates the utility of L. longipalpis as a user-friendly, live-vector model system for studying this severely neglected

  9. A Modified Trap for Adult Sampling of Medically Important Flies (Insecta: Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Rafinejad, Javad; Nozari, Jamasb; Rassi, Yavar; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bait-trapping appears to be a generally useful method of studying fly populations. The aim of this study was to construct a new adult flytrap by some modifications in former versions and to evaluate its applicability in a subtropical zone in southern Iran. Methods: The traps were constructed with modification by adding some equipment to a polyethylene container (18× 20× 33 cm) with lid. The fresh sheep meat was used as bait. Totally 27 adult modified traps were made and tested for their efficacies to attract adult flies. The experiment was carried out in a range of different topographic areas of Fars Province during June 2010. Results: The traps were able to attract various groups of adult flies belonging to families of: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, and Faniidae. The species of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) include the majority of the flies collected by this sheep-meat baited trap. Conclusion: This adult flytrap can be recommended for routine field sampling to study diversity and population dynamics of flies where conducting of daily collection is difficult. PMID:23378969

  10. SAND FLY SPECIES COMPOSITION (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE: PHLEBOTOMINAE) IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF CANTAGALO , AN AREA WITH SPORADIC CASES OF HUMAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    PERES-DIAS, Quezia Nunes; OLIVEIRA, Claudete Diniz; de SOUZA, Marcos Barbosa; MEIRA, Antônio de Medeiros; VILLANOVA, Ciro Benigno

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The municipality of Cantagalo is an area with sustained transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL). Monthly sand fly collections were performed for three years (June 2012 - May 2015) using a CDC light trap. A total of 3,310 specimens belonging to 12 species were trapped: Nyssomyia intermedia, Nyssomyia whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Evandromyia lenti, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Micropygomyia quinquefer, Brumptomyia brumpti, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Micropygomyia schreiberi, Pintomyia fischeri, Sciopemyia sordellii, and Evandromyia edwardsi. The last seven species have not been previously recorded in this area. The highest abundance of species occurred between October and March. October was the month with the highest number of captured sand flies, one month before the peak in the summer rainfall. In October the highest number of Ny. intermedia, Ny. whitmani and Mg. migonei, were also collected, the three epidemiologically most important species. The high abundance of species with epidemiological importance for ACL transmission might explain the sporadic occurrence of the disease in the area. PMID:27410910

  11. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species.

    PubMed

    Dutari, Larissa C; Loaiza, Jose R

    2014-05-11

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama.

  12. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  13. Spatial relations among environmental factors and phlebotomine sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in central and southern Morocco.

    PubMed

    Kahime, K; Boussaa, S; El Mzabi, A; Boumezzough, A

    2015-12-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) are of considerable public health importance because of their ability to transmit several human parasites, mainly as vectors of Leishmania spp. Over the past decade, the epidemiological situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has significantly increased with its geographic expansion to previously free areas and the emergence of overlapping foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in several provinces of Morocco. A total of 15,313 specimens was collected during this entomological survey. The genera Phlebotomus (57.38%) and Sergentomyia (42.62%) were identified. Sergentomyia minuta (22.01%) was the most prevalent species, followed by S. fallax (18.21%), Phlebotomus perniciosus (14.35%), P. papatasi (14.06%), P. sergenti (12.85%), P. longicuspis (10.74%), P. ariasi (2.68%), S. dreyfussi (1.53%), P. alexandri (1.31%), P. bergeroti (1.14%), S. christophersi (0.62%), S. africana (0.25%), P. chabaudi (0.14%), P. chadlii (0.05%), and P. kazeruni (0.04%). We aimed to determine current distribution of leishmaniases vectors, their ecological characteristics, and the significance of the predominant species at any bioclimate stage, altitude range, and soil texture in terms of the risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  14. Orientation of Colonized Sand Flies Phlebotomus papatasi, P. duboscqi, and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to Diverse Honeys Using a 3-chamber In-line Olfactometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    unifloral honey odors were evaluated as a proxy for the natural floral odors that sand flies may use in orientation to floral sugar sources in the...high-throughput method has utility for evaluating a diversity of natural materials with unknown complex odor blends that can then be down-selected for...repellents, insecticide -treated clothing, or bednets), reservoir host control (e.g., rodent removal using rodenticides or by burrow plowing), or residual

  15. Ecuador Paraiso Escondido Virus, a New Flavivirus Isolated from New World Sand Flies in Ecuador, Is the First Representative of a Novel Clade in the Genus Flavivirus

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Sonia; Bichaud, Laurence; Moureau, Grégory; Lemey, Philippe; Firth, Andrew E.; Gritsun, Tamara S.; Gould, Ernest A.; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Depaquit, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A new flavivirus, Ecuador Paraiso Escondido virus (EPEV), named after the village where it was discovered, was isolated from sand flies (Psathyromyia abonnenci, formerly Lutzomyia abonnenci) that are unique to the New World. This represents the first sand fly-borne flavivirus identified in the New World. EPEV exhibited a typical flavivirus genome organization. Nevertheless, the maximum pairwise amino acid sequence identity with currently recognized flaviviruses was 52.8%. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding sequence showed that EPEV represents a distinct clade which diverged from a lineage that was ancestral to the nonvectored flaviviruses Entebbe bat virus, Yokose virus, and Sokoluk virus and also the Aedes-associated mosquito-borne flaviviruses, which include yellow fever virus, Sepik virus, Saboya virus, and others. EPEV replicated in C6/36 mosquito cells, yielding high infectious titers, but failed to reproduce either in vertebrate cell lines (Vero, BHK, SW13, and XTC cells) or in suckling mouse brains. This surprising result, which appears to eliminate an association with vertebrate hosts in the life cycle of EPEV, is discussed in the context of the evolutionary origins of EPEV in the New World. IMPORTANCE The flaviviruses are rarely (if ever) vectored by sand fly species, at least in the Old World. We have identified the first representative of a sand fly-associated flavivirus, Ecuador Paraiso Escondido virus (EPEV), in the New World. EPEV constitutes a novel clade according to current knowledge of the flaviviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the virus genome showed that EPEV roots the Aedes-associated mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever virus. In light of this new discovery, the New World origin of EPEV is discussed together with that of the other flaviviruses. PMID:26355096

  16. Application of Flumethrin Pour-On on Reservoir Dogs and Its Efficacy against Sand Flies in Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Meshkinshahr, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jalilnavaz, Mohammad Reza; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Zarei, Zabihollah; Rafizadeh, Sayena; Bakhshi, Hassan; Rassi, Yaver

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important parasitic zoonotic diseases in the world. Domestic dogs are the main domestic reservoirs of VL in endemic foci of Iran. Various methods, including vaccination, treatment of dogs, detection and removal of infected dogs have different results around the world. General policy on control of canine visceral leishmaniasis is protection of them from sand fly bites. The aim of this study was evaluation of pour-on application of flumethrin on dogs against blood-feeding and mortality of field-caught sand flies. Methods: Once every 20 days from May untill September 2013, the treated and control dogs were exposed with field caught sandflies for 2 hours under bed net traps. After the exposure time, both alive and dead sand flies were transferred in netted cups to the laboratory. The mortality rate of them was assessed after 24 hours. The blood-fed or unfed conditions were determined 2 hours after exposure to the dogs under stereomicroscope. Results: The blood feeding index was varied from 12.0 to 25.0 % and 53.0 to 58.0 % for treated and control dogs respectively (P< 0.0001). The blood feeding inhibition was 75.0–87.0 % and 41.0–46.0 % for the control and treated dogs (P< 0.0001), respectively.The total mortality rate was 94.0–100 % and 19.0–58.0 % respectively for the treated and control groups (P< 0.001). Conclustion: Application of pour-on flumethrin on dogs caused 90–100 % mortality until 2.5 month and inhibited the blood-feeding of sand flies. PMID:27047974

  17. Life history of the sand fly vector Lutzomyia cruciata in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A; Serrano, A K; Mikery, O F; Pérez, J

    2015-12-01

    Lutzomyia cruciata Coquillet (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is a potential vector of Leishmania sp.; its geographical distribution in Mexico is widespread, but its life history is unknown. The present study gives relevant information on the life cycle, morphology, survival and reproduction of Lu. cruciata observed over successive generations under laboratory conditions. Seven successive generations were produced. A total of 975 adults were obtained in a sexual proportion of 1.1 : 1 (female : male). Each Lu. cruciata female produced 20.7 eggs and 1.9 adults, approximately, with a proportion of eggs per female of 2.7% (first generation) and 21.3% (second generation). The life cycle of Lu. cruciata, from egg to adult, occurred in 52.7 ± 0.52 days. The largest percentage of mortality occurred during the egg stage (48.5%) and the first larval instar (26.5%), whereas in the pupal stage mortality was the lowest (9.1%). Lutzomyia cruciata exhibits sexual dimorphism based on size, which is exhibited as of the second larval instar, males being smaller than females. The maximum survival of females and males was 10 and 15 days, respectively. An overview of the immature stages of the species made with an electronic scanning microscope is included. This paper contributes basic information on aspects of Lu. cruciata that were previously unknown related to its life history.

  18. Characterization of the Early Inflammatory Infiltrate at the Feeding Site of Infected Sand Flies in Mice Protected from Vector-Transmitted Leishmania major by Exposure to Uninfected Bites

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Clarissa; Gomes, Regis; Oliveira, Fabiano; Meneses, Claudio; Gilmore, Dana C.; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2014-01-01

    Background Mice exposed to sand fly saliva are protected against vector-transmitted Leishmania major. Although protection has been related to IFN- γ producing T cells, the early inflammatory response orchestrating this outcome has not been defined. Methodology/Principal findings Mice exposed to uninfected P. duboscqi bites and naïve mice were challenged with L. major-infected flies to characterize their early immune response at the bite site. Mostly, chemokine and cytokine transcript expression post-infected bites was amplified in exposed compared to naïve mice. In exposed mice, induced chemokines were mostly involved in leukocyte recruitment and T cell and NK cell activation; IL-4 was expressed at 6 h followed by IFN-γ and iNOS2 as well as IL-5 and IL-10 expression. In naïve animals, the transcript expression following Leishmania-infected sand fly bites was suppressed. Expression profiles translated to an earlier and significantly larger recruitment of leukocytes including neutrophils, macrophages, Gr+ monocytes, NK cells and CD4+ T cells to the bite site of exposed compared to naïve mice post-infected bites. Additionally, up to 48 hours post-infected bites the number of IFN-γ-producing CD4+T cells and NK cells arriving at the bite site was significantly higher in exposed compared to naïve mice. Thereafter, NK cells become cytolytic and persist at the bite site up to a week post-bite. Conclusion/Significance The quiet environment induced by a Leishmania-infected sand fly bite in naïve mice was significantly altered in animals previously exposed to saliva of uninfected flies. We propose that the enhanced recruitment of Gr+ monocytes, NK cells and CD4 Th1 cells observed at the bite site of exposed mice creates an inhospitable environment that counters the establishment of L. major infection. PMID:24762408

  19. Species diversity and flagellate infections in the sand fly fauna near Porto Grande, State of Amapá, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae. Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rui A; Naiff, Roberto D; Barrett, Toby V

    2002-01-01

    Forty-six species of Lutzomyia and one species of Brumptomyia were identified among 20,008 sand flies collected in central Amapá. L. squamiventris maripaensis, L. infraspinosa, L. umbratilis, and L. ubiquitalis accounted for 66% of the specimens caught in light traps, and L. umbratilis was the commonest of the 16 species found on tree bases. Seven species of Lutzomyia including L. umbratilis were collected in a plantation of Caribbean pine. Sixty out of 511 female sand flies dissected were positive for flagellates. Among the sand flies from which Leishmania was isolated, promastigotes were observed in the salivary glands and foregut of 13 out of 21 females scored as having very heavy infections in the remainder of the gut, reinforcing the idea that salivary gland invasion may be part of the normal life cycle of Leishmania in nature. Salivary gland infections were detected in specimens of L. umbratilis, L. whitmani and L. spathotrichia. Parasites isolated from L. umbratilis, L. whitmani and also from one specimen of L. dendrophyla containing the remains of a bloodmeal, were compatible with Le. guyanensis by morphology and behaviour in hamsters.

  20. Isolation of a myoinhibitory peptide from Leishmania major (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) and its function in the vector sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Rajeev

    2005-03-01

    Protozoan parasites in the genus Leishmania are ingested by sand flies with blood and multiply in the gut until they are transmitted to a vertebrate host when the sand fly blood feeds again. Infections of the enzootic vector Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli result in distended midguts with no spontaneous gut contractions. Using a P. papatasi hindgut contraction bioassay, a paralytic factor sensitive to trypsin, chymotrypsin, proteinase-K, and heating at 56 degrees C was detected in crude lysates of Leishmania major promastigotes. Application of parasite lysate to isolated hindguts resulted in reversible, dose-dependent inhibition of spontaneous contractions. Mean volume of isolated midguts and hindguts increased by 50-60% after application of L. major lysate. L. major paralytic factor was purified 10(4)-fold over the total protein preparation and yielded a hydrophobic 12-kDa peptide. Myoinhibitory activity eluted as a single peak in reverse phase-high-pressure liquid chromatography. Tandem mass spectrometry resulted in 15 amino acid sequences, three of them sharing 45-73% homology with short hypothetical gene products of undefined function from Pseudomonas, Halobacterium, and Drosophila. This unique protozoan peptide mimics the function of endogenous insect neuropeptides that control visceral muscle contractions. By this novel mechanism, parasites persist in the expanded, relaxed midgut after blood meal and peritrophic matrix digestion. This allows time for development and migration of infective forms, facilitating sand fly vector competence and parasite transmission.

  1. Environmental Niche Modelling of Phlebotomine Sand Flies and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Identifies Lutzomyia intermedia as the Main Vector Species in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Meneguzzi, Viviane Coutinho; dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Fux, Blima; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by sand flies. The state of Espírito Santo (ES), an endemic area in southeast Brazil, has shown a considerably high prevalence in recent decades. Environmental niche modelling (ENM) is a useful tool for predicting potential disease risk. In this study, ENM was applied to sand fly species and CL cases in ES to identify the principal vector and risk areas of the disease. Sand flies were collected in 466 rural localities between 1997 and 2013 using active and passive capture. Insects were identified to the species level, and the localities were georeferenced. Twenty-one bioclimatic variables were selected from WorldClim. Maxent was used to construct models projecting the potential distribution for five Lutzomyia species and CL cases. ENMTools was used to overlap the species and the CL case models. The Kruskal–Wallis test was performed, adopting a 5% significance level. Approximately 250,000 specimens were captured, belonging to 43 species. The area under the curve (AUC) was considered acceptable for all models. The slope was considered relevant to the construction of the models for all the species identified. The overlay test identified Lutzomyia intermedia as the main vector of CL in southeast Brazil. ENM tools enable an analysis of the association among environmental variables, vector distributions and CL cases, which can be used to support epidemiologic and entomological vigilance actions to control the expansion of CL in vulnerable areas. PMID:27783641

  2. Interleukin 10–Dominant Immune Response and Increased Risk of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis After Natural Exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia Sand Flies

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Augusto M.; Cristal, Juqueline R.; Muniz, Aline C.; Carvalho, Lucas P.; Gomes, Regis; Miranda, José C.; Barral, Aldina; Carvalho, Edgar M.; de Oliveira, Camila I.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Leishmaniasis is caused by parasites transmitted to the vertebrate host by infected sand flies. During transmission, the vertebrate host is also inoculated with sand fly saliva, which exerts powerful immunomodulatory effects on the host's immune response. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort analysis to characterize the human immune response to Lutzomyia intermedia saliva in 264 individuals, from an area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis. Results. Antibodies were found in 150 individuals (56.8%); immunoglobulin G1 and G4 were the predominant subclasses. Recall responses to salivary gland sonicate showed elevated production of interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 13, interferon γ, CXCL9, and CCL2 compared with controls. CD4+CD25+ T cells, including Foxp3+ cells, were the main source of IL-10. L. braziliensis replication was increased (P < .05) in macrophages cocultured with saliva-stimulated lymphocytes from exposed individuals and addition of anti–IL-10 reverted this effect. Positive correlation between antibody response to saliva and cellular response to Leishmania was not found. Importantly, individuals seropositive to saliva are 2.1 times more likely to develop CL (relative risk, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–4.2; P < .05). Conclusions. Exposure to L. intermedia sand flies skews the human immune response, facilitating L. braziliensis survival in vitro, and increases the risk of developing CL. PMID:25596303

  3. Polymerase chain reaction-based assay for the detection and identification of sand fly gregarines in Lutzomyia longipalpis, a vector of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, Lorena G; Acardi, Soraya A; Santini, María Soledad; Salomón, Oscar D; McCarthy, Christina B

    2014-06-01

    Gregarines that parasitise phlebotomine sand flies belong to the genus Psychodiella and, even though they are highly host-specific, only five species have been described to date. Their most outstanding features include the unique localisation of the oocysts in the accessory glands of the female host, which ensures contamination of the egg surface during oviposition, and the fact that they naturally parasitise the vectors of Leishmania, causal agent of leishmaniasis. The type species, Ps. chagasi, was first described in Lutzomyia longipalpis, vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), from Brazil. We recently reported Ps. chagasi sequences in Lu. longipalpis from Posadas (Misiones, Argentina), an endemic VL location where this gregarine had not been previously recorded. In order to analyse the incidence of Ps. chagasi infections in Lu. longipalpis from this location, the aim of this study was to develop a diagnostic assay for sand fly gregarine parasites in Lu. longipalpis. For this, we designed primers using the Ps. chagasi sequences we previously identified and performed an in vitro validation by PCR amplification of the original sand fly samples. Their specificity and sensitivity as diagnostic primers were subsequently confirmed by PCR reactions using total DNA extracted from naturally infected Lu. longipalpis from the same location (Posadas, Argentina).

  4. The plastic fly: the effect of sustained fluctuations in adult food supply on life-history traits.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, J; Zandveld, J; Mulder, M; Brakefield, P M; Kirkwood, T B L; Shanley, D P; Zwaan, B J

    2014-11-01

    Many adult traits in Drosophila melanogaster show phenotypic plasticity, and the effects of diet on traits such as lifespan and reproduction are well explored. Although plasticity in response to food is still present in older flies, it is unknown how sustained environmental variation affects life-history traits. Here, we explore how such life-long fluctuations of food supply affect weight and survival in groups of flies and affect weight, survival and reproduction in individual flies. In both experiments, we kept adults on constant high or low food and compared these to flies that experienced fluctuations of food either once or twice a week. For these 'yoyo' groups, the initial food level and the duration of the dietary variation differed during adulthood, creating four 'yoyo' fly groups. In groups of flies, survival and weight were affected by adult food. However, for individuals, survival and reproduction, but not weight, were affected by adult food, indicating that single and group housing of female flies affects life-history trajectories. Remarkably, both the manner and extent to which life-history traits varied in relation to food depended on whether flies initially experienced high or low food after eclosion. We therefore conclude that the expression of life-history traits in adult life is affected not only by adult plasticity, but also by early adult life experiences. This is an important but often overlooked factor in studies of life-history evolution and may explain variation in life-history experiments.

  5. Immunity to Sand Fly Salivary Protein LJM11 Modulates Host Response to Vector-Transmitted Leishmania Conferring Ulcer-Free Protection

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Regis; Oliveira, Fabiano; Teixeira, Clarissa; Meneses, Claudio; Gilmore, Dana C; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania vaccines that protect against needle challenge fail against the potency of a Leishmania-infected sand fly transmission. Here, we demonstrate that intradermal immunization of mice with 500 ng of the sand fly salivary recombinant protein LJM11 (rLJM11) from Lutzomyia longipalpis, in the absence of adjuvant, induces long-lasting immunity that results in ulcer-free protection against Leishmania major delivered by vector bites. This protection is antibody independent and abrogated by depletion of CD4+ T cells. Two weeks after challenge, early induction of IFN-γ specifically to rLJM11 correlates to diminished parasite replication in protected animals. At this time point, Leishmania-specific induction of IFN-γ in these mice is low in comparison with its high level in non-protected controls. We hypothesize that early control of parasites in a T-cell helper type 1 environment induced by immunity to LJM11 permits the slow development of Leishmania-specific immunity in the absence of open ulcers. Leishmania-specific immunity observed 5 weeks after infection in rLJM11-immunized mice shows a twofold increase over controls in the percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells. We propose LJM11 as an immunomodulator that drives an efficient and controlled protective immune response to a sand fly–transmitted Leishmania somewhat mimicking “leishmanization”-induced protective immunity but without its associated lesions. PMID:22739793

  6. Increased male-male courtship in ecdysone receptor deficient adult flies.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Geoffrey K; Walton, Kelsey L; Merriman, Jacob O; Salmon, Mark V; Brooks, Krista M; Maddula, Swathi; Kravitz, Edward A

    2007-05-01

    Male-male courtship is infrequent among mature adult Drosophila melanogaster. After pairs of mature adult males expressing a temperature-sensitive allele of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) gene were treated at a restrictive temperature, however, they engaged in elevated levels of male-male courtship. EcR-deficient males courted wildtype males and females, but were not courted by wildtype males. These results suggest that the ecdysone steroid hormone system may have a role in courtship initiation by adult male fruit flies.

  7. Vertical stratification and development aspects of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an area of Atlantic Forest tree species in a metropolitan region in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cortez, A M; Silva, V P M; Queiroz, P V S; Andrade, H T A; Loiola, M I B; Ximenes, M F F M

    2007-12-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Norte in northeast Brazil, cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur mainly in the periurban areas of the city of Natal. Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae), a vector of Leishmania chagasi (Protozoa: Trypanosomatidae) to humans, is found throughout the state. Flora and fauna influence the distribution of sand fly species, whose horizontal or vertical stratification can be used as a parameter for identifying potential vectors, considering the presence of vertebrate hosts in the area. The purpose of this study was to obtain information about the vertical stratification of phlebotomine sand flies in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte, and associate it with the presence of other animals in the peridomiciliary environment as well as to analyze, under laboratory conditions, aspects of L. longipalpis reproduction in wild females. The sand flies were captured with light traps hung at different heights in species of Atlantic Forest trees and in a peridomiciliary environment in animal shelters. The traps were placed between 17:30 and 6:00 of the following day, in a peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary area of a forest fragment in both dry and rainy months. In the extradomiciliary environment, the traps were installed at 1, 3 and 5 m above the ground. The biological cycle of L. longipalpis was followed from the eggs of 200 wild females. Specimens of L. lenti, L. walkeri, and L. migonei were captured. The comparison and statistical analysis showed that L. longipalpis is more abundant at a height of 3 m and L. evandroi at 1 m. In the animal shelters (chickens, horses, and armadillos), we captured mainly specimens of L. longipalpis and L. evandroi. The duration of the biological cycle of L. longipalpis was approximately 38 days at a temperature of 28 degrees C.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Salivary Gland Transcriptomes of Phlebotomus orientalis Sand Flies from Endemic and Non-endemic Foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Vlkova, Michaela; Sima, Michal; Rohousova, Iva; Kostalova, Tatiana; Sumova, Petra; Volfova, Vera; Jaske, Erin L.; Barbian, Kent D.; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Jochim, Ryan C.; Volf, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Background In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis serves as the main vector of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Phlebotomus orientalis is present at two distant localities in Ethiopia; Addis Zemen where VL is endemic and Melka Werer where transmission of VL does not occur. To find out whether the difference in epidemiology of VL is due to distant compositions of P. orientalis saliva we established colonies from Addis Zemen and Melka Werer, analyzed and compared the transcriptomes, proteomes and enzymatic activity of the salivary glands. Methodology/Principal Findings Two cDNA libraries were constructed from the female salivary glands of P. orientalis from Addis Zemen and Melka Werer. Clones of each P. orientalis library were randomly selected, sequenced and analyzed. In P. orientalis transcriptomes, we identified members of 13 main protein families. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignments were performed to evaluate differences between the P. orientalis colonies and to show the relationship with other sand fly species from the subgenus Larroussius. To further compare both colonies, we investigated the humoral antigenicity and cross-reactivity of the salivary proteins and the activity of salivary apyrase and hyaluronidase. Conclusions This is the first report of the salivary components of P. orientalis, an important vector sand fly. Our study expanded the knowledge of salivary gland compounds of sand fly species in the subgenus Larroussius. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, we showed that P. orientalis is closely related to Phlebotomus tobbi and Phlebotomus perniciosus, whereas Phlebotomus ariasi is evolutionarily more distinct species. We also demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the transcriptomes, proteomes or enzymatic properties of the salivary components of Addis Zemen (endemic area) and Melka Werer (non-endemic area) P. orientalis colonies. Thus, the different epidemiology of VL

  9. Ecology of Phlebotomine Sand Flies in the Rural Community of Mont Rolland (Thiès Region, Senegal): Area of Transmission of Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Senghor, Massila W.; Faye, Malick N.; Faye, Babacar; Diarra, Karamoko; Elguero, Eric; Gaye, Oumar

    2011-01-01

    Background Different epidemiological studies previously indicated that canine leishmaniasis is present in the region of Thiès (Senegal). However, the risks to human health, the transmission cycle and particularly the implicated vectors are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To improve our knowledge on the population of phlebotomine sand flies and the potential vectors of canine leishmaniasis, sand flies were collected using sticky traps, light traps and indoor spraying method using pyrethroid insecticides in 16 villages of the rural community of Mont Rolland (Thiès region) between March and July 2005. The 3788 phlebotomine sand flies we collected (2044 males, 1744 females) were distributed among 9 species of which 2 belonged to the genus Phlebotomus: P. duboscqi (vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Senegal) and P. rodhaini. The other species belonged to the genus Sergentomyia: S. adleri, S. clydei, S. antennata, S. buxtoni, S. dubia, S. schwetzi and S. magna. The number of individuals and the species composition differed according to the type of trap, suggesting variable, species-related degrees of endophily or exophily. The two species of the genus Phlebotomus were markedly under-represented in comparison to the species of the genus Sergentomyia. This study also shows a heterogeneous spatial distribution within the rural community that could be explained by the different ecosystems and particularly the soil characteristics of this community. Finally, the presence of the S. dubia species appeared to be significantly associated with canine leishmaniasis seroprevalence in dogs. Conclusions/Significance Our data allow us to hypothesize that the species of the genus Sergentomyia and particularly the species S. dubia and S. schwetzi might be capable of transmitting canine leishmaniasis. These results challenge the dogma that leishmaniasis is exclusively transmitted by species of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World. This hypothesis should be more thoroughly

  10. Aspects on the Ecology of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From Guaraí, State of Tocantins, Brazil, Endemic Area for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Rodrigo Espíndola; de Santana, Antônio Luís Ferreira; Graser, Carina; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Vilela, Maurício Luiz

    2017-01-01

    In Brazil, American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) ecology involves a diversity of Leishmania species transmitted by different sand fly species. Workers involved in agricultural activities are those mainly affected by ACL in some regions from Tocantins State (TO), Brazil, where the disease can be established in new settlements. The objective of this study was to examine the seasonal and hourly frequency of sand fly species, focusing on the potential vectors of ACL, in a settlement in Guaraí (TO), an ACL transmission area. Sand flies were captured in forested area close to Pedra Branca Agricultural Project settlement, from March 2006 until December 2007, using Shannon trap. Monthly captures were made from 06:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m., and 24-h captures were done twice per semester, from 06:00 a.m. to 06:00 a.m. A total of 10,089 specimens from 30 species were identified. Psychodopygus complexus Mangabeira, Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi Fraiha & Ward, and Nyssomyia antunesi Coutinho were the most abundant species. Nyssomyia antunesi was more frequent during the dry period, whereas Ps. complexus and Ps. llanosmartinsi had high frequencies during the rainy season. Precipitation was positively correlated with Ps. complexus and Ps. llanosmartinsi abundance, and negatively correlated with Ny. antunesi During 24-h captures, the majority of specimens were captured during the night followed by a decrease at dawn. The behavior and previous finding of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis of Ps. complexus led us to the conclusion that this species can be a potential vector of L. (V.) braziliensis during the rainy season in Guaraí.

  11. Aspects on the Ecology of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) From Guaraí, State of Tocantins, Brazil, Endemic Area for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Rodrigo Espíndola; de Santana, Antônio Luís Ferreira; Graser, Carina; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Vilela, Maurício Luiz

    2016-09-01

    In Brazil, American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) ecology involves a diversity of Leishmania species transmitted by different sand fly species. Workers involved in agricultural activities are those mainly affected by ACL in some regions from Tocantins State (TO), Brazil, where the disease can be established in new settlements. The objective of this study was to examine the seasonal and hourly frequency of sand fly species, focusing on the potential vectors of ACL, in a settlement in Guaraí (TO), an ACL transmission area. Sand flies were captured in forested area close to Pedra Branca Agricultural Project settlement, from March 2006 until December 2007, using Shannon trap. Monthly captures were made from 06:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m., and 24-h captures were done twice per semester, from 06:00 a.m. to 06:00 a.m. A total of 10,089 specimens from 30 species were identified. Psychodopygus complexus Mangabeira, Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi Fraiha & Ward, and Nyssomyia antunesi Coutinho were the most abundant species. Nyssomyia antunesi was more frequent during the dry period, whereas Ps. complexus and Ps. llanosmartinsi had high frequencies during the rainy season. Precipitation was positively correlated with Ps. complexus and Ps. llanosmartinsi abundance, and negatively correlated with Ny. antunesi During 24-h captures, the majority of specimens were captured during the night followed by a decrease at dawn. The behavior and previous finding of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis of Ps. complexus led us to the conclusion that this species can be a potential vector of L. (V.) braziliensis during the rainy season in Guaraí.

  12. Effect of night time-intervals, height of traps and lunar phases on sand fly collection in a highly endemic area for canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Gaglio, Gabriella; Brianti, Emanuele; Napoli, Ettore; Falsone, Luigi; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana D; Otranto, Domenico; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    The activity of phlebotomine sand flies was monitored in a sub-urban area of Sicily in order to acquire data on seasonality and to elucidate the effect of the night time-intervals, height of traps from ground and lunar phases on the abundance of the capture. The study was conducted in the farm of the University of Messina (Italy). Light traps were placed as in the following: biweekly, from dusk to dawn, and from May to November; for three consecutive nights from 18:00 to 6:00, with the net bag being changed every 2h; for 30 days, at different heights from 18:00 to 6:00. A total of five species (i.e., Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus sergenti, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, and Sergentomyia minuta), three of which are proven vectors of Leishmania infantum, were captured. The most abundant species was P. perniciosus (73.3%) followed by S. minuta (23.3%). The highest number of phlebotomine sand flies was collected in August and September with a peak of collection recorded in the evening (i.e., from 20:01 to 22.00). The number of phlebotomine sand flies collected at 50cm above the ground was significantly higher (P=0.041) than that captured at 150cm. Results of this study shed light on the ecology of main phlebotomine species in the Mediterranean area, and on the influence of some factors, such as time and height of traps, on the light trap capture efficiency.

  13. Transmission of Leishmania infantum in the Canine Leishmaniasis Focus of Mont-Rolland, Senegal: Ecological, Parasitological and Molecular Evidence for a Possible Role of Sergentomyia Sand Flies

    PubMed Central

    Senghor, Massila Wagué; Niang, Abdoul Aziz; Depaquit, Jérome; Ferté, Hubert; Faye, Malick Ndao; Elguero, Eric; Gaye, Oumar; Alten, Bulent; Perktas, Utku; Cassan, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania (L.) infantum is the causative agent in an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis in the Mont-Rolland district (Thiès, Senegal). In this area, the transmission cycle is well established and more than 30% of dogs and 20% of humans are seropositive for L. infantum. However, the sand fly species involved in L. infantum transmission cycle are still unknown. Between 2007 and 2010, 3654 sand flies were collected from different environments (indoor, peridomestic, farming and sylvatic areas) to identify the main L. infantum vector(s). Nine sand fly species were identified. The Phlebotomus genus (n = 54 specimens; Phlebotomus (Ph) duboscqi and Phlebotomus (Ph). rodhaini) was markedly under-represented in comparison to the Sergentomyia genus (n = 3600 specimens; Sergentomyia (Se) adleri, Se. clydei, Se. antennata, Se. buxtoni, Se. dubia, Se. schwetzi and Se. magna). Se. dubia and Se. schwetzi were the dominant species indoor and in peridomestic environments, near humans and dogs. Blood-meal analysis indicated their anthropophilic behavior. Some Se. schwetzi specimens fed also on dogs. The dissection of females in the field allowed isolating L. infantum from sand flies of the Sergentomyia genus (0.4% of Se. dubia and 0.79% of Se. schwetzi females). It is worth noting that one Se. dubia female not engorged and not gravid revealed highly motile metacyclic of L. infantum in the anterior part of the midgut. PCR-based diagnosis and sequencing targeting Leishmania kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) highlighted a high rate of L. infantum-positive females (5.38% of Se. dubia, 4.19% of Se. schwetzi and 3.64% of Se. magna). More than 2% of these positive females were unfed, suggesting the parasite survival after blood-meal digestion or egg laying. L. infantum prevalence in Se. schwetzi was associated with its seroprevalence in dogs and humans and L. infantum prevalence in Se. dubia was associated with its seroprevalence in humans. These evidences altogether strongly suggest that species

  14. Detection of Leishmania DNA and blood meal sources in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in western of Spain: Update on distribution and risk factors associated.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Barriga, D; Parreira, R; Maia, C; Afonso, M O; Blanco-Ciudad, J; Serrano, F J; Pérez-Martín, J E; Gómez-Gordo, L; Campino, L; Reina, D; Frontera, E

    2016-12-01

    Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is present in Mediterranean countries, with high prevalence in areas of the center and south of Spain. However, in some regions such as Extremadura (in southwest of Spain), data has not been updated since 1997. The aim of this work was (i) to provide information about the distribution of phlebotomine sand fly species in western of Spain (Extremadura region), (ii) to determine risk factors for the presence of sand fly vectors and (iii) to detect Leishmania DNA and identify blood meal sources in wild caught females. During 2012-2013, sand flies were surveyed using CDC miniature light-traps in 13 of 20 counties in Extremadura. Specimens were identified morphologically and females were used for molecular detection of Leishmania DNA by kDNA, ITS-1 and cyt-B. In addition, blood meals origins were analyzed by a PCR based in vertebrate cyt b gene. A total of 1083 sand flies of both gender were captured and identified. Five species were collected, Phlebotomus perniciosus (60.76%), Sergentomyia minuta (29.92%), P. ariasi (7.11%), P. papatasi (1.48%) and P. sergenti (0.74%). The last three species constitute the first report in Badajoz, the most southern province of Extremadura region. Leishmania DNA was detected in three out of 435 females (one P. pernicious and two S. minuta). Characterization of obtained DNA sequences by phylogenetic analyses revealed close relatedness with Leishmania tarentolae in S. minuta and L. infantum in P. perniciosus. Haematic preferences showed a wide range of hosts, namely: swine, humans, sheep, rabbits, horses, donkeys and turkeys. The simultaneous presence of P. perniciosus and P. ariasi vectors, the analysis of blood meals, together with the detection of L. infantum and in S. minuta of L. tarentolae, confirms the ideal conditions for the transmission of this parasitosis in the western of Spain. These results improve the epidemiological knowledge of leishmaniosis and its vectors in this part of Spain

  15. The sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ilhéus, State of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, A C; Vilela, M L; Souza, N A; Andrade-Coelho, C A; Barbosa, A F; Firmo, A L; Rangel, E F

    1996-01-01

    The municipality of Ilhéus, State of Bahia, has a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis where entomological studies were carried out to determine the sand fly species and their habits. Lutzomyia migonei, L. sallesi, L. tupynambai, L. schreiberi, L. intermedia, L. whitmani, L. yuilli yuilli, L. fischeri, L. pessoai, L. shannoni and L. misionensis were identified. Lutzomyia whitmani was the predominant species. Specimens were collected indoors, at peridomestic sites, in the cocoa plantations and in other types of collections. Females fed readily on humans and were attracted to domestic animals. Our evidence suggests that L. whitmani is a probable vector.

  16. Horizontal stratification of the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transitional vegetation between caatinga and tropical rain forest, state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias-Lima, Artur Gomes; Guedes, Maria Lenise Silva; Sherlock, Italo A

    2003-09-01

    A study about the horizontal stratification of the sand fly fauna in two distinct ecosystems, caatinga area, endemic for visceral leishmaniasis, and the tropical rain forest area, endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, was performed in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Lutzomyia longipalpis was predominant in the caatinga, and following it came the species L. capixaba and L. oswaldoi. In the tropical rain forest other species were found, such as L. intermedia, L. migonei, L. whitmani, L. yuilli, L.fischeri, L. damascenoi, L. evandroi, L. monticola, and L. lenti. It was found that the geographical limits of the vector species of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis are clearly defined by the biological and phytogeographic characteristics.

  17. Molecular phylogenetic profiling of gut-associated bacteria in larvae and adults of flesh flies (Sarcophaga spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flesh flies are carrion-breeding, necrophagous insects important in medical and veterinary entomology as potential transmitters of pathogens to humans and animals. Our aim was to analyze the diversity of gut associated bacteria in wild-caught larva and adult flesh flies using culture-dependent and c...

  18. Adult fruit fly attraction to larvae biases experience and mediates social learning.

    PubMed

    Durisko, Zachary; Anderson, Blake; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-01

    We investigated whether adult fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) use cues of larvae as social information in their food patch choice decisions. Adult male and female fruit flies showed attraction to odours emanating from foraging larvae, and females preferred to lay eggs on food patches occupied by larvae over similar unoccupied patches. Females learned and subsequently preferred to lay eggs at patches with novel flavours previously associated with feeding larvae over patches with novel flavours previously associated with no larvae. However, when we controlled for the duration of exposure to each flavoured patch, females no longer preferred the flavour previously associated with feeding larvae. This suggests that social learning in this context is indirect, as a result of strong social attraction biasing experience.

  19. Pupal x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We did protein analysis using 1-12-d-old adults from irradiated and non-irradiated oriental fruit fly pupae. We found that exposing pupae to x-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 30 proteins in adult males. There were 7 proteins (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehyd...

  20. [Study of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, from 1999 to 2000].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Falcão, Alda Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2003-01-01

    From February 1999 to February 2000, sand flies were captured weekly with CDC light traps at five sites in the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Traps were placed in 11 different ecotopes in the environment (ground level, tree canopies, and forest edge) and the peridomicile (chicken coops and banana trees). A total of 1,245 sand flies were captured, belonging to 28 species: 4 species from genus Brumptomyia Fran a & Parrot, 1921 and 24 from genus Lutzomyia Fran a, 1924. The species were: B. avellari, B. brumpti, B. galindoi, B. pintoi, L. aragaoi, L. bourrouli, L. campograndensis, L. cerradincola, L. christenseni, L. claustrei, L. cortelezzii, L. corumbaensis, L. cruzi, L. damascenoi, L. flaviscutellata, L. hermanlenti, L. lenti, L. longipalpis, L. longipennis, L. migonei, L. punctigeniculata, L. quinquefer, L. renei, L. shannoni, L. sordellii, L. teratodes, L. termitophila, and L. whitmani. L. longipalpis and L. cruzi, vectors of visceral leishmaniasis, and L. whitmani, L. flaviscutellata and L. migonei, vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, were captured in the urban area. The most frequent species were L. termitophila, L. aragaoi, L. lenti, L. longipennis, and L. longipalpis.

  1. Experimental effect of feeding on Ricinus communis and Bougainvillea glabra on the development of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kaldas, Rania M; El Shafey, Azza S; Shehata, Magdi G; Samy, Abdallah M; Villinski, Jeffrey T

    2014-04-01

    Plants are promising sources of agents useful for the control of vectors of human diseases including leishmaniasis. The effect of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae), on transmission of leishmaniasis was investigated using them as diets for Phlebotomus papatasi to monitor their effect on life-history traits. P. papatasi were allowed to feed separately on both plants then offered a blood-meal. Fed-females were observed daily for egg-laying and subsequent developmental stages. P. papatasi was able to feed on B. glabra (29.41% females and 46.30% males) and R. communis (5.80% females and 10.43% males). 34.28% of females died within 24-48 hours post-feeding on R. communis, whereas, it was 16.5% in females fed on B. glabra. Overall fecundity of surviving females was reduced compared to controls, reared on standard laboratory diet; however there was no effect on the sex ratio of progeny. Female P. papatasi in the control group had significantly longer life span compared to plant-fed group. Feeding on these plants not only decreased sand fly survival rates but incurred negative effects on fecundity. Findings indicate that planting high densities of R. communis and B. glabra in sand flies-endemic areas will reduce population sizes and reduce the risk of Leishmania major infections.

  2. Genetic structure and divergence in populations of Lutzomyia cruciata, a phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vector of Leishmania mexicana in southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pech-May, Angélica; Marina, Carlos F; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Narváez-Zapata, José A; Moo-Llanes, David; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Ramsey, Janine M; Becker, Ingeborg

    2013-06-01

    The low dispersal capacity of sand flies could lead to population isolation due to geographic barriers, climate variation, or to population fragmentation associated with specific local habitats due to landscape modification. The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia cruciata has a wide distribution throughout Mexico and is a vector of Leishmania mexicana in the southeast. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity, structure, and divergence within and among populations of Lu. cruciata in the state of Chiapas, and to infer the intra-specific phylogeny using the 3' end of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We analyzed 62 sequences from four Lu. cruciata populations and found 26 haplotypes, high genetic differentiation and restricted gene flow among populations (Fst=0.416, Nm=0.701, p<0.001). The highest diversity values were recorded in populations from Loma Bonita and Guadalupe Miramar. Three lineages (100% bootstrap and 7% overall divergence) were identified using a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis which showed high genetic divergence (17.2-22.7%). A minimum spanning haplotype network also supported separation into three lineages. Genetic structure and divergence within and among Lu. cruciata populations are hence affected by geographic heterogeneity and evolutionary background. Data obtained in the present study suggest that Lu. cruciata in the state of Chiapas consists of at least three lineages. Such findings may have implications for vector capacity and hence for vector control strategies.

  3. New Insights Into the Transmissibility of Leishmania infantum From Dogs to Sand Flies: Experimental Vector-Transmission Reveals Persistent Parasite Depots at Bite Sites

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Hamide; Oliveira, Fabiano; Meneses, Claudio; Castrovinci, Philip; Gomes, Regis; Teixeira, Clarissa; Derenge, Candace A.; Orandle, Marlene; Gradoni, Luigi; Oliva, Gaetano; Fischer, Laurent; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2016-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a chronic fatal disease of dogs and a major source of human infection through propagation of parasites in vectors. Here, we infected 8 beagles through multiple experimental vector transmissions with Leishmania infantum–infected Lutzomyia longipalpis. CanL clinical signs varied, although live parasites were recovered from all dog spleens. Splenic parasite burdens correlated positively with Leishmania-specific interleukin 10 levels, negatively with Leishmania-specific interferon γ and interleukin 2 levels, and negatively with Leishmania skin test reactivity. A key finding was parasite persistence for 6 months in lesions observed at the bite sites in all dogs. These recrudesced following a second transmission performed at a distal site. Notably, sand flies efficiently acquired parasites after feeding on lesions at the primary bite site. In this study, controlled vector transmissions identify a potentially unappreciated role for skin at infectious bite sites in dogs with CanL, providing a new perspective regarding the mechanism of Leishmania transmissibility to vector sand flies. PMID:26768257

  4. Phlebotomine Sand Fly Fauna and Leishmania Infection in the Vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a Natural Brazilian Heritage Site

    PubMed Central

    Lana, Rosana Silva; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; Moreira de Avelar, Daniel; Martins, Juliana Cristina Dias; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil—the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas), in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park. PMID:25793193

  5. Monthly Distribution of Phlebotomine Sand Flies, and Biotic and Abiotic Factors Related to Their Abundance, in an Urban Area to Which Visceral Leishmaniasis Is Endemic in Corumbá, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Ravanelli, Michelle de Saboya; Paranhos Filho, Antônio Conceição; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    The monthly distribution and abundance of sand flies are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. The present study aimed to evaluate the seasonal distribution of sand flies and the relation between their abundance and environmental parameters, including vegetation and climate. This study was conducted over a 2-year period (April 2012 to March 2014). Monthly distribution was evaluated through the weekly deployment of CDC light traps in the peridomicile area of 5 residences in an urban area of the municipality of Corumbá in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Meteorological data were obtained from the Mato Grosso do Sul Center for Weather, Climate, and Water Resources. The spectral indices were calculated based on spatial resolution images (GeoEye) and the percentage of vegetal coverage. Differences in the abundance of sand flies among the collection sites were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the strength of correlations between environmental variables was determined by calculating Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Lutzomyia cruzi, Lu. forattinii, and Evandromyia corumbaensis were the most frequently found species. Although no significant association was found among these sand fly species and the tested environmental variables (vegetation and climate), high population peaks were found during the rainy season, whereas low peaks were observed in the dry season. The monthly distribution of sand flies was primarily determined by Lu. cruzi, which accounted for 93.94% of the specimens collected each month throughout the experimental period. The fact that sand flies were detected year-round indicates a continuous risk of infection to humans, demonstrating the need for targeted management and education programs. PMID:27783667

  6. Monthly Distribution of Phlebotomine Sand Flies, and Biotic and Abiotic Factors Related to Their Abundance, in an Urban Area to Which Visceral Leishmaniasis Is Endemic in Corumbá, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Falcão de Oliveira, Everton; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Ravanelli, Michelle de Saboya; Medeiros, Márcio José de; Gamarra, Roberto Macedo; Paranhos Filho, Antônio Conceição; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2016-01-01

    The monthly distribution and abundance of sand flies are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. The present study aimed to evaluate the seasonal distribution of sand flies and the relation between their abundance and environmental parameters, including vegetation and climate. This study was conducted over a 2-year period (April 2012 to March 2014). Monthly distribution was evaluated through the weekly deployment of CDC light traps in the peridomicile area of 5 residences in an urban area of the municipality of Corumbá in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Meteorological data were obtained from the Mato Grosso do Sul Center for Weather, Climate, and Water Resources. The spectral indices were calculated based on spatial resolution images (GeoEye) and the percentage of vegetal coverage. Differences in the abundance of sand flies among the collection sites were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the strength of correlations between environmental variables was determined by calculating Spearman's correlation coefficients. Lutzomyia cruzi, Lu. forattinii, and Evandromyia corumbaensis were the most frequently found species. Although no significant association was found among these sand fly species and the tested environmental variables (vegetation and climate), high population peaks were found during the rainy season, whereas low peaks were observed in the dry season. The monthly distribution of sand flies was primarily determined by Lu. cruzi, which accounted for 93.94% of the specimens collected each month throughout the experimental period. The fact that sand flies were detected year-round indicates a continuous risk of infection to humans, demonstrating the need for targeted management and education programs.

  7. The odor of a plant metabolite affects life history traits in dietary restricted adult olive flies

    PubMed Central

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Nakas, Christos T.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2016-01-01

    Food quality shapes life history traits either directly or through response of individuals to additional environmental factors, such as chemical cues. Plant extracts used as food additives modulate key life history traits; however little is known regarding such effects for olfactory chemical cues. Exploiting an interesting experimental system that involves the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the plant metabolite α-pinene we asked whether exposure of adults to this compound modulates adult longevity and female reproduction in similar manner in a stressful – dietary (protein) restricted (DR) and in a relaxed- full diet (FD) feeding environment. Accordingly, we exposed males and females to the aroma of α-pinene and measured lifespan and age-specific fecundity in the above two dietary contexts. Our results demonstrate that exposure to α-pinene increased longevity in males and fecundity in females only under dietary restricted conditions. In relaxed food conditions, females exposed to α-pinene shifted high egg-laying towards younger ages compared to non-exposed ones. This is the first report demonstrating that a plant compound affects key life history traits of adult olive flies through olfaction. These effects are sex-specific and more pronounced in dietary restricted adults. Possible underlying mechanisms and the ecological significance are discussed. PMID:27339862

  8. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  9. Dose-dependent fate of GFP-expressing Escherichia coli in the alimentary canal of adult house flies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N H V; Nayduch, D

    2016-06-01

    The adult house fly Musca domestica (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) can disseminate bacteria from microbe-rich substrates to areas in which humans and domesticated animals reside. Because bacterial abundance fluctuates widely across substrates, flies encounter and ingest varying amounts of bacteria. This study investigated the dose-dependent survival of bacteria in house flies. Flies were fed four different 'doses' of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Escherichia coli (GFP E. coli) (very low, low, medium, high) and survival was determined at 1, 4, 10 and 22 h post-ingestion by culture and epifluorescent microscopy. Over 22 h, the decline in GFP E. coli was significant in all treatments (P < 0.04) except the very low dose treatment (P = 0.235). Change in survival (ΔS) did not differ between flies fed low and very low doses of bacteria across all time-points, although ΔS in both treatments differed from that in flies fed high and medium doses of bacteria at several time-points. At 4, 10 and 22 h, GFP E. coli ΔS significantly differed between medium and high dose-fed flies. A threshold dose, above which bacteria are detected and destroyed by house flies, may exist and is likely to be immune-mediated. Understanding dose-dependent bacterial survival in flies can help in predicting bacteria transmission potential.

  10. [Occurrence of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in leishmaniasis foci in an ecotourism area around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Assunção Júnior, Antonildes Nascimento; Silva, Orleans; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto

    2010-01-01

    The distribution and relative abundance of sand fly species were studied in the municipality of Barreirinhas, Maranhão State, Brazil, around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, from January to June 2005, August 2004, July 2005, and September/2008. A total of 6,658 specimens were captured. The most frequent species were Lutzomyia whitmani (46.6%), L. longipalpis (29.9%), L. evandroi (17.1%), and L. lenti (4.8%), while L. termitophila, L. flaviscutellata, L. migonei, L. infraspinosa, L. sordellii, L. wellcomei, L. antunesi, and L. trinidadensis represented 1.6%. The presence of Leishmania vector species explains the high detection rate for tegumentary leishmaniasis in 2000 (308.2), 2001 (310.9), 2002 (338.2), and 2005 (313.6) and active foci of human visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Barreirinhas.

  11. The Development of Leishmania tropica in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae): A Comparison of Colonies Differing in Geographical Origin and a Gregarine Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Jancarova, Magdalena; Hlavacova, Jana; Volf, Petr

    2015-11-01

    Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot, 1917 is the main vector of Leishmania tropica; however, its broad geographical range and molecular heterogeneity suggest possible variability in vector competence. We infected laboratory-reared P. sergenti originating from Turkey and Israel to compare their susceptibility to L. tropica. In both tested groups, heavy late-stage infections with the presence of metacyclic forms and colonization of the stomodeal valve were observed. The similar development of Leishmania in both sand fly colonies indicates that the different geographical origin of P. sergenti is not reflected by a different vector competence to L. tropica. Additionally, we tested the effect of the gregarine Psychodiella sergenti on L. tropica coinfections; no apparent differences were found between P. sergenti infected or not infected by gregarines.

  12. The Development of Leishmania tropica in Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae): A Comparison of Colonies Differing in Geographical Origin and a Gregarine Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Jancarova, Magdalena; Hlavacova, Jana; Volf, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot, 1917 is the main vector of Leishmania tropica; however, its broad geographical range and molecular heterogeneity suggest possible variability in vector competence. We infected laboratory-reared P. sergenti originating from Turkey and Israel to compare their susceptibility to L. tropica. In both tested groups, heavy late-stage infections with the presence of metacyclic forms and colonization of the stomodeal valve were observed. The similar development of Leishmania in both sand fly colonies indicates that the different geographical origin of P. sergenti is not reflected by a different vector competence to L. tropica. Additionally, we tested the effect of the gregarine Psychodiella sergenti on L. tropica coinfections; no apparent differences were found between P. sergenti infected or not infected by gregarines. PMID:26336272

  13. Identification of aerobic gut bacteria from the kala azar vector, Phlebotomus argentipes: a platform for potential paratransgenic manipulation of sand flies.

    PubMed

    Hillesland, Heidi; Read, Amber; Subhadra, Bobban; Hurwitz, Ivy; McKelvey, Robin; Ghosh, Kashinath; Das, Pradeep; Durvasula, Ravi

    2008-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an understudied parasitic disease responsible for significant global morbidity and mortality. We are presently investigating a method of disease prevention termed paratransgenesis. In this approach, symbiotic or commensal bacteria are transformed to produce anti-Leishmania molecules. The transformed bacteria are delivered back to sand flies to inactivate the parasite within the vector itself. In this study, we identified 28 distinct gut microorganisms from Phlebotomus argentipes trapped from four visceral leishmaniasis-endemic sites in India. A significant percent of Staphylococcus spp., environmental bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae were identified. Two non-pathogenic organisms, Bacillus megaterium and Brevibacterium linens, were also isolated. Both organisms are also used extensively in industry. Our results indicate that B. megaterium and B. linens are possible candidates for use in a model of paratransgenesis to prevent transmission of Leishmania.

  14. Molecular Detection of Leishmania in Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus at Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Rugani, Jeronimo Marteleto Nunes; Shimabukuro, Paloma Helena Fernandes; Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Autochthonous cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) have been reported since 2001 in the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve located in the municipality of São João das Missões in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. In order to study the presence of Leishmania DNA in phlebotomine sand flies, six entomological collections were carried out from July 2008 through July 2009, using 40 light traps placed in peridomicile areas of 20 randomly selected houses. From October 2011 through August 2012, another six collections were carried out with 20 light traps distributed among four trails (five traps per trail) selected for a previous study of wild and synanthropic hosts of Leishmania. A total of 4,760 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to ten genera and twenty-three species. Single female specimens or pools with up to ten specimens of the same locality, species and date, for Leishmania detection by molecular methods. Species identification of parasites was performed with ITS1 PCR-RFLP using HaeIII enzyme and genetic sequencing for SSU rRNA target. The presence of Leishmania DNA was detected in eleven samples from peridomicile areas: Lu. longipalpis (two), Nyssomyia intermedia (four), Lu. renei (two), Lu. ischnacantha, Micropygomyia goiana and Evandromyia lenti (one pool of each specie). The presence of Leishmania DNA was detected in twelve samples from among the trails: Martinsmyia minasensis (six), Ny. intermedia (three), Mi. peresi (two) and Ev. lenti (one). The presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in Lu. longipalpis and Leishmania braziliensis DNA in Ny. intermediasupport the epidemiological importance of these species of sand flies in the cycle of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. The results also found other species associated with Leishmania DNA, such as Mt. minasensis and Ev. lenti, which may participate in a wild and/or synanthropic cycle of Leishmania transmission in the studied area. PMID:25853254

  15. Of Cattle, Sand Flies and Men: A Systematic Review of Risk Factor Analyses for South Asian Visceral Leishmaniasis and Implications for Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Bern, Caryn; Courtenay, Orin; Alvar, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies performed over the past decade have identified fairly consistent epidemiological patterns of risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. Methods and Principal Findings To inform the current regional VL elimination effort and identify key gaps in knowledge, we performed a systematic review of the literature, with a special emphasis on data regarding the role of cattle because primary risk factor studies have yielded apparently contradictory results. Because humans form the sole infection reservoir, clustering of kala-azar cases is a prominent epidemiological feature, both at the household level and on a larger scale. Subclinical infection also tends to show clustering around kala-azar cases. Within villages, areas become saturated over a period of several years; kala-azar incidence then decreases while neighboring areas see increases. More recently, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases have followed kala-azar peaks. Mud walls, palpable dampness in houses, and peri-domestic vegetation may increase infection risk through enhanced density and prolonged survival of the sand fly vector. Bed net use, sleeping on a cot and indoor residual spraying are generally associated with decreased risk. Poor micronutrient status increases the risk of progression to kala-azar. The presence of cattle is associated with increased risk in some studies and decreased risk in others, reflecting the complexity of the effect of bovines on sand fly abundance, aggregation, feeding behavior and leishmanial infection rates. Poverty is an overarching theme, interacting with individual risk factors on multiple levels. Conclusions Carefully designed demonstration projects, taking into account the complex web of interconnected risk factors, are needed to provide direct proof of principle for elimination and to identify the most effective maintenance activities to prevent a rapid resurgence when interventions are scaled back. More effective

  16. Filth flies associated with municipal solid waste and impact of delay in cover soil application on adult filth fly emergence in a sanitary landfill in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nurita, A T; Hassan, A Abu

    2013-06-01

    Two types of municipal solid waste (MSW), newly arrived and 2 weeks old, were sampled from a sanitary landfill in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia at a fortnightly interval and kept under field conditions for 2 weeks. A total of 480 kg of each type of MSW was sampled to study species composition and impact of delays in cover soil applications on filth fly emergence. Out of 960 kg of MSW sampled, 9.2 ± 0.5 flies emerged per kilogram. Weekly adult fly emergence rates of newly arrived and 2-week-old waste did not differ significantly and MSW remained suitable for fly breeding for up to 1 month. Eight species of flies emerged from the MSW: namely, Musca domestica, Musca sorbens, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Hydrotaea chalcogaster, Chrysomya megacephala, Lucilia cuprina, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Sarcophaga sp. Newly arrived waste was determined to be the main source for M. domestica, C. megacephala and L. cuprina in the landfill owing to significantly higher mean emergence compared with 2-week-old waste. Musca sorbens was found in newly arrived waste but not in 2-week-old waste, suggesting that the species was able to survive transportation to landfill but unable to survive landfill conditions. Hemipyrellia ligurriens, H. chalcogaster and S. nudiseta were not imported into the landfill with MSW and pre-existing flies in and around the landfill itself may be their source. The results show that landfills can be a major source of fly breeding if cover soil or temporary cover is not applied daily or on a regular schedule.

  17. Enriching early adult environment affects the copulation behaviour of a tephritid fly.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José; Aluja, Martín

    2009-07-01

    Early adult experiences in enriched environments favours animal brain and behavioural development ultimately resulting in an increased fitness. However, measuring the effect of environmental enrichment in animal behaviour in nature is often a complicated task, considering the complexity of the natural environment. We expanded previous studies to evaluate how early experience in an enriched environment affects copulation behaviour when animals are confronted with a complex semi-natural environment. Anastrepha ludens flies are an ideal model system for studying these effects because their natural habitats differ significantly from the cage environments in which these flies are reared for biological control purposes. For example, in the field, males form leks of up to six individuals. Each male defends a territory represented by a tree leaf whereas in rearing cages, territories are completely reduced because of the high population density. In a series of three experiments, we observed that male density represented the most influential stimulus for A. ludens male copulation success. Males that experienced lower densities in early adulthood obtained the highest proportion of copulations. By contrast, female copulation behaviour was not altered by female density. However, exposure to natural or artificial leaves in cages in which flies were kept until tested influenced female copulation behaviour. Females that were exposed to enriched environments exhibited a shorter latency to mate and shorter copulation durations with males than females reared in poor environments. We discuss the influence of early experience on male copulation success and female-mating choosiness.

  18. The onion fly modulates the adult eclosion time in response to amplitude of temperature cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Watari, Yasuhiko

    2011-08-01

    To confirm whether the amplitude of diel temperature cycles causes a phase shift of adult eclosion rhythm of the onion fly, Delia antiqua, the peak time ( Ø E) of adult eclosion was determined under various thermoperiods with a fixed temperature either in the warm or cool phase and temperature differences ranging from 1°C to 4°C between the two phases. Irrespective of the temperature level during the warm or cool phase, Ø E occurred earlier with decreasing amplitude of the temperature cycle. The results strongly support the previous conclusion of Tanaka and Watari (Naturwissenschaften 90:76-79, 2003) that D. antiqua responds to the amplitude of temperature cycle as a cue for the circadian adult eclosion timing. The phase advance was larger in thermoperiods with a fixed warm-phase temperature than in those with a fixed cool-phase temperature. This might be ascribed to the interaction between the amplitude and level of temperature in the thermoperiodic regimes.

  19. Landscape associations of the sand fly, Lutzomyia (Heleocyrtomyia) apache (Diptera: Psychodidae), in the southwestern United States: a geographic information system analysis.

    PubMed

    Herrero, M V; Yarnell, W E; Schmidtmann, E T

    2004-12-01

    Landscape associations of the sand fly, Lutzomyia apache, Young and Perkins, in the southwestern U.S. were investigated by light/suction trap sampling and the development of a GIS-generated distribution map. In the mid-Rio Grande River valley, N.M., female and male L. apache were captured in updraft light/suction traps set in desert shrubland, irrigation levee, and bosque vegetation communities. Small numbers of flies were captured, but the presence of males and females in spatially separate and diverse plant communities at two locations suggest that L. apache are dispersed among available vegetation types. These data, along with 22 previously published collection site records, were used with a suite of physiographic features to characterize the biogeographic conditions suitable for L. apache. Suitable conditions encompass three life zones: the Rocky Mountain steppe province, the Colorado semi-plateau province, and the American semi-desert province, all within the dry domain region of the western U.S. The potential range of L. apache was then estimated based on elevation, mean and max - min temperature, precipitation, wet days, and relative humidity. The estimated range includes large contiguous areas in north-central Colorado, east-central New Mexico and west Texas, the lower mid-Rio Grande River valley, and southern Arizona, along with smaller, patchy, areas in northern Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah, and central Idaho. The spatial relationship between the estimated distribution of L. apache and the location of livestock exposed to vesicular stomatitis virus at the onset of recent outbreaks is presented.

  20. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies.

    PubMed

    Chi, Michael W; Griffith, Leslie C; Vecsey, Christopher G

    2014-08-11

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  1. Transmission of MdSGHV among adult house flies, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), via salivary secretions and excreta.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) is a newly characterized, double stranded DNA virus that replicates in the salivary glands of infected adult house flies. Transmission of this non-occluded, enveloped virus within feral populations of M. domestica is believed to be media...

  2. Correlated changes in circadian clocks in response to selection for faster pre-adult development in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pankaj; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Although, circadian clocks are believed to be involved in the regulation of life-history traits such as pre-adult development time and lifespan in fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster, there is very little unequivocal evidence either to support or refute this. Here we report the results of a long-term study aimed at examining the role of circadian clocks in the temporal regulation of pre-adult development in D. melanogaster. We employed laboratory selection protocol for faster pre-adult development on four large, outbred, random mating populations of Drosophila. We assayed pre-adult development time and circadian period of locomotor activity rhythm of these flies at regular intervals of 5-10 generations. After 50 generations of selection, the overall egg-to-adult duration in the selected stocks was reduced by ~29 h (~12.5%) relative to controls, with the selected populations showing a concurrent reduction in time taken to hatching, pupation and wing pigmentation, by ~2, ~16, and ~25.2 h, respectively. Furthermore, selected populations showed a concomitant reduction in the circadian period of locomotor activity rhythm, implying that circadian clocks and development time are correlated. Thus, our study provides the first ever unequivocal evidence for the evolution of circadian clocks as a correlated response to selection for faster pre-adult development, suggesting that circadian clocks and development are linked in fruit flies D. melanogaster.

  3. The relative contributions of developmental plasticity and adult acclimation to physiological variation in the tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera, Glossinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Terblanche, John S.; Chown, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Recent reviews of the adaptive hypotheses for animal responses to acclimation have highlighted the importance of distinguishing between developmental and adult (non-developmental) phenotypic plasticity. However, little work has been undertaken separating the effects of developmental plasticity from adult acclimation in physiological traits. Therefore, we investigate the relative contributions of these two distinct forms of plasticity to the environmental physiology of adult tsetse flies by exposing developing pupae or adult flies to different temperatures and comparing their responses. We also exposed flies to different temperatures during development and re-exposed them as adults to the same temperatures to investigate possible cumulative effects. Critical thermal maxima were relatively inflexible in response to acclimation temperatures (21, 25, 29 °C) with plasticity type accounting for the majority of the variation (49-67 %, nested ANOVA). By contrast, acclimation had a larger effect on critical thermal minima with treatment temperature accounting for most of the variance (84-92 %). Surprisingly little of the variance in desiccation rate could be explained by plasticity type (30-47 %). The only significant effect of acclimation on standard (resting) metabolic rate of adult flies occurred in response to 21 °C, resulting in treatment temperature, rather than plasticity type, accounting for the majority of the variance (30-76 %). This study demonstrates that the stage at which acclimation takes place has significant, though often different effects on several adult physiological traits in G. pallidipes, and therefore that it is not only important to consider the form of plasticity but also the direction of the response and its significance from a life-history perspective. PMID:16513933

  4. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary captures of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Chapare province, tropic of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Ballart, C; Vidal, G; Picado, A; Cortez, M R; Torrico, F; Torrico, M C; Godoy, R E; Lozano, D; Gállego, M

    2016-02-01

    In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most frequent clinical form of leishmaniasis. Bolivia is one of the countries with higher incidence, with 33 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the disease is endemic in 70% of the territory. In the last decade, the number of cases has increased, the age range has expanded, affecting children under 5 years old, and a similar frequency between men and women is found. An entomological study with CDC light traps was conducted in three localities (Chipiriri, Santa Elena and Pedro Domingo Murillo) of the municipality of Villa Tunari, one of the main towns in the Chapare province (Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia). A total of 16 specimens belonging to 6 species of the genus Lutzomyia were captured: Lu. aragaoi, Lu. andersoni, Lu. antunesi, Lu. shawi, Lu. yuilli yuilli and Lu. auraensis. Our results showed the presence of two incriminated vectors of leishmaniasis in an urbanized area and in the intradomicile. More entomological studies are required in the Chapare province to confirm the role of vector sand flies, the intradomiciliary transmission of the disease and the presence of autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  5. Development and Oviposition Preference of House Flies and Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Six Substrates From Florida Equine Facilities.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Geden, C J; Hogsette, J A; Leppla, N C

    2014-11-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine the success and duration of larval development and oviposition preferences on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. Substrates tested were hay soiled with urine and manure, fresh horse manure, pine shaving bedding soiled with urine and manure (<12 h old), pine shaving bedding soiled with urine and manure (aged >72 h in a manure pile), builders sand bedding soiled with urine and manure aged 3 d, and soil from an overgrazed pasture mixed with urine and manure of variable age. House fly larvae failed to develop into adults in hay, soil, and sand substrates. Stable flies preferred to oviposit on substrates with plant material and not on fresh manure. However, when eggs were added to the substrates, pupariation was maximal in fresh manure and the fresh pine shaving substrate. Stable flies developed in all six equine substrates, but development was less successful on the substrates with soil. In choice tests, fresh manure and the fresh pine shaving substrates were the most attractive for house fly oviposition. These substrates also yielded the greatest number of house fly puparia from artificially added eggs. An understanding of oviposition preferences and differential larval development of house flies and stable flies on these substrates may help develop options for reducing pest populations by effectively managing equine waste and selecting appropriate bedding materials.

  6. Toward an understanding of the biochemical and pharmacological complexity of the saliva of a hematophagous sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    PubMed Central

    Charlab, Rosane; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Rowton, Edgar D.; Ribeiro, José M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains powerful pharmacologically active substances and may be a vaccine target against some vector-borne diseases. Subtractive cloning combined with biochemical approaches was used to discover activities in the salivary glands of the hematophagous fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Sequences of nine full-length cDNA clones were obtained, five of which are possibly associated with blood-meal acquisition, each having cDNA similarity to: (i) the bed bug Cimex lectularius apyrase, (ii) a 5′-nucleotidase/phosphodiesterase, (iii) a hyaluronidase, (iv) a protein containing a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), and (v) a RGD-containing peptide with no significant matches to known proteins in the blast databases. Following these findings, we observed that the salivary apyrase activity of L. longipalpis is indeed similar to that of Cimex apyrase in its metal requirements. The predicted isoelectric point of the putative apyrase matches the value found for Lutzomyia salivary apyrase. A 5′-nucleotidase, as well as hyaluronidase activity, was found in the salivary glands, and the CRD-containing cDNA matches the N-terminal sequence of the HPLC-purified salivary anticlotting protein. A cDNA similar to α-amylase was discovered and salivary enzymatic activity demonstrated for the first time in a blood-sucking arthropod. Full-length clones were also found coding for three proteins of unknown function matching, respectively, the N-terminal sequence of an abundant salivary protein, having similarity to the CAP superfamily of proteins and the Drosophila yellow protein. Finally, two partial sequences are reported that match possible housekeeping genes. Subtractive cloning will considerably enhance efforts to unravel the salivary pharmacopeia of blood-sucking arthropods. PMID:10611354

  7. Vibrio cholerae laboratory infection of the adult house fly Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    El-Bassiony, G M; Luizzi, V; Nguyen, D; Stoffolano, J G; Purdy, A E

    2016-12-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that house flies may be capable of specifically harbouring ingested Vibrio cholerae in their digestive tracts. Flies were continuously fed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled, non-O1/non-O139 environmental strains of V. cholerae. Bacterial burdens were quantitatively measured using plate counts and localization was directly observed using confocal microscopy. Vibrio cholerae were present in the fly alimentary canal after just 4 h, and reached a plateau of ∼10(7) colony-forming units (CFU)/fly after 5 days in those flies most tolerant of the pathogen. However, individual flies were resistant to the pathogen: one or more flies were found to carry < 180 V. cholerae CFU at each time-point examined. In flies carrying V. cholerae, the pathogen was predominantly localized to the midgut rather than the rectal space or crop. The proportion of house flies carrying V. cholerae in the midgut was dose-dependent: the continuous ingestion of a concentrated, freshly prepared dose of V. cholerae increased the likelihood that fluorescent cells would be observed. However, V. cholerae may be a transient inhabitant of the house fly. This work represents the first demonstration that V. cholerae can inhabit the house fly midgut, and provides a platform for future studies of host, pathogen and environmental mediators of the successful colonization of this disease vector.

  8. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Mikami, Masaaki; Ueda, Yasuto; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohga, Hideki; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-10-16

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km(-1). By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.03, 0.05), and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, -0.62, 0.11). The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function.

  9. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Mikami, Masaaki; Ueda, Yasuto; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohga, Hideki; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km−1. By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.03, 0.05), and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, −0.62, 0.11). The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function. PMID:26501307

  10. A new whole mitochondrial genome qPCR (WMG-qPCR) with SYBR Green(®) to identify phlebotomine sand fly blood meals.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana Caroline Moura; Magalhães, Rafaela Damasceno; Romcy, Kalil Andrade Mubarac; Freitas, Jeferson Lucas Sousa; Melo, Ana Carolina Fonseca Lindoso; Rodon, Fernanda Cristina Macedo; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Melo, Luciana Magalhães

    2017-03-09

    Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-feeding insects of marked medical and veterinary significance. Investigations on the biology of these insects hold great importance for both ecological and epidemiological purposes. The present work describes a new approach for real-time PCR (qPCR) with SYBR Green(®), named WMG-qPCR, to identify phlebotomine blood meals. The novelty of the assay was to design primers based on the Whole Mitochondrial Genome (WMG) of the potential hosts (human, dog, cat, brown rat and chicken) aiming to amplify through qPCR the regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) which are less conserved among all species. Initially, the best method for mtDNA extraction to be applied in WMG-qPCR was determined. Afterwards, amplification specificities were accessed by cross-reaction assays with mtDNA samples from all animal species, besides phlebotomine DNA. Finally, the selected primers were also tested for their limit of DNA detection through standard curves constructed by serial dilution of blood DNA obtained for each target animal species. The WMG-qPCR was able to detect as low as 10pL of blood, equivalent to 26, 84, 130, and 320fg DNA of cat, human, dog and rat, respectively. The assay was also capable to amplify as low as 5pL of chicken blood (5pg DNA). In conclusion, WMG-qPCR seems to be a promising tool to identify phlebotomine blood meals, with high species-specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, as no supplementary techniques are required, this new approach presents minimized costs and simplified technical-training requirements for execution.

  11. Lufaxin, a Novel Factor Xa Inhibitor from the Salivary Gland of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, Blocks PAR2 Activation and Inhibits Inflammation and Thrombosis in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Nicolas; Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Mizurini, Daniella M.; Gilmore, Dana; Dutra-Oliveira, Angélica; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Teixeira, Clarissa; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Monteiro, Robson Q.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Blood-sucking arthropods salivary glands (SGs) contain a remarkable diversity of antihemostatics. The aim of this study was to identify the unique salivary anticoagulant of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, which remained elusive for decades. Methods and Results Several L. longipalpis salivary proteins were expressed in HEK293 cells and screened for inhibition of blood coagulation. A novel 32.4-kDa molecule, named Lufaxin, was identified as a slow, tight, non-competitive, and reversible inhibitor of Factor Xa (FXa). Notably, Lufaxin primary sequence does not share similarity to any physiological or salivary inhibitors of coagulation reported to date. Lufaxin is specific for FXa and does not interact with FX, DEGR- FXa, or 15 other enzymes. In addition, Lufaxin blocks prothrombinase and increases both PT and aPTT. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that FXa binds Lufaxin with a KD ~3 nM, and isothermal titration calorimetry determined a stoichiometry of 1:1. Lufaxin also prevents PAR2 activation by FXa in the MDA-MB-231 cell line and abrogates edema formation triggered by injection of FXa in the paw of mice. Moreover, Lufaxin prevents FeCl3-induced carotid artery thrombus formation and prolongs aPTT ex vivo, implying that it works as an anticoagulant in vivo. Finally, SG of sandflies was found to inhibit FXa and to interact with the enzyme. Conclusion Lufaxin belongs to a novel family of slow-tight FXa inhibitors, which display antithrombotic and antiinflamatory activities. It is a useful tool to understand FXa structural features and its role in pro-hemostatic and pro-inflammatory events. PMID:22796577

  12. The adult head morphology of the hessian fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Schneeberg, Katharina; Polilov, Alexey; Harris, Marion O; Beutel, Rolf G

    2013-11-01

    The adult head of the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor was examined and described in detail. Morphological features are evaluated with respect to phylogenetic implications and possible effects of miniaturisation. Preserved groundplan features of Diptera are the orthognathous orientation of the head, the vestiture of small microtrichia (possible autapomorphy), filiform antennae inserted frontally between the compound eyes, the presence of a clypeolabral muscle (possible autapomorphy), the presence of labellae (autapomorphy), and the presence of only one premental retractor. Potential synapomorphies of the groups assigned to Bibionomorpha are the origin of M. tentorioscapalis medialis on the frons and the loss of M. craniolacinialis. Further apomorphies of Cecidomyiidae identified in Mayetiola are the unusually massive anterior tentorial arm, the absence of the labro-epipharyngeal food channel, the absence of the lacinia, and the presence of antennal sensilla connected by a seta, a feature not known from any other group of Diptera. The very large size of the compound eyes (in relation to the entire head surface) and the complete loss of ocelli are possible effects of miniaturization. The large size of the brain (in relation to the cephalic lumen), the unusual shape of the optic lobes, and the absence of the frontal ganglion as a separate structure are probably also linked with size reduction.

  13. Impact of Prolonged Absence of Low Temperature on Adult Eclosion Patterns of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2017-03-25

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in tropical export markets because cold temperatures, below 5 °C, in those regions appear insufficient to complete diapause. However, it is unclear how prolonged absence of cold exposure affects diapause termination in R. indifferens. Here, we examined this question by exposing R. indifferens pupae for 40 wk to simulated temperate and tropical conditions of 23 or 26 °C, 40 or 80% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 or 12:12 (L:D) h. Eclosion patterns among fly groups in the four conditions did not differ. For all groups, fly eclosion from pupae not exposed to cold exhibited a bimodal distribution. The first major peak, comprising 3.2% of the total fly emergence, occurred at 1-10 wk. The second major peak, comprising the remaining 96.8%, occurred at a mode of ∼30 wk. Based on responses to no cold and cold (3 ± 1.5 °C) exposures, there were three distinct pupal diapause groups: the first eclosion group was likely nondiapausing pupae; the second eclosion group was likely diapausing pupae; a third group that remained viable but did not produce adults after 40 wk may represent prolonged dormancy pupae. We suggest that eclosion of adults after prolonged absence of cold exposure needs to be incorporated into models for potential fly establishment in warm climates.

  14. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...

  15. Temporal and spatial trends in adult nuisance fly populations on Australian cattle feedlots.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like the US, Australia produces beef on large feedlots. Complaints of fly problems prompted a request for information on biology and management of feedlot flies. Therefore, USDA-CMAVE scientists worked cooperatively for 3 years with Australian scientists to determine species composition, seasonality...

  16. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Edrington, Thomas S; Loneragan, Guy H

    2014-09-01

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing candidates for transmitting Salmonella to cattle because they provide a route of entry when they breach the skin barrier during blood feeding. Using a green fluorescent protein-expressing strain of Salmonella Montevideo (S. Montevideo-GFP), the current study demonstrated that horn fly grooming subsequent to tactile exposure to the bacteria resulted in acquisition of the bacteria on mouthparts as well as microbial ingestion. Consumption of a bloodmeal containing approximately 10(2), approximately 10(4), or 10(6) S. Montevideo-GFP resulted in horn fly colonization for up to 72 h postingestion (PI). Epifluorescent microscopy indicated that the bacteria were not localized to the crop but were observed within the endoperitrophic space, suggesting that regurgitation is not a primary route of transmission. S. Montevideo-GFP were cultured from excreta of 100% of flies beginning 6-7 h PI of a medium or high dose meal and > 12 h PI in excreta from 60% of flies fed the low-dose meal. Animal hides and manure pats are sources for horn flies to acquire the Salmonella and mechanically transmit them to an animal while feeding. Mean quantities of 5.65-67.5 x 10(2) CFU per fly were cultured from fly excreta passed within 1 d after feeding, suggesting the excreta can provide an additional microbial source on the animal's hide.

  17. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-30

    except tor L. olmeca nociva from Brazil, will eventually be deposited in the ’U.S. National Museum. A list of the holotypes is given in Appendix 1. A...Colombia-- " 63. L. cubeniea 9 Cuba (Subgenus Nysomyia) 64. L. duppyortu 9 Jaaica 42. L. edentula 9 Guatemala_ (ungrouped) 43. L. olmeca bicolor d Panama...3465. L. iqumacami d Venemiela 44. L. olmeca nociva d Brazil _ 6G6. L. pi& d Ppa=& 45. L. trapidi d Panama 46. L. ylephiletor d Panama (Subgenus

  18. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    L. edentula, L. longipalpis, L. olmeca , L. ylephlletor and L. panamensis. The recent discovery of Leishmania brazillensis in Belize in humans suggests...transmitted to humans by L. olmeca olmeca and possibly L. crucla’a. A review of the Microps group of Lutzomyia was completed (Appendix II). This is a...1980. 2 ~,1 v, Finca el Zapote, Peten, light trap, 8-IX-1980. K Subgenus Myssomyia 16. L. edentula (de Leon). 18 17. L. olmeca olmeca (Vargas and Diaz

  19. Studies in Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-30

    scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ward and Ready (1975) noted three species-specific topographic patterns, i.e., polygonal, parallel ridging, and volcano...8217 arthtropods of veterinary itl Asala. S. C.I 197a HiI-tmogregatrine hur sandfl in- ptie USDp.Ag "nl 58 le6:387 boh18 isan nks 1.Pistl Chaniotis. B. N...Contribuiin al estudio de los Phmle- CDC, Veterinary Public Health Notes. USDHEW. bwmwnn de Costa Rica (Diptera, Psychodidae). Tesis. CDC. October. pp. 6- 7

  20. Pupal X-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Villalun, MaryAnn; Geib, Scott M; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Stanley, David

    2015-05-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a pest of fruit in the Asia-Pacific region and also, due to quarantine restrictions, a threat to California fruit production. Area-wide suppression of B. dorsalis integrated several approaches including the sterile insect technique (SIT). SIT involves exposing juveniles to gamma radiation and releasing sterile males in substantial numbers, where they successfully compete for wild females. The resulting infertile eggs lead to reduction of the pest populations. Although these protocols are well documented, arising issues about the international transport and distribution of radioactive products is creating difficulties in use of radioactive sources for sterilizing radiation. This led to a shift toward use of X-ray irradiation, which also sterilizes male and female insects. However, use of X-ray technologies is in its infancy and there is virtually no information on the effects of irradiation, other than sterilization, at the physiological and molecular levels of fruit fly biology. We posed the hypothesis that sterilizing male oriental fruit flies via radiation treatment also influences protein expression in the flies. We found that exposing pupae to X-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 31 proteins in adult males. Seven proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, larval cuticle protein 2, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein alpha-B and A chains, general odorant-binding protein 99b, polyubiquitin, and protein disulfide-isomerase) were impacted in both sexes. Some of the proteins act in central energy-generating and in pheromone-signal processing pathways; we infer that males sterilized by X-ray irradiation may be enfeebled in their ability to compete with wild males for females in nature.

  1. Kinetics of Colonization of Adult Queensland Fruit Flies (Bactrocera tryoni) by Dinitrogen-Fixing Alimentary Tract Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K M; Teakle, D S; Macrae, I C

    1994-07-01

    The average total population of bacteria remained constant in the alimentary tracts of adult laboratory-raised Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni) although the insects had ingested large numbers of live bacteria as part of their diet. The mean number of bacteria (about 13 million) present in the gut of the insects from 12 to 55 days after emergence was not significantly modified when, at 5 days after emergence, the flies were fed antibiotic-resistant bacteria belonging to two species commonly isolated from the gut of field-collected B. tryoni. Flies were fed one marked dinitrogen-fixing strain each of either Klebsiella oxytoca or Enterobacter cloacae, and the gastrointestinal tracts of fed flies were shown to be colonized within 7 days by antibiotic-resistant isolates of K. oxytoca but not E. cloacae. The composition of the microbial population also appeared to be stable in that the distribution and frequency of bacterial taxa among individual flies exhibited similar patterns whether or not the flies had been bacteria fed. Isolates of either E. cloacae or K. oxytoca, constituting 70% of the total numbers, were usually dominant, with oxidative species including pseudomonads forming the balance of the population. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria could be spread from one cage of flies to the adjacent surfaces of a second cage within a few days and had reached a control group several meters distant by 3 weeks. Restriction of marked bacteria to the population of one in five flies sampled from the control group over the next 30 days suggested that the bacterial population in the gut of the insect was susceptible to alteration in the first week after emergence but that thereafter it entered a steady state and was less likely to be perturbed by the introduction of newly encountered strains. All populations sampled, including controls, included at least one isolate of the dinitrogen-fixing family Enterobacteriaceae; many were distinct from the marked strains fed to the

  2. Olive fruit fly adult response to attract-and-kill bait stations in greenhouse cages with weathered bait spray and a commercial table olive orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) adults, and olive foliage sprayed with insecticidal bait spray were evaluated for efficacy after 1-4 weeks in outdoor weather. Adults caged for 1-3 days with weathered material on foliage and traps in the greenhouse resulted in h...

  3. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Coleman, Paul C; Bale, Jeffrey S; Hayward, Scott A L

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH) ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy) fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL) diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW) only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement) and chill coma (final appendage twitch) temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively) was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C). We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with favourable

  4. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH) ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy) fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL) diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW) only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement) and chill coma (final appendage twitch) temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively) was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C). We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with favourable

  5. Stable Fly Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult stable flies feed on the blood of humans, pets and livestock, inflicting painful bites. Stable flies need one and sometimes two bloodmeals each day to develop their eggs. Unlike mosquitoes where only the females bloodfeed, both male and female stable flies require blood to reproduce. Stable fl...

  6. Quantitative pteridine fluorescence analysis: A possible age-grading technique for the adult stages of the blow fly Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Victoria; Hannig, Laura; Kinast, Ronja; Verhoff, Marcel A; Rothweiler, Florian; Zehner, Richard; Amendt, Jens

    2017-03-04

    Age estimation of adult flies could extend the possible window of time for calculating the minimal postmortem interval (PMImin) by means of entomological methods. Currently, this is done by estimating the time required by necrophagous Diptera to reach certain juvenile developmental landmarks, and the method only works until the end of metamorphosis and emergence of the adult fly. Particularly at indoor crime scenes, being able to estimate the age of trapped adult flies would be an important tool with which to extend the calculable PMI beyond the developmental period. Recently, several promising age-dependent morphological and physiological characteristics of adult insects have been investigated in medical and forensic entomology, but the results are still preliminary and restricted to a few species. We examined adults of the forensically relevant blow fly species Calliphora vicina and investigated the fluorescence levels of pteridine, a group of metabolites that accumulates in the eyes during aging. From Day 1 to Day 25 post-emergence, flies were kept at three different temperature regimes (20°C, 25°C, and fluctuating temperatures in the context of a field study) and 12:12 L:D. From Day 1 until Day 7, the fluorescence of pteridine was determined on a daily basis, and thereafter, every three days. The achieved fly age was multiplied with the relevant temperature and converted into accumulated degree-days (ADD). The fluorescence level of pteridine increased linear with increasing ADD (females: R(2)=0.777; males: R(2)=0.802). The difference between sexes was significant (p<0.001). Neither head weight nor temperature had an effect on pteridine fluorescence. Because the variation in pteridine fluorescence increased with increasing ADD, it seems favorable to combine several aging methods for more precise results. In context, we emphasize that different body parts of the same specimen can be used to analyze cuticular hydrocarbons (legs), pteridine fluorescence (head

  7. Adult diet and male-female contact effects on female reproductive potential in Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) (Diptera tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L

    2003-04-01

    Wild strains of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) placed into laboratory rearing conditions are subjected to selection pressures caused by the diet, cages, density of flies, and other factors. Selection that changes mating behavior of the strain may result in less effective males released in sterile insect programs. Tests were performed to examine the effects of protein in diet and adult interactions on egg production and mating during sexual maturation of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) in laboratory cages. Flies were offspring of wild flies collected from Chiapas or Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and reared on Valencia oranges. Experiments demonstrated effects of yeast hydrolysate protein in adult diet and pairing with males on production of mature and immature eggs, numbers of females producing eggs, and mating with females aged 15 d. Addition of protein to 4% fructose in the adult diet approximately tripled mature egg production in females maintained for the total maturation period with an equal number of males. Females that matured without males produced approximately 33% more-mature eggs when fed protein than those fed no protein. Total egg production of females matured without males and fed sugar only or sugar with protein was more than twice that of females matured with males. Tests to examine the effects of male and female diet separately on female egg production showed slightly higher egg production in females fed protein, or females paired with males fed protein, but these differences were not significant. The most definitive effects were that combining wild strain females and males in cages during maturation reduced egg production. This effect was greatest when flies were not fed protein.

  8. Spatial distribution, seasonality and trap preference of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), adults on a 12-hectare zoological park

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Gregory A; Hogsette, Jerome A

    2014-01-01

    Although this study was originally designed to compare the efficacy of two different stable fly traps within 10 sites at a 12-ha zoological park, seasonal and spatial population distribution data were simultaneously collected. The two traps included an Alsynite fiberglass cylindrical trap (AFT) and a blue-black cloth target modified into a cylindrical trap (BCT). Both traps were covered with sticky sleeves to retain the attracted flies. Paired trap types were placed at sites that were 20–100 m apart. Distance between trap pairs within sites ranged from 1 to 2 m, and was limited by exhibit design and geography. Both trap types reflect/refract ultraviolet (UV) light which attracts adult S. calcitrans. During this 15-week study, AFTs captured significantly more stable flies than the BCTs at 8 of the 10 sites. Of the 12,557 stable flies found on the traps, 80% and 20% were captured by AFTs and BCTs, respectively. The most attractive trap site at the zoo was at the goat exhibit where most stable flies were consistently captured throughout the study. This exhibit was 100 m from the other exhibits, next to a small lake, and adjacent to a field containing pastured exotic ungulates, rhea and ostrich. Stable fly populations peaked in early June then slowly decreased as the last trapping date approached. We believe this to be the first seasonality data collected at a zoological park. Results demonstrate the use of urban zoos by stable flies and the need to develop environmentally friendly stable fly management systems for zoos. Zoo Biol. 33:228–233, 2014. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24740859

  9. Flying the nest: a challenge for young adults with cystic fibrosis and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Boisen, Kirsten A; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf; Pressler, Tacjana; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Objectives As young patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) grow up, they are expected to take increasing responsibility for the treatment and care of their disease. The aim of this study was to explore the disease-related challenges faced by young adults with CF and their parents, when they leave home. Materials and methods A questionnaire survey of Danish patients with CF aged 18–25 years and their parents was conducted. The questionnaires were based on focus-group interviews with young adults with CF and their parents, and addressed challenges faced in the transition phase between childhood and adulthood, including different areas of disease management in everyday life. Results Among all of the patients invited, 62% (n=58/94) of young adults and 53% (n=99/188) of their parents participated in the study. In total, 40% of the 18- to 25-year-olds were living with their parents, and the parents continued to play an active role in the daily care of their offspring’s disease. Among the young adults who had left home, both the patients and their parents reported many difficulties regarding disease management; the young adults reported difficulties in contacting social services and in affording and preparing sufficient CF-focused meals, and their parents reported difficulties in answering questions concerning social rights and CF in general, and in knowing how to give their offspring the best help, how much to interfere, and how to relinquish control of managing their offspring’s disease. Conclusion Young adults with CF who have left home have difficulties in handling the disease and their parents have difficulties in knowing how to give them the best help. There is an urgent need for holistic CF transitional care, including ensuring that young adults master the essential skills for self-management as they leave their parents. PMID:28243066

  10. Isolation and identification of bacteria associated with adult laboratory Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Kuzina, L V; Peloquin, J J; Vacek, D C; Miller, T A

    2001-04-01

    From the guts of new and old colonies (female and male) of Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae), we identified a total of 18 different bacterial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Vibrionaceae, Micrococcaceae, Deinococcacea, Bacillaceae, and the genus Listeria. Enterobacter, Providencia, Serratia, and Staphylococcus spp. were the most frequently isolated genera, with Citrobacter, Streptococcus, Aerococcus, and Listeria found less frequently. We found Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter sakazakii, Providencia stuartii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa only in the new colony, Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae spp. pneumoniae only in the old colony. We also studied resistance/sensitivity to 12 antibiotics for six bacterial isolates such as Enterobacter cloacae, E. sakazakii, K. pneumoniae spp., Providencia rettgeri, P. aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus. Isolates on the whole were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin (five of six isolates) and sensitive to rifampin and streptomycin (six of six isolates). Antibiotic resistance profiles might be useful characteristics for distinguishing among species and strains of these bacteria, probably having ecological significance with respect to intra- and inter-specific competition within host cadavers, and could have implications for the utility of these organisms for biological control, including the alternative control strategy, paratransgenesis.

  11. Sand Volcano Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

  12. Inducible Fli-1 gene deletion in adult mice modifies several myeloid lineage commitment decisions and accelerates proliferation arrest and terminal erythrocytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Starck, Joëlle; Weiss-Gayet, Michèle; Gonnet, Colette; Guyot, Boris; Vicat, Jean-Michel; Morlé, François

    2010-12-02

    This study investigated the role of the ETS transcription factor Fli-1 in adult myelopoiesis using new transgenic mice allowing inducible Fli-1 gene deletion. Fli-1 deletion in adult induced mild thrombocytopenia associated with a drastic decrease in large mature megakaryocytes number. Bone marrow bipotent megakaryocytic-erythrocytic progenitors (MEPs) increased by 50% without increase in erythrocytic and megakaryocytic common myeloid progenitor progeny, suggesting increased production from upstream stem cells. These MEPs were almost unable to generate pure colonies containing large mature megakaryocytes, but generated the same total number of colonies mainly identifiable as erythroid colonies containing a reduced number of more differentiated cells. Cytological and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses of MEP progeny in semisolid and liquid cultures confirmed the drastic decrease in large mature megakaryocytes but revealed a surprisingly modest (50%) reduction of CD41-positive cells indicating the persistence of a megakaryocytic commitment potential. Symmetrical increase and decrease of monocytic and granulocytic progenitors were also observed in the progeny of purified granulocytic-monocytic progenitors and common myeloid progenitors. In summary, this study indicates that Fli-1 controls several lineages commitment decisions at the stem cell, MEP, and granulocytic-monocytic progenitor levels, stimulates the proliferation of committed erythrocytic progenitors at the expense of their differentiation, and is a major regulator of late stages of megakaryocytic differentiation.

  13. Temporal changes in the bacterial community of animal feces and their correlation with stable fly oviposition, larval development, and adult fitness

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Thais A.; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    Stable flies are blood-feeding insects with a great negative impact on animals world wide. Larvae develop primarily in animal manure and bacteria are essential for larval development; however, the principle of this dependence is not understood. We hypothesized that as the microbial community of animal manure changes over time, it plays an important role in stable fly fitness. Two-choice bioassays were conducted using 2 week old horse manure (control) and aging horse manure (fresh to 5 week old) to evaluate the effect of manure age on stable fly oviposition. Our data showed that fresh feces did not stimulate oviposition and that the attractiveness increased as manure aged but started to decline after 3 weeks. Bioassays assessing the effect of manure age at the time of oviposition on larval development demonstrated that 1–3 week old manure supported larval development significantly better than fresh, 4, and 5 week old manure. In addition, adult fitness (body size) was significantly higher in flies from 1 and 2 week old manure comparing to that of all other treatments. Analysis of the bacterial community of aging horse manure by 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA revealed a great reduction in bacterial diversity and richness from fresh to 1–5 week old manure and a major shift from strict anaerobes in fresh manure to facultative anaerobes and strict aerobes in aged manure. Overall, the microbial community of 2 and 3 week old horse manure with its dominant bacterial taxa Rhizobium, Devosia, and Brevundimonas stimulated stable fly oviposition the most and provided a suitable habitat for larval development. These bacteria represent the candidates for studies focused on better understanding of stable fly – microbial interactions. PMID:25426108

  14. A new species, new immature stages, and new synonymy in Australian Dasybasis flies (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini).

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K

    2015-04-09

    Australian beach sand is a productive habitat for lower brachyceran fly larvae but often overlooked by collectors. We collected two species of tabanid larvae from coastal beach sand in southern New South Wales in August 2013. Both species belong to the Dasybasis macrophthalma species-group of Mackerras (1959), one a new species, and the other D. exulans (Erichson, 1842). We describe both new immature stages and the new species adult as Dasybasis rieki sp. nov. (Diptera: Tabanidae: Diachlorini). Trojan (1994b) elevated the D. macrophthalma species group to the genus Sznablius. We review the evidence for the generic status of Sznablius, and synonymize it with Dasybasis.

  15. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  16. Intradermal Immunization of Leishmania donovani Centrin Knock-Out Parasites in Combination with Salivary Protein LJM19 from Sand Fly Vector Induces a Durable Protective Immune Response in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Fiuza, Jacqueline Araújo; Dey, Ranadhir; Davenport, Dwann; Abdeladhim, Maha; Meneses, Claudio; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Nakhasi, Hira L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease and is fatal if untreated. There is no vaccine available against leishmaniasis. The majority of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) or VL develop a long-term protective immunity after cure from infection, which indicates that development of an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis is possible. Such protection may also be achieved by immunization with live attenuated parasites that do not cause disease. We have previously reported a protective response in mice, hamsters and dogs with Leishmania donovani centrin gene knock-out parasites (LdCen-/-), a live attenuated parasite with a cell division specific centrin1 gene deletion. In this study we have explored the effects of salivary protein LJM19 as an adjuvant and intradermal (ID) route of immunization on the efficacy of LdCen-/- parasites as a vaccine against virulent L. donovani. Methodology/Principal Findings To explore the potential of a combination of LdCen-/- parasites and salivary protein LJM19 as vaccine antigens, LdCen-/- ID immunization followed by ID challenge with virulent L. donovani were performed in hamsters in a 9-month follow up study. We determined parasite burden (serial dilution), antibody production (ELISA) and cytokine expression (qPCR) in these animals. Compared to controls, animals immunized with LdCen-/- + LJM19 induced a strong antibody response, a reduction in spleen and liver parasite burden and a higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines after immunization and one month post-challenge. Additionally, a low parasite load in lymph nodes, spleen and liver, and a non-inflamed spleen was observed in immunized animals 9 months after the challenge infection. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that an ID vaccination using LdCen-/-parasites in combination with sand fly salivary protein LJM19 has the capability to confer long lasting protection against visceral leishmaniasis that is comparable to intravenous or

  17. Flying wings / flying fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper has documented the historical relationships between various classes of all lifting vehicles, which includes the flying wing, all wing, tailless, lifting body, and lifting fuselage. The diversity in vehicle focus was to ensure that all vehicle types that map have contributed to or been influenced by the development of the classical flying wing concept was investigated. The paper has provided context and perspective for present and future aircraft design studies that may employ the all lifting vehicle concept. The paper also demonstrated the benefit of developing an understanding of the past in order to obtain the required knowledge to create future concepts with significantly improved aerodynamic performance.

  18. Host status of Vaccinium reticulatum (Ericaceae) to invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T

    2011-04-01

    Ohelo (Vaccicinium reticulatum Small) (Ericaceae) is a native Hawaiian plant that has commercial potential in Hawaii as a nursery crop to be transplanted for berry production or for sale as a potted ornamental. No-choice infestation studies were conducted to determine whether ohelo fruit are hosts for four invasive tephritid fruit fly species. Ohelo berries were exposed to gravid female flies ofBactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly),or Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) in screen cages outdoors for 24 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Only B. dorsalis successfully attacked and developed in ohelo berries. In total, 1570 berries produced 10 puparia, all of which emerged as adults, for a fruit infestation rate of 0.0064% and an average of 0.0053 puparia per gram of fruit. By comparison, papaya fruit used as controls produced an average of 1.44 B. dorsalis puparia per g of fruit. Ohelo berry is a marginal host for B. dorsalis and apparently a nonhost for C. capitata, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons. Commercial plantings of ohelo will rarely be attacked by fruit flies in Hawaii.

  19. Evidence for community structure and habitat partitioning in coastal dune stiletto flies at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dunes system, California

    PubMed Central

    Holston, Kevin C.

    2005-01-01

    This study provides empirical evidence for habitat selection by North American species of stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae), based on local distributions of adults and immatures, and the first hypothesis of community assemblages proposed for a stiletto fly community. Sites at three localities within the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system were sampled for stiletto flies in 1997 and 2001 by sifting sand, malaise trapping, and hand netting. Nine species were collected from four ecological zones and three intermediate ecological zones: Acrosathe novella (Coquillett), Brachylinga baccata (Loew), Nebritus powelli (Webb and Irwin), Ozodiceromyia sp., Pherocera sp., Tabudamima melanophleba (Loew), Thereva comata Loew, Thereva elizabethae Holston and Irwin, and Thereva fucata Loew. Species associations of adults and larvae with habitats and ecological zones were consistent among sites, suggesting that local distributions of coastal dune stiletto fly species are influenced by differences in habitat selection. In habitats dominated by the arroyo willow,Salix lasiolepsis, stiletto fly larvae of three species were collected in local sympatry, demonstrating that S. lasiolepsis stands along stabilized dune ridges can provide an intermediate ecological zone linking active dune and riparian habitat in the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system. Sites dominated by European beach grass, Ammophilia arenaria, blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Monterey cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa, are considered unsuitable for stiletto flies, which emphasizes the importance of terrestrial habitats with native vegetation for stiletto fly species. The local distributions of stiletto fly species at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system allow the community to be divided into three assemblages; active dune, pioneer scrub, and scrub-riparian. These assemblages may be applicable to other coastal dune stiletto fly communities, and may have particular relevance to stiletto fly species collected in European coastal dunes. The

  20. Evidence for community structure and habitat partitioning in coastal dune stiletto flies at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dunes system, California.

    PubMed

    Holston, Kevin C

    2005-12-22

    This study provides empirical evidence for habitat selection by North American species of stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae), based on local distributions of adults and immatures, and the first hypothesis of community assemblages proposed for a stiletto fly community. Sites at three localities within the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system were sampled for stiletto flies in 1997 and 2001 by sifting sand, malaise trapping, and hand netting. Nine species were collected from four ecological zones and three intermediate ecological zones: Acrosathe novella (Coquillett), Brachylinga baccata (Loew), Nebritus powelli (Webb and Irwin), Ozodiceromyia sp., Pherocera sp., Tabudamima melanophleba (Loew), Thereva comata Loew, Thereva elizabethae Holston and Irwin, and Thereva fucata Loew. Species associations of adults and larvae with habitats and ecological zones were consistent among sites, suggesting that local distributions of coastal dune stiletto fly species are influenced by differences in habitat selection. In habitats dominated by the arroyo willow,Salix lasiolepsis, stiletto fly larvae of three species were collected in local sympatry, demonstrating that S. lasiolepsis stands along stabilized dune ridges can provide an intermediate ecological zone linking active dune and riparian habitat in the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system. Sites dominated by European beach grass, Ammophilia arenaria, blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus, and Monterey cypress, Cupressus macrocarpa, are considered unsuitable for stiletto flies, which emphasizes the importance of terrestrial habitats with native vegetation for stiletto fly species. The local distributions of stiletto fly species at the Guadalupe-Nipomo dune system allow the community to be divided into three assemblages; active dune, pioneer scrub, and scrub-riparian. These assemblages may be applicable to other coastal dune stiletto fly communities, and may have particular relevance to stiletto fly species collected in European coastal dunes. The

  1. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi and Yeasts From Adult House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Captured From the Hospital Environments in Ahvaz City, Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Kassiri, Hamid; Zarrin, Majid; Veys-Behbahani, Rahele; Faramarzi, Sama; Kasiri, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Musca domestica L., 1758 is capable of transferring a number of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites to animals and humans. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify medically important filamentous fungi and yeasts from adult M. domestica collected from two wards of three hospital environments in Ahvaz city, Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran. The common house flies were caught by a sterile net. These insects were washed in a solution of 1% sodium hypochlorite for 3 min and twice in sterile distilled water for 1 min. The flies were individually crushed with sterile swabs in sterile test tubes. Then 2 ml of sterile normal saline (0.85%) was added to each tube, and the tube was centrifuged for 5 min. The supernatant was then discarded, and the remaining sediment was inoculated with a sterile swab in the Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol. Isolation and identification of fungi were made by standard mycological methods. In this research, totally 190 M. domestica from hospital environments were captured. In total, 28 fungal species were isolated. The main fungi isolated were Aspergillus spp. (67.4%), Penicillium sp. (11.6%), Mucorales sp. (11%), Candida spp. (10.5%), and Rhodotorula sp. (8.4%). Among the house flies caught at the hospitals, about 80% were found to carry one or more medically important species of fungi. This study has established that common house flies carry pathogenic fungi in the hospital environments of Ahvaz. The control of M. domestica in hospitals is essential in order to control the nosocomial fungal infections in patients.

  2. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Liedo, P.; Salgado, S.; Oropeza, A.; Toledo, J.

    2007-03-15

    Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult emergence, they were randomly divided into 3 groups and the emerging adults were reared under the following conditions: (1) Metapa System (MS, control), consisting of 70 x 45 x 15 cm aluminum frame, mesh covered cages, with a density of 2,200 flies per cage and a 1:1 initial sex ratio; (2) Insert System (IS), with the same type of cage, and the same fly density and sex ratio as in the MS treatment, but containing twelve Plexiglas pieces (23 x 8.5 cm) to provide additional horizontal surface areas inside the cage; and (3) Sex-ratio System (SS), same as IS, but in this case the initial male: female ratio was 4:1. Three d later, newly emerged females were introduced, so the ratio became 3:1 and on the 6th d another group of newly emerged females was added to provide a 2:1 final sex ratio, at which the final density reached 1,675 flies per cage. The eggs collected from each of the 3 treatments were reared independently following standard procedures and the adults were held under the same experimental conditions. This process was repeated for over 10 to 13 generations (1 year). The experiment was repeated 3 times in 3 consecutive years, starting each replicate with a new collection of wild flies. Life tables were constructed for each treatment at the parental, 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations. Standard quality control parameters (pupation at 24 h, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability), were estimated for each treatment every third generation in the third year. For the last generation each year, mating competitiveness was evaluated in field cage tests

  3. Impact of prolonged absence of low temperature on adult eclosion patterns of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in ...

  4. Effects of Several Newer Insecticides and Kaolin on Oviposition and Adult Mortality in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of newer insecticides and kaolin-based particle film (Surround™ WP Crop Protectant), on oviposition and mortality in the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, were determined. In a no-choice experiment, azinphos-methyl sprayed on cherries reduced oviposition by 98.5% comp...

  5. Larval dietary wheat germ oil influences age-specific protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in essential dietary components alter global gene expression patterns in animals. We reported on a proteomics study designed to identify molecular markers of deficiencies in culture media developed for the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. In that study, we found significant changes i...

  6. Sands-on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandervoort, Frances S.

    1989-01-01

    Provides information for the development of a lesson which teaches students about sand, discusses facts about sands, sand studies, life in the sands, and sand activities. Includes diagrams showing the range in sand grain shape, formation of sand ripples, and sand samples from around the world. (RT)

  7. Insecticidal activity of a Moroccan strain of Streptomyces phaeochromogenes LD-37 on larvae, pupae and adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Samri, S E; Baz, M; Ghalbane, I; El Messoussi, S; Zitouni, A; El Meziane, A; Barakate, M

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is considered the most important fruit pest worldwide. Its management is mainly based on the use of chemical insecticides. Although these conventional pesticides are effective at high doses, they cause considerable human health and environment problems. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess insecticidal activity of Moroccan actinobacteria against C. capitata. A total of 12 preselected actinobacteria isolated from various Moroccan habitats were screened for their insecticidal activity against larvae, pupae and adults of C. capitata. Four actinobacteria isolates were significantly active against the first-instar larvae, and nine were active against the medfly adult, while no significant mortality was obtained against the third-instar larval and pupal stages. Among the selected isolates, the biological screening revealed that strain Streptomyces LD-37, which showed 99.4% similarity with Streptomyces phaeochromogenes, exhibited the maximal corrected larval mortality of 98%. Moreover, the isolates AS1 and LD-37 showed the maximum significant corrected mortality against adults of 32.5 and 28.2%, respectively. The crude extract obtained from a fermented culture of strain S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 was separated into six fractions by thin layer chromatography. Fractions F3 and F4 caused a significant corrected larval mortality of 66.7 and 53.3%, respectively; whereas the maximum reduction in adult emergence was obtained with fraction F4. This finding could be useful for utilizing S. phaeochromogenes LD-37 as an alternative to chemical insecticides in pest management of C. capitata.

  8. Adult blood-feeding tsetse flies, trypanosomes, microbiota and the fluctuating environment in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Anne; Ponton, Fleur; Simo, Gustave

    2015-07-01

    The tsetse fly vector transmits the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, responsible for Human African Trypanosomiasis, one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Despite a recent decline in new cases, it is still crucial to develop alternative strategies to combat this disease. Here, we review the literature on the factors that influence trypanosome transmission from the fly vector to its vertebrate host (particularly humans). These factors include climate change effects to pathogen and vector development (in particular climate warming), as well as the distribution of host reservoirs. Finally, we present reports on the relationships between insect vector nutrition, immune function, microbiota and infection, to demonstrate how continuing research on the evolving ecology of these complex systems will help improve control strategies. In the future, such studies will be of increasing importance to understand how vector-borne diseases are spread in a changing world.

  9. Adult blood-feeding tsetse flies, trypanosomes, microbiota and the fluctuating environment in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Anne; Ponton, Fleur; Simo, Gustave

    2015-01-01

    The tsetse fly vector transmits the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei, responsible for Human African Trypanosomiasis, one of the most neglected tropical diseases. Despite a recent decline in new cases, it is still crucial to develop alternative strategies to combat this disease. Here, we review the literature on the factors that influence trypanosome transmission from the fly vector to its vertebrate host (particularly humans). These factors include climate change effects to pathogen and vector development (in particular climate warming), as well as the distribution of host reservoirs. Finally, we present reports on the relationships between insect vector nutrition, immune function, microbiota and infection, to demonstrate how continuing research on the evolving ecology of these complex systems will help improve control strategies. In the future, such studies will be of increasing importance to understand how vector-borne diseases are spread in a changing world. PMID:25500509

  10. Influence of media type and moisture on adult development and pupal mortality in Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2013-06-01

    The influence of media type and moisture on adult development and pupal mortality in western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae), was assessed using the pupal-adult and the larval-pupal stage. Inside containers, a higher percent of flies that emerged from dry loam was deformed (44.2%, 1-cm-depth loam; 84.4%, 5-cm-depth loam) than flies from 16% moist loam and dry and 16% moist lab soil (peat moss-sand mix) (0-14.9%). Percent of flies deformed from dry sand (22.1%, 1-cm depth; 49.5%, 5-cm depth) was greater than from 16% moist sand and dry and 16% moist peat moss (0-10.5%). Percents of flies deformed from 8% moist loam, lab soil, sand, and peat moss (0-5.8%) did not differ. Pupae suffered higher mortality at 7 and 14 d after larvae were dropped onto dry loam and dry sand (68.2-94.0%) than dry lab soil and dry peat moss (3.0-53.0%); respective mortalities at 21 and 28 d were similar (81.3-96.0 versus 64.7-97.9%). Pupal mortality in moist media was lower (0.5-40.3%) than in dry media. In outdoor tests, pupal mortality was also higher in dry loam than other dry media. In nature, 60.9% of pupae in dry sandy loams in late summer were dead. Results suggest R. indifferens has not yet evolved to fully cope with dry soils and that pupation in media with traits similar to those of peat moss or a peat moss-sand mix could reduce negative effects of dry environments on fly survival.

  11. Antibacterial activities of multi drug resistant Myroides odoratimimus bacteria isolated from adult flesh flies (Diptera: sarcophagidae) are independent of metallo beta-lactamase gene

    PubMed Central

    Dharne, M.S.; Gupta, A.K.; Rangrez, A.Y.; Ghate, H.V.; Patole, M.S.; Shouche, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are well known cause of myiasis and their gut bacteria have never been studied for antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Antimicrobial studies of Myroides spp. are restricted to nosocomial strains. A Gram-negative bacterium, Myroides sp., was isolated from the gut of adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga sp.) and submitted to evaluation of nutritional parameters using Biolog GN, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, susceptibility to various antimicrobials by disc diffusion method and detection of metallo β-lactamase genes (TUS/MUS). The antagonistic effects were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens, environmental samples and insect mid gut. Bacterial species included were Aeromonas hydrophila, A. culicicola, Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Weissella confusa, Escherichia coli, Ochrobactrum sp., Serratia sp., Kestersia sp., Ignatzschineria sp., Bacillus sp. The Myroides sp. strain was resistant to penicillin-G, erythromycin, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim and tobramycin. These strain showed antibacterial action against all bacterial strains except W. confusa, Ignatzschineria sp., A. hydrophila and M. morganii subsp. sibonii. The multidrug resistance of the strain was similar to the resistance of clinical isolates, inhibiting growth of bacteria from clinical, environmental and insect gut samples. The metallo β-lactamase (TUS/MUS) genes were absent, and resistance due to these genes was ruled out, indicating involvement of other secretion machinery. PMID:24031236

  12. Comparing Species Composition of Passive Trapping of Adult Flies with Larval Collections from the Body during Scene-Based Medicolegal Death Investigations.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Michelle R

    2017-03-24

    Collection of insects at the scene is one of the most important aspects of forensic entomology and proper collection is one of the biggest challenges for any investigator. Adult flies are highly mobile and ubiquitous at scenes, yet their link to the body and the time of colonization (TOC) and post-mortem interval (PMI) estimates is not well established. Collection of adults is widely recommended for casework but has yet to be rigorously evaluated during medicolegal death investigations for its value to the investigation. In this study, sticky card traps and immature collections were compared for 22 cases investigated by the Harris County Institute of Forensic Sciences, Houston, TX, USA. Cases included all manner of death classifications and a range of decomposition stages from indoor and outdoor scenes. Overall, the two methods successfully collected at least one species in common only 65% of the time, with at least one species unique to one of the methods 95% of the time. These results suggest that rearing of immature specimens collected from the body should be emphasized during training to ensure specimens directly associated with the colonization of the body can be identified using adult stages if necessary.

  13. Effect of larval growth conditions on adult body mass and long-distance flight endurance in a wood-boring beetle: Do smaller beetles fly better?

    PubMed

    Brown, Stav; Soroker, Victoria; Ribak, Gal

    2017-02-22

    The tropical fig borer, Batocera rufomaculata De Geer, is a large beetle that is a pest on a number of fruit trees, including fig and mango. Adults feed on the leaves and twigs and females lay their eggs under the bark of the tree. The larvae bore into the tree trunk, causing substantial damage that may lead to the collapse and death of the host tree. We studied how larval development under inferior feeding conditions (experienced during development in dying trees) affects flight endurance in the adult insect. We grew larvae either in their natural host or on sawdust enriched with stale fig tree twigs. Flight endurance of the adults was measured using a custom-built flight-mill. Beetles emerging from the natural host were significantly larger but flew shorter distances than beetles reared on less favourable substrates. There was no difference in the allometric slope of wing area with body mass between the beetles groups; however flight muscle mass scaled with total body mass with an exponent significantly lower than 1.0. Hence, smaller beetles had proportionally larger flight muscles. These findings suggest that beetles that developed smaller as a result from poor nutritional conditions in deteriorating hosts, are better equipped to fly longer distances in search of a new host tree.

  14. There is no magic fruit fly trap: multiple biological factors influence the response of adult Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) individuals to MultiLure traps baited with BioLure or NuLure.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2009-02-01

    Field-cage experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of MultiLure traps (Better World MFG Inc., Fresno, CA) baited with NuLure (Miller Chemical and Fertilizer Corp., Hanover, PA) or BioLure (Suterra LLC, Inc., Bend, OR) in capturing individually marked Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), of both sexes. Experimental treatments involved wild and laboratory-reared flies of varying ages (2-4 and 15-18 d) and dietary histories (sugar only, open fruit, open fruit plus chicken feces, and hydrolyzed protein mixed with sugar). Data were divided into two parts: total captures over a 24-h period and trap visits/landings, entrances into interior of trap ,and effective captures (i.e., drowning in liquid bait or water) over a 5-h detailed observation period (0600-1100 hours). The response to the two baits varied by fly species, gender, physiological state, age, and strain. Importantly, there were several highly significant interactions among these factors, underlining the complex nature of the response. The two baits differed in attractiveness for A. obliqua but not A. ludens. The effect of strain (wild versus laboratory flies) was significant for A. ludens but not A. obliqua. For effect of dietary history, adults of both species, irrespective of sex, were significantly less responsive to both baits when fed on a mixture of protein and sugar when compared with adults fed the other diets. Finally, we confirmed previous observations indicating that McPhail-type traps are quite inefficient. Considering the total 24-h fly tenure in the cage, and independent of bait treatment and fly type (i.e., strain, adult diet, gender and age), of a total of 2,880 A. obliqua and 2,880 A. ludens adults released into the field cages over the entire study (15 replicates), only 564 (19.6%) and 174 (6%) individuals, respectively, were effectively caught. When only considering the 5-h detailed

  15. Pest Control on the "Fly"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

  16. Efficacy of Light and Nonlighted Carbon Dioxide-Baited Traps for Adult Sand Fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) Surveillance in Three Counties of Mesrata, Libya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    and mean monthly temperatures from 14.8uC to 25.9uC (WorldClim 2005). An abun- dance of halophyte plants, namely Zizyphus lotus L. (Rhamnaceae) and...official duties. REFERENCES CITED Alexander B. 2000. Sampling methods for phleboto- mine sandflies . Med Vet Entomol 14:109–122. Ashford RW, Chance ML...Ftaiti A, Ben-Ishmail R. 1993. Leishman- iasis in Lybia and studies on sandflies . Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis 70:465–466. El-Buni AA, Jabeal I, Ben-Darif AT

  17. Day-to-day variations in the amplitude of the soil temperature cycle and impact on adult eclosion timing of the onion fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Watari, Yasuhiko

    2016-12-01

    The onion fly Delia antiqua advances its eclosion timing with decreasing temperature amplitude to compensate for a depth-dependent phase delay of the zeitgeber. To elucidate whether or not naturally occurring day-to-day variations in the amplitude of soil temperature cycle disturb this compensatory response, we monitored daily variations in the temperature amplitude in natural soils and evaluated the impact on adult eclosion timing. Our results indicated that both median and variance of the soil temperature amplitude become smaller as depth increases. Insertion of a larger temperature fluctuation into the thermoperiod with smaller temperature amplitude induced a stronger phase delay, while insertion of a smaller temperature fluctuation into the thermoperiod with larger temperature amplitude had a weaker phase-advancing effect. It is therefore expected that larger diurnal temperature fluctuations disturb the compensatory response, particularly if they occur at deeper locations, while smaller temperature fluctuations do so only at shallower locations. Under natural conditions, however, the probability of occurrence of smaller or larger temperature fluctuations in shallower or deeper soils, respectively, is relatively small. Thus, naturally occurring day-to-day variations in the temperature amplitude rarely disturb the compensatory response, thereby having a subtle or negligible impact on adult eclosion timing.

  18. Biology and control of tabanids, stable flies and horn flies.

    PubMed

    Foil, L D; Hogsette, J A

    1994-12-01

    Tabanids are among the most free-living adult flies which play a role as livestock pests. A single blood meal is used as a source of energy for egg production (100-1,000 eggs per meal), and females of certain species can oviposit before a blood meal is obtained (autogeny). Therefore, the maintenance of annual populations requires successful oviposition by only 2% of females. Wild animal blood sources are usually available to maintain annual tabanid populations. Larval habitats are also independent of domestic livestock. Thus, the use of repellents or partial repellents is the only effective chemical strategy to reduce the incidence of tabanids on livestock. Permanent traps (and possibly treated silhouette traps) can be employed to intercept flies. Selective grazing or confinement can also reduce the impact of tabanids. Stable fly adults are dependent on vertebrate blood for survival and reproduction, but the amount of time spent in contact with the host is relatively small. Stable fly larvae develop in manure, spilled feed and decaying vegetation. Management of larval habitats by sanitation is the key to stable fly control. Treatment of animals with residual insecticides can aid in control; thorough application to the lower body parts of livestock is important. Proper use of modified traps, using either treated targets or solar-powered electrocution grids, can be effective in reducing stable fly populations. Adult horn flies spend the major part of their time on the host, and the larvae are confined to bovid manure. Therefore, almost any form of topical insecticide application for livestock is effective against horn flies, in the absence of insecticide resistance. Treatments should be applied when economic benefit is possible; economic gains are associated with increased weaning weights and weight gains of yearling and growing cattle. Oral chemical treatments (insect growth regulators or insecticides) administered at appropriate rates via bolus, water, food or

  19. Effect of larval host food substrate on egg load dynamics, egg size and adult female size in four species of braconid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Cicero, Lizette; Sivinski, John; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Life history theory predicts that individuals will allocate resources to different traits so as to maximize overall fitness. Because conditions experienced during early development can have strong downstream effects on adult phenotype and fitness, we investigated how four species of synovigenic, larval-pupal parasitoids that vary sharply in their degree of specialization (niche breadth) and life history (Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Doryctobracon crawfordi, Opius hirtus and Utetes anastrephae), allocate resources acquired during the larval stage towards adult reproduction. Parasitoid larvae developed in a single host species reared on four different substrates that differed in quality. We measured parasitoid egg load at the moment of emergence and at 24 h, egg numbers over time, egg size, and also adult size. We predicted that across species the most specialized would have a lower capacity to respond to changes in host substrate quality than wasps with a broad host range, and that within species, females that emerged from hosts that developed in better quality substrates would have the most resources to invest in reproduction. Consistent with our predictions, the more specialized parasitoids were less plastic in some responses to host diet than the more generalist. However, patterns of egg load and size were variable across species. In general, there was a remarkable degree of reproductive effort-allocation constancy within parasitoid species. This may reflect more "time-limited" rather than "egg-limited" foraging strategies where the most expensive component of reproductive success is to locate and handle patchily-distributed and fruit-sequestered hosts. If so, egg costs, independent of degree of specialization, are relatively trivial and sufficient resources are available in fly larvae stemming from all of the substrates tested.

  20. Morphological identification and COI barcodes of adult flies help determine species identities of chironomid larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Failla, Andrew Joseph; Vasquez, Adrian Amelio; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fujimoto, Masanori; Ram, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing reliable methods for the identification of benthic chironomid communities is important due to their significant contribution to biomass, ecology and the aquatic food web. Immature larval specimens are more difficult to identify to species level by traditional morphological methods than their fully developed adult counterparts, and few keys are available to identify the larval species. In order to develop molecular criteria to identify species of chironomid larvae, larval and adult chironomids from Western Lake Erie were subjected to both molecular and morphological taxonomic analysis. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode sequences of 33 adults that were identified to species level by morphological methods were grouped with COI sequences of 189 larvae in a neighbor-joining taxon-ID tree. Most of these larvae could be identified only to genus level by morphological taxonomy (only 22 of the 189 sequenced larvae could be identified to species level). The taxon-ID tree of larval sequences had 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined as clusters with >97% identity or individual sequences differing from nearest neighbors by >3%; supported by analysis of all larval pairwise differences), of which seven could be identified to species or ‘species group’ level by larval morphology. Reference sequences from the GenBank and BOLD databases assigned six larval OTUs with presumptive species level identifications and confirmed one previously assigned species level identification. Sequences from morphologically identified adults in the present study grouped with and further classified the identity of 13 larval OTUs. The use of morphological identification and subsequent DNA barcoding of adult chironomids proved to be beneficial in revealing possible species level identifications of larval specimens. Sequence data from this study also contribute to currently inadequate public databases relevant to the Great Lakes region, while the neighbor

  1. Naturally Occurring Culturable Aerobic Gut Flora of Adult Phlebotomus papatasi, Vector of Leishmania major in the Old World

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Jaba; Braig, Henk R.; Rowton, Edgar D.; Ghosh, Kashinath

    2012-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected, vector-borne parasitic disease and is responsible for persistent, often disfiguring lesions and other associated complications. Leishmania, causing zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the Old World are mainly transmitted by the predominant sand fly vector, Phlebotomus papatasi. To date, there is no efficient control measure or vaccine available for this widespread insect-borne infectious disease. Methodology/Principal Findings A survey was carried out to study the abundance of different natural gut flora in P. papatasi, with the long-term goal of generating a paratransgenic sand fly that can potentially block the development of Leishmania in the sand fly gut, thereby preventing transmission of leishmania in endemic disease foci. Sand flies, in particular, P. papatasi were captured from different habitats of various parts of the world. Gut microbes were cultured and identified using 16S ribosomal DNA analysis and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. We found variation in the species and abundance of gut flora in flies collected from different habitats. However, a few Gram-positive, nonpathogenic bacteria including Bacillus flexus and B. pumilus were common in most of the sites examined. Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that there is a wide range of variation of aerobic gut flora inhabiting sand fly guts, which possibly reflect the ecological condition of the habitat where the fly breeds. Also, some species of bacteria (B. pumilus, and B. flexus) were found from most of the habitats. Important from an applied perspective of dissemination, our results support a link between oviposition induction and adult gut flora. PMID:22629302

  2. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2010 was about 26.5 Mt (29.2 million st), a 6-percent increased from 2009. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as sand for container glass, golf course sand, recreational sand, specialty glass and water filtration, showed increased demand in 2010.

  3. Flying Cars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Flying cars have nearly mythical appeal to nonpilots, a group that includes almost the whole human race. The appeal resides in the perceived utility of flying cars, vehicles that offer portal-to-portal transportation, yet break the bonds of road and traffic and travel freely through the sky at the drivers will. Part of the appeal is an assumption that flying cars can be as easy to fly as to drive. Flying cars have been part of the dream of aviation since the dawn of powered flight. Glenn Curtiss built, displayed, and maybe even flew a flying car in 1917, the Curtiss Autoplane. Many roadable airplanes were built in the 1930's, like the Waterman Arrowbile and the Fulton Airphibian. Two flying cars came close to production in the early 1950's. Ted Hall built a series of flying cars culminating in the Convaircar, sponsored by Consolidated Vultee, General Motors, and Hertz. Molt Taylor built and certified his Aerocar, and Ford came close to producing them. Three Aerocars are still flyable, two in museums in Seattle and Oshkosh, and the third owned and flown by Ed Sweeny. Flying cars do have problems, which so far have prevented commercial success. An obvious problem is complexity of the vehicle, the infrastructure, or both. Another is the difficulty of matching low power for normal driving with high power in flight. An automobile uses only about 20 hp at traffic speeds, while a personal airplane needs about 160 hp at speeds typical of flight. Many automobile engines can deliver 160 hp, but not for very long. A more subtle issue involves the drag of automobiles and airplanes. A good personal airplane can fly 30 miles per gallon of fuel at 200 mph. A good sports car would need 660 hp at the same speed and would travel only 3 miles per gallon. The difference is drag area, about 4.5 sq ft for the automobile and 1.4 sq ft for the airplane. A flying car better have the drag area of the airplane, not the car!

  4. Why Adult Stem Cell Functionality Declines with Age? Studies from the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster Model Organism

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, Oren; Toledano, Hila

    2014-01-01

    Highly regenerative adult tissues are supported by rare populations of stem cells that continuously divide to self-renew and generate differentiated progeny. This process is tightly regulated by signals emanating from surrounding cells to fulfill the dynamic demands of the tissue. One of the hallmarks of aging is slow and aberrant tissue regeneration due to deteriorated function of stem and supporting cells. Several Drosophila regenerative tissues are unique in that they provide exact identification of stem and neighboring cells in whole-tissue anatomy. This allows for precise tracking of age-related changes as well as their targeted manipulation within the tissue. In this review we present the stem cell niche of Drosophila testis, ovary and intestine and describe the major changes and phenotypes that occur in the course of aging. Specifically we discuss changes in both intrinsic properties of stem cells and their microenvironment that contribute to the decline in tissue functionality. Understanding these mechanisms in adult Drosophila tissues will likely provide new paradigms in the field of aging. PMID:24955030

  5. Tar sand

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  6. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W

    2004-08-01

    Currently approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), melon fly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, infesting fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii to the continental United States are 210, 225, and 250 Gy, respectively. Irradiation studies were initiated to determine whether these doses could be reduced to lower treatment costs, minimize any adverse effects on quality, and support a proposed generic irradiation dose of 150 Gy for fruit flies. Dose-response tests were conducted with late third instars of wild and laboratory strains of the three fruit fly species, both in diet and in fruit. After x-ray irradiation treatment, data were taken on adult emergence, and adult female fecundity and fertility. Melon fly was the most tolerant of the three species to irradiation, and oriental fruit fly was more tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. Laboratory and wild strains of each species were equally tolerant of irradiation, and larvae were more tolerant when irradiated in fruit compared with artificial diet. An irradiation dose of 150 Gy applied to 93,666 melon fly late third instars in papayas resulted in no survival to the adult stage, indicating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. Irradiation doses of 100 and 125 Gy applied to 31,920 Mediterranean fruit fly and 55,743 oriental fruit fly late third instars, respectively, also resulted in no survival to the adult stage. Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies.

  7. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  8. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2011 was about 30 Mt (33 million st), increasing slightly compared with 2010. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  9. Wet sand flows better than dry sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Wet sand that does not contain too much water is known to be stiff enough to build sand castles or in physical words has a significant yield stress. However, we could recently show that there are quite a few conditions under which such wet sand opposes less resistant to flow than its dry counterpart. This effect might have been already known to the old Egyptians: The Ancient painting of El Bersheh at the tomb of Tehutihetep shows that there was liquid poured in front of the sledge that was used to transport heavy weight stones and statues. While archeologist have attributed this to a sacral ceremony, our data clearly show that wetting the sand ground drastically decreases the effective sliding friction coefficient. We first study the stress-strain behavior of sand with and without small amounts of liquid under steady and oscillatory shear. Using a technique to quasistatically push the sand through a tube with an enforced parabolic (Poiseuille-like) profile, we minimize the effect of avalanches and shear localization. We observe that the resistance against deformation of the wet (partially saturated) sand is much smaller than that of the dry sand, and that the latter dissipates more energy under flow. Second we show experimentally that the sliding friction on sand is greatly reduced by the addition of some--but not too much--water. The formation of capillary water bridges increases the shear modulus of the sand, which facilitates the sliding.

  10. Fear of flying--a Singapore perspective.

    PubMed

    Chew, P H

    1997-01-01

    Fear of flying is a term commonly used in the Aviation Medicine community. However, heterogeneous conditions which can present with fear of flying, demand that a more stringent and systematic approach be made in one's management of the aviator with fear of flying (FOF). Cases of FOF between 1974 and 1995 presented to the Civil Aviation Medical Board and the Aeromedical Centre of the Republic of Singapore Air Force were studied for their psychopathology, psychodynamics, diagnoses, motivation for treatment, type of treatment and response to treatment, and their eventual outcome in relation of flying. 53.3% of 15 cases had Adult Situational Reaction, 26.7% had phobia of flying, 6.6% had Adjustment Disorder, 6.7% had Anxiety Depressive Disorder and 6.7% had Transient Psychosis. All cases of Adjustment Disorder were returned to flying, compared with 25% of Adult Situational Reaction, 66.7% of Phobia of Flying and none of the aircrew suffering from Transient Psychosis. Fear of flying is thus a complex phenomenon, where there is interaction of elements of mental health, neurotic roots, real and imaginary threats and life events affecting eventually the flyer's willingness to fly.

  11. China Dust and Sand

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Dust and Sand Sweep Over Northeast China     ... (MISR) captured these views of the dust and sand that swept over northeast China on March 10, 2004. Information on the ... available at JPL March 10, 2004 - Dust and sand sweep the northeast region. project:  MISR ...

  12. Erodibility of fly ash-treated minesoils

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, J.M.; Sencindiver, J.C.; Singh, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    Fly ash, a by-product of coal-fired power plants, has been used successfully in reclaiming adverse mine sites such as abandoned mine lands by improving minesoil chemical and physical properties. But, the fine sand-silt particle size of fly ash may make it more susceptible to detachment and transport by erosive processes. Furthermore, the high content of silt-size particles in fly ash may make it more susceptable to surface crust formation resulting in reduced infiltration and increased surface runoff and erosion. In the summer of 1989, fly ash/wood waste mixtures were surface applied on two separate mine sites, one with 10% slope and the other 20% slope, in central Preston County, West Virginia. Erosion rates were measured directly using the Linear Erosion/Elevation Measuring Instrument (LEMI). Erosion measurements were taken during the first two growing seasons on both sites. Erosion values were up to five times greater on the fly ash-treated minesoil than on the minesoil without fly ash cover. Mulching with wood chips reduced fly ash erosion to about one-half the loss of the unmulched plots. Erosion was related to both the amount and type of ground cover. Increased vegetative ground cover resulted in reduced erosion. Mosses and fungi appeared to provide better erosion protection than grass-legume cover.

  13. Expression of defensin paralogs across house fly life history: insights into fly-microbe interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies have a life-long association with microbe-rich environments. Larvae directly ingest bacteria in decaying substrates utilizing them for nutritional purposes. Adult house flies ephemerally associate with microbes, ingesting them either by direct feeding or indirectly during grooming. The h...

  14. Spatial distribution, seasonality and trap preference of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), adults on a 12-hectare zoological park

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although this study was originally designed to compare the efficacy of 2 different stable fly traps within 10 sites at a 12-ha zoological park, seasonal and spatial population distribution data were simultaneously collected. The two traps included an Alsynite fiberglass cylindrical trap (AFT) and a...

  15. Spatial distribution, seasonality and trap preference of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), adults on a 12-hectare zoological park

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) is a biting fly of extreme economic importance and can cause adverse economic effects on host animals. Within zoological parks, hosts may include practically any accessible animal (e.g., sheep, goats, cows, camels, equines, primates, canids, and felids). In many animals, e....

  16. Can Humans Fly Action Understanding with Multiple Classes of Actors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-08

    bird climbing bird ...none dog none ball rolling ball jumping baby running bird flying car flying bird rolling adult none car none car jumpingadult none bird rolling car...undergoing multiple different classes of actions. To be exact, we consider seven actor classes (adult, baby, ball, bird , car, cat, and dog) and

  17. Use of coal combustion residues and waste foundry sands in flowable fill. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, S.T.; Lovell, C.W.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the use of waste foundry sand (WFS) in flowable fill. However, the concepts developed are applicable to flowable fills containing any type of sand. Even though the flowable fill is presently popular as a trenchfilling material, this study addresses a much broader perspective in order to be able to develop uses of this material in geotechnical applications. Since sand is the major component of flowable fill, replacing sand with a waste material may be beneficial from an economical as well as an environmental point of view. One such waste material produced in large quantities is waste foundry sand, which is a by-product of metal casting industries where sand is used for making molds and cores. Green sands from ferrous foundries in which clay and water are used as binder materials, are mostly non-hazardous. In this research, only green sands were taken. The fly ash used was class F type.

  18. Micromorphology use for visualization of fly-ash distribution in sandy material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodesova, R.; Kapicka, A.

    2009-04-01

    Fly-ash migration in three sands of various particle size distributions and consequently various porosities, was studied in the laboratory. The fly-ash was applied on the top of all sands packed in plastic cylinders followed by pulse infiltrations. Water regime was monitored using the soil water content sensors and tensiometers. Kappameter SM400 (Petrovský at al., 2004) was used to monitor migration of ferrimagnetic particles-tracers presented in the fly-ash. Undisturbed samples of sands polluted by fly-ash were taken at the end of the experiments to study final fly-ash distribution in thin sections. Images showed that while fly-ash migrates freely thought the course sandy material, in the other two sands fly-ash is accumulated in few bottle neck pores. However, fly-ash mobility was documented in both cases. Information about image porosities and pore blocking will be used as input data for numerical simulation of observed fly-ash transport. Acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Grant Agency of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic grant No. A300120701, and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports grant No. MSM 6046070901.

  19. Temporal characterization of bacteria in hayrings serving as stable fly larval development sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are important pests of pastured cattle, reducing weight gains, and causing discomfort to the animals. The focus of stable fly control has historically been on preventing adult stable flies from biting cattle. While the adult files biting t...

  20. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, domestic production of industrial sand and gravel was about 31 Mt, a 5% increase from 2004. This increase was bouyed by robust construction and petroleum sectors of the US economy. Based on estimated world production figures, the United States was the world's leading producer and consumer of industrial sand and gravel. In the short term, local shortages of industrial sand and gravel will continue to increase.

  1. Use Of Fly Iarvae In Space Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    The concept of space agriculture is full use of biological and ecological components ot drive materials recycle loop. In an ecological system, producers, consumers and decomposers are its member. At limited resources acailable for space agriculture, full use of members' function is required to avoid food shortage and catastrophe.Fly is categrized to a decomposer at its eating excreta and rotten materials. However, is it could be edible, certainly it is eaten in several food culture of the world, it functions as a converter of inedible biomass ot edible substance. This conversion enhances the efficiency of usage of resource that will be attributed to space agriculture. In this context, we examine the value of melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, as a candidate fly species ofr human food. Nutrients in 100g of melon fly larvae were protein 12g, lipid 4.6g Fe 4.74mg, Ca 275mg, Zn 6.37mg, Mn 4.00mg. Amino acids compositon in 100g of larvae was glutamic acid 1.43g and aspartic acid 1.12g. Because of high contents of these amino acids taste of fly larva might be good. Life time of adult melon fly is one to two month, and lays more than 1,000 eggs in total during the life. Larvae hatch after one to two days, and metamorphose after 8 to 15 days to pupae. Srxual maturity is reached after 22 days the earliest from it egg. Sixteen generations could be succeeded in a year for melon fly at maximum. The rate of proliferation of fly is quite high compared to silkworm that can have 8.7 generations per year. The wide food habit of fly, compared to mulberry leaf for silkworm, is another advantage to choose fly for entomophage. Rearing technology of melon fly is well established, since large scaled production of sterile male fly has been conducted in order ot exterminate melon fly in the field. Feeding substance for melon fly larvae in production line is a mixture of wheat, bran, raw sugar, olara, beer yeast, tissue paper, and additive chemicals. A 1 kg of feed substance can be converted to

  2. Insecticidal activity of basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool to adult fruit flies of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X

    2009-02-01

    Basil oil and its three major active constituents (trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool) obtained from basil (Oscimum basilicum L.) were tested on three tephritid fruit fly species [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] for insecticidal activity. All test chemicals acted fast and showed a steep dose-response relationship. The lethal times for 90% mortality/knockdown (LT90) of the three fly species to 10% of the test chemicals were between 8 and 38 min. The toxic action of basil oil in C. capitata occurred significantly faster than in B. cucurbitae but slightly faster than in B. dorsalis. Estragole acted faster in B. dorsalis than in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae. Linalool action was faster in B. dorsalis and C. capitata than in B. cucurbitae. trans-Anethole action was similar to all three species. Methyl eugenol acted faster in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae than in B. dorsalis. When linalool was mixed with cuelure (attractant to B. cucurbitae male), its potency to the three fly species decreased as the concentration of cuelure increased. This was due to linalool hydrolysis catalyzed by acetic acid from cuelure degradation, which was confirmed by chemical analysis. When methyl eugenol (B. dorsalis male attractant) was mixed with basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, or linalool, it did not affect the toxicity of basil oil and linalool to B. dorsalis, but it did significantly decrease the toxicity of trans-anethole and estragole. Structural similarity between methyl eugenol and trans-anethole and estragole suggests that methyl eugenol might act at a site similar to that of trans-anethole and estragole and serve as an antagonist if an action site exists. Methyl eugenol also may play a physiological role on the toxicity reduction.

  3. Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steam sand dryer in northeast part of sand tower. View to northeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Sand Tower, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  4. Flowable fill using waste foundry sand: A substitute for compacted or stabilized soil

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, S.T.; Lovell, C.W.

    1997-12-31

    Flowable fill is generally a mixture of sand, fly ash, a small amount of cement, and water. Sand is the major component of most flowable fill mixes; consequently, using a waste material as a substitute for natural sand results in the beneficial use of the waste material. Waste foundry sand (WFS) was used as a fine aggregate in this study. Three green sands from ferrous foundries and two class F fly ashes were used. The flow behavior, hardening characteristics, ultimate strength behavior, and permeability characteristics of flowable fill were investigated. The penetration resistance necessary to sustain walkability as the fresh flowable fill hardens was determined. The pH of pore solution of hardened flowable fill indicated that the potential for corrosivity is low. The toxicity tests indicated that some WFSs are environmentally safe.

  5. An Affair with Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Sharon

    1980-01-01

    Described is a resource idea developed for the teaching of oceanography to junior high students. Sand is studied to help make the study of beaches more relevant to students who may have never seen an ocean. Sand samples are brought into the classroom from various coastal cities, then analyzed and compared. (Author/DS)

  6. Seasonal abundance of stable flies and filth fly pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at Florida equine facilities.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Jimmy B; Kaufman, Phillip E; Hogsette, Jerome A; Geden, Christopher J; Tenbroeck, Saundra H

    2011-06-01

    Beginning in November 2007 and continuing until December 2009, weekly stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), surveillance was conducted at four equine facilities near Ocala, FL, by using alsynite sticky traps for adults and by searching immature developmental sites for pupae. Adult stable fly trap captures were highly variable throughout the year, ranging from 0 to 1,400 flies per trap per farm. The greatest adult stable fly activity was observed during the spring months of March and April, with weekly three-trap means of 121 and 136 flies per farm, respectively. The importance of cultural control measures was most apparent on the only farm with no reported insecticide use and the lowest stable fly trap captures, where an intense daily sanitation and composting program was conducted. A survey of on-site filth fly pupae revealed that 99.9% of all parasitoids recovered were Spalangia spp., consisting of Spalangia cameroni Perkins (56.5%), Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis (34.0%), Spalangia endius Walker (5.8%), and Spalangia nigra Latreille (3.7%). The implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Morphological Features of Regurgitate and Defecatory Stains Deposited by Five Species of Necrophagous Flies are Influenced by Adult Diets and Body Size.

    PubMed

    Rivers, David B; McGregor, Andrew

    2017-02-23

    The morphological characteristics of artifacts from five species of necrophagous flies were examined following feeding on several types of diets. Four types of insect stains were produced by each species: regurgitate, defecatory, translocation, and tarsal tracks. Regurgitate was the most frequent type deposited (70.9 ± 2.4%), followed by defecatory (19.8 ± 4.0%), tarsal tracks (8.6 ± 1.2%), and translocation (0.7 ± 0.1%). Artifact shapes, sizes, and color were highly variable and species and diet specific. Calliphora vicina and Sarcophaga bullata consistently deposited the largest artifacts after feeding, whereas Chrysomya rufifacies and Ch. megacephala produced more tarsal tracks than the other species examined. Artifacts with tails were infrequently observed (4.1 ± 0.6% of all stains) but occurred as either defecatory or regurgitate stains. The widely variable morphologies of all types of fly artifacts underscores the view that insect stains cannot be distinguished from human bloodstains based on morphology alone.

  8. Temperature cycle amplitude alters the adult eclosion time and expression pattern of the circadian clock gene period in the onion fly.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yosuke; Watari, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Goto, Shin G

    2016-03-01

    Soil temperature cycles are considered to play an important role in the entrainment of circadian clocks of underground insects. However, because of the low conductivity of soil, temperature cycles are gradually dampened and the phase of the temperature cycle is delayed with increasing soil depth. The onion fly, Delia antiqua, pupates at various soil depths, and its eclosion is timed by a circadian clock. This fly is able to compensate for the depth-dependent phase delay of temperature change by advancing the eclosion time with decreasing amplitude of the temperature cycle. Therefore, pupae can eclose at the appropriate time irrespective of their location at any depth. However, the mechanism that regulates eclosion time in response to temperature amplitude is still unknown. To understand whether this mechanism involves the circadian clock or further downstream physiological processes, we examined the expression patterns of period (per), a circadian clock gene, of D. antiqua under temperature cycles that were square wave cycles of 12-h warm phase (W) and 12-h cool phase (C) with the temperature difference of 8 °C (WC 29:21 °C) and 1 °C (WC 25.5:24.5 °C). The phase of oscillation in per expression was found to commence 3.5h earlier under WC 25.5:24.5 °C as compared to WC 29:21 °C. This difference was in close agreement with the eclosion time difference between the two temperature cycles, suggesting that the mechanism that responds to the temperature amplitude involves the circadian clock.

  9. Industrial sand and gravel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2009 was about 27 Mt (30 million st), declining by 10 percent compared with 2008. Certain end uses of industrial sand and gravel, such as foundry and glassmaking sand, may have declined by a factor greater than 10 percent in 2009. U.S. apparent consumption was 24.7 Mt (27.2 million st) in 2009, down by 10 percent from the previous year, and imports declined to 83 kt (91,000 st).

  10. Laboratory Validation of the Sand Fly Fever Virus Antigen Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    homogenized insects . Two lots of SFFVA were purchased from VecTOR Test Systems. Viruses were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection...myia indicated that the titers of SFNV and TOSV can range from 103–104.5 and 103–104.7 PFU per insect , respectively, 5–7 days postinfection (Tesh and...validating the need for field- deployable insect pathogen detection assays. We also thank Brandy Russell (Arbovirus Disease Branch, Division of Vector

  11. Laboratory Validation of the Sand Fly Fever Virus Antigen Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    detected SFNV and TOSV, as well as other phleboviruses including Aguacate, Anahanga, Arumowot, Chagres, and Punta Toro viruses. It did not detect...sandfly fever Sicilian, Heartland, Rio Grande, or Rift Valley fever viruses. It did not produce false positive results in the presence of uninfected...as well as other phleboviruses including Aguacate, Anahanga, Arumowot, Chagres, and Punta Toro viruses. It did not detect sandfly fever Sicilian

  12. The Flow of Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yersel, Metin

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple demonstration of the flow of sand through an orifice at the bottom of a sandbox. Advocates the experiment's use with dimensional analysis for students in an introductory physics course. (WRM)

  13. Sand consolidation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.H.

    1984-01-24

    Methods are provided for selectively consolidating sand grains within a subterranean formation. First an acidic salt catalyst such as ZnCl/sub 2/ is injected into the subterranean formation, wherein the acidic salt catalyst is adsorbed to the surface of the sand grains. Next a polymerizable resin composition such as furfuryl alcohol oligomer is introduced into the well formation. Polymerization of the resin occurs upon exposure to the elevated well temperatures and contact with the acid salt catalyst adsorbed to the sand grains. The polymerized resin serves to consolidate the surfaces of the sand grains while retaining permeability through the pore spaces. An ester of a weak organic acid is included with the resin compositions to control the extent of a polymerization by consuming the water by-product formed druing the polymerization reaction.

  14. Enhanced trapping of stable flies via olfactory and visual cues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult stable flies are highly attracted to the so-called Alsynite cylinder trap; however this trap is expensive. Here we report the development of a cheaper and better white panel trap with options of adding visual and olfactory stimuli for enhanced stable fly trapping. The white panel trap attracte...

  15. Visual and olfactory enhancement of stable fly trapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Stable flies are considered to be one of themajor blood-feeding pests in theUS livestock industry, causing losses running into billions of dollars annually. Adult stable flies are highly attracted to Alsynite traps; however, Alsynite is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain and is ex...

  16. Fire ant microsporidia acquired by parasitoid flies of fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microsporidium Kneallhazia (formerly Thelohania) solenopsae and parasitoid flies in the genus Pseudacteon are natural enemies of the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Pseudacteon flies oviposit into adult fire ants, where maggots that eclose from eggs migrate to the ants’ head, pupate, and...

  17. Attractant for vinegar fly, Drosophila busckii, and cluster fly, Pollenia rudis (Diptera: Drosophilidae et Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Buda, Vincas; Radziute, Sandra; Lutovinovas, Erikas

    2009-01-01

    A field test carried out in an industrial greenhouse in Lithuania revealed the attractiveness of synthetic methyl salicylate (MeSa) to two dipteran species: the vinegar fly, Drosophila busckii (Drosophilidae), and the cluster fly, Pollenia rudis (Calliphoridae). The attractant for the former fly species was especially effective, as sticky traps containing 0.25 ml of MeSa captured (814 +/- 55) D. busckii flies/trap on average compared to (12 +/- 4) flies/trap in control traps. The mean capture of P. rudis [(42 +/- 4) flies/trap] was significantly higher in MeSa-baited traps compared to the control traps [(13 +/- 4) flies/trap]. The presence of MeSa in emissions of many fruits suitable for D. busckii feeding allows to attribute this attractant to kairomones. In case of P. rudis, MeSa should be attributed to synomones (compounds beneficial for both receiver and sender), because adult flies feeding on flowers act as pollinators. This is the first report on the field-active attractant for D. busckii and the second for P. rudis.

  18. Kentucky tar sand project

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M.N.; Jones, H.D. II; Lewis, F.W.

    1985-03-01

    Engineering details and pilot-plant results from a pioneering investigation based on a Kentucky tar-sand reserve are presented. The tar sand deposits of Kentucky are generally situated in the southeastern rim of the Illinois Basin along the southern boundary of the Western Coal Field region. In a recent study of US tar sand reserves, it was reported that over 3.4 billion barrels of oil are in Kentucky tar sand deposits alone. In the 22,000 acres, estimated reserves are over 100 million barrels of recoverable heavy oil. The oil-impregnated section of the deposit ranges in heavy oil content from five gallons per ton to over fifteen gallons per ton. The ore body is up to thirty-five feet thick and the overall stripping ratio for a commercial plant is estimated to be one cubic yard of undisturbed overburden material per ton of tar sand ore. A shovel and truck-type strip mining operation would be used to provide feedstock to the plant.

  19. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  20. Mosquito and filth fly control in desert and temperate environments with a synergized pesticide mister and barrier treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. military operations face significant negative impacts on mission readiness from disease-vector and nuisance filth flies, mosquitoes, and sand flies. Through the Deployed War Fighter Protection Program (DWFP) we previously developed small scale 9 ft by 3 ft pesticide-treated perimeters enhanced ...

  1. Sidewinding snakes on sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Dimenichi, Dante; Chrystal, Robert; Mendelson, Joseph; Goldman, Daniel; Hu, David; Georgia Tech and Zoo Atlanta Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    Desert snakes such as the rattlesnake Crotalus cerastes propel themselves over sand using sidewinding, a mode of locomotion relying upon helical traveling waves. While sidewinding on hard ground has been described, the mechanics of movement on more natural substrates such as granular media remain poorly understood. In this experimental study, we use 3-D high speed video to characterize the motion of a sidewinder rattlesnake as it moves on a granular bed. We study the movement both on natural desert sand and in an air-fluidized bed trackway which we use to challenge the animal on different compactions of granular media. Particular attention is paid to rationalizing the snake's thrust on this media using friction and normal forces on the piles of sand created by the snake's body. The authors thank the NSF (PHY-0848894), Georgia Tech, and the Elizabeth Smithgall Watts endowment for support. We would also like to thank Zoo Atlanta staff for their generous help with this project.

  2. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided.

  3. Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    PubMed

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  5. Sand Dunes with Frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  6. Antimicrobial peptide gene cecropin-2 and defensin respond to peptidoglycan infection in the female adult of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi-Huo; Wei, Dong; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Cecropins and defensins are important antimicrobial peptides in insects and are inducible after injection of immune triggers. In this study, we cloned the cDNAs of two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), cecropin-2 (BdCec-2) and defensin (BdDef) from Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious pest causing great economic losses to fruits and vegetables. The BdCec-2 sequence of 192bp encodes a protein of 63 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular weight of 6.78kD. The 282bp cDNA of BdDef encodes a protein of 93 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 9.81kD. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that BdCec-2 and BdDef had similar expression profiles among development stages, the highest mRNA levels of these two AMP genes were observed in the adult stage. Among different adult body segments and tissues, both genes had similar transcriptional profiles, the highest mRNA levels appeared in abdomen and fat body, which was consistent with the reported fact that fat body was the main organ synthesizing AMPs in insects. The expression of BdCec-2 and BdDef were up-regulated after challenge with peptidoglycans from Escherichia coli (PGN-EB) and Staphylococcus aureus (PGN-SA), respectively, suggesting their antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms. These results describe for the first time the basic properties of the cecropin-2 and defensin genes from B. dorsalis that probably play an important role in the defense response against invading microbes.

  7. Speleothems and Sand Castles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hance, Trevor; Befus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The idea of building sand castles evokes images of lazy summer days at the beach, listening to waves crash, enjoying salty breezes, and just unplugging for a while to let our inner child explore the wonderful natural toys beneath our feet. The idea of exploring caves might evoke feelings and images of claustrophobia or pioneers and Native…

  8. Building with Sand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  9. The Engineering of Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are beach replenishment, and hard structures in relation to the sand transportation system. Failures of current engineering practices and the resulting costs to the taxpayer are stressed. Equations and parameters used to make predictions of beach durability are criticized. (CW)

  10. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  11. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Moth flies and sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Cretaceous Burmese amber.

    PubMed

    Stebner, Frauke; Solórzano Kraemer, Mónica M; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Wagner, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    One new subfamily, four new genera and 10 new species of Psychodidae are described from Burmese amber which significantly increases our knowledge about this group in the Cretaceous. Protopsychodinae n. subfam. probably represents the oldest known ancestor of modern Psychodinae and includes three species within two genera: Datzia setosa gen. et sp. n., Datzia bispina gen. et sp. n., and Mandalayia beumersorum gen. et sp. n. Sycoracinae and Phlebotominae are represented by two genera each in the studied material, Palaeoparasycorax globosus gen. et sp. n., Palaeoparasycorax suppus gen. et sp. n., Parasycorax simplex sp. n., and Phlebotomites aphoe sp. n. and Phlebotomus vetus sp. n., respectively. Bruchomyiinae is represented by Nemopalpus quadrispiculatus sp. n. Furthermore, one genus of an incertae sedis subfamily, Bamara groehni gen. et sp. n., is described. The systematic positions of the new taxa are discussed.

  13. Moth flies and sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Cretaceous Burmese amber

    PubMed Central

    Solórzano Kraemer, Mónica M.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Wagner, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    One new subfamily, four new genera and 10 new species of Psychodidae are described from Burmese amber which significantly increases our knowledge about this group in the Cretaceous. Protopsychodinae n. subfam. probably represents the oldest known ancestor of modern Psychodinae and includes three species within two genera: Datzia setosa gen. et sp. n., Datzia bispina gen. et sp. n., and Mandalayia beumersorum gen. et sp. n. Sycoracinae and Phlebotominae are represented by two genera each in the studied material, Palaeoparasycorax globosus gen. et sp. n., Palaeoparasycorax suppus gen. et sp. n., Parasycorax simplex sp. n., and Phlebotomites aphoe sp. n. and Phlebotomus vetus sp. n., respectively. Bruchomyiinae is represented by Nemopalpus quadrispiculatus sp. n. Furthermore, one genus of an incertae sedis subfamily, Bamara groehni gen. et sp. n., is described. The systematic positions of the new taxa are discussed. PMID:26401462

  14. Bacterial communities associated with larval development of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Adult stable flies are hematophagous parasites that preferentially feed on cattle. Persistent attacks and painful bites of the adults contribute to an economic impact of ~$2 billion/yr on the US cattle industry. Although stable flies are important livestock pests, relatively little is ...

  15. 454 pyrosequencing project identifying expressed genes from the horn fly, Haematobia irritans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used an EST approach to initiate a study of the genome of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans and have used 454 pyrosequencing techniques to sequence 73,512, 100,603, 71,550, and 85,769 expressed genes from the egg, first instar larvae, adult male, and adult female lifestages of the horn fly. cD...

  16. A Flying Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Frank X.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a five-day summer camp which provided 12 children, ages 9-14, with a complete flying experience. The training consisted of ground school and one hour actual flying time, including the basics of aircraft control and a flight prepared and executed by the students. (MLH)

  17. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  18. Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Few things capture the spirit of spring like flying a kite. Watching a kite dance and sail across a cloud spotted sky is not only a visually appealing experience it also provides a foundation for studies in science and mathematics. Put simply, a kite is an airfoil surface that flies when the forces of lift and thrust are greater than the forces of…

  19. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  20. Distribution and abundance of Stomoxyini flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Changbunjong, Tanasak; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Maneeon, Pattarapon; Ganpanakngan, Manoch; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Sriwichai, Patchara; Sumruayphol, Suchada; Ruangsittichai, Jiraporn

    2012-11-01

    Stomoxyini flies (Diptera: Muscidae) include species of parasitic flies of medical and veterinary importance. The adult flies feed on the blood of mammals and may transmit several parasites and pathogens. We conducted an entomological survey of Stomoxyini flies from different sites in Thailand. Stomoxyini flies were collected at four major types of sites: zoos, livestock farms, wildlife conservation areas and a national park using vavoua traps between November 2010 and April 2011. A total of 3,314 Stomoxyini flies belonging to the genera Stomoxys, Haematobosca, Haematostoma and Haematobia were collected. Eight species were identified: S. calcitrans (46.6%), S. uruma (26.8%), S. pulla (4.3%), S. indicus (0.7%), S. sitiens (0.1%), H. sanguinolenta (11.2 %), H. austeni (0.5%) and H. irritans exigua (9.8%). The diversity of Stomoxyini flies in the livestock farms was higher than the other sites. Altitude correlated with the number of flies. This study provides information that may be useful for Stomoxyini flies control.

  1. Experimental study of optimal self compacting concrete with spent foundry sand as partial replacement for M-sand using Taguchi approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmala, D. B.; Raviraj, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the application of Taguchi approach to obtain optimal mix proportion for Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) containing spent foundry sand and M-sand. Spent foundry sand is used as a partial replacement for M-sand. The SCC mix has seven control factors namely, Coarse aggregate, M-sand with Spent Foundry sand, Cement, Fly ash, Water, Super plasticizer and Viscosity modifying agent. Modified Nan Su method is used to proportion the initial SCC mix. L18 (21×37) Orthogonal Arrays (OA) with the seven control factors having 3 levels is used in Taguchi approach which resulted in 18 SCC mix proportions. All mixtures are extensively tested both in fresh and hardened states to verify whether they meet the practical and technical requirements of SCC. The quality characteristics considering "Nominal the better" situation is applied to the test results to arrive at the optimal SCC mix proportion. Test results indicate that the optimal mix satisfies the requirements of fresh and hardened properties of SCC. The study reveals the feasibility of using spent foundry sand as a partial replacement of M-sand in SCC and also that Taguchi method is a reliable tool to arrive at optimal mix proportion of SCC.

  2. PROCESSING OF MONAZITE SAND

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, G.D.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1957-12-01

    A process for the recovery of thorium, uranium, and rare earths from monazite sands is presented. The sands are first digested and dissolved in concentrated NaOH, and the solution is then diluted causing precipitation of uranium, thorium and rare earth hydroxides. The precipitate is collected and dissolved in HCl, and the pH of this solution is adjusted to about 6, precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and uranium but leaving the rare earths in solution. The rare earths are then separated from the solution by precipitation at a still higher pH. The thorium and uranium containing precipitate is redissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and the two elements are separated by extraction into tributyl phosphate and back extraction with a weakly acidic solution to remove the thorium.

  3. Intricately Rippled Sand Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Intricately Rippled Sand Deposits (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit welcomed the beginning of 2006 on Earth by taking this striking panorama of intricately rippled sand deposits in Gusev Crater on Mars. This is an approximate true-color rendering of the 'El Dorado' ripple field provided by Spirit over the New Year's holiday weekend. The view spans about 160 degrees in azimuth from left to right and consists of images acquired by Spirit's panoramic camera on Spirit's 708th and 710th Martian days, or sols, (Dec. 30, 2005 and Jan. 1, 2006). Spirit used the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters to capture the colors on Mars. Scientists have eliminated seams between individual frames in the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see. Spirit spent several days acquiring images, spectral data, and compositional and mineralogical information about these large sand deposits before continuing downhill toward 'Home Plate.'

  4. BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FRUIT FLY IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), monitored with ChamP traps captured the highest numbers of adults in olive trees, Olea europaea, in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Significantly more adults were captured in Pherocon ® AM traps than ChamP tra...

  5. Booming Sand Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  6. Mechanical transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by flies.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Grimes, Barbara H; Knight, Ronald; Szostakowska, Beata; Kruminis-Lozowska, Wiesława; Racewicz, Maria; Tamang, Leena; Dasilva, Alexandre J; Myjak, Przemysław

    2004-01-01

    Long term field studies and laboratory experiments demonstrated that synanthropic filth flies can mechanically transmit infectious oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum, an anthropozoonotic protozoan parasite which significantly contributes to the mortality of immunocompromised or immunosuppressed people. C. parvum oocysts are acquired from unhygienic sources, and can pass trough fly gastrointestinal track without alteration of their infectivity and can be subsequently deposited on visited surfaces. Transmission of the oocysts by adult flies occurs via: (1) mechanical dislodgement from the exoskeleton; (2) fecal deposition; and (3) regurgitation, i.e., vomits. Filth flies can cause human or animal cryptosporidiosis via deposition of infectious oocysts on the visited foodstuf, and the biology and ecology of synanthropic filth flies indicate that their potential for mechanical transmission of C. parvum is high.

  7. Adverse effects of inhaled sand dust particles on the respiratory organs of sheep and goats exposed to severe sand storms in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoshimi; Shimada, Akinori; Nemoto, Mai; Morita, Takehito; Adilbish, Altanchimeg; Bayasgalan, Mungun-Ochir

    2014-01-01

    Sand storms in Mongolia have increased in frequency and scale, resulting in increased exposure of the inhabitants of Asian countries, including Japan and Korea, to Asian sand dust (ASD), which results in adverse effects on the respiratory system. However, there is no information on the health risks of severe sand storms in domestic animals in Mongolia. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of sand dust particles on the respiratory organs, including the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, of sheep and goats exposed to severe sand storms in Mongolia. Seven adult sheep and 4 adult goats that had been exposed to sand storms and 3 sheep with no history of exposure were included in this study. Lung tissues and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were subjected to histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. The mineralogical contents of the lungs and lymph nodes were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Fibrosis and granulomatous lesions comprising macrophages containing fine sand dust particles were observed exclusively in the lungs of sheep and goats exposed to sand storms. The activity of macrophages was also demonstrated by the presence of IL-6, TNF, and lysozyme. In addition, silicon, which is the major element of ASD (kosa aerosol), was detected exclusively in the lung tissues of the exposed animals. Our findings suggest that exposure to sand dust particles may affect the respiratory systems of domestic animals during their relatively short life span.

  8. House and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) seasonal abundance, larval development substrates, and natural parasitism on small equine farms in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This 1-year study was designed to determine adult fly population levels and development substrates on four small equine farms. Results showed that pest flies were present year-round, but differences existed in population levels among farms and seasons. Fly larvae were not found on two of the farms, ...

  9. Temperature-dependent appearance of forensically useful flies on carcasses.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Szafałowicz, Michał; Grzywacz, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Flies are frequently used for postmortem interval (PMI) estimations. These estimates are usually based on the age of larval or pupal specimens. However, the age defines only the minimum PMI. In order to move forensic entomology further, a method useful for the estimation of an interval preceding insect appearance on a corpse called the pre-appearance interval (PAI) is needed. Recently, it was demonstrated that the PAI of several carrion beetles is closely related to the temperature prevailing throughout this interval. Hence, it was postulated to estimate PAI from temperature. In order to check premises for using this approach with flies, a test of the relationship between adult or oviposition PAI and temperature was made for nine species of European flies. Data on PAI originated from pig carcasses decomposing under various temperatures. Adult PAI of Hydrotaea dentipes, Hydrotaea ignava, Hydrotaea similis, Phormia regina, and Stearibia nigriceps and oviposition PAI of S. nigriceps were exponentially related to temperature. Only S. nigriceps revealed a close relationship, demonstrating solid premises for PAI estimation from temperature alone. Adult and oviposition PAI of Calliphora vomitoria and adult PAI of Hydrotaea pilipes were not related to temperature. Adult and oviposition PAI of Lucilia sericata and Lucilia caesar responded similarly, with an abrupt and large increase in a narrow range of low temperatures and no response in a broad range of high temperatures. Probably, different mechanisms form the basis for the response of PAI to temperature in flies colonizing carcasses shortly after death and flies colonizing carcasses later in the decomposition process.

  10. Laboratory singing sand avalanches.

    PubMed

    Dagois-Bohy, Simon; Ngo, Sandrine; du Pont, Sylvain Courrech; Douady, Stéphane

    2010-02-01

    Some desert sand dunes have the peculiar ability to emit a loud sound up to 110 dB, with a well-defined frequency: this phenomenon, known since early travelers (Darwin, Marco Polo, etc.), has been called the song of dunes. But only in late 19th century scientific observations were made, showing three important characteristics of singing dunes: first, not all dunes sing, but all the singing dunes are composed of dry and well-sorted sand; second, this sound occurs spontaneously during avalanches on a slip face; third this is not the only way to produce sound with this sand. More recent field observations have shown that during avalanches, the sound frequency does not depend on the dune size or shape, but on the grain diameter only, and scales as the square root of g/d--with g the gravity and d the diameter of the grains--explaining why all the singing dunes in the same vicinity sing at the same frequency. We have been able to reproduce these singing avalanches in laboratory on a hard plate, which made possible to study them more accurately than on the field. Signals of accelerometers at the flowing surface of the avalanche are compared to signals of microphones placed above, and it evidences a very strong vibration of the flowing layer at the same frequency as on the field, responsible for the emission of sound. Moreover, other characteristics of the booming dunes are reproduced and analyzed, such as a threshold under which no sound is produced, or beats in the sound that appears when the flow is too large. Finally, the size of the coherence zones emitting sound has been measured and discussed.

  11. Sand Dunes in Hellas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-537, 7 November 2003

    The smooth, rounded mounds in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture are sand dunes. The scene is located in southern Hellas Planitia and was acquired in mid-southern autumn, the ideal time of year for Hellas imaging. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. These dunes are located near 49.1oS, 292.6oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  12. Fortune Cookie Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-432, 25 July 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a field of small barchan sand dunes in the north polar region near 71.7oN, 51.3oW. Some of them are shaped like fortune cookies. The message these dunes provide: winds blow through this region from the lower right toward the upper left. The steep slip face slopes of these dunes, which point toward the upper left, indicate the wind direction. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper right. The image is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  13. Sand Dunes, Afghanistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image covers an area of 10.5 x 15 km in southern Afghanistan and was acquired on August 20, 2000. The band 3-2-1 composite shows part of an extensive field of barchan sand dunes south of Kandahar. The shape of the dunes indicates that the prevailing wind direction is from the west. The image is located at 30.7 degrees north latitude and 65.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  14. Sand dollar sites orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amos, Dee

    2013-04-01

    The determinology of the humble sand dollars habitat changing from inception to the drastic evolution of the zone to that of present day. Into the cauldron along the southern Californian 'ring of fire' lithosphere are evidence of geosynclinals areas, metasedimentary rock formations and hydrothermal activity. The explanation begins with 'Theia' and the Moon's formation, battles with cometary impacts, glacial ages, epochs with evolutionary bottlenecks and plate tectonics. Fully illustrated the lecture includes localised diagrams and figures with actual subject photographic examples of plutonic, granitic, jade and peridodite. Finally, the origins of the materials used in the lecture are revealed for prosecution by future students and the enjoyment of interested parties in general.

  15. Using Sand Trays and Miniature Figures to Facilitate Career Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Magnuson, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    Sand tray therapy has earned status as a respected, often powerful, therapeutic modality. Counselors have used sand trays and figures for a variety of purposes with children, adolescents, adults, families, and groups. This modality can also be used to facilitate career decision making and related issues as clients create visual representations of…

  16. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Bradley E.; Kabir, Md. E.; Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  17. Sand Waves in Tidal Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    example, in the Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina), the sand wave field terminated when the surficial sand sheet became too thin (Aliotta and Perillo... Rosa Island partially breached near the present-day location of the inlet mouth, but soon closed. It was reopened in March 1929 when the local...and Perillo, 1987) Bahia Blanca Estuary mean 11˚ max 30˚ mean 4˚ (Anthony and Leth, 2002) North Sea 2-4˚ 66 Figure 24. Sand wave

  18. Bringing back the fruit into fruit fly-bacteria interactions.

    PubMed

    Behar, A; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

    2008-03-01

    Female Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata) oviposit in fruits, within which the larvae develop. This development is associated with rapid deterioration of the fruit, and frequently with invasion by secondary pests. Most research on the associations between medflies and microorganisms has focused on the bacteria inhabiting the digestive system of the adult fly, while the role of the fruit in mediating, amplifying or regulating the fruit fly microflora has been largely neglected. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that the host fruit plays a role in perpetuating the fly-associated bacterial community. Using direct and cultured-based approaches, we show that this community is composed in its very large majority of diazotrophic and pectinolytic Enterobacteriaceae. Our data suggest that this fly-associated enterobacterial community is vertically transmitted from the female parent to its offspring. During oviposition, bacteria are transferred to the fruit, establish and proliferate within it, causing its decay. These results show that the host fruit is indeed a central partner in the fruit fly-bacterial interaction as these transmitted bacteria are amplified by the fruit, and subsequently maintained throughout the fly's life. This enterobacterial community may contribute to the fly's nitrogen and carbon metabolism, affecting its development and ultimately, fitness.

  19. Identification of a fliG homologue in Treponema denticola.

    PubMed

    Heinzerling, H F; Penders, J E; Burne, R A

    1995-08-08

    Using a bacteriophage lambda library of Treponema denticola (Td) ATCC 35405 DNA, and, as a reagent, sera derived from individuals with advanced adult periodontal disease, a variety of recombinant clones producing antigens of this oral spirochete have been isolated. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a clone expressing three immunoreactive antigens has revealed the presence of an open reading frame highly homologous to the flagellar switch/motor protein, FliG, which is known to be essential for flagellar assembly and rotation, and chemotaxis in enteric bacteria. The deduced amino-acid sequence of the treponemal FliG protein had 73% similarity (55% identity) to the Bacillus subtilis FliG protein, and showed significant, but lesser homologies to Gram- FliG proteins. Sequence analysis of regions flanking fliG indicated that this gene is immediately preceded by a fliF homologue, further supporting that the cloned DNA encodes FliG of Td. The findings imply that although the signals for control of chemotaxis may be distinctly different in spirochetes, at least some of the molecules involved in torque generation, control of flagellar rotation and signal transduction are highly conserved with other bacteria. The stronger homology of the spirochete FliG with those of Gram+ bacteria is also consistent with recent analyses of other spirochetal genes.

  20. Comparison of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Bisexual and Genetic Sexing (Tapachula-7) Strains: Effect of Hypoxia, Fly Density, Chilling Period, and Food Type on Fly Quality.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lía; Hernández, Emilio; Montoya, Pablo; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    The use of genetic sexing strain (GSS) insects in the sterile insect technique (SIT) makes necessary the revision of quality parameters of some stressful steps used during the packing process for aerial release because of possible differences in tolerance between fly strains. Here, we determined the effect of three periods of hypoxia (12, 24, and 36 h at pupal stage), three cage densities (1.0, 1.3, and 1.5 flies/cm2), two different foods (protein/sugar (1/24) and Mubarqui), and three chilling times (20 min [control], 90, and 180 min) on the quality parameters of flies of two Anastrepha ludens (Loew) strains (bisexual and GSS Tapachula-7). In general, the response to stressful conditions of both fly strains was qualitatively equivalent but quantitatively different, as flies of both strains responded equally to the stressful factors; however, flies of Tapachula-7 exhibited lower quality parameters than the control flies. Thus, hypoxia affected the flying ability but not the emergence or longevity of flies. The food type affected the adult weight; protein/sugar produced heavier flies that also survived longer and had a greater mating propensity. Flies under the lowest density were better fliers that those at the other two densities. Increasing chilling time reduced flight ability but not longevity or mating propensity. The implications of these findings for the use of A. ludens GSS in SIT programs are discussed herein.

  1. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae).

    PubMed

    Geden, Christopher J; Moon, Roger D

    2009-06-01

    Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios, and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bioassays with five dipteran hosts: house fly (Musca domestica L.), stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.), horn fly (Hematobia irritans L.), black dump fly [Hydrotaea aenescens (Weidemann)] (Diptera: Muscidae), and a flesh fly (Sarcophaga bullata Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). M. raptorellus killed and successfully parasitized all five host species and produced an average 2.6 parasitoid progeny from each host. Host attack rates were highest on stable fly and lowest on horn fly; there were no differences among hosts in the total number of progeny produced. T. zealandicus killed larvae of all fly host species in similar numbers, but parasitism was most successful on H. aenescens and S. bullata and least successful on horn fly and house fly hosts. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (10.2 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 2.5 progeny were produced from parasitized horn fly hosts. Most of the killed puparia that produced neither adult flies nor parasitoids ("duds") contained dead parasitoids; in house fly, stable fly, and horn fly hosts, >30% of these dudded pupae contained adult wasps that failed to eclose. T. nigra successfully parasitized pupae of all host species except house fly and was most successful on stable fly. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (30.6 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 5.7 progeny were produced from horn fly hosts.

  2. Evaluation of Metals Release from Oxidation of Fly Ash during Dredging of the Emory River, TN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Figure 18. Selenium speciation of the spots defined in (Figure 17) for the original source pile fly ash material using µ-XANES...37 Figure 22. Textural triangle showing the percentages of sand-, silt-, and clay-sized particle in the ash materials ...confined disposal facility – a structure designed to receive sediments dredged from a navigation channel and safely contain the contaminants d

  3. Effect of Bedding Material on Flies, and Behavior and Innate Immunity of Calves Reared in Hutches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy calf hutches are often bedded with straw (STR), but sand (SND) and wood shavings (SHV) are becoming more common. The objective was to compare 3 beddings for presence of flies and measures of innate immunity and behavior of calves. Hutches were blocked by location and each of 3 hutches in a blo...

  4. Effect of Bedding Material on Flies, and Behavior and Innate Immunity of Calves Reared in Hutches.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy calf hutches are often bedded with straw (STR), but sand (SND) and wood shavings (SHV) are becoming more common. The objective was to compare 3 beddings for presence of flies and measures of innate immunity and behavior of calves. Hutches were blocked by location and each of 3 hutches in a blo...

  5. Sand and Dust on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Haberle, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Mars is a planet of high scientific interest. Various studies are currently being made that involve vehicles that have landed on Mars. Because Mars is known to experience frequent wind storms, mission planners and engineers require knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of Martian windblown sand and dust, and the processes involved in the origin and evolution of sand and dust storms.

  6. Science Learning in the Sand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Ursula

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to think about the Earth in a contextual manner and become familiar with constructive and destructive processes as they relate to sand - its origins, cyclical processes, and yielding of new products. Explores the bigger idea with a developmentally appropriate study of water, rocks, sand, physical phenomena,…

  7. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  8. Sand and Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 7 November 2003

    This image shows a relatively small crater (35 km across) in the heavily cratered terrain of the southern highlands. At the midlatitudes, this area is known both for its water-formed gullies and its sand dunes. This crater shows spectacular examples of both. In fact, the gullies running down the northern edge of the crater made it to the cover of Science magazine on June 30, 2000. The large dark spot in the floor of the crater is sand that has accumulated into one large dune with a single curvilinear crest.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -54.9, Longitude 17.5 East (342.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Use of coal ash for enhancing biocrust development in stabilizing sand dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaady, Eli; Katra, Itzhak; Sarig, Shlomo

    2015-04-01

    In dryland environments, biocrusts are considered ecosystem engineers since they play significant roles in ecosystem processes. In the successional pathway of crust communities, the new areas are colonized after disturbance by pioneers such as filamentous cyanobacteria - Microcoleus spp. This stage is followed by colonization of green algae, mosses, and lichens. Aggregation of soil granules is caused by metabolic polysaccharides secreted by cyanobacteria and green algae, gluing the soil particles to form the crust layer. It was suggested that incorporating dust into the biocrusts encourages the growth of cyanobacteria, leading to a strengthening of the biocrusts' cohesion. Moreover, biocrusts cover a larger portion of the surface when the soil contains finer particles, and it was observed that at least 4-5% of clay and silt is required to support a measurable biocrust. While natural and undisturbed sand dunes are generally stabilized by biocrusts in the north-western Negev desert, stabilization of disturbed and movable sand dunes is one of the main problems in this desertified land, as in vast areas in the world. Daily breezes and seasonal wind storms transport sand particles to populated and agricultural areas causing damages to field crops and livelihood. Moving sand dunes consist of relatively coarse grains (250-2000 μm) with a low percent of clay and silt. This phenomenon negatively affects cyanobacterial colonization rate, even in relatively wet desert areas (100-250 mm rainfalls). In order to face the problem it was suggested to enrich the dune surface by using coal fly-ash. The research was conducted in two stages: first, examining the feasibility in Petri-dishes in laboratory conditions and in Experimental Aeolian Greenhouse conditions. The results showed that adding coal fly-ash and biocrust inoculum increased aggregate stability, penetration resistance and shear strength, as opposed to the control-sand plot. Using mobile wind-tunnel simulations, sand

  10. Complexity and Fly Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Grant; Murray, Joelle

    Complexity is the study of phenomena that emerge from a collection of interacting objects and arises in many systems throughout physics, biology, finance, economics and more. Certain kinds of complex systems can be described by self-organized criticality (SOC). An SOC system is one that is internally driven towards some critical state. Recent experimental work suggests scaling behavior of fly swarms-one of the hallmarks of an SOC system. Our goal is to look for SOC behavior in computational models of fly swarms.

  11. Fly ash as a liming material for corn production

    SciTech Connect

    Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Stevens, W.B.; McCallister, D.L.; Kackman, S.D.

    2005-05-01

    Fly ash produced as a by-product of subbituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as an alternative liming material without negatively affecting corn (Zea mays L.) production in areas where use of conventional liming materials can be uneconomical due to transportation costs. A study was conducted to determine if fly ash produced from the Nebraska Public Power District Gerald Gentleman Power Station located in Sutherland, NE could be used as an alternative liming material. Combinations of dry fly ash (DFA), wet fly ash (WFA), beet lime (by-product of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing) (BL), and agricultural lime (AGL) were applied at rates ranging from 0.43 to 1.62 times the recommended lime rate to plots on four acidic soils (Anselmo fine sandy loam, Hord fine sandy loam, Holdrege sandy loam, and Valentine fine sand). Soil samples were collected to a depth of 0.2 m from plots and analyzed for pH before lime applications and twice periodically after lime application. The Hord and Valentine soils were analyzed for exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na,and Al for determination of percent Al saturation on selected treatments and sampling dates. Corn grain yields were determined annually. It is concluded that the fly ash utilized in this study and applied at rates in this study, increases soil pH comparable to agricultural lime and is an appropriate alternative liming material.

  12. Intimate sex-biased relationships between flies and nematodes in the Fergusonina-Fergusobia mutualism (Diptera: Fergusoninidae; Nematoda: Neotylenchidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All known species of Fergusonina flies (Fergusoninidae) participate in an obligate mutualism with Fergusobia nematode worms (Neotylenchidae). From dissections, it is believed that all adult and late-instar larval female flies carry nematodes internally, while male adults and late-instar larvae do no...

  13. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations. PMID:21310032

  14. Hierarchical organization of a Sardinian sand dune plant community

    PubMed Central

    Ceccherelli, Giulia; Bertness, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Coastal sand dunes have attracted the attention of plant ecologists for over a century, but they have largely relied on correlations to explain dune plant community organization. We examined long-standing hypotheses experimentally that sand binding, inter-specific interactions, abiotic factors and seedling recruitment are drivers of sand dune plant community structure in Sardinia, Italy. Removing foundation species from the fore-, middle- and back-dune habitats over three years led to erosion and habitat loss on the fore-dune and limited plant recovery that increased with dune elevation. Reciprocal species removals in all zones suggested that inter-specific competition is common, but that dominance is transient, particularly due to sand burial disturbance in the middle-dune. A fully factorial 2-year manipulation of water, nutrient availability and substrate stability revealed no significant proximate response to these physical factors in any dune zone. In the fore- and middle-dune, plant seeds are trapped under adult plants during seed germination, and seedling survivorship and growth generally increase with dune height in spite of increased herbivory in the back-dune. Sand and seed erosion leads to limited seed recruitment on the fore-dune while high summer temperatures and preemption of space lead to competitive dominance of woody plants in the back-dune. Our results suggest that Sardinian sand dune plant communities are organized hierarchically, structured by sand binding foundation species on the fore-dune, sand burial in the middle-dune and increasingly successful seedling recruitment, growth and competitive dominance in the back-dune. PMID:27478701

  15. Hierarchical organization of a Sardinian sand dune plant community.

    PubMed

    Cusseddu, Valentina; Ceccherelli, Giulia; Bertness, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Coastal sand dunes have attracted the attention of plant ecologists for over a century, but they have largely relied on correlations to explain dune plant community organization. We examined long-standing hypotheses experimentally that sand binding, inter-specific interactions, abiotic factors and seedling recruitment are drivers of sand dune plant community structure in Sardinia, Italy. Removing foundation species from the fore-, middle- and back-dune habitats over three years led to erosion and habitat loss on the fore-dune and limited plant recovery that increased with dune elevation. Reciprocal species removals in all zones suggested that inter-specific competition is common, but that dominance is transient, particularly due to sand burial disturbance in the middle-dune. A fully factorial 2-year manipulation of water, nutrient availability and substrate stability revealed no significant proximate response to these physical factors in any dune zone. In the fore- and middle-dune, plant seeds are trapped under adult plants during seed germination, and seedling survivorship and growth generally increase with dune height in spite of increased herbivory in the back-dune. Sand and seed erosion leads to limited seed recruitment on the fore-dune while high summer temperatures and preemption of space lead to competitive dominance of woody plants in the back-dune. Our results suggest that Sardinian sand dune plant communities are organized hierarchically, structured by sand binding foundation species on the fore-dune, sand burial in the middle-dune and increasingly successful seedling recruitment, growth and competitive dominance in the back-dune.

  16. Molecular characterization and immunolocalization of the olfactory co-recepter Orco from two blood-feeding muscid flies, the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans, L.) and the horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans, L.)

    PubMed Central

    Olafson, Pia Untalan

    2012-01-01

    Biting flies are economically important, blood-feeding pests of medical and veterinary significance. Chemosensory-based biting fly behaviors, such as host/nutrient source localization and ovipositional site selection, are intriguing targets for the development of supplemental control strategies. In an effort to expand our understanding of biting fly chemosensory pathways, transcripts encoding the highly conserved insect odorant co-receptor (Orco) were isolated from two representative biting fly species, the stable fly (Scal\\Orco) and the horn fly (Hirr\\Orco). Orco forms a complex with an odor-specific odorant receptor to form an odor-gated ion channel. The biting fly transcripts were predicted to encode proteins with 87% – 94% amino acid similarity to published insect Orco sequences and were detected in various immature stages as well as in adult structures associated with olfaction, i.e. antennae and maxillary palps, and gustation, i.e. proboscis. Further, the relevant proteins were immunolocalized to specific antennal sensilla using anti-serum raised against a peptide sequence conserved between the two fly species. Results from this study provide a basis for functional evaluation of repellent/attractant effects on as yet uncharacterized stable fly and horn fly conventional odorant receptors. PMID:23278866

  17. Economic Impact of Stable Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dynamic model was created to estimate the economic impact of stable flies on livestock production. Based upon a nationwide average of 10 stable flies per animal for 3 months per year, the model estimates the impact of stable flies to be $543 million to the dairy industry, $1.34 billion to pasture ...

  18. Sand, Syrup and Supervolcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, B.; Jellinek, M.; Stix, J.

    2006-12-01

    Supervolcanic eruptions are amongst the most awesome events in the history of the Earth. A supervolcano can erupt thousands of cubic kilometers of ash devastating entire countries and changing the climate for decades. During the eruption, the magma chamber partially empties and collapses. As the chamber collapses at depth, a massive subsidence pit develops at the surface, called a caldera, some calderas can be the size of the entire San Francisco Bay Area. Fortunately, a supervolcano of this size has not erupted since the development of modern man. Due to the infrequency and massive scale of these eruptions, volcanologists do not yet fully understand how calderas form and how the eruption is affected by the roof collapse and vice versa. Therefore, simple analogue experiments are amongst the best ways to understand these eruptions. We present two of these experiments that can be fun, cheap, and helpful to high school and university instructors to demonstrate caldera formation. The first experiment illustrates how magma chamber roofs collapse to produce different style calderas, the second experiment demonstrates how the magma in the chamber affects the collapse style and magma mixing during a supervolcanic eruption. The collapse of a magma chamber can be demonstrated in a simple sandbox containing a buried balloon filled with air connected to a tube that leads out of the sandbox. At this small scale the buried balloon is a good analogue for a magma chamber and sand has an appropriate strength to represent the earths crust. Faults propagate through the sand in a similar way to faults propagating through the crust on a larger scale. To form a caldera just let the air erupt out of the balloon. This experiment can be used to investigate what controls the shape and structure of calderas. Different shaped balloons, and different burial depths all produce sand calderas with different sizes and structures. Additionally, experiments can be done that erupt only part of the

  19. Fly on the Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Dave; Korpan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a peer observation program at the University of Victoria called the Lecture Club. The observers are not interactive during the class--they are the proverbial flies on the wall. The paper identifies the program as self-developmental, discussing the attributes of this learning-to-teach and peer-sharing…

  20. Wisdom from the fly.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Leila E; Larschan, Erica N

    2014-11-01

    Arguably, almost all research in Drosophila can be considered basic research, yet many of the most essential and fundamental concepts of human genetics were first decoded in the fly. Although the fly genome, which is organized into only four chromosomes, is approximately one-twentieth the size of the human genome, it contains roughly the same number of genes, and up to 75% of human disease-related genes have Drosophila homologues [1]. The fly was prized for its simplicity and utility even before such compelling homology with humans was apparent. Since Thomas Hunt Morgan began his seminal experiments over a century ago (Table 1), the Drosophila system has revealed countless key mechanisms by which cells function, including the factors that maintain chromatin and the signaling pathways that control cell fate determination and organism development. More recently, the fly has emerged as a critical neurobiological tool and disease model for a range of genetic disorders. In this review, we present a brief retrospective of Drosophila as an indispensable genetic system and discuss some of the many contributions, past and present, of this facile system to human genetics.

  1. Flying High with Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art activity for first grade that uses multicolor scratch paper. Explains that students make scratch-drawings of bird nests, then, as a class, discuss types of birds and bird positions (such as sitting or flying), and finally each creates a bird to add to the nest. (CMK)

  2. Pregnancy and Flying Duties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    Division U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory Joy of new life temperamentally unfit to fly and prone to panic in any calamity." In the 1930s, Amelia ...One of my greatest joys has been Earhart said, "Men do not believe us capable." delivering babies for aircrew members and In 1939, women were barred

  3. Toxicity of fruit fly baits to beneficial insects in citrus.

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Two fruit fly baits, Nu-Lure®/malathion and GF-120 (Spinosad®) were evaluated in the laboratory for non-target impacts on beneficial insects. Nu-Lure/malathion proved attractive and toxic to adults and larvae of the coccinellid species, Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Cycloneda sanguinea L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas, a lacewing species, Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister. The coccinellids Olla v-nigrum Mulsant, Scymnus sp. and nymphs of the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) did not succumb to Nu-Lure baits, even in no-choice situations. Nu-Lure was also attractive and lethal to adults of two aphidophagous flies; Leucopis sp. and the syrphid fly Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Both Nu-Lure and GF-120 caused significant mortality to the parasitoid wasps, Aphytis melinus De Bach and Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson, within 24 h of exposure. However, GF-120 caused no significant mortality to any coccinellid in either choice or no-choice situations, despite considerable consumption of baits. Adults of P. clavatus tended to avoid GF-120, although mortality was significant in no-choice tests. Although larvae and adults of the lacewing C. rufilabris consumed GF-120, mortality was delayed; adults died 48 -96 h post-exposure and those exposed as larvae died two weeks later in the pupal stage. The Nu-Lure bait did not appear palatable to any of the insects, but the high concentration of malathion (195,000 ppm) caused rapid mortality to susceptible insects. Nu-Lure bait without malathion also caused significant mortality to flies and lacewings in cage trials. Although GF-120 bait appeared more benign overall, further research efforts are warranted to increase its selectivity for target fly species and reduce its attractiveness to parasitoids and lacewings. I conclude that the Florida “fly free zone” protocol in its current form is not compatible with an IPM approach to commercial citrus production. PMID:15841224

  4. Bartonella species in bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) from western Africa.

    PubMed

    Billeter, S A; Hayman, D T S; Peel, A J; Baker, K; Wood, J L N; Cunningham, A; Suu-Ire, R; Dittmar, K; Kosoy, M Y

    2012-03-01

    Bat flies are obligate ectoparasites of bats and it has been hypothesized that they may be involved in the transmission of Bartonella species between bats. A survey was conducted to identify whether Cyclopodia greefi greefi (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) collected from Ghana and 2 islands in the Gulf of Guinea harbour Bartonella. In total, 137 adult flies removed from Eidolon helvum, the straw-coloured fruit bat, were screened for the presence of Bartonella by culture and PCR analysis. Bartonella DNA was detected in 91 (66·4%) of the specimens examined and 1 strain of a Bartonella sp., initially identified in E. helvum blood from Kenya, was obtained from a bat fly collected in Ghana. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report the identification and isolation of Bartonella in bat flies from western Africa.

  5. Oviposition deterrence and immature survival if filth flies (Diptera: Muscidae) when exposed to commercial fungal products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the subletha...

  6. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California table olives, USA: Invasion, distribution, and management implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was discovered in California in late 1998. Thereafter, intensive research was conducted to develop pest control methods in table olives. The life history of olive fruit fly was elucidated, and the distribution and abundance of the adults determined through ...

  7. Effect of fly ash calcination in geopolymer synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki; Jatiningrum, Mirna; Arisiani, Gresia

    2015-12-01

    Geopolymer, a largely amorphous class of inorganic polymer consisting of aluminosilicate repeat units, is an environmentally attractive engineering material due to its ability to consume aluminosilicate waste as raw materials. This work studies the effect of the calcination temperature of a coal fly ash generated by a low-efficiency boiler on the mechanical strength of geopolymer mortar synthesized using a mixture of the fly ash, potassium hydroxide as the alkali activator, and locally available sand as the filler aggregate. The calcination temperature is varied between 500-700 °C, with a calcination period of 2 hours in an electric furnace. Two sand samples with different particle size distributions are used. The key response variable is the compressive strength at room temperature, measured after curing at 80 °C for 7 and 14 days. Uncalcined ash, with a carbon content of approximately 31.0%, is not amenable for geopolymer synthesis. Analysis of experimental data using the ANOVA method for general factorial design identifies significant main effects for all three experimental variables. Two-way interactions are significant, except that between sand type and curing period. Higher calcination temperature significantly improves the strength of the mortar. However, the strength of the obtained geopolymer mortars are still significantly lower than that of ordinary Portland cement mortar.

  8. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  9. Efficacy of cyromazine to control immature stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in winter hay feeding sites.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D B; Friesen, K; Zhu, J J; Sievert, K

    2012-04-01

    Hay mixed with manure and urine residues at sites where hay has been provided as supplemental winter feed for cattle provide an excellent substrate for the development of immature stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Such sites are primary sources of early summer stable flies in the central United States and no effective measures are currently available to control fly development in them. A single application of granular cyromazine in May provided 97% reduction in the number of adult stable flies emerging from hay feeding sites. Stable fly control did not decline during the 12 wk season. A small decline in control was observed relative to anthomyiid, sarcophagid, and syrphid flies developing in the hay feeding sites. However, none of those flies are considered to be pests and > or = 50% control of those flies was maintained for 65 d after application. Cyromazine offers a safe and affordable option for the control of immature stable flies developing in winter hay feeding sites. Controlling those flies should reduce the estimated $2 billion per year of lost production in U.S. cattle industries attributable to stable flies.

  10. Evaluating Perceived Probability of Threat-Relevant Outcomes and Temporal Orientation in Flying Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Mavromoustakos, Elena; Clark, Gavin I.; Rock, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Probability bias regarding threat-relevant outcomes has been demonstrated across anxiety disorders but has not been investigated in flying phobia. Individual temporal orientation (time perspective) may be hypothesised to influence estimates of negative outcomes occurring. The present study investigated whether probability bias could be demonstrated in flying phobia and whether probability estimates of negative flying events was predicted by time perspective. Sixty flying phobic and fifty-five non-flying-phobic adults were recruited to complete an online questionnaire. Participants completed the Flight Anxiety Scale, Probability Scale (measuring perceived probability of flying-negative events, general-negative and general positive events) and the Past-Negative, Future and Present-Hedonistic subscales of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (variables argued to predict mental travel forward and backward in time). The flying phobic group estimated the probability of flying negative and general negative events occurring as significantly higher than non-flying phobics. Past-Negative scores (positively) and Present-Hedonistic scores (negatively) predicted probability estimates of flying negative events. The Future Orientation subscale did not significantly predict probability estimates. This study is the first to demonstrate probability bias for threat-relevant outcomes in flying phobia. Results suggest that time perspective may influence perceived probability of threat-relevant outcomes but the nature of this relationship remains to be determined. PMID:27557054

  11. Evaluating Perceived Probability of Threat-Relevant Outcomes and Temporal Orientation in Flying Phobia.

    PubMed

    Mavromoustakos, Elena; Clark, Gavin I; Rock, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    Probability bias regarding threat-relevant outcomes has been demonstrated across anxiety disorders but has not been investigated in flying phobia. Individual temporal orientation (time perspective) may be hypothesised to influence estimates of negative outcomes occurring. The present study investigated whether probability bias could be demonstrated in flying phobia and whether probability estimates of negative flying events was predicted by time perspective. Sixty flying phobic and fifty-five non-flying-phobic adults were recruited to complete an online questionnaire. Participants completed the Flight Anxiety Scale, Probability Scale (measuring perceived probability of flying-negative events, general-negative and general positive events) and the Past-Negative, Future and Present-Hedonistic subscales of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (variables argued to predict mental travel forward and backward in time). The flying phobic group estimated the probability of flying negative and general negative events occurring as significantly higher than non-flying phobics. Past-Negative scores (positively) and Present-Hedonistic scores (negatively) predicted probability estimates of flying negative events. The Future Orientation subscale did not significantly predict probability estimates. This study is the first to demonstrate probability bias for threat-relevant outcomes in flying phobia. Results suggest that time perspective may influence perceived probability of threat-relevant outcomes but the nature of this relationship remains to be determined.

  12. METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, G.D.

    1957-10-29

    A method is given for the pretreatment of monazite sand with sodium hydroxide. When momazite sand is reacted with sodium hydroxide, the thorium, uranium, and rare earths are converted to water-insoluble hydrous oxides; but in the case of uranium, the precipitate compound may at least partly consist of a slightly soluble uranate. According to the patent, monazite sand is treated with an excess of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, and the insoluble compounds of thorium, uranium, and the rare earths are separated from the aqueous solution. This solution is then concentrated causing sodium phosphate to crystallize out. The crystals are removed from the remaining solution, and the solution is recycled for reaction with a mew supply of momazite sand.

  13. O fly, where art thou?

    PubMed

    Grover, Dhruv; Tower, John; Tavaré, Simon

    2008-10-06

    In this paper, the design of a real-time image acquisition system for tracking the movement of Drosophila in three-dimensional space is presented. The system uses three calibrated and synchronized cameras to detect multiple flies and integrates the detected fly silhouettes to construct the three-dimensional visual hull models of each fly. We used an extended Kalman filter to estimate the state of each fly, given past positions from the reconstructed fly visual hulls. The results show that our approach constructs the three-dimensional visual hull of each fly from the detected image silhouettes and robustly tracks them at real-time rates. The system is suitable for a more detailed analysis of fly behaviour.

  14. Creep Behavior of Frozen Sand.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Potash feldspar was the most abundant feldspar species. The clay minerals present were mica, illite, vermiculite and chlorite with considerable...5000X; a) Mica, b) Feldspar , c) Quartz -9- Page Fig. 111-5 Compaction - Freezing Mold 104 111-6 Cooling Curve for Partially Saturated MFS 105 111-7...aetween 74 and 250im size. The specific gravity of the sand was 2.67g/cm 3 . The mineralogy of the sand material was predominantly quartz and feldspars

  15. Oil recovery from tar sands

    SciTech Connect

    Boesiger, D.D.; Siefkin, J.M.

    1983-01-11

    A process for recovering oil from oil wet and particularly from oil-wet, acidic tar sands is described in which these sands are subjected to vigorous fluidization in the presence of water, air and a surfactant but in the absence of an extraneous hydrocarbon solvent. This step produces a multiphase mixture including an oil containing froth enabling gravity separation, E.G. In hydrocyclone.

  16. Modern Graywacke-Type Sands.

    PubMed

    Hollister, C D; Heezen, B C

    1964-12-18

    A preliminary study of more than 100 deep-sea cores from abyssal plains has revealed two examples of recent muddy sands of the graywacke type which, together with the microcrystalline matrix, form a bimodal-size distribution sands have a well-sorted framework of quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments which, together with the microcrystalline matrix, form a bimodal-size distribution that is also typical of ancient graywackes. The matrix is considered to be primary.

  17. Sand control agent and process

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, P.; Donlon, W.P.; Strom, E.T.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a method for forming a gravel pack in a washed-out interval adjacent a borehole in an unconsolidated or loosely consolidated formation. It comprises perforating a cased borehole at an interval of the formation having a washed-out interval adjacent the borehole; placing sand into the washed-out interval via perforations in the borehole; injecting an aqueous solution of an alkali metal silicate into the interval through perforations contained in the borehole which solution is of a strength sufficient to react with an alcoholic solution of calcium salt to form a permeability retention cement having a porosity sufficient to exclude formation fines or sand; and injecting thereafter via the perforations a solvent containing a calcium salt into the interval containing sand in an amount sufficient to react with the alkali metal silicate at an interface with the solvent so as to form a calcium silicate cement which binds the sand whereupon the porosity of the sand-containing interval is reduced to a size sufficient to exclude the fines or sand while retaining the formation's permeability as the interface flows evenly and continually through the formation.

  18. Sand transport over an immobile gravel substrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory flume channel to evaluate the effects of increasing amounts of sand with an immobile gravel fraction on the sand transport rate and configuration of the sand bed. Knowledge of the movement of sand in gravel beds is important for the management of streams a...

  19. Flies with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vanhauwaert, Roeland; Verstreken, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is an incurable neurodegenerative disease. Most cases of the disease are of sporadic origin, but about 10% of the cases are familial. The genes thus far identified in Parkinson's disease are well conserved. Drosophila is ideally suited to study the molecular neuronal cell biology of these genes and the pathogenic mutations in Parkinson's disease. Flies reproduce quickly, and their elaborate genetic tools in combination with their small size allow researchers to analyze identified cells and neurons in large numbers of animals. Furthermore, fruit flies recapitulate many of the cellular and molecular defects also seen in patients, and these defects often result in clear locomotor and behavioral phenotypes, facilitating genetic modifier screens. Hence, Drosophila has played a prominent role in Parkinson's disease research and has provided invaluable insight into the molecular mechanisms of this disease.

  20. Test What You Fly?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolies, Don

    2002-01-01

    It was the first time on any NASA project I know of that all the instruments on an observatory came off for rework or calibration after the full range of environmental tests, and then were reintegrated at the launch center without the benefit of an observatory environmental retest. Perhaps you've heard the expression, 'Test what you fly, fly what you test'? In theory, it's hard to argue with that. In this case, I was willing to take the risk of not testing what I flew. As the project manager for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission, I was the one who ultimately decided what risks to take, just as it was my responsibility to get buy-in from the stakeholders.

  1. Test What You Fly?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolies, Don

    2002-10-01

    It was the first time on any NASA project I know of that all the instruments on an observatory came off for rework or calibration after the full range of environmental tests, and then were reintegrated at the launch center without the benefit of an observatory environmental retest. Perhaps you've heard the expression, 'Test what you fly, fly what you test'? In theory, it's hard to argue with that. In this case, I was willing to take the risk of not testing what I flew. As the project manager for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission, I was the one who ultimately decided what risks to take, just as it was my responsibility to get buy-in from the stakeholders.

  2. Cost Index Flying

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    continually alter applicable cost indexes . Computed KC-10 Cost Index Equation Using the dollar figures given above, our CI equation reads : CI = CT / C...COST INDEX FLYING GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER John M. Mirtich, Major, USAF AFIT/IMO/ENS/11-11 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY...AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE: DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED

  3. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; ...

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  4. Flying Saucer? Aliens?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    No, it's not a flying saucer, it is the domed top to a 70 foot long vacuum tank at the Lewis Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. The three technicians shown here in protective clothing had just emerged from within the tank where they had been cleaning in the toxic mercury atmosphere, left after ion engine testing in the tank. Lewis has since been renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center.

  5. Effects of Sand Dune Stabilization on the Spatial Pattern of Artemisia ordosica Population in Mu Us Desert, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiachen; Zhang, Yuqing; Fan, Dongqing; Qin, Shugao; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Dong; Gao, Hao; Zhu, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by sand mobility in desert ecosystems. However, little is known about the spatial patterns of Artemisia ordosica, a dominant shrub in the Mu Us desert of Northwest China, in relation to sand fixation. The aim of this study was to investigate and contrast the effects of sand dune stabilization on the population and spatial distribution of this desert shrub. Spatial autocorrelation, semi-variance analysis, and point-pattern analysis were used jointly in this study to investigate the spatial patterns of A. ordosica populations on dunes in Yanchi County of Ningxia, China. The results showed that the spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity declined gradually, and the distance between the clustered individuals shortened following sand dune fixation. Seedlings were more aggregated than adults in all stage of dune stabilization, and both were more aggregated on shifting sand dunes separately. Spatial associations of the seedlings with the adults were mostly positive at distances of 0–5 m in shifting sand dunes, and the spatial association changed from positive to neutral in semi-fixed sand dunes. The seedlings were spaced in an almost random pattern around the adults, and their distances from the adults did not seem to affect their locations in semi-fixed sand dunes. Furthermore, spatial associations of the seedlings with the adults were negative in the fixed sand dune. These findings demonstrate that sand stabilization is an important factor affecting the spatial patterns of A. ordosica populations in the Mu Us desert. These findings suggest that, strong association between individuals may be the mechanism to explain the spatial pattern formation at preliminary stage of dune fixation. Sand dune stabilization can change the spatial pattern of shrub population by weakening the spatial association between native shrub individuals, which may affect the development direction of desert shrubs. PMID:26102584

  6. Effects of Sand Dune Stabilization on the Spatial Pattern of Artemisia ordosica Population in Mu Us Desert, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiachen; Zhang, Yuqing; Fan, Dongqing; Qin, Shugao; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Dong; Gao, Hao; Zhu, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by sand mobility in desert ecosystems. However, little is known about the spatial patterns of Artemisia ordosica, a dominant shrub in the Mu Us desert of Northwest China, in relation to sand fixation. The aim of this study was to investigate and contrast the effects of sand dune stabilization on the population and spatial distribution of this desert shrub. Spatial autocorrelation, semi-variance analysis, and point-pattern analysis were used jointly in this study to investigate the spatial patterns of A. ordosica populations on dunes in Yanchi County of Ningxia, China. The results showed that the spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity declined gradually, and the distance between the clustered individuals shortened following sand dune fixation. Seedlings were more aggregated than adults in all stage of dune stabilization, and both were more aggregated on shifting sand dunes separately. Spatial associations of the seedlings with the adults were mostly positive at distances of 0-5 m in shifting sand dunes, and the spatial association changed from positive to neutral in semi-fixed sand dunes. The seedlings were spaced in an almost random pattern around the adults, and their distances from the adults did not seem to affect their locations in semi-fixed sand dunes. Furthermore, spatial associations of the seedlings with the adults were negative in the fixed sand dune. These findings demonstrate that sand stabilization is an important factor affecting the spatial patterns of A. ordosica populations in the Mu Us desert. These findings suggest that, strong association between individuals may be the mechanism to explain the spatial pattern formation at preliminary stage of dune fixation. Sand dune stabilization can change the spatial pattern of shrub population by weakening the spatial association between native shrub individuals, which may affect the development direction of desert shrubs.

  7. Laboratory Testing of Foundry Sands as Bulking Agents for Porous Media Filters Used to Treat Agricultural Drainage Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    Foundry sands are industrial byproducts that may have potential application as bulking agents that when mixed with small amounts of more chemically reactive materials (i.e. sulfur modified iron, fly ash, etc.) can be used to produce porous media filters capable of removing contaminants from agricultural drainage waters. Foundry sand bulking agents are attractive primarily as a low cost means to maintain the hydraulic efficiency of a filter. Secondarily, the foundry sands themselves may have some capacity for removal of agricultural nutrients and pesticides from water. Consequently, a laboratory study was initiated to quantify hydraulic efficiency and agricultural contaminant removal abilities of six foundry sands. Of the six foundry sands tested, all were obtained in central Ohio, three from iron casting foundries, two from steel casting foundries, and one from an aluminum casting foundry. Hydraulic efficiencies of the foundry sands were assessed by measuring hydraulic conductivity with twice replicated falling-head permeability tests. Batch tests were employed to evaluate foundry sand potential to treat water containing nitrate and phosphate nutrients, along with the pesticide, atrazine. Five of the six foundry sand samples had measured hydraulic conductivity values from 7.6 x 10-3 cm/s to 3.8 x 10-2 cm/s, which is in the range of hydraulic conductivity values found for clean sand. The one foundry sand that was an exception had much lower measured hydraulic conductivity values of 2.75 x 10-5 cm/s and 5.76 x 10-5 cm/s. For the batch tests conducted, none of the nitrate was removed by any of the six foundry sands; however, conversely, almost all of the phosphate was removed by each foundry sand. Batch test atrazine removal results were much more varied. Compared with baseline batch tests, one foundry sand removed two thirds of the atrazine, one foundry sand removed about one half of the atrazine, three foundry sands removed about a third of the atrazine, and one

  8. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    PubMed

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  9. Disturbance of the inclined inserting-type sand fence to wind-sand flow fields and its sand control characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Lei, Jia-qiang; Li, Sheng-yu; Wang, Hai-feng

    2016-06-01

    The inclined inserting-type sand fence is a novel sand retaining wall adopted along the Lanxin High-Speed Railway II in Xinjiang for controlling and blocking sand movement. To verify the effectiveness of the new fence structure for sand prevention, a wind tunnel test was used for flow field test simulation of the sand fence. The results indicate that the inclined inserting-type sand fence was able to deflect the flow of the sand and was able to easily form an upward slant acceleration zone on the leeward side of the sand fence. As shown by the percentage change in sand collection rates on the windward side and the leeward side of the sand fence, the sand flux per unit area at 4 m height in the slant upward direction increased on the leeward side of the inclined inserting-type sand fence. By comparing the flow fields, this site is an acceleration zone, which also reaffirms the correspondence of wind-sand flow fields with the spatial distribution characteristic of the wind-carried sand motion. The field sand collection data indicates that under the effects of the inclined inserting-type sand fence, the sandy air currents passing in front and behind the sand fence not only changed in quality, but the grain composition and particle size also significantly changed, suggesting that the inclined inserting-type sand fence has a sorting and filtering effect on the sandy air currents that passed through. The fence retained coarse particulates on the windward side and fine particulates within the shade of the wind on the leeward side.

  10. Optimal array of sand fences

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Izael A.; Araújo, Ascânio D.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2017-01-01

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth’s climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost. PMID:28338053

  11. Optimal array of sand fences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Izael A.; Araújo, Ascânio D.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2017-03-01

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth’s climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost.

  12. Optimal array of sand fences.

    PubMed

    Lima, Izael A; Araújo, Ascânio D; Parteli, Eric J R; Andrade, José S; Herrmann, Hans J

    2017-03-24

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth's climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost.

  13. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Weeks, E N I; Geden, C J

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed.

  14. Persistence and Retention of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Rochon, K; Baker, R B; Almond, G W; Gimeno, I M; Pérez de León, A A; Watson, D W

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the acquisition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus by the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae; Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) through a bloodmeal, and virus persistence in the digestive organs of the fly using virus isolation and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Stable flies were fed blood containing live virus, modified live vaccine virus, chemically inactivated virus, or no virus. Stable flies acquired PRRSV from the bloodmeal and the amount of virus in the flies declined with time, indicating virus did not replicate in fly digestive tissues. Virus RNA was recovered from the flies fed live virus up to 24 h postfeeding using virus isolation techniques and 96 h using qRT-PCR. We further examined the fate of PRRSV in the hemolymph of the flies following intrathoracic injection to bypass the midgut barrier. PRRSV was detected in intrathoracically inoculated adult stable flies for 10 d using qRT-PCR. In contrast to what we observed in the digestive tract, detectable virus quantities in the intrathoracically inoculated stable flies followed an exponential decay curve. The amount of virus decreased fourfold in the first 3 d and remained stable thereafter, up to 10 d.

  15. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products

    PubMed Central

    Machtinger, E.T.; Weeks, E.N.I.; Geden, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  16. Blood feeding behavior of the stable fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable fly is a fly that looks similar to a house fly but both sexes are blood feeders. Blood is required for successful fertilization and development of eggs. Bites are painful but there is usually no pain after the fly stops feeding. The stable fly is a persistent feeder and will continue trying t...

  17. Sand, gravel properties key to optimum designs

    SciTech Connect

    Oyeneyin, M.B.

    1998-01-26

    Successful gravel packed and screen well completions require a knowledge of sand as well as gravel textural properties. These completion methods keep sand and fines from entering the well bore, so that long-term production capacity of the well is ensured. This first of a three-part series will cover key factors that influence effective sand control. The concluding parts will present guidelines for both gravel packs and screens. Fines, more than load-bearing formation sands, pose the greater problem for the two sand exclusion techniques. Therefore, reservoir sand analysis is the main key for controlling sand. An integrated team approach to both sand control design and implementation from well planning through drilling to final completion is the best strategy for optimizing well performance in reservoirs with sand problems.

  18. Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) colonising large carcasses in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Mądra, Anna; Jarmusz, Mateusz; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2015-06-01

    Sarcophagidae are an important element of carrion insect community. Unfortunately, results on larval and adult Sarcophagidae from forensic carrion studies are virtually absent mostly due to the taxonomic problems with species identification of females and larvae. The impact of this taxon on decomposition of large carrion has not been reliably evaluated. During several pig carcass studies in Poland, large body of data on adult and larval Sarcophagidae was collected. We determined (1) assemblages of adult flesh flies visiting pig carrion in various habitats, (2) species of flesh flies which breed in pig carcasses, and (3) temporal distribution of flesh fly larvae during decomposition. Due to species identification of complete material, including larvae, females, and males, it was possible for the first time to reliably answer several questions related to the role of Sarcophagidae in decomposition of large carrion and hence define their forensic importance. Fifteen species of flesh flies were found to visit pig carcasses, with higher diversity and abundance in grasslands as compared to forests. Sex ratio biased towards females was observed only for Sarcophaga argyrostoma, S. caerulescens, S. similis and S. carnaria species group. Gravid females and larvae were collected only in the case of S. argyrostoma, S. caerulescens, S. melanura and S. similis. Sarcophaga caerulescens and S. similis bred regularly in carcasses, while S. argyrostoma was recorded only occasionally. First instar larvae of flesh flies were recorded on carrion earlier or concurrently with first instar larvae of blowflies. Third instar larvae of S. caerulescens were usually observed before the appearance of the third instar blowfly larvae. These results contest the view that flesh flies colonise carcasses later than blowflies. Sarcophaga caerulescens is designated as a good candidate for a broad forensic use in Central European cases.

  19. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  20. Vision in flying insects.

    PubMed

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland

    2002-12-01

    Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.

  1. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons t