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Sample records for adult scd patients

  1. CD26 Expression on T Helper Populations and sCD26 Serum Levels in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, Oscar J.; Varela-Calviño, Rubén; López-González, Tania; Calviño-Sampedro, Cristina; Viñuela, Juan E.; Mouriño, Coral; Hernández-Rodríguez, Íñigo; Rodríguez-López, Marina; Aspe de la Iglesia, Bruno; Pego, José María

    2015-01-01

    We studied dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV, CD26) expression in different T helper cells and serum soluble DPP-IV/sCD26 levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, correlated these with disease activity score (DAS), and examined how they were affected by different therapies, conventional or biological (anti-TNF, anti-CD20 and anti-IL6R or Ig-CTLA4). The percentage of CD4+CD45R0+CD26- cells was greatly reduced in patients (up to 50%) when compared with healthy subjects. Three other subsets of CD4 cells, including a CD26high Th1-associated population, changed variably with therapies. Data from these subsets (frequency and staining density) significantly correlated with DAS28 or DAS28 components but different in each group of patients undergoing the different therapies. Th17 and Th22 subsets were implicated in RA as independent CCR4+ and CCR4- populations each, with distinct CD26 expression, and were targeted with varying efficiency by each therapy. Serum DPP-IV activity rather than sCD26 levels was lower in RA patients compared to healthy donors. DPP-IV and sCD26 serum levels were found related to specific T cell subsets but not to disease activity. We conclude that, according to their CD26 expression, different cell subsets could serve to monitor RA course, and an uncharacterized T helper CD26- subset, not targeted by therapies, should be monitored for early diagnosis. PMID:26177310

  2. CXCL8, IL-1β and sCD200 are pro-inflammatory cytokines and their levels increase in the circulation of breast carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Betul; Yalcin, Arzu Didem; Genc, Gizem Esra; Bulut, Tangul; Kuloglu Genc, Sibel; Gumuslu, Saadet

    2016-01-01

    The influence of biomarkers on carcinogenesis has been investigated extensively. Whether they promote carcinogenesis or work against cancer development remains to be elucidated. To the best of our knowledge, the novel molecule cluster of differentiation 200 (CD200) has not been studied on human breast cancer subjects. The present study aimed to evaluate interleukin-1β (IL-1β), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), cancer antigen 15.3 (CA 15.3) and the soluble CD200 (sCD200) levels in the serum samples of breast carcinoma patients in order to predict their role in breast carcinoma. The subjects included individuals with early and advanced stage breast cancers, as well as healthy controls. Commercially available ELISA kits were used to measure the serum concentrations of sCD200, IL-1β, CXCL8, CA 15.3, C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocyte count. A total of 130 subjects were recruited; 50 early stage cancer, 50 advanced stage and 30 control subjects. Serum sCD200, CXCL8, IL-1β and CRP levels were significantly higher in the early as well as the advanced stage breast cancer patients compared to the control group. The level of CA 15.3 was statistically different between early and advanced stage. There were significant positive correlations between IL-1β and CXCL8, and IL-1β and serum sCD200 levels in the control group. These correlations did not persist in the early or the advanced stage cancer groups except CRP and CA 15.3, but new correlations appeared between serum sCD200 level and leukocyte count for advanced stage breast cancer group. Multivariate regression correlation analysis revealed positive correlation between IL-1β and sCD200; and IL-1β and CXCL8. In conclusion, sCD200, CXCL8, CA 15.3 and IL-1β are proinflammatory molecules and their levels are influenced in breast cancer patients. PMID:27446554

  3. Macrophage-related serum biomarkers soluble CD163 (sCD163) and soluble mannose receptor (sMR) to differentiate mild liver fibrosis from cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, E S; Rødgaard-Hansen, S; Moessner, B; Christensen, P B; Møller, H J; Weis, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages regulate the fibrotic process in chronic liver disease. The aim of the present pilot study was to evaluate two new macrophage-specific serum biomarkers [soluble CD163 (sCD163) and soluble mannose receptor (sMR, sCD206)] as potential fibrosis markers in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Forty patients with chronic hepatitis C were included from two hospital clinics. On the day of inclusion, transient elastography (TE) was performed to assess the fibrosis stage, and blood samples were collected for the measurement of sCD163 and sMR. The plasma concentrations of both biomarkers were significantly higher in patients infected with HCV and with cirrhosis compared to those with no/mild liver fibrosis (5.77 mg/l vs. 2.49 mg/l and 0.44 mg/l vs. 0.30 mg/l for sCD163 and sMR, respectively). The best separation between groups was obtained by sCD163 [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.89 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.79-0.99)] as compared to sMR [AUC 0.75 (95 % CI 0.61-0.90)]. sCD163 and sMR correlated significantly (r (2) = 0.53, p < 0.0001). Interestingly, sCD163 also correlated significantly with TNF-α (presented in a previous publication), which is shed to serum by the same mechanism as sCD163 (r (2) = 0.40, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the macrophage-related markers sCD163 and sMR are significantly higher in patients chronically infected with HCV and with cirrhosis than in those with no/mild fibrosis. sCD163 is a promising new fibrosis marker in patients infected with HCV.

  4. SCD installed at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Joe; Kothapalli, Karunakar; Nakotte, Heinrich; Schultz, Arthur

    2008-10-01

    Flight path 6 at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) was equipped with a single crystal diffractometer (SCD). Imported from Argon's recently terminated Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), the SCD features two positions-sensitive neutron scintillator area detectors based on the Anger camera design. Each detector has an active area of 15 x 15 cm^2 and boasts achieve spatial resolution finer then 2 mm. Some of our initial studies indicate that useful measurements can be preformed on single crystals less then 1 mm^3.

  5. A biopsychosocial model for the management of patients with sickle-cell disease transitioning to adult medical care.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Lori E; Quinn, Charles T; Kalinyak, Karen A

    2015-04-01

    The lifespan of patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD) continues to increase, and most affected individuals in high-resource countries now live into adulthood. This necessitates a successful transition from pediatric to adult health care. Care for transitioning patients with SCD often falls to primary care providers who may not be fully aware of the many challenges and issues faced by patients and the current management strategies for SCD. In this review, we aim to close the knowledge gap between primary care providers and specialists who treat transitioning patients with SCD. We describe the challenges and issues encountered by these patients, and we propose a biopsychosocial multidisciplinary approach to the management of the identified issues. Examples of this approach, such as transition-focused integrated care models and quality improvement collaboratives, with the potential to improve health outcomes in adulthood are also described. PMID:25832469

  6. A biopsychosocial model for the management of patients with sickle-cell disease transitioning to adult medical care.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Lori E; Quinn, Charles T; Kalinyak, Karen A

    2015-04-01

    The lifespan of patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD) continues to increase, and most affected individuals in high-resource countries now live into adulthood. This necessitates a successful transition from pediatric to adult health care. Care for transitioning patients with SCD often falls to primary care providers who may not be fully aware of the many challenges and issues faced by patients and the current management strategies for SCD. In this review, we aim to close the knowledge gap between primary care providers and specialists who treat transitioning patients with SCD. We describe the challenges and issues encountered by these patients, and we propose a biopsychosocial multidisciplinary approach to the management of the identified issues. Examples of this approach, such as transition-focused integrated care models and quality improvement collaboratives, with the potential to improve health outcomes in adulthood are also described.

  7. [Usefulness of sCD14-ST in the diagnosis of sepsis in patient with renal failure].

    PubMed

    Galeano, Dario; Zanoli, Luca; Fatuzzo, Pasquale; Granata, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Since many years, researchers have focused their studies to find out early sepsis biomarkers for the purpose of gaining time in the application of early goal-directed therapy protocol. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a reliable biomarker for sepsis, although it has a low specificity and prognostic value. Other recently proposed sepsis biomarkers such as interleukins, C-reactive protein (CRP), myeloid cells expressing triggering receptor-1 (TREM-1) and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) still have a controversial and uncertain clinical value. In 2004 a new biomarker, soluble CD14 SubType (sCD14-ST, Presepsin), with a good performance in the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of sepsis has been proposed. First studies highlighted that Presepsin is highly sensitive and specific at the same time. However, further studies on the clinical value of Presepsin are needed, particularly in order to explain the relationship between Presepsin and kidney failure. Indeed, Presepsin is a 13 KDa molecule theoretically totally filtered by glomerulus and reabsorbed and metabolized by proximal convoluted tubules. Therefore, the Presepsin plasmatic level could be highly influenced by an acute kidney injury in the course of sepsis or by a pre-existing chronic kidney disease. In this article we reviewed the latest evidences about the diagnostic and prognostic performances of Presepsin as a sepsis biomarker. We evaluated the usefulness of Presepsin in the context of acute and chronic kidney dysfunction. The great number of articles have been collected and the thorough revision of data from the nephrologists perspective let us consider this work exhaustive and scientifically reliable, although concise: a good starting point for the physician who wants to make use of Presepsin. PMID:27067215

  8. SCD 02 thermal design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardoso, Humberto Pontes

    1990-01-01

    The Satelite de Coleta de Dados (SCD) 02 (Data Collection Satellite) has the following characteristics: 115 kg weight, octagonal prism shape, 1 m diameter, and 0.67 m height. Its specified orbit is nearly circular, 700 km altitude, is inclined 25 deg with respect to the equator line, and has 100 min period. The electric power is supplied by eight solar panels installed on the lateral sides of the satellite. The equipment is located on the central (both faces) and lower (internal face) panels. The satellite is spin stabilized and its attitude control is such that during its lifetime, the solar aspect angle will vary between 80 and 100 deg with respect to its spin axis. Two critical cases were selected for thermal control design purposes: Hot case (maximum solar constant, solar aspect angle equal to 100 deg, minimum eclipse time and maximum internal heat dissipation); and a passive thermal design concept was achieved and the maximum and minimum equipment operating temperatures were obtained through a 109 node finite difference mathematical model.

  9. Plasma CXCL10, sCD163 and sCD14 Levels Have Distinct Associations with Antiretroviral Treatment and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Castley, Alison; Williams, Leah; James, Ian; Guelfi, George; Berry, Cassandra; Nolan, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the associations of three established plasma biomarkers in the context of HIV and treatment-related variables including a comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk assessment, within a large ambulatory HIV cohort. Patients were recruited in 2010 to form the Royal Perth Hospital HIV/CVD risk cohort. Plasma sCD14, sCD163 and CXCL10 levels were measured in 475 consecutive patients with documented CVD risk (age, ethnicity, gender, smoking, blood pressure, BMI, fasting metabolic profile) and HIV treatment history including immunological/virological outcomes. The biomarkers assessed showed distinct associations with virological response: CXCL10 strongly correlated with HIV-1 RNA (p<0.001), sCD163 was significantly reduced among ‘aviraemic’ patients only (p = 0.02), while sCD14 was unaffected by virological status under 10,000 copies/mL (p>0.2). Associations between higher sCD163 and protease inhibitor therapy (p = 0.05) and lower sCD14 with integrase inhibitor therapy (p = 0.02) were observed. Levels of sCD163 were also associated with CVD risk factors (age, ethnicity, HDL, BMI), with a favourable influence of Framingham score <10% (p = 0.04). Soluble CD14 levels were higher among smokers (p = 0.002), with no effect of other CVD risk factors, except age (p = 0.045). Our findings confirm CXCL10, sCD163 and sCD14 have distinct associations with different aspects of HIV infection and treatment. Levels of CXCL10 correlated with routinely monitored variables, sCD163 levels reflect a deeper level of virological suppression and influence of CVD risk factors, while sCD14 levels were not associated with routinely monitored variables, with evidence of specific effects of smoking and integrase inhibitor therapy warranting further investigation. PMID:27355513

  10. Plasma CXCL10, sCD163 and sCD14 Levels Have Distinct Associations with Antiretroviral Treatment and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Castley, Alison; Williams, Leah; James, Ian; Guelfi, George; Berry, Cassandra; Nolan, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the associations of three established plasma biomarkers in the context of HIV and treatment-related variables including a comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk assessment, within a large ambulatory HIV cohort. Patients were recruited in 2010 to form the Royal Perth Hospital HIV/CVD risk cohort. Plasma sCD14, sCD163 and CXCL10 levels were measured in 475 consecutive patients with documented CVD risk (age, ethnicity, gender, smoking, blood pressure, BMI, fasting metabolic profile) and HIV treatment history including immunological/virological outcomes. The biomarkers assessed showed distinct associations with virological response: CXCL10 strongly correlated with HIV-1 RNA (p<0.001), sCD163 was significantly reduced among 'aviraemic' patients only (p = 0.02), while sCD14 was unaffected by virological status under 10,000 copies/mL (p>0.2). Associations between higher sCD163 and protease inhibitor therapy (p = 0.05) and lower sCD14 with integrase inhibitor therapy (p = 0.02) were observed. Levels of sCD163 were also associated with CVD risk factors (age, ethnicity, HDL, BMI), with a favourable influence of Framingham score <10% (p = 0.04). Soluble CD14 levels were higher among smokers (p = 0.002), with no effect of other CVD risk factors, except age (p = 0.045). Our findings confirm CXCL10, sCD163 and sCD14 have distinct associations with different aspects of HIV infection and treatment. Levels of CXCL10 correlated with routinely monitored variables, sCD163 levels reflect a deeper level of virological suppression and influence of CVD risk factors, while sCD14 levels were not associated with routinely monitored variables, with evidence of specific effects of smoking and integrase inhibitor therapy warranting further investigation.

  11. Parental substance abuse, reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher; Whitfield, Keith; Sudhakar, Shiv; Pearce, Michele; Byrd, Goldie; Wood, Mary; Feliu, Miriam; Leach-Beale, Brittani; DeCastro, Laura; Whitworth, Elaine; Abrams, Mary; Jonassaint, Jude; Harrison, M. Ojinga; Mathis, Markece; Scott, Lydia; Johnson, Stephanie; Durant, Lauren; Holmes, Anita; Presnell, Katherine; Bennett, Gary; Shelby, Rebecca; Robinson, Elwood

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing interest from a social learning perspective in understanding the role of parental factors on adult health behaviors and health outcomes. Our review revealed no studies, to date, that have evaluated the effects of parental substance abuse on reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We explored the effects of parental substance (alcohol or drug) abuse on reports of the sensory, affective and summary indices of pain in 67 adult patients, mean age 38.9 (13.5), with SCD. We also explored the effects of parental substance abuse on psychopathology associated with pain and active coping. Twenty-four percent of patients reported that their parent(s) abused substances. Patients whose parent(s) were characterized as substance abusers reported greater sensory (p=0.02), affective (p=0.01) and summary (VAS; p=0.02) indices of pain as compared to their counterparts, whose parent(s) were not characterized as substance abusers. Patients did not differ in average age, education or the propensity to respond in a socially acceptable manner. There was a significant trend towards patients who characterized their parents as abusers scoring higher than their counterparts on active coping. We propose a Social Learning Theory to explain the current findings and suggest a need for additional prospective research to simultaneously explore biological (genetic) and social factors that influence the interpretation, experience and reporting of chronic pain in adult patients with chronic disease. PMID:16573309

  12. The Role of Microvolt T-Wave Alternans to Assess Arrhythmia Vulnerability Among Patients with Heart Failure and Systolic Dysfunction: Primary Results from the TWA SCD-HeFT Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Michael R; Ip, John H; Costantini, Otto; Poole, Jeanne E; McNulty, Steven; Mark, Daniel B; Lee, Kerry L; Bardy, Gust H

    2009-01-01

    Background Sudden cardiac death remains a leading cause of mortality despite advances in medical treatment for the prevention of ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Recent studies showed a benefit of ICD implantation, but appropriate shocks for ventricular tachyarrhythmias were only noted in a minority of patients during 4-5 years of follow-up. Accordingly, better risk stratification is needed to optimize patient selection. In this regard microvolt T-wave alternans (TWA) has emerged as a potentially useful measure of arrhythmia vulnerability, but it has not been evaluated previously in a prospective randomized trial of ICD therapy. Methods and Results This investigation was a prospective substudy of the SCD-HeFT trial including 490 patients at 37 clinical sites. TWA tests were classified by blinded readers as + (37%), - (22%), or indeterminate (41%) by standard criteria. The composite primary endpoint was the first occurrence of any of the following events: sudden cardiac death, sustained ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation or appropriate ICD discharge. During a median follow-up of 30 months, there were no significant differences in event rates between TWA + or − patients (Hazard ratio 1.24, p=0.56, [CI 0.60, 2.59]), or TWA − and non − (+ and indeterminate) subjects (Hazard ratio 1.28, p=0.46, CI [0.65, 2.53]). Similar results were obtained including or excluding patients randomized to amiodarone in the analyses. Conclusions TWA testing did not predict arrhythmic events or mortality in SCD-HeFT, although a small reduction of events (20-25%) among TWA − patients cannot be excluded given the sample size of this study. Accordingly, these results suggest that TWA is not useful to help make clinical decisions regarding ICD therapy among patients with heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction. PMID:18955671

  13. The excess burden of stroke in hospitalized adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Strouse, John J; Jordan, Lori C; Lanzkron, Sophie; Casella, James F

    2009-09-01

    This report compares the relative rates and risk factors associated with stroke in adults versus children with sickle cell disease (SCD) in the United States over the last decade. We identified incident strokes in patients with SCD using ICD-9 codes for acute stroke and SCD and the California Patient Discharge Databases. We estimated SCD prevalence by using the incidence of SCD at birth with adjustment for early mortality from SCD. We identified 255 acute strokes (70 primary hemorrhagic and 185 ischemic) among 69,586 hospitalizations for SCD-related complications from 1998 to 2007. The rate of stroke in children [<18 years old (310/100,000 person-years)] was similar to young adults [18-34 years old (360/100,000 person-years)], but much higher in middle-aged [35-64 years old (1,160/100,000 person-years)] and elderly adults [> or =65 years old (4,700/100,000 person-years)]. Stroke was associated with hypertension in children and hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation, and renal disease in adults. Most acute strokes (75%) and in-hospital deaths from stroke (91%) occurred in adults. Our results suggest that the rate of stroke in SCD peaks in older adults and is three-fold higher than rates previously reported in African-Americans of similar age (35-64 years) without SCD. Stroke in SCD is associated with several known adult risk factors for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Studies for the primary and secondary prevention of stroke in adults with SCD are urgently needed.

  14. Teaching the adult ostomy patient.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, H S

    2001-01-01

    Ostomy education is based on principles of adult learning, including assessment of the learners' readiness, ability, and need to learn. Such teaching incorporates specific strategies designed to promote cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning and strategies to overcome potential cultural barriers. In addition, modifications may be included to meet the needs of aged or disabled patients who have cognitive deficits or low literacy skills. Finally, ostomy education must include an evaluation of its effectiveness. This article reviews general guidelines for planning, implementing, and evaluating patient education for adult patients with ostomies.

  15. An SCD gene from the Mollusca and its upregulation in carotenoid-enriched scallops.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Ning, Xianhui; Dou, Jinzhuang; Yu, Qian; Wang, Shuyue; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-06-10

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of red, orange, and yellow pigments that act as vitamin A precursors and antioxidants. Animals can only obtain carotenoids through their diets. Amongst the carotenoids identified in nature, over one third are of marine origin, but current research on carotenoid absorption in marine species is limited. Bivalves possess an adductor muscle, which is normally white in scallops. However, a new variety of Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis), the 'Haida golden scallop', can be distinguished by its adductor muscle's orange colour, which is caused by carotenoid accumulation. Studying the genes related to carotenoid accumulation in this scallop could benefit our understanding of the mechanisms underlying carotenoid absorption in marine organisms, and it could further improve scallop breeding for carotenoid content. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of monounsaturated fatty acids, which enhance carotenoid absorption. Here, the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of the SCD gene from the Yesso scallop (PySCD) were obtained. The PySCD gene consisted of four exons and three introns, and it contained a 990-bp open reading frame encoding 329 amino acids. It was ubiquitously expressed in adult tissues, embryos and larvae of both white Yesso scallops and 'Haida golden' scallops. Although the expression pattern of PySCD in both types of scallops was similar, significantly more PySCD transcripts were detected in the 'Haida golden' scallops than in the white scallops. Elevated PySCD expression was found in tissues including the adductor muscle, digestive gland, and gonad, as well as in veliger larvae. This study represents the first characterisation of an SCD gene from the Mollusca. Our data imply that PySCD functions in multiple biological processes, and it might be involved in carotenoid accumulation.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of presepsin (sCD14-ST) and procalcitonin for prediction of bacteraemia and bacterial DNAaemia in patients with suspected sepsis.

    PubMed

    Leli, Christian; Ferranti, Marta; Marrano, Umberto; Al Dhahab, Zainab Salim; Bozza, Silvia; Cenci, Elio; Mencacci, Antonella

    2016-08-01

    Early diagnosis and prompt targeted therapy are essential for septic patients' outcome. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been shown to predict bacteraemia and bacterial DNAaemia. Presepsin, the circulating soluble form of CD14 subtype, increases in response to bacterial infections, and is considered a new, emerging, early marker for sepsis. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of presepsin in predicting bacteraemia and bacterial DNAaemia in 92 patients with suspected sepsis, and we compared it with that of PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP). Presepsin median values were significantly higher in bacteraemic vs non-bacteraemic patients [1290 pg ml-1, interquartile range (IQR) 1005-2041 vs 659 pg ml-1, IQR 381-979; P<0.001] and in patients with vs patients without bacterial DNAaemia (1297 pg ml-1, IQR 1001-2046 vs 665 pg ml-1, IQR 381-940; P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristics analysis showed an area under the curve (AUC) for presepsin of 0.788 [95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.687-0.889; P<0.001] in predicting bacteraemia and of 0.777 (95 % CI: 0.676-0.878; P<0.001) in predicting bacterial DNAaemia, lower, but not significantly different, than those of PCT (0.876, P=0.12 and 0.880, P=0.07, respectively). Both biomarkers performed significantly better than CRP, which had an AUC for bacteraemia of 0.602 and for DNAaemia of 0.632 (all P values <0.05). In conclusion, in patients with suspected sepsis, presepsin and PCT showed a good diagnostic accuracy in predicting both bacteraemia and bacterial DNAaemia, superior to CRP. PMID:27170331

  17. SCD-HeFT: Use of RR Interval Statistics for Long-term Risk Stratification for Arrhythmic Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Au-yeung, Wan-tai M.; Reinhall, Per; Poole, Jeanne E.; Anderson, Jill; Johnson, George; Fletcher, Ross D.; Moore, Hans J.; Mark, Daniel B.; Lee, Kerry L.; Bardy, Gust H.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the SCD-HeFT a significant fraction of the congestive heart failure (CHF) patients ultimately did not die suddenly from arrhythmic causes. CHF patients will benefit from better tools to identify if ICD therapy is needed. Objective To identify predictor variables from baseline SCD-HeFT patients’ RR intervals that correlate to arrhythmic sudden cardiac death (SCD) and mortality and to design an ICD therapy screening test. Methods Ten predictor variables were extracted from pre-randomization Holter data from 475 patients enrolled in the SCD-HeFT ICD arm using novel and traditional heart rate variability methods. All variables were correlated to SCD using Mann Whitney-Wilcoxon test and receiver operating characteristic analysis. ICD therapy screening tests were designed by minimizing the cost of false classifications. Survival analysis, including log-rank test and Cox models, was also performed. Results α1 and α2 from detrended fluctuation analysis, the ratio of low to high frequency power, the number of PVCs per hour and heart rate turbulence slope are all statistically significant for predicting the occurrences of SCD (p<0.001) and survival (log-rank p<0.01). The most powerful multivariate predictor tool using the Cox Proportional Hazards was α2 with a hazard ratio of 0.0465 (95% CI: 0.00528 – 0.409, p<0.01). Conclusion Predictor variables from RR intervals correlate to the occurrences of SCD and distinguish survival among SCD-HeFT ICD patients. We believe SCD prediction models should incorporate Holter based RR interval analysis to refine ICD patient selection especially in removing patients who are unlikely to benefit from ICD therapy. PMID:26096609

  18. The impact of recurrent acute chest syndrome on the lung function of young adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Knight-Madden, Jennifer M; Forrester, Terrence S; Lewis, Norma A; Greenough, Anne

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of recurrent acute chest syndrome (ACS) episodes on the lung function of young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our prospective study included 80 SCD adults [26 with recurrent acute chest syndrome (ACS)] and 80 ethnically matched controls aged between 18 and 28 years. Lung function (spirometry and lung volumes) was measured and the results were expressed as the percentage predicted for height. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) was assessed by the response to either a bronchodilator or an exercise challenge. The adults with recurrent ACS (two or more ACS episodes) had lower median forced vital capacity (74 vs. 83%, p = 0.03), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (79 vs. 90%, p < 0.03), and total lung capacity (69 vs. 81%, p = 0.04) than SCD adults who had one or no ACS episodes. The greater the number of ACS episodes, the greater the reduction in lung function (p = 0.001). The adults with SCD had lower median forced vital capacity (81 vs. 106%), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (85 vs. 107%), and total lung capacity (80 vs. 87%) than the controls (p < 0.001). Similar numbers in each group had BHR (p = 0.2). The prevalence of restrictive ventilatory defect in the patients with SCD was almost double that of the controls (p = 0.004). Young adults with SCD have worse lung function than ethnically matched controls, particularly if they have suffered recurrent ACS episodes.

  19. Advanced features of SCD's uncooled detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraenkel, A.; Mizrahi, U.; Bykov, L.; Adin, A.; Malkinson, E.; Zabar, Y.; Seter, D.; Gebil, Y.; Kopolovich, Z.

    2006-03-01

    SCD has recently presented an uncooled detector product line based on the high-end VOx bolometer technology. The first FPA launched, BIRD, is a 384×288 (or 320×240) configurable format with 25 μm pitch. Typical NETD values for these FPAs range at 50 mK with an F/1 aperture and 60 Hz frame rate. These detectors also exhibit a relatively fast thermal time constant of approximately 10 ms. In this paper we elaborate on the special advanced features that were incorporated within the ROIC and supporting algorithms. In this framework we have addressed two important issues: the power consumption and the time span between shutter activations. Minimum power consumption is a critical issue for many un-cooled applications. SCD has addressed this by introducing the "power-save" concept accompanied with flexible dilution architecture. The paper will present recent results exhibiting the various advantages. One of the limiting factors on the performance of uncooled detectors is their vulnerability to ambient drift. Usually, even minor temperature fluctuations are manifested as high residual non-uniformity (RNU) or fixed pattern noise (FPN). As a result frequent shutter operations must be applied, with the risk of blocking the scenery in critical time frames. The challenge is thus twofold: to increase the time span between shutter corrections and achieve better control of its activation. For this purpose BIRD provides two complementing mechanisms: A real-time (frame-by-frame) ambient drift compensation accompanied by an RNU prediction mechanism. The paper will discuss these features in detail and present illustrative system implementations.

  20. Advanced features of SCD's uncooled detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraenkel, A.; Mizrahi, U.; Bykov, L.; Adin, A.; Malkinson, E.; Zabar, Y.; Seter, D.; Gebil, Y.; Kopolovich, Z.

    2005-09-01

    SCD has recently presented an un-cooled detector product line based on the high-end VOx bolometer technology1. The first PFA launched, BIRD, is a 384x288 (or 320x240) configurable format with 25μm pitch. Typical NETD values for these FPAs range at 50mK with an F/1 aperture and 60 Hz frame rate. These detectors also exhibit a relatively fast thermal time constant of approximately 10 msec. In this paper we elaborate on the special advanced features that were incorporated within the ROIC and supporting algorithms. In this framework we have addressed two important issues: the power consumption and the time span between shutter activations. Minimum power consumption is a critical issue for many un-cooled applications. SCD has addressed this by introducing the "Power-Save" concept accompanied with flexible dilution architecture. The paper will present recent results exhibiting the various advantages. One of the limiting factors on the performance of un-cooled detectors is their vulnerability to ambient drift. Usually, even minor temperature fluctuations are manifested as high residual non-uniformity (RNU) or fixed pattern noise (FPN). As a result frequent shutter operations must be applied, with the risk of blocking the scenery in critical time frames. The challenge is thus twofold: increase the time span between shutter corrections and achieve better control of its activation. For this purpose BIRD provides two complementing mechanisms: A real-time (frame-by-frame) ambient drift compensation accompanied by an RNU prediction mechanism. The paper will discuss these features in detail and present illustrative system implementations.

  1. Quality of care in sickle cell disease: Cross-sectional study and development of a measure for adults reporting on ambulatory and emergency department care.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Christian T; Treadwell, Marsha J; Keller, San; Levine, Roger; Hassell, Kathryn L; Werner, Ellen M; Smith, Wally R

    2016-08-01

    Documented deficiencies in adult sickle cell disease (SCD) care include poor access to knowledgeable providers and inadequate treatment in emergency departments (EDs).The aim of this study was to create patient-reported outcome measures of the quality of ambulatory and ED care for adults with SCD.We developed and pilot tested SCD quality of care questions consistent with Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems surveys. We applied psychometric methods to develop scores and evaluate reliability and validity.The participants of this study were adults with SCD (n = 556)-63% aged 18 to 34 years; 64% female; 64% SCD-SS-at 7 US sites.The measure used was Adult Sickle Cell Quality of Life Measurement information system Quality of Care survey.Most participants (90%) reported at least 1 severe pain episode (pain intensity 7.8 ± 2.3, 0-10 scale) in the past year. Most (81%) chose to manage pain at home rather than the ED, citing negative ED experiences (83%). Using factor analysis, we identified Access, Provider Interaction, and ED Care composites with reliable scores (Cronbach α 0.70-0.83) and construct validity (r = 0.32-0.83 correlations with global care ratings). Compared to general adult Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems scores, adults with SCD had worse care, adjusted for age, education, and general health.Results were consistent with other research reflecting deficiencies in ED care for adults with SCD. The Adult Sickle Cell Quality of Life Measurement Quality of Care measure is a useful self-report measure for documenting and tracking disparities in quality of SCD care. PMID:27583862

  2. Diagnosis of Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nick, Jerry A; Nichols, David P

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) is being made with increasing frequency in adults. Patients with CF diagnosed in adulthood typically present with respiratory complaints, and often have recurrent or chronic airway infection. At the time of initial presentation individuals may appear to have clinical manifestation limited to a single organ, but with subclinical involvement of the respiratory tract. Adult-diagnosed patients have a good response to CF center care, and newly available cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor-modulating therapies are promising for the treatment of residual function mutation, thus increasing the importance of the diagnosis in adults with unexplained bronchiectasis.

  3. Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein and sCD14 are Not Produced as Acute Phase Proteins in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kudlova, Manuela; Kunes, Pavel; Kolackova, Martina; Lonsky, Vladimir; Mandak, Jiri; Andrys, Ctirad; Jankovicova, Karolina; Krejsek, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. The changes in the serum levels of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and sCD14 during cardiac surgery were followed in this study. Design. Thirty-four patients, 17 in each group, were randomly assigned to coronary artery bypass grafting surgery performed either with (“on-pump”) or without (“off-pump”) cardiopulmonary bypass. LBP and sCD14 were evaluated by ELISA. Results. The serum levels of LBP were gradually increased from the 1st postoperative day and reached their maximum on the 3rd postoperative day in both “on-pump” and “off-pump” patients (30.33±9.96 μg/mL; 37.99±16.58 μg/mL), respectively. There were no significant differences between “on-pump” and “off-pump” patients regarding LBP. The significantly increased levels of sCD14 from the 1st up to the 7th postoperative day in both “on-pump” and “off-pump” patients were found with no significant differences between these groups. No correlations between LBP and sCD14 and IL-6, CRP and long pentraxin PTX3 levels were found. Conclusions. The levels of LBP and sCD14 are elevated in cardiac surgical patients being similar in both groups. These molecules are not produced as acute phase proteins in these patients. PMID:18288274

  4. Impact of a dedicated infusion clinic for acute management of adults with sickle cell pain crisis.

    PubMed

    Lanzkron, Sophie; Carroll, C Patrick; Hill, Peter; David, Mandy; Paul, Nicklaine; Haywood, Carlton

    2015-05-01

    Most adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) receive care for their acute painful episodes in an emergency department (ED) setting. The purpose of this article is to describe the impact of opening a dedicated treatment center for adults with SCD [Sickle Cell Infusion Clinic (SCIC)] on patient outcomes and on hospital discharges for SCD. Descriptive data including demographics, time to first dose of narcotic, and pain scores were collected on patients presenting to the SCIC and ED. Maryland hospital discharge data were obtained from the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission. Analyses were conducted using T tests, χ(2) tests, and simple generalized estimating equation regression models accounting for the clustered nature of observations, as appropriate. There were 3,874 visits to the SCIC by 361 unique patients; 85% of those visits resulted in the patient being sent home. During the same time period, there were 3,408 visits to the ED by 558 unique patients with SCD. The overall admission rate from the ED for these patients was 35.9% but decreased significantly over the time period with a rate of 20% in December 2011. There was a significant decrease in readmissions over time for the entire Baltimore Metro area with the likelihood of readmission decreasing by 7% over time. The SCIC model provides adults with SCD access to high quality care that decreases the need for hospital admission. Further research needs to be done to evaluate the cost effectiveness of this model.

  5. Presepsin (Scd14) as a Marker of Serious Bacterial Infections in Chemotherapy Induced Severe Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Olad, Elham; Sedighi, Iraj; Mehrvar, Azim; Tashvighi, Maryam; Fallahazad, Vahid; Hedayatiasl, Amirabbas; Esfahani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Timely detection of serious bacterial infections or prediction of sepsis and death is of paramount importance in neutropenic patients especially in oncology settings. The aim of this study was to determine a rapid and secure predictor of sepsis in severe neutropenic cancer children. Methods: In addition to blood culture, we have evaluated serum soluble CD14 on this role and measured it in 39 neutropenic episodes in Mahak pediatric oncology center from September 2012 to January 2013. Fifteen episodes had positive bacterial cultures and 18 had fever. The mean sCD14 values were compared in the presence or absence of fever, positive blood culture and other clinical conditions. Also, mean levels compared in different white cell counts and different four combination settings of fever and blood culture. Findings: It was statistically higher in febrile episodes, in the presence of oral mucositis, indwelling catheter infection, otitis media, and post toxic epidermal necrolysis sepsis and in instances of death within 15 days. Leukocyte count did not affect sCD14 level and in combinations of fever and blood culture, mean sCD14 values were ranked as follow: febrile culture negatives, febrile culture positives, afebrile culture positives and afebrile culture negatives. Conclusion: Although sCD14 was not sensitive in detection of bacteremia, in the absence of clinically detectable source of infection, it was significantly higher in culture positives. PMID:26019777

  6. Retroactive application of the new kidney allocation system to renal transplants performed in the ECD/SCD era.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Rajesh; Gupta, Gaurav; Kim, Joohyun; Quinn, Keri; Behnke, Martha; Kang, Le; Sharma, Amit

    2015-12-01

    The kidney allocation system (KAS) aims to improve deceased donor kidney transplant outcomes by matching of donor allografts and kidney recipients using the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and recipient estimated post-transplant survival (EPTS) indices. In this single-center study, KAS was retroactively applied to 573 adult deceased donor kidney transplants (2004-2012) performed in the extended criteria/standard criteria donor (ECD/SCD) era. Donor KDRI and recipient EPTS were calculated, and transplants were analyzed to identify KAS fits. These were defined as allocation of top 20% allografts to top 20% recipients and bottom 80% allografts to bottom 80% recipients. On retroactive calculation, 70.2% of all transplants fit the KAS. Transplants that fit the KAS had inferior 1- and 5-yr patient survival (95.5% vs. 98.8%, p = 0.048, and 83.4% vs. 91.7%, p = 0.018) and similar 1- and 5-yr graft survival compared to transplants that did not fit the KAS (91.3% vs. 94.1%, p = 0.276, and 72.7% vs. 73.9%, p = 0.561). While EPTS correlated with recipient survival (HR = 2.96, p < 0.001), KDRI correlated with both recipient (HR = 3.56, p < 0.001) and graft survival (HR = 3.23, p < 0.001). Overall, retroactive application of the KAS to transplants performed in the ECD/SCD era did not identify superior patient survival for kidneys allocated in accordance with the KAS.

  7. The Serum Levels of the Soluble Factors sCD40L and CXCL1 Are Not Indicative of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Pateisky, Petra; Pils, Dietmar; Kuessel, Lorenz; Szabo, Ladislaus; Walch, Katharina; Obwegeser, Reinhard; Wenzl, René; Yotova, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a benign but troublesome gynecological condition, characterized by endometrial-like tissue outside the uterine cavity. Lately, the discovery and validation of noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers for endometriosis is one of the main priorities in the field. As the disease elicits a chronic inflammatory reaction, we focused our interest on two factors well known to be involved in inflammation and neoplastic processes, namely, soluble CD40 Ligand and CXCL1, and asked whether differences in the serum levels of sCD40L and CXCL1 in endometriosis patients versus controls can serve as noninvasive disease markers. A total of n = 60 women were included in the study, 31 endometriosis patients and 29 controls, and the serum levels of sCD40L and CXCL1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in the levels of expression of both sCD40L and CXCL1 between patients and controls. This study adds useful clinical data showing that the serum levels of the soluble factors sCD40L and CXCL1 are not associated with endometriosis and are not suitable as biomarkers for disease diagnosis. However, we found a trend toward lower levels of sCD40L in the deep infiltrating endometriosis subgroup making it a potentially interesting target worth further investigation. PMID:27190986

  8. High-performance IR detectors at SCD present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesher, O.; Klipstein, P. C.

    2006-03-01

    For over 27 years, SCD has been manufacturing and developing a wide range of high performance infrared detectors, designed to operate in either the mid-wave (MWIR) or the long-wave (LWIR) atmospheric windows. These detectors have been integrated successfully into many different types of system including missile seekers, time delay integration scanning systems, hand-held cameras, missile warning systems and many others. SCD's technology for the MWIR wavelength range is based on its well established 2D arrays of InSb photodiodes. The arrays are flip-chip bonded to SCD's analogue or digital signal processors, all of which have been designed in-house. The 2D focal plane array (FPA) detectors have a format of 320×256 elements for a 30-μm pitch and 480×384 or 640×512 elements for a 20-μm pitch. Typical operating temperatures are around 77-85 K. Five years ago SCD began to develop a new generation of MWIR detectors based on the epitaxial growth of antimonide based compound semiconductors (ABCS). This ABCS technology allows band-gap engineering of the detection material which enables higher operating temperatures and multi-spectral detection. This year SCD presented its first prototype FPA from this program, an InAlSb based detector operating at a temperature of 100 K. By the end of this year SCD will introduce the first prototype MWIR detector with a 640×512 element format and a pitch of 15 μm. For the LWIR wavelength range SCD manufactures both linear Hg1-xCdxTe (MCT) detectors with a line of 250 elements and time delay and integration (TDI) detectors with formats of 288×4 and 480×6. Recently, SCD has demonstrated its first prototype uncooled detector which is based on VOx technology and which has a format of 384×288 elements, a pitch of 25 μm, and a typical NETD of 50 mK at F/1. In this paper, we describe the present technologies and products of SCD and the future evolution of our detectors for the MWIR and LWIR detection.

  9. High-performance IR detectors at SCD present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesher, O.; Klipstein, P. C.

    2005-09-01

    For over 27 years, SCD has been manufacturing and developing a wide range of high performance infra-red detectors, designed to operate in either the mid-wave (MWIR) or the long-wave (LWIR) atmospheric windows. These detectors have been integrated successfully into many different types of system including missile seekers, Time Delay Integration scanning systems, Hand-Held cameras, Missile Warning Systems and many others. SCD's technology for the MWIR wavelength range is based on its well established 2-D arrays of InSb photodiodes. The arrays are flip-chip bonded to SCD's analogue or digital signal processors, all of which have been designed in-house. The 2-D Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors have a format of 320×256 elements for a 30 μm pitch and 480×384 or 640×512 elements for a 20 μm pitch. Typical operating temperatures are around 77-85K. Five years ago SCD began to develop a new generation of MWIR detectors based on the epitaxial growth of Antimonide Based Compound Semiconductors (ABCS). This ABCS technology allows band-gap engineering of the detection material which enables higher operating temperatures and multi-spectral detection. This year SCD presented its first prototype FPA from this program, an InAlSb based detector operating at a temperature of 100 K. By the end of this year SCD will introduce the first prototype MWIR detector with a 640×512 element format and a pitch of 15 μm. For the LWIR wave-length range SCD manufactures both linear Hg1-xCdxTe (MCT) detectors with a line of 250 elements and Time Delay and Integration (TDI) detectors with formats of 288×4 and 480×6. Recently, SCD has demonstrated its first prototype un-cooled detector which is based on VOx technology and which has a format of 384×288 elements, a pitch of 25 μm and a typical NETD of 50mK at F/1. In this paper we describe the present technologies and products of SCD and the future evolution of our detectors for the MWIR and LWIR detection.

  10. Spectroscopic critical dimension technology (SCD) for directed self assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishibe, Senichi; Dziura, Thaddeus; Nagaswami, Venkat; Gronheid, Roel

    2014-04-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) is being actively investigated as a potential patterning solution for future generation devices. While SEM based CD measurement is currently used in research and development, scatterometry-based techniques like spectroscopic CD (SCD) are preferred for high volume manufacturing. SCD can offer information about sub-surface features that are not available from CD-SEM measurement. Besides, SCD is a non-destructive, high throughput technique already adopted in HVM in several advanced nodes. The directed self assembly CD measurement can be challenging because of small dimensions and extremely thin layers in the DSA stack. In this study, the SCD technology was investigated for a 14 nm resolution PS-b-PMMA chemical epitaxy UW process optimized by imec. The DSA stack involves new materials such as cross-linkable polysterene (XPS) of thickness approximately 5 nm, ArF immersion resist (subsequently removed), -OH terminated neutral brush layer, and BCP material (Polystyrene-blockmethyl methacrylate of thickness roughly 20 to 30 nm). The mask contains a large CD and pitch matrix, for studying the quality of self-assembly as a function of the guide pattern dimensions. We report on the ability of SCD to characterize the dimensional variation in these targets and hence provide a viable process control solution.

  11. Adult Sickle Cell Quality-of-Life Measurement Information System (ASCQ-Me)

    PubMed Central

    Treadwell, Marsha J.; Hassell, Kathryn; Levine, Roger; Keller, San

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research-derived evidence about the impact of sickle cell disease (SCD) on the lives of affected adults is lacking. We conducted formative research to provide the basis for a comprehensive description of how SCD affects the lives of adults, with the goal of developing a SCD-specific quality-of-life measurement system. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review of patient-reported outcomes, followed by a series of focus groups and structured individual interviews with adults with SCD (n = 122) and their health care providers (n = 15). Results We reviewed 473 abstracts and included 86 articles in the final review. The literature revealed broad categories of the impact of SCD and its treatment on the lives of adults—pain; emotional distress; social-role functioning; overall quality-of-life; and quality of care. We classified 1213 incidents from the focus groups and interviews into a taxonomy (16 domains) that met the criterion for saturation and was demonstrated to be reliable for the classification of incidents. The final conceptual model was built upon the taxonomy. Discussion Our conceptual model was similar to previous models with the effects of pain predominating, interwoven with emotional distress, quality of care, and stigmatization. We found a broad range of emotions reflected, including positive effects of SCD. Items for the quality-of-life measure were derived from the taxonomy and the conceptual model may be of use in generating hypotheses for clinical research and improving understanding for clinicians of the lived experience of adults with SCD. PMID:24300219

  12. Transitioning Adolescents and Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease From Pediatric to Adult Health Care: Provider Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stollon, Natalie B; Paine, Christine W; Lucas, Matthew S; Brumley, Lauren D; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    The transition from pediatric to adult health care is often challenging for adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our study aimed to identify (1) measures of success for the transition to adult health care; and (2) barriers and facilitators to this process. We interviewed 13 SCD experts and asked them about their experiences caring for adolescents and young adults with SCD. Our interview guide was developed based on Social-Ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework, and interviews were coded using the constant comparative method. Our results showed that transition success was measured by health care utilization, quality of life, and continuation on a stable disease trajectory. We also found that barriers to transition include negative experiences in the emergency department, sociodemographic factors, and adolescent skills. Facilitators include a positive relationship with the provider, family support, and developmental maturity. Success in SCD transition is primarily determined by the patients' quality of relationships with their parents and providers and their developmental maturity and skills. Understanding these concepts will aid in the development of future evidence-based transition care models.

  13. Transitioning Adolescents and Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease From Pediatric to Adult Health Care: Provider Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stollon, Natalie B; Paine, Christine W; Lucas, Matthew S; Brumley, Lauren D; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Grant, Anne W; Jan, Sophia; Trachtenberg, Symme; Zander, Miriam; Bonafide, Christopher P; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2015-11-01

    The transition from pediatric to adult health care is often challenging for adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our study aimed to identify (1) measures of success for the transition to adult health care; and (2) barriers and facilitators to this process. We interviewed 13 SCD experts and asked them about their experiences caring for adolescents and young adults with SCD. Our interview guide was developed based on Social-Ecological Model of Adolescent and Young Adult Readiness to Transition framework, and interviews were coded using the constant comparative method. Our results showed that transition success was measured by health care utilization, quality of life, and continuation on a stable disease trajectory. We also found that barriers to transition include negative experiences in the emergency department, sociodemographic factors, and adolescent skills. Facilitators include a positive relationship with the provider, family support, and developmental maturity. Success in SCD transition is primarily determined by the patients' quality of relationships with their parents and providers and their developmental maturity and skills. Understanding these concepts will aid in the development of future evidence-based transition care models. PMID:26492583

  14. SCD1 thermal design and test result analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardoso, Humberto Pontes; Muraoka, Issamu; Mantelli, Marcia Barbosa Henriques; Leite, Rosangela M. G.

    1990-01-01

    The SCD 01 (Satelite de Coleta de Dados 01) is a spin stabilized low Earth orbit satellite dedicated to the collection and distribution of environmental data. It was completely developed at the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE) and is scheduled to be launched in 1992. The SCD 01 passive thermal control design configuration is presented and the thermal analysis results are compared with the temperatures obtained from a Thermal Balance Test. The correlation between the analytical and experimental results is considered very good. Numerical flight simulations show that the thermal control design can keep all the subsystem temperatures within their specified temperature range.

  15. Ab Interno Trabeculectomy in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R.; Seibold, Leonard K.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The mainstay of treatment is lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) through the use of medications, laser and/or incisional surgery. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be the site of significant resistance to aqueous outflow in open angle glaucoma. Theoretically, an incision through TM or TM removal should decrease this resistance and lead to a significant reduction in IOP. This approach, commonly referred to as goniotomy or trabeculotomy, has been validated in the pediatric population and has been associated with long-term IOP control. In adults, however, removal of TM tissue has been historically associated with more limited and short-lived success. More recent evidence, reveals that even adult patients may benefit significantly from removal of diseased TM tissue and can lead to a significant reduction in IOP that is long-lasting and safe. In this review, we discuss current evidence and techniques for ab interno trabeculectomy using various devices in the adult patient. PMID:25624670

  16. Ab interno trabeculectomy in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R; Seibold, Leonard K; Kahook, Malik Y

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The mainstay of treatment is lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) through the use of medications, laser and/or incisional surgery. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be the site of significant resistance to aqueous outflow in open angle glaucoma. Theoretically, an incision through TM or TM removal should decrease this resistance and lead to a significant reduction in IOP. This approach, commonly referred to as goniotomy or trabeculotomy, has been validated in the pediatric population and has been associated with long-term IOP control. In adults, however, removal of TM tissue has been historically associated with more limited and short-lived success. More recent evidence, reveals that even adult patients may benefit significantly from removal of diseased TM tissue and can lead to a significant reduction in IOP that is long-lasting and safe. In this review, we discuss current evidence and techniques for ab interno trabeculectomy using various devices in the adult patient.

  17. Would you terminate a pregnancy affected by sickle cell disease? Analysis of views of patients in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Wonkam, Ambroise; de Vries, Jantina; Royal, Charmaine D; Ramesar, Raj; Angwafo, Fru F

    2014-09-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating illness that affects quality of life and life expectancy for patients. In Cameroon, it is now possible to opt for termination of an affected pregnancy (TAP) where the fetus is found to be affected by SCD. Our earlier studies found that, contrary to the views of Cameroonian physicians, a majority of parents with their children suffering from SCD would choose to abort if the fetuses were found to be affected. What have not yet been investigated are the views of people suffering from/living with SCD. We used a quantitative sociological method, with administered structured questionnaires, to study the attitudes of adult patients suffering from SCD on prenatal genetic diagnosis (PND) and possible TAP. The majority of the 89 participants were urban dwellers (84.3%), women (57.3%), Christian (95.5%) and single (90.9%), with a secondary/tertiary education (79.5%). The majority (89.2%) would consider PND for SCD; almost half (48.5%) would reject TAP while 40.9% would consider it. Respondents who rejected TAP claimed mostly ethical reasons (78.1%) while those who found TAP acceptable cited fear of having an affected child (88.9%) and the poor quality of the affected child's health (81.5%). Cameroonian patients with SCD are generally supportive of PND and a remarkably high number of patients living with SCD reported that they would consider terminating a pregnancy based on their assessment of the future well-being of the child. Research is required to investigate the burden of SCD on families and their quality of life.

  18. Drug Redeployment to Kill Leukemia and Lymphoma Cells by Disrupting SCD1-Mediated Synthesis of Monounsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Southam, Andrew D; Khanim, Farhat L; Hayden, Rachel E; Constantinou, Julia K; Koczula, Katarzyna M; Michell, Robert H; Viant, Mark R; Drayson, Mark T; Bunce, Chris M

    2015-06-15

    The redeployed drug combination of bezafibrate and medroxyprogesterone acetate (designated BaP) has potent in vivo anticancer activity in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) patients; however, its mechanism-of-action is unclear. Given that elevated fatty acid biosynthesis is a hallmark of many cancers and that these drugs can affect lipid metabolism, we hypothesized that BaP exerts anticancer effects by disrupting lipogenesis. We applied mass spectrometry-based lipidomics and gene and protein expression measurements of key lipogenic enzymes [acetyl CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1)] to AML and eBL cell lines treated with BaP. BaP treatment decreased fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis from (13)C D-glucose. The proportion of phospholipid species with saturated and monounsaturated acyl chains was also decreased after treatment, whereas those with polyunsaturated chains increased. BaP decreased SCD1 protein levels in each cell line (0.46- to 0.62-fold; P < 0.023) and decreased FASN protein levels across all cell lines (0.87-fold decrease; P = 1.7 × 10(-4)). Changes to ACC1 protein levels were mostly insignificant. Supplementation with the SCD1 enzymatic product, oleate, rescued AML and e-BL cells from BaP cell killing and decreased levels of BaP-induced reactive oxygen species, whereas supplementation with the SCD1 substrate (and FASN product), palmitate, did not rescue cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that the critical anticancer actions of BaP are decreases in SCD1 levels and monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that clinically available antileukemic and antilymphoma drugs targeting SCD1 have been reported. PMID:25943877

  19. Carboplatin dosing for adult Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yuichi; Shimokata, Tomoya; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2014-02-01

    Carboplatin is a platinum-based anticancer drug that has been long used to treat many types of solid cancer. Because the clearance of carboplatin strongly correlates with the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), its dosage is calculated with the Calvert formula on the basis of the patient's GFR to achieve the target area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve (AUC) for each patient. However, many lines of evidence from previous clinical studies should be interpreted with caution because different methods were used to estimate drug clearance and derive the dosage of carboplatin. There is a particularly high risk of carboplatin overdosing when the dosage is determined on the basis of standardized serum creatinine values. When deciding the dose of carboplatin for adult Japanese patients, preferred methods to assess renal function instead of directly measuring GFR include (1) 24-h urinary collection-based creatinine clearance adjusted by adding 0.2 mg/dl to the serum creatinine concentration measured by standardized methods, and (2) equation-based GFR (eGFR) with a back calculation to units of ml/min per subject. Given the limitations of serum creatinine-based GFR estimations, the GFR or creatinine clearance should be directly measured in each patient whenever possible. To ensure patient safety and facilitate a medical-team approach, the single most appropriate method available at each institute or medical team should be consistently used to calculate the dose of carboplatin with the Calvert formula.

  20. Atlantoaxial Rotatory Fixation in Adults Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sei Woong; Moon, Seung Myung; Choi, Sun Kil

    2009-01-01

    Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) in adult is a rare disorder that occurs followed by a trauma. The patients were presented with painful torticollis and a typical 'cock robin' position of the head. The clinical diagnosis is generally difficult and often made in the late stage. In some cases, an irreducible or chronic fixation develops. We reported a case of AARF in adult patient which was treated by immobilization with conservative treatment. A 25-year-old female was presented with a posterior neck pain and limitation of motion of cervical spine after a traffic accident. She had no neurological deficit but suffered from severe defect on the scalp and multiple thoracic compression fractures. Plain radiographs demonstrated torticollis, lateral shift of odontoid process to one side and widening of one side of C1-C2 joint space. Immobilization with a Holter traction were performed and analgesics and muscle relaxants were given. Posterior neck pain and limitation of the cervical spine's motion were resolved. Plain cervical radiographs taken at one month after the injury showed that torticollis disappeared and the dens were in the midline position. The authors reported a case of type I post-traumatic AARF that was successfully treated by immobilization alone. PMID:19444353

  1. Conventional MRI for diagnosis of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) of the spinal cord due to vitamin B-12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Cui-Ping; Ren, Cui-Ping; Cheng, Jing-Liang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Ying; Li, Bei-bei; Fan, Yi-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord (SCD) is often found in vitamin B-12 deficiency and typically shows hyperintensity on T2-weighted images of the lateral and posterior columns. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of conventional magnetic resonance examination in diagnosing SCD. Thirty-six patients were clinically confirmed and retrospectively analyzed; conventional spine MRIs were available for all patients and eight of them had contrast enhancement MRIs. 19 out of 36 patients showed abnormal signal intensity on T2 weighted images with a sensitivity of 52.8%, among which 18 in the posterior aspect of the spinal cord and 1 in the anterior horn of the thoracic spinal cord The spinal cord abnormalities were seen at the cervical spine in 12 patients (33.3%) and at the thoracic spine in the other 7 patients (19.4%). Axial T2-weighted images showed symmetric linear T2-hyperintensity as an "inverted V" at the cervical spinal cord in 5 patients, which has been reported as a typical sign of SCD. For patients with thoracic spinal cord abnormalities, the bilateral paired nodular T2-hyperintensity looked like "binoculars" at the thoracic spinal cord. Only one out of the eight patients showed slight enhancement after injection with contrast agent. All the 36 patients reported clinical improvement after appropriate vitamin B-12 treatment. The two follow-up spine MRIs showed a decreased extent of the lesion. Therefore, conventional MRI is useful in the diagnosis and management of SCD caused by vitamin B-12 deficiency.

  2. Conventional MRI for diagnosis of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) of the spinal cord due to vitamin B-12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Cui-Ping; Ren, Cui-Ping; Cheng, Jing-Liang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Ying; Li, Bei-bei; Fan, Yi-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord (SCD) is often found in vitamin B-12 deficiency and typically shows hyperintensity on T2-weighted images of the lateral and posterior columns. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of conventional magnetic resonance examination in diagnosing SCD. Thirty-six patients were clinically confirmed and retrospectively analyzed; conventional spine MRIs were available for all patients and eight of them had contrast enhancement MRIs. 19 out of 36 patients showed abnormal signal intensity on T2 weighted images with a sensitivity of 52.8%, among which 18 in the posterior aspect of the spinal cord and 1 in the anterior horn of the thoracic spinal cord The spinal cord abnormalities were seen at the cervical spine in 12 patients (33.3%) and at the thoracic spine in the other 7 patients (19.4%). Axial T2-weighted images showed symmetric linear T2-hyperintensity as an "inverted V" at the cervical spinal cord in 5 patients, which has been reported as a typical sign of SCD. For patients with thoracic spinal cord abnormalities, the bilateral paired nodular T2-hyperintensity looked like "binoculars" at the thoracic spinal cord. Only one out of the eight patients showed slight enhancement after injection with contrast agent. All the 36 patients reported clinical improvement after appropriate vitamin B-12 treatment. The two follow-up spine MRIs showed a decreased extent of the lesion. Therefore, conventional MRI is useful in the diagnosis and management of SCD caused by vitamin B-12 deficiency. PMID:26965759

  3. Nonmyeloablative Stem Cell Transplantation with Alemtuzumab/Low-Dose Irradiation to Cure and Improve the Quality of Life of Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Santosh L; Oh, Annie L; Patel, Pritesh R; Jalundhwala, Yash; Sweiss, Karen; Koshy, Matthew; Campbell-Lee, Sally; Gowhari, Michel; Hassan, Johara; Peace, David; Quigley, John G; Khan, Irum; Molokie, Robert E; Hsu, Lewis L; Mahmud, Nadim; Levinson, Dennis J; Pickard, A Simon; Garcia, Joe G N; Gordeuk, Victor R; Rondelli, Damiano

    2016-03-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is rarely performed in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We utilized the chemotherapy-free, alemtuzumab/total body irradiation 300 cGy regimen with sirolimus as post-transplantation immunosuppression in 13 high-risk SCD adult patients between November 2011 and June 2014. Patients received matched related donor (MRD) granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells, including 2 cases that were ABO incompatible. Quality-of-life (QoL) measurements were performed at different time points after HSCT. All 13 patients initially engrafted. A stable mixed donor/recipient chimerism was maintained in 12 patients (92%), whereas 1 patient not compliant with sirolimus experienced secondary graft failure. With a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 12 to 44 months) there was no mortality, no acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and no grades 3 or 4 extramedullary toxicities. At 1 year after transplantation, patients with stable donor chimerism have normalized hemoglobin concentrations and improved cardiopulmonary and QoL parameters including bodily pain, general health, and vitality. In 4 patients, sirolimus was stopped without rejection or SCD-related complications. These results underscore the successful use of a chemotherapy-free regimen in MRD HSCT for high-risk adult SCD patients and demonstrates a high cure rate, absence of GVHD or mortality, and improvement in QoL including the applicability of this regimen in ABO mismatched cases (NCT number 01499888). PMID:26348889

  4. D″ discontinuity structure beneath the North Atlantic from Scd observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Whittaker, Stefanie; Thorne, Michael S.

    2015-05-01

    We analyzed transverse and radial component recordings from the 2010 M6.3 southern Spain earthquake (depth = 620 km) recorded on 370 broadband stations in North America. We grouped these seismograms into subarrays and applied fourth root vespa processing (vespagram analysis) in order to enhance low-amplitude arrivals. These vespagrams show clear Scd arrivals which indicate the existence of the D″ discontinuity beneath the North Atlantic Ocean (45-60°N, 45-55°W). These observations are best fit with a +2-4% velocity increase at the top of the D″ discontinuity at a height above the core-mantle boundary of 304 ± 14 km. We do not observe Scd arrivals at the eastern end of our study region which is consistent with the presence of the easternmost edge of the ancient Farallon plate.

  5. Analysis of the Physiological Activities of Scd6 through Its Interaction with Hmt1

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Pham Thi Kim; Izumikawa, Keiichi; Muroi, Kei; Irie, Kaoru; Suda, Yasuyuki; Irie, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Scd6, a yeast homologue of human RAP55, is a component of messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) that repress translation by binding to translation initiation factors, and also is a decapping activator along with the binding partners Edc3 and Dhh1. Herein, we report that Scd6 is a substrate of the intrinsic protein arginine methyltransferase, Hmt1, in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that several arginine residues within the Scd6 RGG motif, which is important for mRNA binding, were methylated in Hmt1 dependent manner. Under stress conditions such as glucose starvation, Scd6 localized to cytoplasmic processing bodies (P-bodies) wherein translationally repressed mRNPs and untranslated mRNAs accumulate. Localization of Scd6 to P-bodies was impaired in hmt1 deletion mutant and in the presence of methylation-deficient substitution of Scd6. In addition, deletion of scd6 and dhh1 led to severe synthetic growth defect at high temperature. Methylation-deficient mutation of Scd6 suppressed the phenotypic defects of scd6 dhh1 double mutant, whereas methylation-mimic mutation did not, suggesting that the arginine methylation might negatively regulate Scd6 function relating to Dhh1. Therefore, the present data suggest that Hmt1-based arginine methylation is required for Scd6 localization and function. PMID:27776129

  6. Alignment of Single-Case Design (SCD) Research with Individuals Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing with the What Works Clearinghouse Standards for SCD Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Erica; Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Ge, Jin Jin; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2015-01-01

    The authors assessed the quality of single-case design (SCD) studies that assess the impact of interventions on outcomes for individuals who are deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH). More specifically, the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for SCD research were used to assess design quality and the strength of evidence of peer-reviewed studies…

  7. Alignment of Single-Case Design (SCD) Research with Individuals Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing with the What Works Clearinghouse Standards for SCD Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Erica; Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Ge, Jin Jin; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2015-01-01

    The authors assessed the quality of single-case design (SCD) studies that assess the impact of interventions on outcomes for individuals who are deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH). More specifically, the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for SCD research were used to assess design quality and strength of evidence of peer-reviewed studies…

  8. Virions of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates resistant to soluble CD4 (sCD4) neutralization differ in sCD4 binding and glycoprotein gp120 retention from sCD4-sensitive isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J P; McKeating, J A; Huang, Y X; Ashkenazi, A; Ho, D D

    1992-01-01

    Primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are much less sensitive to neutralization by soluble CD4 (sCD4) and sCD4-immunoglobulin (Ig) chimeras (CD4-IgG) than are HIV-1 strains adapted to growth in cell culture. We demonstrated that there are significant reductions (10- to 30-fold) in the binding of sCD4 and CD4-IgG to intact virions of five primary isolates compared with sCD4-sensitive, cell culture-adapted isolates RF and IIIB. However, soluble envelope glycoproteins (gp120) derived from the primary isolate virions, directly by detergent solubilization or indirectly by recombinant DNA technology, differed in affinity from RF and IIIB gp120 by only one- to threefold. The reduced binding of sCD4 to these primary isolate virions must therefore be a consequence of the tertiary or quaternary structure of the envelope glycoproteins in their native, oligomeric form on the viral surface. In addition, the rate and extent of sCD4-induced gp120 shedding from these primary isolates was lower than that from RF. We suggest that reduced sCD4 binding and increased gp120 retention together account for the relative resistance of these primary isolates to neutralization by sCD4 and CD4-IgG and that virions of different HIV-1 isolates vary both in the mechanism of sCD4 binding and in subsequent conformational changes in their envelope glycoproteins. PMID:1727487

  9. [Bacterial parotitis in an immunocompromised patient in adult ICU].

    PubMed

    Vassal, O; Bernet, C; Wallet, F; Friggeri, A; Piriou, V

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial parotitis is a common childhood disease with a favorable outcome. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently involved pathogen. Clinical presentation in adult patients can be misleading, Onset occurs in patients with multiple comorbidities, making diagnosis difficult--particularly in ICU. Different pathogens are found in adults with worse outcomes observed. We report here the case of a critically ill patient and discuss diagnosis and management of bacterial parotitis.

  10. Low-SWaP shutterless uncooled video core by SCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrahi, U.; Yuval, S.; Hirsh, Y.; Sinai, Y.; Lury, Y.; Gridish, Y.; Syrel, N.; Shamay, Y.; Meshorer, R.; Iosevich, R.; Horesh, S. L.

    2015-06-01

    Over the last decade SCD has established a "state of the art" VOx μ-Bolometer product line. The market demands for low SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) uncooled engines is steadily growing, where low SWaP is especially critical in battery-operated applications such as goggles and Thermal Weapon Sights (TWS). In this approach, SCD has developed a low-SWaP, shutter-less uncooled video core, with a foot-print of 31x31mm and sub Watt power consumption. The video core contains a temperature calibrated, High Sensitivity (HS) 640x480 17μm pitch detector (NETD <= 32mK @ 30Hz, F/1), packaged in a new TEC-less ceramic package (26x23mm). The video core contains superior image processing algorithms including: local and global Dynamic Range Compression (DRC), and spatial and temporal de-noising algorithms providing low NETD and stable and low Residual Non Uniformity (RNU) video image.

  11. Physical and psychosocial challenges in adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    duTreil, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Numerous challenges confront adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors, including difficulty in controlling bleeding episodes, deterioration of joints, arthritic pain, physical disability, emotional turmoil, and social issues. High-intensity treatment regimens often used in the treatment of patients with inhibitors also impose significant scheduling, economic, and emotional demands on patients and their families or primary caregivers. A comprehensive multidisciplinary assessment of the physical, emotional, and social status of adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors is essential for the development of treatment strategies that can be individualized to address the complex needs of these patients. PMID:25093002

  12. Overreaction to noncompaction in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis, Parkinson disease, migraine and myopathy.

    PubMed

    Stöllberger, Claudia; Stix, Alexander; Finsterer, Josef

    2011-07-01

    A patient with ankylosing spondylitis, migraine, Parkinson syndrome, renal insufficiency and myopathy, received an implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator because of asymptomatic left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction as primary prophylaxis against sudden cardiac death. Inadvertently the ventricular lead was placed in a cardiac vein, the patient suffered from pericardial effusion and it was impossible to remove the lead. Implantation of an implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator simply upon the presence of LVHT appears not justified and may be more harmful than beneficial. Studies about the risk of SCD in adults with LVHT are necessary and will hopefully clarify if primary prevention of SCD is indicated.

  13. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  14. Randomized Trial of Hypnosis as a Pain and Symptom Management Strategy in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wallen, Gwenyth R; Middleton, Kimberly R; Ames, Nancy; Brooks, Alyssa T; Handel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disease in African-Americans, characterized by recurrent painful vaso-occlusive crises. Medical therapies for controlling or preventing crises are limited because of efficacy and/or toxicity. This is a randomized, controlled, single-crossover protocol of hypnosis for managing pain in SCD patients. Participants receive hypnosis from a trained hypnosis therapist followed by six weeks of self-hypnosis using digital media. Those in the control arm receive SCD education followed by a six-week waiting period before crossing over to the hypnosis arm of the study. Outcome measures include assessments of pain (frequency, intensity and quality), anxiety, coping strategies, sleep, depression, and health care utilization. To date, there are no published randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of hypnosis on SCD pain modulation in adults. Self-hypnosis for pain management may be helpful in modulating chronic pain, improving sleep quality, and decreasing use of narcotics in patients with SCD. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00393250 PMID:25520557

  15. Sleep-disordered breathing and nocturnal hypoxemia in young adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Whitesell, P L; Owoyemi, O; Oneal, P; Nouraie, M; Klings, E S; Rock, A; Mellman, T A; Berihun, T; Lavella, J; Taylor, R E; Perrine, S P

    2016-06-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is reported in up to 69% of adolescents and children with sickle cell disease (SCD) [1], but data regarding the prevalence of SDB in adults with SCD are limited. In order to obtain a preliminary assessment of the frequency and degree of sleep-related hypoxemia and potential associations with cardiovascular function in adults with SCD, we conducted overnight sleep studies, 6-min walk tests, echocardiograms, and hematologic and chemistry panels, calculated the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), and conducted fatigue- and health-related quality-of-life measurement in 20 young adults with SCD visiting a sickle cell clinic for routine care. Sleep apnea, defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 5 events/h, was found in 50% of patients. Traditional clinical indicators, such as obesity, the presence of snoring, and reported sleep complaints, did not reliably differentiate them. The patients with AHI > 5 had higher mean systolic blood pressure (p = 0.03), evidence of impaired left ventricular diastolic function (i.e., increased mitral valve E/A ratio, p = 0.05), a trend toward higher reduction in 6-min walk distances (p = 0.06), and lower health-related quality-of-life scores (p ≤ 0.01). Three of nine patients with more severe anemia (total Hb < 9.0) showed nocturnal hypoxemia in the absence of sleep apnea. As prolonged and frequent hypoxemic episodes likely increase risks for vaso-occlusive, cardiovascular, and neurologic complications of SCD, these results suggest that the prevalence and severity of SDB should be investigated further in studies of larger patient populations. If confirmed, these findings could identify opportunities to prevent or reduce nocturnal hypoxia and improve outcomes. PMID:27544835

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid soluble L-selectin (sCD62L) in meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Bührer, C; Herold, R; Stibenz, D; Henze, G; Obladen, M

    1996-01-01

    The leucocyte adhesion molecule L-selectin (CD62L) is rapidly cleaved off proteolytically after cell activation, generating soluble L-selectin (sCD62L) molecules. sCD62L concentrations were determined in 185 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from children aged 1 month to 17 years. In 36 CSF samples of children with meningoencephalitis, sCD62L was significantly higher (median 209 fmol/ml) than in samples of children with other febrile diseases (n = 67, median 50 fmol/ml) or non-febrile disorders (n = 82, median 44 fmol/ml). There was a positive correlation between CSF protein and CSF sCD62L (rS = 0.68), suggesting that a disturbed blood-brain barrier contributes to raised sCD62L concentrations in the CSF. However, the CSF sCD62L/protein ratio of children with meningoencephalitis was significantly higher than in children with other febrile diseases or non-febrile disorders, indicating that sCD62L concentrations in children with meningoencephalitis were higher than expected from plasma leakage alone. It is concluded that both an impaired blood-brain barrier and the generation of sCD62L by infiltrating leucocytes contribute to raised CSF sCD62L concentrations in children with meningoencephalitis. PMID:8669926

  17. Mechanism-driven phase I translational study of trifluoperazine in adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Molokie, Robert E; Wilkie, Diana J; Wittert, Harriett; Suarez, Marie L; Yao, Yingwei; Zhao, Zhongsheng; He, Ying; Wang, Zaijie J

    2014-01-15

    Recent evidence of neuropathic pain among adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) reveals a need for adjuvant analgesic treatments for these patients. Ca(2+)/calmodulin protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) has a known role in neuropathic pain and trifluoperazine is a potent CaMKIIα inhibitor. The study aim was to determine trifluoperazine's acute effects, primarily on adverse effects and secondarily on pain intensity reduction, in adults with SCD. In a phase I, open-label study of 6 doses of trifluoperazine (0.5, 1, 2, 5, 7.5, 10mg), we obtained 7-hourly and 24-h repeated measures of adverse effects, pain intensity, and supplemental opioid analgesics in 18 adults with SCD (18 hemoglobin SS disease, 15 women, average age 35.8±8.9 years, ranged 23-53) each of whom received a single dose. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Subjects reported moderate to severe sedative effects at 7.5 and 10mg doses, respectively. Eight subjects reported 50% reduction in chronic pain without severe sedation or supplemental opioid analgesics; one of these subjects had dystonia 24.5h after the 10mg dose. The analgesic effect lasted for at least 24h in 3 subjects. Sedation resolved with caffeine and dystonia resolved with diphenhydramine. Adults with SCD experienced minimal adverse effects at doses under 10mg. In this molecular mechanism-driven translational study, trifluoperazine shows promise as an analgesic drug that is worthy of further testing in a randomized controlled study of adults with SCD starting at a dose of 1mg in repeated doses to determine long-term adverse and analgesic effects.

  18. Self-efficacy, transition, and patient outcomes in the sickle cell disease population.

    PubMed

    Molter, Brittany L; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Severe pain is a common symptom of sickle cell disease (SCD). Transitions between adult and pediatric care are a point of particular vulnerability for patients, increasing the risk for poor pain management. The purpose of this literature review was to investigate the relationships among self-efficacy, transition, and SCD health outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed within CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE, and PubMed on published papers between 2003 and 2013. After applying exclusion criteria, 20 articles were used in the final review. Few studies were identified that directly tested the relationship between self-efficacy and SCD outcomes. Although there are few studies on this topic, most demonstrated positive correlations between self-efficacy during transition and positive patient outcomes in the SCD population. Additional studies are needed to support causation. Studies were commonly limited by small sample sizes and attrition. Furthermore, there is a large gap in the literature regarding how self-efficacy can be increased in these patients. Interventions that promote self-efficacy have the potential to improve SCD pain outcomes, but more research is needed to develop interventions to increase these adolescents' self-efficacy. If providers can identify individuals in this population with low self-efficacy, they may be able to intervene early to improve patient outcomes. Most identified studies point to the positive correlation between self-efficacy and positive health outcomes in adolescents with SCD. Self-efficacy has the potential to guide self-care interventions and further research with the SCD population.

  19. Inherited DNA mutations contributing to thrombotic complications in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, S A; Ware, R E

    1998-12-01

    Thrombosis may play an important role in the pathophysiology of certain complications of sickle cell disease (SCD), including stroke and avascular necrosis (AVN). Currently there is no laboratory or clinical parameter that can identify patients who are at highest risk of developing these thrombotic complications. We hypothesized that some patients with SCD have an inherited hypercoagulable state that results in an increased risk of developing stroke or AVN. We examined the role of two common inherited thrombophilic mutations that, in other populations, have been associated with arterial and venous thrombosis and are amenable to screening with DNA restriction enzyme analysis. The C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the C1565T mutation in the platelet glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa) gene were evaluated. We analyzed genomic DNA from 86 children and adults with SCD, including 16 patients with a history of a clinical stroke and 14 patients with AVN, for the presence of these mutations. The C677T MTHFR mutation was found in 19% of patients with stroke, 14% of patients with AVN, and 14% of patients with neither complication (P = NS). The C1565T GPIIIa mutation was found in 25% of patients with stroke, 14% of patients with AVN, and 18% of patients with neither complication (P = NS). Although each of these mutations is relatively common in patients with SCD, neither is independently associated with an increased risk of developing stroke or AVN. PMID:9840906

  20. Mediastinal Tuberculosis in an Adult Patient with Cystic Fibrosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Philippe C.; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Carlotti, Agnès; Desmazes-Dufeu, Nadine; Farhi, David; Martin, Clémence; Kanaan, Reem; Mangialavori, Luigi; Palangié, Estelle; Dusser, Daniel; Poyart, Claire; Hubert, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is rarely observed in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We report the first case of mediastinal TB, associated with leg pain and skin rash, in an adult patient with CF, and discuss factors suggestive of TB in the course of CF. PMID:21106788

  1. An Unequal Burden: Poor Patient-Provider Communication and Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Haywood, Carlton; Bediako, Shawn; Lanzkron, Sophie; Diener-West, Marie; Strouse, John; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer; Onojobi, Gladys; Beach, Mary Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess disparities in the quality of healthcare provider communication experienced by African-American adults with and without sickle cell disease (SCD) in the U.S. Methods Poor provider communication was assessed by the Provider Communication subscale of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Plans and Systems survey. The SCD sample was obtained from participants in a multicenter observational study of healthcare experiences. The national African-American sample data was obtained from published national estimates. Results The SCD sample was more likely than the national sample to report poor communication in 3 out of 4 communication domains: Listening (22.3% vs. 11.5%, p < 0.0001); Showing Respect (26.1% vs. 9.5%, p < 0.0001); and Spending Enough Time (38.3% vs. 16.2%, p < 0.0001). Differences were consistent in young, but not old, patients and showed some variation by self-reported health status and education. Conclusions The communication difficulties experienced by persons with SCD do not appear reducible to their predominantly African-American race, but may result from more disease-specific factors. Practice Implications Healthcare providers should take particular care in recognizing and demonstrating recommended communication skills with SCD patients as these patients may be particularly vulnerable to, and cognizant of, poor quality interactions. PMID:24935607

  2. The relation between clinical features of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and the serum levels of soluble CD25 and CD30.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Shigeki; Pornkuna, Ratiorn; Hidaka, Michihiro; Kawano, Fumio

    2016-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive neoplasm of mature T cells. We aimed to ascertain the relationships between soluble CD25 (sIL-2R) and CD30 (sCD30) levels and nodal or extra-nodal involvement of ATL. Our study subjects were ATL patients whose sIL-2R and sCD30 levels were measured before initial therapy (n=32). Their sCD30 levels correlated significantly with the number of ATL cells in peripheral blood (PB) (ρ=0.456; P=0.009), while sIL-2R levels correlated significantly with the number of nodal lesions (ρ=0.660; P=0.001). We then also assessed the relationships of pulmonary lesions with the number of ATL cells in PB, lactate dehydrogenase levels, sIL-2R levels, and sCD30 levels in 24 patients whose pleural effusions and hilar lymphadenopathy were investigated before initial therapy. The results suggested that a high number of ATL cells in PB may be associated with pulmonary lesions. It is known that metalloproteinases shed and cleave cytokine receptors such as CD25 and CD30 from the cell surface as well as E-cadherin and extracellular matrix. It seems that serum levels of sIL-2R and sCD30 indicate the activation of metalloproteinases associated with ATL involvement in vivo.

  3. [Lung pneumatocele in adult patient - case report].

    PubMed

    Dzian, A; Fúčela, I; Hamžík, J; Huťka, Z; Stiegler, P

    2012-12-01

    Lung pneumatoceles are characterized by a thin-walled air-filled cavity present in lung parenchyma. Mostly they are the result of acute bronchopneumonia after spontaneous drainage of altered lung parenchyma with subsequent development and progression of cavities due to ventile mechanism. This disease is more prevalent in infants and young children, it is rather rare in adults. In the present case report, videothoracoscopy resection of lung pneumatocele of the right lower lobe was performed a 43-years old man. The operation was indicated for the presence of chronic persisting and progressing pneumatocele as a preventive measure of pneumatocele complications. PMID:23448707

  4. Nutritional Intake in Adult Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Susan; Snetselaar, Linda; Hall, Beth; Stone, Roslyn A.; Kim, Sunghee; Piraino, Beth; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background Research pertaining to the nutritional intake of hemodialysis patients is limited. Purpose Describe the nutritional quality of foods consumed by hemodialysis patients and variation by day of the week. Methods Dietary recalls were obtained from 22 hemodialysis patients and analyzed using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Results Few statistically significant differences were found by day of the week, but several dietary deficits were noted. Conclusion The data suggest poor intake of calories, protein, and several vitamins and minerals, as well as excess sodium consumption, but little variation by day of the week. Additional research is needed. PMID:25104876

  5. [Invasive candidiasis in critically ill adult patient].

    PubMed

    Tobar A, Eduardo; Silva O, Francisco; Olivares C, Roberto; Gaete G, Pablo; Luppi N, Mario

    2011-02-01

    Invasive infections by Candida strains are a relevant pathology in critically ill patients. Candida should be considered where a high risk of infection is present for a critical early diagnosis. Despite the incorporation of new drugs in the therapeutic armamentarium over the last decade, mortality remains high. The key in improving clinical outcomes of these patients are the use of early effective therapies that offer coverage against different strains of Candida: C. albicans and non-albicans. Recent international guidelines suggest empiric therapy with echinocandins in suspected invasive candidiasis in this patient population. This group of drugs adequately documented clinical efficacy and safe use in these patients. The emergence of new echinocandins could improve access to these drugs by reducing their cost.

  6. A Biopsychosocial-Spiritual Model of Chronic Pain in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lou Ella V.; Stotts, Nancy A.; Humphreys, Janice; Treadwell, Marsha J.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) is a complex multidimensional experience that includes biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual factors. To date, three models of pain associated with SCD (i.e., biomedical model; biopsychosocial model for SCD pain; Health Belief Model) are published. The biopsychosocial (BPS) multidimensional approach to chronic pain developed by Turk and Gatchel is a widely used model of chronic pain. However, this model has not been applied to chronic pain associated with SCD. In addition, a spiritual/religious dimension is not included in this model. Because spirituality/religion is central to persons affected by SCD, this dimension needs to be added to any model of chronic pain in adults with SCD. In fact, data from one study suggest that spirituality/religiosity is associated with decreased pain intensity in adults with chronic pain from SCD. A BPS-Spiritual model is proposed for adults with chronic pain from SCD since it embraces the whole person. This model includes the biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual factors relevant to adults with SCD based on past and current research. The purpose of this paper is to describe an adaptation of Turk and Gatchel’s model of chronic pain for adults with SCD and to summarize research findings that support each component of the revised model (i.e., biological, psychological, sociological, spiritual). The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for the use of this model in research. PMID:24315252

  7. Practical fluoride and remineralization protocols for adult patients.

    PubMed

    Chan, Daniel C N; Wefel, James S; Caughman, W Frank

    2004-12-01

    There is a wealth of information on preventive measures and procedures that can be used to care for paediatric and adolescent patients. However, few studies have been conducted in adult or geriatric populations, and an understanding of preventive and non-surgical treatment regimens for these patients is lacking. Traditionally, caries incidence is high among risk groups of low income, low dental IQ and certain ethnic subgroups, but we are now witnessing a high incidence of caries among middle-income and healthy adult patients with an imbalance of protective factors and cariogenic factors. We will direct our attention to the adult population and attempt to address some of the most common questions. PMID:15736834

  8. Dreaming during anaesthesia in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Kate; Skrzypek, Hannah

    2007-09-01

    Dreaming during anaesthesia is defined as any recalled experience (excluding awareness) that occurred between induction of anaesthesia and the first moment of consciousness upon emergence. Dreaming is a commonly-reported side-effect of anaesthesia. The incidence is higher in patients who are interviewed immediately after anaesthesia (approximately 22%) than in those who are interviewed later (approximately 6%). A minority of dreams, which include sensory perceptions obtained during anaesthesia, provide evidence of near-miss awareness. These patients may have risk factors for awareness and this type of dreaming may be prevented by depth of anaesthesia monitoring. Most dreaming however, occurs in younger, fitter patients, who have high home dream recall, who receive propofol-based anaesthesia and who emerge rapidly from anaesthesia. Their dreams are usually short and pleasant, are related to work, family and recreation, are not related to inadequate anaesthesia and probably occur during recovery. Dreaming is a common, fascinating, usually pleasant and harmless phenomenon.

  9. Pyridoxine deficiency in adult patients with status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Dave, Hina N; Eugene Ramsay, Richard; Khan, Fawad; Sabharwal, Vivek; Irland, Megan

    2015-11-01

    An 8-year-old girl treated at our facility for superrefractory status epilepticus was found to have a low pyridoxine level at 5 μg/L. After starting pyridoxine supplementation, improvement in the EEG for a 24-hour period was seen. We decided to look at the pyridoxine levels in adult patients admitted with status epilepticus. We reviewed the records on patients admitted to the neurological ICU for status epilepticus (SE). Eighty-one adult patients were identified with documented pyridoxine levels. For comparison purposes, we looked at pyridoxine levels in outpatients with epilepsy (n=132). Reported normal pyridoxine range is >10 ng/mL. All but six patients admitted for SE had low normal or undetectable pyridoxine levels. A selective pyridoxine deficiency was seen in 94% of patients with status epilepticus (compared to 39.4% in the outpatients) which leads us to believe that there is a relationship between status epilepticus and pyridoxine levels.

  10. [Diabetes education in adult diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Clodi, Martin; Kacerovsky-Bielesz, Gertrud; Grafinger, Peter; Lechleitner, Monika; Howorka, Kinga; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes education has gained a critical role in diabetes care. The empowerment of patients aims to actively influence the course of the disease by self-monitoring and treatment modification. Diabetes education has to be made accessible for all patients with the disease. To be able to provide a structured and validated education program adequate personal as well as space, organizational and financial background are required. Besides an increase in knowledge about the disease it has been shown that structured diabetes education is able to improve diabetes outcome measured by parameters like blood glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure and body weight in follow-up evaluations.

  11. [Diabetes education in adult diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Clodi, Martin; Cvach, Sarah; Grafinger, Peter; Lechleitner, Monika; Howorka, Kinga; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes education and self management has gained a critical role in diabetes care. Patient empowerment aims to actively influence the course of the disease by self-monitoring and treatment modification, as well as integration of diabetes in patients' daily life to achieve changes in lifestyle accordingly.Diabetes education has to be made accessible for all patients with the disease. To be able to provide a structured and validated education program adequate personal as well as space, organizational and financial background are required. Besides an increase in knowledge about the disease it has been shown that structured diabetes education is able to improve diabetes outcome measured by parameters like blood glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure and body weight in follow-up evaluations. Modern education programs emphasize the ability of patients to integrate diabetes in everyday life and stress physical activity besides healthy eating as a main component of lifestyle therapy and use interactive methods in order to increase the acceptance of personal responsibility.

  12. SCD's cooled and uncooled photo detectors for NIR SWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraenkel, Rami; Aronov, Daniel; Benny, Yael; Berkowicz, Eyal; Bykov, Leonid; Calahorra, Zipi; Fishman, Tal; Giladi, Avihoo; Ilan, Elad; Klipstein, Philip; Langof, Lidia; Lukomsky, Inna; Mistele, David; Mizrahi, Udi; Nussinson, Dan; Twitto, Avi; Yassen, Michael; Zemel, Ami

    2012-06-01

    Short wavelength Infra Red (SWIR) imaging has gained considerable interest in recent years. The main applications among others are: active imaging and LADAR, enhanced vision systems, low light level imaging and security surveillance systems. In this paper we will describe SCD's considerable efforts in this spectral region, addressing several platforms: 1. Extension of the mature InSb MWIR product line operating at 80K (cut-off wavelength of 5.4μm). 2. Extension of our new XBnn InAsSb "bariode" technology operating at 150K (cut-off of 4.1μm). 3. Development of InGaAs detectors for room temperature operation (cut-off of 1.7μm) 4. Development of a SNIR ROIC with a low noise imaging mode and unique laser-pulse detection modes. In the first section we will present our latest achievements for the cooled detectors where the SWIR region is combined with MWIR response. Preliminary results for the NIR-VIS region are presented where advanced substrate removal techniques are implemented on flip-chip hybridized focal plane arrays. In the second part we will demonstrate our VGA, 15μm pitch, InGaAs arrays with dark current density below 1.5nA/cm2 at 280K. The InGaAs array is hybridized to the SNIR ROIC, thus offering the capability of low SWaP systems with laser-pulse detection modes.

  13. Clinical profile of patients with adult-onset eosinophilic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Huib; Amelink, Marijke; de Nijs, Selma B.; Eichhorn, Edwin; Reitsma, Bennie H.; Bel, Elisabeth H.D.; ten Brinke, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    Adult-onset eosinophilic asthma is increasingly recognised as a severe and difficult-to-treat subtype of asthma. In clinical practice, early recognition of patients with this asthma subtype is important because it may have treatment implications. Therefore, physicians need to know the distinct characteristics of this asthma phenotype. The objective of the present study was to determine the characteristic profile of patients with adult-onset eosinophilic asthma. 130 patients with adult-onset (>18 years of age) asthma and high blood eosinophil counts (≥0.3×109 L−1) were compared with 361 adult-onset asthma patients with low (<0.3×109 L−1) blood eosinophils. Measurements included a series of clinical, functional and imaging parameters. Patients with high blood eosinophils were more often male, had less well controlled asthma and higher exacerbation rates, despite the use of higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids. They had higher levels of total IgE without more sensitisation to common inhaled allergens. In addition, these patients had worse lung function, and more often showed fixed airflow limitation, air trapping, nasal polyposis and abnormalities on sinus computed tomography scanning. Chronic rhinosinusitis, air trapping and male sex were three independent factors associated with blood eosinophilia (adjusted OR 3.8 (95% CI 1.7–8.1), 3.0 (95% CI 1.1–8.1) and 2.4 (95% CI 1.3–4.4), respectively). Patients with adult-onset asthma with elevated blood eosinophils exhibit a distinct profile, which can readily be recognised in clinical practice. PMID:27730197

  14. Peculiarities of Anxiety Score Distribution in Adult Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Blank, Mikhail; Blank, Olga; Myasnikova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present research is to investigate and analyze possible peculiarities of the psychological state of cancer patients undergoing treatment. Scores characterizing the trait and state anxiety were acquired using the Integrative Anxiety Test from four groups: adults with no appreciable disease, pregnant women, cancer patients examined during the specific antitumor treatment, and cancer patients brought into lasting clinical remission. Statistical analysis of the testing results revealed the bimodal type of the distribution of scores. The only statistically significant exception was the distribution of the state anxiety scores in cancer patients undergoing treatment that was clearly unimodal. PMID:26176239

  15. Higher levels of circulating monocyte-platelet aggregates are correlated with viremia and increased sCD163 levels in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hua; Duan, Zhaojun; Li, Dan; Li, Dongliang; Wang, Zheng; Ren, Li; Shen, Tao; Shao, Yiming

    2015-07-01

    Increased levels of monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) are reported to be highly correlated with cardiovascular events. In this study, the MPA levels in different monocyte subsets and the associations between MPA levels, HIV-1 viremia and monocyte activation were evaluated during HIV-1 infection. The results showed that the percentages of MPAs in all three monocyte subsets were higher in HIV-1-infected subjects than in healthy controls, and were associated with the plasma viral load in the non-classical and intermediate monocyte subsets. The plasma levels of sCD14 and sCD163 were upregulated in HIV-1 infection and were positively associated with viral loads and negatively associated with CD4 counts. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) was shown to be expressed at significantly lower levels on all three monocyte subsets and was negatively correlated with the sCD163 level. The MPA level was correlated with the levels of plasma sCD163 but negatively correlated with CD163 and PSGL-1 on all three monocyte subsets. An elevated immune activation status was correlated with increased MPA formation, underlying the potential interaction between monocyte activation and MPA formation. This interaction may be related to a higher thromboembolic risk in patients infected with HIV-1.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 11 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.66.

  16. Improvement with Duloxetine in an Adult ADHD Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tourjman, Smadar Valerie; Bilodeau, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and disabling disorder among adults and is treated with stimulant and non stimulant medication. Objective: To report the case of a patient with ADHD showing good clinical response to duloxetine, a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI). Case…

  17. A Future for Adult Educators in Patient Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education in healthcare comes in several forms: degree and certificate programs aimed at preparing better academic and clinical educators; and community education programs aimed at wellness, rehabilitation, or learning to live with chronic diseases. Patient-centered healthcare, however, is part of something new: coordinated and transitional…

  18. Neuropsychological profile of adult patients with nonsymptomatic occipital lobe epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Bilo, Leonilda; Santangelo, Gabriella; Improta, Ilaria; Vitale, Carmine; Meo, Roberta; Trojano, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    To explore the neuropsychological and neurobehavioral profile in adult patients affected by nonsymptomatic (cryptogenic and idiopathic) occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE), with normal intelligence, we enrolled 20 adult patients with nonsymptomatic OLE and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy subjects. All participants underwent neuropsychiatric assessment scales, and standardized neuropsychological tests tapping memory, executive functions, constructional, visuospatial and visuoperceptual skills. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, patients performed significantly worse than controls on several tests tapping complex visuospatial skills and frontal lobe functions. The analysis of single patients' performance revealed that a significantly higher number of OLE patients achieved age- and education-adjusted pathological scores on three tests (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test, Freehand Copying of Drawings Test, color-word interference task of Stroop test) with respect to controls. Patients did not differ from control subjects on neuropsychiatric aspects. The direct comparison between OLE subtypes showed that cryptogenetic OLE patients tended to achieve lower scores than idiopathic OLE patients on most tests, but no difference between the two groups was fully significant. In summary, patients with nonsymptomatic OLE can be affected by clinically relevant impairments in selected neuropsychological domains: complex visuospatial skills and executive functions. It could be speculated that frontal and visuospatial cognitive deficits might be the result of epileptic activity spreading within a neural network that includes structures far beyond the occipital lobe.

  19. Food hypersensitivity among adult patients: epidemiological and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Castillo, R; Delgado, J; Quiralte, J; Blanco, C; Carrillo, T

    1996-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity (FH) is lesser frequent among adult patients than in childhood. Foods implicated in hypersensitivity reactions vary with sociocultural and diet habits from a geographic place to other. We studied 142 adult patients sensitized to foods, among 7698 patients visited at our Outpatient Clinic. Hundred and twenty patients referred clinical symptoms after consumption of one or more foods consistently. From the latest, 107 patients (89.2%) were atopics (92 of them sensitizes to dust mites) and 54 (45%) referred atopic familiar background. Most frequent recorded symptoms were: urticaria/angioedema 84 cases (70%), oral syndrome 65 (54%), asthma 48 (37%) and anaphylaxis 33 patients (27.5%). Shellfish sensitization occurred in 50 patients, fresh fruits in 33 and nuts in 29 cases. Shrimp (48 patients), squid (33), kiwi (14), papaya (14), avocado (13) and banana (12 cases) were the most frequent causes of FH. Significant statistical association between foods and inhalants was observed for fresh fruits and latex (p < 0.001), fresh fruits and pollens (p < 0.01), and shellfish and Blatta germanica (p < 0.001). Prevalence of FH among patients at our Area is around 1.6%. Tropical fruits, as other kind of fruits, seem to share common IgE-epitopes to pollens. High prevalence of shellfish and cockroach hypersensitivity could be more easily developed by previous domestic mites sensitization.

  20. The Severity of Visceral Leishmaniasis Correlates with Elevated Levels of Serum IL-6, IL-27 and sCD14

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Priscila L.; de Oliveira, Fabrícia A.; Santos, Micheli Luize B.; Cunha, Luana Celina S.; Lino, Michelle T. B.; de Oliveira, Michelle F. S.; Bomfim, Manuela O. M.; Silva, Angela Maria; de Moura, Tatiana R.; de Jesus, Amélia R.; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Reed, Steven G.; de Almeida, Roque P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe disease caused by infection with protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Classic VL is characterized by a systemic infection of phagocytic cells and an intense activation of the inflammatory response. It is unclear why 90% of infected individuals do not develop the disease while a minority develop the classical form. Furthermore, among those that develop disease, a small group progresses to more severe form that is unresponsive to treatment. The presence of inflammatory mediators in serum could theoretically help to control the infection. However, there is also a release of anti-inflammatory mediators that could interfere with the control of parasite multiplication. In this study, we took advantage of the spectrum of outcomes to test the hypothesis that the immune profile of individuals infected with Leishmania (L.) infantum is associated with the development and severity of disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera from patients with confirmed diagnosis of VL were evaluated for the presence of numerous molecules, and levels compared with healthy control and asymptomatic infected individuals. Conclusions/Principal Findings Although differences were not observed in LPS levels, higher levels of sCD14 were detected in VL patients. Our data suggest that L. infantum may activate the inflammatory response via CD14, stimulating a generalized inflammatory response with production of several cytokines and soluble molecules, including IFN-γ, IL-27, IL-10, IL-6 and sCD14. These molecules were strongly associated with hepatosplenomegaly, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. We also observed that IL-6 levels greater than 200 pg/ml were strongly associated with death. Together our data reinforce the close relationship of IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-27 in the immune dynamics of VL and suggest the direct participation of sCD14 in the activation of the immune response against L. infantum. PMID:26814478

  1. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  2. Physics and technology of antimonide heterostructure devices at SCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipstein, Philip

    2015-01-01

    SCD has developed a range of advanced infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor heterostructures, grown on GaSb. The XBn/XBp family of detectors enables diffusion limited behavior with dark currents comparable with MCT Rule-07 and with high quantum efficiencies. InAsSb/AlSbAs based XBn focal plane array detectors with a cut-off wavelength of ~ 4.1 μm and formats presently up to 1024×1280 / 15 μm, operate with background limited performance up to ~175 K at F/3. They have a sensitivity and image quality comparable with those of standard InSb detectors working at 77K. In an XBp configuration, the same concept has been applied to an InAs/GaSb type II superlattice (T2SL) detector with a cut-off wavelength of ~ 9.5 μm, which operates with background limited performance up to ~100 K at F/2. In order to design our detectors effectively, a suite of simulation algorithms was developed based on the k ṡ p and optical transfer matrix methods. In a given T2SL detector, the complete spectral response curve can be predicted essentially from a knowledge of the InAs and GaSb layer widths in a single period of the superlattice. Gallium free T2SL detectors in which the GaSb layer is replaced with InAs1-xSbx (x ~ 0.15-0.5) have also been simulated and the predicted spectral response compared for the two detector types.

  3. Optimal serum phenylalanine for adult patients with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Okano, Yoshiyuki; Nagasaka, Hironori

    2013-12-01

    High serum phenylalanine in adult patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) causes neuropsychological and psychosocial problems that can be resolved by phenylalanine-restricted diet. Therefore, PKU patients must continue to adhere to phenylalanine-restricted diet for life, although the optimal serum phenylalanine level in later life has yet to be established. The purpose of this review was to establish the optimal serum phenylalanine level in later life of PKU patients. We evaluated oxidative stress status, nitric oxide metabolism, cholesterol-derived oxysterols, vitamin D and bone status, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in adult PKU patients according to serum phenylalanine level. Oxidative stress increased markedly at serum phenylalanine of 700-800 μmol/L. Serum phenylalanine higher than 700-850 μmol/L correlated with the disturbance of nitric oxide regulatory system. Adult PKU patients had poor vitamin D status and exhibited predominance of bone resorption over bone formation. In the brain, the levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol, a marker of brain cholesterol elimination, were low at serum phenylalanine levels exceeding 650 μmol/L. MRI studies showed high signal intensity in deep white matter on T2-weighted and FLAIR images of PKU patients with serum phenylalanine greater than 500 μmol/L, with decreased apparent diffusion coefficients. Changes in most parameters covering the entire body organs in adult PKU were almost acceptable below 700-800 μmol/L of phenylalanine level. However, the optimal serum phenylalanine level should be 500 μmol/L or less in later life for the brain to be safe.

  4. The Staphylococcus aureus scdA gene: a novel locus that affects cell division and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, E W; de Jonge, B L; Bayles, K W

    1997-09-01

    A new Staphylococcus aureus gene termed scdA was found upstream of the autolysis regulatory genes, lytS and lytR, and was shown to potentially encode a hydrophilic 25 kDa protein. Analysis of scdA transcription revealed that it is transcribed as a monocistronic message and is lytSR-independent. A role in cell wall metabolism was indicated by examination of the scdA mutant S. aureus KB323, which had a grossly aberrant cellular morphology and formed large cell clusters when grown in liquid culture medium. Furthermore, KB323 exhibited a reduced rate of autolysis and had increased peptidoglycan cross-linking compared to the parental strain, NCTC 8325-4. These data suggest that scdA plays an important role in staphylococcal cell division. PMID:9308171

  5. ACG Clinical Guideline: Nutrition Therapy in the Adult Hospitalized Patient.

    PubMed

    McClave, Stephen A; DiBaise, John K; Mullin, Gerard E; Martindale, Robert G

    2016-03-01

    The value of nutrition therapy for the adult hospitalized patient is derived from the outcome benefits achieved by the delivery of early enteral feeding. Nutritional assessment should identify those patients at high nutritional risk, determined by both disease severity and nutritional status. For such patients if they are unable to maintain volitional intake, enteral access should be attained and enteral nutrition (EN) initiated within 24-48 h of admission. Orogastric or nasogastric feeding is most appropriate when starting EN, switching to post-pyloric or deep jejunal feeding only in those patients who are intolerant of gastric feeds or at high risk for aspiration. Percutaneous access should be used for those patients anticipated to require EN for >4 weeks. Patients receiving EN should be monitored for risk of aspiration, tolerance, and adequacy of feeding (determined by percent of goal calories and protein delivered). Intentional permissive underfeeding (and even trophic feeding) is appropriate temporarily for certain subsets of hospitalized patients. Although a standard polymeric formula should be used routinely in most patients, an immune-modulating formula (with arginine and fish oil) should be reserved for patients who have had major surgery in a surgical ICU setting. Adequacy of nutrition therapy is enhanced by establishing nurse-driven enteral feeding protocols, increasing delivery by volume-based or top-down feeding strategies, minimizing interruptions, and eliminating the practice of gastric residual volumes. Parenteral nutrition should be used in patients at high nutritional risk when EN is not feasible or after the first week of hospitalization if EN is not sufficient. Because of their knowledge base and skill set, the gastroenterologist endoscopist is an asset to the Nutrition Support Team and should participate in providing optimal nutrition therapy to the hospitalized adult patient.

  6. Evaluation of pleural effusion sCD26 and DPP-IV as diagnostic biomarkers in lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Otero, Nuria; Rodríguez-Berrocal, Francisco Javier; de la Cadena, María Páez; Botana-Rial, María Isabel; Cordero, Oscar J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we measured ADA and DPP-IV enzymatic activity and sCD26 concentration in 150 pleural effusion (PE) samples and tested for correlations between these and other cellular and biochemical measures. We found that DPP-IV in particular might improve the specificity (but not the sensitivity) of the ADA test for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, since half of the false ADA positive results in non-tuberculous PE were also DPP-IV positive. A percentage of patients with malignant PE were sCD26 or DPP-IV positive; however, some patients with benign PE also tested positive. As a pattern associated with DPP-IV (but not the CD26 protein) was observed in PE, we searched for a finding that might increase the value of these biomarkers for diagnosis of malignancy. The observed pattern was related to the presence of leukocytes, as indicated by correlations with the cell count, and to a band of 180 kDa, detected by immunoblotting. PMID:24499783

  7. sCD44 overexpression increases intraocular pressure and aqueous outflow resistance

    PubMed Central

    Giovingo, Michael; Nolan, Michael; McCarty, Ryan; Pang, Iok-Hou; Clark, Abbot F.; Beverley, Rachel M.; Schwartz, Steven; Stamer, W. Daniel; Walker, Loyal; Grybauskas, Algis; Skuran, Kevin; Kuprys, Paulius V.; Yue, Beatrice Y.J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose CD44 plays major roles in multiple physiologic processes. The ectodomain concentration of the CD44 receptor, soluble CD44 (sCD44), is significantly increased in the aqueous humor of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The purpose of this study was to determine if adenoviral constructs of CD44 and isolated 32-kDa sCD44 change intraocular pressure (IOP) in vivo and aqueous outflow resistance in vitro. Methods Adenoviral constructs of human standard CD44 (Ad-CD44S), soluble CD44 (Ad-sCD44), and empty viral cDNA were injected into the vitreous of BALB/cJ mice, followed by serial IOP measurements. Overexpression of CD44S and sCD44 was verified in vitro by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analysis. Anterior segments of porcine eyes were perfused with the isolated sCD44. sCD44-treated human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and microdissected porcine TM were examined by confocal microscopy and Optiprep density gradient with western blot analysis to determine changes in lipid raft components. Results Intravitreous injection of adenoviral constructs with either Ad-CD44S or Ad-sCD44 vectors caused prolonged ocular hypertension in mice. Eight days after vector injection, Ad-CD44S significantly elevated IOP to 28.3±1.2 mmHg (mean±SEM, n=8; p<0.001); Ad-sCD44 increased IOP to 18.5±2.6 mmHg (n=8; p<0.01), whereas the IOP of uninjected eyes was 12.7±0.2 mmHg (n=16). The IOP elevation lasted more than 50 days. Topical administration of a γ-secretase inhibitor normalized Ad-sCD44-induced elevated IOP. sCD44 levels were significantly elevated in the aqueous humor of Ad-CD44S and Ad-sCD44 eyes versus contralateral uninjected eyes (p<0.01). Anterior segment perfusion of isolated 32-kDa sCD44 significantly decreased aqueous outflow rates. Co-administration of isolated sCD44 and CD44 neutralizing antibody or of γ-secretase inhibitor significantly enhanced flow rates. sCD44-treated human TM cells displayed cross-linked actin network formation

  8. Infective Dermatitis in an Adult Patient With HTLV-1

    PubMed Central

    Riveros, Rosalba; Medina, Raquel; Morel, Maida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Infective dermatitis is a chronic exudative eczematous eruption presenting in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)–infected people. It presents with relapsing erythematous, scaly, and crusted lesions affecting simultaneously the scalp, external ear, retroauricular area, eyelid, paranasal skin, neck axilla, and groin. Superimposed Staphylococcus and Streptococcus infection are common. It mainly affects children and exceptionally adults, and there are only a few published cases. The authors present the first reported case in Paraguay of an adult patient who had symptoms of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1–associated progressive tropical spastic paraparesis, and 6 years after the onset of the neurological symptoms, the patient developed infective dermatitis lesions on the skin, with frequent exacerbations since then. PMID:26588341

  9. Organ doses to adult patients for chest CT

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, Walter; Sterzik, Alexander; Tipnis, Sameer; Schoepf, U. Joseph

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to estimate organ doses for chest CT examinations using volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) data as well as accounting for patient weight. Methods: A CT dosimetry spreadsheet (ImPACT CT patient dosimetry calculator) was used to compute organ doses for a 70 kg patient undergoing chest CT examinations, as well as volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) in a body CT dosimetry phantom at the same CT technique factors. Ratios of organ dose to CTDI{sub vol} (f{sub organ}) were generated as a function of anatomical location in the chest for the breasts, lungs, stomach, red bone marrow, liver, thyroid, liver, and thymus. Values of f{sub organ} were obtained for x-ray tube voltages ranging from 80 to 140 kV for 1, 4, 16, and 64 slice CT scanners from two vendors. For constant CT techniques, we computed ratios of dose in water phantoms of differing diameter. By modeling patients of different weights as equivalent water cylinders of different diameters, we generated factors that permit the estimation of the organ doses in patients weighing between 50 and 100 kg who undergo chest CT examinations relative to the corresponding organ doses received by a 70 kg adult. Results: For a 32 cm long CT scan encompassing the complete lungs, values of f{sub organ} ranged from 1.7 (thymus) to 0.3 (stomach). Organs that are directly in the x-ray beam, and are completely irradiated, generally had f{sub organ} values well above 1 (i.e., breast, lung, heart, and thymus). Organs that are not completely irradiated in a total chest CT scan generally had f{sub organ} values that are less than 1 (e.g., red bone marrow, liver, and stomach). Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV resulted in modest increases in f{sub organ} for the heart (9%) and thymus (8%), but resulted in larger increases for the breast (19%) and red bone marrow (21%). Adult patient chests have been modeled by water cylinders with diameters between

  10. Depression in adult patients with biotin responsive basal ganglia disease.

    PubMed

    Bubshait, Dalal K; Rashid, Asif; Al-Owain, Mohammed A; Sulaiman, Raashda A

    2016-01-01

    Biotin responsive basal ganglia disease (BBGD), is a potentially treatable inherited metabolic disorder which clinically presents as sub-acute encephalopathy in children. Early diagnosis and treatment of this disorder results in good clinical recovery in childhood. However, there is no report in the literature on the long term outcome of these treated patients in adult life. We report two patients with BBGD who were metabolically stable on treatment and developed depression later in life. These cases highlight the association of depression with basal ganglia disorders and demonstrate that depression is the potential long term complication of BBGD.

  11. Vaccination of Adult Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Moraes-Fontes, Maria Francisca; Antunes, Ana Margarida; Gruner, Heidi; Riso, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the Portuguese vaccination program 50th anniversary it seems appropriate to review vaccination in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Controversial issues as regards the association between autoimmune diseases, infections, and vaccines are discussed as well as vaccine safety and efficacy issues as regards chronic immunosuppressant (IS) drug therapy. After a brief overview of national policies, specific recommendations are made as regards vaccination for adult patients with SLE with a particular focus on current IS therapy and unmet needs. PMID:27069477

  12. [Nursing diagnosis in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Luccas Melo; Gorini, Maria Isabel Pinto Coelho

    2006-09-01

    This case study aimed at identifying Nursing Diagnosis (ND) in adult patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia, with the purpose of contributing to the Systematization of Nurse Care. Interviews and observation were used for data collection, in addition to Nursing Process application. During the three months of data collection, other NDs were obtained by searching the files of the 6 patients. The 32 ND found in this study were grouped according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Out of these 32 ND, 15 corresponded to changes in Physiological Needs, and 10 to changes in Protection and Safety Needs.

  13. Study of inhaler technique in asthma patients: differences between pediatric and adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Manríquez, Pablo; Acuña, Ana María; Muñoz, Luis; Reyes, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Inhaler technique comprises a set of procedures for drug delivery to the respiratory system. The oral inhalation of medications is the first-line treatment for lung diseases. Using the proper inhaler technique ensures sufficient drug deposition in the distal airways, optimizing therapeutic effects and reducing side effects. The purposes of this study were to assess inhaler technique in pediatric and adult patients with asthma; to determine the most common errors in each group of patients; and to compare the results between the two groups. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Using a ten-step protocol, we assessed inhaler technique in 135 pediatric asthma patients and 128 adult asthma patients. Results: The most common error among the pediatric patients was failing to execute a 10-s breath-hold after inhalation, whereas the most common error among the adult patients was failing to exhale fully before using the inhaler. Conclusions: Pediatric asthma patients appear to perform most of the inhaler technique steps correctly. However, the same does not seem to be true for adult patients. PMID:26578130

  14. Presepsin (sCD14-ST), an innate immune response marker in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Chenevier-Gobeaux, Camille; Borderie, Didier; Weiss, Nicolas; Mallet-Coste, Thomas; Claessens, Yann-Erick

    2015-10-23

    Innate immunity is the first barrier to fight off bacteria, and partly relies on the engagement of the membrane coreceptor CD14. A product of cleavage of CD14, the soluble subtype of CD14 (sCD14-ST) or presepsin, is released in circulation after activation of defense mechanisms. Presepsin can be detected by biochemical methods and therefore appears as an emergent biomarker of infection. Here we present the rationale for presepsin development and recent data supporting its use at bedside. Presepsin may be worthwhile for early diagnosis and prognostic assessment of patients with systemic infections. This biomarker shows high specificity, and results from experimental and clinical studies are reinforcing the proof of concept. Performances place presepsin at the level of PCT who is used as a comparator. Biomarkers of infection are futile to diagnose infection with direct access to bacteria (as urinary tract infection, meningitis), but their use can be advocated to ascertain unclear diagnosis. Future developments of presepsin will probably use clinical models with a Bayesian approach to ascertain the additional value of the biomarker at bedside.

  15. Experimental identification of potential falls in older adult hospital patients.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Aimee; Yang, James; Pati, Debajyoti; Valipoor, Shabboo

    2016-05-01

    Patient falls within hospitals have been identified as serious but largely preventable incidents, particularly among older adult patients. Previous literature has explored intrinsic factors associated with patient falls, but literature identifying possible extrinsic or situational factors related to falls is lacking. This study seeks to identify patient motions and activities along with associated environmental design factors in a patient bathroom and clinician zone setting that may lead to falls. A motion capture experiment was conducted in a laboratory setting on 27 subjects over the age of seventy using scripted tasks and mockups of the bathroom and clinician zone of a patient room. Data were post-processed using Cortex and Visual3D software. A potential fall was characterized by a set of criteria based on the jerk of the upper body׳s center of mass (COM). Results suggest that only motion-related factors, particularly turning, pushing, pulling, and grabbing, contribute most significantly to potential falls in the patient bathroom, whereas only pushing and pulling contribute significantly in the clinician zone. Future work includes identifying and changing precise environmental design factors associated with these motions for an updated patient room and performing motion capture experiments using the new setup. PMID:26920507

  16. Clofarabine in Adult Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-04

    Solid Tumors; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, Pediatric; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, Adult; Leukemia, Myelocytic, Acute, Pediatric; Leukemia, Myelocytic, Acute, Adult; Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Adult

  17. Approach to the Patient: The Adult With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Arlt, Wiebke

    2013-01-01

    The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia is steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). When the nonclassical (mild) form is included, 21OHD is the most common genetic disease in human beings. With the advent of pharmaceutical preparation of glucocorticoids starting in the 1960s and newborn screening starting in the 1990s, the majority of children with 21OHD are reaching adulthood, which has yielded a cohort of patients with, in essence, a new disease. Only recently have some data emerged from cohorts of adults with 21OHD, and in some centers, experience with the management of these patients is growing. These patients suffer from poor health, infertility, characteristic tumors in the adrenal glands and gonads, and consequences of chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Their care is fragmented and inconsistent, and many stop taking their medications out of frustration. Internal medicine residents and endocrinology fellows receive little training in their care, which further discourages their seeking medical attention. Adults with 21OHD have a different physiology from patients with Addison's disease or other androgen excess states, and their needs are different than those of young children with 21OHD. Consequently, their care requires unorthodox treatment and monitoring strategies foreign to most endocrine practitioners. Our goal for this article is to review their physiology, complications, and needs in order to develop rational and effective treatment and monitoring strategies. PMID:23837188

  18. Arrhythmias in Adult Congenital Patients With Bodily Isomerism.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Rohit S; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Gupta, Navdeep; Buelow, Matthew; Alla, Venkata; Arora, Rohit R; Anderson, Robert H

    2016-02-01

    There are an increasing number of adults with congenital heart disease, some of whom have bodily isomerism. Bodily isomerism or heterotaxy is a unique clinical entity associated with congenital malformations of the heart which further increases the risk for future cardiovascular complications. We aimed to investigate the frequency of arrhythmias in adults with bodily isomerism. We utilized the 2012 iteration of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to identify adult inpatient admissions associated with arrhythmias in patients with isomerism. Data regarding demographics, comorbidities, and various procedures were collected and compared between those with and without isomerism. A total of 6,907,109 admissions were analyzed with a total of 861 being associated isomerism. The frequency of arrhythmias was greater in those with isomerism (20.8 vs. 15.4 %). Those with isomerism were also more five times more likely to undergo invasive electrophysiology studies. Length and cost of hospitalization for patients with arrhythmias also tended to be greater in those with isomerism. Mortality did not differ between the two groups. Arrhythmias are more prevalent in those with isomerism, with a majority of arrhythmias in isomerism being atrial. Those with isomerism and arrhythmias also tended to have greater length and cost of hospitalization.

  19. VO x-based uncooled micrbolometric detectors: recent developments at SCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraenkel, A.; Mizrahi, U.; Bikov, L.; Adin, A.; Malkinson, E.; Giladi, A.; Seter, D.; Kopolovich, Z.

    2006-05-01

    Last year SCD presented an un-cooled detector product line based on the high-end VO x microbolometer technology. The first PFA (BIRD384) launched was a 384x288 software configurable (to 320x240 or other) format with 25μm pitch1. NETD values for these FPAs are better then 50mK with an F/1 aperture and 60 Hz frame rate. Since then SCD has concentrated in improving both spatial and temporal performance. In order to reduce the Residual Non-Uniformity (RNU) and increase the time span between shutter operations, SCD has incorporated various features within the FPA and supporting algorithms2. Improved temporal performance was achieved by optimizing concurrently the membrane structure and ROIC electronics. SCD has demonstrated temporal NETD of ~ 20mK @ F/1 at 30Hz on a 160x120 BIRD compatible array. This figure of merit, accompanied by the superior stability and reduced power consumption, makes SCD's VOx based detectors suitable candidates for a broad range of "high-end" military and commercial applications.

  20. Pelican: SCD's 640 × 512/15 μm pitch InSb detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiknine Schlesinger, J.; Calahorra, Z.; Uri, E.; Shick, O.; Fishman, T.; Shtrichman, I.; Sinbar, E.; Nahum, V.; Kahanov, E.; Shlomovich, B.; Hasson, S.; Fishler, N.; Chen, D.; Markovitz, T.

    2007-04-01

    Over the last decade, SCD has developed and manufactured high quality InSb Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs), that are currently used in different applications worldwide. SCD's production line includes InSb FPAs with mid format (320x256 elements), and large format (640x512 elements), all available in various packaging configurations, including fully integrated Detector-Dewar-Cooler Assemblies (DDCA). Many of SCD's products are fully customized for customers' needs, and are optimized for each application with respect to the weight, power, size, and performance. In 2006, SCD has added to its broad InSb product portfolio the new "Pelican" detector family. All Pelican detectors include a large format 640×512 InSb FPA with 15μm pitch, which is based on the FLIR/Indigo ISC0403 Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC). Due to its small size, the Pelican FPA fits in any mid format Dewar, enabling upgrading of mid format systems with higher spatial resolution due to its good MTF. This work presents the high performance of Pelican products. As achieved in all SCD's InSb DDC's, the Pelican detectors demonstrate high uniformity and correctability (residual non uniformity less than 0.05% std/DR) and remarkable operability (typically better than 99.9%). The Pelican FPA can be integrated in various DDCA configurations as per application needs, such as light weight, low power and compact form for hand held imagers, or a rigid configuration for environmentally demanding operating and storage conditions.

  1. Amelogenesis imperfecta - lifelong management. Restorative management of the adult patient.

    PubMed

    Patel, M; McDonnell, S T; Iram, S; Chan, M F W-Y

    2013-11-01

    The biggest challenge restorative dentists face in rehabilitating patients with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is trying to restore aesthetics, function and occlusal stability while keeping the treatment as conservative as possible. The goals of treatment should be to prolong the life of the patient's own teeth and avoid or delay the need for extractions and subsequent replacement with conventional fixed, removable or implant retained prostheses. In order to achieve these goals a stepwise approach to treatment planning is required starting with the most conservative but aesthetically acceptable treatment. This article discusses the management of AI and presents the various treatment options available for restoring the adult patient who presents to the dentist with AI. PMID:24201615

  2. Comprehensive analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation by five different assays: TUNEL assay, SCSA, SCD test and alkaline and neutral Comet assay.

    PubMed

    Ribas-Maynou, J; García-Peiró, A; Fernández-Encinas, A; Abad, C; Amengual, M J; Prada, E; Navarro, J; Benet, J

    2013-09-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) is becoming an important test to assess male infertility. Several different tests are available, but no consensus has yet been reached as to which tests are most predictive of infertility. Few publications have reported a comprehensive analysis comparing these methods within the same population. The objective of this study was to analyze the differences between the five most common methodologies, to study their correlations and to establish their cut-off values, sensitivity and specificity in predicting male infertility. We found differences in SDF between fertile donors and infertile patients in TUNEL, SCSA, SCD and alkaline Comet assays, but none with the neutral Comet assay. The alkaline COMET assay was the best in predicting male infertility followed by TUNEL, SCD and SCSA, whereas the neutral COMET assay had no predictive power. For our patient population, threshold values for infertility were 20.05% for TUNEL assay, 18.90% for SCSA, 22.75% for the SCD test, 45.37% for alkaline Comet and 34.37% for neutral Comet. This work establishes in a comprehensive study that the all techniques except neutral Comet are useful to distinguish fertile and infertile men.

  3. Hypoalbuminaemia predicts outcome in adult patients with congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Kempny, Aleksander; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Alonso-Gonzalez, Rafael; Uebing, Anselm; Rafiq, Isma; Li, Wei; Swan, Lorna; Hooper, James; Donovan, Jackie; Wort, Stephen J; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Background In patients with acquired heart failure, hypoalbuminaemia is associated with increased risk of death. The prevalence of hypoproteinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia and their relation to outcome in adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD) remains, however, unknown. Methods Data on patients with ACHD who underwent blood testing in our centre within the last 14 years were collected. The relation between laboratory, clinical or demographic parameters at baseline and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results A total of 2886 patients with ACHD were included. Mean age was 33.3 years (23.6–44.7) and 50.1% patients were men. Median plasma albumin concentration was 41.0 g/L (38.0–44.0), whereas hypoalbuminaemia (<35 g/L) was present in 13.9% of patients. The prevalence of hypoalbuminaemia was significantly higher in patients with great complexity ACHD (18.2%) compared with patients with moderate (11.3%) or simple ACHD lesions (12.1%, p<0.001). During a median follow-up of 5.7 years (3.3–9.6), 327 (11.3%) patients died. On univariable Cox regression analysis, hypoalbuminaemia was a strong predictor of outcome (HR 3.37, 95% CI 2.67 to 4.25, p<0.0001). On multivariable Cox regression, after adjusting for age, sodium and creatinine concentration, liver dysfunction, functional class and disease complexity, hypoalbuminaemia remained a significant predictor of death. Conclusions Hypoalbuminaemia is common in patients with ACHD and is associated with a threefold increased risk of risk of death. Hypoalbuminaemia, therefore, should be included in risk-stratification algorithms as it may assist management decisions and timing of interventions in the growing ACHD population. PMID:25736048

  4. Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease: Self-Efficacy as a Factor in Readiness to Transition from Pediatric to Adult Medical Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Dabney

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) must develop self-efficacy and disease-management skills to transition successfully to adult medical care. This quantitative study explored whether self-efficacy, age, and gender were predictive of transition readiness of adolescents with SCD from pediatric to adult medical care.…

  5. Updates in vaccination: Recommendations for adult inflammatory bowel disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Chaudrey, Khadija; Salvaggio, Michelle; Ahmed, Aftab; Mahmood, Sultan; Ali, Tauseef

    2015-01-01

    Treatment regimens for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) incorporate the use of a variety of immunosuppressive agents that increase the risk of infections. Prevention of many of these infections can be achieved by the timely and judicious use of vaccinations. IBD patients tend to be under-immunized. Some of the contributing factors are lack of awareness regarding the significance of vaccinating IBD patients, misperception about safety of vaccinations in immunocompromised patients, ambiguity about the perceived role of the gastroenterologist in contrast to the primary care physician and unavailability of vaccination guidelines focused on IBD population. In general, immunocompetent IBD patients can be vaccinated using standard vaccination recommendations. However there are special considerations for IBD patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, IBD travelers and pregnant women with IBD. This review discusses current vaccination recommendations with updates for adult IBD patients. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013 vaccination guidelines with 2014 updates and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations have been highlighted as a primary source of recommendations. PMID:25805924

  6. Alignment of single-case design (SCD) research with individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing with the what Works Clearinghouse standards for SCD research.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Erica; Cawthon, Stephanie W; Ge, Jin Jin; Beretvas, S Natasha

    2015-04-01

    The authors assessed the quality of single-case design (SCD) studies that assess the impact of interventions on outcomes for individuals who are deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH). More specifically, the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) standards for SCD research were used to assess design quality and the strength of evidence of peer-reviewed studies available in the peer-reviewed, published literature. The analysis yielded four studies that met the WWC standards for design quality, of which two demonstrated moderate to strong evidence for efficacy of the studied intervention. Results of this review are discussed in light of the benefits and the challenges to applying the WWC design standards to research with DHH individuals and other diverse, low-incidence populations.

  7. Competencies for the Nurse Practitioner Working with Adult Urology Patients.

    PubMed

    Quallich, Susanne A; Bumpus, Sherry M; Lajiness, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The role of the nurse practitioner (NP) has expanded into specialty domains. This document proposes 24 competencies specific to the urology NP, which are also consistent with the recommendations of National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF) and compliment the American Urologic Association (AUA) 2014 white paper on the incorporation of advanced practice providers in urology practices. It describes three levels of practice and experience progression for the urology NP working with adult patients, independent of specific clinical setting. These urology-specific competencies supplement and complement the core competencies and population-focused competencies of generalist nurse practitioners.

  8. Pediatric Patient Blood Management Programs: Not Just Transfusing Little Adults.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ruchika; Cushing, Melissa M; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2016-10-01

    Red blood cell transfusions are a common life-saving intervention for neonates and children with anemia, but transfusion decisions, indications, and doses in neonates and children are different from those of adults. Patient blood management (PBM) programs are designed to assist clinicians with appropriately transfusing patients. Although PBM programs are well recognized and appreciated in the adult setting, they are quite far from standard of care in the pediatric patient population. Adult PBM standards cannot be uniformly applied to children, and there currently is significant variation in transfusion practices. Because transfusing unnecessarily can expose children to increased risk without benefit, it is important to design PBM programs to standardize transfusion decisions. This article assesses the key elements necessary for a successful pediatric PBM program, systematically explores various possible pediatric specific blood conservation strategies and the current available literature supporting them, and outlines the gaps in the evidence suggesting need for further/improved research. Pediatric PBM programs are critically important initiatives that not only involve a cooperative effort between pediatric surgery, anesthesia, perfusion, critical care, and transfusion medicine services but also need operational support from administration, clinical leadership, finance, and the hospital information technology personnel. These programs also expand the scope for high-quality collaborative research. A key component of pediatric PBM programs is monitoring pediatric blood utilization and assessing adherence to transfusion guidelines. Data suggest that restrictive transfusion strategies should be used for neonates and children similar to adults, but further research is needed to assess the best oxygenation requirements, hemoglobin threshold, and transfusion strategy for patients with active bleeding, hemodynamic instability, unstable cardiac disease, and cyanotic cardiac

  9. Salmonella typhimurium meningitis in an adult patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Swe, K Swe; Nagel, G; Van der Westhuizen, M; Hoosen, A A

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella meningitis is an unusual complication of Salmonella sepsis and occurs mainly in children. A rare case of Salmonella typhimurium meningitis occurring in an adult HIV positive man who presented with a history of fever and diarrhoea is reported. On examination he was dehydrated, and had oral thrush, weakness of lower limbs and neck stiffness. A septic diagnostic screen was performed and he was commenced on empiric intravenous cefotaxime therapy for meningitis. S typhimurium was cultured from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture specimens. It was non-lactose fermenting, oxidase negative, H(2)S positive and motile. Cefotaxime was continued for 14 days and the patient responded without neurological sequelae. PMID:17158637

  10. Care of the adult patient with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ross, Whitney Trotter; Olsen, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome have an increased risk for many conditions, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, infections, and osteoporosis, and endocrine, neurological, orthopedic, auditory, and ophthalmic disorders. They also are at increased risk for abuse and human rights violations and receive fewer screenings and interventions than the population without Down syndrome. In this literature review, the most common health conditions associated with Down syndrome are examined, along with the topics of sexual abuse, menstrual hygiene, contraception, and human rights. Clinical guidelines for this population are summarized in an effort to assist practicing physicians in improving their provision of health care to the adult patient with Down syndrome.

  11. Pediatric Patient Blood Management Programs: Not Just Transfusing Little Adults.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ruchika; Cushing, Melissa M; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2016-10-01

    Red blood cell transfusions are a common life-saving intervention for neonates and children with anemia, but transfusion decisions, indications, and doses in neonates and children are different from those of adults. Patient blood management (PBM) programs are designed to assist clinicians with appropriately transfusing patients. Although PBM programs are well recognized and appreciated in the adult setting, they are quite far from standard of care in the pediatric patient population. Adult PBM standards cannot be uniformly applied to children, and there currently is significant variation in transfusion practices. Because transfusing unnecessarily can expose children to increased risk without benefit, it is important to design PBM programs to standardize transfusion decisions. This article assesses the key elements necessary for a successful pediatric PBM program, systematically explores various possible pediatric specific blood conservation strategies and the current available literature supporting them, and outlines the gaps in the evidence suggesting need for further/improved research. Pediatric PBM programs are critically important initiatives that not only involve a cooperative effort between pediatric surgery, anesthesia, perfusion, critical care, and transfusion medicine services but also need operational support from administration, clinical leadership, finance, and the hospital information technology personnel. These programs also expand the scope for high-quality collaborative research. A key component of pediatric PBM programs is monitoring pediatric blood utilization and assessing adherence to transfusion guidelines. Data suggest that restrictive transfusion strategies should be used for neonates and children similar to adults, but further research is needed to assess the best oxygenation requirements, hemoglobin threshold, and transfusion strategy for patients with active bleeding, hemodynamic instability, unstable cardiac disease, and cyanotic cardiac

  12. Factors affecting ventriculoperitoneal shunt survival in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Farid; Rehman, Abdul; Shamim, Muhammad S.; Bari, Muhammad E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion remains the mainstay of treatment for hydrocephalus despite a high rate of complications. The predictors of shunt malfunction have been studied mostly in pediatric patients. In this study, we report our 11-year experience with VP shunts in adult patients with hydrocephalus. We also assess the various factors affecting shunt survival in a developing country setting. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis was conducted for all adult patients who had undergone shunt placement between the years 2001 and 2011. Kaplan–Meier curves were used to determine the duration from shunt placement to first malfunction and log-rank (Cox–Mantel) tests were used to determine the factors affecting shunt survival. Results: A total of 227 patients aged 18–85 years (mean: 45.8 years) were included in the study. The top four etiologies of hydrocephalus included post-cranial surgery (23.3%), brain tumor or cyst (22.9%), normal pressure hydrocephalus (15%), and intracranial hemorrhage (13.7%). The overall incidence of shunt malfunction was 15.4% with the median time to first shunt failure being 120 days. Etiology of hydrocephalus (P = 0.030) had a significant association with the development of shunt malfunction. Early shunt failure was associated with age (P < 0.001), duration of hospital stay (P < 0.001), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score less than 13 (P = 0.010), excision of brain tumors (P = 0.008), and placement of extra-ventricular drains (P = 0.033). Conclusions: Patients with increased age, prolonged hospital stay, GCS score of less than 13, extra-ventricular drains in situ, or excision of brain tumors were more likely to experience early shunt malfunction. PMID:25722930

  13. Advanced IR detector design at SCD: from D3C to ABCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesher, Ofer; Klipstein, Philip C.; Weiss, Eliezer

    2004-07-01

    Over the past 27 years, SCD has developed and manufactured more than 30 types of Infrared Detector, both with support from the Israeli MOD and in cooperation with institutions and companies such as the Technion, Soreq NRC, RICOR and RAFAEL. SCD's current production line includes Hg1-xCdxTe (MCT) devices with up to 480x6 elements operating in Time Delay and Integration (TDI) mode and InSb Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) with up to 640x512 elements, all available in various configurations including fully integrated Detector-Dewar-Cooler (DDC) packages. Such DDCs have been designed to range from the very small to the very large. At one end the Piccolo DDC is a small, low weight and power detector, ideal for compact low cost imagers such as handheld IR cameras. At the other end, we manufacture a very long (2048x16) bi-directional TDI InSb detector designed for "whiskbroom scanning" systems. This device consists of four modules precisely butted on a single substrate, with each 512x16 module connected to a single signal processor. In 2003, SCD announced its new breakthrough Digital Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) technology: Digital DDC or D3C. This readout system, with excellent performance and increased flexibility is the first in a series of new imaging solutions that SCD is developing to meet future demands of noise and power reduction, combined with greater wavelength selectivity. To continue along this path we have also been developing our new ABCS (Antimonide Based Compound Semiconductor) technology, which we first reported in 2002. The ABCS program, combining SCD's existing strengths in InSb FPA systems with new concepts in bandgap engineering and smart structure design, is aimed at multispectral IR detectors operating at higher temperatures. This review discusses some of the key trends at SCD as described above. After surveying the performance of SCD's current InSb technology, SCD's evolution towards the next generations will be described, including the

  14. A comprehensive Fabry-related pain questionnaire for adult patients.

    PubMed

    Üçeyler, Nurcan; Magg, Barbara; Thomas, Phillip; Wiedmann, Silke; Heuschmann, Peter; Sommer, Claudia

    2014-11-01

    Pain may be the earliest symptom in Fabry disease and presents with a distinct phenotype including triggerable pain attacks, evoked pain, pain crises, and chronic pain. Current pain questionnaires do not reflect the special phenotype of Fabry disease-associated pain, which hampers its systematic evaluation as the basis of correct diagnosis and effective treatment. A questionnaire specifically designed to assess Fabry disease-associated pain is thus urgently needed. At the Würzburg Fabry Center for Interdisciplinary Therapy (FAZIT), Germany, we developed and validated the first face-to-face Fabry Pain Questionnaire (FPQ) for adult patients. The initial version of the FPQ was tested in a pilot study with 20 consecutive Fabry disease patients. The performance of the revised FPQ was assessed in a first (n=56) and second (n=20) validation phase in consecutive Fabry disease patients. For this, patients were interviewed at baseline and 2 weeks later. We determined the test-retest reliability and validity of the FPQ in comparison to data obtained with the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory. The FPQ contains 15 questions on the 4 pain phenotypes of Fabry disease (pain attacks, pain crises, evoked pain, chronic pain) in childhood and adulthood, on pain development during life with and without enzyme replacement therapy, and on everyday life impairment due to pain. This first disease-specific questionnaire is a valuable tool for baseline and follow-up assessment of pain in Fabry disease patients and may guide treatment in this distinct pain phenotype.

  15. Drugs in oral surgery. Brief guidelines for adult patients.

    PubMed

    Grassi, R F; Pappalardo, S; De Benedittis, M; Petruzzi, M; Giannetti, L; Cappello, V; Baglio, O A

    2004-06-01

    Drugs administrable in oral surgery for adult patients are antiseptics-antibiotics, antiinflammatory-analgesics and sedative-hypnotics. Such drugs can be administered before, during or after oral surgery. Sedative-hypnotics can be administered before or during oral surgery in order to control the patient's anxiety. Anti-inflammatory-analgesics, on the other hand, can be administered before or after oral surgery to lower edema and pain. For this purpose, FANS are the most commonly used drugs but, in more traumatic oral surgery, the administration of a single pre-surgery dose of corticosteroids is suitable. As regards, antibiotics have to be given from 15 min to 1 h before oral surgery and continued or otherwise for 24-48 h depending on the dosage. post-surgery infection onset, in fact, is higher within 3 h after oral surgery.

  16. Randomized phase 2 study of GMI-1070 in SCD: reduction in time to resolution of vaso-occlusive events and decreased opioid use

    PubMed Central

    Wun, Ted; McCavit, Timothy L.; De Castro, Laura M.; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Lanzkron, Sophie; Hsu, Lewis L.; Smith, Wally R.; Rhee, Seungshin; Magnani, John L.; Thackray, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) or events in sickle cell disease (SCD) remains limited to symptom relief with opioids. Animal models support the effectiveness of the pan-selectin inhibitor GMI-1070 in reducing selectin-mediated cell adhesion and abrogating VOC. We studied GMI-1070 in a prospective multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 study of 76 SCD patients with VOC. Study drug (GMI-1070 or placebo) was given every 12 hours for up to 15 doses. Other treatment was per institutional standard of care. All subjects reached the composite primary end point of resolution of VOC. Although time to reach the composite primary end point was not statistically different between the groups, clinically meaningful reductions in mean and median times to VOC resolution of 41 and 63 hours (28% and 48%, P = .19 for both) were observed in the active treatment group vs the placebo group. As a secondary end point, GMI-1070 appeared safe in acute vaso-occlusion, and adverse events were not different in the two arms. Also in secondary analyses, mean cumulative IV opioid analgesic use was reduced by 83% with GMI-1070 vs placebo (P = .010). These results support a phase 3 study of GMI-1070 (now rivipansel) for SCD VOC. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01119833. PMID:25733584

  17. Intravenous fish oil in adult intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Heller, Axel R

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids contained in fish oils have shown efficacy in the treatment of chronic and acute inflammatory diseases due to their pleiotropic effects on inflammatory cell signalling pathways. In a variety of experimental and clinical studies, omega-3 fatty acids attenuated hyperinflammatory conditions and induced faster recovery. This chapter will shed light on the effects of intravenous fish oil in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients and will discuss clinical data and recent meta-analyses on the topic. While significant beneficial effects on infection rates and the lengths of ICU and hospital stays have concordantly been identified in three recent meta-analyses on non-ICU surgical patients, the level of evidence is not so clear for critically ill patients. Three meta-analyses published in 2012 or 2013 explored data on the ICU population. Although the present data suggest the consideration of enteral nutrition enriched with fish oil, borage oil and antioxidants in mild to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, only one of the three meta-analyses found a trend (p = 0.08) of lower mortality in ICU patients receiving intravenous omega-3 fatty acids. Two of the meta-analyses indicated a significantly shorter hospital stay (5.17-9.49 days), and one meta-analysis found a significant reduction in ICU days (1.92). As a result of these effects, cost savings were postulated. Unlike in surgical patients, the effects of fish oil on infection rates were not found to be statistically significant in ICU patients, and dose-effect relationships were not established for any cohort. Thus, obvious positive secondary outcome effects with intravenous fish oil have not yet been shown to transfer to lower mortality in critically ill patients. There is a need for adequately powered, well-planned and well-conducted randomized trials to give clear recommendations on the individual utility and dosage of intravenous omega-3 fatty acids in critical illness. PMID:25471809

  18. The metabolic consequences of thyroxine replacement in adult hypopituitary patients.

    PubMed

    Filipsson Nyström, Helena; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Kourides, Ione; Popovic, Vera; Koltowska-Häggström, Maria; Jonsson, Björn; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2012-12-01

    The metabolic consequences of thyroxine replacement in patients with central hypothyroidism (CH) need to be evaluated. The aim was to examine the outcome of thyroxine replacement in CH. Adult hypopituitary patients (n = 1595) with and without CH from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) were studied before and after 2 years of GH replacement. CH patients (CH, n = 1080) were compared with TSH sufficient patients (TSHsuff n = 515) as one group and divided by thyroxine dose/kg/day into tertiles (CHlow-mid-high). Anthropometry, fasting glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure, lipids, IGF-I SDS, quality of life and morbidity were studied. Analyses were standardized for gender, age, number and types of pituitary insufficiencies, stimulated GH peak, age at GH deficiency onset, aetiologies and, when appropriate, for weight and GH dose. At baseline, TSHsuff patients did not differ from CH or CHmid in any outcome. CHlow (≤ 1.18 μg thyroxine/kg/day) had increased weight, BMI and larger waist circumference (WC), CHhigh (≥ 1.58 μg thyroxine/kg/day) had lower weight, BMI, WC and IGF-I than TSHsuff and compared to their predicted weights, BMIs and WCs. For every 0.1 μg/kg/day increase of thyroxine dose, body weight decreased 1.0 kg, BMI 0.3 kg/m(2), and WC 0.65 cm. The GH sensitivity of the CH group was higher (0.76 ± 0.56 SDS/mg GH) than that of TSHsuff patients (0.58 ± 0.64 SDS/mg GH), P < 0.001. The middle thyroxine dose (1.19-1.57 μg/kg/day) seems to be the most physiological. This is equivalent to 70, 100, 125 μg thyroxine/day for hypopituitary patients of 50, 70 or 90 kg weight, respectively.

  19. Cervical column morphology in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Petri, Niels; Kjaer, Inger; Svanholt, Palle

    2008-10-01

    Cervical column morphology was examined in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and compared with the cervical morphology of an adult control group with neutral occlusion, normal craniofacial morphology, and no history of sleep apnoea. The sleep apnoea group consisted of 91 patients, 16 females aged 29-59 years (mean 49.4 years) and 75 males aged 27-65 years (mean 49.0 years). All patients were diagnosed with OSA by overnight polysomnography. The control group consisted of 21 subjects, 15 females aged 23-40 years (mean 29.2 years) and 6 males aged 25-44 years (mean 32.8 years). From each individual, a visual assessment of the cervical column was performed on the radiograph. Differences in the cervical column morphology, between the genders and the groups were assessed by Fisher's exact test and the effect of age by logistic regression analysis. In the OSA group, 46.2 per cent had fusion anomalies of the cervical column and 5.5 per cent a posterior arch deficiency. Fusion anomalies occurred in 26.4 per cent as fusions between two cervical vertebrae. Block fusions occurred in 12.1 per cent and occipitalization in 14.3 per cent. A posterior arch deficiency occurred in 2.2 per cent as a partial cleft of C1 and in 3.3 per cent as dehiscence of C3 and C4. No statistical gender differences were found in the occurrence of morphological characteristics of the cervical column. The fusion anomalies of the cervical column occurred significantly more often in the OSA group. The results indicate that the morphological deviations of the upper cervical vertebrae play a role in the phenotypical subdivision and diagnosis of OSA.

  20. Soluble CD163 in young sickle cell disease patients and their trait siblings: a biomarker for pulmonary hypertension and vaso-occlusive complications.

    PubMed

    Tantawy, Azza Abdel Gawad; Adly, Amira Abdel Moneam; Ismail, Eman Abdel Rahman

    2012-10-01

    CD163 is expressed on cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage and is the main hemoglobin-haptoglobin receptor. Inflammation and monocyte activation are predisposing factors to vaso-occlusion and pulmonary hypertension, which are serious complications in sickle cell disease (SCD). Siblings of SCD patients may have the same pathophysiology without displaying symptoms. We assessed soluble CD163 (sCD163) levels in 60 children with SCD and 30 sickle cell trait (SCT) siblings compared with 30 healthy controls as a potential marker for disease severity and treatment response. Patients were studied stressing on the presence of pulmonary hypertension by Dopplar-Echocardiography, sickling crisis, transfusion requirements, hydroxyurea response, hematological profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and serum sCD163. sCD163 was significantly elevated in SCD patients and SCT siblings compared with controls and the highest levels were in untreated SCD patients (P < 0.001). sCD163 was higher in patients with pulmonary hypertension, acute chest syndrome or stroke as well as in patients who developed sickling crisis during the study period (P < 0.05). Hydroxyurea-treated patients had lower sCD163 compared with untreated patients (P < 0.001). sCD163 was positively correlated to leukocyte count, HbS, hs-CRP, pulmonary artery pressure and tricuspid regurgitant velocity whereas inversely correlated to hemoglobin and HbF levels. The cut-off value of sCD163 at 1400 ng/ml could be considered a predictor for vaso-occlusive crisis in SCD with a sensitivity of 92.3% and specificity of 94.1%. sCD163 can be considered a biomarker for pulmonary hypertension, early crisis prediction and monitoring hydroxyurea response in SCD patients. Elevated sCD163 in trait siblings could reflect increased risk of sickling in challenging situations.

  1. Attachment and Parenting in Adult Patients with Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Picardi, Angelo; Caroppo, Emanuele; Fabi, Elisa; Proietti, Serena; Gennaro, Giancarlo Di; Meldolesi, Giulio Nicolò; Martinotti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Background: The literature suggests that dysfunctional parenting and insecure attachment may increase risk of anxiety-related psychopathology. This study aimed at testing the association between anxiety disorders, attachment insecurity and dysfunctional parenting while controlling for factors usually not controlled for in previous studies, such as gender, age, and being ill. Methods: A sample of 32 non-psychotic inpatients with SCID-I diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, either alone or in comorbidity, was compared with two age- and sex-matched control groups consisting of 32 non-clinical participants and 32 in-patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Study measures included the Experience in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Results: The patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly higher on attachment-related anxiety and avoidance than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and non-clinical participants. These findings were independent of comorbidity for mood disorders. ECR scores did not differ among diagnostic subgroups (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, other anxiety disorders). Patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly lower on PBI mother’s care and borderline significantly lower on PBI father's care than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Conclusions: Although limitations such as the relatively small sample size and the cross-sectional nature suggest caution in interpreting these findings, they are consistent with the few previous adult studies performed on this topic and corroborate Bowlby's seminal hypothesis of a link between negative attachment-related experiences, attachment insecurity, and clinical anxiety. Attachment theory provides a useful theoretical framework for integrating research findings from several fields concerning the development of anxiety disorders and for planning therapeutic interventions. PMID:24155770

  2. Severe Acquired Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompetent Adult Patients in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Carme, B.; Bissuel, F.; Ajzenberg, D.; Bouyne, R.; Aznar, C.; Demar, M.; Bichat, S.; Louvel, D.; Bourbigot, A. M.; Peneau, C.; Neron, P.; Dardé, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The most common presentation of symptomatic postnatally acquired toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients is painless cervical adenopathy. Acute visceral manifestations are associated in rare cases. We report 16 cases of severe primary toxoplasmosis diagnosed in French Guiana during a 6.5-year period. All of the subjects were immunocompetent adults hospitalized with clinical presentations consisting of a marked, nonspecific infectious syndrome accompanied by an altered general status with at least one visceral localization, mainly pulmonary involvement (14 cases). Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed according to the results of serological tests suggestive of recent primary infection and the absence of an alternative etiology. Recovery was rapid following specific antitoxoplasmosis treatment. Thirteen of the 16 patients had consumed game in the 2 weeks before the onset of the symptoms, and in eight cases the game was considered to have been undercooked. Toxoplasma strains, which were virulent in mice, were isolated from three patients. Microsatellite analysis showed that all of these isolates exhibited an atypical multilocus genotype, with one allele found only for isolates of this region. PMID:12409371

  3. Discovery of thiazolylpyridinone SCD1 inhibitors with preferential liver distribution and reduced mechanism-based adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaoyi; Zhang, Zaihui; Raina, Vandna; Pokrovskaia, Natalia; Hou, Duanjie; Namdari, Rostam; Khakh, Kuldip; Ratkay, Leslie G; McLaren, David G; Mork, Monica; Fu, Jianmin; Ferreira, Suzie; Hubbard, Brian; Winther, Michael D; Dales, Natalie

    2014-01-15

    We discovered a series of novel and potent thiazolylpyridinone-based SCD1 inhibitors based on a 2-aminothiazole HTS hit by replacing the amide bond with a pyridinone moiety. Compound 19 demonstrated good potency against SCD1 in vitro and in vivo. The mouse liver microsomal SCD1 in vitro potency for 19 was improved by more than 240-fold compared to the original HTS hit. Furthermore, 19 demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction of plasma desaturation index with an ED50 of 6.3 mg/kg. Compound 19 demonstrated high liver to plasma and liver to eyelid exposures, indicating preferential liver distribution. The preliminary toxicology study with compound 19 did not demonstrate adverse effects related to SCD1 inhibition, suggesting a wide safety margin with respect to other known SCD1 inhibitors with wider distribution profiles.

  4. Discovery of thiazolylpyridinone SCD1 inhibitors with preferential liver distribution and reduced mechanism-based adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaoyi; Zhang, Zaihui; Raina, Vandna; Pokrovskaia, Natalia; Hou, Duanjie; Namdari, Rostam; Khakh, Kuldip; Ratkay, Leslie G; McLaren, David G; Mork, Monica; Fu, Jianmin; Ferreira, Suzie; Hubbard, Brian; Winther, Michael D; Dales, Natalie

    2014-01-15

    We discovered a series of novel and potent thiazolylpyridinone-based SCD1 inhibitors based on a 2-aminothiazole HTS hit by replacing the amide bond with a pyridinone moiety. Compound 19 demonstrated good potency against SCD1 in vitro and in vivo. The mouse liver microsomal SCD1 in vitro potency for 19 was improved by more than 240-fold compared to the original HTS hit. Furthermore, 19 demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction of plasma desaturation index with an ED50 of 6.3 mg/kg. Compound 19 demonstrated high liver to plasma and liver to eyelid exposures, indicating preferential liver distribution. The preliminary toxicology study with compound 19 did not demonstrate adverse effects related to SCD1 inhibition, suggesting a wide safety margin with respect to other known SCD1 inhibitors with wider distribution profiles. PMID:24370012

  5. Humidification during mechanical ventilation in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    Al Ashry, Haitham S; Modrykamien, Ariel M

    2014-01-01

    Humidification of inhaled gases has been standard of care in mechanical ventilation for a long period of time. More than a century ago, a variety of reports described important airway damage by applying dry gases during artificial ventilation. Consequently, respiratory care providers have been utilizing external humidifiers to compensate for the lack of natural humidification mechanisms when the upper airway is bypassed. Particularly, active and passive humidification devices have rapidly evolved. Sophisticated systems composed of reservoirs, wires, heating devices, and other elements have become part of our usual armamentarium in the intensive care unit. Therefore, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of action of each of these devices, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, becomes a necessity for the respiratory care and intensive care practitioner. In this paper, we review current methods of airway humidification during invasive mechanical ventilation of adult patients. We describe a variety of devices and describe the eventual applications according to specific clinical conditions.

  6. Humidification during Mechanical Ventilation in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Al Ashry, Haitham S.; Modrykamien, Ariel M.

    2014-01-01

    Humidification of inhaled gases has been standard of care in mechanical ventilation for a long period of time. More than a century ago, a variety of reports described important airway damage by applying dry gases during artificial ventilation. Consequently, respiratory care providers have been utilizing external humidifiers to compensate for the lack of natural humidification mechanisms when the upper airway is bypassed. Particularly, active and passive humidification devices have rapidly evolved. Sophisticated systems composed of reservoirs, wires, heating devices, and other elements have become part of our usual armamentarium in the intensive care unit. Therefore, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of action of each of these devices, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, becomes a necessity for the respiratory care and intensive care practitioner. In this paper, we review current methods of airway humidification during invasive mechanical ventilation of adult patients. We describe a variety of devices and describe the eventual applications according to specific clinical conditions. PMID:25089275

  7. Primary Care for the Older Adult Patient: Common Geriatric Issues and Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Katherine; Shi, Sandra; Kiraly, Carmela

    2016-06-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the US population and the majority of older adults are women. Primary care for the older adult patient requires a wide variety of skills, reflecting the complexity and heterogeneity of this patient population. Individualizing care through consideration of patients' goals, medical conditions, and prognosis is paramount. Quality care for the older adult patient requires familiarity with common geriatric syndromes, such as dementia, falls, and polypharmacy. In addition, developing the knowledge and communication skills necessary for complex care and end-of-life care planning is essential.

  8. [Comparison of serum trace element spectrum of liver cancer patients and healthy adults].

    PubMed

    Yin, D Z

    1990-05-01

    The contents of 15 trace elements in the sera of 30 liver cancer patients and 30 healthy adults were assayed by ICP-AES method. The data obtained were analysed by routine statistical tests, multi-variate discrimination analysis, multi-variate stepwise regression analysis and non-linear mapping algorithm. The results showed that the contents of copper, vanadium, cadmium, stannum, cobalt, nickel in liver cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy adults. The serum trace element spectrum of liver cancer patients was different from that of healthy adults. Hence, the liver cancer patients could be differentiated from healthy adults by serum trace element spectrum. PMID:2249593

  9. Adult patients with Fontan circulation: What we know and how to manage adults with Fontan circulation?

    PubMed

    Ohuchi, Hideo

    2016-09-01

    Most of patients after the Fontan operation can reach their adulthood, however, the management strategy for this complex pathophysiology has not been yet established. In general, elevated central venous pressure (CVP) and low cardiac output (CO) due to impaired ventricular preload characterize the Fontan circulation and the ideal hemodynamics could be a combination of a lower CVP with a higher CO. Thus, preserved functional systemic ventricle with low pulmonary artery resistance is thought to be crucial for better long-term outcome. However, on the other hand, because of the unique hemodynamics, these patients have significantly higher incidence of complications, sequelae, and even mortality. The major complications are supraventricular arrhythmias, heart failure, and Fontan-related problems, including protein-losing enteropathy and pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae, both of which are refractory to the treatments, and most of these "Fontan inconveniences" increase as patients age. In addition, one of the recent emerging problems is Fontan-associated liver disease that includes liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, women with Fontan circulation also reach childbearing age and there have been increasing numbers of reports showing a high incidence of pregnancy-associated complications. All these problems may be a part of "Fontan inconveniences" because most of the current Fontan patients are still "young" i.e. in their twenties or thirties and it may be not surprising that more new Fontan-associated pathophysiology emerges as patients age. Recent evidence reminds us of the concept that adult Fontan pathophysiology is not just a cardiovascular disease, rather, a multiorgan disease with many interactions between cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular organs. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory to take care of and anticipate the better long-term outcome. PMID:27134136

  10. Population Pharmacokinetics of Benznidazole in Adult Patients with Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aldasoro, E.; Guerrero, L.; Posada, E.; Serret, N.; Mejía, T.; Urbina, J. A.; Gascón, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to build a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model to characterize benznidazole (BNZ) pharmacokinetics in adults with chronic Chagas disease. This study was a prospective, open-label, single-center clinical trial approved by the local ethics committee. Patients received BNZ at 2.5 mg/kg of body weight/12 h (Abarax, Elea Laboratory, Argentina) for 60 days. Plasma BNZ samples were taken several times during the study and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-visible detection (HPLC-UV). The popPK analysis was done with NONMEMv.7.3. Demographic and biological data were tested as covariates. Intraindividual, interoccasion, and residual variabilities were modeled. Internal and external validations were completed to assess the robustness of the model. Later on, simulations were performed to generate BNZ concentration-time course profiles for different dosage regimens. A total of 358 plasma BNZ concentrations from 39 patients were included in the analysis. A one-compartment PK model characterized by clearance (CL/F) and the apparent volume of distribution (V/F), with first-order absorption (Ka) and elimination, adequately described the data (CL/F, 1.73 liters/h; V/F, 89.6 liters; and Ka, 1.15 h−1). No covariates were found to be significant for CL/F and V/F. Internal and external validations of the final model showed adequate results. Data from simulations revealed that a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/12 h might lead to overexposure in most patients. A lower dose (2.5 mg/kg/24 h) was able to achieve trough BNZ plasma concentrations within the accepted therapeutic range of 3 to 6 mg/liter. In summary, we developed a population PK model for BNZ in adults with chronic Chagas disease. Dosing simulations showed that a BNZ dose of 2.5 mg/kg/24 h will adequately keep BNZ trough plasma concentrations within the recommended target range for the majority of patients. (This study has been registered at EudraCT under number 2011

  11. Metabolic aspects of adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Milic, Natasa; Di Renzo, Laura; Preveden, Tomislav; Medić-Stojanoska, Milica; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2016-08-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and it encompasses a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis. The mechanisms involved in the occurrence of NAFLD and its progression are probably due to a metabolic profile expressed within the context of a genetic predisposition and is associated with a higher energy intake. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic alterations associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. NAFLD patients have more than one feature of the MS, and now they are considered the hepatic components of the MS. Several scientific advances in understanding the association between NAFLD and MS have identified insulin resistance (IR) as the key aspect in the pathophysiology of both diseases. In the multi parallel hits theory of NAFLD pathogenesis, IR was described to be central in the predisposition of hepatocytes to be susceptible to other multiple pathogenetic factors. The recent knowledge gained from these advances can be applied clinically in the prevention and management of NAFLD and its associated metabolic changes. The present review analyses the current literature and highlights the new evidence on the metabolic aspects in the adult patients with NAFLD. PMID:27610012

  12. Metabolic aspects of adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Milic, Natasa; Di Renzo, Laura; Preveden, Tomislav; Medić-Stojanoska, Milica; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and it encompasses a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis. The mechanisms involved in the occurrence of NAFLD and its progression are probably due to a metabolic profile expressed within the context of a genetic predisposition and is associated with a higher energy intake. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic alterations associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. NAFLD patients have more than one feature of the MS, and now they are considered the hepatic components of the MS. Several scientific advances in understanding the association between NAFLD and MS have identified insulin resistance (IR) as the key aspect in the pathophysiology of both diseases. In the multi parallel hits theory of NAFLD pathogenesis, IR was described to be central in the predisposition of hepatocytes to be susceptible to other multiple pathogenetic factors. The recent knowledge gained from these advances can be applied clinically in the prevention and management of NAFLD and its associated metabolic changes. The present review analyses the current literature and highlights the new evidence on the metabolic aspects in the adult patients with NAFLD. PMID:27610012

  13. Relationship between perceived sleep and polysomnography in older adult patients

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Silva, Mayra; Bazzana, Caroline Moreira; de Souza, Altay Lino; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Lucchesi, Lígia M.; Lopes, Guiomar Silva

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Aging is a multifactorial process that elicits changes in the duration and quality of sleep. Polysomnography is considered to be the standard examination for the analysis of sleep and consists of the simultaneous recording of selected physiological variables during sleep. Objective The objective of this study was to use polysomnography to compare sleep reported by senior citizens. Methods We selected 40 patients, both male and female, with ages ranging from 64 to 89 years from the Center for the Study of Aging at the Federal University of São Paulo. Patients answered questions about sleep on the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment and underwent polysomnography. Results The results were compared, and agreement between perceived sleep and polysomnography was found in several areas. There was an association between difficulty sleeping and sleep onset latency (p=0.015), waking up at night with sleep onset latency (p=0.005), total sleep time with daytime sleepiness (0.005) and snoring (0.027), sleep efficiency with sleepiness (0.004), snoring (0.033) and pause in breathing (p=0.024), awakenings with snoring (p=0.012) and sleep apnea with pauses in breathing (p=0.001). Conclusion These results suggest that the older adult population have a good perception of their sleep. The questionnaires aimed at this population should be used as an alternative to polysomnography. PMID:26483948

  14. Metabolic aspects of adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Abenavoli, Ludovico; Milic, Natasa; Di Renzo, Laura; Preveden, Tomislav; Medić-Stojanoska, Milica; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and it encompasses a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis. The mechanisms involved in the occurrence of NAFLD and its progression are probably due to a metabolic profile expressed within the context of a genetic predisposition and is associated with a higher energy intake. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic alterations associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. NAFLD patients have more than one feature of the MS, and now they are considered the hepatic components of the MS. Several scientific advances in understanding the association between NAFLD and MS have identified insulin resistance (IR) as the key aspect in the pathophysiology of both diseases. In the multi parallel hits theory of NAFLD pathogenesis, IR was described to be central in the predisposition of hepatocytes to be susceptible to other multiple pathogenetic factors. The recent knowledge gained from these advances can be applied clinically in the prevention and management of NAFLD and its associated metabolic changes. The present review analyses the current literature and highlights the new evidence on the metabolic aspects in the adult patients with NAFLD.

  15. Using Adult Learning Concepts To Assist Patients in Completing Advance Directives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rose Mary

    2000-01-01

    Advance directives that enable individuals to control their health care are underused due to lack of patient knowledge. Nurses can teach patients about them using adult learning principles, transformation theory, and skills for learning how to learn. (SK)

  16. [Vaccinations in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases--EULAR recommendations for pediatric and adult patients].

    PubMed

    Müller-Ladner, Claudia; Müller-Ladner, Ulf

    2012-10-01

    Since patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases are prone to infectious complications--on one hand due to the rheumatic disease itself, on the other hand due to the immunosuppressive therapy--vaccination is an essential tool to prevent these infectious complications. Although there exist several recommendations for the vaccination of immunocompromised patients, many questions still remain for the distinct clinical situations of patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases. In addition, there are several questions concerning the safety and efficacy of various vaccinations, especially with regard to live-attenuated vaccines. Therefore, EULAR (European League Against Rheumatism) assembled two expert panels to clarify as much of these clinical problems as possible. After extensive literature review and evidence grading, the expert panels published recommendations for the vaccination of adult and pediatric patients, which are outlined in this review article.

  17. Two-Year Follow-up Study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigen-Driven IFN-γ Responses and Macrophage sCD14 Levels After Tuberculosis Contact.

    PubMed

    Druszczynska, Magdalena; Wlodarczyk, Marcin; Kielnierowski, Grzegorz; Kawka, Malwina; Rudnicka, Wieslawa

    2016-06-01

    Clinical data regarding the prediction of active tuberculosis (TB) development in close TB contacts are scarce. To address this problem, we performed a 2-year follow-up study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) antigen-driven IFN-gamma responses and serum levels of soluble macrophage CD14 receptor in individuals with recent or prolonged M.tb exposure. Between June 2011 and June 2013, we studied 60 healthy Polish adults with recent household or long-term work TB contact and individuals without known M.tb exposure. All of them underwent baseline and repeated testing with IGRA (IFN-gamma release assay) and serum sCD14 ELISA quantification. Frequencies of IGRA results differed at the baseline and follow-up testing. IGRA reversions were noticed in almost one-third of Work TB Contacts and no participants from the Household TB Contact group. IGRA conversions were found in 40 % of Household TB Contacts. No correlation between the IGRA result and the sCD14 level was observed. IFN-γ variability has important implications for clinical practice and requires caution in interpreting the results to distinguish new infections from nonspecific inter-individual variations in cytokine responses. The impairment of IFN-γ response in some individuals with prolonged M.tb exposure representing a resistant immune status does not allow considering IGRA results as reliable and credible. Monitoring the serum sCD14 level can reduce the likelihood of a false prediction of active TB development in close TB contacts showing an M.tb-specific increase in the IFN-gamma production in repeated IGRA testing. PMID:27570313

  18. Stress, Coping, and Psychological Adjustment of Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined psychological adjustment to sickle cell disease (SCD) among 109 African-American adults. Good psychological adjustment was associated with lower levels of perceived daily stress and stress regarding SCD illness tasks, higher efficacy expectations, less use of palliative coping methods and negative thinking/passive adherence pain-coping…

  19. Cystic Fibrosis below the Diaphragm: Abdominal Findings in Adult Patients.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Lisa P; McEvoy, Sinead H; Ni Mhurchu, Elaine; Gibney, Robert G; McMahon, Colm J; Heffernan, Eric J; Malone, Dermot E

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal autosomal recessive disease in the white population. Mutation of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene on chromosome 7 results in production of abnormally viscous mucus and secretions in the lungs of patients with CF. A similar pathologic process occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and hepatobiliary system. Inspissated mucus causes luminal obstruction and resultant clinical and radiologic complications associated with the disease process. Pancreatic involvement can result in exocrine and endocrine insufficiency, pancreatic atrophy, fatty replacement, or lipomatous pseudohypertrophy. Acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic calcification, cysts, and cystosis also occur. Hepatic manifestations include hepatic steatosis, focal biliary and multilobular cirrhosis, and portal hypertension. Biliary complications include cholelithiasis, microgallbladder, and sclerosing cholangitis. The entire digestive tract can be involved. Distal ileal obstruction syndrome, intussusception, appendicitis, chronic constipation, colonic wall thickening, fibrosing colonopathy, pneumatosis intestinalis, gastroesophageal reflux, and peptic ulcer disease have been described. Renal manifestations include nephrolithiasis and secondary amyloidosis. The educational objectives of this review are to reveal the abdominal manifestations of CF to facilitate focused analysis of cross-sectional imaging in adult patients. Life expectancy in patients with CF continues to improve because of a combination of aggressive antibiotic treatment, improved emphasis on nutrition and physiotherapy, and development of promising new CF transmembrane conductance regulator modulators. As lung function and survival improve, extrapulmonary conditions, including hepatic and gastrointestinal malignancy, will be an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Awareness of the expected abdominal manifestations of CF may assist radiologists in identifying

  20. Unique spatiotemporal activation pattern of Cdc42 by Gef1 and Scd1 promotes different events during cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Bin; Hercyk, Brian S.; Mattson, Nicholas; Mohammadi, Ahmad; Rich, Julie; DeBruyne, Erica; Clark, Mikayla M.; Das, Maitreyi

    2016-01-01

    The Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 regulates cell polarity and localizes to the cell division site. Cdc42 is activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). We report that Cdc42 promotes cytokinesis via a unique spatiotemporal activation pattern due to the distinct action of its GEFs, Gef1 and Scd1, in fission yeast. Before cytokinetic ring constriction, Cdc42 activation, is Gef1 dependent, and after ring constriction, it is Scd1 dependent. Gef1 localizes to the actomyosin ring immediately after ring assembly and promotes timely onset of ring constriction. Gef1 is required for proper actin organization during cytokinesis, distribution of type V myosin Myo52 to the division site, and timely recruitment of septum protein Bgs1. In contrast, Scd1 localizes to the broader region of ingressing membrane during cytokinetic furrowing. Scd1 promotes normal septum formation, and scd1Δ cells display aberrant septa with reduced Bgs1 localization. Thus we define unique roles of the GEFs Gef1 and Scd1 in the regulation of distinct events during cytokinesis. Gef1 localizes first to the cytokinetic ring and promotes timely constriction, whereas Scd1 localizes later to the ingressing membrane and promotes septum formation. Our findings are consistent with reports that complexity in GTPase signaling patterns enables exquisite precision over the control of cellular processes. PMID:26941334

  1. Risks of suicidality in adult patients with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Sherifa A; Elserogy, Yaser BE; Abdou, Madleen A; Abdellah, Mostafa M

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence and risks of suicidality in a group of patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Included were 200 adult patients and 100 matched healthy subjects. The clinical interview using The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), Beck Depression Inventory (2nd edition) (BDI-II), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Rating Scale testings were used for diagnosis and assessment of severity of psychiatric symptoms. Blood concentrations of serotonin, catecholamines and dopamine were also measured. RESULTS: Suicidality was reported in 35% (compared to 9% for controls), of them 80%, 72.86%, 55.71% and 52.9% had depression, anxiety, obsession and aggression respectively. Patients with suicidality had higher scores of BDI-II (P = 0.0001), HAM-A (P = 0.0001), and Y-BOCS (P = 0.037) and lower scores of psychotic (P = 0.0001) and extroversion (P = 0.025) personality traits. Regardless the presence or absence of suicidality, patients with epilepsy had low serotonin (P = 0.006), noradrenaline (P = 0.019) and adrenaline (P = 0.0001) levels. With suicidality, significant correlations were identified between: (1) age and scores of BDI-II (r = 0.235, P = 0.0001) and HAM-A (r = 0.241, P = 0.046); (2) age at onset and concentrations of noradrenaline (r = -0.502, P = 0.024); (3) duration of illness and scores of BDI-II (r = 0.247, P = 0.041), Y-BOCS (r = 0.270, P = 0.025) and neurotic personality trait (r = -0.284, P = 0.018); and (4) doses of antiepileptic drugs and scores of psychotic personality traits (r = -0.495, P = 0.006 for carbamazepine; r = -0.508, P = 0.0001 for valproate). CONCLUSION: This is the first study which systematically estimated the prevalence and risks of suicidality in a homogenous group of patients with epilepsy. This study emphasizes the importance of epilepsy itself as a risk for suicidality and not its treatment. PMID

  2. Rasch Measurement in the Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adult Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Luis; Roset, Montse; Badia, Xavier

    2001-01-01

    Tested the metric properties of a Spanish version of the Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (AGHDA) questionnaire through Rasch analysis with a sample of 356 adult patients in Spain. Results suggest that the Spanish AGHDA could be a useful complement of the clinical evaluation of growth hormone deficiency patients at group and…

  3. Warming up Improves Speech Production in Patients with Adult Onset Myotonic Dystrophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Swart, B.J.M.; van Engelen, B.G.M.; Maassen, B.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study whether warming up decreases myotonia (muscle stiffness) during speech production or causes adverse effects due to fatigue or exhaustion caused by intensive speech activity in patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy. Thirty patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy (MD) and ten healthy controls…

  4. Thermodynamics of Sc-H and Sc-D Systems: Experimental and Theoretical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiao-qiu; Tang, Tao; Ao, Bing-yun; Luo, De-li; Sang, Ge; Zhu, Hong-zhi

    2013-04-01

    The pressure composition isotherms ( p- c-T) of Sc-H and Sc-D systems have been experimentally measured using the PVT method in the same work. The enthalpies and entropies are extracted from van't Hoff plots and compared with the literature values. The results show that the enthalpy and entropy for hydrogen absorption are in good agreement with the data reported by Manchester et al. (J Phase Equilib 18(2):194-205, 1997), while those for deuterium absorption are in variance with the data reported by Wu et al. (J Fusion Energ, 2012). First principles calculations further prove that the thermodynamic data of Sc-D system reported by us are more reasonable.

  5. Antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis in adult and child patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fouzan, Afnan F.; Al-Shinaiber, Rafif M.; Al-Baijan, Refal S.; Al-Balawi, Mohammed M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate dentists’ knowledge regarding the prevention of infective endocarditis in Saudi Arabia and their implementation of the 2007 American Heart Association guidelines. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, in March 2014, 801 dentists who practice in different regions of Saudi Arabia completed a questionnaire regarding the need for antibiotic prophylaxis for specific cardiac conditions and specific dental procedures, prophylaxis regimens in adults and children, and recommendations for patients on chronic antibiotics, and in dental emergencies. The data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and independent t-tests, and a p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The total knowledge level regarding antibiotic prophylaxis among all participants was 52.2%, with a significant difference between dentists who graduated before and after 2007. Comparing the level of knowledge among different dental specialists, surgeons and periodontists had the highest level of knowledge regarding the use of antibiotic prophylaxis. Amoxicillin was prescribed as the drug of choice by 63.9% of the participants. Conclusion: This study emphasized the need for continuous education and for formal inclusion of the guidelines in the students’ curriculum, as well as for strategic placement of the guidelines in locations throughout dental clinics. PMID:25935175

  6. Cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia in SCD1-deficient mice fed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Matthew T; Groen, Albert K; Oler, Angie Tebon; Keller, Mark P; Choi, Younjeong; Schueler, Kathryn L; Richards, Oliver C; Lan, Hong; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kuipers, Folkert; Kendziorski, Christina M; Ntambi, James M; Attie, Alan D

    2006-12-01

    Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1-deficient (SCD1(-/-)) mice have impaired MUFA synthesis. When maintained on a very low-fat (VLF) diet, SCD1(-/-) mice developed severe hypercholesterolemia, characterized by an increase in apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins and the appearance of lipoprotein X. The rate of LDL clearance was decreased in VLF SCD1(-/-) mice relative to VLF SCD1(+/+) mice, indicating that reduced apoB-containing lipoprotein clearance contributed to the hypercholesterolemia. Additionally, HDL-cholesterol was dramatically reduced in these mice. The presence of increased plasma bile acids, bilirubin, and aminotransferases in the VLF SCD1(-/-) mice is indicative of cholestasis. Supplementation of the VLF diet with MUFA- and PUFA-rich canola oil, but not saturated fat-rich hydrogenated coconut oil, prevented these plasma phenotypes. However, dietary oleate was not as effective as canola oil in reducing LDL-cholesterol, signifying a role for dietary PUFA deficiency in the development of this phenotype. These results indicate that the lack of SCD1 results in an increased requirement for dietary unsaturated fat to compensate for impaired MUFA synthesis and to prevent hypercholesterolemia and hepatic dysfunction. Therefore, endogenous MUFA synthesis is essential during dietary unsaturated fat insufficiency and influences the dietary requirement of PUFA.

  7. Unique spatiotemporal activation pattern of Cdc42 by Gef1 and Scd1 promotes different events during cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bin; Hercyk, Brian S; Mattson, Nicholas; Mohammadi, Ahmad; Rich, Julie; DeBruyne, Erica; Clark, Mikayla M; Das, Maitreyi

    2016-04-15

    The Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 regulates cell polarity and localizes to the cell division site. Cdc42 is activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). We report that Cdc42 promotes cytokinesis via a unique spatiotemporal activation pattern due to the distinct action of its GEFs, Gef1 and Scd1, in fission yeast. Before cytokinetic ring constriction, Cdc42 activation, is Gef1 dependent, and after ring constriction, it is Scd1 dependent. Gef1 localizes to the actomyosin ring immediately after ring assembly and promotes timely onset of ring constriction. Gef1 is required for proper actin organization during cytokinesis, distribution of type V myosin Myo52 to the division site, and timely recruitment of septum protein Bgs1. In contrast, Scd1 localizes to the broader region of ingressing membrane during cytokinetic furrowing. Scd1 promotes normal septum formation, andscd1Δcells display aberrant septa with reduced Bgs1 localization. Thus we define unique roles of the GEFs Gef1 and Scd1 in the regulation of distinct events during cytokinesis. Gef1 localizes first to the cytokinetic ring and promotes timely constriction, whereas Scd1 localizes later to the ingressing membrane and promotes septum formation. Our findings are consistent with reports that complexity in GTPase signaling patterns enables exquisite precision over the control of cellular processes. PMID:26941334

  8. Occupational Outcome in Adult ADHD: Impact of Symptom Profile, Comorbid Psychiatric Problems, and Treatment--A Cross-Sectional Study of 414 Clinically Diagnosed Adult ADHD Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halmoy, Anne; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Gillberg, Christopher; Haavik, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment on occupational outcome in adult ADHD patients. Method: Adult ADHD patients (N = 414) responded to questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, comorbid conditions, treatment history, and work status. Results: Of the patients, 24%…

  9. Vitamin D, d-dimer, Interferon γ, and sCD14 Levels are Independently Associated with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: A Prospective, International Study☆

    PubMed Central

    Musselwhite, Laura W.; Andrade, Bruno B.; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Tierney, Ann; Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Pablo F.; Rupert, Adam; Lederman, Michael M.; Sanne, Ian; Sierra Madero, Juan G.; Sereti, Irini

    2016-01-01

    To determine the immunological profile most important for IRIS prediction, we evaluated 20 baseline plasma biomarkers in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled ART initiation trial in South Africa and Mexico to test whether maraviroc could prevent IRIS. Participants were classified prospectively as having IRIS within 6 months of ART initiation. Twenty plasma biomarkers were measured at study enrollment for 267 participants. Biomarkers were tested for predicting IRIS with adjustment for covariates chosen through forward stepwise selection. Sixty-two participants developed IRIS and of these 19 were tuberculosis (TB)-IRIS. Baseline levels of vitamin D and higher d-dimer, interferon gamma (IFNγ), and sCD14 were independently associated with risk of IRIS in multivariate analyses. TB-IRIS cases exhibited a distinct biosignature from IRIS related to other pathogens, with increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), sCD14, IFNγ, and lower levels of Hb that could be captured by a composite risk score. Elevated markers of Type 1 T helper (Th1) response, monocyte activation, coagulation and low vitamin D were independently associated with IRIS risk. Interventions that decrease immune activation and increase vitamin D levels warrant further study. PMID:26981576

  10. Histopathological Characteristics of Distal Middle Cerebral Artery in Adult and Pediatric Patients with Moyamoya Disease

    PubMed Central

    TAKAGI, Yasushi; HERMANTO, Yulius; TAKAHASHI, Jun C; FUNAKI, Takeshi; KIKUCHI, Takayuki; MINEHARU, Yohei; YOSHIDA, Kazumichi; MIYAMOTO, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a unique progressive steno-occlusive disease of the distal ends of bilateral internal arteries and their proximal branches. The difference in clinical symptoms between adult and children MMD patients has been well recognized. In this study, we sought to investigate the phenomenon through histopathological study. Fifty-one patients underwent surgical procedures for treatment of standard indications of MMD at Kyoto University Hospital. Fifty-nine specimens of MCA were obtained from MMD patients during the surgical procedures. Five MCA samples were also obtained in the same way from control patients. The samples were analyzed by histopathological methods. In this study, MCA specimens from MMD patients had significantly thinner media and thicker intima than control specimens. In subsequent analysis, adult (≥ 20 years) patients had thicker intima of MCA compared to pediatric (< 20 years) patients. There is no difference in internal elastic lamina pathology between adult and pediatric patients. Our results indicated that the pathological feature of MMD in tunica media occurs in both adult and pediatric patients. However, the MMD feature in tunica intima of MCA is more prominent in adult patients. Further analysis from MCA specimens and other researches are necessary to elucidate the pathophysiology of MMD. PMID:27087193

  11. Adjuvant Therapies and Patient and Tumor Characteristics Associated With Survival of Adult Patients With Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Sabolch, Aaron; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Hammer, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignant endocrine neoplasia. Studies regarding outcome and prognostic factors rely on fairly small studies. Here we summarize the experience with patients with a diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma from a large tertiary referral center. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify prognostic factors in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma and evaluate adjuvant treatment strategies. Design: Patient data were collected in a retrospective single-center study. Epidemiological, patient, and tumor characteristics were analyzed for prognostic factors regarding overall and recurrence-free survival in Cox regression models (multivariable and univariable). Results: Three hundred ninety-one adult patients with the diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma were identified. Median overall survival was 35.2 months. Cortisol production [hazard ratio (HR) 1.4, HR 1.5], tumor stage (HR stage 3 of 2.1 and 2.1, HR stage 4 of 4.8), and tumor grade (HR 2.4 and 2.0) were identified as negative prognostic factors (HR for death, HR for recurrence). Mitotane therapy increases recurrence-free survival, an effect that was significantly further improved by adjuvant radiation therapy but did not impact overall survival. Patients with open adrenalectomy had improved overall survival. Conclusions: This study increases the evidence for adverse risk factors (cortisol production, high tumor stage, and high tumor grade) and suggests the following therapy approach: adrenocortical carcinoma patients should be treated with open adrenalectomy. Adjuvant therapy, particularly mitotane therapy in conjunction with radiation, should be considered to delay tumor recurrence. PMID:24302750

  12. Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM): A Quick Reading Test for Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peggy W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes a reading recognition test called Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) that is designed to identify low literacy levels in patients. Notes that information thus obtained is useful in directing patient-physician communications and in promoting patient understanding of commonly used oral and written medical information. (SR)

  13. Reduced Capacity in a Dichotic Memory Test for Adult Patients with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dige, Niels; Maahr, Eija; Backenroth-Ohsako, Gunnel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether a dichotic memory test would reveal deficits in short-term working-memory recall and long-term memory recall in a group of adult patients with ADHD. Methods: A dichotic memory test with ipsilateral backward speech distraction in an adult ADHD group (n = 69) and a control group (n = 66) is used to compare performance…

  14. Comparing illness presentation, treatment and functioning between patients with adolescent- and adult-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Hui, Christy Lai-Ming; Li, Adrienne Wing-Yee; Leung, Chung-Ming; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry Kit-Wa; Lee, Edwin Ho-Ming; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai

    2014-12-30

    Studies have shown that early- and adult-onset schizophrenia patients differ in pre-morbid traits, illness presentation, psychopathology, and prognosis. We aimed to compare adult-onset patients (age range 26-55 years) with an adolescent-onset cohort (15-25 years) in demographics, illness presentation and functioning at baseline. Participants were from two territory-wide early intervention services for adolescent-onset (n=671) and adult-onset psychosis patients (n=360) in Hong Kong. The adolescent-onset cohort had their initial psychotic episode from 2001-2003; retrospective data collection was done through systematic case note review. The adult-onset cohort was recruited for a larger interventional study from 2009-2011; information was collected via face-to-face interviews. Adult-onset psychosis was significantly associated with more females, more smokers, more non-local birth, more full-time employment, better functioning, poorer medication adherence, more psychiatric hospitalization and fewer with schizophrenia than adolescent-onset psychosis (mean age: 20.4). The effect sizes were small, except for medication adherence where a robust effect was found. No group difference in DUP was found. The finding that adult-onset patients had better functioning challenges the view that adolescent- and adult-onset psychoses share a similar prognostic trajectory. Implications for adapting intervention processes for adolescent- and adult-onset psychosis are discussed.

  15. Symptoms and socio-economic impact of ependymoma on adult patients: results of the Adult Ependymoma Outcomes Project 2.

    PubMed

    Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-01-01

    Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site.

  16. Symptoms and socio-economic impact of ependymoma on adult patients: results of the Adult Ependymoma Outcomes Project 2.

    PubMed

    Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-01-01

    Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site. PMID:25359395

  17. Motivation of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment: an application of Q-methodology

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xia; Cai, Jiaxin; Lin, Beibei; Yao, Linjie; Lin, Feiou

    2015-01-01

    Background Motivation is the impetus for patients to seek orthodontic treatment, affecting adherence, treatment outcomes, and satisfaction. The aim of this study was to assess the motivation of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment, and classify the patients according to their motivations. Methods This study used Q-methodology as the main tool. Q-samples were collected and categorized (35 items). Forty-two adult female patients were interviewed before treatment as the P-sample, and their responses were categorized into the Q-methodology grid. Participants were asked to rank-order a set of 35 statements (Q-sample) from “agree most” to “disagree most” (Q-sorting). The finished Q-grids were analyzed using PQ method 2.35. Results Four main factors were identified based on how adult female patients ranked statements: factor 1, patients who focus on their self-perception of their appearance; factor 2, patients who are concerned about the esthetics and function of their teeth; factor 3, patients who are easily influenced by others; factor 4, patients who want to improve their confidence and avoid negative thoughts caused by their teeth. The remaining patients who had other views did not match any of the above four groups. Conclusion The motivations of adult female patients seeking orthodontic treatment are complex. This study found that most adult female patients fell into one of four typical factor groups. Our findings may improve the adherence of adult female patients by developing a more ideal treatment program. PMID:25709410

  18. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of scd1 gene from large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Zhang, Dong Ling; Yu, Da Hui; Lv, Chang Huan; Luo, Hui Yu; Wang, Zhi Yong

    2015-08-15

    Desaturation of fatty acids is an important adaptation mechanism to maintain membrane fluidity under cold stress. To comprehend the mechanism of adaptation to low temperatures in fish, we investigated stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) endocrine expression in the process of cold acclimation from 15°C to 7°C in Larimichthys crocea. The cDNA and genomic sequences of scd1 were cloned and characterized and named as Lcscd1. The cDNA encoded an iron-containing protein of 337 amino acids with functional motifs. The full-length genome sequence of Lcscd1 was composed of 2556 nucleotides, including five exons and four introns. Tissue expression profiles by qPCR and western blot analysis revealed that Lcscd1 was highly expressed in the liver, followed by the brain. The expression of Lcscd1 mRNA in the liver was firstly down-regulated from 15°C to 11°C, and then up-regulated until the first day of 7°C, followed by a decline until the last day. In the brain, the expression showed no significant change from 15°C to 9°C, but then significantly increased until the last day of 7°C. SCD1 protein expression in the liver decreased from 15°C to the first day of 7°C, and then gradually recovered to the starting level. In the brain, SCD1 protein expression maintained rising trends in the whole process. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis showed that SCD1 was localized in fat granules, mitochondria and granular endoplasmic reticulum of hepatic cells, but only in mitochondria of encephalic cells. The results above suggested that SCD1 expression was responsive to both cold and starvation stresses in the liver, but only to cold stress in the brain. In conclusion, these findings suggested that SCD1 may be involved in fish adaptation to cold stress.

  19. Optimizing Management of Patients with Adult T Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Yared, Jean A.; Kimball, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    Adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma is a rare disease with a high mortality rate, and is challenging for the clinician. Early allogeneic stem cell transplant can confer durable remission. As novel therapeutic agents become available to treat T cell malignancies, it is increasingly important that medical oncologists, hematologists, and hematopathologists recognize and accurately diagnose adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma. There is no uniform standard of treatment of adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma, and clinical trials remain critical to improving outcomes. Here we present one management approach based on the recent advances in treatment for adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma patients. PMID:26610571

  20. Therapeutic hemoglobin levels after gene transfer in β-thalassemia mice and in hematopoietic cells of β-thalassemia and sickle cells disease patients.

    PubMed

    Breda, Laura; Casu, Carla; Gardenghi, Sara; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Cartegni, Luca; Narla, Mohandas; Yazdanbakhsh, Karina; Musso, Marco; Manwani, Deepa; Little, Jane; Gardner, Lawrence B; Kleinert, Dorothy A; Prus, Eugenia; Fibach, Eitan; Grady, Robert W; Giardina, Patricia J; Gambari, Roberto; Rivella, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate the feasibility of treating β-thalassemia and Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) by lentiviral-mediated transfer of the human β-globin gene. However, previous studies have not addressed whether the ability of lentiviral vectors to increase hemoglobin synthesis might vary in different patients.We generated lentiviral vectors carrying the human β-globin gene with and without an ankyrin insulator and compared their ability to induce hemoglobin synthesis in vitro and in thalassemic mice. We found that insertion of an ankyrin insulator leads to higher, potentially therapeutic levels of human β-globin through a novel mechanism that links the rate of transcription of the transgenic β-globin mRNA during erythroid differentiation with polysomal binding and efficient translation, as reported here for the first time. We also established a preclinical assay to test the ability of this novel vector to synthesize adult hemoglobin in erythroid precursors and in CD34(+) cells isolated from patients affected by β-thalassemia and SCD. Among the thalassemic patients, we identified a subset of specimens in which hemoglobin production can be achieved using fewer copies of the vector integrated than in others. In SCD specimens the treatment with AnkT9W ameliorates erythropoiesis by increasing adult hemoglobin (Hb A) and concurrently reducing the sickling tetramer (Hb S).Our results suggest two major findings. First, we discovered that for the purpose of expressing the β-globin gene the ankyrin element is particularly suitable. Second, our analysis of a large group of specimens from β-thalassemic and SCD patients indicates that clinical trials could benefit from a simple test to predict the relationship between the number of vector copies integrated and the total amount of hemoglobin produced in the erythroid cells of prospective patients. This approach would provide vital information to select the best candidates for these clinical trials

  1. Use of Patient Portals: Personal Health Information Management in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anne; Osterhage, Katie; Joe, Jonathan; Hartzler, Andrea; Lin, Lorelei; Demiris, George

    2015-01-01

    The personal health information management (PHIM) of older adults is poorly understood. We describe initial results from the SOARING (Studying Older Adults & Researching Information Needs and Goals) study at the University of Washington, a participatory design investigation of PHIM in older adults. We conducted in-depth interviews with older adults (n=71) living in a variety of residential settings. A surprising 21% of participants reported using patient portals. Another 17% of participants reported prior use or anticipated use of portals in the future. We identified preferences and needs as well as barriers and facilitators to portal use. Our findings indicate that patient portals designed to target the specific needs for older adults can suport PHIM. We offer recommendations for expanded research. PMID:26262280

  2. Screening for coeliac disease in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: myths, facts and controversy.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Sjoerd F; Tushuizen, Maarten E; von Blomberg, Boudewina M E; Bontkes, Hetty J; Mulder, Chris J; Simsek, Suat

    2016-01-01

    This review aims at summarizing the present knowledge on the clinical consequences of concomitant coeliac disease (CD) in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The cause of the increased prevalence of CD in T1DM patients is a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Current screening guidelines for CD in adult T1DM patients are not uniform. Based on the current evidence of effects of CD on bone mineral density, diabetic complications, quality of life, morbidity and mortality in patients with T1DM, we advise periodic screening for CD in adult T1DM patients to prevent delay in CD diagnosis and subsequent CD and/or T1DM related complications. PMID:27478507

  3. Rules for improving pharmacotherapy in older adult patients: part 2 (rules 6-10).

    PubMed

    Wooten, James M

    2015-03-01

    The population of older adult patients in the United States is growing each year. Appropriate pharmacotherapy has allowed many older patients to live longer and maintain healthy lives. Unfortunately, the inappropriate utilization of medications can be harmful to older adult patients. Inappropriate pharmacotherapy may lead to overusing medications and polypharmacy. Polypharmacy can contribute to a higher incidence of adverse effects, increase the risk of dangerous drug interactions, cause noncompliance with appropriate medication use, and significantly increase the cost of health care. The polypharmacy issue with geriatric patients has been described as an epidemic and this issue must be addressed. This review provides objective rules that may help prevent polypharmacy. Consideration of these rules when prescribing, dispensing, and caring for older adult patients will improve the overall pharmacotherapy regimens instituted by healthcare providers. PMID:25772047

  4. Low Literacy Levels in Adults: Implications for Patient Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Evelyn

    1999-01-01

    Health-education materials often require reading levels higher than that of many patients. Nurses need awareness of the prevalence of low literacy and the ability to assess reading levels so they can develop appropriate patient-education materials. (SK)

  5. Season of birth is associated with adult body mass index in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Soreca, Isabella; Cheng, Yu; Frank, Ellen; Fagiolini, Andrea; Kupfer, David J

    2013-05-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors, such as abdominal obesity and obesity in general, are very prevalent among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Although long-term use of psychotropic medications is an important determinant of these risk factors, other evidence suggests that early development may interact with the mood disorder diathesis to exponentially increase the risk of obesity. The goal of our study was to test whether season of birth is associated with adult body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity in individuals with bipolar disorder. We compared season of birth effects on BMI in 375 adult patients with bipolar disorder and 196 adult patients with unipolar major depression. We found a significant season of birth effect on BMI in patients with bipolar disorder, but not unipolar. In patients with bipolar disorder, season of birth was also associated with waist circumference, with a stronger effect in males. Season of birth affects adult BMI and waist circumference in patients with bipolar disorder, but not in patients with unipolar depression. Our results suggest that early environmental factors, yet to be identified, interact with specific neurobiological features of bipolar disorder to determine stable traits and disease risk factors in adult life. PMID:23445513

  6. Serum sCD26 for colorectal cancer screening in family-risk individuals: comparison with faecal immunochemical test

    PubMed Central

    Otero-Estévez, O; De Chiara, L; Rodríguez-Berrocal, F J; de la Cadena, M Páez; Cubiella, J; Castro, I; Gonzalez-Mao, C; Hernandez, V; Martínez-Zorzano, V S

    2015-01-01

    Background: The development of specific screening programs for individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) is a priority. This study evaluates the diagnostic performance of serum soluble CD26 (sCD26) in family-risk individuals and compares this marker with the faecal immunochemical test for the detection of advanced neoplasia (AN) (CRC or advanced adenomas; AA). Methods: Five hundred and sixteen asymptomatic individuals with at least one first-degree relative with CRC were included. Serum sCD26 was measured in all the individuals who also underwent a colonoscopy (53 AA and four cancer cases were found) and a faecal immunochemical test. Results: Setting specificity to 90% and 95%, respectively, sCD26 showed a sensitivity of 39.6% and 28.3% for AA, and of 42.1% and 28.1% for AN. The combination of sCD26 and the faecal test detected AA and AN with a 52.8% and 56.1% sensitivity, corresponding to 93.5% specificity. Conclusions: The combination of serum sCD26 and the faecal blood test could result a valuable strategy for detecting AN in familial-risk CRC screening. PMID:25461801

  7. Nutrition in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Hebuterne, Xavier; Filippi, Jerome; Schneider, Stephane M

    2014-01-01

    Seventy five percent of hospitalized patients with Crohn's disease suffer from malnutrition. One third of Crohn's disease patients have a body mass index below 20. Sixty percent of Crohn's disease patients have sarcopenia. However some inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are obese or suffer from sarcopenic-obesity. IBD patients have many vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, which can lead to important consequences such as hyperhomocysteinemia, which is associated with a higher risk of thromboembolic disease. Nutritional deficiencies in IBD patients are the result of insufficient intake, malabsorption and protein-losing enteropathy as well as metabolic disturbances directly induced by the chronic disease and its treatments, in particular corticosteroids. Screening for nutritional deficiencies in chronic disease patients is warranted. Managing the deficiencies involves simple nutritional guidelines, vitamin supplements, and nutritional support in the worst cases. PMID:25266810

  8. Epilepsy in Adults with Supratentorial Glioblastoma: Incidence and Influence Factors and Prophylaxis in 184 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shuli; Zhang, Junchen; Zhang, Shaohui; Fu, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Aim To analyze the incidence of epilepsy in adult patients with supratentorial glioblastoma, assess the factors influencing the development of epilepsy in these cases, and evaluate patients’ response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a series of 184 patients. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the 184 adult patients diagnosed with supratentorial glioblastoma. All subjects were treated within our hospital and subsequently died between 2003 and 2013. The incidence of epilepsy was assessed before and after initial resection and reexamined every 2 months thereafter. We evaluated the efficacy of prophylactic AEDs in this patient population based on the gathered incidence data. Results Of 184 patients, 43 (23.37%) were diagnosed with epilepsy before their initial resection. The total incidence of epilepsy (both pre- and postoperative) was 68.48%. The prevalence of active epilepsy reached over 80% in patients with epilepsy and survival of greater than 13 months postoperatively. Patients with glioblastoma in the frontal and/or temporal lobes had a higher prevalence of epilepsy. In the 43 patients with preoperative epilepsy, total resection of glioblastoma resulted in significantly lower seizure frequency. Patients who received epilepsy prophylaxis with AEDs for at least 6 months had significantly fewer seizures and higher Karnofsky scores than those receiving AEDs for less than one month or not at all. Conclusion The incidence of epilepsy in adult patients with glioblastoma was high and responded poorly to AEDs in the short term. However, when taken for longer periods, AEDs can reduce the frequency of seizures in patients with glioblastoma. PMID:27438472

  9. VERTEBRAL OSTEOMYELITIS IN ADULT PATIENTS--CHARACTERISTICS AND OUTCOME.

    PubMed

    Mustapić, Matej; Višković, Klaudija; Borić, Igor; Marjan, Domagoj; Zadravec, Dijana; Begovac, Josip

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess disease characteristics and outcome in patients with vertebral osteomyelitis (VO). A two medical centre retrospective cohort study was performed by chart review after discharge of 110 patients with confirmed VO treated during a 5-year period. Patients were divided in two groups: patients with uncomplicated VO and patients with complicated VO. All patients underwent clinical and biological examinations and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) according to the same protocol. Patients with complicated VO were significantly older (p = 0.038). They were longer treated with antibiotics parenterally (p = 0.047) and more often surgically (p < 0.001). In these patients, high Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score was more often observed (p = 0.024), as well as liver cirrhosis (p = 0.013) and degenerative spine disease (p = 0.007) as comorbidities. Patients with advanced MRI changes of VO had a modified CCI score of 2 or more (p = 0.006). They more often experienced neurological deficit (p = 0.021). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated bacterium from blood and tissue samples. Advanced MRI changes and complicated VO were more often observed in patients with high CCI score due to impaired immune system caused by chronic comorbid disease(s) or modulation of immunity with medications. High CCI scores were more frequently associated with positive blood cultures due to bacteremia because of impaired immunity. Patients with complicated VO were longer treated with antibiotics parenterally and more often surgically treated for phlegmon and abscess formation. Liver cirrhosis and degenerative spine disease, which were more often found in patients with complicated VO, obviously impacted the course of the disease. PMID:27333712

  10. Effects of neurofeedback on adult patients with psychiatric disorders in a naturalistic setting.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Eun-Jin; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Seo, Wan-Seok; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Joong-Hyeon; Song, Shin-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Few well-controlled studies have considered neurofeedback treatment in adult psychiatric patients. In this regard, the present study investigates the characteristics and effects of neurofeedback on adult psychiatric patients in a naturalistic setting. A total of 77 adult patients with psychiatric disorders participated in this study. Demographic data and neurofeedback states were retrospectively analyzed, and the effects of neurofeedback were evaluated using clinical global impression (CGI) and subjective self-rating scales. Depressive disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (19; 24.7 %), followed by anxiety disorders (18; 23.4 %). A total of 69 patients (89.6 %) took medicine, and the average frequency of neurofeedback was 17.39 ± 16.64. Neurofeedback was applied to a total of 39 patients (50.6 %) more than 10 times, and 48 patients (62.3 %) received both β/SMR and α/θ training. The discontinuation rate was 33.8 % (26 patients). There was significant difference between pretreatment and posttreatment CGI scores (<.001), and the self-rating scale also showed significant differences in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and inattention (<.001). This is a naturalistic study in a clinical setting, and has several limitations, including the absence of a control group and a heterogenous sample. Despite these limitations, the study demonstrates the potential of neurofeedback as an effective complimentary treatment for adult patients with psychiatric disorders.

  11. Operative and nonoperative treatment options for ACL tears in the adult patient: a conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Matava, Matthew J

    2013-11-01

    Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is common among athletic individuals. Both nonoperative and operative treatment options exist. The optimal treatment of an adult with an ACL tear depends on several patient-specific factors, including age, occupation, and desired activity level. In less active patients with sedentary jobs, nonoperative management, consisting of physical therapy, bracing, and activity modification can yield successful results. In active patients who want to resume participation in jumping, cutting, or pivoting sports, patients who have physically demanding occupations, or patients who fail a trial of nonoperative management, ACL reconstruction is recommended. Reconstruction utilizing autograft tissue is preferred over allograft, especially in the younger athlete, but allograft tissue is a reasonable option in the older (aged > 40 years) and less active adult, as well. Successful results have been achieved with both patellar tendon and hamstring grafts. The optimal treatment in adult patients with ACL tears should be based on careful consideration of the patient's goals for return to activity, knee-specific comorbidities, such as coexistent meniscal pathology or osteoarthritis, and his or her willingness to follow a detailed rehabilitation regimen. Our article provides an overview of current nonoperative and operative treatment options for adults with ACL tears, considers the outcomes of both nonoperative and operative strategies, and provides general recommendations as to the ideal management for a given patient. PMID:24231595

  12. Borderline typical symptoms in adult patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Feige, Bernd; Hesslinger, Bernd; Scheel, Corinna; Ebert, Dieter; Matthies, Swantje; Limberger, Matthias F; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Bohus, Martin; Lieb, Klaus

    2009-05-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) share several clinical features, e.g. emotional lability and impulsivity. This study aimed to delineate differences and similarities between ADHD and BPD with respect to borderline typical symptomatology and gender specifics. Borderline symptomatology was assessed in 60 adult patients with ADHD with the borderline symptom list (BSL) and compared to both 60 gender- and age-matched BPD patients and control subjects. The BSL is a standardized instrument including 95 items on 7 subscales (self-perception, affect regulation, self-destruction, dysphoria, loneliness, intrusions and hostility). Adult ADHD patients showed significantly higher BSL total scores and all of the seven subscales compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001) but lower scores than BPD patients (p < 0.001). With respect to the seven subscales, the largest differences between ADHD and BPD patients were found with respect to self-destruction (d = 1.12) and affect dysregulation (d = 0.90), whereas the smallest difference was found with respect to loneliness (d = 0.36). In females, the BSL subscales "loneliness" and "hostility" did not differentiate between BPD and ADHD. Borderline typical symptoms are common in adult patients with ADHD but seem to be less pronounced than in patients with BPD. Females with ADHD and BPD share more clinical features than males. However, symptoms of self-destruction and affect dysregulation appear to be more severe in BPD patients.

  13. Effects of neurofeedback on adult patients with psychiatric disorders in a naturalistic setting.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Eun-Jin; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Seo, Wan-Seok; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Joong-Hyeon; Song, Shin-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Few well-controlled studies have considered neurofeedback treatment in adult psychiatric patients. In this regard, the present study investigates the characteristics and effects of neurofeedback on adult psychiatric patients in a naturalistic setting. A total of 77 adult patients with psychiatric disorders participated in this study. Demographic data and neurofeedback states were retrospectively analyzed, and the effects of neurofeedback were evaluated using clinical global impression (CGI) and subjective self-rating scales. Depressive disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (19; 24.7 %), followed by anxiety disorders (18; 23.4 %). A total of 69 patients (89.6 %) took medicine, and the average frequency of neurofeedback was 17.39 ± 16.64. Neurofeedback was applied to a total of 39 patients (50.6 %) more than 10 times, and 48 patients (62.3 %) received both β/SMR and α/θ training. The discontinuation rate was 33.8 % (26 patients). There was significant difference between pretreatment and posttreatment CGI scores (<.001), and the self-rating scale also showed significant differences in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and inattention (<.001). This is a naturalistic study in a clinical setting, and has several limitations, including the absence of a control group and a heterogenous sample. Despite these limitations, the study demonstrates the potential of neurofeedback as an effective complimentary treatment for adult patients with psychiatric disorders. PMID:25740085

  14. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma in paediatric and young adult patients.

    PubMed

    Turner, Suzanne D; Lamant, Laurence; Kenner, Lukas; Brugières, Laurence

    2016-05-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a heterogeneous disease of debateable origin that, in children, is largely anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive with aberrant ALK activity induced following the formation of chromosomal translocations. Whilst the survival rates for this disease are relatively high, a significant proportion (20-40%) of patients suffer disease relapse, in some cases on multiple occasions and therefore suffer the toxic side-effects of combination chemotherapy. Traditionally, patients are treated with a combination of agents although recent data from relapse patients have suggested that low risk patients might benefit from single agent vinblastine and, going forward, the addition of ALK inhibitors to the therapeutic regimen may have beneficial consequences. There are also a plethora of other drugs that might be advantageous to patients with ALCL and many of these have been identified through laboratory research although the decision as to which drugs to implement in trials will not be trivial. PMID:26913827

  15. Mesenteric calcified cystic lymphangioma in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Yavuz; Albayrak, Fatih; Arslan, Serdar; Calik, Ilknur

    2011-06-01

    Abdominal cystic lymphangiomas are rare congenital benign malformations of the lymphatic system. To the best of our knowledge, only 6 mesenteric calcified cystic lymphangiomas have ever been reported. We herein describe a woman who presented to our hospital with stomachache that had been continuous for approximately 8 months. An abdominal computed tomography showed a cystic lesion. In the exploration, the cyst was totally excised. Based on the histomorphological data, a case of "calcified cystic lymphangioma" was diagnosed. Although mesenteric lymphangiomas are rare, especially in adults, they should be considered as a possible cause of abdominal pain. Treatment is surgical with resection of the mass, sometimes including resection of adjacent bowel.

  16. Sabril® registry 5-year results: Characteristics of adult patients treated with vigabatrin.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Gregory; Faught, Edward; Foroozan, Rod; Pellock, John M; Sergott, Robert C; Shields, W Donald; Ziemann, Adam; Dribinsky, Yekaterina; Lee, Deborah; Torri, Sarah; Othman, Feisal; Isojarvi, Jouko

    2016-03-01

    Vigabatrin (Sabril®), approved in the US in 2009, is currently indicated as adjunctive therapy for refractory complex partial seizures (rCPS) in patients ≥ 10 years old who have responded inadequately to several alternative treatments and as monotherapy for infantile spasms (IS) in patients 1 month to 2 years of age. Because of reports of vision loss following vigabatrin exposure, FDA approval required a risk evaluation mitigation strategy (REMS) program. Vigabatrin is only available in the US through Support, Help, And Resources for Epilepsy (SHARE), which includes a mandated registry. This article describes 5 years of demographic and treatment exposure data from adult patients (≥ 17 years old) in the US treated with vigabatrin and monitored in the ongoing Sabril® registry. Registry participation is mandatory for all US Sabril® prescribers and patients. A benefit-risk assessment must be documented by the physician for a patient to progress to maintenance therapy, defined as 1 month of vigabatrin treatment for patients with IS and 3 months for patients with rCPS. Ophthalmologic assessments must be documented during and after completion of therapy. As of August 26, 2014, a total of 6823 patients were enrolled in the registry, of which 1200 were adults at enrollment. Of these patients, 1031 (86%) were naïve to vigabatrin. The majority of adult patients (n=783, 65%) had previously been prescribed ≥ 4 AEDs, and 719 (60%) were receiving ≥ 3 concomitant AEDs at vigabatrin initiation. Prescribers submitted an initial ophthalmological assessment form for 863 patients; an ophthalmologic exam was not completed for 300 (35%) patients and thus, were considered exempted from vision testing. Of these patients, 128 (43%) were exempted for neurologic disabilities. Clinicians discontinued treatment in 8 patients because of visual field deficits (VFD) (5 patients naïve to vigabatrin and 3 patients previously exposed). Based on Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, it is

  17. Optimizing Survival Outcomes For Adult Patients With Nontraumatic Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Jung, Julianna

    2016-10-01

    Patient survival after cardiac arrest can be improved significantly with prompt and effective resuscitative care. This systematic review analyzes the basic life support factors that improve survival outcome, including chest compression technique and rapid defibrillation of shockable rhythms. For patients who are successfully resuscitated, comprehensive postresuscitation care is essential. Targeted temperature management is recommended for all patients who remain comatose, in addition to careful monitoring of oxygenation, hemodynamics, and cardiac rhythm. Management of cardiac arrest in circumstances such as pregnancy, pulmonary embolism, opioid overdose and other toxicologic causes, hypothermia, and coronary ischemia are also reviewed.

  18. Treating the older adult dental patient: what are the issues of concern?

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Roseann; Vanderlinde, Michele Alexis

    2009-11-01

    Just as aging successfully requires a multifaceted approach that includes full engagement in life, maintenance of high physical and cognitive function, and avoidance of disease and related disability, so does the care of adult patients. This geriatric treatment model suggests that understanding the psychosocial, behavioral, and medical presentation of the older patient may prove to be the key to the ultimate success of the dental/oral treatment arrived at collaboratively by the dentist and the older patient.

  19. New developments in SCD's 17-μm VOx μ-bolometer product line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrahi, U.; Bikov, L.; Giladi, A.; Shiloah, N.; Elkind, S.; Czyzewski, T.; Kogan, I.; Maayani, S.; Amsterdam, A.; Vaserman, I.; Hirsh, Y.; Fraenkel, A.

    2010-04-01

    Last year we have introduced the development program of SCD's 17μm pitch VGA VOx μ-Bolometer detector (1). Due to the overall size, weight and power advantages the 17μm pitch is currently being considered for the next generation systems such as thermal weapon sights (TWS), driver vision enhancers (DVE) and digitally fused goggles (DENVG). In the first part of this paper we will discuss in detail the performance of this detector. Specifically, we will elaborate on the radiometric results, ROIC performance and operability. Detailed measurements for a wide temperature range will be presented as well. In the second part, we will describe some new capabilities and features that are enabled by the advanced 0.18um VLSI technology. These features will be embedded in new products that are currently under development.

  20. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  1. Caring for adult patients who require nasogastric feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Kristine

    Nasogastric tubes provide a safe means of delivering nutrition support to many patients in hospital and the community. Insertion and care of these tubes will be familiar to many nurses. Evidence has shown that misplaced tubes, either on insertion or during use, can cause serious harm or even death to patients. This article explores the safety challenges posed during the insertion and maintenance of nasogastric tubes. Guidance and evidence should provide nurses with the knowledge, skills and reassurance to manage these tubes safely.

  2. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  3. Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Ho; Maratovich, Mussin Nadiar; Lee, Kyoung-Bun

    2016-01-01

    Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) is rare primary hepatic sarcoma and is known to occur in pediatric patients. This case is the UESL occurred in a 51-year old male patient. Multilocular cystic lesion was composed of primitive spindle cells without specific differentiation. This rare case would help to review differential diagnosis of primary sarcoma in liver and cystic neoplasm of the liver. PMID:27377912

  4. Acoustic Characteristics of Ataxic Speech in Japanese Patients with Spinocerebellar Degeneration (SCD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikui, Yukiko; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Koyano, Shigeru; Hirose, Hajime; Taguchi, Takahide

    2012-01-01

    Background: In English- and German-speaking countries, ataxic speech is often described as showing scanning based on acoustic impressions. Although the term "scanning" is generally considered to represent abnormal speech features including prosodic excess or insufficiency, any precise acoustic analysis of ataxic speech has not been performed in…

  5. Large B-cell lymphomas in adolescents and young adults in comparison to adult patients: a matched-control analysis in 55 patients.

    PubMed

    Coso, Diane; Garciaz, Sylvain; Esterni, Benjamin; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Ivanov, Vadim; Aurran-Schleinitz, Thérèse; Schiano, Jean-Marc; Stoppa, Anne-Marie; Chetaille, Bruno; Blaise, Didier; Vey, Norbert; Bouabdallah, Réda

    2014-08-01

    The aim of our study was to assess whether large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) in adolescents and young adults (AYA) should be considered as a clinocopathological entity, and to evaluate the prognostic value of age. Fifty-five patients aged > 15-30 years were fully matched to 365 adult patients aged 31-65 years. We found a high incidence of primary mediastinal thymic LBCL subtype (33% vs. 5%), while histological transformation was rare (2% vs. 14%). LBCL in AYA presented with a bulky mediastinal mass (51% vs. 21%), and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) value was significantly higher (73% vs. 54%). The complete response rate to chemotherapy was similar in the two groups. Five-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) of AYA were 73% and 68%, respectively. The matched-control analysis showed no difference for either OS or EFS. LBCL in AYA presents with some critical features which differ from those of older adults. However, the outcome is equivalent to that observed in older patients.

  6. Adherence to pressure garment therapy in adult burn patients.

    PubMed

    Ripper, S; Renneberg, B; Landmann, C; Weigel, G; Germann, G

    2009-08-01

    Pressure garment therapy (PGT) is a generally accepted procedure to prevent hypertrophic scarring after severe burns. Wearing pressure garments is uncomfortable and challenging for the patient and, consequently adherence is low. In order to improve adherence, precise knowledge about the advantages and disadvantages of PGT is necessary. In this study we investigated specific aspects which inhibit or reinforce the application of PGT on the patients' part. Twenty-one patients participated in a semi-structured interview concerning their experiences with PGT. The complaints most frequently mentioned were 'physical and functional limitations' caused by the garments, 'additional effort' created by the need to care for garments and 'perceived deficiencies' of the treatment. At the same time, most of the patients reported coping strategies used to persevere with the therapy. Coping can be categorised into 'behavioural' and 'cognitive coping strategies'. Besides the 'expectation of success', 'emotional' as well as 'practical support' and experiencing 'good outcome' were motivating factors for the patients. Based on the analyses of limitations and resources, recommendations for future interventions enhancing adherence are outlined.

  7. Percutaneous Endovascular Treatment of Hepatic Artery Stenosis in Adult and Pediatric Patients After Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Maruzzelli, Luigi; Miraglia, Roberto Caruso, Settimo; Milazzo, Mariapina; Mamone, Giuseppe; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Spada, Marco; Luca, Angelo; Gridelli, Bruno

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous endovascular techniques for the treatment of hepatic artery stenosis (HAS) occurring after liver transplantation (LT) in adult and pediatrics patients. From February 2003 to March 2009, 25 patients (15 adults and 10 children) whose developed HAS after LT were referred to our interventional radiology unit. Technical success was achieved in 96% (24 of 25) of patients. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed in 13 patients (7 children), and stenting was performed in 11 patients (2 children). After the procedure, all patients were followed-up with liver function tests, Doppler ultrasound, and/or computed tomography. Mean follow-up was 15.8 months (range 5 days to 58 months). Acute hepatic artery thrombosis occurred immediately after stent deployment in 2 patients and was successfully treated with local thrombolysis. One patient developed severe HA spasm, which reverted after 24 h. After the procedure, mean trans-stenotic pressure gradient decreased from 30.5 to 6.2 mmHg. Kaplan-Meyer curve of HA primary patency was 77% at 1 and 2 years. During the follow-up period, 5 patients (20%) had recurrent stenosis, and 2 patients (8.3%) had late thrombosis. Two of 7 patients with stenosis/thrombosis underwent surgical revascularization (n = 1) and liver retransplantation (n = 1). Six (25%) patients died during follow-up, but overall mortality was not significantly different when comparing patients having patent hepatic arteries with those having recurrent stenosis/thrombosis. There were no significant differences in recurrent stenosis/thrombosis and mortality comparing patients treated by PTA versus stenting and comparing adult versus pediatric status. Percutaneous interventional treatment of HAS in LT recipients is safe and effective and decreases the need for surgical revascularization and liver retransplantation. However, the beneficial effects for survival are not clear, probably because

  8. Kidney transplantation in an adult patient with VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Cimen, Sertac; Nantais, Jordan; Guler, Sanem; Lawen, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb birth defects (VACTERL) association is a rare, non-random constellation of congenital abnormalities among which urinary tract anomalies can be included. In the presence of these anomalies, patients are suspected to have a higher rate of renal failure than average. We report a case of a 22-year-old woman with VACTERL association and consequent end stage renal failure. A live-related kidney transplant was carried out successfully and the postoperative course was uncomplicated. The patient had immediate graft function. Risk factors that may complicate kidney transplant surgery in this patient population as well as considerations relevant to peritransplant management are discussed. PMID:26106170

  9. [Background factors in the detection of drug-resistant bacteria in adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis].

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Michio

    2014-02-01

    In the treatment of adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis, it has been assumed that subjects over 65 years of age or living with children attending a day nursery, are at higher risk for infection with drug-resistant bacteria. However there are few reports which have discussed the relationship between those risk factors and adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis. I investigated the association between adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis living with children attending a day nursery and gender, ages, and frequency of detection of drug-resistant bacteria. From 2010 to 2012, a total of 598 adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis were enrolled. The majority of the study subjects were women, and the largest 10-year age group was 30-39 years. By sex, a greater proportion of the female subjects than the male subjects lived with children attending a day nursery. By age, the proportion of subjects who lived with children attending a day nursery was significantly higher in the 30-39-year age group than other age groups. Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and ampicillin (ABPC)-resistant Haemophilus influenzae were detected at significantly higher rates in subjects with children attending a day nursery than in those without. There were no significant difference in drug-resistant bacteria detection between subjects over 65 years of age, and under 65 years. These findings suggested that living with children attending a day nursery is a risk factor and source of infection by drug-resistant organisms that may cause intra-familial infections of adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis. These results suggested we must ask adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis whether they are living with children attending a day nursery or not, when we plan their treatment strategy.

  10. Adult patients' adjustability to orthodontic appliances. Part I: a comparison between Labial, Lingual, and Invisalign™.

    PubMed

    Shalish, Miri; Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Ivgi, Inbal; Canetti, Laura; Tsur, Boaz; Bachar, Eytan; Chaushu, Stella

    2012-12-01

    This prospective study examined the adult patient's perception of recovery after insertion of three types of orthodontic appliances: Buccal, Lingual and Invisalign. The sample consisted of sixty-eight adult patients (45 females and 23 males) who comprised three groups: 28 Buccal, 19 Lingual, and 21 Invisalign patients. After appliance insertion, patients completed a Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire daily for the first week and again on day 14, in order to assess patients' perception of pain and analgesic consumption. In addition, four areas of dysfunction were assessed: oral dysfunction, eating disturbances, general activity parameters, and oral symptoms. Lingual appliance was associated with more severe pain and analgesic consumption, the greatest oral and general dysfunction, and the most difficult and longest recovery. The Invisalign patients complained of relatively high levels of pain in the first days after insertion; however this group was characterized by the lowest level of oral symptoms and by a similar level of general activity disturbances and oral dysfunction compared to the Buccal appliance. Many Lingual and some Buccal patients did not reach a full recovery from their eating difficulties by the end of the study period. The present study provides information to adult patients and clinicians assisting them in choosing the most appropriate treatment modality in relation to Health-Related Quality of Life parameters.

  11. A snapshot of the adult spina bifida patient – high incidence of urologic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joceline S.; Greiman, Alyssa; Casey, Jessica T.; Mukherjee, Shubhra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To describe the urologic outcomes of contemporary adult spina bifida patients managed in a multidisciplinary clinic. Material and methods A retrospective chart review of patients seen in our adult spina bifida clinic from January 2004 to November 2011 was performed to identify urologic management, urologic surgeries, and co-morbidities. Results 225 patients were identified (57.8% female, 42.2% male). Current median age was 30 years (IQR 27, 36) with a median age at first visit of 25 years (IQR 22, 30). The majority (70.7%) utilized clean intermittent catheterization, and 111 patients (49.3%) were prescribed anticholinergic medications. 65.8% had urodynamics performed at least once, and 56% obtained appropriate upper tract imaging at least every other year while under our care. 101 patients (44.9%) underwent at least one urologic surgical procedure during their lifetime, with a total of 191 procedures being performed, of which stone procedures (n = 51, 26.7%) were the most common. Other common procedures included continence procedures (n = 35, 18.3%) and augmentation cystoplasty (n = 29, 15.2%). Only 3.6% had a documented diagnosis of chronic kidney disease and 0.9% with end-stage renal disease. Conclusions Most adult spina bifida patient continue on anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. A large percentage of patients required urologic procedures in adulthood. Patients should be encouraged to utilize conservative and effective bladder management strategies to reduce their risk of renal compromise. PMID:27123330

  12. Underdiagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Patients: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Javier; Anand, Ernie; Casillas, Marta; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To raise awareness of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as an underdiagnosed, undertreated, often comorbid, and debilitating condition in adults. Data Sources: PubMed was searched using combinations of keywords, including ADHD, adult, diagnosis, identify, prevalence, and comorbid, to find articles published between 1976 and 2013. Study Selection: In total, 99 articles were selected for inclusion on the basis of their relevance to the objective and importance to and representation of ADHD research, including international guidelines for adults with ADHD. Results: In a large proportion of children with ADHD, symptoms persist into adulthood. However, although adults with ADHD often experience chaotic lifestyles, with impaired educational and vocational achievement and higher risks of substance abuse and imprisonment, many remain undiagnosed and/or untreated. ADHD is usually accompanied by other psychiatric comorbidities (such as major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and alcohol abuse). Indeed, adults with ADHD are more likely to present to a psychiatric clinic for treatment of their comorbid disorders than for ADHD, and their ADHD symptoms are often mistaken for those of their comorbidities. Untreated ADHD in adults with psychiatric comorbidities leads to poor clinical and functional outcomes for the patient even if comorbidities are treated. Effective treatment of adults’ ADHD improves symptoms, emotional lability, and patient functioning, often leading to favorable outcomes (eg, safer driving, reduced criminality). A few medications have now been approved for use in adults with ADHD, while a multimodal approach involving psychotherapy has also shown promising results. Conclusions General psychiatrists should familiarize themselves with the symptoms of ADHD in adults in order to diagnose and manage ADHD and comorbidities appropriately in these patients. PMID:25317367

  13. Similarities and differences between pediatric and adult patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Tarr, T; Dérfalvi, B; Győri, N; Szántó, A; Siminszky, Z; Malik, A; Szabó, A J; Szegedi, G; Zeher, M

    2015-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease with highest prevalence among women of childbearing age. However, children younger than 16 years also can develop SLE (childhood-onset lupus/juvenile-type SLE). The aim of our study was to compare the clinical course of adult and pediatric-onset SLE. Data from 342 adult patients followed at the University of Debrecen, Hungary, and 79 children documented in the Hungarian National Pediatric SLE registry were analyzed using hospital medical records. Organ manifestations, laboratory parameters, and immunoserological characteristics were reviewed and the results were evaluated using SPSS for Windows software.Gender distribution was not significantly different between groups with disease starting in childhood vs adulthood. The prevalence of the following manifestations was significantly higher for pediatric than for adult-onset disease including: lupus nephritis (43% pediatric vs 26.4% for adult-onset), hematological disorders (57% vs 36.4%), photosensitivity (20% vs 9%), butterfly rash (61% vs 35.5%) and mucosal ulceration (11.4% vs 4%). For adult-onset SLE, neurological symptoms (30% vs 6%) and polyarthritis (86% vs 68%) occurred significantly more frequently than in children. Anti-SSA, anti-SSB and antiphospholipid antibodies were detected at significantly higher levels in adult-onset patients compared to those in pediatrics. Children were more commonly given high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin treatment (6.3% vs 0.6%) and mycophenolate mofetil (15.2% vs 5.3%) than adults.These results suggest that pediatric and adult-onset SLE differ in multiple aspects, and it is important to recognize these differences for optimal treatment and prognosis of these patients.

  14. Orthotopic Heart Transplantation in an Adult Patient with Heterotaxy Syndrome: Surgical Implications.

    PubMed

    González-López, María-Teresa; Pérez-Caballero-Martínez, Ramón; Amoros-Rivera, Carlos; Zamorano-Serrano, José; Pita-Fernández, Ana-María; Gil-Jaurena, Juan-Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Modified techniques for orthotopic heart transplantation are mandatory when complex congenital anomalies are associated in adult patients. An unusual case of a heterotaxy syndrome and dilated cardiomyopathy following mitral ring annuloplasty is presented in a 62-year-old male. Orthotopic cardiac transplantation was performed by using a modified operative strategy: selective peripheral and central venous cannulation according to the thoraco-abdominal venous challenges, biatrial technique, and preservation of venous drainage via the native coronary sinus. We discuss the anatomical features of heterotaxy in adult patients and surgical approaches when heart transplantation is needed. PMID:26450654

  15. Severe metabolic acidosis in adult patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Lo Cascio, Christian M; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Kohler, Malcolm; Fehr, Thomas; Bloch, Konrad E

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to progressive paresis, respiratory failure and premature death. Long-term positive pressure ventilation can improve quality of life and survival, but previously unrecognized complications may arise. We analyzed the characteristics of severe metabolic acidosis occurring in 8 of 55 DMD patients, of 20-36 years of age, observed over a 5-year period. All patients were on positive pressure ventilation and were being treated for chronic constipation. Before admission, they had had a reduced intake of fluids and food. Upon examination, they were severely ill, dyspneic and suffering from abdominal discomfort. Metabolic acidosis with a high anion gap was noted in 5 of the 8 patients and with a normal anion gap in the other 3. They all recovered after the administration of fluids and nutrition, the regulation of bowel movements and treatment with antibiotics, as appropriate. Metabolic acidosis is a life-threatening, potentially preventable complication in older DMD patients. Early recognition, subsequent administration of fluids, nutrition and antibiotics and regulation of bowel movements seem to be essential.

  16. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status, Race, and Mortality in Young Adult Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Estrella, Michelle M.; Crews, Deidra C.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Ephraim, Patti L.; Cook, Courtney; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2014-01-01

    Young blacks receiving dialysis have an increased risk of death compared with whites in the United States. Factors influencing this disparity among the young adult dialysis population have not been well explored. Our study examined the relation of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and racial differences in mortality in United States young adults receiving dialysis. We merged US Renal Data System patient-level data from 11,027 black and white patients ages 18–30 years old initiating dialysis between 2006 and 2009 with US Census data to obtain neighborhood poverty information for each patient. We defined low SES neighborhoods as those neighborhoods in US Census zip codes with ≥20% of residents living below the federal poverty level and quantified race differences in mortality risk by level of neighborhood SES. Among patients residing in low SES neighborhoods, blacks had greater mortality than whites after adjusting for baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, rurality, and access to care factors. This difference in mortality between blacks and whites was significantly attenuated in higher SES neighborhoods. In the United States, survival between young adult blacks and whites receiving dialysis differs by neighborhood SES. Additional studies are needed to identify modifiable factors contributing to the greater mortality among young adult black dialysis patients residing in low SES neighborhoods. PMID:24925723

  17. Neighborhood socioeconomic status, race, and mortality in young adult dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Johns, Tanya S; Estrella, Michelle M; Crews, Deidra C; Appel, Lawrence J; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Ephraim, Patti L; Cook, Courtney; Boulware, L Ebony

    2014-11-01

    Young blacks receiving dialysis have an increased risk of death compared with whites in the United States. Factors influencing this disparity among the young adult dialysis population have not been well explored. Our study examined the relation of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and racial differences in mortality in United States young adults receiving dialysis. We merged US Renal Data System patient-level data from 11,027 black and white patients ages 18-30 years old initiating dialysis between 2006 and 2009 with US Census data to obtain neighborhood poverty information for each patient. We defined low SES neighborhoods as those neighborhoods in U.S. Census zip codes with ≥20% of residents living below the federal poverty level and quantified race differences in mortality risk by level of neighborhood SES. Among patients residing in low SES neighborhoods, blacks had greater mortality than whites after adjusting for baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, rurality, and access to care factors. This difference in mortality between blacks and whites was significantly attenuated in higher SES neighborhoods. In the United States, survival between young adult blacks and whites receiving dialysis differs by neighborhood SES. Additional studies are needed to identify modifiable factors contributing to the greater mortality among young adult black dialysis patients residing in low SES neighborhoods.

  18. Comparison of human growth hormone products' cost in pediatric and adult patients. A budgetary impact model.

    PubMed

    Bazalo, Gary R; Joshi, Ashish V; Germak, John

    2007-09-01

    We assessed the economic impact to the United States payer of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) utilization, comparing the relative dosage efficiency of marketed pen-based and vial-based products in a pediatric and in an adult population. A budgetary impact model calculated drug costs based on product waste and cost. Waste was the difference between prescribed dose, based on patient weight, and actual delivered dose, based on dosing increments and maximum deliverable dose for pens and a fixed-percent waste as derived from the literature for vials. Annual wholesale acquisition costs were calculated based upon total milligrams delivered, using a daily dose of 0.03 mg/kg for pediatric patients and 0.016 mg/kg for adults. Total annual drug costs were compared for two scenarios: 1) a product mix based on national market share and 2) restricting use to the product with lowest waste. Based on the literature, waste for each vial product was 23 percent. Among individual pens, waste was highest for Humatrope 24 mg (19.5 percent pediatric, 14.3 percent adult) and lowest for Norditropin Nordi-Flex 5 mg (1.1 percent pediatric, 1 percent adult). Restricting use to the brand with least waste (Norditropin), compared to national product share mix, resulted in a 10.2 percent reduction in annual pediatric patient cost from $19,026 to $17,089 and an 8 percent reduction in annual adult patient cost from $24,099 to $22,161. We concluded that pen delivery systems result in less waste than vial and syringe. Considering all approved delivery systems, Norditropin resulted in the least product waste and lower annual patient cost for both pediatric and adult populations.

  19. Use of caries preventive agents on adult patients compared to pediatric patients by general practitioners: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Williams, O. Dale; Ritchie, Lloyd K.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that caries prevention reduces caries in adults. This study tested the frequency of recommended caries prevention agents for children compared to adult patients. Methods This study surveyed 467 Dental Practice-Based Research Network general dentists who practice within the United States and treat both pediatric and adult patients. Dentists were asked the percentage of their patients who are administered or recommended dental sealants, in-office and at-home fluoride, chlorhexidine rinse, and xylitol gum. Results Adults were less likely to receive in-office caries preventive agents compared to pediatric patients. However, the rate of recommendation for at-home preventive regimens was very similar. Dentists with a conservative approach to caries treatment were the most likely to use caries prevention at similar rates in adults as in children. In addition, practices with a greater number of patients with dental insurance were significantly less likely to provide in-office fluoride or sealants to adult patients than to their pediatric patients. Conclusion In-office caries prevention agents are more commonly used by general dentists for their pediatric patients compared to their adult patients. Practice Implications Some general dentists should consider providing additional in-office prevention agents for their adult patients who are at increased risk for dental caries. PMID:20516100

  20. Vaccination recommendations for adult patients with rheumatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tanrıöver, Mine Durusu; Akar, Servet; Türkçapar, Nuran; Karadağ, Ömer; Ertenli, İhsan; Kiraz, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases in any age group can be successfully prevented through immunization. Protection provided through immunization in childhood decreases over the years. Immunization in adulthood is important because of the growing elderly population, chronic diseases, and globalization. Recommendations on this subject are being constantly updated through scientific guidelines. Immunization in adulthood is also important in rheumatology. There is an increased risk not only of infection in rheumatic diseases but also of infections being more severe. Most infections, and their frequently observed complications, are among those diseases that can be prevented through immunization. The type of immunization, immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory therapy received by the patient, disease activity, and presence of chronic diseases affect the immunization process in patients with rheumatic diseases. This review will consider the immunization process followed in rheumatic diseases and also refer to its application.

  1. Tools for risk stratification of sudden cardiac death: A review of the literature in different patient populations

    PubMed Central

    Ragupathi, Loheetha; Pavri, Behzad B.

    2014-01-01

    While various modalities to determine risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) have been reported in clinical studies, currently reduced left ventricular ejection fraction remains the cornerstone of SCD risk stratification. However, the absolute burden of SCD is greatest amongst populations without known cardiac disease. In this review, we summarize the evidence behind current guidelines for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) use for the prevention of SCD in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). We also evaluate the evidence for risk stratification tools beyond clinical guidelines in the general population, patients with IHD, and patients with other known or suspected medical conditions. PMID:24568833

  2. Adolescent and young adult patients with cancer: a milieu of unique features.

    PubMed

    Sender, Leonard; Zabokrtsky, Keri B

    2015-08-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer are a unique category of patients who, depending on age at time of diagnosis, might receive treatment from oncologists specializing either in the treatment of children or adults. In the USA, AYA oncology generally encompasses patients 15-39 years of age. AYA patients with cancer typically present with diseases that span the spectrum from 'paediatric' cancers (such as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia [ALL] and brain tumours) to 'adult' tumours (such as breast cancer and melanoma), as well as cancers that are largely unique to their age group (such as testicular cancer and bone tumours). Research indicates that outcomes of AYA patients with cancer are influenced not only by the treatment provided, but also by factors related to 'host' biology. In addition to the potential biological and cancer-specific differences between AYAs and other patients with cancer, AYA patients also often have disparate access to clinical trials and suffer from a lack of age-appropriate psychosocial support services and health services, which might influence survival as well as overall quality of life. In this Review, these issues are discussed, with a focus on two types of AYA cancer--ALL and melanoma--highlighting findings arising from the use of emerging technologies, such as whole-genome sequencing. PMID:26011488

  3. Sudden cardiac death in adults with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries

    PubMed Central

    McCombe, A; Touma, F; Jackson, D; Canniffe, C; Choudhary, P; Pressley, L; Tanous, D; Robinson, Peter J; Celermajer, D

    2016-01-01

    Background Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) is a rare congenital heart disease. There have been only few reports of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with ccTGA and reasonable ventricular function. Methods A retrospective review of the medical records of all patients attending our adult congenital heart centre, with known ccTGA. Results From a database of over 3500 adult patients with congenital heart disease, we identified 39 (∼1%) with ccTGA and ‘two-ventricle’ circulations. 65% were male. The mean age at diagnosis was 12.4±11.4 years and the mean age at last time of review was 34.3±11.3 years. 24 patients (56%) had a history of surgical intervention. 8 (19%) had had pacemaker implantation and 2 had had a defibrillator implanted for non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT). In 544 years of patient follow-up, there had been five cases of SCD in our population; 1 death per 109 patient-years. Two of these patients had had previously documented supraventricular or NSVT. However, they were all classified as New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I or II, and systemic (right) ventricular function had been recorded as normal, mildly or mildly–moderately impaired, at most recent follow-up. Conclusions Our experience suggests the need for improved risk stratification and/or surveillance for malignant arrhythmia in adults with ccTGA, even in those with reasonable functional class on ventricular function. PMID:27493760

  4. Loss of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Nicole; de Roon, Margot; van Campen, Jos P C M; Kremer, Stefanie; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status was assessed using the mini nutritional assessment-short form. The Sniffin' Sticks was used to measure olfactory function. Eleven percentage of the vital older adults were at risk of malnutrition, whereas 60% of the geriatric participants were malnourished or at risk. Only 2% of the vital older adults were anosmic, compared with 46% of the geriatric participants. Linear regression demonstrated a significant association (P = 0.015) between olfactory function and nutritional status in the geriatric subjects. However, this association became insignificant after adjustment for confounders. Both crude and adjusted analysis in the vital older adults did not show a significant association. The results indicate that, in both groups of elderly, there is no direct relation between olfactory function and nutritional status. We suggest that a decline in olfactory function may still be considered as one of the risk-factors for malnutrition in geriatric patients-once co-occurring with other mental and/or physical problems that are more likely to occur in those patients experience.

  5. Upper and Lower Urinary Tract Outcomes in Adult Myelomeningocele Patients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Veenboer, Paul W.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud; van Asbeck, Floris W. A.; de Kort, Laetitia M. O.

    2012-01-01

    Background The introduction of sophisticated treatment of bladder dysfunction and hydrocephalus allows the majority of SB patients to survive into adulthood. However, no systematic review on urological outcome in adult SB patients is available and no follow-up schemes exist. Objectives To systematically summarize the evidence on outcome of urinary tract functioning in adult SB patients. Methods A literature search in PubMed and Embase databases was done. Only papers published in the last 25 years describing patients with open SB with a mean age >18 years were included. We focused on finding differences in the treatment strategies, e.g., clean intermittent catheterization and antimuscarinic drugs versus early urinary diversion, with regard to long-term renal and bladder outcomes. Results A total of 13 articles and 5 meeting abstracts on urinary tract status of adult SB patients were found describing a total of 1564 patients with a mean age of 26.1 years (range 3–74 years, with a few patients <18 years). All were retrospective cohort studies with relatively small and heterogeneous samples with inconsistent reporting of outcome; this precluded the pooling of data and meta-analysis. Total continence was achieved in 449/1192 (37.7%; range 8–85%) patients. Neurological level of the lesion and hydrocephalus were associated with incontinence. Renal function was studied in 1128 adult patients. In 290/1128 (25.7%; range 3–81.8%) patients some degree of renal damage was found and end-stage renal disease was seen in 12/958 (1.3%) patients. Detrusor-sphincter dyssynergy and detrusor-overactivity acted as adverse prognostic factors for the development of renal damage. Conclusions These findings should outline follow-up schedules for SB patients, which do not yet exist. Since renal and bladder deterioration continues beyond adolescence, follow-up of these individuals is needed. We recommend standardization in reporting the outcome of urinary tract function in adult SB

  6. Neuropsychological assessment of adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Müller, Bernhard W; Gimbel, Karla; Keller-Pliessnig, Anett; Sartory, Gudrun; Gastpar, Markus; Davids, Eugen

    2007-03-01

    Adults with persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may show cognitive deficits as compared to healthy control subjects. The aim of this study was to compare a sample of adult outpatients with ADHD on medication to healthy controls on a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment battery. Thirty adults with ADHD under stable psychopharmacological treatment and 27 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and IQ were assessed with ten tests measuring performance with regard to attention, memory, executive function, and fine motor control. Lower performance in patients as compared to controls was found in tests of verbal and visual memory, speed of visuo-motor search, set shifting, and divided attention. Indicators of response inhibition and simple response speed were less affected. Adults with ADHD show indicators of lowered cognitive performance under medication. These are related more to memory and attention under high mental load than to response inhibition or simple attention or motor performance.

  7. Childhood sexual and physical abuse in adult patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ogata, S N; Silk, K R; Goodrich, S; Lohr, N E; Westen, D; Hill, E M

    1990-08-01

    Experiences of abuse and neglect were assessed in 24 adults diagnosed as having borderline personality disorder according to the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients and in 18 depressed control subjects without borderline disorder. Significantly more of the borderline patients than depressed patients reported childhood sexual abuse, abuse by more than one person, and both sexual and physical abuse. There were no between-group differences for rates of neglect or physical abuse without sexual abuse. A stepwise logistic regression revealed that derealization, diagnostic group, and chronic dysphoria were the best predictors of childhood sexual abuse in this group of patients.

  8. Memory reorganization in adult brain: observations in three patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gleissner, Ulrike; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Elger, Christian Erich

    2002-02-01

    We present three patients with left-sided temporal lobe epilepsy who exhibited preoperatively a neuropsychological pattern characteristic for interhemispheric language transfer (marked nonverbal memory deficits, relatively preserved verbal memory and language performance). The Wada test indicated atypical language dominance in two patients, but one patient was clearly left hemispheric language dominant. All patients showed a marked recovery of nonverbal memory after left-sided surgery. Results are discussed with respect to memory transfer and plasticity for memory functions in the adult brain. PMID:11904242

  9. Sequential compression devices in postoperative urologic patients: an observational trial and survey study on the influence of patient and hospital factors on compliance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sequential compression devices (SCDs) are commonly used for thromboprophylaxis in postoperative patients but compliance is often poor. We investigated causes for noncompliance, examining both hospital and patient related factors. Methods 100 patients undergoing inpatient urologic surgery were enrolled. All patient had SCD sleeves placed preoperatively. Postoperative observations determined SCD compliance and reasons for non-compliance. Patient demographics, length of stay, inpatient unit type, and surgery type were recorded. At discharge, a patient survey gauged knowledge and attitudes regarding SCDs and bother with SCDs. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate SCD compliance with patient demographics; patient knowledge and attitudes regarding SCDs; and patient self-reported bother with SCDs. Results Observed overall compliance was 78.6%. The most commonly observed reasons for non-compliance were SCD machines not being initially available on the ward (71% of non-compliant observations on post-operative day 1) and SCD use not being restarted promptly after return to bed (50% of non-compliant observations for entire hospital stay). Mean self-reported bother scores related to SCDs were low, ranging from 1–3 out of 10 for all 12 categories of bother assessed. Patient demographics, knowledge, attitudes and bother with SCD devices were not significantly associated with non-compliance. Conclusions Patient self-reported bother with SCD devices was low. Hospital factors, including SCD machine availability and timely restarting of devices by nursing staff when a patient returns to bed, played a greater role in SCD non-compliance than patient factors. Identifying and addressing hospital related causes for poor SCD compliance may improve postoperative urologic patient safety. PMID:23578129

  10. Design Considerations for Patient Portal Adoption by Low-Income, Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Latulipe, Celine; Gatto, Amy; Nguyen, Ha T.; Miller, David P.; Quandt, Sara A.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Smith, Alden; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an interview study investigating facilitators and barriers to adoption of patient portals among low-income, older adults in rural and urban populations in the southeastern United States. We describe attitudes of this population of older adults and their current level of technology use and patient portal use. From qualitative analysis of 36 patient interviews and 16 caregiver interviews within these communities, we derive themes related to benefits of portals, barriers to use, concerns and desired features. Based on our initial findings, we present a set of considerations for designing the patient portal user experience, aimed at helping healthcare clinics to meet U.S. federally-mandated ‘meaningful use’ requirements. PMID:27077140

  11. Multidimensional Clinical Phenotyping of an Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patient Population

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Douglas J.; Bailey, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a multi-systemic disease resulting from mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) gene and has major manifestations in the sino-pulmonary, and gastro-intestinal tracts. Clinical phenotypes were generated using 26 common clinical variables to generate classes that overlapped quantiles of lung function and were based on multiple aspects of CF systemic disease. Methods The variables included age, gender, CFTR mutations, FEV1% predicted, FVC% predicted, height, weight, Brasfield chest xray score, pancreatic sufficiency status and clinical microbiology results. Complete datasets were compiled on 211 subjects. Phenotypes were identified using a proximity matrix generated by the unsupervised Random Forests algorithm and subsequent clustering by the Partitioning around Medoids (PAM) algorithm. The final phenotypic classes were then characterized and compared to a similar dataset obtained three years earlier. Findings Clinical phenotypes were identified using a clustering strategy that generated four and five phenotypes. Each strategy identified 1) a low lung health scores phenotype, 2) a younger, well-nourished, male-dominated class, 3) various high lung health score phenotypes that varied in terms of age, gender and nutritional status. This multidimensional clinical phenotyping strategy identified classes with expected microbiology results and low risk clinical phenotypes with pancreatic sufficiency. Interpretation This study demonstrated regional adult CF clinical phenotypes using non-parametric, continuous, ordinal and categorical data with a minimal amount of subjective data to identify clinically relevant phenotypes. These studies identified the relative stability of the phenotypes, demonstrated specific phenotypes consistent with published findings and identified others needing further study. PMID:25822311

  12. Home management of the adult patient with leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J E; Held, D M

    1982-12-01

    The many changes that have occurred within the medical profession and among the public are taking long-term care out of the hospital and placing it back into the home. Attitudes toward cancer have altered, as seen by the rapid growth of the oncology specialty as well as the willingness of the community to allow those with cancer to return to a viable status. Even the individual who must face end-stage disease can now rest comfortably in the privacy of his or her own home, surrounded by loved ones. Improved nutritional efforts during periods of active therapy are reducing the side effects and improving the tolerance of highly cytotoxic drugs. Thus, acute episodes of treatment are shortened, allowing for earlier discharge. Individuals are demanding accurate information regarding their disease and its treatment. Patients are catalysts for their own recovery as they become more active participants in their care. Some are even choosing not to undergo suggested therapies and are returning home to put their lives in order and let disease processes take their natural course, even until death. As for leukemia, more supportive measures such as blood component therapy and evaluative work-ups are being offered on an outpatient basis. Patients are learning self-care measures to counteract or minimize side effects to chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Thus, overwhelming infection is of less risk and hospitalization is shortened. Infection, especially from Staphylococcus aureus, still remains a major cause of death of patients with leukemia. However, one must consider how prevalent this organism is in the hospital environment. Home care management is improving; care can be as comprehensive as one might need or receive in the hospital setting. PMID:6924785

  13. Clinical Trials of Adult Stem Cell Therapy in Patients with Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Bang, Oh Young

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is considered a potential regenerative strategy for patients with neurologic deficits. Studies involving animal models of ischemic stroke have shown that stem cells transplanted into the brain can lead to functional improvement. With current advances in the understanding regarding the effects of introducing stem cells and their mechanisms of action, several clinical trials of stem cell therapy have been conducted in patients with stroke since 2005, including studies using mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow mononuclear cells, and neural stem/progenitor cells. In addition, several clinical trials of the use of adult stem cells to treat ischemic stroke are ongoing. This review presents the status of our understanding of adult stem cells and results from clinical trials, and introduces ongoing clinical studies of adult stem cell therapy in the field of stroke.

  14. Laterality of mental imagery generation and operation: tests with brain-damaged patients and normal adults.

    PubMed

    Hatta, T; Koike, M; Langman, P

    1994-08-01

    The relationships between hemispheric function and components of the imagery process were examined in patients with unilateral right and left brain damage and in intact adult subjects. In the image generation condition, subjects were required to mentally generate Katakana letters corresponding to Hiragana letters displayed on a CRT. The results for the intact adults suggested a left hemisphere superiority, but the unilaterally brain-damaged subjects showed no hemispheric difference in this task. In the imagery operation task (transformation or lateral translation), subjects were asked to find a genuine Kanji among distractors (pseudo-Kanji) that were constructed from two Kanji radicals (themselves real Kanji) that were either displayed in reverse order or shifted apart. The results for both intact adults and patients with unilateral brain damage suggest the superiority of the right hemisphere. PMID:7525640

  15. Complications and benefits of intrahospital transport of adult Intensive Care Unit patients

    PubMed Central

    Harish, M. M.; Janarthanan, S.; Siddiqui, Suhail Sarwar; Chaudhary, Harish K.; Prabu, Natesh R.; Divatia, Jigeeshu V.; Kulkarni, Atul Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The transport of critically ill patients for procedures or tests outside the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is potentially hazardous; hence, the transport process must be organized and efficient. Plenty of data is available on pre- and inter-hospital transport of patients; the data on intrahospital transport of patients are limited. We audited the complications and benefits of intrahospital transport of critically ill patients in our tertiary care center over 6 months. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty adult critically ill cancer patients transported from the ICU for either diagnostic or therapeutic procedure over 6 months were included. The data collected include the destination, the accompanying person, total time spent outside the ICU, and any adverse events and adverse change in vitals. Results: Among the 120 adult patients, 5 (4.1%) required endotracheal intubation, 5 (4.1%) required intercostal drain placement, and 20 (16.7%) required cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Dislodgement of central venous catheter occurred in 2 (1.6%) patients, drain came out in 3 (2.5%) patients, orogastric tube came out in 1 (0.8%) patient, 2 (1.6%) patients self-extubated, and in one patient, tracheostomy tube was dislodged. The adverse events were more in patients who spent more than 60 min outside the ICU, particularly requirement of CPR (18 [25%] vs. 2 [4.2%], ≤60 min vs. >60 min, respectively) with P < 0.05. Transport led to change in therapy in 32 (26.7%) patients. Conclusion: Transport in critically ill cancer patients is more hazardous and needs adequate pretransport preparations. Transport in spite being hazardous may lead to a beneficial change in therapy in a significant number of patients. PMID:27630455

  16. Are daily routine chest radiographs necessary after pulmonary surgery in adult patients?

    PubMed Central

    Reeb, Jeremie; Falcoz, Pierre-Emmanuel; Olland, Anne; Massard, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether daily routine (DR) chest radiographs (CXRs) are necessary after pulmonary surgery in adult patients. Of the 66 papers found using a report search, seven presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. Four of these seven studies specifically addressed post-cardiothoracic adult patients. Three of these seven studies addressed intensive care unit (ICU) patients and included post-cardiothoracic adult patients in well-designed studies. Six of these seven studies compared the DR CXRs strategy to the clinically indicated, on-demand (OD) CXRs strategy. Another study analysed the clinical impact of ceasing to perform the DR, postoperative, post-chest tubes removal CXRs. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, study type, group studied, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are given. We conclude that, on the whole, the seven studies are unanimously in favour of forgoing DR CXRs after lung resection and advocate OD CXRs. One study suggested that hypoxic patients could benefit from a DR CXRs strategy, while other studies failed to identify any subgroup for whom performing DR CXRs was beneficial. Indeed, DR CXRs, commonly taken after thoracic surgery, have poor diagnostic and therapeutic value. Eliminating them for adult patients having undergone thoracic surgery significantly decreases the number of CXRs per patient without increasing mortality rates, length of hospital stays (LOSs), readmission rates and adverse events. Hence, current evidence shows that DR CXRs could be forgone after lung resection because OD CXRs, recommended by clinical monitoring, have a better impact on management and have not been proved to negatively affect patient outcomes. Moreover, an OD CXRs strategy lowers the cost of care. Nevertheless, an OD CXRs strategy requires close clinical monitoring by experienced surgeons and dedicated intensivists. However

  17. Pharmacological interventions for ADHD: how do adolescent and adult patient beliefs and attitudes impact treatment adherence?

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Adherence to medication can be problematic for patients, especially so for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Effective medications are available for the treatment of ADHD; however, nonadherence rates for ADHD medication range from 13.2%–64%. The reasons for nonadherence can be complex. This review aims to look at how the beliefs and attitudes of adolescents and adults impact ADHD treatment adherence. PMID:25284990

  18. Site-specific gene correction of a point mutation in human iPS cells derived from an adult patient with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jizhong; Mali, Prashant; Huang, Xiaosong; Dowey, Sarah N; Cheng, Linzhao

    2011-10-27

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) bearing monogenic mutations have great potential for modeling disease phenotypes, screening candidate drugs, and cell replacement therapy provided the underlying disease-causing mutation can be corrected. Here, we report a homologous recombination-based approach to precisely correct the sickle cell disease (SCD) mutation in patient-derived iPSCs with 2 mutated β-globin alleles (β(s)/β(s)). Using a gene-targeting plasmid containing a loxP-flanked drug-resistant gene cassette to assist selection of rare targeted clones and zinc finger nucleases engineered to specifically stimulate homologous recombination at the β(s) locus, we achieved precise conversion of 1 mutated β(s) to the wild-type β(A) in SCD iPSCs. However, the resulting co-integration of the selection gene cassette into the first intron suppressed the corrected allele transcription. After Cre recombinase-mediated excision of this loxP-flanked selection gene cassette, we obtained "secondary" gene-corrected β(s)/β(A) heterozygous iPSCs that express at 25% to 40% level of the wild-type transcript when differentiated into erythrocytes. These data demonstrate that single nucleotide substitution in the human genome is feasible using human iPSCs. This study also provides a new strategy for gene therapy of monogenic diseases using patient-specific iPSCs, even if the underlying disease-causing mutation is not expressed in iPSCs.

  19. Cloning and expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) in the liver of the Sichuan white goose and landes goose responding to overfeeding.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-Xiong; Han, Chun-Chun; Wang, Ji-Wen; Li, Liang; Tang, Hui; Lv, Jia; Lu, Lizhi; Xu, Feng

    2011-06-01

    The EST sequence of goose (Anser cygnoides) Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1(SCD-1) was obtained from a subtractive cDNA library. To further investigate the role of SCD-1 in lipid metabolism in geese, 5'-RACE and 3'-RACE were carried out in this study to obtain the complete cDNA sequence of goose SCD-1, which contained a 29-bp 5' UTR, a 1074-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 357 amino acids, and a 125-bp 3' UTR. The expression of SCD-1 was measured in several tissues, and the effects of overfeeding on the expression of SCD-1 were studied. The results of real time RT-PCR demonstrated that, compared to the brain, goose SCD-1 mRNA was more abundant in the liver. Overfeeding markedly increased the mRNA expression of SCD-1 in the liver of Sichuan White and Landes geese, and gene expression was markedly higher in the Sichuan White goose than in the landes goose. The mRNA abundance of SCD-1 in the liver had significant positive correlations with triacylglycerol (TG) content in liver lipids and in the levels of plasma insulin and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) levels in Sichuan white geese. However, the mRNA abundance of SCD-1 in the livers of Landes geese had only significant positive correlations with the TG content in liver lipids. In conclusion, SCD-1 is not only critical for hepatic steatosis in geese but is also important for the difference in lipid deposition in the livers of the two breeds.

  20. Epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus: institutional experience with 2001 patients.

    PubMed

    Bir, Shyamal C; Patra, Devi Prasad; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Sun, Hai; Guthikonda, Bharat; Notarianni, Christina; Nanda, Anil

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Adult-onset hydrocephalus is not commonly discussed in the literature, especially regarding its demographic distribution. In contrast to pediatric hydrocephalus, which is related to a primary CSF pathway defect, its development in adults is often secondary to other pathologies. In this study, the authors investigated the epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus as it pertains to different etiologies and in reference to age, sex, and race distributions. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical notes of 2001 patients with adult-onset hydrocephalus who presented to Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center within a 25-year span. Significant differences between the groups were analyzed by a chi-square test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS The overall mean (± SEM) incidence of adult hydrocephalus in this population was 77 ± 30 per year, with a significant increase in incidence in the past decade (55 ± 3 [1990-2003] vs 102 ± 6 [2004-2015]; p < 0.0001). Hydrocephalus in a majority of the patients had a vascular etiology (45.5%) or was a result of a tumor (30.2%). The incidence of hydrocephalus in different age groups varied according to various pathologies. The incidence was significantly higher in males with normal-pressure hydrocephalus (p = 0.03) or head injury (p = 0.01) and higher in females with pseudotumor cerebri (p < 0.0001). In addition, the overall incidence of hydrocephalus was significantly higher in Caucasian patients (p = 0.0002) than in those of any other race. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge of the demographic variations in adult-onset hydrocephalus is helpful in achieving better risk stratification and better managing the disease in patients. For general applicability, these results should be validated in a large-scale meta-analysis based on a national population database.

  1. Epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus: institutional experience with 2001 patients.

    PubMed

    Bir, Shyamal C; Patra, Devi Prasad; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Sun, Hai; Guthikonda, Bharat; Notarianni, Christina; Nanda, Anil

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Adult-onset hydrocephalus is not commonly discussed in the literature, especially regarding its demographic distribution. In contrast to pediatric hydrocephalus, which is related to a primary CSF pathway defect, its development in adults is often secondary to other pathologies. In this study, the authors investigated the epidemiology of adult-onset hydrocephalus as it pertains to different etiologies and in reference to age, sex, and race distributions. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical notes of 2001 patients with adult-onset hydrocephalus who presented to Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center within a 25-year span. Significant differences between the groups were analyzed by a chi-square test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS The overall mean (± SEM) incidence of adult hydrocephalus in this population was 77 ± 30 per year, with a significant increase in incidence in the past decade (55 ± 3 [1990-2003] vs 102 ± 6 [2004-2015]; p < 0.0001). Hydrocephalus in a majority of the patients had a vascular etiology (45.5%) or was a result of a tumor (30.2%). The incidence of hydrocephalus in different age groups varied according to various pathologies. The incidence was significantly higher in males with normal-pressure hydrocephalus (p = 0.03) or head injury (p = 0.01) and higher in females with pseudotumor cerebri (p < 0.0001). In addition, the overall incidence of hydrocephalus was significantly higher in Caucasian patients (p = 0.0002) than in those of any other race. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge of the demographic variations in adult-onset hydrocephalus is helpful in achieving better risk stratification and better managing the disease in patients. For general applicability, these results should be validated in a large-scale meta-analysis based on a national population database. PMID:27581317

  2. Adults Living with Limited Literacy and Chronic Illness: Patient Education Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Judy; Taylor, Maurice C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Canadian adults living with limited literacy and chronic illness made meaning of their patient education experiences. The study used a hermeneutic phenomenological research design and employed three data sources over a nine-month period. Data was interpreted and analyzed as it was collected,…

  3. Successful treatment of ileocolic intussusception with air enema reduction in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Satoshi; Kanemura, Takashi; Yokouchi, Yukako; Kamiichi, Hideo; Kiriu, Nobuaki; Koike, Yuji

    2014-05-01

    Intussusception is a rare condition in adults, representing only 1% of all bowel obstructions. In adult cases, operative explorations are recommended to treat the bowel obstruction and to diagnose underlying diseases. The objective of the current case report was to describe the successful treatment of ileocolic intussusception with air enema reduction in an adult patient. A previously healthy 21-year-old woman had a 20-hour history of colicky abdominal pain and vomiting and was diagnosed as having idiopathic ileocolic intussusception by abdominal computed tomography. We treated the patient with air enema reduction under fluoroscopic guidance instead of an operative procedure. She received oxygen and intravenous midazolam to provide some degree of pain relief. Air was carefully pumped manually into the rectum, and the air pressure was monitored with a manometer. Because of air leakage from the rectum through the void to the outside the body, we continued to provide air to maintain the air pressure between 40 and 60 mm Hg. Three minutes after initiation of the air enema, when the patient experienced increasing abdominal pain and vomiting, the pressure was temporarily increased to greater than 100 mm Hg, and the air reached the terminal ileum. We considered the reduction successful and confirmed it with an abdominal ultrasound examination. We believe that air enema reduction is effective for treating idiopathic intussusception within 24 hours of symptom onset in young, previously healthy adult patients.

  4. Oral dexmedetomidine for preoperative sedation in an adult uncooperative autistic patient.

    PubMed

    Konia, Mojca Remskar

    2016-11-01

    We describe preoperative sedation with oral dexmedetomidine 5 mcg/kg in an uncooperative adult with autism and developmental delay. The sedation with oral dexmedetomidine achieved good sedation level (Ramsey 4-5), allowing for calm transfer of the patient to the operating room and uneventful induction of anesthesia. PMID:27687341

  5. The relationships among separation anxiety disorder, adult attachment style and agoraphobia in patients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Pini, Stefano; Abelli, Marianna; Troisi, Alfonso; Siracusano, Alberto; Cassano, Giovanni B; Shear, Katherine M; Baldwin, David

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that separation anxiety disorder occurs more frequently in adults than children. It is unclear whether the presence of adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) is a manifestation of anxious attachment, or a form of agoraphobia, or a specific condition with clinically significant consequences. We conducted a study to examine these questions. A sample of 141 adult outpatients with panic disorder participated in the study. Participants completed standardized measures of separation anxiety, attachment style, agoraphobia, panic disorder severity and quality of life. Patients with ASAD (49.5% of our sample) had greater panic symptom severity and more impairment in quality of life than those without separation anxiety. We found a greater rate of symptoms suggestive of anxious attachment among panic patients with ASAD compared to those without ASAD. However, the relationship between ASAD and attachment style is not strong, and adult ASAD occurs in some patients who report secure attachment style. Similarly, there is little evidence for the idea that separation anxiety disorder is a form of agoraphobia. Factor analysis shows clear differentiation of agoraphobic and separation anxiety symptoms. Our data corroborate the notion that ASAD is a distinct condition associated with impairment in quality of life and needs to be better recognized and treated in patients with panic disorder.

  6. Adult/Patient Nutrition Education Materials. January 1982-October 1989. Quick Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegrove, Natalie A.

    This publication contains abstracts of books, articles, and research studies on the subject of adult patient nutrition. The materials offer dietary guidelines for mature individuals with a variety of ailments. The citations in this bibliography were entered in the "Agricola" database between January, 1979 and October, 1989. (JD)

  7. An Examination of Intimate Partner Violence and Psychological Stressors in Adult Abortion Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Gretchen E.; Otis, Melanie D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe an exploratory study examining the relationship between intimate partner violence and psychological stressors in a sample of 188 adult abortion patients. Results indicate the almost 15% of respondents report a history of abuse by the coconceiving partner. In addition, women who reported having had one or…

  8. Lessons Learned While Providing Group Counseling for Adult Patients with Metastatic Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Jack A.; Cumbia, Gilbert G.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of lessons learned in dealing with unique problems encountered while providing group counseling for adult patients with metastatic cancer. Discusses problems, institutional policies, personal biases, and logistics associated with forming, establishing, maintaining, conducting and assessing the outcomes of group counseling with…

  9. Changes in Quality of Life in 7 Older Adult Patients Receiving Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique

    PubMed Central

    Russell, David G.; Kimura, Melissa N.; Cowie, Harriet R.; de Groot, Caroline M.M.; McMinn, Elise A.P.; Sherson, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series is to report on symptomatic and quality of life (QoL) changes in 7 older adult chiropractic patients who were receiving care using Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique (AMCT). Clinical Features Seven patients were selected from 2 chiropractic offices in Auckland, New Zealand. Patients were included if they were older adults receiving AMCT care and for whom at least 2 QoL assessments had been performed. The patients, aged 69-80 years, primarily received care for a variety of musculoskeletal complaints. Intervention and Outcomes The patients reported improvements in their presenting complaints as well as a number of nonmusculoskeletal symptoms. Each patient demonstrated clinical improvements in their RAND 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) results. The average improvement in QoL measured using a SF-36 questionnaire was 8.0 points in the physical component and 4.1 points in the mental component. Four cases had a second progress evaluation using the SF-36 and showed an overall improvement of 5.2 in the physical and 9.8 in the mental components from baseline. Conclusion This case series describes an improvement in QoL, as measured by the SF-36 instrument, as well as subjectively reported improvements in both musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal symptoms in 7 older adults receiving chiropractic care. PMID:27069434

  10. Best Practices in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Focus on Asparaginase

    PubMed Central

    Boissel, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of asparaginase in chemotherapy regimens to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has had a positive impact on survival in pediatric patients. Historically, asparaginase has been excluded from most treatment protocols for adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients because of perceived toxicity in this population, and this is believed to have contributed to poorer outcomes in these patients. However, retrospective analyses over the past 12 years have shown that 2-, 5-, and 7-year overall survival of AYA patients is significantly improved with pediatric versus adult protocols. The addition of asparaginase to adult protocols yielded high rates of first remission and improved survival. However, long-term survival remains lower compared with what has been seen in pediatrics. The notion that asparaginase is poorly tolerated by AYA patients has been challenged in multiple studies. In some, but not all, studies, the incidences of hepatic and pancreatic toxicities were higher in AYA patients, whereas the rates of hypersensitivity reactions did not appear to differ with age. There is an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events, and management with anti-coagulation therapy is recommended. Overall, the risk of therapy-related mortality is low. Together, this suggests that high-intensity pediatric protocols offer an effective and tolerable approach to treating ALL in the AYA population. PMID:26421220

  11. Interventions That Affect Gastrointestinal Motility in Hospitalized Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Asrani, Varsha M.; Yoon, Harry D.; Megill, Robin D.; Windsor, John A.; Petrov, Maxim S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility is a common complication in acute, critically ill, postoperative, and chronic patients that may lead to impaired nutrient delivery, poor clinical, and patient-reported outcomes. Several pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions to treat GI dysmotility were investigated in dozens of clinical studies. However, they often yielded conflicting results, at least in part, because various (nonstandardized) definitions of GI dysmotility were used and methodological quality of studies was poor. While a universally accepted definition of GI dysmotility is yet to be developed, a systematic analysis of data derived from double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trials may provide robust data on absolute and relative effectiveness of various interventions as the study outcome (GI motility) was assessed in the least biased manner. To systematically review data from double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trials to determine and compare the effectiveness of interventions that affect GI motility. Three electronic databases (MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and EMBASE) were searched. A random effects model was used for meta-analysis. The summary estimates were reported as mean difference (MD) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 38 double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trials involving 2371 patients were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. These studies investigated a total of 20 different interventions, of which 6 interventions were meta-analyzed. Of them, the use of dopamine receptor antagonists (MD, −8.99; 95% CI, −17.72 to −0.27; P = 0.04) and macrolides (MD, −26.04; 95% CI, −51.25 to −0.82; P = 0.04) significantly improved GI motility compared with the placebo group. The use of botulism toxin significantly impaired GI motility compared with the placebo group (MD, 5.31; 95% CI, −0.04 to 10.67; P = 0.05). Other interventions (dietary factors, probiotics, hormones) did

  12. [Benefits and risks of urologic laparoscopic surgery in adult patients].

    PubMed

    Safarík, L; Novák, K; Závada, J; Bízová, S; Stolz, J; Sedlácek, J; Dvorácek, J; Vraný, M

    2003-12-01

    The paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of the laparoscopic operations, the number of which steadily rises in urology. The laparoscopic surgery is considered to be a benefit regarding the short postoperative hospital stay, painless postoperative course, and virtually non-existing postoperative paralytic ileus. As disadvantage are deemed the long learning curve for the operating personal, and high economical costs, which could be cut down only if short off-work period in productive population is included. In the paper, the pathophysiological guidelines are outlined and emphasized during the laparoscopic operation, which the surgical and anesthesiological teams have to have in mind. On the own cohort of patients, the numbers and types of operations are described, which have been done at our department.

  13. Intrusion of incisors in adult patients with marginal bone loss.

    PubMed

    Melsen, B; Agerbaek, N; Markenstam, G

    1989-09-01

    Elongated and spaced incisors are common problems in patients suffering from severe periodontal disease. Thirty patients characterized by marginal bone loss and deep overbite were treated by intrusion of incisors. Three different methods for intrusion were applied: (1) J hooks and extraoral high-pull headgear, (2) utility arches, (3) intrusion bent into a loop in a 0.17 x 0.25-inch wire, and (4) base arch as described by Burstone. The intrusion was evaluated from the displacement of the apex, incision, and the center of resistance of the most prominent or elongated central incisor. Change in the marginal bone level and the amount of root resorption were evaluated on standardized intraoral radiographs. The pockets were assessed by standardized probing and the clinical crown length was measured on study casts. The results showed that the true intrusion of the center of resistance varied from 0 to 3.5 mm and was most pronounced when intrusion was performed with a base arch. The clinical crown length was generally reduced by 0.5 to 1.0 mm. The marginal bone level approached the cementoenamel junction in all but six cases. All cases demonstrated root resorption varying from 1 to 3 mm. The total amount of alveolar support--that is, the calculated area of the alveolar wall--was unaltered or increased in 19 of the 30 cases. The dependency of the results on the oral hygiene, the force distribution, and the perioral function was evaluated in relation to the individual cases. It was obvious that intrusion was best performed when (1) forces were low (5 to 15 gm per tooth) with the line of action of the force passing through or close to the center of resistance, (2) the gingiva status was healthy, and (3) no interference with perioral function was present.

  14. Dietary Intake In Adult Female Coeliac Disease Patients In Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake of coeliac disease (CD) patients and to determine if they are meeting the dietary reference values for a balanced diet. Subjects/Methods 40 women with CD, aged from 23 to 76 participated in our study. Total daily intake was assessed by a three-day food diary. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation. Considering physical activity level (PAL) 1.4, the recommended total energy expenditure (TEE) value was determined. The data was evaluated with professional evaluation software Prodi and statistically analysed. Results 40 participants returned the food diary. The average energy intake was significantly too low to ensure the meeting of all-day energy needs (p<0.05). The meals contained a recommended proportion of protein, but a statistically significantly higher proportion of fat (p<0.05), lower proportion of carbohydrates and a significantly lower intake of dietary fibre (p<0.05). Regarding macro-, micro- elements and vitamins, there was a significant lack in the intake of calcium and iodine, folic acid, vitamin D and vitamin A (p<0.05), meanwhile iron intake was at the lower limit of the recommended intake, whereas zinc, potassium and vitamin K intake were significantly higher according to the recommended values, but were comparable with the intake of the general population in the Central European area. Conclusion Even in subjects with adequate or low daily energy intake, their meals contained too much fat, too few carbohydrates and dietary fibre as well as inorganic substances. The patients with CD should get regular nutritional monitoring and education on the quality and balance of a gluten-free diet. PMID:27284377

  15. Adult cystic fibrosis patients' experiences of primary care consultations: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Lowton, Karen; Ballard, Karen D

    2006-01-01

    Background ‘Expert patient’ programmes have been introduced in the UK as a new approach to chronic disease management for the 21st century. The average survival age of those with cystic fibrosis (CF) has steadily increased such that the majority of those with the condition now live into adulthood. Currently, specialist CF centres deliver the core of medical care, with primary care providing access to prescribed medicines, referral to other services, and care of non-CF needs, however, it is necessary to provide a more comprehensive service for adult CF patients, involving both specialist centres and primary care. To date, little is known about these expert patients' experiences of primary care. Aim To investigate how young adults with CF perceive and experience primary healthcare services. Design of study Qualitative study. Setting One specialist CF centre in southeast England. Method Interview study of 31 patients with CF, aged 18 years or over. Results Adults with CF consult in primary care on two distinct levels: as lay and expert patients. When consulting as experts, patients tend to operate as consumers of health care and perceive a satisfactory doctor–patient relationship to be influenced by three factors: GPs' understanding of how people live with CF, GPs' ability to prescribe certain specialist medications, and sensitive management of the cost of health care for adults with CF. A doctor–patient relationship based on trust and understanding is seen as desirable, but requires that these factors are addressed both by the GP and the patient. Conclusion Expert patient policy has focused on the role of patients with common chronic conditions in secondary and tertiary care, with little consideration of how adults with rare chronic illness and their GPs manage health problems that can be addressed in primary care. Enabling easy access to holistic care, as well as establishing successful trusting relationships with people with long-term rare conditions, is a

  16. Hospital utilization patterns and costs for adult sickle cell patients in Illinois.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, K; Karrison, T; Koshy, M; Patel, A; Friedmann, P; Cassel, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine population size, demographic characteristics, hospital utilization patterns, the specialties of physicians providing care, and costs for hospitalized adult sickle cell patients in Illinois. METHODS: A statewide, administrative dataset for the two-year period from january 1992 through December 1993 was analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: There were 8403 admissions among 1189 individual sickle cell patients for the two-year period. Eighty-five percent of patients resided in the Chicago metropolitan area. The median age of the 1189 patients was 29; two-thirds had Medicaid or Medicare coverage. Emergency departments were the primary source of admissions (85.7%). The most common admitting diagnosis was painful crisis (97.4%), and average length of stay was four days. The median number of admissions per patient was three; most patients (85%) used only one or two hospitals. A small group used more than four hospitals and accounted for 23% of statewide admissions. Primary care physicians cared for most patients, and total hospitalization charges were more than $59 million. CONCLUSIONS: In Illinois the adult sickle cell population is concentrated in major urban centers, primarily the Chicago metropolitan area. These patients accounted for approximately 8400 admissions and more than $59 million in hospital charges during the two-year study period. A small group of patients used multiple hospitals and accounted for more than 23% of total hospitalization charges. This study shows the necessity of and provides a useful framework for developing targeted programs for adult sickle cell patients as well as for training physicians to efficiently provide comprehensive health care services for this population. PMID:9018288

  17. Hydroxyurea therapy contributes to infertility in adult men with sickle cell disease: a review.

    PubMed

    DeBaun, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    Hydroxyurea therapy, a chemotherapeutic agent, is the only US FDA approved therapy for the prevention of vaso-occlusive pain in sickle cell disease (SCD). The National Institutes of Health has sponsored two Phase III randomized, placebo-controlled trials, initially in adults, and subsequently in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Despite the overwhelming evidence that hydroxyurea therapy is beneficial to children and adults with SCA, individuals with SCA and their families express reservations about its use, in part because of the concerns about fertility, particularly in men. As adolescent boys with SCD are now expected to reach their reproductive years, a new concern is emerging about the role of hydroxyurea therapy as a barrier to their progeny. This review will systemically evaluate compromised fertility in men with SCD, and the evidence that hydroxyurea therapy is associated with further decreasing fertility in men with SCD.

  18. Molecular Diagnostic Experience of Whole-Exome Sequencing in Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Posey, Jennifer E.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; James, Regis A.; Bainbridge, Matthew; Niu, Zhiyv; Wang, Xia; Dhar, Shweta; Wiszniewski, Wojciech; Akdemir, Zeynep H.C.; Gambin, Tomasz; Xia, Fan; Person, Richard E.; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Shaw, Chad A.; Sutton, V. Reid; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Muzny, Donna; Eng, Christine M.; Yang, Yaping; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Plon, Sharon E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Whole exome sequencing (WES) is increasingly used as a diagnostic tool in medicine, but prior reports focus on predominantly pediatric cohorts with neurologic or developmental disorders. We describe the diagnostic yield and characteristics of whole exome sequencing in adults. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive WES reports for adults from a diagnostic laboratory. Phenotype composition was determined using Human Phenotype Ontology terms. Results Molecular diagnoses were reported for 17.5% (85/486) of adults, lower than a primarily pediatric population (25.2%; p=0.0003); the diagnostic rate was higher (23.9%) in those 18–30 years of age compared to patients over 30 years (10.4%; p=0.0001). Dual Mendelian diagnoses contributed to 7% of diagnoses, revealing blended phenotypes. Diagnoses were more frequent among individuals with abnormalities of the nervous system, skeletal system, head/neck, and growth. Diagnostic rate was independent of family history information, and de novo mutations contributed to 61.4% of autosomal dominant diagnoses. Conclusion Early WES experience in adults demonstrates molecular diagnoses in a substantial proportion of patients, informing clinical management, recurrence risk and recommendations for relatives. A positive family history was not predictive, consistent with molecular diagnoses often revealed by de novo events, informing the Mendelian basis of genetic disease in adults. PMID:26633545

  19. Urinary tract infections in adult general practice patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Kochen, Michael M

    2002-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are symptomatic infections of the urinary tract, mainly caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli. One in two women suffers from a UTI at least once in her life. The young and sexually active are particulaly affected, but it is also seen in elderly, postmenopausal women. The likelihood of recurrence is high. Diagnosis is made with regard to typical complaints and the presence of leucocytes and nitrites in the urine. A culture is unnecessary in most cases. Uncomplicated UTI should be distinguished from complicated UTI, which has a risk of severe illness. The treatment of choice--short-term therapy with trimethoprim or nitrofurantoin--is successful in over 80% of the cases. Co-trimoxazol fluoroquinolones or cephalsporins are not considered first-choice drugs. There are indications that general practitioners' (GPs') management of UTI is not always optimal, specifically concerning diagnostic tests, the application of second-choice antibiotics, and the length of prescribed treatment courses. Many points relevant to GPs requirefurther research, such as epidemiology and resistance of urinary pathogens in the community and natural history of UTI, as well as optimal management in elderly or complicated patients and men. PMID:12236281

  20. Regioselectivity of radical attacks on substituted olefins. Application of the SCD model

    SciTech Connect

    Shaik, S.S. ); Canadell, E. )

    1990-02-14

    The SCD model is used to derive regiochemical trends in radical addition to olefins. Regiochemistry is discussed by appeal to two fundamental properties of the radical and the olefin. The first factor is the relative spin density in the {sup 3}{pi}{pi}* state of the olefin. Thus, radical attack is directed toward the olefinic carbon which possesses the highest spin density. The second factor is the relative bond strengths of the radical to the olefinic carbons. This factor directs the regiochemistry toward the olefinic terminus which forms the strongest bond with the radical. When the two effects join up, regioselectivity will be large, e.g., for CH{sub 2}=CHX (X = NR{sub 2}, CR, Cl, CN, Ph). When the two effects oppose one another, regioselectivity will be smaller, and regioselectivity crossovers are expected, e.g., for CF{sub 2}=CHF. The normal regiochemistry is shown to coincide with the spin density rule which makes identical predictions to the HOMO rule.

  1. High soluble CD30, CD25 and IL-6 may identify patients with worse survival in CD30+ cutaneous lymphomas and early mycosis fungoides

    PubMed Central

    Kadin, Marshall E.; Pavlov, Igor; Delgado, Julio C.; Vonderheid, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Histopathology alone cannot predict outcome of patients with CD30+ primary cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders (CD30CLPD) and early mycosis fungoides (MF). To test the hypothesis that serum cytokines/cytokine receptors provide prognostic information in these disorders, we measured soluble CD30 (sCD30), sCD25, and selected cytokines in cell cultures and sera of 116 patients with CD30CLPD and 96 patients with early MF followed up to 20 years. Significant positive correlation was found between sCD30 levels and sCD25, CD40L, IL-6, and IL-8, suggesting CD30+ neoplastic cells secrete these cytokines, but not Th2 cytokines. In vitro studies confirmed sCD30, sCD25, IL-6 and IL-8 are secreted by CD30CLPD-derived cell lines. CD30CLPD patients with above normal sCD30 and sCD25 had worse overall and disease-related survivals, but only sCD30 retained significance in Cox models that included advanced age. High sCD30 also identified patients with worse survival in early MF. Increased IL-6 and IL-8 correlated with poor disease-related survival in CD30CLPD patients, We conclude that: (1) neoplastic cells of some CD30CLPD patients do not resemble Th2 cells, (2) high serum sCD30, sCD25, IL-6, and perhaps IL-8 levels may provide prognostic information useful for patient management. PMID:22071475

  2. Prospective Safety Surveillance of GH-Deficient Adults: Comparison of GH-Treated vs Untreated Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Mark L.; Xu, Rong; Crowe, Brenda J.; Robison, Leslie L.; Erfurth, Eva Marie; Kleinberg, David L.; Zimmermann, Alan G.; Woodmansee, Whitney W.; Cutler, Gordon B.; Chipman, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Context: In clinical practice, the safety profile of GH replacement therapy for GH-deficient adults compared with no replacement therapy is unknown. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare adverse events (AEs) in GH-deficient adults who were GH-treated with those in GH-deficient adults who did not receive GH replacement. Design and Setting: This was a prospective observational study in the setting of US clinical practices. Patients and Outcome Measures: AEs were compared between GH-treated (n = 1988) and untreated (n = 442) GH-deficient adults after adjusting for baseline group differences and controlling the false discovery rate. The standardized mortality ratio was calculated using US mortality rates. Results: After a mean follow-up of 2.3 years, there was no significant difference in rates of death, cancer, intracranial tumor growth or recurrence, diabetes, or cardiovascular events in GH-treated compared with untreated patients. The standardized mortality ratio was not increased in either group. Unexpected AEs (GH-treated vs untreated, P ≤ .05) included insomnia (6.4% vs 2.7%), dyspnea (4.2% vs 2.0%), anxiety (3.4% vs 0.9%), sleep apnea (3.3% vs 0.9%), and decreased libido (2.1% vs 0.2%). Some of these AEs were related to baseline risk factors (including obesity and cardiopulmonary disease), higher GH dose, or concomitant GH side effects. Conclusions: In GH-deficient adults, there was no evidence for a GH treatment effect on death, cancer, intracranial tumor recurrence, diabetes, or cardiovascular events, although the follow-up period was of insufficient duration to be conclusive for these long-term events. The identification of unexpected GH-related AEs reinforces the fact that patient selection and GH dose titration are important to ensure safety of adult GH replacement. PMID:23345098

  3. Role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adult patients with Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dhédin, Nathalie; Huynh, Anne; Maury, Sébastien; Tabrizi, Reza; Beldjord, Kheira; Asnafi, Vahid; Thomas, Xavier; Chevallier, Patrice; Nguyen, Stéphanie; Coiteux, Valérie; Bourhis, Jean-Henri; Hichri, Yosr; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Reman, Oumedaly; Graux, Carlos; Chalandon, Yves; Blaise, Didier; Schanz, Urs; Lhéritier, Véronique; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Dombret, Hervé; Ifrah, Norbert

    2015-04-16

    Because a pediatric-inspired Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL) protocol yielded a markedly improved outcome in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL, we aimed to reassess the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients treated in the GRAALL-2003 and GRAALL-2005 trials. In all, 522 patients age 15 to 55 years old and presenting with at least 1 conventional high-risk factor were candidates for SCT in first complete remission. Among these, 282 (54%) received a transplant in first complete remission. At 3 years, posttransplant cumulative incidences of relapse, nonrelapse mortality, and relapse-free survival (RFS) were estimated at 19.5%, 15.5%, and 64.7%, respectively. Time-dependent analysis did not reveal a significant difference in RFS between SCT and no-SCT cohorts. However, SCT was associated with longer RFS in patients with postinduction minimal residual disease (MRD) ≥10(-3) (hazard ratio, 0.40) but not in good MRD responders. In B-cell precursor ALL, SCT also benefitted patients with focal IKZF1 gene deletion (hazard ratio, 0.42). This article shows that poor early MRD response, in contrast to conventional ALL risk factors, is an excellent tool to identify patients who may benefit from allogeneic SCT in the context of intensified adult ALL therapy. Trial GRAALL-2003 was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00222027; GRAALL-2005 was registered as #NCT00327678. PMID:25587040

  4. Role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in adult patients with Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dhédin, Nathalie; Huynh, Anne; Maury, Sébastien; Tabrizi, Reza; Beldjord, Kheira; Asnafi, Vahid; Thomas, Xavier; Chevallier, Patrice; Nguyen, Stéphanie; Coiteux, Valérie; Bourhis, Jean-Henri; Hichri, Yosr; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Reman, Oumedaly; Graux, Carlos; Chalandon, Yves; Blaise, Didier; Schanz, Urs; Lhéritier, Véronique; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Dombret, Hervé; Ifrah, Norbert

    2015-04-16

    Because a pediatric-inspired Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL) protocol yielded a markedly improved outcome in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL, we aimed to reassess the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients treated in the GRAALL-2003 and GRAALL-2005 trials. In all, 522 patients age 15 to 55 years old and presenting with at least 1 conventional high-risk factor were candidates for SCT in first complete remission. Among these, 282 (54%) received a transplant in first complete remission. At 3 years, posttransplant cumulative incidences of relapse, nonrelapse mortality, and relapse-free survival (RFS) were estimated at 19.5%, 15.5%, and 64.7%, respectively. Time-dependent analysis did not reveal a significant difference in RFS between SCT and no-SCT cohorts. However, SCT was associated with longer RFS in patients with postinduction minimal residual disease (MRD) ≥10(-3) (hazard ratio, 0.40) but not in good MRD responders. In B-cell precursor ALL, SCT also benefitted patients with focal IKZF1 gene deletion (hazard ratio, 0.42). This article shows that poor early MRD response, in contrast to conventional ALL risk factors, is an excellent tool to identify patients who may benefit from allogeneic SCT in the context of intensified adult ALL therapy. Trial GRAALL-2003 was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00222027; GRAALL-2005 was registered as #NCT00327678.

  5. Theory of mind deficit in adult patients with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Chiavarino, Claudia; Bianchino, Claudia; Brach-Prever, Silvia; Riggi, Chiara; Palumbo, Luigi; Bara, Bruno G; Bosco, Francesca M

    2015-10-01

    This article provides the first assessment of theory of mind, that is, the ability to reason about mental states, in adult patients with congenital heart disease. Patients with congenital heart disease and matched healthy controls were administered classical theory of mind tasks and a semi-structured interview which provides a multidimensional evaluation of theory of mind (Theory of Mind Assessment Scale). The patients with congenital heart disease performed worse than the controls on the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale, whereas they did as well as the control group on the classical theory-of-mind tasks. These findings provide the first evidence that adults with congenital heart disease may display specific impairments in theory of mind.

  6. Associations between adult attachment characteristics, medical burden, and life satisfaction among older primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Kirchmann, Helmut; Nolte, Tobias; Runkewitz, Kristin; Bayerle, Lisa; Becker, Simone; Blasczyk, Verena; Lindloh, Julia; Strauss, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    We investigated whether attachment security, measured by the Adult Attachment Prototype Rating (AAPR), was correlated with life satisfaction, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, medical burden, and age-related coping strategies in a sample of 81 patients (69-73 years) recruited from the register of a general primary care practice. Furthermore, we examined whether patients classified as AAPR-secure reported better adjustment to medical burden in terms of higher life satisfaction than did insecure patients. Attachment security was independently related to life satisfaction. Moreover, the association between medical burden and lower life satisfaction was significantly stronger for insecure than for secure participants. Our findings indicate that interventions to improve attachment security or coping processes related to attachment could help older adults retain life satisfaction.

  7. Gender differences among young adult cancer patients: a study of blogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bora; Gillham, David

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has increasing relevance and practical use as a tool to support cancer care. For example, health support Web sites are now widely used to connect specific groups of patients who may otherwise have remained isolated, and understanding their health-related online behaviors will help in the development of more effective health support Web sites. This article examined blogs written by young adults affected by cancer and in particular examined the gender differences in these blog entries through content analysis. The results showed there is little difference in blog content between genders. This suggests that the blog environment could lessen the gender-typical behaviors often expected by society and may provide an outlet for young adult cancer patients to more freely share their cancer-related experiences, at the same time providing an opportunity for social connection. This is particularly significant for male patients who are known to inhibit their emotions as well as the expression of their health concerns.

  8. Clinical and MRI findings of cerebellar agenesis in two living adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Gelal, Fazıl Mustafa; Kalaycı, Tuğçe Özlem; Çelebisoy, Mehmet; Karakaş, Levent; Akkurt, Hülya Erdoğan; Koç, Feray

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar agenesis (CA) is an extremely rare entity. We present two adult patients with CA. The 61-year-old man had ataxia, dysarthria, abnormalities in cerebellar tests, severe cognitive impairment, and moderate mental retardation. The 26-year-old woman had dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, and dysarthria as well as mild cognitive impairment and mild mental retardation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed complete absence of the cerebellum with small residual vermis. Brainstem was hypoplastic and structures above tentorium were normal. Supratentorial white matter bundles were unaffected in diffusion tensor tractography. Only few adult patients with CA have so far been published. These cases show that patients with CA present with a variety of developmental, clinical, and mental abnormalities; and emphasize the role of the cerebellum in normal motor, language, and mental development. PMID:27293341

  9. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Vancomycin in Adult Patients Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Moore, J N; Healy, J R; Thoma, B N; Peahota, M M; Ahamadi, M; Schmidt, L; Cavarocchi, N C; Kraft, W K

    2016-09-01

    The literature on the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is sparse. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for vancomycin in ECMO patients was developed using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling on the concentration-time profiles of 14 ECMO patients who received intravenous vancomycin. Model selection was based on log-likelihood criterion, goodness of fit plots, and scientific plausibility. Identification of covariates was done using a full covariate model approach. The pharmacokinetics of vancomycin was adequately described with a two-compartment model. Parameters included clearance of 2.83 L/hr, limited central volume of distribution 24.2 L, and low residual variability 0.67%. Findings from the analysis suggest that standard dosing recommendations for vancomycin in non-ECMO patients are adequate to achieve therapeutic trough concentrations in ECMO patients. This further shows that ECMO minimally affects the PK of vancomycin in adults including in higher-weight patients. PMID:27639260

  10. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Vancomycin in Adult Patients Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Healy, JR; Thoma, BN; Peahota, MM; Ahamadi, M; Schmidt, L; Cavarocchi, NC; Kraft, WK

    2016-01-01

    The literature on the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is sparse. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for vancomycin in ECMO patients was developed using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling on the concentration–time profiles of 14 ECMO patients who received intravenous vancomycin. Model selection was based on log‐likelihood criterion, goodness of fit plots, and scientific plausibility. Identification of covariates was done using a full covariate model approach. The pharmacokinetics of vancomycin was adequately described with a two‐compartment model. Parameters included clearance of 2.83 L/hr, limited central volume of distribution 24.2 L, and low residual variability 0.67%. Findings from the analysis suggest that standard dosing recommendations for vancomycin in non‐ECMO patients are adequate to achieve therapeutic trough concentrations in ECMO patients. This further shows that ECMO minimally affects the PK of vancomycin in adults including in higher‐weight patients. PMID:27639260

  11. A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Describe Artemether Pharmacokinetics in Adult and Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen; Heimbach, Tycho; Jain, Jay Prakash; Awasthi, Rakesh; Hamed, Kamal; Sunkara, Gangadhar; He, Handan

    2016-10-01

    Artemether is co-administered with lumefantrine as part of a fixed-dose combination therapy for malaria in both adult and pediatric patients. However, artemether exposure is higher in younger infants (1-3 months) with a lower body weight (<5 kg) as compared to older infants (3-6 months) with a higher body weight (≥5 to <10 kg), children, and adults. In contrast, lumefantrine exposure is similar in all age groups. This article describes the clinically observed artemether exposure data in pediatric populations across various age groups (1 month to 12 years) and body weights (<5 or ≥5 kg) using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) mechanistic models. A PBPK model was developed using artemether physicochemical, biopharmaceutic, and metabolic properties together with known enzyme ontogeny and pediatric physiology. The model was verified using clinical data from adult patients after multiple doses of oral artemether, and was then applied to simulate the exposure in children and infants. The simulated PBPK concentration-time profiles captured observed clinical data. Consistent with the clinical data, the PBPK model simulations indicated a higher artemether exposure for younger infants with lower body weight. A PBPK model developed for artemether reliably described the clinical data from adult and pediatric patients. PMID:27506269

  12. Psychosocial issues affecting adults with congenital heart disease: one patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Livecchi, Tracy A

    2004-12-01

    This article addresses a number of psychosocial issues that advance practice nurses and other health care providers should be aware of when working with patients who have congenital heart disease. If not properly addressed, particularly during adolescence, these issues can have a strong impact on a person's medical care and over-all quality of life. This article includes information from medical literature, conversations with adult patients, and my own experiences as both a patient with congenital heart disease and as a clinical social worker.

  13. Screening adult tuberculosis patients for diabetes mellitus in Ebeye, Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Nasa, J N; Brostrom, R; Ram, S; Kumar, A M V; Seremai, J; Hauma, M; Paul, I A; Langidrik, J R

    2014-06-21

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the screening of adult TB patients for diabetes (DM) using glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) in Ebeye, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Of 62 patients registered between July 2010 and December 2012, 28 (45%) had DM. The only significant difference in baseline characteristics between those with and those without DM was higher age in those with DM. Two-month sputum smears and cultures were also not different between the two groups. Despite the limited sample size, this study shows that screening TB patients for DM in Ebeye is feasible and worthwhile and that it should be continued.

  14. Screening adult tuberculosis patients for diabetes mellitus in Ebeye, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    PubMed Central

    Brostrom, R.; Ram, S.; Kumar, A. M. V.; Seremai, J.; Hauma, M.; Paul, I. A.; Langidrik, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the screening of adult TB patients for diabetes (DM) using glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) in Ebeye, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Of 62 patients registered between July 2010 and December 2012, 28 (45%) had DM. The only significant difference in baseline characteristics between those with and those without DM was higher age in those with DM. Two-month sputum smears and cultures were also not different between the two groups. Despite the limited sample size, this study shows that screening TB patients for DM in Ebeye is feasible and worthwhile and that it should be continued. PMID:26477288

  15. The safe practice of CT coronary angiography in adult patients in UK imaging departments.

    PubMed

    Harden, S P; Bull, R K; Bury, R W; Castellano, E A; Clayton, B; Hamilton, M C K; Morgan-Hughes, G J; O'Regan, D; Padley, S P G; Roditi, G H; Roobottom, C A; Stirrup, J; Nicol, E D

    2016-08-01

    Computed tomography coronary angiography is increasingly used in imaging departments in the investigation of patients with chest pain and suspected coronary artery disease. Due to the routine use of heart rate controlling medication and the potential for very high radiation doses during these scans, there is a need for guidance on best practice for departments performing this examination, so the patient can be assured of a good quality scan and outcome in a safe environment. This article is a summary of the document on 'Standards of practice of computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) in adult patients' published by the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) in December 2014.

  16. Comprehensive Orthodontic Treatment of Adult Patient with Cleft Lip and Palate

    PubMed Central

    Leiva Villagra, Noemí; Muñoz Domon, Miguel; Véliz Méndez, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present full orthodontic treatment of an operated cleft lip adult patient. Case Report. An 18-year-old patient consulted for severe crowded teeth. He comes from a poor family. At that time he already had four operations (velum, palate, lip, and myringotomy). Treatment included maxillary expansion, tooth extraction, and fixed orthodontic, as well as kinesiology and speech therapy treatment. A multidisciplinary approach allowed us to achieve successfully an excellent result for this patient and gave him a harmonic smile and an optimal function without orthognathic surgery. Two years after treatment, occlusion remains stable. PMID:25544903

  17. Comprehensive orthodontic treatment of adult patient with cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Leiva Villagra, Noemí; Muñoz Domon, Miguel; Véliz Méndez, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present full orthodontic treatment of an operated cleft lip adult patient. Case Report. An 18-year-old patient consulted for severe crowded teeth. He comes from a poor family. At that time he already had four operations (velum, palate, lip, and myringotomy). Treatment included maxillary expansion, tooth extraction, and fixed orthodontic, as well as kinesiology and speech therapy treatment. A multidisciplinary approach allowed us to achieve successfully an excellent result for this patient and gave him a harmonic smile and an optimal function without orthognathic surgery. Two years after treatment, occlusion remains stable.

  18. Atherosclerotic adult Moya-Moya disease in a patient with hyperhomocysteinaemia.

    PubMed

    Cerrato, P; Grasso, M; Lentini, A; Destefanis, E; Bosco, G; Caprioli, M; Bradac, G B; Bergui, M

    2007-03-01

    Moya-Moya is a rare cerebrovascular occlusive disease characterized by bilateral stenosis or occlusion at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain, named "moya-moya". In children, Moya-Moya disease usually presents with ischemic cerebrovascular events, mainly TIA or lacunar stroke, leading to mental deterioration. In adults, especially in females, it presents with intracranial haemorrhages. We describe the case of an adult patient with an atherosclerotic Moya-Moya disease which presented with a cerebral borderzone infarction.

  19. Severe chronic primary neutropenia in adults: report on a series of 108 patients.

    PubMed

    Sicre de Fontbrune, Flore; Moignet, Aline; Beaupain, Blandine; Suarez, Felipe; Galicier, Lionel; Socié, Gérard; Varet, Bruno; Coppo, Paul; Michel, Marc; Pautas, Cécile; Oksenhendler, Eric; Lengline, Etienne; Terriou, Louis; Moreau, Philippe; Chantepie, Sylvain; Casadevall, Nicole; Michot, Jean Marie; Gardembas, Martine; Michallet, Mauricette; Croisille, Laure; Audrain, Marie; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Donadieu, Jean; Lamy, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Severe chronic primary neutropenia (CPN) is a rare entity, and long-term outcome and risk factors for infections in severe CPN adults have not been described to date. We report the characteristics and outcomes of 108 severe adult CPN patients enrolled in a multi-institutional observational study. Severe CPN adults were mostly female (78%), and median age at diagnosis was 28.3 years. Diagnosis was fortuitous in 62% of cases. The median absolute neutrophil count (ANC) at diagnosis was 0.4 × 10(9)/L, and median ANC without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) during follow-up was 0.5 × 10(9)/L. Twenty-three of 66 (34.8%) evaluable patients had neutrophil autoantibodies, and 6 of 47 (12.8%) a T-cell clone. The presence of neutrophil autoantibodies or T-cell clone was not associated with any specific clinical or biological characteristics. No death or hematologic malignancies occurred, and 44 severe bacterial infections were reported in 27 patients with a median follow-up of 8.3 years. Fifty patients received G-CSF either sporadically (n = 24) or continuously (n = 26) and responded (96%). Nineteen patients received immunosuppressive therapies: overall response (OR) was 41%, and median duration of response was 3 months. At diagnosis, the only predictive factor for the occurrence of severe bacterial infections was an ANC count below 0.2 × 10(9)/L (OR, 0.76). Severe CPN in adults is characterized by a female predominance and a benign outcome with a low rate of severe bacterial infections and no secondary malignancies. G-CSF is efficient and well tolerated but is not required in a majority of patients. PMID:26261239

  20. Adjuvant chemotherapy in adult medulloblastoma: is it an option for average-risk patients?

    PubMed

    Franceschi, E; Bartolotti, M; Paccapelo, A; Marucci, G; Agati, R; Volpin, L; Danieli, D; Ghimenton, C; Gardiman, M P; Sturiale, C; Poggi, R; Mascarin, M; Balestrini, D; Masotto, B; Brandes, A A

    2016-06-01

    The standard treatment in children with average-risk medulloblastoma (MB) is reduced-dose radiotherapy (RT) followed by chemotherapy. However, in adults, there is no agreement on the use of adjuvant chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective analysis of adult MB patients with average-risk disease, defined as no postsurgical residual (or ≤1.5 cm(2)) and no metastatic disease (M0). Main inclusion criteria were: age >16 years, post-surgical treatment with craniospinal irradiation with or without adjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin and etoposide ± cyclophosphamide). From 1988 to 2012 were accrued 43 average-risk MB patients treated with surgery and adjuvant RT. Fifteen (34.9 %) patients received also chemotherapy: 7 before RT, 5 after RT, and 3 before and after RT. Reasons to administer chemotherapy were presence of residual disease (even if ≤1.5 cm) and delay in RT. After a median follow up time of 10 years (range: 8-13), median survival was 18 years (95 % CI 9-28) in patients who receive RT alone, and was not reached in patients treated with RT plus chemotherapy. The survival rates at 5, 10 and 15 years were 100 %, 78.6 % (95 % CI 60.0-97.2 %) and 60.2 % (95 % CI 36.9-83.5 %), in patients treated with RT alone, and 100, 100 and 100 %, in patients treated with RT plus chemotherapy (p = 0.079). Our findings suggest a role for adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of average-risk MB adult patients. Further improvements might drive to add chemotherapy in average-risk setting with less favourable biological signatures (i.e., non-WNT group).

  1. [Screening for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adult patients in primary care].

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Enric; Cañisá, Anna; Caballero, Antònia; Piñol-Moreso, Josep Lluís

    2013-05-01

    AIMS. To estimate the proportion of adult patients in primary care with a positive screening test for attention deficit hyper-activity disorder (ADHD) and to analyse their characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in nine primary care clinics in the province of Tarragona. The sample consisted of 432 consecutive patients in primary care who visited for any reason, with ages ranging from 18 to 55 years. Screening for ADHD was carried out by means of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Data about functional impact (Sheehan Disability Inventory) were obtained and a review of the patient records provided data concerning psychiatric comorbidity and the consumption of psychopharmaceuticals. RESULTS. The percentage of positive results in the screening tests was 19.9% (95% CI = 16.4-23.9%). Taking into account the sensitivity and specificity of the ASRS, the 'real' prevalence was estimated to be 12.5% (95% CI = 8.2-16.8%). None of these patients were diagnosed or treated for ADHD. Positive screening tests are associated with occupational, social and familial dysfunction, and greater perceived stress. There is also a higher level of comorbidity with affective disorders and substance abuse, as well as greater use of psychopharmaceuticals. CONCLUSIONS. Screening for ADHD in adult patients in primary care gives rise to a notably high proportion of positive screening test results, which suggests that there could be a significant prevalence of patients with ADHD. These data contrast with the absence of this diagnosis in the patient records. Further research is needed to determine the usefulness of the diagnosis of ADHD and the possible role that must be played by primary care.

  2. Social determinants and health-related dimensions of quality of life in adult patients with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Dolatkhah, R; Fakhari, A; Pezeshki, M Z; Shabanlouei, R; Tavassoli, N; Gholchin, M

    2014-05-01

    The availability of safe and effective factor replacement therapies, in persons with haemophilia (PWH), has in some countries answered the basic need for treatment of these patients. The findings suggest that adult patients who have always been on prophylaxis reported significantly better physical functioning, and thus better quality of life. This study is designed to evaluate the QoL in adult PWH, by focusing on social determinants of QoL and their relationship with health-related dimensions, in Tabriz, Iran. The survey instrument was a self-report 36 items questionnaire, 'A36 Hemofilia - QoL', which is a disease-specific questionnaire for the assessment of the health-related QoL in adults living with haemophilia. A total of 100 haemophilia A and B patients, aged over 17 years participated in this study within 1 year. QoL total score was 71.88 (±26.89 SD). Patients who treat in our Hemophilia Treatment Center, had better QoL score (P = 0.000), and education has a significant impact on the social aspects of QoL (P = 0.18). The QoL was very poor in urban area in contrast to patients who lived in the city (54.45 vs. 74.21 respectively). Single patients have a better QoL than married patients (76.56 vs. 68.50 respectively). Our results showed that low education and lack of awareness of the diseases among PWH lead to reduce of QoL and more disease complications. More and wider treatment and psychological care for improving quality of life of these patients are seriously recommended.

  3. Hepatic resection for giant haemangioma in a patient with a contemporaneous adult polycystic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Levi Sandri, G B; Lai, Q; Melandro, F; Guglielmo, N; Garofalo, M; Morabito, V; Cirelli, C; Lucatelli, P; Di Laudo, M; Rossi, M; Berloco, P B

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic resection for giant haemangioma in a patient with a contemporaneous adult polycystic liver disease. According to Gigot classification, and to the characteristics of haemangioma surgery in these patients can be considered safe. We report the case of a 55 year-old man affected by an adult polycystic liver disease (PCLD) and a contemporaneous symptomatic haemangioma of the III segment. At the preoperative imaging scans, APCLD was classified in a type II grading according to Gigot classification. The patient underwent surgery: a wedge resection of the III segment with the exportation of the haemangioma and a fenestration of a large cyst placed in the VIII segment were performed. Post-operative course was regular and the patient was discharged uneventfully in post-operative 9th day, with a total regress of the initial symptoms. APCLD and haemangioma are two benign conditions that do not require surgery except if they cause important symptoms, such as pain. The good clinical conditions of the patient, the moderate gravity of the APCLD and the particular exofitic localisation of the cavernous haemangioma gave us the possibility to make a safe surgery for the patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported in literature in which a liver resection for haemangioma in patient with APCLD was performed. In conclusion, liver resection for haemangioma is not contraindicated, mainly if it is symptomatic, even in the contemporaneous presence of an APCLD.

  4. Stratification of ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients based on soluble CD40L longitudinal changes.

    PubMed

    Napoleão, Patrícia; Cabral, Luís B P; Selas, Mafalda; Freixo, Cláudia; Monteiro, Maria do Céu; Criado, Maria Begoña; Costa, Marina C; Enguita, Francisco J; Viegas-Crespo, Ana Maria; Saldanha, Carlota; Carmo, Miguel Mota; Ferreira, Rui Cruz; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    Involvement of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in thrombosis and inflammation on the context of coronary artery disease is currently being revised. In that perspective, we had studied the association of sCD40L with markers of platelet activation and markers of endothelial and vascular function. On that cohort, a stratification of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) 1 month after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was observed based on concentrations of sCD40L. The study intended to identify the groups of AMI patients with different profiles of sCD40L concentrations and verify how medication, clinical evolution, biochemical data, and markers of regulation of endothelial function at genetic (endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms) and post-transcriptional levels (circulating microRNAs) affect sCD40L serum levels. Lower quartiles of sCD40L (<2.3 ng/mL) were associated with higher concentrations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high frequency of G894T polymorphism, and altered expression of a set of microRNAs assumed to be involved in the regulation of endothelial and cardiac function and myocardium hypertrophy, relative to patients in sCD40L upper quartiles. A characteristic sCD40L variation pattern in STEMI patients was identified. Low levels of sCD40L 1 month after PCI distinguish STEMI patients with worse prognosis, a compromised cardiac healing, and a persistent endothelial dysfunction, as given by the association between sCD40L, NT-proBNP, G894T polymorphism, and specific profile of miRNA expression. These results suggest sCD40L could have a prognostic value in STEMI patients. PMID:27172386

  5. Congenital intestinal malrotation in adolescent and adult patients: a 12-year clinical and radiological survey.

    PubMed

    Husberg, Britt; Salehi, Karin; Peters, Trevor; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Michanek, Margareta; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Strigård, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Congenital intestinal malrotation is mainly detected in childhood and caused by incomplete rotation and fixation of the intestines providing the prerequisites for life-threatening volvulus of the midgut. The objective of this study was to evaluate a large cohort of adult patients with intestinal malrotation. Thirty-nine patients, 15-67 years, were diagnosed and admitted to a university setting with congenital intestinal malrotation 2002-2013. The patients were divided into three age groups for stratified evaluation. Medical charts were scrutinized, and clinical outcome of surgery was reviewed. Twelve patients presented as emergency cases, whereas 27 were admitted as elective cases. Diagnosis was established in 33 patients who underwent radiological investigation and in the remaining 6 during surgery. A Ladd's operation was performed in 31 symptomatic patients; a conservative strategy was chosen in eight cases. Volvulus was more common in the younger age group. Twenty-six surgically treated patients were available for telephone interview, 1-12 years after surgery. All patients, except one, regarded their general condition improved to a high degree (n = 18) or with some reservation (n = 7). Twelve patients suffered remaining abdominal pain of a chronic and diffuse character. Due to recurrence of malrotation six patients were reoperated. Symptomatic malrotation occurs in both children and the adult population. Improved awareness and an accurately performed CT scan can reveal the malformation and enable surgical treatment. A Ladd's procedure relieved most patients from their severe complaints even when a history of several years of suffering existed. PMID:27026938

  6. Clinical Profiles and Short-Term Outcomes of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in Adult Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hong-Qi; Zhao, Wen-Cong; Yang, Wei-Min; Li, Yong-Li; Sun, Zhi-Kun; Chen, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that predominantly affects children. Previous studies have mostly involved children in Western developed countries. Methods This study retrospectively reviewed the clinical profiles of ADEM in adult Chinese patients. Results ADEM occurred during summer and autumn in about two-thirds of the 42 included patients. Prior infection was found in five patients and no preimmunization was recorded. The most frequent clinical presentations were alterations in consciousness (79%) and behavior changes (69%), followed by motor deficits (64%) and fever (50%). About one-quarter (26%) of the patients showed positive results for oligoclonal bands, and about half of them exhibited increases in the IgG index and 24-hour IgG synthesis rate. Magnetic resonance imaging showed white- and gray-matter lesions in 83% and 23% of the patients, respectively. Steroids were the main treatment, and full recovery occurred in 62% of the patients, with residual focal neurological deficits recorded in a few patients. After a mean follow-up period of 3.4 years, two patients exhibited recurrence and one patient exhibited a multiphasic course. One patient was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). Conclusions With the exception of the seasonal distribution pattern and prior vaccine rate, the clinical profiles of ADEM in adult Chinese patients are similar to those in pediatric populations. No specific markers are available for distinguishing ADEM from MS at the initial presentation. Careful clinical evaluations, cerebrospinal fluid measurements, and neuroradiological examinations with long-term follow-up will aid the correct diagnosis of ADEM. PMID:27449911

  7. Recurrent ossifying fibroma of the maxillary sinus in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Cabibi, D; Speciale, R; Lorusso, F

    2013-02-01

    In some aspects, the terminology of fibro-osseous lesions of the head remain equivocal. The WHO classification suggested to group cemento-ossifying fibroma and ossifying fibroma under the term "ossifying fibroma". Based on the different age of onset, localization and risk of recurrence, two types have been described: "juvenile ossifying fibroma", with early age of onset, which needs to be treated with wide surgical resection due to the high risk of recurrence; and "adult ossifying fibroma", arising in adult patients, with low recurrence rate, properly treated by conservative surgery. We describe a case of an "adult ossifying fibroma" of a 57-year-old woman with several relapses, for whom conservative therapy was inadequate. We think that the "early" age of onset should not be included among the essential characteristics of ossifying fibroma with a high risk of recurrence. PMID:23858945

  8. Solitary intraosseous myofibroma of the tibia in an adult patient: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Shemesh, S.; Kosashvili, Y.; Sidon, E.; Fichman, S.; Cohen, N.; Velkes, S.

    2014-01-01

    Myofibromas are mesenchymal tumors showing myofibroblastic differentiation and found most frequently in the head and neck region. While several cases of myofibromas have been reported in adults, they have not been described in long bones of the appendicular skeleton. We describe an otherwise healthy young woman who presented with a progressive incapacitating pain in her right shin. Imaging studies revealed a well-circumscribed osteolytic lesion with slight marginal sclerosis confined to the proximal tibia metaphysis, without a soft tissue component. Surgical intervention was performed and histological examination identified a myofibroma. This case represents an extremely rare occurrence of an intraosseous myofibroma involving a long bone in an adult patient. Although solitary myofibroma is a rare lesion in the skeletal bones of adults we believe it should be included in the differential diagnosis of a solitary lytic mass in bone, especially if it is associated with pain. PMID:26909302

  9. The Imagination Inflation Effect in Healthy Older Adults and Patients with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Maureen K.; Deason, Rebecca G.; Reynolds, Erin; Tat, Michael J.; Flannery, Sean; Solomon, Paul R.; Vassey, Elizabeth A.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The imagination inflation effect is a type of memory distortion defined as an increased tendency to falsely remember that an item has been seen, or an action has been performed, when it has only been imagined. For patients with very mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD), susceptibility to the imagination inflation effect could have significant functional consequences in daily life. Method We assessed whether patients with very mild AD were more or less susceptible to the imagination inflation effect when compared to healthy older adults. In the first session, participants were read an action statement such as “fill the pillbox” and engaged in one of three activities: listened to the statement being read, performed the action, or imagined performing the action. During the second session, participants imagined action statements from the first session as well as new action statements. During the recognition test, participants were asked to determine whether action statements were or were not performed during the first session. Results We found that imagining performing actions increased the tendency of patients with very mild AD to falsely recall the action as having been performed to an extent similar to that of healthy older adults. Conclusion We concluded that, similar to healthy older adults, patients with very mild AD were susceptible to the imagination inflation effect, which we attributed to difficulties with source monitoring and reliance on familiarity. PMID:25893972

  10. Childhood trauma and adult interpersonal relationship problems in patients with depression and anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although a plethora of studies have delineated the relationship between childhood trauma and onset, symptom severity, and course of depression and anxiety disorders, there has been little evidence that childhood trauma may lead to interpersonal problems among adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Given the lack of prior research in this area, we aimed to investigate characteristics of interpersonal problems in adult patients who had suffered various types of abuse and neglect in childhood. Methods A total of 325 outpatients diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders completed questionnaires on socio-demographic variables, different forms of childhood trauma, and current interpersonal problems. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to measure five different forms of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect, and sexual abuse) and the short form of the Korean-Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scale (KIIP-SC) was used to assess current interpersonal problems. We dichotomized patients into two groups (abused and non-abused groups) based on CTQ score and investigated the relationship of five different types of childhood trauma and interpersonal problems in adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders using multiple regression analysis. Result Different types of childhood abuse and neglect appeared to have a significant influence on distinct symptom dimensions such as depression, state-trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity. In the final regression model, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse during childhood were significantly associated with general interpersonal distress and several specific areas of interpersonal problems in adulthood. No association was found between childhood physical neglect and current general interpersonal distress. Conclusion Childhood emotional trauma has more influence on interpersonal problems in adult patients with

  11. Selected immunological parameters in clinical evaluation of patients with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It has been suggested that soluble immune receptors (SIRs) such as sCD25 and sCD30 may serve as potential biomarkers in evaluation of atopic dermatitis (AD). Previous studies clearly indicated that serum levels of interleukin (IL)-13 and total IgE (tIgE) might be potentially useful in the evaluation of patents with AD. Aim To evaluate whether serum levels of sCD25 and sCD30 are suitable biomarkers of AD. Moreover, we have decided to estimate the usefulness of tIgE and IL-13 serum level determination in the evaluated population. Material and methods A group of 102 AD patients was investigated. Serum concentrations of sCD30, sCD25, IL-13 and tIgE were measured. The clinical phenotype of AD was classified as extrinsic (ADe) or intrinsic (ADi) based on the presence of IgE. Statistical analysis was performed to estimate correlations between obtained results and clinical features of the population such as AD phenotype, age, disease extent and severity. Results Extrinsic AD was diagnosed in 71% of patients, while ADi phenotype was observed in 29% of the investigated population. A negative correlation between serum levels of sCD25 and sCD30 and disease severity as well patients’ age was established. Serum levels of IL-13 did not reach the cut-off point set by the manufacturer. A positive correlation between serum levels of total IgE and disease severity and patients’ age was observed. Conclusions This paper shows that serum levels of sCD25 and sCD30 as well as tIgE are age dependent. Determination of serum levels of sCD25, sCD30 and IL-13 is not useful in everyday practice. PMID:27512357

  12. Preliminary evidence for a matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)-dependent shedding of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) from activated platelets.

    PubMed

    Reinboldt, Stephan; Wenzel, Folker; Rauch, Bernhard H; Hohlfeld, Thomas; Grandoch, Maria; Fischer, Jens W; Weber, Artur-Aron

    2009-09-01

    Platelets are the major source of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in the blood. It has been demonstrated that CD40L is cleaved from the surface of activated platelets to release sCD40L. However, the enzyme involved in sCD40L shedding has not been identified yet. Using a panel of pharmacological inhibitors of serine, cysteine, aspartate, or metalloproteinases, preliminary evidence is presented for the hypothesis that matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) might be the protease, primarily responsible for CD40L cleavage from platelet surface. PMID:19811225

  13. Self-perceived loss of control and untreated dental decay in African American adults with and without sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Brian; Woods, Dexter; George, David; Onyekwere, Onyinye; Katz, Ralph; Lanzkron, Sophie; Diener-West, Marie; Powe, Neil

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between self-perceived loss of control as measured by dental external locus of control summary scores, with the amount of untreated dental decay in African American adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) and African Americans adults without SCD. The sample included 102 subjects with SCD and 103 subjects without SCD matched on age, sex, and recruitment location (mean age of all subjects 35.4 years, 55.6% female). Subjects with SCD in the highest quartile for dental external locus of control summary scores had 2.58-fold (CI 1.05, 6.34) as much untreated decay as those in the lowest quartile (p<.05) in multivariable analysis using the negative binomial regression model. For subjects without SCD, those in the highest quartile for dental external locus of control summary scores had 3.00-fold (CI 1.38, 6.49) as much untreated decay as those in the lowest quartile (p<.05) using similar analysis. This study showed that higher dental external locus of control is associated with increased untreated tooth decay, both for African Americans with and without SCD and that the magnitude of the association did not differ across groups. PMID:16960327

  14. Intellectual differences between schizophrenic patients and normal controls across the adult lifespan.

    PubMed

    Kondel, Tejinder K; Mortimer, Ann M; Leeson, Verity C; Laws, Keith R; Hirsch, Steven R

    2003-12-01

    A debate persists about whether IQ declines during the duration of schizophrenia or whether an early deficit remains static across the lifespan. To examine this, we measured estimated current IQ (Quick Test Revised: QTR) and estimated premorbid IQ (National Adult Reading Test: NART) in schizophrenic patients (n=110) and matched healthy controls (n=71) across a wide age range (20-88). Age correlated negatively with NART and QTR IQ for schizophrenic patients, but not for controls. A subset of 23 schizophrenic patients was also retested on the NART after 4 years to determine NART stability and they showed no significant change. We propose that the lower NART IQ in older patients reflects a lower 'starting point' and that this may be related to lower educational opportunities in older patients.

  15. Autoantibody profile and clinical characteristics in a cohort of Chinese adult myasthenia gravis patients.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yu; Li, Hai-Feng; Skeie, Geir Olve; Romi, Fredrik; Hao, Hong-Jun; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Xiang; Owe, Jone Furlund; Gilhus, Nils Erik

    2016-09-15

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder with heterogeneity. Antibodies against acetylcholine receptor (AChR), muscle-specific kinase (MuSK), titin and ryanodine receptor (RyR) were examined in 437 adult Chinese MG patients. The AChR, MuSK, titin and RyR antibodies were found in 82.2%, 2.3%, 28.4% and 23.8% of all patients. Autoantibody profiles vary among different MG subgroups. Thymoma MG patients had high frequencies of AChR (99.2%), titin (50.8%) and RyR antibodies (46.9%). The titin and RyR antibodies also showed high frequencies in late onset patients (54.4% and 33.3%, respectively). These two antibodies may indicate an underlying thymoma when combined. The patients with titin and RyR antibodies tend to have more severe disease and worse outcome, and may need more active immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:27609275

  16. Screening and risk factors of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in critically ill adult patients receiving enteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Malnutrition is a frequent problem associated with detrimental clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. To avoid malnutrition, most studies focus on the prevention of inadequate nutrition delivery, whereas little attention is paid to the potential role of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). In this trial, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of EPI and identify its potential risk factors in critically ill adult patients without preexisting pancreatic diseases. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited 563 adult patients with critical illnesses. All details of the patients were documented, stool samples were collected three to five days following the initiation of enteral nutrition, and faecal elastase 1 (FE-1) concentrations were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Blood samples were also taken to determine serum amylase and lipase activity. Results The percentages of recruited patients with EPI (FE-1 concentration <200 μg/g) and severe EPI (FE-1 concentration <100 μg/g) were 52.2% and 18.3%, respectively. The incidences of steatorrhea were significantly different (P < 0.05) among the patients without EPI, with moderate EPI (FE-1 concentration = 100 to 200 μg/g) and severe EPI (FE-1 concentration < 100 μg/g). Both multivariate logistic regression analysis and z-tests indicated that the occurrence of EPI was closely associated with shock, sepsis, diabetes, cardiac arrest, hyperlactacidemia, invasive mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. Conclusions More than 50% of critically ill adult patients without primary pancreatic diseases had EPI, and nearly one-fifth of them had severe EPI. The risk factors for EPI included shock, sepsis, diabetes, cardiac arrest, hyperlactacidemia, invasive mechanical ventilation and haemodialysis. Trial registration NCT01753024 PMID:23924602

  17. Retrosigmoid Craniotomy for Auditory Brainstem Implantation in Adult Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2.

    PubMed

    Puram, Sidharth V; Herrmann, Barbara; Barker, Fred G; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Objective To report our technique and experience using a retrosigmoid craniotomy approach for auditory brainstem implantation (ABI) placement in adult neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Single-center study, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Participants All NF2 patients who underwent evaluation at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital from 2009 to 2013 were reviewed. Six cases of retrosigmoid craniotomy for ABI surgery in five adult NF2 patients were identified. The clinical history, operative course, and outcomes in these patients were reviewed. Main Outcome Measures Postoperative complications and audiological outcomes. Results Indications for ABI surgery were profound hearing loss associated with growth or treatment of bilateral vestibular schwannomas. In all cases, a retrosigmoid craniotomy was performed for tumor resection and ABI placement without complication. Electrode placement was confirmed intraoperatively using electrical-evoked auditory brainstem responses. The ABI was activated in the awake patient 4 to 6 weeks postoperatively. Audiological testing was used to evaluate sound detection and speech perception with the ABI. There were no cases of cerebrospinal fluid leak. Conclusion Retrosigmoid craniotomy is a safe and effective means to provide access to the cochlear nucleus for ABI placement following tumor resection in the adult NF2 patient. Preliminary data indicate that this approach has few complications while offering benefits for hearing. The retrosigmoid craniotomy should be considered a reasonable alternative to the traditional translabyrinthine approach for placement of the ABI in deaf patients who are not candidates for the cochlear implant. PMID:27054058

  18. Diagnostic value of symptoms and laboratory data for pertussis in adolescent and adult patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several symptoms are classically thought to be suggestive of pertussis in children, but the diagnostic value of these symptoms in adolescent and adult patients is unclear. We evaluated the accuracy of the clinical findings for the early presumptive diagnosis of pertussis in adolescent and adult patients. Furthermore, we measured fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) with regard to whether we could distinguish eosinophilic inflammation of the airway and pertussis. FeNO is not expected to be associated with pertussis. Methods We compared 183 cases with laboratory-confirmed pertussis using serology and polymerase chain reaction and 1,132 cases without laboratory-confirmed pertussis. Results Among pertussis patients, paroxysmal cough was common with 90% sensitivity, but the specificity was low (25%). Posttussive vomiting and whoop were less common (sensitivity 25% and 19%, respectively), but both showed greater specificity for pertussis (80% and 86%, respectively). Posttussive gagging was observed with intermediate frequency and provided greater specificity (49% and 77%, respectively). Pertussis cases were most frequent between May and August with a peak in June. The mean FeNO value for the pertussis patients was 18.2 ± 9.2 ppb, which was significantly lower than that in asthma patients (56.9 ± 20.3 ppb, p <0.001). The most useful definition was posttussive vomiting and/or gagging, and a plus normal FeNO value, which had a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 70%. Conclusions Clinical symptoms and laboratory data are of limited value in making the diagnosis of pertussis, and it was clinically difficult to differentiate adolescent and adult patients with or without pertussis. However, pertussis should be considered if patients have posttussive vomiting and/or gagging and a normal FeNO concentration. PMID:23496900

  19. Peptic ulcer as a risk factor for postherpetic neuralgia in adult patients with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Yin; Lan, Kuo-Mao; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Tseng, Su-Feng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication of herpes zoster. Identifying predictors for postherpetic neuralgia may help physicians screen herpes zoster patients at risk of postherpetic neuralgia and undertake preventive strategies. Peptic ulcer has been linked to immunological dysfunctions and malnutrition, both of which are predictors of postherpetic neuralgia. The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to determine whether adult herpes zoster patients with peptic ulcer were at greater risk of postherpetic neuralgia. Adult zoster patients without postherpetic neuralgia and postherpetic neuralgia patients were automatically selected from a medical center's electronic database using herpes zoster/postherpetic neuralgia ICD-9 codes supported with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Consequently, medical record review was performed to validate the diagnostic codes and all pertaining data including peptic ulcer, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and ulcerogenic medications. Because no standard pain intensity measurement exists, opioid usage was used as a proxy measurement for moderate to severe pain. In total, 410 zoster patients without postherpetic neuralgia and 115 postherpetic neuralgia patients were included. Multivariate logistic regressions identified 60 years of age and older, peptic ulcer and greater acute herpetic pain as independent predictors for postherpetic neuralgia. Among etiologies of peptic ulcer, H. pylori infection and usage of non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were significantly associated with the increased risk of postherpetic neuralgia; conversely, other etiologies were not significantly associated with the postherpetic neuralgia risk. In conclusion, 60 years of age and older, peptic ulcer and greater acute herpetic pain are independent predictors for postherpetic neuralgia in adult herpes zoster patients.

  20. Prognostic impact of persistent cytogenetic abnormalities at complete remission in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Short, Nicholas J; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Jabbour, Elias J; O'Brien, Susan M; Faderl, Stefan; Burger, Jan A; Garris, Rebecca; Qiao, Wei; Huang, Xuelin; Jain, Nitin; Konopleva, Marina; Kadia, Tapan M; Daver, Naval; Borthakur, Gautam; Cortes, Jorge E; Ravandi, Farhad

    2016-06-01

    In acute myelogenous leukemia, the persistent detection of abnormal cytogenetics at complete remission (ACCR) is associated with inferior outcomes. However, the prognostic significance of ACCR in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is unknown. We evaluated 272 adult patients with ALL and abnormal cytogenetics at baseline who were treated with frontline induction chemotherapy, achieved complete remission (CR) and had cytogenetic analysis performed at the time of CR. ACCR was observed in 26 patients (9.6%). Median relapse-free survival was 22 months (95% CI, 12 months to not reached) for patients with ACCR vs. 48 months (range, 30-125 months) in patients with normal cytogenetics at CR (NCCR; P = 0.31). Median overall survival also did not differ significantly between the ACCR (99 months [range, 17 months to not reached]) and NCCR groups (67 months [range, 47 months to not reached], P = 0.86). The specificity of ACCR for minimal residual disease (MRD) positivity by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MFC) was 43%, and there was overall poor correlation between these two methods for the detection of residual disease. When patients were stratified by MRD status, the presence or absence of persistent cytogenetic abnormalities at CR did not add additional prognostic information. This study suggests that there is poor association between MRD assessment by MFC and the presence or absence of cytogenetic abnormalities at CR in adult patients with ALL. ACCR was not associated with adverse outcomes in ALL and did not add additional prognostic information when MRD status by MFC was known. PMID:26800008

  1. A Systematic Review of Music Therapy Practice and Outcomes with Acute Adult Psychiatric In-Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Catherine; Odell-Miller, Helen; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives There is an emerging evidence base for the use of music therapy in the treatment of severe mental illness. Whilst different models of music therapy have been developed in mental health care, none have specifically accounted for the features and context of acute in-patient settings. This review aimed to identify how music therapy is provided for acute adult psychiatric in-patients and what outcomes have been reported. Review Methods A systematic review using medical, psychological and music therapy databases. Papers describing music therapy with acute adult psychiatric in-patients were included. Analysis utilised narrative synthesis. Results 98 papers were identified, of which 35 reported research findings. Open group work and active music making for nonverbal expression alongside verbal reflection was emphasised. Aims were engagement, communication and interpersonal relationships focusing upon immediate areas of need rather than longer term insight. The short stay, patient diversity and institutional structure influenced delivery and resulted in a focus on single sessions, high session frequency, more therapist direction, flexible use of musical activities, predictable musical structures, and clear realistic goals. Outcome studies suggested effectiveness in addressing a range of symptoms, but were limited by methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes. Studies with significant positive effects all used active musical participation with a degree of structure and were delivered in four or more sessions. Conclusions No single clearly defined model exists for music therapy with adults in acute psychiatric in-patient settings, and described models are not conclusive. Greater frequency of therapy, active structured music making with verbal discussion, consistency of contact and boundaries, an emphasis on building a therapeutic relationship and building patient resources may be of particular importance. Further research is required to

  2. Clinical significance of screening for subclinical Cushing's disease in patients with pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Daisuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhiro; Otsuki, Michio; Oshino, Satoru; Saitoh, Youichi; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2016-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a clinical state caused by chronic excess of glucocorticoid, and results in hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, and dyslipidemia. Recently, a mild state of pituitary CS without typical Cushingoid appearance (subclinical Cushing's disease; SCD) has been identified. However, the true prevalence of SCD and its effect on metabolic disorders remain obscure. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence of SCD according to the guideline proposed by the working group of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labor, and to assess the outcome of surgery on metabolic disorders. The prevalence of SCD was investigated in 105 consecutive patients diagnosed with pituitary adenomas by MRI. ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism was diagnosed based on the results of the 0.5 mg dexamethasone suppression test (serum cortisol >3.0 μg/dL) plus one positive finding of the following two tests: midnight serum cortisol level >5.0 μg/dL or ACTH increase >50% after 1-deamino-5-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) challenge. The final diagnosis of SCD was established by positive staining for ACTH in surgically-excised pituitary adenoma. Three patients (4.8%) were diagnosed with SCD among 62 patients with pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal adenomectomy partially resulted in improvement of blood pressure and glucose metabolism in SCD patients. Our results emphasize the importance of SCD screening in patients with pituitary tumors, especially in those patients with metabolic disorders.

  3. Prevalence of celiac disease in adult patients with refractory functional dyspepsia: Value of routine duodenal biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Giangreco, Emiliano; D’agate, Cinzia; Barbera, Carmelo; Puzzo, Lidia; Aprile, Giuseppe; Naso, Pietro; Bonanno, Giacomo; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Incarbone, Salvatore; Trama, Giuseppe; Russo, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in adult patients referred to an open access gastroenterology clinic in the south of Italy and submitted to esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) for evaluation of refractory functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Seven hundred and twenty six consecutive dyspeptic patients (282 male, 444 female; mean age 39.6 years, range 18-75 years) with unexplained prolonged dyspepsia were prospectively enrolled. Duodenal biopsies were taken and processed by standard staining. Histological evaluation was carried out according to the Marsh-Oberhuber criteria. RESULTS: The endoscopic findings were: normal in 61.2%, peptic lesions in 20.5%, malignancies in 0.5%, miscellaneous in 16.7%. CD was endoscopically diagnosed in 8 patients (1.1%), histologically in 15 patients (2%). The endoscopic features alone showed a sensitivity of 34.8% and specificity of 100%, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and a negative predictive value (NPP) of 97.9%. CONCLUSION: This prospective study showed that CD has a high prevalence (1:48) in adult dyspeptic patients and suggests the routine use of duodenal biopsy in this type of patient undergoing EGD. PMID:19058330

  4. The effects of phenytoin and sodium valproate on the periodontal health of adult epileptic patients.

    PubMed

    Seymour, R A; Smith, D G; Turnbull, D N

    1985-07-01

    The periodontal health of 30 adult epileptic patients treated with either sodium valproate or phenytoin was compared with a control group (n = 15) of otherwise healthy patients. The 3 groups were matched for age and sex. Patients on phenytoin therapy showed significantly higher plaque scores (P less than 0.05), gingival index (P less than 0.05) and pocketing (P less than 0.05) than patients in the control group. The % of gingival hyperplasia was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) in the phenytoin-treated patients than those on sodium valproate or in the control group. However, patients on phenytoin therapy had significantly less bone loss than those on sodium valproate (P less than 0.05) or in the control group (P less than 0.01). No significant differences were observed between the sodium valproate group and the control group on any of the parameters assessed. The results from this study would suggest that sodium valproate has no unwanted effects on periodontal health and may be considered a safe alternative, regarding the periodontal aspects, to phenytoin for the treatment of adult onset epilepsy.

  5. Clinicopathologic analysis of isolated hematuria in child/adolescent and adult patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, GuangLei; Zhu, Jun; Song, MingHui; Ma, Lu; Pan, Tao; Yang, Qi; Zhang, WenSheng

    2015-12-01

    To our knowledge, no in-depth clinicopathologic study of isolated hematuria (IH) is currently available. To address this gap, we analyzed the clinicopathologic features of IH as it manifests in child/adolescent and adult patients. The clinical data and pathological types of 543 IH patients who underwent renal pathological examinations from January 2005 to June 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical manifestations differed among the age groups: children/adolescents exhibited the highest percentage of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (41.78%), whereas adults showed the highest percentage of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) (52.39%). In addition, the percentage of IH patients who were classified according to clinical pathology differed from that of patients who were classified according to renal pathological type. Patients with IgAN who were found to have minimal proteinuria had more severe IH. For IH patients, especially those with a small amount of proteinuria, renal biopsy should be performed as early as possible in order to develop a long-term treatment plan and prognosis evaluation. PMID:27003766

  6. An approach to predict Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) using time domain and bispectrum features from HRV signal.

    PubMed

    Houshyarifar, Vahid; Chehel Amirani, Mehdi

    2016-08-12

    In this paper we present a method to predict Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) with higher order spectral (HOS) and linear (Time) features extracted from heart rate variability (HRV) signal. Predicting the occurrence of SCA is important in order to avoid the probability of Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD). This work is a challenge to predict five minutes before SCA onset. The method consists of four steps: pre-processing, feature extraction, feature reduction, and classification. In the first step, the QRS complexes are detected from the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal and then the HRV signal is extracted. In second step, bispectrum features of HRV signal and time-domain features are obtained. Six features are extracted from bispectrum and two features from time-domain. In the next step, these features are reduced to one feature by the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) technique. Finally, KNN and support vector machine-based classifiers are used to classify the HRV signals. We used two database named, MIT/BIH Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) Database and Physiobank Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR). In this work we achieved prediction of SCD occurrence for six minutes before the SCA with the accuracy over 91%. PMID:27567781

  7. The effect of SCD and LEPR genetic polymorphisms on fat content and composition is maintained throughout fattening in Duroc pigs.

    PubMed

    Henriquez-Rodriguez, E; Bosch, L; Tor, M; Pena, R N; Estany, J

    2016-11-01

    The effects of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD; AY487830:g.2228T>C) and leptin receptor (LEPR; NM_001024587:g.1987C>T) polymorphisms on fat content and fatty acid (FA) composition were investigated throughout fattening. Samples of Longissimus thoracis (LT) and subcutaneous fat (SF) from 214 Duroc barrows were collected from 160days to slaughter age (220days) using a longitudinal design. Results indicated that the positive effect of the T allele at the SCD gene on monounsaturated FA and of the T allele at the LEPR gene on saturated FA are maintained throughout the growing-finishing period, both in LT and SF. In LEPR, however, compositional changes, particularly in SF, are a result of increased fatness. There is very limited evidence of genotype by age interaction, and thus it is concluded that the combined selection for the SCD T and LEPR C alleles is a good strategy to increase the MUFA/SFA ratio regardless of the age at slaughter. PMID:27240305

  8. The effect of SCD and LEPR genetic polymorphisms on fat content and composition is maintained throughout fattening in Duroc pigs.

    PubMed

    Henriquez-Rodriguez, E; Bosch, L; Tor, M; Pena, R N; Estany, J

    2016-11-01

    The effects of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD; AY487830:g.2228T>C) and leptin receptor (LEPR; NM_001024587:g.1987C>T) polymorphisms on fat content and fatty acid (FA) composition were investigated throughout fattening. Samples of Longissimus thoracis (LT) and subcutaneous fat (SF) from 214 Duroc barrows were collected from 160days to slaughter age (220days) using a longitudinal design. Results indicated that the positive effect of the T allele at the SCD gene on monounsaturated FA and of the T allele at the LEPR gene on saturated FA are maintained throughout the growing-finishing period, both in LT and SF. In LEPR, however, compositional changes, particularly in SF, are a result of increased fatness. There is very limited evidence of genotype by age interaction, and thus it is concluded that the combined selection for the SCD T and LEPR C alleles is a good strategy to increase the MUFA/SFA ratio regardless of the age at slaughter.

  9. The views of patients, mentors and adult field nursing students on patients' participation in student nurse assessment in practice.

    PubMed

    McMahon-Parkes, Kate; Chapman, Linda; James, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, changes to undergraduate nursing curricula in the United Kingdom have been coupled with increasing expectations that service users be involved in assessment of student nurses. These factors lead to the development of a tool to facilitate gathering of feedback from patients/carers on the competency of adult field student nurses in practice. This study evaluated experiences of those involved in the process of using the feedback tool. Using an exploratory qualitative research design, four patients, four mentors and five pre-registration adult field nursing students were interviewed. Thematic analysis of the data identified three interconnecting themes; value of the patient's voice, caring and protection, and authenticity of feedback. A sub-theme of timing of giving feedback was also identified. Patients felt they should be involved in giving feedback, were comfortable in doing so, and felt best placed to judge students' performance in several aspects of care. Students and mentors shared these opinions. Additionally they felt service user feedback potentially helped improve students' competence and confidence, and facilitated mentors in their assessment of students' professional values, communication and interpersonal skills. However, mentors were more reticent about the possibility of receiving feedback from service users on their own practice.

  10. The views of patients, mentors and adult field nursing students on patients' participation in student nurse assessment in practice.

    PubMed

    McMahon-Parkes, Kate; Chapman, Linda; James, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, changes to undergraduate nursing curricula in the United Kingdom have been coupled with increasing expectations that service users be involved in assessment of student nurses. These factors lead to the development of a tool to facilitate gathering of feedback from patients/carers on the competency of adult field student nurses in practice. This study evaluated experiences of those involved in the process of using the feedback tool. Using an exploratory qualitative research design, four patients, four mentors and five pre-registration adult field nursing students were interviewed. Thematic analysis of the data identified three interconnecting themes; value of the patient's voice, caring and protection, and authenticity of feedback. A sub-theme of timing of giving feedback was also identified. Patients felt they should be involved in giving feedback, were comfortable in doing so, and felt best placed to judge students' performance in several aspects of care. Students and mentors shared these opinions. Additionally they felt service user feedback potentially helped improve students' competence and confidence, and facilitated mentors in their assessment of students' professional values, communication and interpersonal skills. However, mentors were more reticent about the possibility of receiving feedback from service users on their own practice. PMID:26347448

  11. Use of the adult attachment projective picture system in psychodynamic psychotherapy with a severely traumatized patient.

    PubMed

    George, Carol; Buchheim, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The following case study is presented to facilitate an understanding of how the attachment information evident from Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) assessment can be integrated into a psychodynamic perspective in making therapeutic recommendations that integrate an attachment perspective. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a valid representational measure of internal representations of attachment based on the analysis of a set of free response picture stimuli designed to systematically activate the attachment system (George and West, 2012). The AAP provides a fruitful diagnostic tool for psychodynamic-oriented clinicians to identify attachment-based deficits and resources for an individual patient in therapy. This paper considers the use of the AAP with a traumatized patient in an inpatient setting and uses a case study to illustrate the components of the AAP that are particularly relevant to a psychodynamic conceptualization. The paper discusses also attachment-based recommendations for intervention.

  12. First Case of Lung Abscess due to Salmonella enterica Serovar Abony in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Dendrinos, John; Nikitiadis, Emanuel; Vrioni, Georgia; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, nontyphoidal Salmonella species predominantly cause a self-limited form of gastroenteritis, while they infrequently invade or cause fatal disease. Extraintestinal manifestations of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections are not common and mainly occur among individuals with specific risk factors; among them, focal lung infection is a rare complication caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella strains typically occurring in immunocompromised patients with prior lung disease. We describe the first case of a localized lung abscess formation in an immunocompetent healthy female adult due to Salmonella enterica serovar Abony. The patient underwent lobectomy and was discharged after full clinical recovery. This case report highlights nontyphoidal Salmonellae infections as a potential causative agent of pleuropulmonary infections even in immunocompetent healthy adults. PMID:27429814

  13. Use of the adult attachment projective picture system in psychodynamic psychotherapy with a severely traumatized patient

    PubMed Central

    George, Carol; Buchheim, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The following case study is presented to facilitate an understanding of how the attachment information evident from Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) assessment can be integrated into a psychodynamic perspective in making therapeutic recommendations that integrate an attachment perspective. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a valid representational measure of internal representations of attachment based on the analysis of a set of free response picture stimuli designed to systematically activate the attachment system (George and West, 2012). The AAP provides a fruitful diagnostic tool for psychodynamic-oriented clinicians to identify attachment-based deficits and resources for an individual patient in therapy. This paper considers the use of the AAP with a traumatized patient in an inpatient setting and uses a case study to illustrate the components of the AAP that are particularly relevant to a psychodynamic conceptualization. The paper discusses also attachment-based recommendations for intervention. PMID:25140164

  14. First Case of Lung Abscess due to Salmonella enterica Serovar Abony in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient.

    PubMed

    Pitiriga, Vassiliki; Dendrinos, John; Nikitiadis, Emanuel; Vrioni, Georgia; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, nontyphoidal Salmonella species predominantly cause a self-limited form of gastroenteritis, while they infrequently invade or cause fatal disease. Extraintestinal manifestations of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections are not common and mainly occur among individuals with specific risk factors; among them, focal lung infection is a rare complication caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella strains typically occurring in immunocompromised patients with prior lung disease. We describe the first case of a localized lung abscess formation in an immunocompetent healthy female adult due to Salmonella enterica serovar Abony. The patient underwent lobectomy and was discharged after full clinical recovery. This case report highlights nontyphoidal Salmonellae infections as a potential causative agent of pleuropulmonary infections even in immunocompetent healthy adults. PMID:27429814

  15. Quality Measures for the Care of Adult Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Collop, Nancy A.; Jacobowitz, Ofer; Thomas, Sherene M.; Quan, Stuart F.; Aronsky, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder associated with a multitude of adverse outcomes when left untreated. There is significant heterogeneity in the evaluation and management of OSA resulting in variation in cost and outcomes. Thus, the goal for developing these measures was to have a way to evaluate the outcomes and reliability of the processes involved with the standard care approaches used in the diagnosis and management of OSA. The OSA quality care measures presented here focus on both outcomes and processes. The AASM commissioned the Adult OSA Quality Measures Workgroup to develop quality care measures aimed at optimizing care for adult patients with OSA. These quality care measures developed by the Adult OSA Quality Measures Workgroup are an extension of the original Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) approved Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) measures group for OSA. The measures are based on the available scientific evidence, focus on public safety, and strive to improve quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes for individual OSA patients. The three outcomes that were selected were as follows: (1) improve disease detection and categorization; (2) improve quality of life; and (3) reduce cardiovascular risk. After selecting these relevant outcomes, a total of ten process measures were chosen that could be applied and assessed for the purpose of accomplishing these outcomes. In the future, the measures described in this document may be reported through the PQRS in addition to, or as a replacement for, the current OSA measures group. The overall objective for the development of these measures is that implementation of these quality measures will result in improved patient outcomes, reduce the public health burden of OSA, and provide a measurable standard for evaluating and managing OSA. Citation: Aurora RN, Collop NA, Jacobowitz O, Thomas SM, Quan SF, Aronsky AJ. Quality measures for the care of adult patients with

  16. NCICT: a computational solution to estimate organ doses for pediatric and adult patients undergoing CT scans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choonsik; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Bolch, Wesley E; Moroz, Brian E; Folio, Les

    2015-12-01

    We developed computational methods and tools to assess organ doses for pediatric and adult patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations. We used the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference pediatric and adult phantoms combined with the Monte Carlo simulation of a reference CT scanner to establish comprehensive organ dose coefficients (DC), organ absorbed dose per unit volumetric CT Dose Index (CTDIvol) (mGy/mGy). We also developed methods to estimate organ doses with tube current modulation techniques and size specific dose estimates. A graphical user interface was designed to obtain user input of patient- and scan-specific parameters, and to calculate and display organ doses. A batch calculation routine was also integrated into the program to automatically calculate organ doses for a large number of patients. We entitled the computer program, National Cancer Institute dosimetry system for CT(NCICT). We compared our dose coefficients with those from CT-Expo, and evaluated the performance of our program using CT patient data. Our pediatric DCs show good agreements of organ dose estimation with those from CT-Expo except for thyroid. Our results support that the adult phantom in CT-Expo seems to represent a pediatric individual between 10 and 15 years rather than an adult. The comparison of CTDIvol values between NCICT and dose pages from 10 selected CT scans shows good agreements less than 12% except for two cases (up to 20%). The organ dose comparison between mean and modulated mAs shows that mean mAs-based calculation significantly overestimates dose (up to 2.4-fold) to the organs in close proximity to lungs in chest and chest-abdomen-pelvis scans. Our program provides more realistic anatomy based on the ICRP reference phantoms, higher age resolution, the most up-to-date bone marrow dosimetry, and several convenient features compared to previous tools. The NCICT will be available for research purpose in the near future.

  17. Urticaria and dermographism in patients with adult-onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Ayabe, Liliane Akemi; Brandt, Hebert Roberto Clivati; Romiti, Ricardo; Maruta, Celina W

    2012-08-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) patients typically present with arthralgia, fever, lymphadenopathy and a transient salmon maculopapular rash. Only approximately 25 cases of AOSD with urticaria were described in the literature. In this article, the authors report three additional cases of AOSD with urticarial and dermographic lesions who had a good clinical response to glucocorticoid and antihistamines. A review of the literature concerning this issue is also herein written.

  18. A systematic review of hospitalization resulting from medicine-related problems in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Al Hamid, Abdullah; Ghaleb, Maisoon; Aljadhey, Hisham; Aslanpour, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Aims Medicine-related problems (MRPs) represent a major issue leading to hospitalization, especially in adult and elderly patients. The aims of this review are to investigate the prevalence, causes and major risk factors for MRPs leading to hospitalization in adult patients and to identify the main medicine classes involved. Methods Studies were identified through electronic searches of Medline, Embase, Scopus and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts between January 2000 and May 2013. A systematic review was conducted of both retrospective and prospective studies. Studies included were those involving hospitalization resulting from MRPs in adults (≥18 years old), whereas studies excluded were those investigating drug misuse and abuse and studies investigating MRPs in hospitalized patients. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Results Forty-five studies were identified, including 21 that investigated hospitalization resulting from adverse drug reactions, six studies that investigated hospitalization due to adverse drug events and 18 studies that investigated hospitalization due to MRPs. The median prevalence rates of hospitalization resulting from adverse drug reactions, adverse drug events and MRPs were 7% (interquartile range, 2.4–14.9%), 4.6% (interquartile range, 2.85–16.6%) and 12.1% (interquartile range, 6.43–22.2%), respectively. The major causes contributing to MRPs were adverse drug reactions and noncompliance. In addition, the major risk factors associated with MRPs were old age, polypharmacy and comorbidities. Moreover, the main classes of medicines implicated were medicines used to treat cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Conclusions Hospitalization due to MRPs had a high prevalence, in the range of 4.6–12.1%. Most MRPs encountered were prevalent among adult patients taking medicines for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. PMID:24283967

  19. Differences of Sagittal Lumbosacral Parameters between Patients with Lumbar Spondylolysis and Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jin; Peng, Bao-Gan; Li, Yong-Chao; Zhang, Nai-Yang; Yang, Liang; Li, Duan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested an association between elevated pelvic incidence (PI) and the development of lumbar spondylolysis. However, there is still lack of investigation for Han Chinese people concerning the normal range of spinopelvic parameters and relationship between abnormal sagittal parameters and lumbar diseases. The objective of the study was to investigate sagittal lumbosacral parameters of adult lumbar spondylolysis patients in Han Chinese population. Methods: A total of 52 adult patients with symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis treated in the General Hospital of Armed Police Force (Beijing, China) were identified as the spondylolysis group. All the 52 patients were divided into two subgroups, Subgroup A: 36 patients with simple lumbar spondylolysis, and Subgroup B: 16 patients with lumbar spondylolysis accompanying with mild lumbar spondylolisthesis (slip percentage <30%). Altogether 207 healthy adults were chosen as the control group. All patients and the control group took lumbosacral lateral radiographs. Seven sagittal lumbosacral parameters, including PI, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), L5 incidence, L5 slope, and sacral table angle (STA), were measured in the lateral radiographs. All the parameters aforementioned were compared between the two subgroups and between the spondylolysis group and the control group with independent-sample t-test. Results: There were no statistically significant differences of all seven sagittal lumbosacral parameters between Subgroup A and Subgroup B. PI, PT, SS, and LL were higher (P < 0.05) in the spondylolysis group than those in the control group, but STA was lower (P < 0.001) in the spondylolysis group. Conclusions: Current study results suggest that increased PI and decreased STA may play important roles in the pathology of lumbar spondylolysis in Han Chinese population. PMID:27174324

  20. Reduced transcription of TCOF1 in adult cells of Treacher Collins syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant craniofacial disorder caused by frameshift deletions or duplications in the TCOF1 gene. These mutations cause premature termination codons, which are predicted to lead to mRNA degradation by nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Haploinsufficiency of the gene product (treacle) during embryonic development is the proposed molecular mechanism underlying TCS. However, it is still unknown if TCOF1 expression levels are decreased in post-embryonic human cells. Methods We have estimated TCOF1 transcript levels through real time PCR in mRNA obtained from leucocytes and mesenchymal cells of TCS patients (n = 23) and controls (n = 18). Mutational screening and analysis of NMD were performed by direct sequencing of gDNA and cDNA, respectively. Results All the 23 patients had typical clinical features of the syndrome and pathogenic mutations were detected in 19 of them. We demonstrated that the expression level of TCOF1 is 18-31% lower in patients than in controls (p < 0.05), even if we exclude the patients in whom we did not detect the pathogenic mutation. We also observed that the mutant allele is usually less abundant than the wild type one in mesenchymal cells. Conclusions This is the first study to report decreased expression levels of TCOF1 in TCS adult human cells, but it is still unknown if this finding is associated to any phenotype in adulthood. In addition, as we demonstrated that alleles harboring the pathogenic mutations have lower expression, we herein corroborate the current hypothesis of NMD of the mutant transcript as the explanation for diminished levels of TCOF1 expression. Further, considering that TCOF1 deficiency in adult cells could be associated to pathologic clinical findings, it will be important to verify if TCS patients have an impairment in adult stem cell properties, as this can reduce the efficiency of plastic surgery results during rehabilitation of these patients. PMID:20003452

  1. Marital Status and Fertility in Adult Iranian Patients with β-Thalassemia Major.

    PubMed

    Miri-Aliabad, Ghasem; Fadaee, Mahsoumeh; Khajeh, Ali; Naderi, Majid

    2016-03-01

    Expecting a family is an important component and a great goal for better quality of life for most of adults with β-thalassemia major. The aim of the present study was to examine the marital status of adults with β-thalassemia major. This cross-sectional study examined the marital status of patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia aged over 15 years. Patients' demographic characteristics including age, gender, marital status, duration of marriage, divorce, having or not having children and spouse's health status were recorded. Information about the disease including cardiac and endocrine complications, ferritin level, splenectomy and viral hepatitis were also recorded. Of 228 patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major aged over 15 years who were treated at this medical center, 32 (14 %) were married. The mean age of married patients was 25.18 ± 4.74 years. Among the married patients, 8 (25 %) were females and 24 (75 %) patients were males. The mean age of marriage was 22.76 ± 4.16 years. The minimum and maximum marriage age was 15 and 33 years, respectively. The median duration of marriage was one year with the range from 3 months to 11 years. Only 8 (25 %) patients (one female and seven males) had children. Therapeutic advances have led to significantly increased survival and improved quality of life and fertility of patients with β-thalassemia major. According to the results, 14 % of patients over 15 years were married which was slightly higher as compared with other similar studies. PMID:26855517

  2. Adolescents and adults affected by Cornelia de Lange syndrome: A report of 73 Italian patients.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Milena; Decimi, Valentina; Bettini, Laura Rachele; Maitz, Silvia; Gervasini, Cristina; Masciadri, Maura; Ajmone, Paola; Kullman, Gaia; Dinelli, Marco; Panceri, Roberto; Cereda, Anna; Selicorni, Angelo

    2016-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare genetic condition related to mutation of various cohesion complex related genes. Its natural history is quite well characterized as regard pediatric age. Relatively little information is available regarding the evolution of the disease in young-adult age. In medical literature, only one specific study has been published on this topic. We report on our experience on 73 Italian CdLS patients (40 males and 33 females) with and age range from 15 to 49 years. Our results confirm the previous study indicating that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the main medical problem of these patients in childhood and young-adult age. Other medical features that should be considered in the medical follow-up are tendency to overweight/frank obesity, constipation, discrepancy of limbs' length, epilepsy, hearing, and visual problems. Behavioral problems are particularly frequent as well. For this reason, every source of hidden pain should be actively searched for in evaluating a patient showing such a disorder. Finally, recommendations for medical follow-up in adult age are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27164219

  3. Demographic, clinical and laboratory findings among adult and pediatric patients hospitalized with dengue in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Velasco, John Mark S; Alera, Ma Theresa P; Ypil-Cardenas, Charity Ann; Dimaano, Efren M; Jarman, Richard G; Chinnawirotpisan, Piyawan; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Yoon, In-Kyu; Cummings, Derek A; Mammen, Mammen P

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated the differences in demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings between adult and pediatric patients hospitalized with dengue fever. Ninety patients with dengue infection admitted at San Lazaro Hospital (SLH), Manila from September 2005 to January 2006 were included in the study. The cases were laboratory-confirmed to have dengue infection. The majority of dengue cases (92%) had secondary dengue infection (median age = 18, age range: 2-37) while the remainder (8%) had a primary dengue infection (median age = 12, age range: 7-22). Nearly all the patients (99%) had dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Sixty-five of the cases (72%) had serotype data: 2 (3%) were dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) (median age = 17), 12 (18%) had DENV-2 (median age = 17.5), 38 (59%) had DENV-3 (median age = 16) and 13 (20%) had DENV-4 (median age = 18). The initial signs, symptoms and laboratory results except hematocrit (p = 0.02) and hemoglobin (p = 0.02) did not differ significantly between adults and children. During the study period, half the cases were adults (218 years; n = 45) and half were children (<18 years; n = 45). The ages of cases ranged from 2 to 37 years (median = 17 years) and the peak incidence was 15-19 years. Dengue is often considered as a pediatric disease. Additional studies are needed to determine if an age shift is occurring and where.

  4. Burns ITU admissions: length of stay in specific levels of care for adult and paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Maan, Zeshaan N; Frew, Quentin; Din, Asmat H; Unluer, Zeynep; Smailes, Sarah; Philp, Bruce; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of total length of stay (LOS) for burns patients based on the total burn surface area (TBSA) is well accepted. Total LOS is a poor measure of resource consumption. Our aim was to determine the LOS in specific levels of care to better inform resource allocation. We performed a retrospective review of LOS in intensive treatment unit (ITU), burns high dependency unit (HDU) and burns low dependency unit (LDU) for all patients requiring ITU admission in a regional burns service from 2003 to 2011. During this period, our unit has admitted 1312 paediatric and 1445 adult patients to our Burns ITU. In both groups, ITU comprised 20% of the total LOS (mean 0.23±0.02 [adult] and 0.22±0.02 [paediatric] days per %burn). In adults, 33% of LOS was in HDU (0.52±0.06 days per %burn) and 48% (0.68±0.06 days per %burn) in LDU, while in children, 15% of LOS was in HDU (0.19±0.03 days per %burn) and 65% in LDU (0.70±0.06 days per %burn). When considering Burns ITU admissions, resource allocation ought to be planned according to expected LOS in specific levels of care rather than total LOS. The largest proportion of stay is in low dependency, likely due to social issues.

  5. An Adult Patient with Ocular Myasthenia and Unusually Long Spontaneous Remission

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hashel, Jasem; Rashad, Hanaa M.; Rousseff, Rossen T.

    2014-01-01

    A male patient developed ocular myasthenia gravis (MG) at the age of 33. He was anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody (anti-AChR Ab) negative. He received cholinesterase blocker for 5 months and went into a complete clinical remission that lasted untreated for 17 years. He relapsed recently with ocular symptoms only. He is now anti-AChR Ab positive and SFEMG is abnormal in a facial muscle. The patient is controlled with steroids. He had one of the longest spontaneous remissions reported in the natural history of MG, particularly unusual for an adult with the disease. PMID:24822137

  6. Nonextraction treatment of upper canine-premolar transposition in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Shingo; Kuroda, Yasuko

    2005-05-01

    This article reports the successful treatment of a unilateral maxillary canine and first premolar transposition without the extraction of the premolar in an adult patient. A female patient, 21 years and three months of age, had moderate crowding in the upper arch with complete transposition of the canine and first premolar. After distal movement of the upper molars with a lingual arch and headgear appliance, the upper left first premolar and canine were transposed. Thirty-eight months after the placement of preadjusted appliances, the transposed canine and premolar were reordered in the proper positions. The total active treatment period was 49 months. After two years of retention, the occlusion is generally stable.

  7. Contemporary Concepts in the Young Adult Hip Patient: Periacetabular Osteotomy for Hip Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Coobs, Benjamin R; Xiong, Ao; Clohisy, John C

    2015-07-01

    The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy, as originally described by Dr. Reinhold Ganz, is an effective treatment for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia in the pre-arthritic young adult hip. This technique has experienced several recent modifications in an attempt to optimize the clinical outcomes of these patients. We will review the clinical presentation of acetabular dysplasia, indications for surgery, contemporary refinements in technique and clinical results following periacetabular osteotomy. In well-selected patients, this reconstructive osteotomy should be considered safe and effective in alleviating pain and improving hip function. PMID:25865812

  8. Evaluation and Surgical Management of the Overcorrected Clubfoot Deformity in the Adult Patient.

    PubMed

    Burger, Dawid; Aiyer, Amiethab; Myerson, Mark S

    2015-12-01

    Adult patients presenting with an overcorrected clubfoot often have had a posteromedial release. They present later in life and have compensated quite well despite the development of deformity. Minor trauma may lead to the onset of acute symptoms. A spectrum of deformity exists. Key features include a dorsally subluxated navicular, a dorsal bunion from overpull of the tibialis anterior tendon, valgus of the ankle or hindfoot or both, and a flattop talus. This article details the diagnostic approach to the overcorrected clubfoot patient and options for management of the various components of the deformity. PMID:26589080

  9. Neurologic complications in adult living donor liver transplant patients: an underestimated factor?

    PubMed

    Saner, Fuat Hakan; Gensicke, Julia; Olde Damink, Steven W M; Pavlaković, Goran; Treckmann, Juergen; Dammann, Marc; Kaiser, Gernot M; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Radtke, Arnold; Koeppen, Susanne; Beckebaum, Susanne; Cicinnati, Vito; Nadalin, Silvio; Malagó, Massimo; Paul, Andreas; Broelsch, Christoph E

    2010-02-01

    Liver transplantation is the only curative treatment in patients with end-stage liver disease. Neurological complications (NC) are increasingly reported to occur in patients after cadaveric liver transplantation. This retrospective cohort study aims to evaluate the incidence and causes of NC in living donor liver transplant (LDLT) patients in our transplant center. Between August 1998 and December 2005, 121 adult LDLT patients were recruited into our study. 17% of patients experienced NC, and it occurred significantly more frequently in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (42%) and autoimmune hepatitis (43%) as compared with patients with hepatitis B or C (9/10%, P = 0.013). The most common NC was encephalopathy (47.6%) followed by seizures (9.5%). The choice of immunosuppression by calcineurin inhibitor (Tacrolimus or Cyclosporin A) showed no significant difference in the incidence of NC (19 vs. 17%). The occurrence of NC did not influence the clinical outcome, since mortality rate, median ICU stay and length of hospital stay were similar between the two groups. Most patients who survived showed a nearly complete recovery of their NC. NCs occur in approximately 1 in 6 patients after LDLT and seem to be predominantly transient in nature, without major impact on clinical outcome. PMID:19727899

  10. Prevalence of human norovirus and Clostridium difficile coinfections in adult hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Stokely, Janelle N; Niendorf, Sandra; Taube, Stefan; Hoehne, Marina; Young, Vincent B; Rogers, Mary AM; Wobus, Christiane E

    2016-01-01

    Objective Human norovirus (HuNoV) and Clostridium difficile are common causes of infectious gastroenteritis in adults in the US. However, limited information is available regarding HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections. Our study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections among adult patients in a hospital setting and disease symptomatology. Study design and setting For a cross-sectional analysis, 384 fecal samples were tested for the presence of C. difficile toxins from patients (n=290), whom the provider suspected of C. difficile infections. Subsequent testing was then performed for HuNoV genogroups I and II. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to determine symptoms more frequently associated with coinfections. Results The final cohort consisted of the following outcome groups: C. difficile (n=196), C. difficile + HuNoV coinfection (n=40), HuNoV only (n=12), and neither (n=136). Coinfected patients were more likely to develop nausea, gas, and abdominal pain and were more likely to seek treatment in the winter season compared with individuals not infected or infected with either pathogen alone. Conclusion Our study revealed that patients with coinfection are more likely to experience certain gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular abdominal pain, suggesting an increased severity of disease symptomatology in coinfected patients. PMID:27418856

  11. Blueprint for Implementing New Processes in Acute Care: Rescuing Adult Patients With Intraosseous Access.

    PubMed

    Chreiman, Kristen M; Kim, Patrick K; Garbovsky, Lyudmila A; Schweickert, William D

    2015-01-01

    The intraosseous (IO) access initiative at an urban university adult level 1 trauma center began from the need for a more expeditious vascular access route to rescue patients in extremis. The goal of this project was a multidisciplinary approach to problem solving to increase access of IO catheters to rescue patients in all care areas. The initiative became a collaborative effort between nursing, physicians, and pharmacy to embark on an acute care endeavor to standardize IO access. This is a descriptive analysis of processes to effectively develop collaborative strategies to navigate hospital systems and successfully implement multilayered initiatives. Administration should empower nurse to advance their practice to include IO for patient rescue. Intraosseous access may expedite resuscitative efforts in patients in extremis who lack venous access or where additional venous access is required for life-saving therapies. Limiting IO dwell time may facilitate timely definitive venous access. Continued education and training by offering IO skill laboratory refreshers and annual e-learning didactic is optimal for maintaining proficiency and knowledge. More research opportunities exist to determine medication safety and efficacy in adult patients in the acute care setting. PMID:26352658

  12. Utilization of a Preemptive, Multimodal Analgesic Regimen in Adult Ambulatory Septoplasty Patients: A Quality Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Brett; Stanik-Hutt, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quality improvement project designed to decrease postoperative pain, decrease post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV), decrease time in the recovery room, and increase patient satisfaction in adult ambulatory septoplasty patients using a multimodal, preemptive analgesic regimen. The project was conducted in a community hospital setting with nine operating rooms, and a twenty one bed recovery room. Project participants included certified registered nurse anesthetists, anesthesiologists, operating room nurses, recovery room nurses, and otolaryngology surgeons. Following a period of departmental education, adult patients scheduled for outpatient septoplasty surgery received a preoperative regimen of medications that included gabapentin, celecoxib, and acetaminophen. Using a pre-post test design, (intervention group n = 17, non-intervention group n = 17) data was collected from patient and analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. The change in practice resulted in a significant decrease in pain scores in the recovery room and on discharge from the recovery room. In addition, patients who received the preemptive regimen also required significantly fewer opioid medications and were ready to be discharged from the recovery room in less time.

  13. Violent behaviour from young adults and the parents of paediatric patients in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jacqueline; Hazelton, Michael; Kable, Ashley

    2013-07-01

    Violence in healthcare is a significant issue and one that is increasing in prevalence globally. Nurses have been identified as the professional group at most risk, with patients the main source of this violence. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of Australian ED nurses with episodes of patient-related violence from young adults (16-25years of age) and the parents of paediatric patients. Data analysis of semi-structured interviews led to the identification of antecedents to episodes of violence and behaviours specific to these two groups of interest. These behaviours included: "performing" and attention-seeking behaviours and violent behaviours including both verbal and physical abuse. Antecedents discussed by participants included: parental emotions and alcohol and substance abuse. Overall the results speak to a working environment where participants regularly feel unsafe. Violence in the ED is perceived to occur frequently and to such an extent that participants have become resigned to expect and accept it as part of their job. The role played by distinct groups such as young adults and the parents of paediatric patients must be acknowledged and this knowledge used along with other known risk factors to help identify patients at risk of potential violence. PMID:23063841

  14. The use of arts and crafts in the rehabilitation of the adult burn patient.

    PubMed

    Sanford, S L; Cash, S H; Nelson, C

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into one small aspect of occupational therapy: the use of arts and crafts in the rehabilitation of the adult burn patient. While burn care literature is plentiful, that related specifically to occupational therapy treatment of burn patients is scarce. A survey was mailed to occupational therapists in 165 burn units across the United States. Responses to survey questions indicate that a majority of respondents (73%%) do not use arts and crafts in the rehabilitation of adult burn patients, while 26%% do use these modalities. Those respondents who do use arts and crafts stated that they use leatherwork, painting, and woodworking most frequently. Therapists who do not use arts and crafts indicated that their primary reasons for not doing so were the acutely ill status of the patients and wound drainage/sterility issues. The entire scope of occupational therapy treatment of burn patients deserves greater attention as it is a challenging and rapidly-evolving area of practice. PMID:23947587

  15. Applications of Nasal High-Flow Oxygen Therapy in Critically ill Adult Patients.

    PubMed

    Porhomayon, Jahan; El-Solh, Ali A; Pourafkari, Leili; Jaoude, Philippe; Nader, Nader D

    2016-10-01

    The use of nasal high-flow oxygen therapy (NHFOT) has become increasingly common in hospitals across Europe, Asia, and North America. These high utility devices provide an efficient and comfortable access points for providing supplemental oxygen to patients with variety of respiratory disorders. They are relatively easy to set up, and clinicians and patients alike give very positive feedback about their ease of use and comfort for patients in the hospital setting. However, it remains uncertain whether NHFOT improves patient survival or even reduces respiratory complications. Outcome data in adult populations are few and frequently underpowered to guide physicians for their widespread use in hospital setting. In this article, we present a review of the current technology and available studies pertinent to NHFOT. PMID:27142658

  16. Living donor liver transplantation in an adult patient with situs inversus totalis

    PubMed Central

    Yankol, Yücel; Mecit, Nesimi; Kanmaz, Turan; Acarlı, Koray; Kalayoğlu, Münci

    2015-01-01

    Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare congenital anomaly, and liver transplantation (LT) in an adult SIT patient is extremely rare. Liver transplantation in a SIT patient is also technically challenging due to reversed anatomical structures. Here we present the case of an 18-year-old female with SIT in whom left lobe living donor LT was performed. The patient suffered from cirrhosis due to autoimmune hepatitis. The recipient and donor are doing well without complications 20 months after LT. Situs inversus totalis should not be considered a contraindication for LT. If possible, use of a living donor left lobe graft for LT is more feasible than a living donor right lobe graft. It is also technically easier than using deceased donor full-size liver graft in SIT patients who require liver transplantation. PMID:26668533

  17. Restructuring a rehabilitation program for older adults: effects on patient outcomes and staff perspectives.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jennifer; Hopper, Tammy

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods research study was to examine the impact of organizational change on patient outcomes and staff experiences in a rehabilitation program for older adults. Program restructuring focused on reducing patient length of stay and increasing admissions to the rehabilitation program. Study findings revealed that patients admitted after restructuring, as compared to the time period just prior, experienced shorter lengths of stay yet made similar progress towards rehabilitation goals. The average discharge Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores between the two time periods were not significantly different. Yet FIM efficiency scores improved after the restructuring. With this reorganization, rehabilitation staff reported working harder to help patients achieve satisfactory outcomes, although initially staff reported lower morale. Findings extend the current literature and have practical implications for health care professionals interested in facilitating successful organizational change.

  18. Applications of Nasal High-Flow Oxygen Therapy in Critically ill Adult Patients.

    PubMed

    Porhomayon, Jahan; El-Solh, Ali A; Pourafkari, Leili; Jaoude, Philippe; Nader, Nader D

    2016-10-01

    The use of nasal high-flow oxygen therapy (NHFOT) has become increasingly common in hospitals across Europe, Asia, and North America. These high utility devices provide an efficient and comfortable access points for providing supplemental oxygen to patients with variety of respiratory disorders. They are relatively easy to set up, and clinicians and patients alike give very positive feedback about their ease of use and comfort for patients in the hospital setting. However, it remains uncertain whether NHFOT improves patient survival or even reduces respiratory complications. Outcome data in adult populations are few and frequently underpowered to guide physicians for their widespread use in hospital setting. In this article, we present a review of the current technology and available studies pertinent to NHFOT.

  19. Increased pulmonary alveolar-capillary permeability in patients at risk for adult respiratory distress syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tennenberg, S.D.; Jacobs, M.P.; Solomkin, J.S.; Ehlers, N.A.; Hurst, J.M.

    1987-04-01

    Two methods for predicting adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were evaluated prospectively in a group of 81 multitrauma and sepsis patients considered at clinical high risk. A popular ARDS risk-scoring method, employing discriminant analysis equations (weighted risk criteria and oxygenation characteristics), yielded a predictive accuracy of 59% and a false-negative rate of 22%. Pulmonary alveolar-capillary permeability (PACP) was determined with a radioaerosol lung-scan technique in 23 of these 81 patients, representing a statistically similar subgroup. Lung scanning achieved a predictive accuracy of 71% (after excluding patients with unilateral pulmonary contusion) and gave no false-negatives. We propose a combination of clinical risk identification and functional determination of PACP to assess a patient's risk of developing ARDS.

  20. Treatment non-adherence in teenage and young adult patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Kondryn, Helena J; Edmondson, Claire L; Hill, Jonathan; Eden, Tim O B

    2011-01-01

    Adhering to treatment can be a significant issue for many patients diagnosed with chronic health conditions and this has been reported to be greater during the adolescent years. However, little is known about treatment adherence in teenage and young adult (TYA) patients with cancer. To increase awareness of the adherence challenges faced by these patients, we have reviewed the published work. The available evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of TYA patients with cancer do have difficulties, with reports that up to 63% of patients do not adhere to their treatment regimens. However, with inconsistent findings across studies, the true extent of non-adherence for these young patients is still unclear. Furthermore, it is apparent that there are many components of the cancer treatment regimen that have yet to be assessed in relation to patient adherence. Factors that have been shown to affect treatment adherence in TYA patients include patient emotional functioning (depression and self-esteem), patient health beliefs (perceived illness severity and vulnerability), and family environment (parental support and parent-child concordance). Strategies that foster greater patient adherence are also identified. These strategies are multifactorial, targeting not only the patient, but the health professional, family, and treatment regimen. This review highlights the lack of interventional studies addressing treatment adherence in TYA patients with cancer, with only one such intervention being identified: a video game intervention focusing on behavioural issues related to cancer treatment and care. Methodological issues in measuring adherence are addressed and suggestions for improving the design of future adherence studies highlighted, of which there is a great need.

  1. Psychometric evaluation of the Sheehan Disability Scale in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Coles, Theresa; Coon, Cheryl; DeMuro, Carla; McLeod, Lori; Gnanasakthy, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Inattention and impulsivity symptoms are common among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can lead to difficulty concentrating, restlessness, difficulty completing tasks, disorganization, impatience, and impulsiveness. Many adults with ADHD find it difficult to focus and prioritize. Resulting outcomes, such as missed deadlines and forgotten engagements, may ultimately impact the ability to function at work, school, home, or in a social environment. The European Medicines Agency guidelines for evaluating medicinal products for ADHD recommend inclusion of both functional outcomes, such as school, social, or work functioning, and outcomes related to symptoms of ADHD in clinical studies of novel medication primary efficacy endpoints. Due to its performance in other disease areas and the relevance of its items as evidenced by content validity analyses, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) was chosen to assess functional impairment in ADHD. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the SDS, used as a brief measure of functional impairment in a number of psychiatric disorders, in adult patients with ADHD. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the reliability of the SDS (based on Cronbach's coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability), its validity (construct and known-groups validity), and its ability to detect change in this patient population. This study also established a preliminary responder definition for the SDS in this study population to determine when change can be considered clinically beneficial in a clinical trial setting. The psychometric results support the use of the SDS subscales (items 1-3) and total score (sum of items 1-3) in an ADHD population. In addition, the evaluation provides evidence for a three-point preliminary responder definition for the SDS and further evidence of its responsiveness in adults with ADHD. Altogether, the results indicate that the SDS is a

  2. Demands and challenges for patients with sickle-cell disease requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Jastaniah, Wasil; Al Afghani, Sameera; Al Bagshi, Muneer H; Nasserullah, Zaki; Al-Suliman, Ahmed M; Alabdulaali, Mohammed K

    2016-09-01

    Allogeneic HSCT is the only curative treatment for SCD. In this study, we estimated the number of Saudi patients with SCD who are candidates for HSCT. We used the presence of overt stroke, recurrent ACS, and frequent severe pain crisis as indications for HSCT. We calculated the frequencies of these complications among a Saudi SCD cohort of 376 patients with SCD, 250 from SW and 126 from Eastern (E) provinces. We found that 59 (23.6%) of SW patients were transplant candidates compared to 22 (17.4%) from E province. It is estimated that about 61 000 patients with SCD live in Saudi Arabia. Thus, the projected number of Saudi patients with SCD who are candidates for HSCT is 10 536 patients. Of those, 2148 are children. The burden of SCD on HSCT centers in Saudi Arabia is substantial and is difficult currently to meet the demand. We recommend recruiting/training more transplant physicians and nurses, expand current capacity of centers if feasible, and open new transplant centers to make HSCT a practical therapeutic option for patients with severe SCD in Saudi Arabia.

  3. Acute Alcohol Use and Injury Patterns in Young Adult Prehospital Patients.

    PubMed

    Barton, David J; Tift, Frank W; Cournoyer, Lauren E; Vieth, Julie T; Hudson, Korin B

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine if acute alcohol consumption is associated with differences in injury pattern among young adult patients with traumatic injuries presenting to emergency medical services (EMS). A cross-sectional, retrospective review of prehospital patient care reports (PCRs) was conducted evaluating injured patients who presented to a collegiate EMS agency from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012. Included patients were age 18-24 y and sustained an injury within the previous 24 h. PCRs were reviewed independently by two abstractors to determine if the patient was documented to have acutely consumed alcohol proximate to his/her injury. Primary and secondary sites of regional body injury were recorded. Injury severity was recorded using the Revised Trauma Score (RTS). The association between primary injury site and acute alcohol use was assessed using a chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to control for sex in predicting injury type. Of 440 injured patients, 135 (30.6%) had documented alcohol use prior to injury. Acute alcohol consumption altered the overall pattern of regional injury (p < 0.001). Alcohol users were more likely to present with injury secondary to assault, fall/trip, and unknown mechanism of injury (p < 0.001, all comparisons). RTS scores were statistically lower in the alcohol group (p < 0.001), although the clinical significance of this is unclear. Controlling for sex, acute alcohol consumption predicted increased risk of head/neck injury 5.59-fold (p < 0.001). Acute alcohol use in collegiate EMS patients appears to alter injury patterns in young adults and increases risk of head/neck injury. EMS providers in similar agencies should consider these trends when assessing and treating injured college-aged patients. PMID:27002348

  4. Novel Munc13–4 mutations in children and young adult patients with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, A; Cannella, S; Bossi, G; Gallo, F; Trizzino, A; Pende, D; Dieli, F; Bruno, G; Stinchcombe, J C; Micalizzi, C; De Fusco, C; Danesino, C; Moretta, L; Notarangelo, L D; Griffiths, G M; Aricò, M

    2006-01-01

    Familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterised by constitutive defects in cellular cytotoxicity resulting in fever, hepatosplenomegaly and cytopenia, and the outcome is fatal unless treated by chemoimmunotherapy followed by haematopoietic stem‐cell transplantation. Since 1999, mutations in the perforin gene giving rise to this disease have been identified; however, these account only for 40% of cases. Lack of a genetic marker hampers the diagnosis, suitability for transplantation, selection of familial donors, identification of carriers, genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. Mutations in the Munc13–4 gene have recently been described in patients with FHL. We sequenced the Munc13–4 gene in all patients with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis not due to PRF1 mutations. In 15 of the 30 families studied, 12 novel and 4 known Munc13–4 mutations were found, spread throughout the gene. Among novel mutations, 2650C→T introduced a stop codon; 441del A, 532del C, 3082del C and 3226ins G caused a frameshift, and seven were mis sense mutations. Median age of diagnosis was 4 months, but six patients developed the disease after 5 years of age and one as a young adult of 18 years. Involvement of central nervous system was present in 9 of 15 patients, activity of natural killer cells was markedly reduced or absent in 13 of 13 tested patients. Chemo‐immunotherapy was effective in all patients. Munc13–4 mutations were found in 15 of 30 patients with FHL without PRF1 mutations. Because these patients may develop the disease during adolescence or even later, haematologists should include FHL2 and FHL3 in the differential diagnosis of young adults with fever, cytopenia, splenomegaly and hypercytokinaemia. PMID:16825436

  5. Introduction of a Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis Protocol for Older Adult Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed Central

    Croxford, Anna; Clare, Adam; McCurdy, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Hospital-Acquired venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. In psychiatric patients these risks are increased due to multiple factors including poor mobility, restraint, catatonia, sedation, and conventional antipsychotic use. Diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric patients presenting with signs and symptoms of a VTE can be delayed due to a patient's communication difficulties, non-compliance, or attribution of symptoms to a psychosomatic cause. However, despite the increased risk, approved VTE prophylaxis protocols are infrequently used on Psychiatric wards. On one Older Adult Psychiatric Ward, two patients presented with VTE (a fatal pulmonary embolism and a symptomatic deep vein thrombosis) over a 6 month period demonstrating the necessity for prophylactic assessment. A baseline audit over 3 months showed that 63-83% of patients on the ward had received no assessment of VTE risk, on any given week, although this improved slightly following the critical incidents. A VTE prophylaxis protocol, based on NICE guidance for VTE risk assessment in Medical and Surgical patients, was developed with consideration given to additional Psychiatric risk factors. This took the form of a pro-forma with a tick-box design that included mobility assessment, VTE risk factors, bleeding risk factors, and guidance on prescribing decisions. This was implemented on an Older Adult Psychiatric ward and prophylaxis was provided to those meeting the threshold. Weekly audit of all pro-formas (including assessments completed within 48 hours of admission and prophylaxis prescription) was conducted after the pro-forma introduction from 1st February 2013 to 24th May 2013. Frequency of assessments increased after protocol implementation with between 36% and 85% of all patients being assessed for VTE risk post intervention. Fluctuations in numbers assessed may have related to ward pressures, staff changes, and practicalities of pro-forma use. After

  6. Spontaneous gram-negative bacillary meningitis in adult patients: characteristics and outcome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Spontaneous meningitis caused by gram-negative bacilli in adult patients is uncommon and poorly characterized. Our objective is to describe and compare the characteristics and the outcome of adult patients with spontaneous gram-negative bacilli meningitis (GNBM) and spontaneous meningitis due to other pathogens. Methods Prospective single hospital-based observational cohort study conducted between 1982 and 2006 in a university tertiary hospital in Barcelona (Spain). The Main Outcome Measure: In-hospital mortality. Results Gram-negative bacilli meningitis was diagnosed in 40 (7%) of 544 episodes of spontaneous acute bacterial meningitis. The most common pathogens were Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas species. On admission, characteristics associated with spontaneous gram-negative bacilli meningitis by multivariate modeling were advanced age, history of cancer, nosocomial acquisition of infection, urinary tract infection as distant focus of infection, absence of rash, hypotension, and a high cerebrospinal fluid white-cell count. Nine (23%) episodes were acquired in the hospital and they were most commonly caused by Pseudomonas. The in-hospital mortality rate was 53%. The mortality rate was higher among patients with Gram-negative bacillary meningitis than among those with other bacterial meningitis and their risk of death was twenty times higher than among patients infected with Neisseria meningitidis (odds ratio 20.47; 95% confidence interval 4.03-103.93; p<0.001). Conclusions Gram-negative bacilli cause 9% of spontaneous bacterial meningitis of known etiology in adults. Characteristics associated with GNBM include advanced age, history of cancer, nosocomial acquisition, and urinary tract infection as distant focus of infection. The mortality rate is higher among patients with gram-negative bacillary meningitis than among those with other bacterial meningitides. PMID:24079517

  7. Clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and outcomes of adult patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Otrock, Zaher K; Eby, Charles S

    2015-03-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by the activation of the mononuclear phagocytic system. The diagnosis of HLH in adults is challenging not only because the majority of the reported data are from pediatric patients, but also because HLH occurs in many disease entities. This study reports the clinical and laboratory findings and prognostic factors of adult HLH in a large cohort managed at a single medical center from 2003 to 2014. Seventy-three patients met the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria. The median age was 51 years (range, 18-82 years); 41 (56.2%) were male. Patients manifested fever, cytopenias, and elevated ferritin in >85% of cases. Likely causes of HLH were as follows: 30 (41.1%) infections, 21 (28.8%) malignancies, 5 (6.8%) attributed to autoimmune disorders, 1 (1.4%) primary immunodeficiency, 2 (2.7%) post solid organ transplantation, and 13 (17.8%) idiopathic. The median overall survival was 7.67 months. Patients with malignancy-associated HLH had a markedly worse survival compared with patients with non-malignancy-associated HLH (median overall survival 1.13 vs. 46.53 months, respectively; P < 0.0001). In a multivariable analysis, malignancy (hazard ratio = 12.22; 95% CI: 2.53-59.02; P = 0.002) correlated with poor survival. Ferritin >50,000 µg/L correlated with 30-day mortality. Survival after a diagnosis of HLH is dismal, especially among those with malignancy-associated HLH. The development of a registry for adults with HLH would improve our understanding of this syndrome, validate diagnostic criteria, and help develop effective treatment strategies. PMID:25469675

  8. Translating personality psychology to help personalize preventive medicine for young adult patients.

    PubMed

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E; Belsky, Daniel W; Hancox, Robert J; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-03-01

    The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by health care reform will soon increase demands on primary care physicians. Physicians will face more young adult patients, which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the present study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults' personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the cohort of 1,000 individuals from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (Moffitt, Caspi, Rutter, & Silva, 2001), we show that very brief measures of young adults' personalities predicted their midlife physical health across multiple domains (metabolic abnormalities, cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, periodontal disease, and systemic inflammation). Individuals scoring low on the traits of Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience went on to develop poorer health even after accounting for preexisting differences in education, socioeconomic status, smoking, obesity, self-reported health, medical conditions, and family medical history. Moreover, personality ratings from peer informants who knew participants well, and from a nurse and receptionist who had just met participants for the first time, predicted health decline from young adulthood to midlife despite striking differences in level of acquaintance. Personality effect sizes were on par with other well-established health risk factors such as socioeconomic status, smoking, and self-reported health. We discuss the potential utility of personality measurement to function as an inexpensive and accessible tool for health care professionals to personalize preventive medicine. Adding personality information to existing health care electronic infrastructures could also advance personality theory by generating opportunities to examine how personality processes influence doctor-patient communication, health service use, and patient

  9. Functional MRI evidence for language plasticity in adult epileptic patients: Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Cousin, Emilie; Baciu, Monica; Pichat, Cédric; Kahane, Philippe; Le Bas, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    The present fMRI study explores the cerebral reorganisation of language in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, according to the age of seizures onset (early or late) and the hippocampal sclerosis (associated or not). Seven right-handed control volunteers and seven preoperative adult epileptic patients performed a rhyme decision (language condition) and a visual detection (control condition) tasks in visually presented words and unreadable characters, respectively. All patients were left hemisphere dominant for language. Appropriate statistical analyses provided the following preliminary results: (1) patients compared with healthy subjects showed lower degree of hemispheric lateralization with supplementary involvement of the right hemisphere; (2) the degree of hemispheric specialization depends on the considered region; (3) patients with early seizures show signs of temporal and parietal reorganization more frequently than patients with late onset of seizures; (4) patients with early seizures show a tendency for intra-hemispheric frontal reorganisation; (5) associated hippocampal sclerosis facilitates the inter-hemispheric shift of temporal activation. Although our patients were left hemisphere predominant for language, the statistical analyses indicated that the degree of lateralization was significantly lower than in healthy subjects. This result has been considered as the indication of atypical lateralization of language. PMID:18728818

  10. Activity limitation and exertional dyspnea in adult asthmatic patients: What do we know?

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, François; Garcia, Gilles; Ninane, Vincent; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2016-08-01

    Limitation of activity is the most cited symptom described by uncontrolled asthma patients. Assessment of activity limitation can be undertaken through several ways, more or less complex, subjective or objective. Yet little is known about the link between patients sensations and objective measurements. The present review reports the current knowledge regarding activity limitation and symptom perception (i.e., exertional dyspnea) in adult patients with asthma. This work is based on references indexed by PubMed, irrespective of the year of publication. Overall, patients with stable asthma do not have a more sedentary lifestyle than healthy subjects. However, during a cycle ergometric test, the maximal load is reduced when FEV1, FVC and muscle strengths are decreased. Additionally, during the six-minute walking test, mild asthma patients walk less than healthy subjects even if the minimal clinically important difference is not reached. The major complaint of asthma patients when exercising is dyspnea that is mainly related to the inspiratory effort and also to dynamic hyperinflation in some circumstances. Finally, the administration of bronchodilator does not improve the ventilatory pattern and the exercise capacity of asthma patients and little is known on its effect on exertional dyspnea. The present review allows to conclude that until now there is no gold standard test allowing the objective assessment of "activity limitation and exertional dyspnea" in asthma patients. PMID:27492522

  11. Long-Term Effects of Exercise Training and Hyperalimentation in Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Severe Pulmonary Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heijerman, Harry G. M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study, with 10 adult patients with cystic fibrosis, found that the improvement in lung function and ergometry parameters obtained by a short in-patient training program could be maintained on an out-patient basis through a voluntary self-treatment program. (DB)

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Novel Plant Cell-Expressed Taliglucerase Alfa in Adult and Pediatric Patients with Gaucher Disease

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Richat; Park, Glen; Damle, Bharat; Chertkoff, Raul; Alon, Sari

    2015-01-01

    Taliglucerase alfa is a beta-glucocerebrosidase enzyme replacement therapy approved in the United States, Israel, and other countries for treatment of Type 1 Gaucher disease in adults, and is the first approved plant cell—expressed recombinant protein. In this report, taliglucerase alfa pharmacokinetics were assessed in adult and pediatric patients with Gaucher disease from separate multicenter trials of 30 Units/kg and 60 Units/kg doses infused every 2 weeks. Serial blood samples were obtained from adult patients following single-dose administration on day 1 (n = 26) and multiple doses at week 38 (n = 29), and from pediatric patients following administration of multiple doses of taliglucerase alfa for 10–27 months (n = 10). In both adult and pediatric patients, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to last measureable concentration (AUC0-t), and from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) were higher after 60 Units/kg dose than 30 Units/kg dose. No tendency for accumulation or change in taliglucerase alfa pharmacokinetic parameters over time from day 1 to week 38 was observed with repeated doses of 30 or 60 Units/kg in adults. After multiple doses, mean (range) dose-normalized pharmacokinetic parameters were similar for adult versus pediatric patients receiving 60 Units/kg: Cmax expressed in ng/mL/mg was 42.4 (14.5–95.4) in adults and 46.6 (34.4–68.4) in pediatric patients, AUC0 t expressed in ng•h/mL/mg was 63.4 (26.3–156) in adults and 63.9 (39.8–85.1) in pediatric patients, t1/2 expressed in minutes was 34.8 (11.3–104) in adults and 31.5 (18.0–42.9) in pediatric patients and total body clearance expressed in L/h was 19.9 (6.25–37.9) in adults and 17.0 (11.7–24.9) in pediatric patients. These pharmacokinetic data extend the findings of taliglucerase alfa in adult and pediatric patients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT00376168 (in adults); NCT01411228 (in children) PMID

  13. Levomilnacipran extended-release: a review of its use in adult patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J

    2014-11-01

    Oral levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) [Fetzima™], the more active enantiomer of milnacipran, is the most recent serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor to be approved in the USA for the treatment of adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). MDD is characterized by depression and impairment of cognitive, social and work functioning. Once-daily levomilnacipran ER 40-120 mg was an effective and generally well-tolerated treatment in adults with MDD participating in 8-week phase III trials and a 1-year extension study. After 8 weeks, levomilnacipran ER treatment was associated with significantly greater and clinically meaningful improvements in depressive symptoms than placebo treatment and, in general, higher Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale responder rates and greater improvements in functional outcomes than placebo. The efficacy of levomilnacipran ER was maintained during the extension study, with no new safety signals detected; ongoing postmarketing evidence should more fully define the long-term safety of levomilnacipran ER. In the absence of head-to-head clinical trials, the relative position of levomilnacipran ER to that of other antidepressants remains to be determined. In the meantime, it is a useful addition to pharmacological options for the treatment of adult patients with MDD. This article summarizes the clinical use of oral levomilnacipran ER in adults with MDD, and briefly reviews the pharmacological properties of levomilnacipran. PMID:25270036

  14. Jejunal lymphangioma: an unusual cause of intussusception in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Limaiem, F; Khalfallah, T; Marsaoui, L; Bouraoui, S; Lahmar, A; Mzabi, S

    2015-03-01

    Adult intussusception is a relatively rare clinical entity. Almost 90% of cases of intussusception in adults are secondary to a pathologic condition that serves as a lead point. Lymphangioma of the small bowel is an unusual tumour that has been rarely reported to cause intussusception. In this paper, we present a rare case of adult intussusception due to jejunal lymphangioma. A 22-year-old female patient with a medical history significant for anaemia presented with intermittent colicky abdominal pain, diarrhoea and oedema of the inferior limbs for the past three months. Ultrasonography and CT scan revealed a typical target sign with dilated intestinal loops. At laparotomy, a jejuno-jejunal intussusception was found. Partial resection of the jejunum was performed. Macroscopic examination of the surgical specimen revealed a pedunculated polyp measuring 2 cm in diameter. Histological sections of the polyp revealed in the lamina propria and submucosal layer of the jejunum several markedly dilated thin-walled lymphatic spaces lined with single layers of flat endothelial cells. The final pathologic diagnosis was submucosal lymphangioma. This case report indicates that intussusception, although rare in adults, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. Moreover, it should be taken into consideration that lymphangioma is one of the possible lesions that can cause intussusception.

  15. Determination of VOSCs in sewer headspace air using TD-GC-SCD.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bei; Sivret, Eric C; Parcsi, Gavin; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-05-01

    The management of odorous emissions from sewer networks has become an important issue for sewer operators resulting in the need to better understand the composition of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs). In order to characterise the composition of such malodorous emissions, a method based on thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography coupled to sulfur chemiluminescence detector (GC-SCD) has been developed to determine a broader range of VOSCs, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (MeSH), ethanethiol (EtSH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon disulfide (CS2), ethylmethyl sulfide (EMS), 1-butanethiol (1-BuSH), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), diethyl disulfide (DEDS), and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). Parameters affecting the chromatographic behaviour of the target compounds were studied (e.g., temperature program, carrier gas velocity) as well as the experimental conditions affecting the adsorption/desorption process (temperature, flow and time). Optimised extraction of VOSCs samples was achieved under adsorption temperatures of less than -20°C, and a desorption flow rate of ~6 ml/min. Active collection on the cold trap enabled a small gas volume of 50-100ml to be sampled for all analytes without breakthrough. Calibration curves were derived at different TD loading volumes with determined linearity ranging between 0.09 ng and 60.1 ng. The method detection limits (MDLs) were in the range of 0.10-5.26 μg/m(3) with TD recoveries higher than 66% and reproducibility (relative standard deviation values) between 1.8% and 6.1% being obtained for all compounds. The VOSCs characterisation at different sewerage collection sites in Sydney, Australia (for seasonal, weekly and diurnal) showed that six of the ten targeted compounds were consistently detected at all sample events. Diurnal patterns of VOSCs investigated were clearly observed with the highest concentration occurring after 12 pm (noon) for H2S and MeSH. The consecutive 5 day analysis showed no significant difference

  16. Evaluation of shunt flow by multiplane transesophageal echocardiography in adult patients with isolated patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih-Tai; Hung, Kuo-Chun; Hsieh, I-Chang; Chang, Hern-Jia; Chern, Ming-Shyan; Lin, Fun-Chung; Wu, Delon

    2002-11-01

    The role of multiplane (M) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the diagnosis of isolated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in adults and its effectiveness in the assessment of the pulmonary to systemic flow ratio were evaluated and compared with those obtained from cardiac catheterization examination. Eleven consecutive patients, ranging from 17 to 56 years old (mean of 29.5 +/- 12.0), with clinically suspected PDA were subjects of this study. A complete transthoracic echocardiographic study was performed in each patient before MTEE. MTEE with Doppler color flow mapping showed clear visualization of a ductal structure between the descending aorta and pulmonary artery with a continuous turbulent mosaic flow suggestive of PDA in all 11 patients. The pulmonary/systemic flow and vascular resistance ratios obtained by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization correlated well (r = 0.8732, P =.0004; r = 0.623, P =.04, respectively). This study demonstrated that MTEE combined with transthoracic echocardiography examination is an accurate noninvasive means in the diagnosis of PDA and assessment of the pulmonary to systemic flow and vascular resistance ratios in adult patients.

  17. Follicular lymphoma in young adults: a clinicopathological and molecular study of 200 patients.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ivison X; Domeny-Duarte, Pollyanna; Wludarski, Sheila C L; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2013-09-01

    Follicular lymphoma is clinically heterogenous, and therefore necessitates the identification of prognostic markers to stratify risk groups and optimize clinical management. It is relatively rare in patients younger than 40 years, and the clinicopathologic characteristics and biological behavior in this age group are poorly understood. In the current study, samples from a cohort of 200 patients between 19 and 40 years were evaluated retrospectively with respect to clinical, histologic, and genetic features. These were then correlated with clinical outcome. The median age at presentation was 35 years with a slight female prepoderance (56%). Most of the cases are presented with nodal disease (90%). Concomitant follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were observed in 7 (4%) patients. Immunohistologic studies showed the expression of CD10 (91%), BCL6 (97%), BCL2 (95%), MUM1/IRF4 (12%), MDM2 (17%), and CD23 (25%). BCL2 rearrangement was present in 74%, and BCL6 in 20%. The estimated overall survival of patients was 13 years (mean). The presence of anemia, elevated lactose dehydrogenase, bone marrow involvement, and high-risk follicular lymphoma international prognostic index correlated with adverse overall survival. Our findings revealed that follicular lymphoma in young adults demonstrate similarities with that of older adults, including the frequency of presentation at various anatomic sites, grade, and adverse prognostic factors.

  18. Ratio of C-Reactive Protein to Albumin Predicts Muscle Mass in Adult Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Tong; Wu, Pei-Yu; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Hsu, Yung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the ratio of C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP–Alb ratio) is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with disease. We examined the predictive value of this ratio in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). In this cross-sectional study, 91 eligible adult HD patients were analyzed, and the correlation between the CRP–Alb ratio and skeletal muscle mass normalized for body weight (SMM/wt; estimated using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer) was investigated. The mean age of the study participants was 54.9 ± 6.6 years (ranging from 27 to 64 years); 43 (47.2%) were men. The mean values for the SMM/wt were 39.1% ± 5.4%. The CRP–Alb ratio was found to be negatively correlated with SMM/wt (r = −0.33, P = 0.002) and creatinine (r = −0.20, P = 0.056). All the univariate significant and nonsignificant relevant covariates were selected for multivariable stepwise regression analysis. We determined that the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance and CRP–Alb ratio were independent risk determinants for SMM/wt (βHOMA-IR = −0.18 and βCRP–Alb ratio = −3.84, adjusted R2 = 0.32). This study indicated that the CRP–Alb ratio may help clinicians in predicting muscle mass in adult patients undergoing HD. PMID:27768746

  19. Management of acne vulgaris with hormonal therapies in adult female patients.

    PubMed

    Husein-ElAhmed, Husein

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common condition affecting up of 93% of adolescents. Although rare, this disease may persist in adulthood. In adult women with acne (those older than 25 years old), this condition is particularly relevant because of the refractory to conventional therapies, which makes acne a challenge for dermatologists in this group of patients. In order to its potential risk for chronicity and the involvement of visible anatomical sites such as face and upper torso, acne has been associated with a wide spectrum of psychological and social dysfunction such as depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, somatization, and social inhibition. In particular, adult women with acne have been shown to be adversely impacted by the effect of acne on their quality of life. For the last four decades, dermatologists have used hormonal therapies for the management of acne vulgaris in adult women, which are considered a rational choice given the severity and chronicity of this condition in this group of patients. The aim of this work is to review the hormonal drugs for management of acne.

  20. Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Treatment Practices of Known Adult Hypertensive Patients in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamdan, N.; Saeed, A.; Kutbi, A.; Choudhry, A. J.; Nooh, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence, risk factors, characteristics, and treatment practices of known adult hypertensives in Saudi Arabia. Methods. Cross-sectional community-based study using the WHO stepwise approach. Saudi adults were randomly chosen from Primary Health Care Centers catchment areas. Data was collected using a questionnaire which included sociodemographic data, history of hypertension, risk factors, treatment practices, biochemical and anthropometric measurements. Collected data was cheeked, computer fed, and analysed using SPSS V17. Results. Out of 4719 subjects (99.2% response), 542 (11.5%) subjects were known hypertensives or detected by health workers in the past 12 months. Hypertension was significantly associated with age, gender, geographical location, education, employment, diabetes, physical inactivity, excess body weight, and ever smoking. Multiple logistic analysis controlling for age showed that significant predictors of hypertension were diabetes mellitus, ever smoking, obesity, and hypercholesteremia. Several treatment modalities and practices were significantly associated with gender, age, education, and occupation. About 74% were under prescribed treatment by physicians, 62% on dietary modification, 37% attempted weight reduction, 27% performed physical exercise, and less than 7% used herbs, consulted traditional healers or quitted smoking. Income was not significantly associated with any treatment modality or patient practices. Conclusion. Hypertension (known and undetected) is a major chronic health problem among adults in Saudi Arabia. Many patients' practices need changes. A comprehensive approach is needed to prevent, early detect, and control the disease targeting, the risk factors, and predictors identified. PMID:21318133

  1. Soluble CD163 is increased in patients with acute pancreatitis independent of disease severity.

    PubMed

    Karrasch, Thomas; Brünnler, Tanja; Hamer, Okka W; Schmid, Karin; Voelk, Markus; Herfarth, Hans; Buechler, Christa

    2015-10-01

    Macrophages are crucially involved in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is specifically released from macrophages and systemic levels are increased in inflammatory diseases. Here, sCD163 was measured in serum of 50 patients with acute pancreatitis to find out possible associations with disease activity. Admission levels of systemic sCD163 were nearly three-fold higher in patients with acute pancreatitis compared to controls. In patients sCD163 did not correlate with C-reactive protein and leukocyte count as established markers of inflammation. Levels were not associated with disease severity assessed by the Schroeder score, Balthazar score, Acute Physiology, Age, and Chronic Health Evaluation (Apache) II score and peripancreatic necrosis score. Soluble CD163 was not related to complications of acute pancreatitis. These data show that serum sCD163 is increased in acute pancreatitis indicating activation of macrophages but is not associated with disease severity and outcome.

  2. Pituitary Dysfunction in Adult Patients after Cranial Radiotherapy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kokshoorn, Nieke E.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Neelis, Karen J.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Pereira, Alberto M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Cranial radiotherapy is an important cause of hypopituitarism. The prevalence of hypopituitarism varies considerably between studies. Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of reported prevalences of hypopituitarism in adults radiated for nonpituitary tumors. Data Sources: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library to identify potentially relevant studies. Study Selection: Studies were eligible for inclusion with the following criteria: 1) cranial radiotherapy for nonpituitary tumors and/or total body irradiation for hematological malignancies; 2) adult population (>18 yr old); and 3) report on endocrine evaluation. Data Extraction: Data review was done by two independent reviewers. Besides extraction of baseline and treatment characteristics, also endocrine tests, definitions, and cutoff values used to define pituitary insufficiency were extracted. Results: Eighteen studies with a total of 813 patients were included. These included 608 patients treated for nasopharyngeal cancer (75%) and 205 for intracerebral tumors. The total radiation dose ranged from 14 to 83 and 40 to 97 Gy for nasopharyngeal and intracerebral tumors, respectively. The point prevalence of any degree of hypopituitarism was 0.66 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.55–0.76]. The prevalence of GH deficiency was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.33–0.57); of LH and FSH, 0.3 (95% CI, 0.23–0.37); of TSH, 0.25 (95% CI, 0.16–0.37); and of ACTH, 0.22 (95% CI, 0.15–0.3), respectively. The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia was 0.34 (95% CI, 0.15–0.6). There were no differences between the effects of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal vs. for intracerebral tumors. Conclusion: Hypopituitarism is prevalent in adult patients after cranial radiotherapy for nonpituitary tumors. Therefore, all patients treated by cranial radiotherapy should have structured periodical assessment of pituitary functions. PMID:21613351

  3. Thoracic Aorta 3D Hemodynamics in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients With Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Bradley D.; van Ooij, Pim; Barker, Alex J.; Carr, Maria; Gabbour, Maya; Schnell, Susanne; Jarvis, Kelly B.; Carr, James C.; Markl, Michael; Rigsby, Cynthia; Robinson, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the 3D hemodynamics in the thoracic aorta of pediatric and young adult bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients. Methods 4D flow MRI was performed in 30 pediatric and young adult BAV patients (age: 13.9 ± 4.4 (range: [3.4, 20.7]) years old, M:F = 17:13) as part of this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Nomogram-based aortic root Z-scores were calculated to assess aortic dilatation and degree of aortic stenosis (AS) severity was assessed on MRI. Data analysis included calculation of time-averaged systolic 3D wall shear stress (WSSsys) along the entire aorta wall, and regional quantification of maximum and mean WSSsys and peak systolic velocity (velsys) in the ascending aorta (AAo), arch, and descending aorta (DAo). The 4D flow MRI AAo velsys was also compared with echocardiography peak velocity measurements. Results There was a positive correlation with both mean and max AAo WSSsys and peak AAo velsys (mean: r = 0.84, P < 0.001, max: r = 0.94, P < 0.001) and AS (mean: rS = 0.43, P = 0.02, max: rS = 0.70, P < 0.001). AAo peak velocity was significantly higher when measured with echo compared with 4D flow MRI (2.1 ± 0.98 m/s versus 1.27 ± 0.49 m/s, P < 0.001). Conclusion In pediatric and young adult patients with BAV, AS and peak ascending aorta velocity are associated with increased AAo WSS, while aortic dilation, age, and body surface area do not significantly impact AAo hemodynamics. Prospective studies are required to establish the role of WSS as a risk-stratification tool in these patients. PMID:25644073

  4. Culturally competent approaches to diagnosing ADHD in Hispanic adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and families.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Juan

    2015-05-01

    Hispanics in the United States are a diverse population with different countries of origin and a wide range of English language proficiency, socioeconomic and immigration status, values, and traditions. Clinicians must combine what they know about treating adult ADHD in general with a culturally competent understanding of the special needs of Hispanic patients in order to provide effective and accessible treatment. Strategies to treat Hispanic adults may include clear communication during the patient's interview, assessment of comorbid conditions, and affordable treatment options.

  5. Management and outcomes of small bowel obstruction in older adult patients: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Jeremy E.; Bailey, Jonathan G.; Davis, Philip J.B.; Johnson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this research was to examine the morbidity, mortality and rate of recurrent bowel obstruction associated with the treatment of small bowel obstruction (SBO) in older adults. Methods We prospectively enrolled all patients 70 years or older with an SBO who were admitted to a tertiary care teaching centre between Jul. 1, 2011, and Sept. 30, 2012. Data regarding presentation, investigations, treatment and outcomes were collected. Results Of the 104 patients admitted with an SBO, 49% were managed nonoperatively and 51% underwent surgery. Patients who underwent surgery experienced more complications (64% v. 27%, p = 0.002) and stayed in hospital longer (10 v. 3 d, p < 0.001) than patients managed nonoperatively. Nonoperative management was associated with a high rate of recurrent SBO: 31% after a median follow-up of 17 months. Of the patients managed operatively, 60% underwent immediate surgery and 40% underwent surgery after attempted nonoperative management. Patients in whom nonoperative management failed underwent surgery after a median of 2 days, and 89% underwent surgery within 5 days. The rate of bowel resection was high (29%) among those who underwent delayed surgery. Surgery after failed nonoperative management was associated with a mortality of 14% versus 3% for those who underwent immediate surgery; however, this difference was not significant. Conclusion These data suggest that some elderly patients with SBO may be waiting too long for surgery. PMID:25421079

  6. Patient compliance and supportive periodontal therapy: Study among young adults of Namakkal district

    PubMed Central

    Gokulanathan, Subramanium; Balan, Natarajan; Aravind, Ramaraj Jayabalan; Thangavelu, Kavin

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the patient compliance to supportive and maintenance periodontal therapy and to determine the reason for noncompliance among young adult patients of Namakkal district, India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 400 patients who underwent periodontal therapy and subsequently recalled for supportive and maintenance periodontal treatment in the Department of Periodontics, Vivekanandha Dental College for Women, Namakkal. Patients age group 25-35 years and of both gender were equally selected and grouped by occupation and socioeconomic status. According to their compliance with appointments, they are categorized as complete compliance, partially compliance and insufficient or noncompliance. Noncompliance and partially compliance patients were contacted and asked to rate their experience and reason for noncompliance. Results: In this study, 80% of patients showed complete compliance and were regular for supportive periodontal therapy appointments. Women were more regular in maintaining recall appointments than men. Salaried employers showed 84.3% complete compliance, while self-employed personals showed 77% complete compliance and 75% of nonworking personals were regular to the appointment schedule. Noncompliance person has quoted lack of time and forgetting the appointment date as a major reason for missed appointments. Conclusions: This study recommends the need for improvement in communication skills of practitioners and weekend appointment for patient undergoing periodontal maintenance therapy. PMID:25210365

  7. Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiogenic shock due to myocarditis in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Matteo; Banfi, Carlo; Grinberg, Daniel; Koffel, Catherine; Bendjelid, Karim; Robin, Jacques; Giraud, Raphaël; Obadia, Jean François

    2016-07-01

    Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle with established histological, immunological and immunohistochemical diagnostic criteria. Different triggers could be advocated as possible etiologies of myocarditis such as viral and non-viral infections, medications, systemic autoimmune diseases and toxic reactions. The spectrum of clinical presentations of myocarditis is broad and varies from subclinical asymptomatic courses to refractory cardiogenic shock. The prognosis of patients with myocarditis depends mainly on the severity of clinical presentation. In particular, myocarditis patients developing cardiogenic shock refractory to optimal maximal medical treatment may benefit from the use of veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) as a temporary mechanical circulatory support (MCS). The aim of the present report is to offer a review of the most important articles of the literature showing the results of VA-ECMO in the specific setting of cardiogenic shock due to myocarditis in adult patients. PMID:27499982

  8. Myotonia and flaccid dysarthria in patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    de Swart, B J M; van Engelen, B G M; van de Kerkhof, J P B M; Maassen, B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To specify and quantify possible defects in speech execution in patients with adult onset myotonic dystrophy. Methods: Studies on speech production were done on 30 mildly affected patients with myotonic dystrophy. Special attention was paid to myotonia. Because muscle activity can result in a decrease of myotonia, speech characteristics were measured before and after warm up. The possibility that warming up causes increased weakness was also assessed. Results: As with other motor skills, a warm up effect was found in speech production, resulting in an increase in repetition rate and a decrease in variability of repetition rate. Signs of fatigue did not occur. Conclusions: Warming up is valuable for patients with myotonic dystrophy in reducing the influence of myotonia on speech production. PMID:15377703

  9. Parachute mitral valve with severe mitral regurgitation in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Espinola-Zavaleta, Nilda; Chugh, Reema; Ramírez, Gabriela Meléndez

    2012-05-01

    Parachute mitral valve (PMV) is rarely seen in the adult population, in isolation or in association with other congenital heart defects, since most patients may have had milder lesions previously that were asymptomatic early in life, or were not detected due to lack of a comprehensive examination. We report a case of an 18-year-old woman with a history of exertional dyspnea, atypical chest pain, and cough for about 1 year. The echocardiographic examination identified a PMV with severe mitral regurgitation associated with bicuspid aortic valve and coarctation of the aorta. Most patients present with mitral stenosis of varying degree of severity, and rarely present with severe mitral regurgitation as seen in our patient.

  10. Renal histology in two adult patients with type I glycogen storage disease.

    PubMed

    Obara, K; Saito, T; Sato, H; Ogawa, M; Igarashi, Y; Yoshinaga, K

    1993-02-01

    Two adult patients with type I glycogen storage disease (I-GSD) had chronic renal disease with heavy proteinuria. Renal biopsies showed focal glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy or vacuolation, and prominent arteriosclerosis. Marked glomerular hypertrophy was demonstrated histometrically. Oil red O staining in one patient revealed numerous lipid deposits in the glomerular mesangium, tubular epithelial cells and interstitium. Electron microscopy in the other patient revealed diffuse thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and lipid droplets within the mesangium. The glomerular hypertrophy, thickening of the GBM, and subsequent sclerosis were similar to those in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. These findings may explain the similarities between the natural histories of renal involvement in the two disorders. Particularly, glomerular hypertrophy may be a key step leading to glomerular sclerosis, which is the predominant finding I-GSD. Hyperlipidemia, which is commonly seen in I-GSD, may also accelerate the glomerular sclerosing process.

  11. Dose coefficients in pediatric and adult abdominopelvic CT based on 100 patient models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaoyu; Li, Xiang; Segars, W. Paul; Frush, Donald P.; Paulson, Erik K.; Samei, Ehsan

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have shown the feasibility of estimating patient dose from a CT exam using CTDIvol-normalized-organ dose (denoted as h), DLP-normalized-effective dose (denoted as k), and DLP-normalized-risk index (denoted as q). However, previous studies were limited to a small number of phantom models. The purpose of this work was to provide dose coefficients (h, k, and q) across a large number of computational models covering a broad range of patient anatomy, age, size percentile, and gender. The study consisted of 100 patient computer models (age range, 0 to 78 y.o.; weight range, 2-180 kg) including 42 pediatric models (age range, 0 to 16 y.o.; weight range, 2-80 kg) and 58 adult models (age range, 18 to 78 y.o.; weight range, 57-180 kg). Multi-detector array CT scanners from two commercial manufacturers (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare; SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) were included. A previously-validated Monte Carlo program was used to simulate organ dose for each patient model and each scanner, from which h, k, and q were derived. The relationships between h, k, and q and patient characteristics (size, age, and gender) were ascertained. The differences in conversion coefficients across the scanners were further characterized. CTDIvol-normalized-organ dose (h) showed an exponential decrease with increasing patient size. For organs within the image coverage, the average differences of h across scanners were less than 15%. That value increased to 29% for organs on the periphery or outside the image coverage, and to 8% for distributed organs, respectively. The DLP-normalized-effective dose (k) decreased exponentially with increasing patient size. For a given gender, the DLP-normalized-risk index (q) showed an exponential decrease with both increasing patient size and patient age. The average differences in k and q across scanners were 8% and 10%, respectively. This study demonstrated that the knowledge of patient information and CTDIvol/DLP values may

  12. Effect of Ambrisentan on Exercise Capacity in Adult Patients After the Fontan Procedure.

    PubMed

    Cedars, Ari M; Saef, Joshua; Peterson, Linda R; Coggan, Andrew R; Novak, Eric L; Kemp, Debra; Ludbrook, Philip A

    2016-05-01

    The Fontan operation is a common end point for children born with a single functional ventricle. Fontan patients typically experience physiological deterioration leading to transplant or death in their third or fourth decades of life. This deterioration is partially attributable to progressive increases in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and as such endothelin receptor antagonists, which are known to decrease pulmonary vascular resistance, have been proposed as potentially beneficial in this population. We conducted a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of 12 weeks of ambrisentan therapy (10 mg per day) versus placebo to test the hypothesis that endothelin receptor antagonism will improve cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters and 36-item short form (SF-36) assessed quality of life in adult Fontan patients. Twenty-eight patients entered the trial, 19 patients completed the protocol. Ambrisentan therapy improved peak oxygen consumption by 1.7 ml/kg/min in patients who achieved a respiratory exchange ratio of >0.95 (p = 0.05) and decreased the slope of the ventilatory equivalent ratio for oxygen (-2.8, p = 0.019) in all completers. It did not change SF-36 physical function score compared with placebo (p = 0.28). Ambrisentan therapy resulted in a decrease in (-1.4 g/dl, p <0.001) with no change in liver or renal function. Therapy was generally well tolerated, with no greater rate of side effects than placebo. In conclusion, ambrisentan is well tolerated and improves exercise capacity in adult Fontan patients. PMID:27063478

  13. Exergaming in older adults: A scoping review and implementation potential for patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Strömberg, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical activity can improve exercise capacity, quality of life and reduce mortality and hospitalization in patients with heart failure (HF). Adherence to exercise recommendations in patients with HF is low. The use of exercise games (exergames) might be a way to encourage patients with HF to exercise especially those who may be reluctant to more traditional forms of exercise. No studies have been conducted on patients with HF and exergames. Aim: This scoping review focuses on the feasibility and influence of exergames on physical activity in older adults, aiming to target certain characteristics that are important for patients with HF to become more physically active. Methods: A literature search was undertaken in August 2012 in the databases PsychInfo, PUBMED, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL. Included studies evaluated the influence of exergaming on physical activity in older adults. Articles were excluded if they focused on rehabilitation of specific limbs, improving specific tasks or describing no intervention. Fifty articles were found, 11 were included in the analysis. Results: Exergaming was described as safe and feasible, and resulted in more energy expenditure compared to rest. Participants experienced improved balance and reported improved cognitive function after exergaming. Participants enjoyed playing the exergames, their depressive symptoms decreased, and they reported improved quality of life and empowerment. Exergames made them feel more connected with their family members, especially their grandchildren. Conclusion: Although this research field is small and under development, exergaming might be promising in order to enhance physical activity in patients with HF. However, further testing is needed. PMID:24198306

  14. Comparision of clinical and histopathological results of hyalomatrix usage in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Erbatur, Serkan; Coban, Yusuf Kenan; Aydın, Engin Nasuhi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and histopathological results of the hyaluronic acid skin substitute treatment of the patients who admitted to Inonu University Medical Faculty Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery clinic between january 2011 and march 2012 were evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups. HA were used for treatment of Hypertrophic scar (HS) or Keloid (K) in 10 patients of the first group. Skin biopsies obtained at peroperative and postoperative 3rd month were subjected to histopathologic examination in this group. In the second group, 10 patients with full thickness soft tissue loss secondary to burns, trauma or excisional reasons were also treated with HA application. Vancouver scar scale were used to determine the scar quality in both groups. Mean age was 25. 2 ± 10.2 and mean follow-up duration was 6.3±3.6 months in group 1. Preoperative and postoperative VSS scores in group 1 were 10.7±1.16 and 6.2±0.91, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (p<0,005). No HS or K development was seen in any patient in group 2 during the following period. Collagenisation scores of preoperative skin biopsies were significantly higher than postoperative scores (p<0,0001).Vascularisation scores of preoperative skin biopsies were significantly lower than postoperative scores (p<0,00001). The use of HA skin substitute in adults for treatment of HS or K provided the desired clinical healing in the 6 months’ follow-up periods. At the same time, HA application as an alternative to other treatment modalities led to a durable skin coverage in full thickness tissue loss in adult patients. PMID:23071910

  15. Osteoarticular Infections Caused by Non-Aspergillus Filamentous Fungi in Adult and Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J.; Rammaert, Blandine; Gamaletsou, Maria; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Zeller, Valerie; Roilides, Emmanuel; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Miller, Andy O.; Petraitis, Vidmantas; Walsh, Thomas J.; Lortholary, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarticular mycoses due to non-Aspergillus moulds are uncommon and challenging infections. A systematic literature review of non-Aspergillus osteoarticular mycoses was performed using PUBMED and EMBASE databases from 1970 to 2013. Among 145 patients were 111 adults (median age 48.5 [16–92 y]) and 34 pediatric patients (median age 7.5 [3–15 y]); 114 (79.7%) were male and 88 (61.9%) were immunocompromised. Osteomyelitis was due to direct inoculation in 54.5%. Trauma and puncture wounds were more frequent in children (73.5% vs 43.5%; P = 0.001). Prior surgery was more frequent in adults (27.7% vs 5.9%; P = 0.025). Vertebral (23.2%) and craniofacial osteomyelitis (13.1%) with neurological deficits predominated in adults. Lower limb osteomyelitis (47.7%) and knee arthritis (67.8%) were predominantly seen in children. Hyalohyphomycosis represented 64.8% of documented infections with Scedosporium apiospermum (33.1%) and Lomentospora prolificans (15.8%) as the most common causes. Combined antifungal therapy and surgery was used in 69% of cases with overall response in 85.8%. Median duration of therapy was 115 days (range 5–730). When voriconazole was used as single agent for treatment of hyalohyphomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis, an overall response rate was achieved in 94.1% of cases. Non-Aspergillus osteoarticular mycoses occur most frequently in children after injury and in adults after surgery. Accurate early diagnosis and long-course therapy (median 6 mo) with a combined medical-surgical approach may result in favorable outcome. PMID:26683917

  16. Infections Revealing Complement Deficiency in Adults: A French Nationwide Study Enrolling 41 Patients.

    PubMed

    Audemard-Verger, A; Descloux, E; Ponard, D; Deroux, A; Fantin, B; Fieschi, C; John, M; Bouldouyre, A; Karkowsi, L; Moulis, G; Auvinet, H; Valla, F; Lechiche, C; Davido, B; Martinot, M; Biron, C; Lucht, F; Asseray, N; Froissart, A; Buzelé, R; Perlat, A; Boutboul, D; Fremeaux-Bacchi, V; Isnard, S; Bienvenu, B

    2016-05-01

    Complement system is a part of innate immunity, its main function is to protect human from bacterial infection. As genetic disorders, complement deficiencies are often diagnosed in pediatric population. However, complement deficiencies can also be revealed in adults but have been poorly investigated. Herein, we describe a case series of infections revealing complement deficiency in adults to study clinical spectrum and management of complement deficiencies.A nationwide retrospective study was conducted in French university and general hospitals in departments of internal medicine, infectious diseases enrolling patients older than 15 years old who had presented at least one infection leading to a complement deficiency diagnosis.Forty-one patients included between 2002 and 2015 in 19 different departments were enrolled in this study. The male-to-female ratio was 1.3 and the mean age at diagnosis was 28 ± 14 (15-67) years. The main clinical feature was Neisseria meningitidis meningitis 75% (n = 31/41) often involving rare serotype: Y (n = 9) and W 135 (n = 7). The main complement deficiency observed was the common final pathway deficiency 83% (n = 34/41). Half of the cohort displayed severe sepsis or septic shock at diagnosis (n = 22/41) but no patient died. No patient had family history of complement deficiency. The mean follow-up was 1.15 ± 1.95 (0.1-10) years. Half of the patients had already suffered from at least one infection before diagnosis of complement deficiency: meningitis (n = 13), pneumonia (n = 4), fulminans purpura (n = 1), or recurrent otitis (n = 1). Near one-third (n = 10/39) had received prophylactic antibiotics (cotrimoxazole or penicillin) after diagnosis of complement deficiency. The vaccination coverage rate, at the end of the follow-up, for N meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Haemophilius influenzae were, respectively, 90% (n = 33/37), 47% (n = 17/36), and 35% (n = 14

  17. Impact of hydrocortisone hemisuccinate use on outcome of severe scorpion-envenomed adult patients.

    PubMed

    Bahloul, Mabrouk; Chaari, Anis; Dammak, Hassen; Ben Algia, Najla; Medhioub, Fatma; Ben Hamida, Chokri; Chelly, Hedi; Bouaziz, Mounir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze if the infusion of hydrocortisone hemisuccinate improve outcome in severe scorpion-envenomated adult patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). Pairwise retrospective case-control study with 1:1 matching was designed. Patients were defined as cases when they received hydrocortisone hemisuccinate (as alone steroids) during hospitalization and as controls when they did not received any steroids. Patients were matched according to age, severity factors at admission represented by the presence of pulmonary edema and grades of severity of scorpion envenomation, and scorpion antivenom administration. Eighty-four patients were included as follows: 42 patients in the cases group and 42 patients in the control group. The mean age (±SD) was 40±21 years, ranging from 16 to 90 years. Moreover, 67 (80%) patients have a systemic inflammatory response syndrome on ICU admission. The comparison between cases group and control group showed that age is not significantly different. There were the same proportions of patients with pulmonary edema in 2 groups. Moreover, 23 (54%) patients in case group and 23 (54%) in the control group received scorpion antivenom (P>0.05). The mean temperature on admission was also not significantly different. The presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome was again not significantly different between 2 groups. The comparison of outcome of the 2 groups showed that the use of mechanical ventilation and its duration, the ICU stay length, and ICU mortality was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Although our study has some limitations, it confirms that the use of hydrocortisone hemisuccinate in severe scorpion-envenomed patients did not improve their outcome. PMID:23584312

  18. Antipsychotic Medication Prescribing Practices Among Adult Patients Discharged From State Psychiatric Inpatient Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    HOLLEN, VERA; SCHACHT, LUCILLE

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The goal of this study was to explore antipsychotic medication prescribing practices in a sample of 86,034 patients discharged from state psychiatric inpatient hospitals and to find the prevalence of patients discharged with no antipsychotic medications, on antipsychotic monotherapy, and on antipsychotic polypharmacy. For patients discharged on antipsychotic polypharmacy, the study explored the adjusted rates of antipsychotic polypharmacy, the reasons patients were discharged on antipsychotic polypharmacy, the proportion of antipsychotic polypharmacy by mental health disorder, and the characteristics associated with being discharged on antipsychotic polypharmacy. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed all discharges for adult patients (18 to 64 y of age) from state psychiatric inpatient hospitals between January 1 and December 31, 2011. The relationship among variables was explored using χ2, t test, and analysis of variance. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of antipsychotic polypharmacy. Results: The prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was 12%. Of the discharged patients receiving at least 1 antipsychotic medication (adjusted rate), 18% were on antipsychotic polypharmacy. The strongest predictors of antipsychotic polypharmacy being prescribed were having a diagnosis of schizophrenia and a length of stay of 90 days or more. Patients were prescribed antipsychotic polypharmacy primarily to reduce their symptoms. Conclusions: Antipsychotic polypharmacy continues at a high enough rate to affect nearly 10,000 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia each year in state psychiatric inpatient hospitals. Further analysis of the clinical presentation of these patients may highlight particular aspects of the illness and its previous treatment that are contributing to practices outside the best-practice guideline. An increased understanding of trend data, patient characteristics, and national benchmarks provides an opportunity for

  19. Autistic-like traits in adult patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Junko; Kamio, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Nagashima, Anna; Takei, Reiko; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity. The subjects were 290 adults of normal intelligence between 25 and 59 years of age (MDD, n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia, n=44; healthy controls, n=65). Autistic-like traits/symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults. Symptom severity was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and/or the Young Mania Rating Scale. Almost half of the clinical subjects, except those with remitted MDD, exhibited autistic-like traits/symptoms at levels typical for sub-threshold or threshold autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the proportion of psychiatric patients that demonstrated high autistic-like traits/symptoms was significantly greater than that of healthy controls, and not different between that of remitted or unremitted subjects with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. On the other hand, remitted subjects with MDD did not differ from healthy controls with regard to the prevalence or degree of high autistic-like traits/symptoms. A substantial proportion of adults with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed high autistic-like traits/symptoms independent of symptom severity, suggesting a shared pathophysiology among autism spectrum disorder and these psychiatric disorders. Conversely, autistic-like traits among subjects with MDD were associated with the depressive symptom severity. These findings suggest the importance of

  20. Estimation of effective doses to adult and pediatric patients from multislice computed tomography: A method based on energy imparted

    SciTech Connect

    Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Damilakis, John; Perisinakis, Kostas; Tzedakis, Antonis; Karantanas, Apostolos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide a method and required data for the estimation of effective dose (E) values to adult and pediatric patients from computed tomography (CT) scans of the head, chest abdomen, and pelvis, performed on multi-slice scanners. Mean section radiation dose (d{sub m}) to cylindrical water phantoms of varying radius normalized over CT dose index free-in-air (CTDI{sub F}) were calculated for the head and body scanning modes of a multislice scanner with use of Monte Carlo techniques. Patients were modeled as equivalent water phantoms and the energy imparted ({epsilon}) to simulated pediatric and adult patients was calculated on the basis of measured CTDI{sub F} values. Body region specific energy imparted to effective dose conversion coefficients (E/{epsilon}) for adult male and female patients were generated from previous data. Effective doses to patients aged newborn to adult were derived for all available helical and axial beam collimations, taking into account age specific patient mass and scanning length. Depending on high voltage, body region, and patient sex, E/{epsilon} values ranged from 0.008 mSv/mJ for head scans to 0.024 mSv/mJ for chest scans. When scanned with the same technique factors as the adults, pediatric patients absorb as little as 5% of the energy imparted to adults, but corresponding effective dose values are up to a factor of 1.6 higher. On average, pediatric patients absorb 44% less energy per examination but have a 24% higher effective dose, compared with adults. In clinical practice, effective dose values to pediatric patients are 2.5 to 10 times lower than in adults due to the adaptation of tube current. A method is provided for the calculation of effective dose to adult and pediatric patients on the basis of individual patient characteristics such as sex, mass, dimensions, and density of imaged anatomy, and the technical features of modern multislice scanners. It allows the optimum selection of scanning

  1. Passage from normal mucosa to adenoma and colon cancer: alteration of normal sCD30 mechanisms regulating TH1/TH2 cell functions.

    PubMed

    Contasta, Ida; Berghella, Anna Maria; Pellegrini, Patrizia; Adorno, Domenico

    2003-08-01

    The pathogenesis of cancer is currently under intensive investigation to identify reliable prognostic indices for the early detection of disease. Adenomas have been identified as precursors of colorectal cancer and tumor establishment, and disease progression has been found to reflect a malfunction of the immune system. On the basis of the role of the CD30 molecule in the regulation of TH1/TH2 functions and our previous results, strongly suggesting the validity of serum TH1/TH2 cytokines in the study of tumor progression, we studied network interaction between the production of soluble (s) CD30/sBCl2 in whole blood culture [in basic conditions and after PHA, LPS, and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) stimulation] and levels of TH1/TH2 cytokines (IL2, IFN gamma, IL12, IL4, IL5, IL10). Peripheral blood from a group of healthy subjects, as well as from patients with adenoma and colorectal cancer was used. Our objective was to gain a better insight into the role of the CD30 molecule in the passage from normal mucosa to adenoma and tumor and identify specific disease markers. Our results suggest that the decrease in CD30 expression and the abnormal increase in Bcl2 expression, observed in the peripheral cells of both adenoma and tumor groups determine an imbalance between TH1/TH2 functions. Consequently, changes in sCD30/sBcl2 culture production and TH1/TH2 cytokine serum levels may be reliable markers for tumor progression. In fact, our overall data show that a decrease of sCD30 levels in basic and PHA conditions and an increase of IFN gamma, IL4, IL5, and IL12 serum levels and sBcl2 in all activation condition are indicative of the passage from normal mucosa to adenoma; whilst a decrease of sBcl2 level in basic, LPS and anti-CD3 conditions and of IL2, IFN gamma serum levels, together with an increase of IL5 are indicative of the passage from adenoma to tumor.

  2. Long-term consumption of oats in adult celiac disease patients.

    PubMed

    Kaukinen, Katri; Collin, Pekka; Huhtala, Heini; Mäki, Markku

    2013-11-01

    Many celiac disease patients tolerate oats, but limited data are available on its long-term consumption. This was evaluated in the present study, focusing on small-bowel mucosal histology and gastrointestinal symptoms in celiac adults maintaining a strict gluten-free diet with or without oats. Altogether 106 long-term treated celiac adults were enrolled for this cross-sectional follow-up study. Daily consumption of oats and fiber was assessed, and small-bowel mucosal morphology and densities of CD3+, αβ+ and γσ+ intraepithelial lymphocytes determined. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by a validated Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire. Seventy (66%) out of the 106 treated celiac disease patients had consumed a median of 20 g of oats (range 1-100 g) per day for up to eight years; all consumed oat products bought from general stores. Daily intake and long-term consumption of oats did not result in small-bowel mucosal villous damage, inflammation, or gastrointestinal symptoms. Oat-consumers had a significantly higher daily intake of fiber than those who did not use oats. Two thirds of celiac disease patients preferred to use oats in their daily diet. Even long-term ingestion of oats had no harmful effects.

  3. Efficacy of alendronate for preventing collapse of femoral head in adult patients with nontraumatic osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yu-Cai; Luo, Ru-Bin; Lin, Tiao; Zhong, Hui-Ming; Shi, Jian-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current review was to determine the efficacy of alendronate for preventing collapse of femoral head in adult patients with nontraumatic avascular osteonecrosis of femoral head (ANFH). Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 305 hips were included in this review, of which 3 studies investigated alendronate versus control/placebo and the other 2 studies compared the combination of alendronate and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) with ESWT alone. Our results suggested that even the patients with extensive necrosis encountered much less collapse in the alendronate group than control group. In these RCTs, their data also indicated a positive short- and middle-term efficacy of alendronate treatment in joint function improvement and hip pain diminishment. With the presence of the outlier study, only insignificant overall efficacy of alendronate could be observed with substantial heterogeneities. In addition, we did not find any additive benefits of alendronate in combination with ESWT for preventing collapse compared to ESWT alone. In conclusion, there is still lack of strong evidence for supporting application of alendronate in adult patients with nontraumatic ANFH, which justified that large scale, randomized, and double-blind studies should be developed to demonstrate the confirmed efficacies, detailed indication, and optimized strategy of alendronate treatment.

  4. Common reasons for hospitalization among adult patients with diabetes in a private medical college in Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, P; Pathak, U N; Subedi, N

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is one of the important non communicable disease affecting the adult populations around the world. Incidence of diabetes increasing in South Asia. Nepal is also experiencing increasing in diabetes disease burden. Diabetes mellitus is one of the important causes of hospital admission in the western world. In this study we evaluated the causes of hospital admission amongst diabetic population. Most common cause is of diagnosis is some forms of infections commonest (20%) being urinary tract infections. Ten out of total 69 patients had septicemia. Six patients out of 69 had sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis only one patient presented with metabolic complications of diabetes i.e. diabetic ketoacidosis. Coronary artery disease with heart failure was present in 14 patients. Five patients had diabetic nephropathy and 3 had retinopathy. This shows that infections is the major cause of hospital admission for diabetics followed by heart failure. Tuberculosis is important diagnosis in person with diabetes. This study shows more female patients get admitted and amongst admitted patents glycemic control is poor. This signify that women had more complications than male counter parts. PMID:24579542

  5. The Neuropsychological Course of Acute Delirium in Adult Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beglinger, Leigh J.; Mills, James A.; Vik, Stacie M.; Duff, Kevin; Denburg, Natalie L.; Weckmann, Michelle T.; Paulsen, Jane S.; Gingrich, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Although delirium is a common medical comorbidity with altered cognition as its defining feature, few publications have addressed the neuropsychological prodrome, profile, and recovery of patients tested during delirium. We characterize neuropsychological performance in 54 hemapoietic stem cell/bone marrow transplantation (BMT) patients shortly before, during, and after delirium and in BMT patients without delirium and 10 healthy adults. Patients were assessed prospectively before and after transplantation using a brief battery. BMT patients with delirium performed more poorly than comparisons and those without delirium on cross-sectional and trend analyses. Deficits were in expected areas of attention and memory, but also in psychomotor speed and learning. The patients with delirium did not return to normative “average” on any test during observation. Most tests showed a mild decline in the visit before delirium, a sharp decline with delirium onset, and variable performance in the following days. This study adds to the few investigations of neuropsychological performance surrounding delirium and provides targets for monitoring and early detection; Trails A and B, RBANS Coding, and List Recall may be useful for delirium assessment. PMID:21183605

  6. Three-dimensional nasal morphology in cleft lip and palate operated adult patients.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Sforza, Chiarella; Dellavia, Claudia; Vizzotto, Laura; Carù, Armando

    2003-10-01

    Nasal morphology was assessed three-dimensionally in 18 cleft lip and palate operated patients aged 19 to 27 years, and in 161 sex- and age-matched control subjects. Comparisons were performed by Student t and Watson-Williams' tests. No differences were found in nasal volume or surface. Nasal width, alar base width, and inferior width of the nostrils were significantly larger in male patients than in the reference men. The nasal bridge was shorter. Similar differences were found in the female patients. In addition, the right nostril was larger and the nasal height shorter. In men, the nasolabial and the nasal tip angles were smaller in the patients than in the reference subjects, whereas the facial convexity angle was larger in the patients. In conclusion, the nose of adult operated cleft lip and palate patients differed from that of normal control subjects. Surgical corrections of the cleft lip and palate failed to provide a completely normal appearance. The methods might be used to indicate where additional procedures might be performed to approximate a reference population.

  7. Prevalence of coeliac disease among adult patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Farahid, O H; Khawaja, N; Shennak, M M; Batieha, A; El-Khateeb, M; Ajlouni, K

    2014-02-11

    The prevalence of coeliac disease among patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism has not been studied before in Jordan and other Arab countries. A cross-sectional record-based review was made of all adult autoimmune hypothyroidism patients who attended a referral centre in Jordan, during an 8-month period. Coeliac disease in these patients was diagnosed by the attending physician based on positive serological tests for anti-endomysial antibodies IgA and IgG followed by duodenal biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Of 914 patients recruited, 117 (12.8%) were seropositive for coeliac disease. Of 87 seropositive patients who underwent duodenal biopsy, 39 had positive histological findings of coeliac disease (44.8%). Extrapolating from these findings the overall rate of coeliac disease among autoimmune hypothyroidism patients was estimated to be 5.7%. In multivariate logistic regression coeliac disease was significantly associated with older age (> 40 years), presence of other autoimmune diseases, vitamin B12 deficiency and anaemia.

  8. Influence of Occupational Status on the Quality of Life of Chinese Adult Patients with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiang-Min; Ding, Cheng-Yun; Wang, Ning; Xu, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Ze-Jie; Wang, Qin; Yao, Qin; Wang, Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of occupational status on the quality of life of Chinese adult patients with epilepsy. Methods: This study surveyed 819 subjects clinically diagnosed with epilepsy for more than 1 year in 11 hospitals in Beijing; 586 were employed (71.55%). All subjects completed the case report form with inquiries on demographic data, social factors, and illness. The patients’ quality of life was assessed using the quality of life in patients with epilepsy-31 items (QOLIE-31) questionnaire. Results: The QOLIE-31 score in the employed group was significantly higher than that in the unemployed group. Furthermore, the scores in all the sections (overall quality of life, energy/fatigue, emotional well-being, seizure worry, cognition, social function, and medication effects) of the employed group were higher than those of the unemployed group. Both the employed and unemployed groups achieved the highest difference in social function. The QOLIE-31 score of students was higher than those of farmers and workers. Both the students and workers scored higher in the quality of life compared with the adult peasants living with epilepsy. The students and farmers showed significant differences in QOLIE-31 score, cognition, emotional well-being, overall quality of life, energy/fatigue, and social function. In contrast, no significant difference was noted in seizure worry and medication effects across the three different kinds of occupation. Conclusion: Occupational status might affect the quality of life of Chinese adult patients with epilepsy, and social function is the most important contributing factor. PMID:27231164

  9. Nail involvement in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis: prevalence and clinical features*

    PubMed Central

    Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Beck, Maristela de Oliveira; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a disease of worldwide distribution with a prevalence of 1 to 3%. Nail psoriasis is estimated in 50% of patients with psoriasis, and in the presence of joint involvement, it can reach 80%. OBJECTIVE: To study the nail changes - and their clinical implications - presented by patients with psoriasis vulgaris under surveillance in a university hospital from the south of Brazil. METHODS: his cross-sectional study evaluated 65 adult patients from January 2012 to March 2013. Cutaneous severity was assessed according to the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). The Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) was used to evaluate patient's nails. The diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis was established according to the Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR). RESULTS: The prevalence of NP was 46.1%. These patients had a median [interquartilic range (IQR)] NAPSI of 1 (0-15). A total of 63.3% of patients reported aesthetic discomfort or functional impairment related to their nails. Onycholysis was the most common feature (80%). When compared with patients without nail involvement, patients with NP had lower mean age at psoriasis onset [21 (18-41) vs. 43 (30-56) years, p=0,001]; longer disease duration [15.5 (10-24) vs. 6 (2-12) years, p=0.001]; higher PASI [9.2 (5-17) vs. 3.7 (2-10), p=0.044], higher frequency of psoriatic arthritis (43.3 vs. 3.7, p = 0.002) and more often reported family history of psoriasis (40% vs. 7.4%, p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Onycholysis was the most frequent finding and most patients feel uncomfortable with the psoriatic nail changes that they experience. PMID:26131859

  10. IgE Sensitization Profiles Differ between Adult Patients with Severe and Moderate Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Catharina; Lupinek, Christian; Lundeberg, Lena; Crameri, Reto; Valenta, Rudolf; Scheynius, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex chronic inflammatory disease where allergens can act as specific triggering factors. Aim To characterize the specificities of IgE-reactivity in patients with AD to a broad panel of exogenous allergens including microbial and human antigens. Methodology Adult patients with AD were grouped according to the SCORAD index, into severe (n = 53) and moderate AD (n = 126). As controls 43 patients were included with seborrhoeic eczema and 97 individuals without history of allergy or skin diseases. Specific IgE reactivity was assessed in plasma using Phadiatop®, ImmunoCap™, micro-arrayed allergens, dot-blotted recombinant Malassezia sympodialis allergens, and immune-blotted microbial and human proteins. Results IgE reactivity was detected in 92% of patients with severe and 83% of patients with moderate AD. Sensitization to cat allergens occurred most frequently, followed by sensitization to birch pollen, grass pollen, and to the skin commensal yeast M. sympodialis. Patients with severe AD showed a significantly higher frequency of IgE reactivity to allergens like cat (rFel d 1) and house dust mite (rDer p 4 and 10), to Staphylococcus aureus, M. sympodialis, and to human antigens. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of IgE reactivity to the grass pollen allergens rPhl p 1, 2, 5b, and 6 between the two AD groups. Furthermore the IgE reactivity profile of patients with severe AD was more spread towards several different allergen molecules as compared to patients with moderate AD. Conclusion We have revealed a hitherto unknown difference regarding the molecular sensitization profile in patients with severe and moderate AD. Molecular profiling towards allergen components may provide a basis for future investigations aiming to explore the environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors which could be responsible for the different appearance and severity of disease phenotypes in AD. PMID:27228091

  11. Giant rectal polyp prolapse in an adult patient with the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cano-Contreras, Ana Delfina; Meixueiro-Daza, Arturo; Grube-Pagola, Peter; Remes-Troche, Jose Maria

    2016-01-01

    Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant intestinal polyposis syndrome characterised by the presence of hamartomatous polyps and mucocutaneous pigmentation. Prolapse of the polyps through the anus is an infrequent manifestation in children with PJS, and this complication is extremely rare in adult patients. We report the case of a 30-year-old man recently diagnosed with PJS who was seen at the emergency department because of the abrupt onset of severe anal pain with a foreign body sensation in the anal canal and rectal bleeding.Physical examination revealed a giant prolapsed polyp. PMID:27444139

  12. Clinical features and outcomes of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis pathologic variants in Korean adult patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown that clinical characteristics and outcomes differ depending on pathologic variants of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). However, these are not well defined in Asian populations. Methods This retrospective study evaluated clinical features and outcomes of pathologic FSGS variants in 111 adult patients between January 2004 and December 2012. Primary outcome was the composite of doubling of baseline serum creatinine concentrations (D-SCr) or onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Secondary outcome included complete (CR) or partial remission (PR). Results There were 70 (63.1%), 20 (18.0%), 17 (15.3%), 3 (2.7%), and 1 (0.9%) patients with not-otherwise specified (NOS), tip, perihilar, cellular, and collapsing variants, respectively. At presentation, nephrotic-range proteinuria occurred more commonly in tip lesion than in other variants. The overall 5-year renal survival rate was 76.8%. During a median follow-up of 34.5 months, only 1 (5.0%) patient with a tip lesion reached the composite end point compared to 2 (11.8%) and 12 (17.1%) patients in perihilar and NOS variants, but this difference was not statistically significant in an adjusted Cox model. However, tip lesion was associated with a significantly increased probability of achieving CR (P = 0.044). Conclusion Similar to other populations, Korean adult patients with FSGS have distinct clinical features with the exception of a rare frequency of cellular and collapsing variants. Although pathologic variants were not associated with overall outcome, the tip variant exhibited favorable outcome in terms of achieving remission. Further studies are required to delineate long-term outcome and response to treatment of the pathologic variants. PMID:24666814

  13. A Correlational Study of Scoliosis and Trunk Balance in Adult Patients with Mandibular Deviation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Na; Wang, Wenyong; Ding, Yin; Sun, Shiyao

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an “S” type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p<0.01). The trunk balance of patients with mandibular deviation was disturbed (imbalance angle >1°), while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°). There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01). The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the

  14. The impact of patient self assessment of deformity on HRQL in adults with scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Tones, Megan J; Moss, Nathan D

    2007-01-01

    Background Body image and HRQL are significant issues for patients with scoliosis due to cosmetic deformity, physical and psychological symptoms, and treatment factors. A selective review of scoliosis literature revealed that self report measures of body image and HRQL share unreliable correlations with radiographic measures and clinician recommendations for surgery. However, current body image and HRQL measures do not indicate which aspects of scoliosis deformity are the most distressing for patients. The WRVAS is an instrument designed to evaluate patient self assessment of deformity, and may show some promise in identifying aspects of deformity most troubling to patients. Previous research on adolescents with scoliosis supports the use of the WRVAS as a clinical tool, as the instrument shares strong correlations with radiographic measures and quality of life instruments. There has been limited use of this instrument on adult populations. Methods The WRVAS and the SF-36v2, a HRQL measure, were administered to 71 adults with scoliosis, along with a form to report age and gender. Preliminary validation analyses were performed on the WRVAS (floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency and collinearity, correlations with the SF-36v2, and multiple regression with the WRVAS total score as the predictor, and SF-36v2 scores as outcomes). Results The psychometric properties of the WRVAS were acceptable. Older participants perceived their deformities as more severe than younger participants. More severe deformities were associated with lower scores on the Physical Component Summary Score of the SF-36v2. Total WRVAS score also predicted Physical Component Summary scores. Conclusion The results of the current study indicate that the WRVAS is a reliable tool to use with adult patients, and that patient self assessment of deformity shared a relationship with physical rather than psychological aspects of HRQL. The current and previous studies concur that revision of the

  15. Cytarabine With or Without SCH 900776 in Treating Adult Patients With Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  16. Cleft palate and ADULT phenotype in a patient with a novel TP63 mutation suggests lumping of EEC/LM/ADULT syndromes into a unique entity: ELA syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prontera, Paolo; Garelli, Emanuela; Isidori, Ilenia; Mencarelli, Amedea; Carando, Adriana; Silengo, Margherita Cirillo; Donti, Emilio

    2011-11-01

    Acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome is a rare condition belonging to the group of ectodermal dysplasias caused by TP63 mutations. Its clinical phenotype is similar to ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip/palate (EEC) and limb-mammary syndrome (LMS), and differs from these disorders mainly by the absence of cleft lip and/or palate. We report on a 39-year-old patient who was found to be heterozygous for a c.401G > T (p.Gly134Val) de novo mutation of TP63. This patient had the ADULT phenotype associated with cleft palate. Our findings, rather than extend the clinical spectrum of ADULT syndrome, suggest that cleft palate can no longer be considered an element for differential diagnosis for ADULT, EEC, and LMS. Our data, added to other reports on overlapping phenotypes, support the combining of these three phenotypes into a unique entity that we propose to call "ELA syndrome," which is an acronym of ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip and palate, limb-mammary, and ADULT syndromes.

  17. East Mediterranean region sickle cell disease mortality trial: retrospective multicenter cohort analysis of 735 patients.

    PubMed

    Karacaoglu, Pelin Kardaş; Asma, Suheyl; Korur, Aslı; Solmaz, Soner; Buyukkurt, Nurhilal Turgut; Gereklioglu, Cigdem; Kasar, Mutlu; Ozbalcı, Demircan; Unal, Selma; Kaya, Hasan; Gurkan, Emel; Yeral, Mahmut; Sariturk, Çagla; Boga, Can; Ozdogu, Hakan

    2016-05-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), one of the most common genetic disorders worldwide, is characterized by hemolytic anemia and tissue damage from the rigid red blood cells. Although hydroxyurea and transfusion therapy are administered to treat the accompanying tissue injury, whether either one prolongs the lifespan of patients with SCD is unknown. SCD-related mortality data are available, but there are few studies on mortality-related factors based on evaluations of surviving patients. In addition, ethnic variability in patient registries has complicated detailed analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate mortality and mortality-related factors among an ethnically homogeneous population of patients with SCD. The 735 patients (102 children and 633 adults) included in this retrospective cohort study were of Eti-Turk origin and selected from 1367 patients seen at 5 regional hospitals. A central population management system was used to control for records of patient mortality. Data reliability was checked by a data supervision group. Mortality-related factors and predictors were identified in univariate and multivariate analyses using a Cox regression model with stepwise forward selection. The study group included patients with homozygous hemoglobin S (Hgb S) disease (67 %), Hb S-β(0) thalassemia (17 %), Hgb S-β(+) thalassemia (15 %), and Hb S-α thalassemia (1 %). They were followed for a median of 66 ± 44 (3-148) months. Overall mortality at 5 years was 6.1 %. Of the 45 patients who died, 44 (6 %) were adults and 1 (0.1 %) was a child. The mean age at death was 34.1 ± 10 (18-54) years for males, 40.1 ± 15 (17-64) years for females, and 36.6 ± 13 (17-64) years overall. Hydroxyurea was found to have a notable positive effect on mortality (p = 0.009). Mortality was also significantly related to hypertension and renal damage in a univariate analysis (p = 0.015 and p = 0.000, respectively). Acute chest syndrome

  18. East Mediterranean region sickle cell disease mortality trial: retrospective multicenter cohort analysis of 735 patients.

    PubMed

    Karacaoglu, Pelin Kardaş; Asma, Suheyl; Korur, Aslı; Solmaz, Soner; Buyukkurt, Nurhilal Turgut; Gereklioglu, Cigdem; Kasar, Mutlu; Ozbalcı, Demircan; Unal, Selma; Kaya, Hasan; Gurkan, Emel; Yeral, Mahmut; Sariturk, Çagla; Boga, Can; Ozdogu, Hakan

    2016-05-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), one of the most common genetic disorders worldwide, is characterized by hemolytic anemia and tissue damage from the rigid red blood cells. Although hydroxyurea and transfusion therapy are administered to treat the accompanying tissue injury, whether either one prolongs the lifespan of patients with SCD is unknown. SCD-related mortality data are available, but there are few studies on mortality-related factors based on evaluations of surviving patients. In addition, ethnic variability in patient registries has complicated detailed analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate mortality and mortality-related factors among an ethnically homogeneous population of patients with SCD. The 735 patients (102 children and 633 adults) included in this retrospective cohort study were of Eti-Turk origin and selected from 1367 patients seen at 5 regional hospitals. A central population management system was used to control for records of patient mortality. Data reliability was checked by a data supervision group. Mortality-related factors and predictors were identified in univariate and multivariate analyses using a Cox regression model with stepwise forward selection. The study group included patients with homozygous hemoglobin S (Hgb S) disease (67 %), Hb S-β(0) thalassemia (17 %), Hgb S-β(+) thalassemia (15 %), and Hb S-α thalassemia (1 %). They were followed for a median of 66 ± 44 (3-148) months. Overall mortality at 5 years was 6.1 %. Of the 45 patients who died, 44 (6 %) were adults and 1 (0.1 %) was a child. The mean age at death was 34.1 ± 10 (18-54) years for males, 40.1 ± 15 (17-64) years for females, and 36.6 ± 13 (17-64) years overall. Hydroxyurea was found to have a notable positive effect on mortality (p = 0.009). Mortality was also significantly related to hypertension and renal damage in a univariate analysis (p = 0.015 and p = 0.000, respectively). Acute chest syndrome

  19. A multifaceted intervention increases epinephrine use in adult emergency department anaphylaxis patients

    PubMed Central

    Manivannan, Veena; Hess, Erik P.; Bellamkonda, Venkatesh R.; Nestler, David M.; Bellolio, M. Fernanda; Hagan, John B.; Sunga, Kharmene L.; Decker, Wyatt W.; Li, James T.C.; Scanlan-Hanson, Lori N.; Vukov, Samuel C.; Campbell, Ronna L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have documented inconsistent emergency anaphylaxis care and low compliance with published guidelines. Objective To evaluate anaphylaxis management before and after implementation of an emergency department (ED) anaphylaxis order set and introduction of epinephrine auto-injectors and to measure the effect on anaphylaxis guideline adherence. Methods A cohort study was conducted from April 29, 2008-August 9, 2012. Adult ED patients diagnosed with anaphylaxis were included. ED management, disposition, self-injectable epinephrine prescriptions, allergy follow-up and incidence of biphasic reactions were evaluated. Results The study included 202 patients. Median age of patients was 45.3 years (IQR 31.3 – 56.4); 139 (69%) were female. Patients who presented after order set implementation were more likely to be treated with epinephrine (51% vs. 33%, OR 2.05, 95%CI 1.04- 4.04) and admitted to ED observation unit (EDOU) (65% vs. 44%, OR 2.38, 95%CI 1.23-4.60) and less likely to be dismissed home directly from ED (16% vs. 29%, OR: 0.47, 95%CI 0.22- 1.00). Eleven patients (5%) had a biphasic reaction. Of these, five (46%) had the biphasic reaction in EDOU; one patient was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU). Six patients (55%) had reactions within 6 hours of initial symptom resolution of whom two were admitted to ICU. Conclusion Significantly greater proportions of anaphylaxis patients received epinephrine and were admitted to EDOU after introduction of epinephrine auto-injectors and order set implementation. Slightly over half of the biphasic reactions occurred within recommended observation time of 4-6 hours. These data suggest that the multifaceted approach to changing anaphylaxis management described here improved guideline adherence. PMID:24811020

  20. Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for distantly metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in juvenile versus adult patients.

    PubMed

    Kammori, Makoto; Fukumori, Tatsuya; Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Hoshi, Masae; Shimizu, Kazuo; Yamada, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    In general, juvenile differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) demonstrate indolent characteristics and favorable prognosis are observed in comparison with many other carcinomas. However, recurrence is frequent, necessitating additional treatment, including radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In this report, the probability of recurrence, prognostic factors, treatment, and outcomes in both juvenile- and adult-onset DTC were analyzed and compared. At our institution, a total of 1552 DTC patients underwent thyroidectomy and/or lymph node dissection. The patients included 23 in their teens, 118 in their twenties, and 1412 in their thirties or older. The risk factors for distant metastases for DTC were male gender, follicular carcinoma, size of the PTC primary tumor, cervical lymph node metastases from PTC, and the presence of more than two distant metastatic foci. Patients with the highest risk underwent RAI ablation in line with institutional guidelines. Although the overall outcome in our juvenile patients was excellent, during follow-up, 4 (17.4%) of the 23 patients developed recurrent disease: 91.3% achieved complete remission, 4.35% partial remission, and 4.35% stable disease, with no disease-related deaths. Among the 118 patients in their twenties to thirties, 1 (0.8%) experienced progressive disease and disease-related death. A younger age at diagnosis and less radical primary surgery without subsequent RAI ablation are factors strongly predictive of distant metastases in patients with juvenile-onset DTC. To reduce the rate of relapse and improve surveillance for recurrent disease, total thyroidectomy followed by RAI appears to be the most beneficial initial treatment for patients with high- and intermediate-risk juvenile DTC.

  1. Adult ADHD patient experiences of impairment, service provision and clinical management in England: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence of the unmet needs and experiences of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the published scientific literature. This study aimed to explore the experiences of adults in England with ADHD regarding access to diagnostic and treatment services, ADHD-related impairment and to compare experiences between patients diagnosed during adulthood and childhood. Methods In this qualitative study, 30 adults with ADHD were recruited through an ADHD charity (n = 17) and two hospital outpatient clinics for adults with ADHD in England (n = 13). Half of the participants were diagnosed with ADHD during childhood or adolescence and the remainder during adulthood. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and data was analysed using a thematic approach based on Grounded Theory principles. Results Analysis revealed five core themes: ‘An uphill struggle’: the challenge of accessing services, ‘Accumulated Psychosocial Burden and the Impact of ADHD’, ‘Weighing up Costs vs. Benefits of ADHD Pharmacological Treatment’, ‘Value of Non-pharmacological Treatment’ and ‘Barriers to Treatment Adherence’. Accessing services and the challenges associated with securing a definitive diagnosis of ADHD in adulthood was an ‘uphill struggle’, often due to sceptical and negative attitudes towards ADHD by healthcare professionals. ADHD-related impairment had an overwhelmingly chaotic impact on every aspect of patients’ lives and many felt ill equipped to cope. A persistent sense of failure and missed potential from living with the impact of ADHD impairment had led to an accumulated psychosocial burden, especially among those diagnosed from late adolescence onwards. In contrast, positive adjustment was facilitated by a younger age at diagnosis. Although medication was perceived as necessary in alleviating impairment, many felt strongly that by itself, it was inadequate. Additional support in the form of

  2. Hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia in adults: analysis of the clinical outcome of 123 patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kali, Aref; Konoplev, Sergej; Lin, Erpei; Kadia, Tapan; Faderl, Stefan; Ravandi, Farhad; Ayoubi, Mohamad; Brandt, Mark; Cortes, Jorge E.; Kantarjian, Hagop; Borthakur, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Background The hypocellular variant of acute myeloid leukemia accounts for less than 10% of all cases of adult acute myeloid leukemia. It is defined by having less than 20 percent of cellular bone marrow in a biopsy at presentation. It is unclear in the literature whether the outcome of hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia differs from that of non-hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia. Design and Methods We retrospectively analyzed all the cases reported to be hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia between 2000 and 2009. A second pathology review was conducted and the diagnosis was confirmed in all cases. Results One hundred twenty-three (9%) patients were identified: patients with hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia were older than those with non-hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia (P=0.009) and more frequently presented with cytopenias (P<0.001). Forty-one patients with hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia had an antecedent hematologic disorder and 11 patients had received prior chemo-radiotherapy for non-hematopoietic neoplasms. On multivariate analysis, overall survival, remission duration and event-free survival were comparable to those of other patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Conclusions The outcome of hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia does not differ from that of non-hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:22058194

  3. Systemic coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with or at risk for the adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Groeneveld, A B; Kindt, I; Raijmakers, P G; Hack, C E; Thijs, L G

    1997-12-01

    The authors sought to evaluate the pathogenetic and prognostic role of a procoagulant and hypofibrinolytic state in the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Twenty-two consecutive patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for respiratory monitoring (n = 2) or mechanical ventilation (n = 20) were studied, of whom 13 had ARDS and 9 were at risk for the syndrome. Plasma levels of thrombin-antithrombin III complexes (TAT), the plasmin-alpha2-antiplasmin complexes (PAP), tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) were measured within 48 h after admission, together with respiratory variables allowing computation of the lung injury score (LIS), and pulmonary microvascular permeability [67Gallium-transferrin pulmonary leak index (PLI)], as measures of pulmonary dysfunction. Blood was also sampled 6-hourly until 2 days after admission. The LIS and PLI were higher in ARDS than at risk patients, in the presence of similar systemic morbidity and mortality. TAT complexes were elevated in a minority of patients of both groups, whereas the PAP, tPA and PAI levels were elevated above normal in the majority of ARDS and at risk patients, but groups did not differ. Neither circulating coagulation nor fibrinolysis variables correlated to either LIS or PLI. Furthermore, the course of haemostatic variables did not relate to outcome. These data indicate that systemic activation of coagulation and impaired fibrinolysis do not play a major role in ARDS development and outcome in patients with acute lung injury.

  4. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult dyspeptic patients in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asrat, D; Nilsson, I; Mengistu, Y; Ashenafi, S; Ayenew, K; Al-Soud, W Abu; Wadström, T; Kassa, E

    2004-03-01

    In developing countries such as Ethiopia, where chronic gastritis and peptic-ulcer disease are the most common endoscopic findings, it is important to study the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases. Both invasive and non-invasive diagnostic methods were therefore used to investigate 300, consecutive, adult patients with dyspepsia, from the gastrointestinal clinic of Tikur Anbassa University Hospital, Addis Ababa. The apparent overall prevalence of H. pylori infection varied according to the detection method employed. Culture revealed H. pylori in only 69% of the patients but this pathogen appeared more common when rapid urease tests (71%), PCR-denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (91%), histopathology (81%), silver staining (75%) or stool-antigen tests (81%) were employed. Antibodies to H. pylori were detected, both by enzyme immuno-assay (EIA) and immunoblotting, in approximately 80% of the patients, whether the antigens used were of a reference strain or from a local isolate of H. pylori. When some of the EIA-positive and EIA-negative sera were cross-absorbed with antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and re-tested by EIA, the H. pylori-positive sera remained positive and the negative sera remained negative. Dyspeptic patients in Ethiopia, like most of those previously observed elsewhere in Africa, are often infected with H. pylori. It is important that the management of these patients should not be hampered by the misinterpretation of the African epidemiology of this pathogen.

  5. Gaucher disease type 1: revised recommendations on evaluations and monitoring for adult patients.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, Neal J; Aggio, Mario C; Andersson, Hans C; Andria, Generoso; Charrow, Joel; Clarke, Joe T R; Erikson, Anders; Giraldo, Pilar; Goldblatt, Jack; Hollak, Carla; Ida, Hiroyuki; Kaplan, Paige; Kolodny, Edwin H; Mistry, Pramod; Pastores, Gregory M; Pires, Ricardo; Prakash-Cheng, Ainu; Prakesh-Cheng, Ainu; Rosenbloom, Barry E; Scott, C Ronald; Sobreira, Elisa; Tylki-Szymańska, Anna; Vellodi, Ashok; vom Dahl, Stephan; Wappner, Rebecca S; Zimran, Ari

    2004-10-01

    For patients with type 1 Gaucher disease, challenges to patient care posed by clinical heterogeneity, variable progression rates, and potential permanent disability that can result from untreated or suboptimally treated hematologic, skeletal, and visceral organ involvement dictate a need for comprehensive, serial monitoring. An updated consensus on minimum recommendations for effective monitoring of all adult patients with type 1 Gaucher disease has been developed by the International Collaborative Gaucher Group (ICGG) Registry coordinators. These recommendations provide a schedule for comprehensive and reproducible evaluation and monitoring of all clinically relevant aspects of this disease. The initial assessment should include confirmation of deficiency of beta-glucocerebrosidase, genotyping, and a complete family medical history. Other assessments to be performed initially and at regular intervals include a complete physical examination, patient-reported quality of life using the SF-36 survey, and assessment of hematologic (hemoglobin and platelet count), visceral, and skeletal involvement, and biomarkers. Specific radiologic imaging techniques are recommended for evaluating visceral and skeletal pathology. All patients should undergo comprehensive regular assessment, the frequency of which depends on treatment status and whether therapeutic goals have been achieved. Additionally, reassessment should be performed whenever enzyme therapy dose is altered, or in case of significant clinical complication. PMID:15468046

  6. Successful pregnancy and delivery in a patient with adult GH deficiency: role of GH replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Satoko; Wakasugi, Takanobu; Yagi, Kunimasa; Ohnishi, Akitsu; Ito, Naoko; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is a recently recognized endocrine disorder characterized by low peak GH levels during provocative tests. The AGHD has a negative impact on bone mineral density, skeletal muscle strength, physical capacity and psychosocial well-being. Furthermore, the girls with GHD have delayed pubertal development, and in adulthood present a condition of subfertility. Treatment for AGHD with GH replacement therapy has been officially approved since 2006 in Japan. The patient was diagnosed as pituitary dwarfism at age 9. She was treated with GH replacement therapy since diagnosis until her height reached 155cm at age 15. When she was 24 years old, she suffered from clinical symptoms relating to GH deficiency, and she visited our hospital for reintroduction of the therapy to alleviate these clinical symptoms. She has been treated with the replacement therapy since then. The patient's dysmenorrhea improved. And she was found to be 8 weeks pregnant at age 28 years 7 months. We immediately ceased replacement therapy and carefully observed the patient, because it is not indicated for female patient with pregnancy. She delivered a healthy girl at 40 weeks of pregnancy, no recognizable side-effects were observed in either mother or baby. To our knowledge, there are no other reports of a Japanese patient becoming pregnant during GH replacement therapy, and few cases have been reported in other countries. It remains uncertain whether the therapy is safe and essential for fetal development, fertility, and continuation of pregnancy in AGHD subjects.

  7. COGNUTUVE AND NEUROLOGICAL COMPLICATIONS OF BACTERIAL MENINGITIS IN ADULT PATIENTS: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY.

    PubMed

    El-Gindy, Eman M; Ali-Eldin, Fatima A; Bayoumy, Iman; Abdel-Moneim, Lamiaa; Ibrahim, Wesam A

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial meningitis is associated with disabling sequelae in a significant proportion of patients. It is associated with high mortality, risk of neuropsychological sequelae and risk of cognitive impairment the purpose of this study is to assess cognitive and neurological complications in adult patients with bacterial meningitis. A total of 45 patients with bacterial meningitis and 16 patients with tuberculous meningitis were enrolled. They were subjected to full medical history taking and clinical examination, full neurological examination on admission and discharge. Mini mental state examination (MMSE) and Wechsler memory scale (WMS) were used to assess cognitive function. The results showed that the ischemic brain insult (87.88%) followed by cranial nerves affection (32.42%) were the commonest neurological complication detected on discharge. Cognitive impairment was detected in 53.66% of patients using MMSE.WMS showed that orientation, information and logical memory were the most common affected. Cognitive and neurological complications were not statistically related to age or etiology (P>0.05). Longer duration until diagnosis (Beta = -.18, p < 0.001), presence of intracranial complications (Beta = -.12, p < 0.005), need for mechanical ventilation (Beta = -.79, p < 0.001) and drug abuse (Beta = -0.11, p < 0.05) were significant predictors of worse outcome assessed by Glasgow outcome score. PMID:26939225

  8. Nutritional care of the obese adult burn patient: a U.K. Survey and literature review.

    PubMed

    Goutos, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an emerging healthcare problem and affects an increasing number of burn patients worldwide. An email survey questionnaire was constructed and distributed among the 16 U.K. burn services providing adult inpatient facilities to investigate nutritional practices in obese thermally injured patients. Responses received from all dieticians invited to participate in the study were analyzed, and a relevant literature review of key aspects of nutritional care is presented. The majority of services believe that obese patients warrant a different nutritional approach with specific emphasis to avoid overfeeding. The most common algebraic formulae used to calculate calorific requirements include the Schofield, Henry, and modified Penn State equations. Indirect calorimetry despite being considered the "criterion standard" tool to calculate energy requirements is not currently used by any of the U.K. burn services. Gastric/enteral nutrition is initiated within 24 hours of admission in the services surveyed, and a variety of different practices were noted in terms of fasting protocols before procedures requiring general anesthesia/sedation. Hypocaloric regimens for obese patients are not supported by the majority of U.K. facilities, given the limited evidence base supporting their use. The results of this survey outline the wide diversity of dietetic practices adopted in the care of obese burn patients and reveal the need for further study to determine optimal nutritional strategies.

  9. [Affective facial behavior of patients with anxiety disorders during the adult attachment interview: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Buchheim, Anna; Benecke, Cord

    2007-08-01

    In this study we examined for the first time the difference between patients with an anxiety disorder and healthy controls in their attachment representation and facial affective behavior during the activation of the attachment system. 13 female patients und 14 healthy women were administered with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Facial affective behavior during 6 selected questions of the AAI was coded using the Emotional-Facial-Action-Coding-System (EMFACS). As expected patients with an anxiety disorder, especially panic disorders, were classified significantly more often as insecure-preoccupied with a high proportion of unresolved loss. Against our assumption anxiety patients, independent of their attachment category, did not differ in their facial affective behavior from the control group. A group comparison taking into account diagnosis and attachment status showed that duchenne smile (happiness) was significantly predominant in control subjects classified as secure. Attachment security in healthy subjects, characterized by an overall valuing of positive or negative attachment experiences and coherent discourse in the AAI, was associated with positive facial affectivity. In contrast insecure anxiety patients could be characterized by showing social smile when talking e. g. about former separation experiences from their attachment figures mostly in an incoherent manner. This could be interpreted as a self-regulating defense. Limitations of the study are the small sample size and the heterogeneous clinical group of anxiety disorders.

  10. Autoantibodies in adult patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Graciela N; Gargiulo, María De Los Ángeles; Pérez, Nicolás; Collado, María Victoria; Suárez, Lorena V; Khoury, Marina; Sarano, Judith F

    2016-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies(IIM) are a heterogeneous group of diseases of the skeletal muscle. On the basis of clinical, serologic and histological differences, they are classified in dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), inclusion body myositis and immunomediated necrotizing myopathy. Autoantibodies directed against nuclear and cytoplasmic antigens are present with variable frequencies among studies. Myositis-specific antibodies (MSAs) are useful in IIM because they contribute to the diagnosis, help to identify different clinical subsets, and have prognostic value. This study aimed to explore the frequency of autoantibodies, especially MSAs, and their relationship with clinical features in adult patients with DM, PM and overlap syndrome. Medical records were reviewed. Myositis-associated antibodies (non-specific) and MSAs (anti Jo-1, PL-7, PL-12, Mi-2 and SRP) were measured using commercial kits. Twelve patients had MSAs, an overall frequency similar to those of international series, but PL-12 and Mi-2 were more frequent than Jo-1, which is the most frequently observed elsewhere. All five patients with Mi-2 had classical DM with a favorable response to treatment. Interstitial pneumonia (n: 4) and/or treatment-refractory disease (n: 3) were found in the presence of anti-PL-12, alone or associated with anti-SRP and/or Jo-1. In conclusion, the coexistence of AEM, a rare finding, was found in three patients. The presence of MSAs aided to the diagnosis of IIM, in particular in those patients without available or conclusive biopsy results.

  11. Autoantibodies in adult patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Graciela N; Gargiulo, María De Los Ángeles; Pérez, Nicolás; Collado, María Victoria; Suárez, Lorena V; Khoury, Marina; Sarano, Judith F

    2016-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies(IIM) are a heterogeneous group of diseases of the skeletal muscle. On the basis of clinical, serologic and histological differences, they are classified in dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), inclusion body myositis and immunomediated necrotizing myopathy. Autoantibodies directed against nuclear and cytoplasmic antigens are present with variable frequencies among studies. Myositis-specific antibodies (MSAs) are useful in IIM because they contribute to the diagnosis, help to identify different clinical subsets, and have prognostic value. This study aimed to explore the frequency of autoantibodies, especially MSAs, and their relationship with clinical features in adult patients with DM, PM and overlap syndrome. Medical records were reviewed. Myositis-associated antibodies (non-specific) and MSAs (anti Jo-1, PL-7, PL-12, Mi-2 and SRP) were measured using commercial kits. Twelve patients had MSAs, an overall frequency similar to those of international series, but PL-12 and Mi-2 were more frequent than Jo-1, which is the most frequently observed elsewhere. All five patients with Mi-2 had classical DM with a favorable response to treatment. Interstitial pneumonia (n: 4) and/or treatment-refractory disease (n: 3) were found in the presence of anti-PL-12, alone or associated with anti-SRP and/or Jo-1. In conclusion, the coexistence of AEM, a rare finding, was found in three patients. The presence of MSAs aided to the diagnosis of IIM, in particular in those patients without available or conclusive biopsy results. PMID:27295700

  12. Association between frailty and delirium in older adult patients discharged from hospital

    PubMed Central

    Verloo, Henk; Goulet, Céline; Morin, Diane; von Gunten, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Background Delirium and frailty – both potentially reversible geriatric syndromes – are seldom studied together, although they often occur jointly in older patients discharged from hospitals. This study aimed to explore the relationship between delirium and frailty in older adults discharged from hospitals. Methods Of the 221 patients aged >65 years, who were invited to participate, only 114 gave their consent to participate in this study. Delirium was assessed using the confusion assessment method, in which patients were classified dichotomously as delirious or nondelirious according to its algorithm. Frailty was assessed using the Edmonton Frailty Scale, which classifies patients dichotomously as frail or nonfrail. In addition to the sociodemographic characteristics, covariates such as scores from the Mini-Mental State Examination, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale, and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics and details regarding polymedication were collected. A multidimensional linear regression model was used for analysis. Results Almost 20% of participants had delirium (n=22), and 76.3% were classified as frail (n=87); 31.5% of the variance in the delirium score was explained by frailty (R2=0.315). Age; polymedication; scores of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), instrumental activities of daily living, and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics; and frailty increased the predictability of the variance of delirium by 32% to 64% (R2=0.64). Conclusion Frailty is strongly related to delirium in older patients after discharge from the hospital. PMID:26848261

  13. Potential role of soluble CD40 in the humoral immune response impairment of uraemic patients

    PubMed Central

    Contin, Cécile; Pitard, Vincent; Delmas, Yahsou; Pelletier, Nadège; Defrance, Thierry; Moreau, Jean-François; Merville, Pierre; Déchanet-Merville, Julie

    2003-01-01

    CD40/CD154 interaction is essential for both humoral and cellular immune response. We investigated whether this interaction could be altered in patients with kidney failure who are known to present an impaired immune response. To that aim, we measured the levels of the soluble form of CD40 (sCD40), which is known to interfere with CD40/CD154 interaction, in 43 chronic renal failure patients, 162 hemodialysed patients, and 83 healthy donors. Uraemic and haemodialysed patients presented a three- and fivefold increase, respectively, of the antagonist soluble form of CD40 in their serum, when compared to healthy subjects. Serum sCD40 levels correlated with those of creatinine in uraemic non-haemodialysed patients. While sCD40 is widely excreted in urine of healthy individuals, it is not eliminated by dialysis sessions on classic membranes. The return to a normal kidney function in nine haemodialysed patients who received renal transplantation, leads to a rapid decrease of serum sCD40 levels. This natural sCD40 exhibited multimeric forms and was able to inhibit immunoglobulin production by CD154-activated B lymphocytes in vitro. Furthermore, the positive correlation we observed between the serum levels of sCD40 and the deficient response to hepatitis B vaccination in uraemic patients suggests that sCD40 also compromises the humoral response in vivo. PMID:12941150

  14. Radiographic Parameters in Adult Degenerative Scoliosis and Different Parameters Between Sagittal Balanced and Imbalanced ADS Patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changwei; Yang, Mingyuan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Wei, Xianzhao; Ni, Haijian; Chen, Ziqiang; Li, Jingfeng; Bai, Yushu; Zhu, Xiaodong; Li, Ming

    2015-07-01

    A retrospective study. To summarize and describe the radiographic parameters of adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) and explore the radiological parameters which are significantly different in sagittal balanced and imbalanced ADS patients. ADS is the most common type of adult spinal deformity. However, no comprehensive description of radiographic parameters in ADS patients has been made, and few studies have been performed to explore which radiological parameters are significantly different between sagittal balanced and imbalanced ADS patients. Medical records of ADS patients in our outpatient clinic from January 2012 to January 2014 were reviewed. Demographic data including age and sex, and radiographic data including the coronal Cobb angle, location of apical vertebra/disc, convexity of the curve, degree of apical vertebra rotation, curve segments, thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), thoracolumbar kyphosis (TL), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence (PI), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and PI minus LL (PI-LL) were reviewed to make comprehensive description of radiographic parameters of ADS. Furthermore, patients were divided into 2 groups according to whether the patients' sagittal plane was balanced: Group A (imbalanced, SVA > 5 cm) and Group B (balanced, SVA  ≤ 5 cm). Demographic and radiological parameters were compared between these 2 groups. A total of 99 patients were included in this study (Group A = 33 and Group B = 66; female = 83 and male = 16; sex ratio = 5:1). The median of age were 67 years (range: 41-92 years). The median of coronal Cobb angle and length of curve was 23 (range: 10-75°) and 5 segments (range: 3-7), respectively. The most common location of apical vertebra was at L2 to L3 (81%) and the median of degree of apical vertebra rotation was 2° (range: 1-3). Our study also showed significant correlations between coronal Cobb angle and curve segments (r = 0.23, P < 0.005) and degree of apical vertebra rotation (r

  15. Patient-based estimation of organ dose for a population of 58 adult patients across 13 protocol categories

    SciTech Connect

    Sahbaee, Pooyan; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to provide a comprehensive patient-specific organ dose estimation across a multiplicity of computed tomography (CT) examination protocols. Methods: A validated Monte Carlo program was employed to model a common CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). The organ and effective doses were estimated from 13 commonly used body and neurological CT examination. The dose estimation was performed on 58 adult computational extended cardiac-torso phantoms (35 male, 23 female, mean age 51.5 years, mean weight 80.2 kg). The organ dose normalized by CTDI{sub vol} (h factor) and effective dose normalized by the dose length product (DLP) (k factor) were calculated from the results. A mathematical model was derived for the correlation between the h and k factors with the patient size across the protocols. Based on this mathematical model, a dose estimation iPhone operating system application was designed and developed to be used as a tool to estimate dose to the patients for a variety of routinely used CT examinations. Results: The organ dose results across all the protocols showed an exponential decrease with patient body size. The correlation was generally strong for the organs which were fully or partially located inside the scan coverage (Pearson sample correlation coefficient (r) of 0.49). The correlation was weaker for organs outside the scan coverage for which distance between the organ and the irradiation area was a stronger predictor of dose to the organ. For body protocols, the effective dose before and after normalization by DLP decreased exponentially with increasing patient's body diameter (r > 0.85). The exponential relationship between effective dose and patient's body diameter was significantly weaker for neurological protocols (r < 0.41), where the trunk length was a slightly stronger predictor of effective dose (0.15 < r < 0.46). Conclusions: While the most accurate estimation of a patient dose requires specific modeling of the patient

  16. Patient-based estimation of organ dose for a population of 58 adult patients across 13 protocol categories

    PubMed Central

    Sahbaee, Pooyan; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to provide a comprehensive patient-specific organ dose estimation across a multiplicity of computed tomography (CT) examination protocols. Methods: A validated Monte Carlo program was employed to model a common CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). The organ and effective doses were estimated from 13 commonly used body and neurological CT examination. The dose estimation was performed on 58 adult computational extended cardiac-torso phantoms (35 male, 23 female, mean age 51.5 years, mean weight 80.2 kg). The organ dose normalized by CTDIvol (h factor) and effective dose normalized by the dose length product (DLP) (k factor) were calculated from the results. A mathematical model was derived for the correlation between the h and k factors with the patient size across the protocols. Based on this mathematical model, a dose estimation iPhone operating system application was designed and developed to be used as a tool to estimate dose to the patients for a variety of routinely used CT examinations. Results: The organ dose results across all the protocols showed an exponential decrease with patient body size. The correlation was generally strong for the organs which were fully or partially located inside the scan coverage (Pearson sample correlation coefficient (r) of 0.49). The correlation was weaker for organs outside the scan coverage for which distance between the organ and the irradiation area was a stronger predictor of dose to the organ. For body protocols, the effective dose before and after normalization by DLP decreased exponentially with increasing patient's body diameter (r > 0.85). The exponential relationship between effective dose and patient's body diameter was significantly weaker for neurological protocols (r < 0.41), where the trunk length was a slightly stronger predictor of effective dose (0.15 < r < 0.46). Conclusions: While the most accurate estimation of a patient dose requires specific modeling of the patient

  17. No Clear Association between Impaired Short-Term or Working Memory Storage and Time Reproduction Capacity in Adult ADHD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mette, Christian; Grabemann, Marco; Zimmermann, Marco; Strunz, Laura; Scherbaum, Norbert; Wiltfang, Jens; Kis, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Objective Altered time reproduction is exhibited by patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It remains unclear whether memory capacity influences the ability of adults with ADHD to reproduce time intervals. Method We conducted a behavioral study on 30 ADHD patients who were medicated with methylphenidate, 29 unmedicated adult ADHD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs). We assessed time reproduction using six time intervals (1 s, 4 s, 6 s, 10 s, 24 s and 60 s) and assessed memory performance using the Wechsler memory scale. Results The patients with ADHD exhibited lower memory performance scores than the HCs. No significant differences in the raw scores for any of the time intervals (p > .05), with the exception of the variability at the short time intervals (1 s, 4 s and 6 s) (p < .01), were found between the groups. The overall analyses failed to reveal any significant correlations between time reproduction at any of the time intervals examined in the time reproduction task and working memory performance (p > .05). Conclusion We detected no findings indicating that working memory might influence time reproduction in adult patients with ADHD. Therefore, further studies concerning time reproduction and memory capacity among adult patients with ADHD must be performed to verify and replicate the present findings. PMID:26221955

  18. Disturbances of sodium in critically ill adult neurologic patients: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Tisdall, Martin; Crocker, Matthew; Watkiss, Jonathan; Smith, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Disorders of sodium and water balance are common in critically ill adult neurologic patients. Normal aspects of sodium and water regulation are reviewed. The etiology of possible causes of sodium disturbance is discussed in both the general inpatient and the neurologic populations. Areas of importance are highlighted with regard to the differential diagnosis of sodium disturbance in neurologic patients, and management strategies are discussed. Specific discussions of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of cerebral salt wasting syndrome, the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and central diabetes insipidus are presented, as well as the problems of overtreatment. The importance of diagnosis at an early stage of these diseases is stressed, with a recommendation for conservative management of milder cases.

  19. Case report: An adult-onset type II citrin deficiency patient in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    TANG, LUJIA; CHEN, LIANG; WANG, HAIRONG; DAI, LIHUA; PAN, SHUMING

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25A13) gene may result in neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency and/or adult-onset type II citrullinemia. These conditions are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The current case report describes a 43-year-old man who presented with sudden delirium and upper limb weakness. Upon admission, the patient was fully conscious and alert but later lost consciousness subsequent to a sudden convulsive seizure. Hyperammonemia was detected and analysis of the SLC25A13 gene identified an 851del4 mutation. Thus, the possibility of genetic disease should be considered as a potential cause of the symptoms of patients with altered states of consciousness, such as delirium and loss of consciousness, in cases where the cause of the disturbance is unknown. PMID:27347070

  20. Improving Medication Knowledge among Older Adults with Heart Failure: A Patient-Centered Approach to Instruction Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Daniel G.; Weiner, Michael; Young, James; Steinley, Douglas; Deer, Melissa; Murray, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether patient-centered instructions for chronic heart failure medications increase comprehension and memory for medication information in older adults diagnosed with chronic heart failure. Design and Methods: Patient-centered instructions for familiar and unfamiliar medications were compared with instructions for the…

  1. Sequence analysis and genetic variability of stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in the Italian Mediterranean river buffalo.

    PubMed

    Pauciullo, A; Cosenza, G; D'Avino, A; Colimoro, L; Nicodemo, D; Coletta, A; Feligini, M; Marchitelli, C; Di Berardino, D; Ramunno, L

    2010-12-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) plays a key metabolic role by changing the saturated FA content of ruminant milk and meat. In this study we characterized for the first time the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and investigated its genetic variability. On a total of 78 buffaloes, 15 SNPs were detected and 6 of them were preliminarily genotyped. In particular, the g.133A>C SNP was found to create a new consensus site for the SP1 binding site, thus generating a new tandem repeat in the promoter region. A preliminary association study with the milk fatty acid content showed that the C allele significantly affects the total desaturation index (P<0.01). Linkage disequilibrium analysis allowed identification of 7 haplotypes and 4 tag SNPs. Such polymorphisms could represent useful genetic markers for association studies with fatty acid composition, but further studies are needed to evaluate their potential use to improve the nutritional quality of the dairy products. PMID:20691778

  2. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of Coblation versus Dissection Tonsillectomy in Adult Patients.

    PubMed

    Rakesh, Singh; Anand, T S; Payal, Garg; Pranjal, Kulshreshtha

    2012-09-01

    This randomized double blind study was conducted prospectively to determine whether coblation tonsillectomy fared better than the conventional dissection method in terms of postoperative pain, bleeding, and rapidity of healing in adult Indian patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Sixty adult patients undergoing tonsillectomy for benign indications were randomized to have one tonsil removed by subcapsular radiofrequency ablation method and the other by conventional dissection method. The operative time and blood loss was noted for each side. Patients were evaluated at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h and then on 7th and 20th postoperative day for postoperative pain (by visual analog scale), bleeding, and tonsillar fossa healing. Statistical comparison was done using appropriate tests. The two groups were demographically matched. It took longer to perform the coblation procedure (15 vs 11 min) (P > 0.05). The operative blood loss on the radiofrequency side was 11 ml, vs 34 ml on the conventional side (P = 0.009). 77% patients said that the coblation side was less painful for the overall 20-day recovery period. There were significant differences seen at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h in terms of postoperative pain scores. Beyond that, the pain was consistently less on the coblation side, but the difference was not significant. There was no case of reactionary or secondary hemorrhage in either arm. The healing took longer on the radiofrequency side. Coblation tonsillectomy is an easy to learn technique with significantly reduced operative blood loss and postoperative pain. Longer operative times maybe further reduced with experience.

  3. Transiently-Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions (teoaes) in Monitoring Adult Cis-Platin Patients.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribera, John Everett

    1995-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) reflect the integrity of cochlear outer hair cell (OHC) function. Cis-platin (CDDP) is a potent ototoxic chemotherapeutic agent that tends to destroy or disable OHCs. Therefore, this study was designed to answer the following questions: (1) Can TEOAEs be used in monitoring for ototoxicity in adult VA oncology patients receiving CDDP treatment? (2) If so, how sensitive are TEOAEs in detecting significant changes when compared to Audiometry in a VA population? and (3) Which of several TEOAE measures is the most sensitive to changes in hearing due to CDDP ototoxicity in a VA population?. In Experiment I, VA Medical Center patients were recruited (control group) and tested using a conventional audiometer and the ILO88 Otoacoustic Analyzer on three separate days. Data from this experiment were used to develop change criteria in each of four TEOAE measures (Reproducibility, Compare, 1 kHz Band Analysis, and OAE Response) for Experiment II. Experiment II was of similar design with the exception that the subjects (experimental group) were patients enrolled from the oncology ward and were administered CDDP after the first and second test sessions. Data from both groups and all test measures revealed (1) that there was no ear effect in any of the test conditions, (2) there was a group (drug) effect, and (3) there was a frequency effect at 2 kHz. Audiometry detected changes in 56% of the experimental subjects, while the number of changes varied among the TEOAE measures studied. Compare agreed with Audiometry more often and performed better than any other TEOAE measure in detecting change. Based on these findings, incorporation of Compare into an audiometric test battery to monitor for ototoxicity in the VA population is feasible. There is evidence to suggest that as measurement techniques are refined TEOAE analysis will become a valid test for monitoring of adult CDDP patients.

  4. The Level of Dental Anxiety and Dental Status in Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dobros, Katarzyna; Hajto-Bryk, Justyna; Wnek, Anna; Zarzecka, Joanna; Rzepka, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to assess potential correlation between dental anxiety and overall dental status in adult patients, in consideration of the frequency of dental appointments and individual dental hygiene practices. Materials and Methods: Individual dental anxiety levels were assessed with the aid of the Corah’s dental anxiety scale (DAS). The study embraced 112 patients of the University Dental Clinic, Kraków. Following clinical and X-ray exams, respectively, decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index and dental treatment index (DTI) were computed for each study subject. Results: Mean DAS among the 112 subjects under study was 9.41 standard deviation (SD = 3.36). Mean DMFT value was 15.86 (SD = 7.00), whereas DTI value was 0.76 (SD = 0.27). The number of decayed teeth and an individual dental anxiety level were found to be correlated (r = 0.26). Higher dental anxiety correlated with lower DTI value (r = −0.22) and lesser frequency of dental appointments (r = 0.22). Conclusions: Individual dental anxiety level appears to impact overall dental status, frequency of dental appointments and everyday oral health practices. Every conceivable effort should therefore be undertaken with a view to effectively diminishing dental anxiety levels in the patients. How to cite the article: Dobros K, Hajto-Bryk J, Wnęk A, Zarzecka J, Rzepka D. The level of dental anxiety and dental status in adult patients. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):11-4. PMID:25083026

  5. VirtualDose: a software for reporting organ doses from CT for adult and pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ding, Aiping; Gao, Yiming; Liu, Haikuan; Caracappa, Peter F; Long, Daniel J; Bolch, Wesley E; Liu, Bob; Xu, X George

    2015-07-21

    This paper describes the development and testing of VirtualDose--a software for reporting organ doses for adult and pediatric patients who undergo x-ray computed tomography (CT) examinations. The software is based on a comprehensive database of organ doses derived from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations involving a library of 25 anatomically realistic phantoms that represent patients of different ages, body sizes, body masses, and pregnant stages. Models of GE Lightspeed Pro 16 and Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 scanners were carefully validated for use in MC dose calculations. The software framework is designed with the 'software as a service (SaaS)' delivery concept under which multiple clients can access the web-based interface simultaneously from any computer without having to install software locally. The RESTful web service API also allows a third-party picture archiving and communication system software package to seamlessly integrate with VirtualDose's functions. Software testing showed that VirtualDose was compatible with numerous operating systems including Windows, Linux, Apple OS X, and mobile and portable devices. The organ doses from VirtualDose were compared against those reported by CT-Expo and ImPACT-two dosimetry tools that were based on the stylized pediatric and adult patient models that were known to be anatomically simple. The organ doses reported by VirtualDose differed from those reported by CT-Expo and ImPACT by as much as 300% in some of the patient models. These results confirm the conclusion from past studies that differences in anatomical realism offered by stylized and voxel phantoms have caused significant discrepancies in CT dose estimations.

  6. VirtualDose: a software for reporting organ doses from CT for adult and pediatric patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Aiping; Gao, Yiming; Liu, Haikuan; Caracappa, Peter F.; Long, Daniel J.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Liu, Bob; Xu, X. George

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of VirtualDose—a software for reporting organ doses for adult and pediatric patients who undergo x-ray computed tomography (CT) examinations. The software is based on a comprehensive database of organ doses derived from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations involving a library of 25 anatomically realistic phantoms that represent patients of different ages, body sizes, body masses, and pregnant stages. Models of GE Lightspeed Pro 16 and Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 scanners were carefully validated for use in MC dose calculations. The software framework is designed with the ‘software as a service (SaaS)’ delivery concept under which multiple clients can access the web-based interface simultaneously from any computer without having to install software locally. The RESTful web service API also allows a third-party picture archiving and communication system software package to seamlessly integrate with VirtualDose’s functions. Software testing showed that VirtualDose was compatible with numerous operating systems including Windows, Linux, Apple OS X, and mobile and portable devices. The organ doses from VirtualDose were compared against those reported by CT-Expo and ImPACT—two dosimetry tools that were based on the stylized pediatric and adult patient models that were known to be anatomically simple. The organ doses reported by VirtualDose differed from those reported by CT-Expo and ImPACT by as much as 300% in some of the patient models. These results confirm the conclusion from past studies that differences in anatomical realism offered by stylized and voxel phantoms have caused significant discrepancies in CT dose estimations.

  7. VirtualDose: a software for reporting organ doses from CT for adult and pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ding, Aiping; Gao, Yiming; Liu, Haikuan; Caracappa, Peter F; Long, Daniel J; Bolch, Wesley E; Liu, Bob; Xu, X George

    2015-07-21

    This paper describes the development and testing of VirtualDose--a software for reporting organ doses for adult and pediatric patients who undergo x-ray computed tomography (CT) examinations. The software is based on a comprehensive database of organ doses derived from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations involving a library of 25 anatomically realistic phantoms that represent patients of different ages, body sizes, body masses, and pregnant stages. Models of GE Lightspeed Pro 16 and Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 scanners were carefully validated for use in MC dose calculations. The software framework is designed with the 'software as a service (SaaS)' delivery concept under which multiple clients can access the web-based interface simultaneously from any computer without having to install software locally. The RESTful web service API also allows a third-party picture archiving and communication system software package to seamlessly integrate with VirtualDose's functions. Software testing showed that VirtualDose was compatible with numerous operating systems including Windows, Linux, Apple OS X, and mobile and portable devices. The organ doses from VirtualDose were compared against those reported by CT-Expo and ImPACT-two dosimetry tools that were based on the stylized pediatric and adult patient models that were known to be anatomically simple. The organ doses reported by VirtualDose differed from those reported by CT-Expo and ImPACT by as much as 300% in some of the patient models. These results confirm the conclusion from past studies that differences in anatomical realism offered by stylized and voxel phantoms have caused significant discrepancies in CT dose estimations. PMID:26134511

  8. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of voriconazole and anidulafungin in adult patients with invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Mould, Diane R

    2014-08-01

    To assess the pharmacokinetics (PK) of voriconazole and anidulafungin in patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) in comparison with other populations, sparse PK data were obtained for 305 adults from a prospective phase 3 study comparing voriconazole and anidulafungin in combination versus voriconazole monotherapy (voriconazole, 6 mg/kg intravenously [IV] every 12 h [q12h] for 24 h followed by 4 mg/kg IV q12h, switched to 300 mg orally q12h as appropriate; with placebo or anidulafungin IV, a 200-mg loading dose followed by 100 mg q24h). Voriconazole PK was described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and mixed linear and time-dependent nonlinear (Michaelis-Menten) elimination; anidulafungin PK was described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. For voriconazole, the normal inverse Wishart prior approach was implemented to stabilize the model. Compared to previous models, no new covariates were identified for voriconazole or anidulafungin. PK parameter estimates of voriconazole and anidulafungin are in agreement with those reported previously except for voriconazole clearance (the nonlinear clearance component became minimal). At a 4-mg/kg IV dose, voriconazole exposure tended to increase slightly as age, weight, or body mass index increased, but the difference was not considered clinically relevant. Estimated voriconazole exposures in IA patients at 4 mg/kg IV were higher than those reported for healthy adults (e.g., the average area under the curve over a 12-hour dosing interval [AUC0-12] at steady state was 46% higher); while it is not definitive, age and concomitant medications may impact this difference. Estimated anidulafungin exposures in IA patients were comparable to those reported for the general patient population. This study was approved by the appropriate institutional review boards or ethics committees and registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00531479). PMID:24913161

  9. Hippotherapy in Adult Patients with Chronic Brain Disorders: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sunwoo, Hyuk; Kwon, Jeong-Yi; Kim, Tae-Won; Lee, Ji-Young; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of hippotherapy for adult patients with brain disorders. Method Eight chronic brain disorder patients (7 males, mean age 42.4±16.6 years) were recruited. The mean duration from injury was 7.9±7.7 years. The diagnoses were stroke (n=5), traumatic brain disorder (n=2), and cerebral palsy (n=1). Hippotherapy sessions were conducted twice a week for eight consecutive weeks in an indoor riding arena. Each hippotherapy session lasted 30 minutes. All participants were evaluated by the Berg balance scale, Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment, 10 Meter Walking Test, Functional Ambulatory Category, Korean Beck Depression Inventory, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. We performed baseline assessments twice just before starting hippotherapy. We also assessed the participants immediately after hippotherapy and at eight weeks after hippotherapy. Results All participants showed no difference in balance, gait function, and emotion between the two baseline assessments before hippotherapy. During the eight-week hippotherapy program, all participants showed neither adverse effects nor any accidents; all had good compliance. After hippotherapy, there were significant improvements in balance and gait speed in comparison with the baseline assessment (p<0.05), and these effects were sustained for two months after hippotherapy. However, there was no significant difference in emotion after hippotherapy. Conclusion We could observe hippotherapy to be a safe and effective alternative therapy for adult patients with brain disorders in improving balance and gait function. Further future studies are warranted to delineate the benefits of hippotherapy on chronic stroke patients. PMID:23342306

  10. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of voriconazole and anidulafungin in adult patients with invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Mould, Diane R

    2014-08-01

    To assess the pharmacokinetics (PK) of voriconazole and anidulafungin in patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) in comparison with other populations, sparse PK data were obtained for 305 adults from a prospective phase 3 study comparing voriconazole and anidulafungin in combination versus voriconazole monotherapy (voriconazole, 6 mg/kg intravenously [IV] every 12 h [q12h] for 24 h followed by 4 mg/kg IV q12h, switched to 300 mg orally q12h as appropriate; with placebo or anidulafungin IV, a 200-mg loading dose followed by 100 mg q24h). Voriconazole PK was described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and mixed linear and time-dependent nonlinear (Michaelis-Menten) elimination; anidulafungin PK was described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. For voriconazole, the normal inverse Wishart prior approach was implemented to stabilize the model. Compared to previous models, no new covariates were identified for voriconazole or anidulafungin. PK parameter estimates of voriconazole and anidulafungin are in agreement with those reported previously except for voriconazole clearance (the nonlinear clearance component became minimal). At a 4-mg/kg IV dose, voriconazole exposure tended to increase slightly as age, weight, or body mass index increased, but the difference was not considered clinically relevant. Estimated voriconazole exposures in IA patients at 4 mg/kg IV were higher than those reported for healthy adults (e.g., the average area under the curve over a 12-hour dosing interval [AUC0-12] at steady state was 46% higher); while it is not definitive, age and concomitant medications may impact this difference. Estimated anidulafungin exposures in IA patients were comparable to those reported for the general patient population. This study was approved by the appropriate institutional review boards or ethics committees and registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00531479).

  11. Immunoglobulin G Subclass Deficiencies in Adult Patients with Chronic Airway Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency (IgGSCD) is a relatively common primary immunodeficiency disease (PI) in adults. The biological significance of IgGSCD in patients with chronic airway diseases is controversial. We conducted a retrospective study to characterize the clinical features of IgGSCD in this population. This study examined the medical charts from 59 adult patients with IgGSCD who had bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from January 2007 to December 2012. Subjects were classified according to the 10 warning signs developed by the Jeffrey Modell Foundation (JMF) and divided into two patient groups: group I (n = 17) met ≥ two JMF criteria, whereas group II (n = 42) met none. IgG3 deficiency was the most common subclass deficiency (88.1%), followed by IgG4 (15.3%). The most common infectious complication was pneumonia, followed by recurrent bronchitis, and rhinosinusitis. The numbers of infections, hospitalizations, and exacerbations of asthma or COPD per year were significantly higher in group I than in group II (P < 0.001, P = 0.012, and P < 0.001, respectively). The follow-up mean forced expiratory volume (FEV1) level in group I was significantly lower than it was at baseline despite treatment of asthma or COPD (P = 0.036). In conclusion, IgGSCD is an important PI in the subset of patients with chronic airway diseases who had recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections as they presented with exacerbation-prone phenotypes, decline in lung function, and subsequently poor prognosis. PMID:27550483

  12. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses in adult patients with Chagas disease treated with a new formulation of benznidazole.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Marisa Liliana; Marson, Maria Elena; Ramirez, Juan Carlos; Mastrantonio, Guido; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Altcheh, Jaime; Riarte, Adelina Rosa; Bournissen, Facundo García

    2016-03-01

    Pharmacological treatment of Chagas disease with benznidazole (BNZ) is effective in children in all stages, but it is controversial in chronically infected adults. We report the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in six adult patients with Chagas disease treated with the new BNZ formulation (ABARAX®) in doses between 2.5-5.5 mg/Kg/day. All but one patient had plasmatic BNZ concentrations within the expected range. All patients finalised treatment with nondetectable Trypanosoma cruzi quantitative polymerase chain reaction, which remained nondetectable at the six month follow-up. Our data suggests parasitological responses with the new BNZ and supports the hypothesis that treatment protocols with lower BNZ doses may be effective.

  13. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses in adult patients with Chagas disease treated with a new formulation of benznidazole

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Marisa Liliana; Marson, Maria Elena; Ramirez, Juan Carlos; Mastrantonio, Guido; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Altcheh, Jaime; Riarte, Adelina Rosa; Bournissen, Facundo García

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment of Chagas disease with benznidazole (BNZ) is effective in children in all stages, but it is controversial in chronically infected adults. We report the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in six adult patients with Chagas disease treated with the new BNZ formulation (ABARAX®) in doses between 2.5-5.5 mg/Kg/day. All but one patient had plasmatic BNZ concentrations within the expected range. All patients finalised treatment with nondetectable Trypanosoma cruziquantitative polymerase chain reaction, which remained nondetectable at the six month follow-up. Our data suggests parasitological responses with the new BNZ and supports the hypothesis that treatment protocols with lower BNZ doses may be effective. PMID:26982179

  14. Aripiprazole (ABILIFY MAINTENA®): a review of its use as maintenance treatment for adult patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Matt; Perry, Caroline M

    2014-07-01

    Aripiprazole (ABILIFY(®)) is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is proposed to act via partial agonism of dopamine D2 receptors. Trials with oral aripiprazole have shown that, compared with some other atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole is associated with fewer metabolic disturbances and has a favourable cardiovascular tolerability profile. Recently, an intramuscular long-acting injectable (LAI) depot formulation of aripiprazole (ABILIFY MAINTENA(®)) (aripiprazole LAI) has been approved for use as a treatment for schizophrenia in adults. The efficacy of aripiprazole LAI as a maintenance treatment for schizophrenia has been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials. In the trials, aripiprazole LAI was more effective than placebo, and noninferior to oral aripiprazole, in delaying relapse and in reducing relapse rates in schizophrenia. Aripiprazole LAI was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile consistent with that of oral aripiprazole. Thus, aripiprazole LAI is a valuable new treatment option for adult patients with schizophrenia. It may be of particular use for patients stable on oral aripiprazole who would prefer, or are likely to benefit from, a long-acting formulation.

  15. Static and dynamic postural control before and after cochlear implantation in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Kluenter, Heinz-Dieter; Lang-Roth, Ruth; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2009-10-01

    On a Balance Master computerized force plate static and dynamic postural control was measured in 24 severe hearing-impaired patients before and after CI surgery, and 19 healthy adults in a prospective study. The test battery consisted of the modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance, the Rhythmic Weight Shift, the Walk Across, and the Tandem Walk test. Postural control was significantly worse in CI candidates than in healthy adults. In contrast, caloric testing of the vestibular organ was normal in the majority of CI candidates and remained normal after CI surgery. Static and dynamic standing balance parameters remained unchanged after CI surgery for the vast majority of parameters. Male gender and age >51 years were negative risk factors in some balance tasks. The static and dynamic standing balance performance seemed to improve to some degree with longer time interval before the CI surgery. Postural control was impaired but not complained of in many CI candidates before CI surgery and remained impaired after CI surgery although caloric testing is normal in most patients.

  16. Hemodialysis outcomes in a global sample of children and young adult hemodialysis patients: the PICCOLO MONDO cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Maria; Gibson, Keisha; Plattner, Brett; Gipson, Debbie S.; Kotanko, Peter; Marcelli, Daniele; Marelli, Cristina; Etter, Michael; Carioni, Paola; von Gersdorff, Gero; Xu, Xiaoqi; Kooman, Jeroen P.; Xiao, Qingqing; van der Sande, Frank M.; Power, Albert; Picoits-Filho, Roberto; Sylvestre, Lucimary; Westreich, Katherine; Usvyat, Len

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe the experience of pediatric and young adult hemodialysis (HD) patients from a global cohort. Methods The Pediatric Investigation and Close Collaborative Consortium for Ongoing Life Outcomes for MONitoring Dialysis Outcomes (PICCOLO MONDO) study provided de-identified electronic information of 3244 patients, ages 0–30 years from 2000 to 2012 in four regions: Asia, Europe, North America and South America. The study sample was categorized into pediatric (≤18 years old) and young adult (19–30 years old) groups based on the age at dialysis initiation. Results For those with known end-stage renal disease etiology, glomerular disease was the most common diagnosis in children and young adults. Using Europe as a reference group, North America [odds ratio (OR) 2.69; CI 1.29, 5.63] and South America (OR 4.21; CI 2.32, 7.63) had the greatest mortality among young adults. North America also had higher rates of overweight, obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hospitalizations and secondary diabetes compared with all other regions. Initial catheter use was greater for North American (86.4% in pediatric patients and 75.2% in young adults) and South America (80.6% in pediatric patients and 75.9% in young adults). Catheter use at 1-year follow-up was most common in North American children (77.3%) and young adults (62.9%). Asia had the lowest rate of catheter use. For both age groups, dialysis adequacy (equilibrated Kt/V) ranged between 1.4 and 1.5. In Asia, patients in both age groups had significantly longer treatment times than in any other region. Conclusions The PICCOLO MONDO study has provided unique baseline and 1-year follow-up information on children and young adults receiving HD around the globe. This cohort has brought to light aspects of care in these age groups that warrant further investigation. PMID:26985383

  17. Psychosocial Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Marietta; Kaslow, Nadine; Doepke, Karla; Eckman, James; Johnson, Marjorie

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the existing literature on psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents with sickle cell disease and suggests some developmentally appropriate modifications for approaches designed for adults. Particular attention is paid to nonpharmacological pain management strategies that include coping skill training, educational programs,…

  18. Pediatric and Young Adult Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Treated With Preradiation Cisplatin and Docetaxel Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Varan, Ali Ozyar, Enis; Corapcioglu, Funda; Koeksal, Yavuz; Aydin, Burca; Yazici, Nalan; Akyuez, Canan; Bueyuekpamukcu, Muenevver

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate treatment results for pediatric and young adult (aged <21 years) patients with nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant cisplatin + docetaxel and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who received diagnoses between 2004 and 2007 were treated with four cycles of cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} + docetaxel 75 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1 with premedication every 3 weeks. All patients were treated with fractionated external beam radiotherapy after chemotherapy to a median dose of 59.4 Gy (range, 54-59.4 Gy) to the primary disease and 40 Gy to the supraclavicular field with the clavicles shielded. Five children were monitored with serum EBV DNA quantification at diagnosis, after each cycle of chemotherapy, before radiotherapy, and at follow-up. Results: The median age of the patients was 14 years (range, 9-20 years), with a male:female ratio of 6:4. Stage distribution was as follows: 2 patients had Stage IIb disease, 2 had Stage III, 4 had Stage IVa, and 2 had Stage IVb disease. After cisplatin+docetaxel chemotherapy 1 patient had a complete response, 5 had a partial response, 3 had stable disease, and 1 had disease progression. The 2-year overall survival rate in our series was 90% and the event-free survival rate was 70%. No major chemotherapy toxicity was observed. The EBV DNA titers were higher in 2 of the 5 monitored patients at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion: As neoadjuvant chemotherapy before radiotherapy, the cisplatin+docetaxel combination is safe for use in the treatment of childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  19. Bone disease in adult patients with β-thalassaemia major: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Marina; Forti, Stella; Orsatti, Alessandra; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo; Airaghi, Lorena; Zanaboni, Laura; Cappellini, Maria Domenica

    2014-02-01

    Despite the extraordinary improvements carried out in diagnostic and therapeutic management of thalassaemia major over the past few decades, bone demineralization is still a common finding, even in optimally treated patients. The relationships between bone density and several clinical characteristics or hematological markers have been described, and many factors contributing to demineralization have been identified; among them endocrine complications seem to play an important role. Nevertheless, the complex etiological mechanisms of this heterogeneous osteopathy still remains incompletely clarified. While previous studies focused on the characteristics of thalassaemic patients affected from bone demineralization, we conducted a case-control study focused on thalassaemic patients free from bone disease, aimed to detect the distinctive characteristics and any possible protective feature. Among a large cohort of 150 adult patients with β-thalassaemia major, we enrolled 20 patients with normal bone mineralization and 20 patients with osteoporosis matched for gender, BMI, age at first transfusion, serum ferritin and pre-transfusional hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The differences in demographic, clinical and endocrinological profiles were investigated, correcting for physical and hematological features known as confounding variables. The comparison of the two groups for biochemical parameters and endocrine function showed a protective role of normal gonadic function and IGF-1 levels against osteoporosis, and a similar influence of hypoparathyroidism. Treatment-corrected hypothyroidism and diabetes seemed not to affect bone mineralization. In conclusion, from a different perspective our results corroborate the role of endocrinopathies in thalassaemic osteopathy, and once again underline the crucial importance of an early and multi-disciplinary intervention in preventing bone complications in thalassaemic patients. PMID:22179745

  20. Temporal patterns of radiographic infiltration in severely traumatized patients with and without adult respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K S; Bishop, M H; Stephen, C M; Jorgens, J; Shoemaker, W C; Shori, S K; Ordog, G; Thadepalli, H; Appel, P L; Kram, H B

    1994-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated the patterns of pulmonary structural and functional changes in 100 consecutive surgical intensive care unit trauma patients who had (1) emergent major surgery, (2) a pelvic fracture, or (3) two or more major long bone fractures. For each patient, arterial blood gas measurements (ABGs), central venous pressure (CVP), pulmonary capillary occlusion pressure (PAOP), thoracic compliance, arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen (PAO2/FIO2), pulmonary venous admixture (Qs/Qt), and portable chest roentgenograms were sequentially tracked. The senior staff radiologist interpreted all chest roentgenograms. Pulmonary infiltration was quantitated in each of six fields using a scale ranging from 0 to 4, with 0 being no infiltration and 4 being the maximum. Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined as follows: Qs/Qt > or = 20%, PAO2/FIO2 < 250 or both; dependence on mechanical ventilation for life support for > or = 24 hours; PAOP or CVP or both < 20 mm Hg; and thoracic compliance < 50 mL/cm H2O. Time zero (T0) the time of onset of ARDS, was defined as the time these criteria were met. Eighty-three of 100 study group patients had penetrating injuries, and 17 were admitted with blunt trauma. Fifty-one of 100 patients developed ARDS: 36 of 51 died. Only 4 of 49 (8%) patients without ARDS died. The injured lungs of patients with and without ARDS had similar amounts of infiltration over most measured time intervals. The noninjured lungs of the ARDS patients, however, had significantly greater infiltration than those without ARDS at T0 and over subsequent time intervals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Patient Reported Delays in Seeking Treatment for Tuberculosis among Adult and Pediatric TB Patients and TB Patients Co-Infected with HIV in Lima, Peru: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Alban, Rebecca E.; Dimos Jones, Christy; Powell, Amy R.; Oberhelman, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health challenge worldwide, and particularly in Peru with one of the highest incidence rates in Latin America. TB patient behavior has a direct influence on whether a patient will receive timely diagnosis and successful treatment of their illness. Objectives: The objective was to understand the complex factors that can impact TB patient health seeking behavior. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with adult and parents of pediatric patients receiving TB treatment (n = 43), within that group a sub-group was also co-infected with HIV (n = 11). Results: Almost all of the study participants recognized delays in seeking either their child’s or their own diagnosis of their TB symptoms. The principal reasons for treatment-seeking delays were lack of knowledge and confusion of TB symptoms, fear and embarrassment of receiving a TB diagnosis, and a patient tendency to self-medicate prior to seeking formal medical attention. Conclusion: Health promotion activities that target patient delays have the potential to improve individual patient outcomes and mitigate the spread of TB at a community level. PMID:25566523

  2. Elevated levels of soluble CD14 in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Nockher, W A; Wigand, R; Schoeppe, W; Scherberich, J E

    1994-01-01

    A soluble form of CD14 (sCD14) was assessed with an ELISA assay in the serum of the following three clinical groups: 35 patients with an inactive phase of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 17 patients with SLE relapses, and 65 normal healthy volunteers. Increased levels of sCD14 were observed in all patients suffering from SLE compared with normal controls. In addition, patients with active SLE revealed higher serum concentrations of sCD14 (median 6.9 mg/l) than patients under remission (4.1 mg/l; P < 0.0001). Serum values of sCD14 correlated neither with the number of peripheral blood monocytes bearing the CD14 membrane antigen, nor with serum concentrations of IL-1 beta. Serum sCD14 was compared with other clinical parameters used to monitor the clinical course of patients with SLE, among them complement C3, anti-dsDNA antibodies and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R). A good correlation emerged between sCD14 and C3 as well as sIL-2R concentrations, but sCD14 and anti-dsDNA titres disclosed no significant correlation in both groups of patients with SLE. Serial studies in patients with severe SLE showed that serum sCD14 closely parallels the clinical course as defined by an activity score. Our data suggest that serum sCD14 represents a promising parameter to monitor disease activity in patients with SLE. PMID:7512005

  3. Prognostic factors and survival in late adolescent and adult patients with small round cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Eralp, Yeşim; Bavbek, Sevil; Başaran, Mert; Kaytan, Esra; Yaman, Fulya; Bilgiç, Bilge; Darendeliler, Emin; Onat, Haluk

    2002-08-01

    The primary objective of this study is to review the clinical characteristics of 25 patients in the adult and late adolescent age group, diagnosed and treated with small round cell tumors involving soft tissues (extraosseous Ewing sarcoma, rhabdo-myosarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and undiffer-entiated small round cell tumors). Additionally, survival and prognostic factors influencing the outcome with multimodality treatment are evaluated. There were 19 males (76%) and 6 females (24%). The median age was 26 years (range: 15-56 years). In 9 patients (36%), the tumor was located at an extremity, whereas 16 patients (64%) had central localizations. Tumor size was larger than 10 cm in 7 patients (29.2%). Six patients (24%) had metastatic disease. Twelve patients (48%) received radiation and 16 patients (64%) underwent surgery. Among the resected tumors, 2 were resected with contaminated margins (12.5%), whereas 2 were radically resected and 12 (75%) were resected with wide margins. All patients were given a median of 4 cycles of multiagent chemotherapy (1-14 cycles). With preoperative chemotherapy, complete regression (CR) of the tumor was achieved in 6 patients (24%). In 4 patients (16%), a partial response was obtained. After the completion of multimodality treatment, 12 patients (48%) had a CR. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the entire group was 25.0 +/- 10.8% at 1 year and 30.5 +/- 15.5% at 3 years, respectively. Nonmetastatic disease, wide and radical resection, and presence of CR to multimodality treatment were associated with a significantly longer PFS and OS by univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis, CR to multimodality treat-ment was the only independent predictive factor for a longer OS (p: 0.0036, relative risk [RR]: 23.6, 95% CI: 2.8; 198.7) and metastatic presentation was the only independent factor predic-tive for a shorter PFS (p: 0.017, RR. 15, 95% CI: 1.6; 141.2). Large-scale, multicenter studies are required for

  4. Sudden cardiac death in hemodialysis patients: an in-depth review.

    PubMed

    Green, Darren; Roberts, Paul R; New, David I; Kalra, Philip A

    2011-06-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death in hemodialysis patients, accounting for death in up to one-quarter of this population. Unlike in the general population, coronary artery disease and heart failure often are not the underlying pathologic processes for SCD; accordingly, current risk stratification tools are inadequate when assessing these patients. Factors assuming greater importance in hemodialysis patients may include left ventricular hypertrophy, electrolyte shift, and vascular calcification. Knowledge regarding SCD in hemodialysis patients is insufficient, in part reflecting the lack of an agreed-on definition of SCD in this population, although epidemiologic studies suggest the most common times for SCD to occur are toward the end of the long 72-hour weekend interval between dialysis sessions and in the 12 hours immediately after hemodialysis. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that the dialysis procedure itself may have important implications for SCD. Supporting this is recognition that hemodialysis is associated with both ventricular arrhythmias and dynamic electrocardiographic changes. Importantly, echocardiography and electrocardiography may show changes that are modifiable by alterations to dialysis prescription. The most effective preventative strategy in the general population, implanted cardioverter-defibrillator devices, are less effective in the presence of chronic kidney disease and have not been studied adequately in dialysis patients. Last, many dialysis patients experience SCD despite not fulfilling current criteria for implantation, making appropriate allocation of defibrillators uncertain.

  5. Gelastic seizures: incidence, clinical and EEG features in adult patients undergoing video-EEG telemetry.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Stjepana; Diehl, Beate; Wehner, Tim; Fois, Chiara; Toms, Nathan; Walker, Matthew C; Duncan, John S

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine clinical features of adult patients with gelastic seizures recorded on video -electroencephalography (EEG) over a 5-year period. We screened video-EEG telemetry reports for the occurrence of the term "gelastic" seizures, and assessed the semiology, EEG features, and duration of those seizures. Gelastic seizures were identified in 19 (0.8%) of 2,446 admissions. The presumed epileptogenic zone was in the hypothalamus in one third of the cases, temporal lobe epilepsy was diagnosed in another third, and the remainder of the cases presenting with gelastic seizures were classified as frontal, parietal lobe epilepsy or remained undetermined or were multifocal. Gelastic seizures were embedded in a semiology, with part of the seizure showing features of automotor seizures. A small proportion of patients underwent epilepsy surgery. Outcome of epilepsy surgery was related to the underlying pathology; two patients with hippocampal sclerosis had good outcomes following temporal lobe resection and one of four patients with hypothalamic hamartomas undergoing gamma knife surgery had a good outcome.

  6. Socioeconomic status and glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes: a mediation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houle, Janie; Lauzier-Jobin, François; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Meunier, Sophie; Coulombe, Simon; Côté, José; Lespérance, François; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Bherer, Louis; Lambert, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the contribution of health behaviors (self-management and coping), quality of care, and individual characteristics (depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, illness representations) as mediators in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and glycemic control. Methods A sample of 295 adult patients with type 2 diabetes was recruited at the end of a diabetes education course. Glycemic control was evaluated through glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Living in poverty and education level were used as indicators of SES. Results Bootstrapping analysis showed that the significant effects of poverty and education level on HbA1c were mediated by avoidance coping and depressive symptoms. The representation that diabetes is unpredictable significantly mediated the relationship between living in poverty and HbA1c, while healthy diet mediated the relationship between education level and HbA1c. Conclusions To improve glycemic control among patients with low SES, professionals should regularly screen for depression, offering treatment when needed, and pay attention to patients' illness representations and coping strategies for handling stress related to their chronic disease. They should also support patients in improving their self-management skills for a healthy diet. PMID:27239316

  7. Mitoxantrone and cytosine arabinoside in previously untreated adult patients with acute non-lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Osman, I; Akin, U; Ismet, A; Meral, B; Hamdi, A; Haluk, K

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-five adult patients with previously untreated acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were treated with mitoxantrone (Mto) 12 mg/m2 daily by 30 minutes intravenous (IV) infusion for 3 days and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) 200 mg/m2 daily by continuous infusion for 7 days, as an induction therapy. After complete remission (CR) was observed, they were given two more courses of consolidation therapy which was as Mto 12 mg/m2 daily by 30 minutes IV infusion for one day, and Ara-C 200 mg/m2 daily by 30 minutes IV infusion for 5 days. CR was obtained in 18 of 25 patients (72%). Median remission duration was 294 days and length of survival was 366 days. 11 patients (44%) are still in remission. Myelosupression developed in all patients following induction therapy, but it was not observed after consolidation therapies. Non-hematological side-effects consisted of nausea, vomiting, alopecia, stomatitis, and transient elevation in liver enzymes. Our therapeutic responses are similar to those obtained by others. PMID:14651226

  8. Two Adult Patients with Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome Extending the Clinical Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Rudnik-Schöneborn, S; Zerres, K; Graul-Neumann, L; Wiegand, S; Mellerowicz, H; Hehr, U

    2011-09-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive malformation syndrome with the main features cardiac defects, postaxial hexadactyly, mesomelic shortening of the limbs, short ribs, dysplastic nails and teeth, oral frenula and various other abnormalities while mental function is normal. We describe 2 adult EvC patients with the cardinal skeletal features of mesomelic short stature and severe, progressive genu valgum deformity, resulting from loss of function mutations in the EVC genes. While the genu valgum was the predominating and disabling feature in patient 1, patient 2 showed acroosteolyses in the distal phalanges and a symmetrical synostosis of metacarpals in his hands. Moreover, patient 2 developed synostoses in the additional fingers in adolescence which had not been present at the age of 12 years, suggesting a further progression of skeletal disease. Joint fusion of phalanges so far has not been reported in EvC syndrome. Our data further expand the phenotypic spectrum of EvC related skeletal malformations and contribute important new information on the clinical course of EvC syndrome with increasing age.

  9. Predicting Future Suicide Attempts Among Adolescent and Emerging Adult Psychiatric Emergency Patients.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Adam G; Czyz, Ewa K; King, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine specific characteristics of suicidal ideation in combination with histories of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) to best evaluate risk for a future attempt among high-risk adolescents and emerging adults. Participants in this retrospective medical record review study were 473 (53% female; 69% Caucasian) consecutive patients, ages 15 to 24 years (M=19.4 years) who presented for psychiatric emergency services during a 9-month period. These patients' medical records, including a clinician-administered Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, were coded at the index visit and at future visits occurring within the next 18 months. Logistic regression models were used to predict suicide attempts during this period. Socioeconomic status, suicidal ideation severity (i.e., intent, method), suicidal ideation intensity (i.e., frequency, controllability), a lifetime history of suicide attempt, and a lifetime history of NSSI were significant independent predictors of a future suicide attempt. Suicidal ideation added incremental validity to the prediction of future suicide attempts above and beyond the influence of a past suicide attempt, whereas a lifetime history of NSSI did not. Sex moderated the relationship between the duration of suicidal thoughts and future attempts (predictive for male patients but not female). Results suggest value in incorporating both past behaviors and current thoughts into suicide risk formulation. Furthermore, suicidal ideation duration warrants additional examination as a potential critical factor for screening assessments evaluating suicide risk among high-risk samples, particularly for male patients.

  10. [Pulmonary manifestations in adult patients with a defect in humoral immunity].

    PubMed

    Latysheva, T V; Latysheva, E A; Martynova, I A; Aminova, G E

    2016-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a group of congenital diseases of the immune system, which numbers more than 230 nosological entities associated with lost, decreased, or wrong function of its one or several components. Due to the common misconception that these are extremely rare diseases that occur only in children and lead to their death at an early age, PIDs are frequently ruled out by physicians of related specialties from the range of differential diagnosis. The most common forms of PIDs, such as humoral immunity defects, common variable immune deficiency, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, selective IgA deficiency, etc., are milder than other forms of PID, enabling patients to attain their adult age, and may even manifest in adulthood. Bronchopulmonary involvements are the most common manifestations of the disease in patients with a defect in humoral immunity. Thus, a therapist and a pulmonologist are mostly the first doctors who begin to treat these patients and play a key role in their fate, since only timely diagnosis and initiation of adequate therapy can preserve not only the patient's life, but also its quality, avoiding irreversible complications. Chest computed tomography changes play a large role in diagnosis. These are not specific for PID; however, there are a number of characteristic signs that permit this diagnosis to be presumed. PMID:27636936

  11. Electrocardiographic Study in Adult Homozygous Sickle Cell Disease Patients in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dosunmu, Adedoyin

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study sought to identify the pattern of electrocardiographic changes in steady state adult sickle cell anaemia. Methods. A case-control, cross-sectional study was conducted amongst sickle cell patients attending the sickle cell clinic of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, and HbAA controls. All consenting participants had haemoglobin electrophoresis done and were subjected to electrocardiography (ECG). The descriptive data were given as means ± standard deviation (SD). The differences were considered to be statistically significant when the p value obtained was <0.05. Results. A total of ninety-three sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients and ninety haemoglobin AA (controls) were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the age of the participants with SCA and that of the controls but the body mass index was significantly higher in controls (p = 0.0001). Overall, 73.1% (68 of 93) had abnormal ECG while only 2 of 90 (2.2%) of controls had abnormal ECG. The common abnormalities observed were left ventricular hypertrophy, biventricular hypertrophy, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Conclusion. Patients with SCA in steady state tend to have normal heart rate but about 50% of them would have had ECG changes before the age of 20 years. ECG being a noninvasive test may be used to identify patients at risk for early intervention. PMID:27738439

  12. Acinetobacter Infections among Adult Patients in Qatar: A 2-Year Hospital-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Samawi, Musaed Saad; Khan, Fahmi Yousef; Eldeeb, Yasser; Almaslamani, Muna; Alkhal, Abdullatif; Alsoub, Hussam; Ghadban, Wissam; Howady, Faraj; Hashim, Samar

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, Qatar, to describe the demographic data, clinical features underlying diseases, antimicrobial susceptibility, and outcome of A. baumannii infection. It involved all adult patients 15 years of age or older who were managed at Hamad General Hospital for A. baumannii infection from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. We identified a total of 239 patients with A. baumannii infection, of which 182 (76.2%) were males. The mean age was 49.10 ± 19.57 years. The majority of the episodes (25.1%) occurred in elderly patients (≥65 years) and the most commonly identified site of A. baumannii infection was the respiratory tract, 117 (48.9%). Most episodes of infection, 231 (96.7%), were hospital-acquired and high rate of nosocomial infections occurred in the medical intensive care unit, 66 (28.6%). All patients had underlying medical conditions. Maximum resistance was seen to cefotaxime, 147 (58.3%), and minimum resistance was seen to colistin, 2 (1.4%). Of the 239 isolates, 102 (42.7%) were susceptible and 137 (57.3%) were multidrug-resistant. The in-hospital mortality in our study was 31%. Male gender, multidrug resistance, and septic shock were found to be independent mortality predictors. PMID:27433169

  13. Delirium in adult patients receiving palliative care: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Román, Sofía; Beltrán Zavala, Cristina; Lara Solares, Argelia; Chiquete, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Delirium in palliative care patients is common and its diagnosis and treatment is a major challenge. Our objective was to perform a literature analysis in two phases on the recent scientific evidence (2007-2012) on the diagnosis and treatment of delirium in adults receiving palliative care. In phase 1 (descriptive studies and narrative reviews) 133 relevant articles were identified: 73 addressed the issue of delirium secondarily, and 60 articles as the main topic. However, only 4 prospective observational studies in which delirium was central were identified. Of 135 articles analysed in phase 2 (clinical trials or descriptive studies on treatment of delirium in palliative care patients), only 3 were about prevention or treatment: 2 retrospective studies and one clinical trial on multicomponent prevention in cancer patients. Much of the recent literature is related to reviews on studies conducted more than a decade ago and on patients different to those receiving palliative care. In conclusion, recent scientific evidence on delirium in palliative care is limited and suboptimal. Prospective studies are urgently needed that focus specifically on this highly vulnerable population.

  14. Plasma Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Djoussé, Luc; Maziarz, Marlena; Biggs, Mary L.; Ix, Joachim H.; Zieman, Susan J.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Tracy, Russell P.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Siscovick, David S.; Sotoodehnia, Nona

    2013-01-01

    Although fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) may increase risk of diabetes and exert negative cardiac inotropy, it is unknown whether plasma concentrations of FABP4 are associated with incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD). We prospectively analyzed data on 4,560 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study. FABP4 was measured at baseline using ELISA, and SCD events were adjudicated through review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazards to estimate effect measures. During a median followup of 11.8 years, 146 SCD cases occurred. In a multivariable model adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and metabolic factors, relative risk of SCD associated with each higher standard deviation (SD) of plasma FABP4 was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.95–1.38), P = 0.15. In a secondary analysis stratified by prevalent diabetes status, FABP4 was associated with higher risk of SCD in nondiabetic participants, (RR per SD higher FABP4: 1.33 (95% CI: 1.07–1.65), P = 0.009) but not in diabetic participants (RR per SD higher FABP4: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62–1.27), P = 0.50), P for diabetes-FABP4 interaction 0.049. In summary, a single measure of plasma FABP4 obtained later in life was not associated with the risk of SCD in older adults overall. Confirmation of our post-hoc results in nondiabetic people in other studies is warranted. PMID:24455402

  15. Cancer survivorship: cardiotoxic therapy in the adult cancer patient; cardiac outcomes with recommendations for patient management.

    PubMed

    Steingart, Richard M; Yadav, Nandini; Manrique, Carlos; Carver, Joseph R; Liu, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Many types of cancer are now curable or, if not cured, becoming a chronic illness. In 2012, it was estimated that there were more than 13,500,000 cancer survivors in the United States. Late outcomes of these survivors are increasingly related to cardiovascular disease, either as a consequence of the direct effects of cancer therapy or its adverse effects on traditional cardiac risk factors (eg, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus). This article describes the therapies that have led to advances in cancer survival and the acute and chronic cardiovascular toxicities associated with these therapies. Recommendations are made for the surveillance and management of cancer survivors. Published guidelines on the subject of cardio-oncology are reviewed in light of clinical experience caring for these patients. To supplement this cancer-related knowledge base, appropriateness criteria and guidelines for cardiac care in the general population were extrapolated to cancer survivors. The result is a series of recommendations for surveillance and management of cardiovascular disease in cancer survivors. PMID:24331191

  16. Axial mitochondrial myopathy in a patient with rapidly progressive adult-onset scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Hiniker, Annie; Wong, Lee-Jun; Berven, Sigurd; Truong, Cavatina K; Adesina, Adekunle M; Margeta, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Axial myopathy can be the underlying cause of rapidly progressive adult-onset scoliosis; however, the pathogenesis of this disorder remains poorly understood. Here we present a case of a 69-year old woman with a family history of scoliosis affecting both her mother and her son, who over 4 years developed rapidly progressive scoliosis. The patient had a history of stable scoliosis since adolescence that worsened significantly at age 65, leading to low back pain and radiculopathy. Paraspinal muscle biopsy showed morphologic evidence of a mitochondrial myopathy. Diagnostic deficiencies of electron transport chain enzymes were not detected using standard bioassays, but mitochondrial immunofluorescence demonstrated many muscle fibers totally or partially deficient for complexes I, III, IV-I, and IV-IV. Massively parallel sequencing of paraspinal muscle mtDNA detected multiple deletions as well as a 40.9% heteroplasmic novel m.12293G > A (MT-TL2) variant, which changes a G:C pairing to an A:C mispairing in the anticodon stem of tRNA Leu(CUN). Interestingly, these mitochondrial abnormalities were not detected in the blood of either the patient or her son, suggesting that the patient's rapidly progressive late onset scoliosis was due to the acquired paraspinal mitochondrial myopathy; the cause of non-progressive scoliosis in the other two family members currently remains unexplained. Notably, this case illustrates that isolated mitochondrial myopathy can underlie rapidly-progressive adult-onset scoliosis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the primary axial myopathy.

  17. Translating Personality Psychology to Help Personalize Preventive Medicine for Young-Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Hancox, Robert J.; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-01-01

    The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by healthcare reform will soon increase demands on primary-care physicians. Physicians will face more young-adult patients which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the current study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults’ personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the Dunedin Study cohort of 1,000 individuals, we show that very brief measures of young adults’ personalities predicted their midlife physical health across multiple domains (metabolic abnormalities, cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, periodontal disease, and systemic inflammation). Individuals scoring low on the traits of Conscientiousness and Openness-to-Experience went on to develop poorer health even after accounting for preexisting differences in education, socioeconomic status, smoking, obesity, self-reported health, medical conditions, and family medical history. Moreover, personality ratings from peer informants who knew participants well, and from a nurse and receptionist who had just met participants for the first time, predicted health decline from young adulthood to midlife despite striking differences in level of acquaintance. Personality effect sizes were on par with other well-established health-risk factors such as socioeconomic status, smoking, and self-reported health. We discuss the potential utility of personality measurement to function as an inexpensive and accessible tool for healthcare professionals to personalize preventive medicine. Adding personality information to existing healthcare electronic infrastructures could also advance personality theory by generating opportunities to examine how personality processes influence doctor-patient communication, health service use, and patient outcomes. PMID:24588093

  18. Total plasma sulfide as a marker of shock severity in nonsurgical adult patients.

    PubMed

    Goslar, Tomaž; Marš, Tomaž; Podbregar, Matej

    2011-10-01

    Previous animal and human studies have suggested that total plasma sulfide plays a role in the pathophysiology of shock. This study's aim was to determine the value of total plasma sulfide as a marker of shock severity in nonsurgical adult patients admitted to the ICU. Forty-one patients, with various types of shock (septic, cardiogenic, obstructive, and hypovolemic), were included in the study, with an average total plasma sulfide concentration of 23.2 ± 26.3 µM. Survivors (of shock) had lower total plasma sulfide concentrations than nonsurvivors (13.0 ± 26.3 vs. 31.9 ± 31.5 µM; P = 0.02). Total plasma sulfide correlated with dose of administered norepinephrine (R linear = 0.829; P = 0.001) and with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score (R cubic = 0.767; P = 0.001). Area under the receiver operating characteristic for total plasma sulfide as a predictor of ICU mortality was 0.739 (confidence interval, 0.587-0.892; P = 0.009). Even after correcting for APACHE II score and lactate values, total plasma sulfide correlated with mortality (odds ratio, 1.058; 95% confidence interval, 1.001-1.118; P = 0.045). The study provides evidence that, in nonsurgical adult ICU patients admitted because of any type of shock, total plasma sulfide correlates with administered norepinephrine dose at admission, severity of disease (APACHE II score ≥30 points), and survival outcome.

  19. Primary atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the spine in an adult patient

    PubMed Central

    Li, Luyuan; Patel, Mohit; Nguyen, Ha Son; Doan, Ninh; Sharma, Abhishiek; Maiman, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is an aggressive neoplasm of the central nervous system that generally arises intracranially in patients under 2 years of age. Primary spinal AT/RT in an adult is rare. Case Description: A 23-year-old female presented with left lower extremity sciatica attributed to a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-documented intradural mass between L2 and L4. The lesion was biopsied (was unresectable) and treated with high-dose chemotherapy (methotrexate, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and cisplatin) with autologous hematopoietic stem cells rescue, followed by 2 months of radiation therapy (36 Gy to craniospinal axis, 20 Gy to lumbar region) with concurrent temozolomide; the latter was discontinued after 3 weeks due to myelosuppression. Tumor relapsed 1 year later at C7–T1 level. She was started on oral metronomic therapy, and bevacizumab was added 2 months later. Three months later, a cervical MRI showed progression of the tumor, along with new lesions in the thoracic/lumbar spine plus intracranial punctate nodular tumors. Following resection of the C7/T1 lesion, she was started on palliative alisertib; a month later, a cranial computed tomography showed progression of her disease with hydrocephalus. Treatment was discontinued, and she expired 12 months after initial diagnosis. Conclusion: Primary spinal AT/RT in the adult patient is rare. The pathology is associated with early recurrence and a poor prognosis. Although potential benefits of metronomic chemotherapy and alisertib have been reported, the patient in this study did not favorably respond to these modalities. PMID:27069744

  20. Population pharmacokinetics of sirolimus in de novo Chinese adult renal transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Zheng; Shi, Xiao-jin; Li, Zhong-dong; Zhong, Ming-kang

    2009-01-01

    AIMS This study was aimed at determining the population pharmacokinetics of sirolimus and identifying factors that explain pharmacokinetic variability in de novo Chinese adult renal transplant patients. METHODS Data were retrospectively extracted from a formal multicentre clinical trial, which was originally designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ciclosporin dose reduction and ciclosporin elimination in patients receiving sirolimus. All patients received 12-month treatment, i.e. induction therapy with ciclosporin, sirolimus and corticosteroids during the first 3 months followed by either ciclosporin dose reduction or ciclosporin discontinuation thereafter. Eight-hundred and four sirolimus trough blood concentrations (C0) from 112 patients were used to develop a population pharmacokinetic model using the nonmem program. A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination was selected as the base model. The influence of demographic characteristics, biochemical and haematological indices, ciclosporin daily dose, ciclosporin C0 as well as other commonly used co-medications were explored. RESULTS The typical values with interindividual variability for apparent clearance (CL/F) and apparent volume of distribution (V/F) were 10.1 l h−1 (23.8%) and 3670 l (56.7%), respectively. The residual variability was 29.9%. CL/F decreased significantly with silymarin or glycyrrhizin co-therapy in hepatically impaired patients, and with increasing total cholesterol levels or ciclosporin C0. Moreover, CL/F increased nonlinearly with increasing sirolimus daily dose. The median parameter estimates from a nonparametric bootstrap procedure were comparable and within 5% of the estimates from nonmem. CONCLUSIONS These results provide important information for clinicians to optimize sirolimus regimens in Chinese renal transplant patients. PMID:19660003

  1. Proposition of a Classification of Adult Patients with Hemiparesis in Chronic Phase

    PubMed Central

    Filipetti, Paul; Remacle, Angélique; Kolanowski, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients who have developed hemiparesis as a result of a central nervous system lesion, often experience reduced walking capacity and worse gait quality. Although clinically, similar gait patterns have been observed, presently, no clinically driven classification has been validated to group these patients’ gait abnormalities at the level of the hip, knee and ankle joints. This study has thus intended to put forward a new gait classification for adult patients with hemiparesis in chronic phase, and to validate its discriminatory capacity. Methods and Findings Twenty-six patients with hemiparesis were included in this observational study. Following a clinical examination, a clinical gait analysis, complemented by a video analysis, was performed whereby participants were requested to walk spontaneously on a 10m walkway. A patient’s classification was established from clinical examination data and video analysis. This classification was made up of three groups, including two sub-groups, defined with key abnormalities observed whilst walking. Statistical analysis was achieved on the basis of 25 parameters resulting from the clinical gait analysis in order to assess the discriminatory characteristic of the classification as displayed by the walking speed and kinematic parameters. Results revealed that the parameters related to the discriminant criteria of the proposed classification were all significantly different between groups and subgroups. More generally, nearly two thirds of the 25 parameters showed significant differences (p<0.05) between the groups and sub-groups. However, prior to being fully validated, this classification must still be tested on a larger number of patients, and the repeatability of inter-operator measures must be assessed. Conclusions This classification enables patients to be grouped on the basis of key abnormalities observed whilst walking and has the advantage of being able to be used in clinical routines without necessitating

  2. A Qualitative Study of Confusing Experiences among Japanese Adult Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Ikuko; Chujo, Masami; Kataoka, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the powerlessness of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and described the structure of powerlessness that these individuals experienced. In order for patients to recover from this state, we recommend that they take steps to regain their power. Methods Fifteen Japanese adults with T1D participated in this study. Data were collected from all subjects between July 2013 and March 2014 via in-depth semi-structured interviews. Qualitative data analysis was conducted according to a grounded theory approach. Finally, the core category was identified, which allowed us to build a new powerlessness structure for T1D. Results The results suggested a core category, ‘Wandering a tangled path,’ comprising four categories, eight subcategories, and twenty-six concepts. These four categories were as follows: ‘being burdened by T1D,’ ‘suffering from insulin-related troubles,’ ‘being unable to cope with difficulties in self-management,’ and ‘facing social prejudice.’ In the state of powerlessness, negative emotional experiences snowballed, with patients feeling more and more depressed until they ultimately reached ‘rock bottom.’ Conclusion We found that as negative emotional experiences related to powerlessness increased, negative feelings intensified until the patients reached rock bottom. Powerlessness is like ‘wandering a tangled path,’ a state in which T1D patients struggle to cope with reality on their own when faced with both internal and external events. ‘Wandering a tangled path’ is at the core of powerlessness. A primary characteristic of the structure of powerlessness is suffering from confusing experiences. To help patients cope with T1D without being crushed by powerlessness, nurses must pay attention to signs of powerlessness. Powerlessness is not just an emotional state, but a combination of feelings, perceptions, and thoughts; therefore, it is important to comprehensively understand patients

  3. Metagenomics Reveals Dysbiosis and a Potentially Pathogenic N. flavescens Strain in Duodenum of Adult Celiac Patients

    PubMed Central

    D'Argenio, Valeria; Casaburi, Giorgio; Precone, Vincenza; Pagliuca, Chiara; Colicchio, Roberta; Sarnataro, Daniela; Discepolo, Valentina; Kim, Sangman M; Russo, Ilaria; Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Horner, David S; Chiara, Matteo; Pesole, Graziano; Salvatore, Paola; Monteleone, Giovanni; Ciacci, Carolina; Caporaso, Gregory J; Jabrì, Bana; Salvatore, Francesco; Sacchetti, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CD)-associated duodenal dysbiosis has not yet been clearly defined, and the mechanisms by which CD-associated dysbiosis could concur to CD development or exacerbation are unknown. In this study, we analyzed the duodenal microbiome of CD patients. METHODS: The microbiome was evaluated in duodenal biopsy samples of 20 adult patients with active CD, 6 CD patients on a gluten-free diet, and 15 controls by DNA sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA libraries. Bacterial species were cultured, isolated and identified by mass spectrometry. Isolated bacterial species were used to infect CaCo-2 cells, and to stimulate normal duodenal explants and cultured human and murine dendritic cells (DCs). Inflammatory markers and cytokines were evaluated by immunofluorescence and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: Proteobacteria was the most abundant and Firmicutes and Actinobacteria the least abundant phyla in the microbiome profiles of active CD patients. Members of the Neisseria genus (Betaproteobacteria class) were significantly more abundant in active CD patients than in the other two groups (P=0.03). Neisseria flavescens (CD-Nf) was the most abundant Neisseria species in active CD duodenum. Whole-genome sequencing of CD-Nf and control-Nf showed genetic diversity of the iron acquisition systems and of some hemoglobin-related genes. CD-Nf was able to escape the lysosomal compartment in CaCo-2 cells and to induce an inflammatory response in DCs and in ex-vivo mucosal explants. CONCLUSIONS: Marked dysbiosis and an abundance of a peculiar CD-Nf strain characterize the duodenal microbiome in active CD patients thus suggesting that the CD-associated microbiota could contribute to the many inflammatory signals in this disorder. PMID:27045926

  4. [Digestive alterations in cystic fibrosis. Retrospective study of a series of 46 adult patients].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Aguilar, F; Ferrer-Calvete, J; Nicolás, D; Berenguer, J; Ponce, J

    1999-02-01

    The clinical histories of 46 adult patients (24 men and 22 women, mean age 20.6 +/- 5.1 years) diagnosed of cystic fibrosis were reviewed evaluating the digestive alterations. The age at diagnosis of cystic fibrosis was 5.63 +/- 5.3 years (range: newborns-19 years). The initial diagnosis was established by ileus meconium, in four, lung disease in 15, steatorrhea in 12, lung disease and steatorrhea in 13 and following the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in siblings in two. Four patients presented ileus meconium, nine occlusive syndrome of the distal intestine, 42 steatorrhea (20 severe, 12 moderate and 10 mild), with the severity of the steatorrhea not being associated with the severity of the respiratory insufficiency. Two patients presents rectal prolapse, five gastroesophageal reflux syndrome (four with hiatal hernia), six cholelithiasis, one recurrent pancreatitis without detection of biliary lithiasis, one neonatal cholestasis and 10 malnutrition (five severe and five moderate) fundamentally in relation to the severity of the lung disease and, to a lesser degree, liver disease. In 10 patients chronic liver disease was diagnosed corresponding to established cirrhosis in seven, indicating liver transplantation in two. In most cases, the liver disease was already manifest in adolescence even in the cirrhotic stage. Cholangiography by magnetic resonance was useful in the study of liver disease showing abnormalities which imitated primary sclerosing cholangitis. Treatment with ursodesoxicholic acid at a dosis of 20 mg/kg/day led to a significant decrease in the transaminase values and overall of gammaglutamyltranspeptidase but did not avoid complications in the cirrhotic stages. Genetic studies performed in 36 patients detected the delta F508 mutation in 69.4%, being found in almost all of the patients with ileus meconium, occlusive syndrome of the distal intestine, liver disease, cholelithiasis and malnutrition. PMID:10193090

  5. A multi-center retrospective analysis of treatment effects and quality of life in adult patients with cranial ependymomas.

    PubMed

    Dützmann, Stephan; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Lobrinus, Alexander; Murek, Michael; Wostrack, Maria; Weiss, Carolin; Schaller, Karl; Raabe, Andreas; Meyer, Bernhard; Goldbrunner, Roland; Franz, Kea; Seifert, Volker; Senft, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Long term quality of life data of adult patients harboring intracranial ependymomas have not been reported. The role of adjuvant radiation therapy in Grade II ependymomas is unclear and differs from study to study. We therefore sought to retrospectively analyze outcome and quality of life of adult patients that were operated on intracranial ependymomas at four different surgical centers in two countries. All patients were attempted to be contacted via telephone to assess quality of life (QoL) at the time of the telephone interview. The standard EORTC QoL Questionnaire C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the EORTC QLQ-Brain Cancer Module (QLQ-BN20) were used. 64 adult patients with intracranial ependymomas were included in the study. The only factor that was associated with increased survival was age <55 years (p < 0.001). Supratentorial location was correlated with shorter progression free survival than infratentorial location (PFS; p = 0.048). In WHO Grade II tumors local irradiation did not lead to increased PFS (p = 0.888) or overall survival (p = 0.801). Even for incompletely resected Grade II tumors local irradiation did not lead to a benefit in PFS (p = 0.911). In a multivariate analysis of QoL, irradiated patients had significantly worse scores in the item "fatigue" (p = 0.037) than non-irradiated patients. Here we present QoL data of adult patients with intracranial ependymomas. Our data show that local radiation therapy may have long-term effects on patients' QoL. Since in the incompletely resected Grade II tumors local irradiation did not lead to a benefit in PFS in this retrospective study, prospective randomized studies are necessary. In addition to age, supratentorial tumor location is associated with a worse prognosis in adult ependymoma patients.

  6. Transition from pediatric to adult care in sickle cell disease: perspectives on the family role.

    PubMed

    Porter, Jerlym S; Graff, J Carolyn; Lopez, Alana D; Hankins, Jane S

    2014-01-01

    Transition from pediatric to adult care poses challenges for adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). This study explored the transition perspectives of adolescents with SCD, their siblings, and caregivers. Focus groups were conducted with 12 African American families. Adolescents, siblings, and caregivers demonstrated awareness of transition and need for disease management responsibility. Siblings' and caregivers' concerns included adolescent medication adherence. Family concerns included leaving the pediatric environment and adult providers' lack of knowledge. Families recommended more transition preparation opportunities. Family members' perspectives are valuable in informing transition planning. Family-focused interventions designed to prepare and support families during transition are necessary.

  7. Presepsin (sCD14-ST) in emergency department: the need for adapted threshold values?

    PubMed

    Chenevier-Gobeaux, Camille; Trabattoni, Eloise; Roelens, Marie; Borderie, Didier; Claessens, Yann-Erick

    2014-01-01

    Presepsin is elevated in patients developing infections and increases in a severity-dependent manner. We aimed to evaluate circulating values of this new biomarker in a population free of any acute infectious disorder. We recruited 144 consecutive patients presenting at the emergency department (ED) without acute infection or acute/unstable disorder, and 54 healthy participants. Presepsin plasmatic concentrations were measured on the PATHFAST point-of-care analyzer. The 95th percentile of presepsin values in the ED population is 750ng/L. Presepsin was significantly increased in patients aged ≥70years vs. younger patients (470 [380-601] ng/L vs. 300 [201-457] ng/L, p<0.001). Prevalence of elevated presepsin values was increased in patients in comparison to controls (80% vs.13%, p<0.001), and in patients aged ≥70years in comparison to younger patients (87% vs. 47%, p<0.001). Presepsin concentrations were significantly increased in patients with kidney dysfunction. Aging was an independent predictor of an elevated presepsin value. In conclusion, presepsin concentrations increase with age and kidney dysfunction. Therefore interpretation of presepsin concentrations might be altered in the elderly or in patients with impaired renal function. Adapted thresholds are needed for specific populations.

  8. Risk factors for invasive fungal disease in critically ill adult patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Over 5,000 cases of invasive Candida species infections occur in the United Kingdom each year, and around 40% of these cases occur in critical care units. Invasive fungal disease (IFD) in critically ill patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality at a cost to both the individual and the National Health Service. In this paper, we report the results of a systematic review performed to identify and summarise the important risk factors derived from published multivariable analyses, risk prediction models and clinical decision rules for IFD in critically ill adult patients to inform the primary data collection for the Fungal Infection Risk Evaluation Study. Methods An internet search was performed to identify articles which investigated risk factors, risk prediction models or clinical decisions rules for IFD in critically ill adult patients. Eligible articles were identified in a staged process and were assessed by two investigators independently. The methodological quality of the reporting of the eligible articles was assessed using a set of questions addressing both general and statistical methodologies. Results Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria, of which eight articles examined risk factors, four developed a risk prediction model or clinical decision rule and one evaluated a clinical decision rule. Studies varied in terms of objectives, risk factors, definitions and outcomes. The following risk factors were found in multiple studies to be significantly associated with IFD: surgery, total parenteral nutrition, fungal colonisation, renal replacement therapy, infection and/or sepsis, mechanical ventilation, diabetes, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) or APACHE III score. Several other risk factors were also found to be statistically significant in single studies only. Risk factor selection process and modelling strategy also varied across studies, and sample sizes were inadequate for obtaining

  9. Culturally competent approaches to assessing ADHD in African American adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and families.

    PubMed

    Waite, Roberta

    2015-03-01

    To better diagnose and treat African American patients with ADHD, clinicians should consider the mental health field from a cultural and historical perspective. This perspective can aid clinicians in assessing patients' culturally informed resistance or ambivalence toward ADHD treatment and in adopting strategies for communicating with patients about their diagnosis and treatment. Clinicians must learn to recognize and manage their own biases as well as their patients' biases. Using a culturally competent approach is critical to assessing ADHD in African American adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and their families.

  10. Culturally competent approaches to assessing ADHD in African American adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and families.

    PubMed

    Waite, Roberta

    2015-03-01

    To better diagnose and treat African American patients with ADHD, clinicians should consider the mental health field from a cultural and historical perspective. This perspective can aid clinicians in assessing patients' culturally informed resistance or ambivalence toward ADHD treatment and in adopting strategies for communicating with patients about their diagnosis and treatment. Clinicians must learn to recognize and manage their own biases as well as their patients' biases. Using a culturally competent approach is critical to assessing ADHD in African American adults and overcoming cultural issues with patients and their families. PMID:25830467

  11. Is elevated Red cell distribution width a prognostic predictor in adult patients with community acquired Pneumonia?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    count or hemoglobin levels. Conclusions Elevated RDW levels on admission are associated with significant higher rates of mortality and severe morbidity in adult patients with CAP. RDW as a prognostic marker was unrelated with hemoglobin levels, WBC count, age or Charlson score. PMID:24597687

  12. Comparison of patient specific dose metrics between chest radiography, tomosynthesis, and CT for adult patients of wide ranging body habitus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yakun; Li, Xiang; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Given the radiation concerns inherent to the x-ray modalities, accurately estimating the radiation doses that patients receive during different imaging modalities is crucial. This study estimated organ doses, effective doses, and risk indices for the three clinical chest x-ray imaging techniques (chest radiography, tomosynthesis, and CT) using 59 anatomically variable voxelized phantoms and Monte Carlo simulation methods. Methods: A total of 59 computational anthropomorphic male and female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) adult phantoms were used in this study. Organ doses and effective doses were estimated for a clinical radiography system with the capability of conducting chest radiography and tomosynthesis (Definium 8000, VolumeRAD, GE Healthcare) and a clinical CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). A Monte Carlo dose simulation program (PENELOPE, version 2006, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain) was used to mimic these two clinical systems. The Duke University (Durham, NC) technique charts were used to determine the clinical techniques for the radiographic modalities. An exponential relationship between CTDI{sub vol} and patient diameter was used to determine the absolute dose values for CT. The simulations of the two clinical systems compute organ and tissue doses, which were then used to calculate effective dose and risk index. The calculation of the two dose metrics used the tissue weighting factors from ICRP Publication 103 and BEIR VII report. Results: The average effective dose of the chest posteroanterior examination was found to be 0.04 mSv, which was 1.3% that of the chest CT examination. The average effective dose of the chest tomosynthesis examination was found to be about ten times that of the chest posteroanterior examination and about 12% that of the chest CT examination. With increasing patient average chest diameter, both the effective dose and risk index for CT increased considerably in an exponential fashion, while these two dose

  13. Stepping analysis in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, O; Taguchi, K; Kikukawa, M; Ogiba, T

    1993-07-01

    POLGON (Polarized light goniometer) was used to evaluate ataxia during stepping movements in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and Parkinson's disease. The measurements included mean angular change of shoulders (M.A.C.S.) and its coefficient of variation (C.V.). In patients with SCD, the values of M.A.C.S. were significantly larger at 1.0 step/s than those at other stepping rhythms. This results suggests that the stepping rhythm of 1.0 step/s is useful for the detection of cerebellar ataxia. The values of C.V. correlated with the degree of advancement of SCD. In patients with Parkinson's disease, the values of M.A.C.S. tended to decrease because of the restricted elevation of the knee, while those of C.V. were increased. The results showed that the stepping test using the POLGON was useful for estimation of the characteristic disequilibrium of SCD and Parkinson's disease.

  14. Soluble co-signaling molecules predict long-term graft outcome in kidney-transplanted patients.

    PubMed

    Melendreras, Susana G; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Menéndez, Aurora; Bravo-Mendoza, Cristina; González-Vidal, Ana; Coto, Eliecer; Díaz-Corte, Carmen; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; López-Larrea, Carlos; Suárez-Álvarez, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Co-signaling molecules are responsible for full T-cell activation after solid organ transplantation. Their increased expression can lead to the release of a soluble form that can modulate the immune response post-transplantation. We analyzed the presence of co-signaling molecules (sCD30, sCD40, sCD137, sCTLA-4, sCD80, sCD28, sCD40L, sPD-1, and sPD-L1) in serum from kidney-transplanted patients (n = 59) obtained at different times (before transplantation, and 15 days, 3 months and 1 year post-transplantation) and their contribution to graft outcome was evaluated using principal component analysis. Before transplantation, high levels of soluble co-signaling molecules (mainly sCD30, sCD137 and sCD40) were detected in all patients. These molecules were modulated soon after receiving an allograft but never attained similar levels to those of healthy controls. A signature based on the determination of six soluble co-stimulatory (sCD30, sCD40, sCD137 and sCD40L) and co-inhibitory (sPD-1 and sPD-L1) molecules at 3 months post-transplantation allowed a group of patients to be identified (27.12%) with a worse long-term graft outcome. Patients with high levels of soluble molecules showed a progressive and gradual deterioration of kidney function (increased creatinine and proteinuria levels and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate) over time and a higher risk of graft loss at 6 years post-transplantation than patients with low levels of these molecules (62.55% versus 5.14%, p<0.001). Thus, our data show an aberrant expression of soluble co-signaling molecules in kidney-transplanted patients whose quantification at 3 months post-transplantation might be a useful biomarker of immune status and help to predict long-term graft evolution.

  15. Transitioning issues in adolescent to young adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors: an approach for a growing population.

    PubMed

    Young, Guy

    2010-09-01

    The major adverse effect of factor replacement therapy in patients with hemophilia is the development of neutralizing antibodies termed inhibitors. This complication renders standard factor replacement therapy ineffective resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Until recently, the population of adults with inhibitors was relatively small due to the death of many of the patients from HIV that they contracted from contaminated factor in the early 1980s. With the advent of factor products with reduced risks for deadly infections in the mid-1980s to early 1990s, a cohort of inhibitor patients is now beginning to enter adulthood thus raising the issues regarding the transition of these patients into adulthood. It is, therefore, expected that adult hematologists will be seeing more inhibitor patients and that pediatric hematologists will be faced with managing this transition process, which may not necessarily include transition to an adult facility or adult hematologist. This review will discuss the various issues ranging from choice of medical provider to a discussion of psychosocial and financial issues facing this specific patient population.

  16. Systematic review and meta-analysis of Saccharomyces boulardii in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Lynne V

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence for efficacy and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) for various disease indications in adults based on the peer-reviewed, randomized clinical trials and pre-clinical studies from the published medical literature (Medline, Clinical Trial websites and meeting abstracts) between 1976 and 2009. For meta-analysis, only randomized, blinded controlled trials unrestricted by language were included. Pre-clinical studies, volunteer studies and uncontrolled studies were excluded from the review of efficacy and meta-analysis, but included in the systematic review. Of 31 randomized, placebo-controlled treatment arms in 27 trials (encompassing 5029 study patients), S. boulardii was found to be significantly efficacious and safe in 84% of those treatment arms. A meta-analysis found a significant therapeutic efficacy for S. boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) (RR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.35-0.63, P < 0.001). In adults, S. boulardii can be strongly recommended for the prevention of AAD and the traveler’s diarrhea. Randomized trials also support the use of this yeast probiotic for prevention of enteral nutrition-related diarrhea and reduction of Heliobacter pylori treatment-related symptoms. S. boulardii shows promise for the prevention of C. difficile disease recurrences; treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, acute adult diarrhea, Crohn’s disease, giardiasis, human immunodeficiency virus-related diarrhea; but more supporting evidence is recommended for these indications. The use of S. boulardii as a therapeutic probiotic is evidence-based for both efficacy and safety for several types of diarrhea. PMID:20458757

  17. Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and nicotine use: a qualitative study of patient perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with high rates of comorbid substance use disorders, and cigarette smoking has a particularly high prevalence in this population. However, there is an ongoing debate as to whether this tobacco use is an attempt at “self-medication” or due to behavioral disinhibition. There is a surprising lack of qualitative studies that investigate the subjective perceptions of adults with ADHD regarding cigarette smoking. The present study was designed to fill this gap in the literature. Methods We recruited twelve adult patients with ADHD and comorbid tobacco use from our ADHD consultation service, an outpatient facility of the Zurich University Psychiatric Hospital. Subjects were interviewed using qualitative methodology, and Mayring's qualitative content analysis was used to evaluate findings. Results We identified two explanatory models linking ADHD and tobacco use: smoking as an attempt at self-medication and “smoking as a social behavior”. On one hand, subjects considered tobacco a therapeutic aid, reporting positive effects on “inner tension” and cognitive function, and noted possible antidepressant properties as well. On the other hand, subjects considered smoking to enhance social functioning and to have a positive impact on interpersonal relationships. The majority believed that stimulant medications offered only a transient decrease in patterns of tobacco use because their ability to reduce nicotine cravings wore off quickly. Others believed that stimulants had no effect or even reinforced cigarette use. Conclusions Participants had different views about the link between cigarette smoking and ADHD. While the majority thought of nicotine as a sort of therapy, viewing smoking as a way to self-medicate symptoms of ADHD, motivations for nicotine use were also related to self-image, desire to belong to a peer-group, and a drive to undermine perceived social norms. Ultimately, these

  18. Oncogenetics and minimal residual disease are independent outcome predictors in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Beldjord, Kheira; Chevret, Sylvie; Asnafi, Vahid; Huguet, Françoise; Boulland, Marie-Laure; Leguay, Thibaut; Thomas, Xavier; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Grardel, Nathalie; Chalandon, Yves; Boissel, Nicolas; Schaefer, Beat; Delabesse, Eric; Cavé, Hélène; Chevallier, Patrice; Buzyn, Agnès; Fest, Thierry; Reman, Oumedaly; Vernant, Jean-Paul; Lhéritier, Véronique; Béné, Marie C; Lafage, Marina; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé

    2014-06-12

    With intensified pediatric-like therapy and genetic disease dissection, the field of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has evolved recently. In this new context, we aimed to reassess the value of conventional risk factors with regard to new genetic alterations and early response to therapy, as assessed by immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor minimal residual disease (MRD) levels. The study was performed in 423 younger adults with Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL in first remission (265 B-cell precursor [BCP] and 158 T-cell ALL), with cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) as the primary end point. In addition to conventional risk factors, the most frequent currently available genetic alterations were included in the analysis. A higher specific hazard of relapse was independently associated with postinduction MRD level ≥10(-4) and unfavorable genetic characteristics (ie, MLL gene rearrangement or focal IKZF1 gene deletion in BCP-ALL and no NOTCH1/FBXW7 mutation and/or N/K-RAS mutation and/or PTEN gene alteration in T-cell ALL). These 2 factors allowed definition of a new risk classification that is strongly associated with higher CIR and shorter relapse-free and overall survival. These results indicate that genetic abnormalities are important predictors of outcome in adult ALL not fully recapitulated by early response to therapy. Patients included in this study were treated in the multicenter GRAALL-2003 and GRAALL-2005 trials. Both trials were registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00222027 and #NCT00327678, respectively. PMID:24740809

  19. Childhood-Onset Disease Predicts Mortality in an Adult Cohort of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, Aimee O.; Trupin, Laura; Yazdany, Jinoos; Panopalis, Peter; Julian, Laura; Katz, Patricia; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Yelin, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine childhood-onset disease as a predictor of mortality in a cohort of adult patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Data were derived from the University of California Lupus Outcomes Study, a longitudinal cohort of 957 adult subjects with SLE that includes 98 subjects with childhood-onset SLE. Baseline and follow-up data were obtained via telephone interviews conducted between 2002-2007. The number of deaths during 5 years of follow-up was determined and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the cohort, and across age groups, were calculated. Kaplan-Meier life table analysis was used to compare mortality rates between childhood (defined as SLE diagnosis <18 years) and adult-onset SLE. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine predictors of mortality. Results During the median follow-up period of 48 months, 72 deaths (7.5% of subjects) occurred, including 9 (12.5%) among those with childhood-onset SLE. The overall SMR was 2.5 (CI 2.0-3.2). In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, after adjusting for age, childhood-onset subjects were at increased risk for mortality throughout the follow-up period (p<0.0001). In a multivariate model adjusting for age, disease duration and other covariates, childhood-onset SLE was independently associated with an increased mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-7.3), as was low socioeconomic status measured by education (HR: 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.2) and end stage renal disease (HR: 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.0). Conclusion Childhood-onset SLE was a strong predictor of mortality in this cohort. Interventions are needed to prevent early mortality in this population. PMID:20235215

  20. Oncogenetics and minimal residual disease are independent outcome predictors in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Beldjord, Kheira; Chevret, Sylvie; Asnafi, Vahid; Huguet, Françoise; Boulland, Marie-Laure; Leguay, Thibaut; Thomas, Xavier; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Grardel, Nathalie; Chalandon, Yves; Boissel, Nicolas; Schaefer, Beat; Delabesse, Eric; Cavé, Hélène; Chevallier, Patrice; Buzyn, Agnès; Fest, Thierry; Reman, Oumedaly; Vernant, Jean-Paul; Lhéritier, Véronique; Béné, Marie C; Lafage, Marina; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé

    2014-06-12

    With intensified pediatric-like therapy and genetic disease dissection, the field of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has evolved recently. In this new context, we aimed to reassess the value of conventional risk factors with regard to new genetic alterations and early response to therapy, as assessed by immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor minimal residual disease (MRD) levels. The study was performed in 423 younger adults with Philadelphia chromosome-negative ALL in first remission (265 B-cell precursor [BCP] and 158 T-cell ALL), with cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) as the primary end point. In addition to conventional risk factors, the most frequent currently available genetic alterations were included in the analysis. A higher specific hazard of relapse was independently associated with postinduction MRD level ≥10(-4) and unfavorable genetic characteristics (ie, MLL gene rearrangement or focal IKZF1 gene deletion in BCP-ALL and no NOTCH1/FBXW7 mutation and/or N/K-RAS mutation and/or PTEN gene alteration in T-cell ALL). These 2 factors allowed definition of a new risk classification that is strongly associated with higher CIR and shorter relapse-free and overall survival. These results indicate that genetic abnormalities are important predictors of outcome in adult ALL not fully recapitulated by early response to therapy. Patients included in this study were treated in the multicenter GRAALL-2003 and GRAALL-2005 trials. Both trials were registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00222027 and #NCT00327678, respectively.

  1. Management of adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: recommendations from an expert panel on behalf of Euro-Histio-Net.

    PubMed

    Girschikofsky, Michael; Arico, Maurizio; Castillo, Diego; Chu, Anthony; Doberauer, Claus; Fichter, Joachim; Haroche, Julien; Kaltsas, Gregory A; Makras, Polyzois; Marzano, Angelo V; de Menthon, Mathilde; Micke, Oliver; Passoni, Emanuela; Seegenschmiedt, Heinrich M; Tazi, Abdellatif; McClain, Kenneth L

    2013-01-01

    Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is an orphan disease of clonal dendritic cells which may affect any organ of the body. Most of the knowledge about the diagnosis and therapy is based on pedriatic studies. Adult LCH patients are often evaluated by physicians who focus on only the most obviously affected organ without sufficient evaluation of other systems, resulting in patients being underdiagnosed and/or incompletely staged. Furthermore they may be treated with pediatric-based therapies which are less effective and sometimes more toxic for adults. The published literature on adult LCH cases lacks a comprehensive discussion on the differences between pediatric and adult patients and there are no recommendations for evaluation and comparative therapies. In order to fill this void, a number of experts in this field cooperated to develop the first recommendations for management of adult patients with LCH. Key questions were selected according to the clinical relevance focusing on diagnostic work up, therapy, and follow up. Based on the available literature up to December 2012, recommendations were established, drafts were commented by the entire group, and redrafted by the executive editor. The quality of evidence of the recommendations is predominantly attributed to the level of expert opinion. Final agreement was by consensus. PMID:23672541

  2. Management of adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: recommendations from an expert panel on behalf of Euro-Histio-Net

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is an orphan disease of clonal dendritic cells which may affect any organ of the body. Most of the knowledge about the diagnosis and therapy is based on pedriatic studies. Adult LCH patients are often evaluated by physicians who focus on only the most obviously affected organ without sufficient evaluation of other systems, resulting in patients being underdiagnosed and/or incompletely staged. Furthermore they may be treated with pediatric-based therapies which are less