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Sample records for adult schwann cells

  1. Observations on the migratory behaviour of Schwann cells from adult peripheral nerve explant cultures.

    PubMed

    Crang, A J; Blakemore, W F

    1987-06-01

    The migration of Schwann cells from adult sciatic nerve explant cultures has been examined by time-lapse photomicrography. Analysis of Schwann cell migratory behaviour indicates that the initial outwandering by individual Schwann cells was random. Although chance cell-cell contacts resulted in temporary immobilization of pairs of cells, stable multicellular structures did not form during this initial phase. As local cell densities increased, Schwann cells assembled networks within which Schwann cell movement continued to be observed. A second form of Schwann cell outgrowth was observed from degenerating fibres in which arrays of highly oriented Schwann cells migrated away from their basal lamina tubes onto the culture dish. These observations of Schwann cell random migration, network self-assembly and coordinated extratubal migration are considered to highlight aspects of Schwann cell behaviour, independent of axonal influences, which may have relevance to their role in peripheral nerve repair following nerve section. PMID:3612187

  2. Culture and proliferation of highly purified adult Schwann cells from rat, dog, and man.

    PubMed

    Haastert-Talini, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents fast and easy protocols to obtain highly purified cultures of proliferating adult rat, canine, and human Schwann cells. Cell preparation from predegenerated adult sciatic nerves combined with the use of melanocyte growth medium supplemented with forskolin, fibroblast growth factor-2, pituitary extract, and heregulin as selective, serum-free culture medium and two methods for a consecutive cell-enrichment step are described. Our protocols result in approximately 90% pure Schwann cell cultures (or higher). The average time to obtain highly purified in vitro cultures of adult Schwann cells is 21 days. PMID:22367812

  3. Ectopic expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule in adult macaque Schwann cells promotes their migration and remyelination potential in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Bachelin, C.; Zujovic, V.; Buchet, D.; Mallet, J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings suggested that inducing neural cell adhesion molecule polysialylation in rodents is a promising strategy for promoting tissue repair in the injured central nervous system. Since autologous grafting of Schwann cells is one potential strategy to promote central nervous system remyelination, it is essential to show that such a strategy can be translated to adult primate Schwann cells and is of interest for myelin diseases. Adult macaque Schwann cells were transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding sialyltransferase, an enzyme responsible for neural cell adhesion molecule polysialylation. In vitro, we found that ectopic expression of polysialylate promoted adult macaque Schwann cell migration and improved their integration among astrocytes in vitro without modifying their antigenic properties as either non-myelinating or pro-myelinating. In addition, forced expression of polysialylate in adult macaque Schwann cells decreased their adhesion with sister cells. To investigate the ability of adult macaque Schwann cells to integrate and migrate in vivo, focally induced demyelination was targeted to the spinal cord dorsal funiculus of nude mice, and both control and sialyltransferase expressing Schwann cells overexpressing green fluorescein protein were grafted remotely from the lesion site. Analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of the grafted Schwann cells performed in toto and in situ, showed that in both groups, Schwann cells migrated towards the lesion site. However, migration of sialyltransferase expressing Schwann cells was more efficient than that of control Schwann cells, leading to their accelerated recruitment by the lesion. Moreover, ectopic expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule promoted adult macaque Schwann cell interaction with reactive astrocytes when exiting the graft, and their ‘chain-like’ migration along the dorsal midline. The accelerated migration of sialyltransferase expressing Schwann cells to the

  4. Schwann cell myelination.

    PubMed

    Salzer, James L

    2015-08-01

    Myelinated nerve fibers are essential for the rapid propagation of action potentials by saltatory conduction. They form as the result of reciprocal interactions between axons and Schwann cells. Extrinsic signals from the axon, and the extracellular matrix, drive Schwann cells to adopt a myelinating fate, whereas myelination reorganizes the axon for its role in conduction and is essential for its integrity. Here, we review our current understanding of the development, molecular organization, and function of myelinating Schwann cells. Recent findings into the extrinsic signals that drive Schwann cell myelination, their cognate receptors, and the downstream intracellular signaling pathways they activate will be described. Together, these studies provide important new insights into how these pathways converge to activate the transcriptional cascade of myelination and remodel the actin cytoskeleton that is critical for morphogenesis of the myelin sheath. PMID:26054742

  5. Schwann Cell Expressed Nogo-B Modulates Axonal Branching of Adult Sensory Neurons Through the Nogo-B Receptor NgBR

    PubMed Central

    Eckharter, Christoph; Junker, Nina; Winter, Lilli; Fischer, Irmgard; Fogli, Barbara; Kistner, Steffen; Pfaller, Kristian; Zheng, Binhai; Wiche, Gerhard; Klimaschewski, Lars; Schweigreiter, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the central nervous system (CNS) nerve fibers do regenerate in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) although in a clinically unsatisfying manner. A major problem is excessive sprouting of regenerating axons which results in aberrant reinnervation of target tissue and impaired functional recovery. In the CNS, the reticulon protein Nogo-A has been identified as a prominent oligodendrocyte expressed inhibitor of long-distance growth of regenerating axons. We show here that the related isoform Nogo-B is abundantly expressed in Schwann cells in the PNS. Other than Nogo-A in oligodendrocytes, Nogo-B does not localize to the myelin sheath but is detected in the ER and the plasma membrane of Schwann cells. Adult sensory neurons that are cultured on nogo-a/b deficient Schwann cells form significantly fewer axonal branches vs. those on wildtype Schwann cells, while their maximal axonal extension is unaffected. We demonstrate that this effect of Nogo-B on neuronal morphology is restricted to undifferentiated Schwann cells and is mediated by direct physical contact between these two cell types. Moreover, we show that blocking the Nogo-B specific receptor NgBR, which we find expressed on sensory neurons and to interact with Schwann cell expressed Nogo-B, produces the same branching phenotype as observed after deletion of Nogo-B. These data provide evidence for a novel function of the nogo gene that is implemented by the Nogo-B isoform. The remarkably specific effects of Nogo-B/NgBR on axonal branching, while leaving axonal extension unaffected, are of potential clinical relevance in the context of excessive axonal sprouting after peripheral nerve injury. Main Points Nogo-B is prominently expressed in Schwann cells and localizes to the ER and plasma membrane. It distributes to the external cytoplasmic compartment of Schwann cells in vivo, but is absent from the myelin sheath. Genetic deletion of Nogo-B in Schwann cells reduces axonal branching, but not long

  6. Sodium channels in the cytoplasm of Schwann cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, J.M. ); Black, J.A.; Waxman, S.G. Veterans Affairs Medical Center, West Haven, CT ); Angelides, K.J. )

    1990-12-01

    Immunoblotting, ultrastructural immunocytochemistry, and tritiated saxitoxin (({sup 3}H)STX) binding experiments were used to study sodium channel localization in Schwann cells. Polyclonal antibody 7493, which is directed against purifed sodium channels from rat brain, specifically recognized a 260-kDa protein corresponding to the {alpha} subunit of the sodium channel in immunoblots of crude glycoproteins from rat sciatic nerve. Electron microscopic localization of sodium channel immunoreactivity within adult rat sciatic nerves reveals heavy staining of the axon membrane at the node of Ranvier, in contrast to the internodal axon membrane, which does not stain. Schwann cells including perinodal processes also exhibit antibody 7493 immunoreactivity, localized within both the cytoplasm and the plasmalemma of the Schwann cell. To examine further the possibility that sodium channels are localized within Schwann cell cytoplasm, ({sup 3}H)STX binding was studied in cultured rabbit Schwann cells, both intact and after homogenization. Saturable binding of STX was singificantly higher in homogenized Schwann cells than in intact Schwann cells. Moreover, the equilibrium dissociation constant was higher for homogenized preparations (1.77 {plus minus} 0.37 nM) than for intact Schwann cells (1.06 {plus minus} 0.29 nM). These data suggest the presence of an intracellular pool of sodium channels or channel presursors in Schwann cells.

  7. Sodium channels in the cytoplasm of Schwann cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, J M; Black, J A; Waxman, S G; Angelides, K J

    1990-01-01

    Immunoblotting, ultrastructural immunocytochemistry, and tritiated saxitoxin ([3H]STX) binding experiments were used to study sodium channel localization in Schwann cells. Polyclonal antibody 7493, which is directed against purified sodium channels from rat brain, specifically recognizes a 260-kDa protein corresponding to the alpha subunit of the sodium channel in immunoblots of crude glycoproteins from rat sciatic nerve. Electron microscopic localization of sodium channel immunoreactivity within adult rat sciatic nerves reveals heavy staining of the axon membrane at the node of Ranvier, in contrast to the internodal axon membrane, which does not stain. Schwann cells including perinodal processes also exhibit antibody 7493 immunoreactivity, localized within both the cytoplasm and the plasmalemma of the Schwann cell. To examine further the possibility that sodium channels are localized within Schwann cell cytoplasm, [3H]STX binding was studied in cultured rabbit Schwann cells, both intact and after homogenization. Saturable binding of STX was significantly higher in homogenized Schwann cells (410 +/- 37 fmol/mg of protein) than in intact Schwann cells (214 +/- 21 fmol/mg of protein). Moreover, the equilibrium dissociation constant was higher for homogenized preparations (1.77 +/- 0.37 nM) than for intact Schwann cells (1.06 +/- 0.29 nM). These data suggest the presence of an intracellular pool of sodium channels or channel precursors in Schwann cells. Images PMID:2174558

  8. A new cell culture protocol for enrichment and genetic modification of adult canine Schwann cells suitable for peripheral nerve tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Haastert, K; Seef, P; Stein, V M; Tipold, A; Grothe, C

    2009-08-01

    Easily applicable techniques are presented to obtain high numbers of enriched canine Schwann cells (cSC) in a short time-window. The potential of adult SC for tissue engineering of peripheral nerves and ex vivo gene therapy is obvious from physiological events taking place after peripheral nerve transection [Haastert, K., Grothe, C., 2007. Gene therapy in peripheral nerve reconstruction approaches. Curr. Gene Ther. 7, 221-228]. The presented techniques were modified from a protocol for cultivation and expansion of adult cSC by others [Pauls, J., Nolte, C., Forterre, F., Brunnberg, L., 2004. Cultivation and expansion of canine Schwann cells using reexplantation. Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 117, 341-352] and own experiences in rodent and human SC cultivation and transfection [Haastert, K., Mauritz, C., Chaturvedi, S., Grothe, C., 2007. Human and rat adult Schwann cell cultures: fast and efficient enrichment and highly effective non-viral transfection protocol. Nat. Protoc. 2, 99-104]. A purity of about 80% cSC achieved by immunopanning techniques and selective culture conditions is 2.5 fold higher as previously reported (Pauls et al., 2004). Additionally, highly enriched cSC populations are available in 3-4 weeks, only half the time period reported previously (Pauls et al., 2004). Furthermore, electroporation and genetic modification of cSC is reported for the first time. PMID:19232653

  9. A rapid and versatile method for the isolation, purification and cryogenic storage of Schwann cells from adult rodent nerves

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Natalia D.; Srinivas, Shruthi; Piñero, Gonzalo; Monje, Paula V.

    2016-01-01

    We herein developed a protocol for the rapid procurement of adult nerve-derived Schwann cells (SCs) that was optimized to implement an immediate enzymatic dissociation of fresh nerve tissue while maintaining high cell viability, improving yields and minimizing fibroblast and myelin contamination. This protocol introduces: (1) an efficient method for enzymatic cell release immediately after removal of the epineurium and extensive teasing of the nerve fibers; (2) an adaptable drop-plating method for selective cell attachment, removal of myelin debris, and expansion of the initial SC population in chemically defined medium; (3) a magnetic-activated cell sorting purification protocol for rapid and effective fibroblast elimination; and (4) an optional step of cryopreservation for the storage of the excess of cells. Highly proliferative SC cultures devoid of myelin and fibroblast growth were obtained within three days of nerve processing. Characterization of the initial, expanded, and cryopreserved cell products confirmed maintenance of SC identity, viability and growth rates throughout the process. Most importantly, SCs retained their sensitivity to mitogens and potential for differentiation even after cryopreservation. To conclude, this easy-to-implement and clinically relevant protocol allows for the preparation of expandable homogeneous SC cultures while minimizing time, manipulation of the cells, and exposure to culture variables. PMID:27549422

  10. A rapid and versatile method for the isolation, purification and cryogenic storage of Schwann cells from adult rodent nerves.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Natalia D; Srinivas, Shruthi; Piñero, Gonzalo; Monje, Paula V

    2016-01-01

    We herein developed a protocol for the rapid procurement of adult nerve-derived Schwann cells (SCs) that was optimized to implement an immediate enzymatic dissociation of fresh nerve tissue while maintaining high cell viability, improving yields and minimizing fibroblast and myelin contamination. This protocol introduces: (1) an efficient method for enzymatic cell release immediately after removal of the epineurium and extensive teasing of the nerve fibers; (2) an adaptable drop-plating method for selective cell attachment, removal of myelin debris, and expansion of the initial SC population in chemically defined medium; (3) a magnetic-activated cell sorting purification protocol for rapid and effective fibroblast elimination; and (4) an optional step of cryopreservation for the storage of the excess of cells. Highly proliferative SC cultures devoid of myelin and fibroblast growth were obtained within three days of nerve processing. Characterization of the initial, expanded, and cryopreserved cell products confirmed maintenance of SC identity, viability and growth rates throughout the process. Most importantly, SCs retained their sensitivity to mitogens and potential for differentiation even after cryopreservation. To conclude, this easy-to-implement and clinically relevant protocol allows for the preparation of expandable homogeneous SC cultures while minimizing time, manipulation of the cells, and exposure to culture variables. PMID:27549422

  11. Schwann cell spectrins modulate peripheral nerve myelination

    PubMed Central

    Susuki, Keiichiro; Raphael, Alya R.; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Stankewich, Michael C.; Peles, Elior; Talbot, William S.; Rasband, Matthew N.

    2011-01-01

    During peripheral nerve development, Schwann cells ensheathe axons and form myelin to enable rapid and efficient action potential propagation. Although myelination requires profound changes in Schwann cell shape, how neuron–glia interactions converge on the Schwann cell cytoskeleton to induce these changes is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the submembranous cytoskeletal proteins αII and βII spectrin are polarized in Schwann cells and colocalize with signaling molecules known to modulate myelination in vitro. Silencing expression of these spectrins inhibited myelination in vitro, and remyelination in vivo. Furthermore, myelination was disrupted in motor nerves of zebrafish lacking αII spectrin. Finally, we demonstrate that loss of spectrin significantly reduces both F-actin in the Schwann cell cytoskeleton and the Nectin-like protein, Necl4, at the contact site between Schwann cells and axons. Therefore, we propose αII and βII spectrin in Schwann cells integrate the neuron–glia interactions mediated by membrane proteins into the actin-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangements necessary for myelination. PMID:21518878

  12. Adult DRG Stem/Progenitor Cells Generate Pericytes in the Presence of Central Nervous System (CNS) Developmental Cues, and Schwann Cells in Response to CNS Demyelination.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Marie; Maniglier, Madlyne; Deboux, Cyrille; Bachelin, Corinne; Zujovic, Violetta; Baron-Van Evercooren, Anne

    2015-06-01

    It has been proposed that the adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) harbor neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from the neural crest. However, the thorough characterization of their stemness and differentiation plasticity was not addressed. In this study, we investigated adult DRG-NPC stem cell properties overtime, and their fate when ectopically grafted in the central nervous system. We compared them in vitro and in vivo to the well-characterized adult spinal cord-NPCs derived from the same donors. Using micro-dissection and neurosphere cultures, we demonstrate that adult DRG-NPCs have quasi unlimited self-expansion capacities without compromising their tissue specific molecular signature. Moreover, they differentiate into multiple peripheral lineages in vitro. After transplantation, adult DRG-NPCs generate pericytes in the developing forebrain but remyelinating Schwann cells in response to spinal cord demyelination. In addition, we show that axonal and endothelial/astrocytic factors as well astrocytes regulate the fate of adult DRG-NPCs in culture. Although the adult DRG-NPC multipotency is restricted to the neural crest lineage, their dual responsiveness to developmental and lesion cues highlights their impressive adaptive and repair potentials making them valuable targets for regenerative medicine. PMID:25786382

  13. Schwann-Spheres Derived from Injured Peripheral Nerves in Adult Mice - Their In Vitro Characterization and Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Takehiko; Ishii, Ken; Shibata, Shinsuke; Yasuda, Akimasa; Sato, Momoka; Nagoshi, Narihito; Saito, Harukazu; Okano, Hirotaka J.; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2011-01-01

    Multipotent somatic stem cells have been identified in various adult tissues. However, the stem/progenitor cells of the peripheral nerves have been isolated only from fetal tissues. Here, we isolated Schwann-cell precursors/immature Schwann cells from the injured peripheral nerves of adult mice using a floating culture technique that we call “Schwann-spheres." The Schwann-spheres were derived from de-differentiated mature Schwann cells harvested 24 hours to 6 weeks after peripheral nerve injury. They had extensive self-renewal and differentiation capabilities. They strongly expressed the immature-Schwann-cell marker p75, and differentiated only into the Schwann-cell lineage. The spheres showed enhanced myelin formation and neurite growth compared to mature Schwann cells in vitro. Mature Schwann cells have been considered a promising candidate for cell-transplantation therapies to repair the damaged nervous system, whereas these “Schwann-spheres" would provide a more potential autologous cell source for such transplantation. PMID:21720551

  14. Links between Schwann cells and melanocytes in development and disease.

    PubMed

    Van Raamsdonk, Catherine D; Deo, Mugdha

    2013-09-01

    Melanocytes are pigment-producing cells that reside in the skin, eyes, ears, heart, and central nervous system meninges of mammals. Schwann cells are glial cells, which closely associate with peripheral nerves, myelinating, and sheathing them. Melanocytes and Schwann cells both arise from the neural crest during development, and some melanocytes arise directly from Schwann cell precursors lining developing spinal nerves. In this review, we explore the connections between melanocytes and Schwann cells in development and transformation. PMID:23815504

  15. Schwann cell basal lamina and nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ide, C; Tohyama, K; Yokota, R; Nitatori, T; Onodera, S

    1983-12-12

    Nerve segments approximately 7 mm long were excised from the predegenerated sciatic nerves of mice, and treated 5 times by repetitive freezing and thawing to kill the Schwann cells. Such treated nerve segments were grafted into the original places so as to be in contact with the proximal stumps. The animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after the grafting. The grafts were examined by electron microscopy in the middle part of the graft, i.e. 3-4 mm distal to the proximal end and/or near the proximal and distal ends of the graft. In other instances, the predegenerated nerve segments were minced with a razor blade after repetitive freezing and thawing. Such minced nerves were placed in contact with the proximal stumps of the same nerves. The animals were sacrificed 10 days after the grafting. Within 1-2 days after grafting, the dead Schwann cells had disintegrated into fragments. They were then gradually phagocytosed by macrophages. The basal laminae of Schwann cells, which were not attacked by macrophages, remained as empty tubes (basal lamina scaffolds). In the grafts we examined, no Schwann cells survived the freezing and thawing process. The regenerating axons always grew out through such basal lamina scaffolds, being in contact with the inner surface of the basal lamina (i.e. the side originally facing the Schwann cell plasma membrane). No axons were found outside of the scaffolds. One to two days after grafting, the regenerating axons were not associated with Schwann cells, but after 5-7 days they were accompanied by Schwann cells which were presumed to be migrating along axons from the proximal stumps. Ten days after grafting, proliferating Schwann cells observed in the middle part of the grafts had begun to sort out axons. In the grafts of minced nerves, the fragmented basal laminae of the Schwann cells re-arranged themselves into thicker strands or small aggregations of basal laminae. The regenerating axons, without exception, attached to one side

  16. Early profiles of axonal growth and astroglial response after spinal cord hemisection and implantation of Schwann cell-seeded guidance channels in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jung-Yu C; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2005-11-15

    We previously demonstrated that transplantation of Schwann cell-seeded channels promoted the regrowth of injured axons in the adult spinal cord. It is not clear, however, whether injured axons recapitulate the developmental scenarios to accomplish regeneration. In the present study, we investigated the early events associated with axonal regrowth after spinal cord hemisection at the eighth thoracic level and implantation of a Schwann cell-seeded minichannel in adult rats. Animals were sacrificed at postoperative days (PO) 2, 4, 7, and 14. Anterograde tracing with fluoro-ruby showed that regenerating axons grew into the graft prior to PO2 and reached the distal end of the channel at PO7. These axons expressed both embryonic neural cell adhesion molecule (E-NCAM) and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43). Although the expression of E-NCAM decreased by PO7, that of GAP-43 remained high throughout the first 2 weeks after implantation. A close relation of vimentin-positive astroglia to the growing axons in the host tissue suggested a contact-mediated role of these cells in axon guidance. Aggregation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes together with the increased expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) starting at PO7 appeared to inhibit axonal growth at the host-graft interface. Thus, adult regenerating axons and astroglia do express developmentally related molecules that may facilitate axonal growth into a permissive graft at the early phase of injury and regeneration. These results suggest that molecules and astroglia essential to development are both important in influencing axonal regrowth in the adult spinal cord. PMID:16240391

  17. Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells enhances infiltration and survival of CNP and Schwann cells to promote axonal sprouting following complete transection of spinal cord in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Peng; Yang, Zhiyong; Wang, Weimin; Wang, Jinkun; Xue, Liping

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the roles of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in promoting axonal regeneration after complete transection of spinal cord in adult rats. Transplantation was done 9 days after injury. Only a few BMSCs were detected at the injury site 8 weeks after transplantation, yet there was robust growth of axons. The scarcity of surviving BMSCs may attribute to the adverse conditions in their ambient environment. In this connection, the immediate accumulation of a large number of macrophages/reactive microglia following BMSCs transplantation and subsequent cavitation of tissues may be detrimental to their survival. An unexpected finding following BMSCs transplantation was the marked increase in the nestin, GFAP, NF200, olig 3 and CNP positive cells at the injury site. Immunoelectron microscopy showed CNP cells were oval or fibroblast-like and had multiple perineurial-like compartments with long extending filopodia. The spatial relationship between regenerating axons and CNP-positive cells was also confirmed by double immunofluorescence staining. Our results suggest that transplantation of BMSCs elicits the influx and survival of local cells including CNP positive cells and Schwann cells into injury site, which provide structural support for the axon regeneration and remyelination after spinal cord injury. PMID:24936216

  18. How Schwann Cells Sort Axons: New Concepts.

    PubMed

    Feltri, M Laura; Poitelon, Yannick; Previtali, Stefano Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral nerves contain large myelinated and small unmyelinated (Remak) fibers that perform different functions. The choice to myelinate or not is dictated to Schwann cells by the axon itself, based on the amount of neuregulin I-type III exposed on its membrane. Peripheral axons are more important in determining the final myelination fate than central axons, and the implications for this difference in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes are discussed. Interestingly, this choice is reversible during pathology, accounting for the remarkable plasticity of Schwann cells, and contributing to the regenerative potential of the peripheral nervous system. Radial sorting is the process by which Schwann cells choose larger axons to myelinate during development. This crucial morphogenetic step is a prerequisite for myelination and for differentiation of Remak fibers, and is arrested in human diseases due to mutations in genes coding for extracellular matrix and linkage molecules. In this review we will summarize progresses made in the last years by a flurry of reverse genetic experiments in mice and fish. This work revealed novel molecules that control radial sorting, and contributed unexpected ideas to our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control radial sorting of axons. PMID:25686621

  19. Schwann cells induce cancer cell dispersion and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Deborde, Sylvie; Lyubchik, Anna; Zhou, Yi; He, Shizhi; McNamara, William F.; Chernichenko, Natalya; Lee, Sei-Young; Barajas, Fernando; Chen, Chun-Hao; Bakst, Richard L.; Vakiani, Efsevia; He, Shuangba; Hall, Alan; Wong, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Nerves enable cancer progression, as cancers have been shown to extend along nerves through the process of perineural invasion, which carries a poor prognosis. Furthermore, the innervation of some cancers promotes growth and metastases. It remains unclear, however, how nerves mechanistically contribute to cancer progression. Here, we demonstrated that Schwann cells promote cancer invasion through direct cancer cell contact. Histological evaluation of murine and human cancer specimens with perineural invasion uncovered a subpopulation of Schwann cells that associates with cancer cells. Coculture of cancer cells with dorsal root ganglion extracts revealed that Schwann cells direct cancer cells to migrate toward nerves and promote invasion in a contact-dependent manner. Upon contact, Schwann cells induced the formation of cancer cell protrusions in their direction and intercalated between the cancer cells, leading to cancer cell dispersion. The formation of these processes was dependent on Schwann cell expression of neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) and ultimately promoted perineural invasion. Moreover, NCAM1-deficient mice showed decreased neural invasion and less paralysis. Such Schwann cell behavior reflects normal Schwann cell programs that are typically activated in nerve repair but are instead exploited by cancer cells to promote perineural invasion and cancer progression. PMID:26999607

  20. Schwann cell autophagy, myelinophagy, initiates myelin clearance from injured nerves

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Sanchez, Jose A.; Carty, Lucy; Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta; Palomo-Irigoyen, Marta; Varela-Rey, Marta; Griffith, Megan; Hantke, Janina; Macias-Camara, Nuria; Azkargorta, Mikel; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; De Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez; Jefferies, Harold B.J.; Aspichueta, Patricia; Elortza, Félix; Aransay, Ana M.; Martínez-Chantar, María L.; Baas, Frank; Mato, José M.; Mirsky, Rhona

    2015-01-01

    Although Schwann cell myelin breakdown is the universal outcome of a remarkably wide range of conditions that cause disease or injury to peripheral nerves, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that make Schwann cell–mediated myelin digestion possible have not been established. We report that Schwann cells degrade myelin after injury by a novel form of selective autophagy, myelinophagy. Autophagy was up-regulated by myelinating Schwann cells after nerve injury, myelin debris was present in autophagosomes, and pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy impaired myelin clearance. Myelinophagy was positively regulated by the Schwann cell JNK/c-Jun pathway, a central regulator of the Schwann cell reprogramming induced by nerve injury. We also present evidence that myelinophagy is defective in the injured central nervous system. These results reveal an important role for inductive autophagy during Wallerian degeneration, and point to potential mechanistic targets for accelerating myelin clearance and improving demyelinating disease. PMID:26150392

  1. Embryonic Corneal Schwann Cells Express Some Schwann Cell Marker mRNAs, but No Mature Schwann Cell Marker Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Abigail H.; Albrecht, Michael; Pettit-Scott, Maya; Conrad, Gary W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Embryonic chick nerves encircle the cornea in pericorneal tissue until embryonic day (E)9, then penetrate the anterior corneal stroma, invade the epithelium, and branch over the corneal surface through E20. Adult corneal nerves, cut during transplantation or LASIK, never fully regenerate. Schwann cells (SCs) protect nerve fibers and augment nerve repair. This study evaluates SC differentiation in embryonic chick corneas. Methods Fertile chicken eggs were incubated from E0 at 38°C, 45% humidity. Dissected permeabilized corneas plus pericorneal tissue were immunostained for SC marker proteins. Other corneas were paraffin embedded, sectioned, and processed by in situ hybridization for corneal-, nerve-related, and SC marker gene expression. E9 to E20 corneas, dissected from pericorneal tissue, were assessed by real-time PCR (QPCR) for mRNA expression. Results QPCR revealed unchanging low to moderate SLIT2/ROBO and NTN/UNC5 family, BACE1, and CADM3/CADM4 expressions, but high NEO1 expression. EGR2 and POU3F1 expressions never surpassed PAX3 expression. ITGNA6/IT-GNB4 expressions increased 20-fold; ITGNB1 expression was high. SC marker S100 and MBP expressions increased; MAG, GFAP, and SCMP expressions were very low. Antibodies against the MPZ, MAG, S100, and SCMP proteins immunostained along pericorneal nerves, but not along corneal nerves. In the cornea, SLIT2 and SOX10 mRNAs were expressed in anterior stroma and epithelium, whereas PAX3, S100, MBP, and MPZL1 mRNAs were expressed only in corneal epithelium. Conclusions Embryonic chick corneas contain SCs, as defined by SOX10 and PAX3 transcription, which remain immature, at least in part because of stromal transcriptional and epithelial translational regulation of some SC marker gene expression. PMID:19387082

  2. Beneficial reciprocal effects of bone marrow stromal cells and Schwann cells from adult rats in a dynamic co-culture system in vitro without intercellular contact

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, LI-NA; CUI, XIAO-JUN; SU, KAI-XIN; WANG, XIAO-HONG; GUO, JIN-HUA

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine how implanted bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) encourage peripheral nerve regeneration, the present study investigated the interaction of BMSCs and Schwann cells (SCs) using an indirect in vitro co-culture model. SCs and BMSCs were obtained from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The passaged BMSCs were CD29- and CD44-positive but CD45-negative and were co-cultured with the primary SCs using a Millicell system, which allows BMSCs and SCs to grow in the same culture medium but without direct contact. Expression of the typical SC markers S-100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) of the treated BMSCs as well as the proliferation capacity of the co-cultured SCs was evaluated by immunocytochemical staining on the 3rd and 5th day of co-culture. Immunocytochemical staining showed that >75% of the BMSCs in the indirect co-culture model were GFAP- and S-100-positive on the 3rd and 5th day after co-culture, as opposed to <5% of the BMSCs in the control group. On the 3rd day after co-culture, only a few co-cultured BMSCs showed the typical SC-like morphology, while most BMSCs still kept their native appearance. By contrast, on the 5th day after co-culture, almost all of the co-cultured BMSCs appeared with the typical SC-like morphology. Furthermore, 70.71% of the SCs in the indirect co-culture model were S-100-positive on the 5th day of co-culture, as opposed to >30.43% of the SCs in the control group. These results indicated that BMSCs may interact synergistically with SCs with regard to promoting peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:26133460

  3. Netrin-1 induces proliferation of Schwann cells through Unc5b receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyun Kyoung; Seo, In Ae; Seo, Eunhui; Seo, Su-Yeong; Lee, Hye Jeong; Park, Hwan Tae

    2007-11-03

    Netrin and its receptors, DCC (Deleted in Colorectal Cancer) and Unc5, are proposed to be involved in the axon guidance and neuroglial migration during development. However, accumulating evidence implies that they may also participate in the cell survival and apoptosis. Here, we show that netrin-1 induces proliferation of Schwann cells. Unc5b is the sole receptor expressed in RT4 schwannoma cells and adult primary Schwann cells, and netrin-1 and Unc5b are found to be expressed in the injured sciatic nerve. It was also found that the netrin-1-induced Schwann cell proliferation was blocked by the specific inhibition of Unc5b expression with RNAi. These data suggest that netrin-1 could be an endogenous trophic factor for Schwann cells in the injured peripheral nerves.

  4. Tight Junction Proteins in Human Schwann Cell Autotypic Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Alanne, Maria H.; Pummi, Kati; Heape, Anthony M.; Grènman, Reidar; Peltonen, Juha; Peltonen, Sirkku

    2009-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) form physical barriers in various tissues and regulate paracellular transport of ions, water, and molecules. Myelinating Schwann cells form highly organized structures, including compact myelin, nodes of Ranvier, paranodal regions, Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, periaxonal cytoplasmic collars, and mesaxons. Autotypic TJs are formed in non-compacted myelin compartments between adjacent membrane lamellae of the same Schwann cell. Using indirect immunofluorescence and RT-PCR, we analyzed the expression of adherens junction (E-cadherin) and TJ [claudins, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, occludin] components in human peripheral nerve endoneurium, showing clear differences with published rodent profiles. Adult nerve paranodal regions contained E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-2, and ZO-1. Schmidt-Lanterman incisures contained E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-2, claudin-3, claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin. Mesaxons contained E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-2, claudin-3, ZO-1, and occludin. None of the proteins studied were associated with nodal inter-Schwann cell junctions. Fetal nerve expression of claudin-1, claudin-3, ZO-1, and occludin was predominantly punctate, with a mesaxonal labeling pattern, but paranodal (ZO-1, claudin-3) and Schmidt-Lanterman incisure (claudins-1 and -3) expression profiles typical of compact myelin were visible by gestational week 37. The clear differences observed between human and published rodent nerve profiles emphasize the importance of human studies when translating the results of animal models to human diseases. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:523–529, 2009) PMID:19153196

  5. Proteasomal degradation of glutamine synthetase regulates schwann cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Fuminori; Araki, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-27

    Rapid saltatory nerve conduction is facilitated by myelin structure, which is composed of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Schwann cells drastically change their phenotype following peripheral nerve injury. These phenotypic changes are required for efficient degeneration/regeneration. We previously identified ZNRF1 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase containing a RING finger motif, whose expression is upregulated in the Schwann cells following nerve injury. This suggested that posttranscriptional regulation of protein expression in Schwann cells may be involved in their phenotypic changes during nerve degeneration/regeneration. Here we report the identification of glutamine synthetase (GS), an enzyme that synthesizes glutamine using glutamate and ammonia, as a substrate for E3 activity of ZNRF1 in Schwann cells. GS is known to be highly expressed in differentiated Schwann cells, but its functional significance has remained unclear. We found that during nerve degeneration/regeneration, GS expression is controlled mostly by ZNRF1-dependent proteasomal degradation. We also found that Schwann cells increase oxidative stress upon initiation of nerve degeneration, which promotes carbonylation and subsequent degradation of GS. Surprisingly, we discovered that GS expression regulates Schwann cell differentiation; i.e., increased GS expression promotes myelination via its enzymatic activity. Among the substrates and products of GS, increased glutamate concentration inhibited myelination and yet promoted Schwann cell proliferation by activating metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling. This would suggest that GS may exert its effect on Schwann cell differentiation by regulating glutamate concentration. These results indicate that the ZNRF1-GS system may play an important role in correlating Schwann cell metabolism with its differentiation. PMID:20107048

  6. Electrically induced release of acetylcholine from denervated Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, M. J.; Miledi, R.

    1974-01-01

    1. Focal electrical stimulation of Schwann cells at the end-plates of denervated frog muscles elicited slow depolarizations of up to 30 mV in the muscle fibres. This response is referred to as a Schwann-cell end-plate potential (Schwann-e.p.p.). 2. Repeated stimulation sometimes evoked further Schwann-e.p.p.s, but they were never sustained for more than 30 pulses. Successive e.p.p.s varied in amplitude and time course independently of the stimulus. 3. The Schwann-e.p.p.s were reversibly blocked by curare, suggesting that they result from a release of acetylcholine (ACh) by the Schwann cells. 4. ACh release by electrical stimulation did not seem to occur in quantal form and was not dependent on the presence of calcium ions in the external medium; nor was it blocked by tetrodotoxin. 5. Stimulation which caused release of ACh also resulted in extensive morphological disruption of the Schwann cells, as seen with both light and electron microscopy. 6. It is concluded that electrical stimulation of denervated Schwann cells causes break-down of the cell membrane and releases ACh, presumably in molecular form. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2Plate 3Plate 4Plate 5Plate 6Plate 7Plate 8Plate 9Plate 10 PMID:4545183

  7. Changes in Schwann cells and vessels in lead neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H.C.; Myers, R.R.; Lampert, P.W.

    1982-11-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of peripheral nerve in rats receiving 6% lead carbonate for 4-10 weeks provided evidence of a specific Schwann cell injury, associated with demyelination. Intranuclear inclusions in Schwann cells appeared within 2 weeks of administration of a lead-containing diet. Swelling of Schwann cells and disintegration of their cytoplasm was evident at 4 weeks. Distinctive electron-dense inclusions appeared in both Schwann and endothelial cells during the period of intoxication and were ultrastructurally identical to pathognomonic inclusions of lead poisoning seen in renal tubular epithelial cells. Scanning microscopy (SEM) with electron-probe microanalysis was used to identify the lead-containing deposits. In addition to Schwann cell changes, vessels revealed endothelial cell injury and alteread permeability to macromolecules. Since morphologic changes of Schwann cells precede the development of altered vascular permeability and endoneurial edema, it appears that lead gains access to the endoneurium prior to the development of altered vascular permeability, suggesting that edema and altered endoneurial fluid pressure are epiphenomena that supervene after demyelination occurs. Remyelination, Schwann cell proliferation and formation of onion bulbs are manifestations of persistent toxic injury to myelin-sustaining cells, resulting in chronic demyelination.

  8. The repair Schwann cell and its function in regenerating nerves.

    PubMed

    Jessen, K R; Mirsky, R

    2016-07-01

    Nerve injury triggers the conversion of myelin and non-myelin (Remak) Schwann cells to a cell phenotype specialized to promote repair. Distal to damage, these repair Schwann cells provide the necessary signals and spatial cues for the survival of injured neurons, axonal regeneration and target reinnervation. The conversion to repair Schwann cells involves de-differentiation together with alternative differentiation, or activation, a combination that is typical of cell type conversions often referred to as (direct or lineage) reprogramming. Thus, injury-induced Schwann cell reprogramming involves down-regulation of myelin genes combined with activation of a set of repair-supportive features, including up-regulation of trophic factors, elevation of cytokines as part of the innate immune response, myelin clearance by activation of myelin autophagy in Schwann cells and macrophage recruitment, and the formation of regeneration tracks, Bungner's bands, for directing axons to their targets. This repair programme is controlled transcriptionally by mechanisms involving the transcription factor c-Jun, which is rapidly up-regulated in Schwann cells after injury. In the absence of c-Jun, damage results in the formation of a dysfunctional repair cell, neuronal death and failure of functional recovery. c-Jun, although not required for Schwann cell development, is therefore central to the reprogramming of myelin and non-myelin (Remak) Schwann cells to repair cells after injury. In future, the signalling that specifies this cell requires further analysis so that pharmacological tools that boost and maintain the repair Schwann cell phenotype can be developed. PMID:26864683

  9. Sox10 is required for Schwann cell identity and progression beyond the immature Schwann cell stage.

    PubMed

    Finzsch, Markus; Schreiner, Silke; Kichko, Tatjana; Reeh, Peter; Tamm, Ernst R; Bösl, Michael R; Meijer, Dies; Wegner, Michael

    2010-05-17

    Mutations in the transcription factor SOX10 cause neurocristopathies, including Waardenburg-Hirschsprung syndrome and peripheral neuropathies in humans. This is partly attributed to a requirement for Sox10 in early neural crest for survival, maintenance of pluripotency, and specification to several cell lineages, including peripheral glia. As a consequence, peripheral glia are absent in Sox10-deficient mice. Intriguingly, Sox10 continues to be expressed in these cells after specification. To analyze glial functions after specification, we specifically deleted Sox10 in immature Schwann cells by conditional mutagenesis. Mutant mice died from peripheral neuropathy before the seventh postnatal week. Nerve alterations included a thinned perineurial sheath, increased lipid and collagen deposition, and a dramatically altered cellular composition. Nerve conduction was also grossly aberrant, and neither myelinating nor nonmyelinating Schwann cells formed. Instead, axons of different sizes remained unsorted in large bundles. Schwann cells failed to develop beyond the immature stage and were unable to maintain identity. Thus, our study identifies a novel cause for peripheral neuropathies in patients with SOX10 mutations. PMID:20457761

  10. Arf6 mediates Schwann cell differentiation and myelination.

    PubMed

    Torii, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Tsumura, Hideki; Kawahara, Kazuko; Tanoue, Akito; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Junji

    2015-09-25

    During development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cells wrap neuronal axons, becoming the myelin sheaths that help axonal functions. While the intercellular signals controlling the myelination process between Schwann cells and peripheral neurons are well studied, the transduction of these signals in Schwann cells still remains elusive. Here, we show that Arf6, an Arf protein of the small GTPase family, is involved in promoting the myelination process. Knockdown of Arf6 with the small-interfering (si)RNA in primary Schwann cells markedly decreases dibutyl-cyclic AMP-induced myelin marker protein expression, indicating that Arf6 plays a role in differentiation-like phenotypic changes. To obtain in vivo evidence, we generated small-hairpin (sh)RNA transgenic mice targeting Arf6 for Schwann cells. Transgenic mice exhibited reduced myelin thickness compared to littermate controls, consistent with the defective myelin formation observed in the transgenic mouse-derived Schwann cell and neuronal culture system. Transgenic mice also exhibited decreased phosphorylation of myelination-related signaling molecules such as Akt kinase cascade proteins as well as downregulation of myelin marker proteins. These results suggest that signaling through Arf6 is required for Schwann cell myelination, adding Arf6 to the list of intracellular signaling molecules involved in the myelination process. PMID:26277388

  11. Adhesion of axolemmal fragments to Schwann cells: a signal- and target-specific process closely linked to axolemmal induction of Schwann cell mitosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sobue, G.; Pleasure, D.

    1985-02-01

    Radioiodinated rat CNS axolemmal fragments adhered to cultured rat Schwann cells by a time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependent process independent of extracellular ionized calcium. Adhesion showed target and signal specificity; axolemmal fragments adhered to endoneurial or dermal fibroblasts to a much lesser extent than to Schwann cells, and plasma membrane fragments from skeletal muscle, erythrocytes, or PNS myelin adhered to Schwann cells to a lesser extent than did axolemmal fragments. Brief trypsinization removed 94 to 97% of bound radioactivity from Schwann cells previously incubated with /sup 125/I-axolemmal fragments for up to 24 hr, indicating that adhesion was largely a surface phenomenon rather than the result of rapid internalization of axolemmal fragments by the Schwann cells. When adhesion was compared to the axolemmal mitogenic response of Schwann cells, the concentration of axolemmal fragments yielding half-maximal adhesion was the same as the concentration producing half-maximal stimulation of Schwann cell mitosis. Trypsin digestion, homogenization, or heating of axolemmal fragments before application to cultured Schwann cells diminished adhesion and axolemmal fragment-induced stimulation of Schwann cell mitosis in a parallel fashion. Whereas adhesion of axolemmal fragments to the surfaces of the cultured Schwann cells reached completion within 4 hr in this assay system, induction of Schwann cell mitosis by the fragments required contact with Schwann cells for a minimum of 6 to 8 hr and reached a maximum when the axolemmal fragments had adhered to the Schwann cells for 24 hr or more.

  12. Zeb2 is essential for Schwann cell differentiation, myelination and nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Quintes, Susanne; Brinkmann, Bastian G; Ebert, Madlen; Fröb, Franziska; Kungl, Theresa; Arlt, Friederike A; Tarabykin, Victor; Huylebroeck, Danny; Meijer, Dies; Suter, Ueli; Wegner, Michael; Sereda, Michael W; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2016-08-01

    Schwann cell development and peripheral nerve myelination require the serial expression of transcriptional activators, such as Sox10, Oct6 (also called Scip or Pou3f1) and Krox20 (also called Egr2). Here we show that transcriptional repression, mediated by the zinc-finger protein Zeb2 (also known as Sip1), is essential for differentiation and myelination. Mice lacking Zeb2 in Schwann cells develop a severe peripheral neuropathy, caused by failure of axonal sorting and virtual absence of myelin membranes. Zeb2-deficient Schwann cells continuously express repressors of lineage progression. Moreover, genes for negative regulators of maturation such as Sox2 and Ednrb emerge as Zeb2 target genes, supporting its function as an 'inhibitor of inhibitors' in myelination control. When Zeb2 is deleted in adult mice, Schwann cells readily dedifferentiate following peripheral nerve injury and become repair cells. However, nerve regeneration and remyelination are both perturbed, demonstrating that Zeb2, although undetectable in adult Schwann cells, has a latent function throughout life. PMID:27294512

  13. Fingolimod induces the transition to a nerve regeneration promoting Schwann cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Heinen, André; Beyer, Felix; Tzekova, Nevena; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Küry, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Successful regeneration of injured peripheral nerves is mainly attributed to the plastic behavior of Schwann cells. Upon loss of axons, these cells trans-differentiate into regeneration promoting repair cells which provide trophic support to regrowing axons. Among others, activation of cJun was revealed to be involved in this process, initiating the stereotypic pattern of Schwann cell phenotype alterations during Wallerian degeneration. Nevertheless, the ability of Schwann cells to adapt and therefore the nerve's potential to regenerate can be limited in particular after long term denervation or in neuropathies leading to incomplete regeneration only and thus emphasizing the need for novel therapeutic approaches. Here we stimulated primary neonatal and adult rat Schwann cells with Fingolimod/FTY720P and investigated its impact on the regeneration promoting phenotype. FTY720P activated a number of de-differentiation markers including cJun and interfered with maturation marker and myelin expression. Functionally, FTY720P treated Schwann cells upregulated growth factor expression and these cells enhanced dorsal root ganglion neurite outgrowth on inhibitory substrates. Our results therefore provide strong evidence that FTY720P application supports the generation of a repair promoting cellular phenotype and suggest that Fingolimod could be used as treatment for peripheral nerve injuries and diseases. PMID:25957629

  14. Schwann Cell Myelination Requires Timely and Precise Targeting of P0 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yin, X.; Kidd, G.J.; Wrabetz, L.; Feltri, M.L.; Messing, A.; Trapp, B.D.

    2000-01-01

    This report investigated mechanisms responsible for failed Schwann cell myelination in mice that overexpress P0 (P0tg), the major structural protein of PNS myelin. Quantitative ultrastructural immunocytochemistry established that P0 protein was mistargeted to abaxonal, periaxonal, and mesaxon membranes in P0tg Schwann cells with arrested myelination. The extracellular leaflets of P0-containing mesaxon membranes were closely apposed with periodicities of compact myelin. The myelin-associated glycoprotein was appropriately sorted in the Golgi apparatus and targeted to periaxonal membranes. In adult mice, occasional Schwann cells myelinated axons possibly with the aid of endocytic removal of mistargeted P0. These results indicate that P0 gene multiplication causes P0 mistargeting to mesaxon membranes, and through obligate P0 homophilic adhesion, renders these dynamic membranes inert and halts myelination. PMID:10704450

  15. Metformin prevents methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis of mouse Schwann cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ota, Kimiko; Nakamura, Jiro; Li, Weiguo; Kozakae, Mika; Watarai, Atsuko; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Yasuda, Yutaka; Nakashima, Eirtaro; Naruse, Keiko; Watabe, Kazuhiko; Kato, Koichi; Oiso, Yutaka; Hamada, Yoji . E-mail: yhama@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2007-05-25

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications via the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). To clarify whether the antidiabetic drug metformin prevents Schwann cell damage induced by MG, we cultured mouse Schwann cells in the presence of MG and metformin. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining, caspase-3 activity, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Intracellular ROS formation was determined by flow cytometry, and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation was also examined. MG treatment resulted in blunted cell proliferation, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, and the activation of caspase-3 and JNK along with enhanced intracellular ROS formation. All of these changes were significantly inhibited by metformin. No significant activation of AMPK by MG or metformin was observed. Taken together, metformin likely prevents MG-induced apoptotic signals in mouse Schwann cells by inhibiting the formation of AGEs and ROS.

  16. Induction of adipose-derived stem cells into Schwann-like cells and observation of Schwann-like cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiumei; Tong, Zhaoxue; Li, Qi; Niu, Qingfei; Zhang, Zhe; Tong, Xiaojie; Tong, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system has the potential for full regeneration following injury and recovery, predominantly controlled by Schwann cells (SCs). Therefore, obtaining a sufficient number of SCs in a short duration is crucial. In the present study, rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were isolated and cultured, following which characterization of the ADSCs was performed using flow cytometry. The results showed that the cells were positive for the CD29 and CD44 markers, and negative for the CD31, CD45, CD49 and CD106 markers. The multilineage differentiation potential of the ADSCs was assayed by determining the ability of the cells to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Following this, the ADSCs were treated with a specific medium and differentiated into Schwann-like cells. Immunofluorescence, western blot and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that ~95% of the differentiated cells expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100 and p75. In addition, the present study found that a substantial number of SCs can be produced in a short duration via the mitotic feature of Schwann-like cells. These data indicated that Schwann-like cells derived from ADSCs can undergo mitotic proliferation, which may be beneficial for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury in the future. PMID:27279556

  17. Proliferation of Schwann cells induced by axolemmal and myelin membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Dinneen, M..

    1985-01-01

    Purified Schwann Cells were cultured from neonatal rat sciatic nerve using a modification of the method of Brockes. Schwann cells and contaminating fibroblasts were unambiguously identified using fluorescent antibodies of 2'3' cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and the thy 1.1 antigen respectively. The Schwann cells were quiescent unless challenged with mitogens. They proliferated rapidly in response to the soluble mitogen, cholera toxin, or to membrane fractions from rat CNS or PNS, prepared by the method of DeVries. Mitogenic activity was present in both axolemmal and myelin enriched fractions and promoted a 10-15 fold increase in the rate of /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake. The axolemmal mitogen was sensitive to heat (80/sup 0/C for 10 minutes), trypsin digestion (0.05% x 30 mins) or to treatment with endoglycosidase D, suggesting that it could be a glycoprotein. Fifty percent of the axolemmal mitogenic activity was solubilized in 1% octyl-glucoside. The solubilized material, however, was very unstable and further purification was not possible. The myelin associated mitogenic activity was markedly different. It was resistant to freeze thaw cycles, trypsin digestion of endoglycosidase treatment and the activity was actually enhanced by heating at 100/sup 0/C for two hours. It is proposed that the axolemmal activity is responsible for Schwann cell proliferation during development and that the myelin associated activity promotes Schwann cell proliferation during Wallerian degeneration.

  18. Schwann cells as a therapeutic target for peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Helmar C.; Höke, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cells, the myelin forming cells in the peripheral nervous system, play a key role in the pathology of various inflammatory, metabolic and hereditary polyneuropathies. Advances in identifying growth factors and signaling molecules that are expressed by Schwann cells have paved the way to development of new treatment strategies that are aimed to improve the protective and regenerative properties of Schwann cells in peripheral nerve disorders. These include the exogenous application of growth factors and neurohormones, which have been advanced into clinical trials in humans and transplantation paradigms that have been moved into late stage preclinical models. In this review we will discuss the latest developments in these therapeutic approaches with special regard to peripheral nerve disorders, in which the progress in basic research have already been translated into clinical trials including HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy and diabetic neuropathy. PMID:20874704

  19. Macrophage-Induced Blood Vessels Guide Schwann Cell-Mediated Regeneration of Peripheral Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Cattin, Anne-Laure; Burden, Jemima J.; Van Emmenis, Lucie; Mackenzie, Francesca E.; Hoving, Julian J.A.; Garcia Calavia, Noelia; Guo, Yanping; McLaughlin, Maeve; Rosenberg, Laura H.; Quereda, Victor; Jamecna, Denisa; Napoli, Ilaria; Parrinello, Simona; Enver, Tariq; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Lloyd, Alison C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The peripheral nervous system has remarkable regenerative capacities in that it can repair a fully cut nerve. This requires Schwann cells to migrate collectively to guide regrowing axons across a ‘bridge’ of new tissue, which forms to reconnect a severed nerve. Here we show that blood vessels direct the migrating cords of Schwann cells. This multicellular process is initiated by hypoxia, selectively sensed by macrophages within the bridge, which via VEGF-A secretion induce a polarized vasculature that relieves the hypoxia. Schwann cells then use the blood vessels as “tracks” to cross the bridge taking regrowing axons with them. Importantly, disrupting the organization of the newly formed blood vessels in vivo, either by inhibiting the angiogenic signal or by re-orienting them, compromises Schwann cell directionality resulting in defective nerve repair. This study provides important insights into how the choreography of multiple cell-types is required for the regeneration of an adult tissue. PMID:26279190

  20. Edaravone combined with Schwann cell transplantation may repair spinal cord injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu-quan; Wu, Min-fei; Piao, Zhe; Yao, Jin; Li, Ji-hai; Wang, Xin-gang; Liu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Edaravone has been shown to delay neuronal apoptosis, thereby improving nerve function and the microenvironment after spinal cord injury. Edaravone can provide a favorable environment for the treatment of spinal cord injury using Schwann cell transplantation. This study used rat models of complete spinal cord transection at T9. Six hours later, Schwann cells were transplanted in the head and tail ends of the injury site. Simultaneously, edaravone was injected through the caudal vein. Eight weeks later, the PKH-26-labeled Schwann cells had survived and migrated to the center of the spinal cord injury region in rats after combined treatment with edaravone and Schwann cells. Moreover, the number of PKH-26-labeled Schwann cells in the rat spinal cord was more than that in rats undergoing Schwann cell transplantation alone or rats without any treatment. Horseradish peroxidase retrograde tracing revealed that the number of horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers was greater in rats treated with edaravone combined withSchwann cells than in rats with Schwann cell transplantation alone. The results demonstrated that lower extremity motor function and neurophysiological function were better in rats treated with edaravone and Schwann cells than in rats with Schwann cell transplantation only. These data confirmed that Schwann cell transplantation combined with edaravone injection promoted the regeneration of nerve fibers of rats with spinal cord injury and improved neurological function. PMID:25883621

  1. Human epidermal neural crest stem cells as a source of Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Sakaue, Motoharu; Sieber-Blum, Maya

    2015-01-01

    We show that highly pure populations of human Schwann cells can be derived rapidly and in a straightforward way, without the need for genetic manipulation, from human epidermal neural crest stem cells [hEPI-NCSC(s)] present in the bulge of hair follicles. These human Schwann cells promise to be a useful tool for cell-based therapies, disease modelling and drug discovery. Schwann cells are glia that support axons of peripheral nerves and are direct descendants of the embryonic neural crest. Peripheral nerves are damaged in various conditions, including through trauma or tumour-related surgery, and Schwann cells are required for their repair and regeneration. Schwann cells also promise to be useful for treating spinal cord injuries. Ex vivo expansion of hEPI-NCSC isolated from hair bulge explants, manipulating the WNT, sonic hedgehog and TGFβ signalling pathways, and exposure of the cells to pertinent growth factors led to the expression of the Schwann cell markers SOX10, KROX20 (EGR2), p75NTR (NGFR), MBP and S100B by day 4 in virtually all cells, and maturation was completed by 2 weeks of differentiation. Gene expression profiling demonstrated expression of transcripts for neurotrophic and angiogenic factors, as well as JUN, all of which are essential for nerve regeneration. Co-culture of hEPI-NCSC-derived human Schwann cells with rodent dorsal root ganglia showed interaction of the Schwann cells with axons, providing evidence of Schwann cell functionality. We conclude that hEPI-NCSCs are a biologically relevant source for generating large and highly pure populations of human Schwann cells. PMID:26251357

  2. Blocking mitochondrial calcium release in Schwann cells prevents demyelinating neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Berthelot, Jade; Jiner, Jennifer; Perrin-Tricaud, Claire; Fernando, Ruani; Chrast, Roman; Lenaers, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cells produce myelin sheath around peripheral nerve axons. Myelination is critical for rapid propagation of action potentials, as illustrated by the large number of acquired and hereditary peripheral neuropathies, such as diabetic neuropathy or Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases, that are commonly associated with a process of demyelination. However, the early molecular events that trigger the demyelination program in these diseases remain unknown. Here, we used virally delivered fluorescent probes and in vivo time-lapse imaging in a mouse model of demyelination to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the demyelination process. We demonstrated that mitochondrial calcium released by voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) after sciatic nerve injury triggers Schwann cell demyelination via ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and c-JUN activation. In diabetic mice, VDAC1 activity was altered, resulting in a mitochondrial calcium leak in Schwann cell cytoplasm, thereby priming the cell for demyelination. Moreover, reduction of mitochondrial calcium release, either by shRNA-mediated VDAC1 silencing or pharmacological inhibition, prevented demyelination, leading to nerve conduction and neuromuscular performance recovery in rodent models of diabetic neuropathy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases. Therefore, this study identifies mitochondria as the early key factor in the molecular mechanism of peripheral demyelination and opens a potential opportunity for the treatment of demyelinating peripheral neuropathies. PMID:26878172

  3. Dynamic regulation of Schwann cell enhancers after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Hung, Holly A; Sun, Guannan; Keles, Sunduz; Svaren, John

    2015-03-13

    Myelination of the peripheral nervous system is required for axonal function and long term stability. After peripheral nerve injury, Schwann cells transition from axon myelination to a demyelinated state that supports neuronal survival and ultimately remyelination of axons. Reprogramming of gene expression patterns during development and injury responses is shaped by the actions of distal regulatory elements that integrate the actions of multiple transcription factors. We used ChIP-seq to measure changes in histone H3K27 acetylation, a mark of active enhancers, to identify enhancers in myelinating rat peripheral nerve and their dynamics after demyelinating nerve injury. Analysis of injury-induced enhancers identified enriched motifs for c-Jun, a transcription factor required for Schwann cells to support nerve regeneration. We identify a c-Jun-bound enhancer in the gene for Runx2, a transcription factor induced after nerve injury, and we show that Runx2 is required for activation of other induced genes. In contrast, enhancers that lose H3K27ac after nerve injury are enriched for binding sites of the Sox10 and early growth response 2 (Egr2/Krox20) transcription factors, which are critical determinants of Schwann cell differentiation. Egr2 expression is lost after nerve injury, and many Egr2-binding sites lose H3K27ac after nerve injury. However, the majority of Egr2-bound enhancers retain H3K27ac, indicating that other transcription factors maintain active enhancer status after nerve injury. The global epigenomic changes in H3K27ac deposition pinpoint dynamic changes in enhancers that mediate the effects of transcription factors that control Schwann cell myelination and peripheral nervous system responses to nerve injury. PMID:25614629

  4. Nanoparticles carrying neurotrophin-3-modified Schwann cells promote repair of sciatic nerve defects

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Haibin; Zhao, Hongxing; Zhao, Yilei; Jia, Jingling; Yang, Libin; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Yang; Dong, Yuzhen

    2013-01-01

    Schwann cells and neurotrophin-3 play an important role in neural regeneration, but the secretion of neurotrophin-3 from Schwann cells is limited, and exogenous neurotrophin-3 is inactived easily in vivo. In this study, we have transfected neurotrophin-3 into Schwann cells cultured in vitro using nanoparticle liposomes. Results showed that neurotrophin-3 was successfully transfected into Schwann cells, where it was expressed effectively and steadily. A composite of Schwann cells transfected with neurotrophin-3 and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) biodegradable conduits was transplanted into rats to repair 10-mm sciatic nerve defects. Transplantation of the composite scaffold could restore the myoelectricity and wave amplitude of the sciatic nerve by electrophysiological examination, promote nerve axonal and myelin regeneration, and delay apoptosis of spinal motor neurons. Experimental findings indicate that neurotrophin-3 transfected Schwann cells combined with bridge grafting can promote neural regeneration and functional recovery after nerve injury. PMID:25206420

  5. In vivo knockdown of ErbB3 in mice inhibits Schwann cell precursor migration.

    PubMed

    Torii, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Yuki; Takada, Shuji; Tsumura, Hideki; Arai, Miyuki; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2014-09-26

    The myelin sheath insulates neuronal axons and markedly increases the nerve conduction velocity. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cell precursors migrate along embryonic neuronal axons to their final destinations, where they eventually wrap around individual axons to form the myelin sheath after birth. ErbB2 and ErbB3 tyrosine kinase receptors form a heterodimer and are extensively expressed in Schwann lineage cells. ErbB2/3 is thought to be one of the primary regulators controlling the entire Schwann cell development. ErbB3 is the bona fide Schwann cell receptor for the neuronal ligand neuregulin-1. Although ErbB2/3 is well known to regulate both Schwann cell precursor migration and myelination by Schwann cells in fishes, it still remains unclear whether in mammals, ErbB2/3 actually regulates Schwann cell precursor migration. Here, we show that knockdown of ErbB3 using a Schwann cell-specific promoter in mice causes delayed migration of Schwann cell precursors. In contrast, littermate control mice display normal migration. Similar results are seen in an in vitro migration assay using reaggregated Schwann cell precursors. Also, ErbB3 knockdown in mice reduces myelin thickness in sciatic nerves, consistent with the established role of ErbB3 in myelination. Thus, ErbB3 plays a key role in migration, as well as in myelination, in mouse Schwann lineage cells, presenting a genetically conservative role of ErbB3 in Schwann cell precursor migration. PMID:25204498

  6. Extracellular ATP inhibits Schwann cell dedifferentiation and proliferation in an ex vivo model of Wallerian degeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Youn Ho; Lee, Seo Jin; Jung, Junyang

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATP-treated sciatic explants shows the decreased expression of p75NGFR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular ATP inhibits the expression of phospho-ERK1/2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lysosomal exocytosis is involved in Schwann cell dedifferentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular ATP blocks Schwann cell proliferation in sciatic explants. -- Abstract: After nerve injury, Schwann cells proliferate and revert to a phenotype that supports nerve regeneration. This phenotype-changing process can be viewed as Schwann cell dedifferentiation. Here, we investigated the role of extracellular ATP in Schwann cell dedifferentiation and proliferation during Wallerian degeneration. Using several markers of Schwann cell dedifferentiation and proliferation in sciatic explants, we found that extracellular ATP inhibits Schwann cell dedifferentiation and proliferation during Wallerian degeneration. Furthermore, the blockage of lysosomal exocytosis in ATP-treated sciatic explants is sufficient to induce Schwann cell dedifferentiation. Together, these findings suggest that ATP-induced lysosomal exocytosis may be involved in Schwann cell dedifferentiation.

  7. Schwann cell myelination requires integration of laminin activities.

    PubMed

    McKee, Karen K; Yang, Dong-Hua; Patel, Rajesh; Chen, Zu-Lin; Strickland, Sidney; Takagi, Junichi; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Yurchenco, Peter D

    2012-10-01

    Laminins promote early stages of peripheral nerve myelination by assembling basement membranes (BMs) on Schwann cell surfaces, leading to activation of β1 integrins and other receptors. The BM composition, structural bonds and ligands needed to mediate this process, however, are not well understood. Mice hypomorphic for laminin γ1-subunit expression that assembled endoneurial BMs with reduced component density exhibited an axonal sorting defect with amyelination but normal Schwann cell proliferation, the latter unlike the null. To identify the basis for this, and to dissect participating laminin interactions, LAMC1 gene-inactivated dorsal root ganglia were treated with recombinant laminin-211 and -111 lacking different architecture-forming and receptor-binding activities, to induce myelination. Myelin-wrapping of axons by Schwann cells was found to require higher laminin concentrations than either proliferation or axonal ensheathment. Laminins that were unable to polymerize through deletions that removed critical N-terminal (LN) domains, or that lacked cell-adhesive globular (LG) domains, caused reduced BMs and almost no myelination. Laminins engineered to bind weakly to α6β1 and/or α7β1 integrins through their LG domains, even though they could effectively assemble BMs, decreased myelination. Proliferation depended upon both integrin binding to LG domains and polymerization. Collectively these findings reveal that laminins integrate scaffold-forming and cell-adhesion activities to assemble an endoneurial BM, with myelination and proliferation requiring additional α6β1/α7β1-laminin LG domain interactions, and that a high BM ligand/structural density is needed for efficient myelination. PMID:22767514

  8. Schwann cell LRP1 regulates Remak bundle ultrastructure and axonal interactions to prevent neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Sumihisa; Henry, Kenneth; Mantuano, Elisabetta; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; De Corato, Alice; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Feltri, M. Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Gaultier, Alban; Pollack, Melanie; Ellisman, Mark; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Gonias, Steven L.; Campana, W. Marie

    2013-01-01

    Trophic support and myelination of axons by Schwann cells in the PNS are essential for normal nerve function. Herein, we show that deletion of the LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) gene in Schwann cells (scLRP1−/−) induces abnormalities in axon myelination and in ensheathment of axons by non-myelinating Schwann cells in Remak bundles. These anatomical changes in the PNS were associated with mechanical allodynia, even in the absence of nerve injury. In response to crush injury, sciatic nerves in scLRP1−/− mice showed accelerated degeneration and Schwann cell death. Remyelinated axons were evident 20 days after crush injury in control mice, yet were largely absent in scLRP1−/− mice. In the partial nerve ligation model, scLRP1−/− mice demonstrated significantly increased and sustained mechanical allodynia and loss of motor function. Evidence for central sensitization in pain processing included increased p38MAPK activation and activation of microglia in the spinal cord. These studies identify LRP1 as an essential mediator of normal Schwann cell-axonal interactions and as a pivotal regulator of the Schwann cell response to PNS injury in vivo. Mice in which LRP1 is deficient in Schwann cells represent a model for studying how abnormalities in Schwann cell physiology may facilitate and sustain chronic pain. PMID:23536074

  9. Involvement of the Tyro3 receptor and its intracellular partner Fyn signaling in Schwann cell myelination.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Torii, Tomohiro; Takada, Shuji; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Saitoh, Yurika; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Ito, Akihito; Ogata, Toru; Terada, Nobuo; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2015-10-01

    During early development of the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cell precursors proliferate, migrate, and differentiate into premyelinating Schwann cells. After birth, Schwann cells envelop neuronal axons with myelin sheaths. Although some molecular mechanisms underlying myelination by Schwann cells have been identified, the whole picture remains unclear. Here we show that signaling through Tyro3 receptor tyrosine kinase and its binding partner, Fyn nonreceptor cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, is involved in myelination by Schwann cells. Impaired formation of myelin segments is observed in Schwann cell neuronal cultures established from Tyro3-knockout mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Indeed, Tyro3-knockout mice exhibit reduced myelin thickness. By affinity chromatography, Fyn was identified as the binding partner of the Tyro3 intracellular domain, and activity of Fyn is down-regulated in Tyro3-knockout mice, suggesting that Tyro3, acting through Fyn, regulates myelination. Ablating Fyn in mice results in reduced myelin thickness. Decreased myelin formation is observed in cultures established from Fyn-knockout mouse DRG. Furthermore, decreased kinase activity levels and altered expression of myelination-associated transcription factors are observed in these knockout mice. These results suggest the involvement of Tyro3 receptor and its binding partner Fyn in Schwann cell myelination. This constitutes a newly recognized receptor-linked signaling mechanism that can control Schwann cell myelination. PMID:26224309

  10. Post herpetic neuralgia, schwann cell activation and vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Bartley, Jim

    2009-12-01

    While the underlying pathophysiology of herpes zoster infection has been well characterised, many of the mechanisms relating to the subsequent development of post herpetic neuralgia (PHN) remain uncertain. The dorsal horn atrophy and reduction in skin innervation seen in PHN patients does not adequately explain many clinical features or the efficacy of a number of topical treatments. In the central nervous system the glia, their receptors and their secreted signalling factors are now known to have a major influence on neural function. In the peripheral nervous system, schwann cell activation in response to infection and trauma releases a number of neuroexcitatory substances. Activation of the nervi nervorum in the peripheral nervous system also leads to the release of calcitonin gene related peptide, substance P and nitric oxide. Schwann cell and/or nervi nervorum activation could be an additional mechanism of pain generation in PHN. Such a paradigm shift would mean that drugs useful in the treatment of glial cell activation such as naloxone, naltrexone, minocycline, pentoxifyllline, propentofylline, AV411 (ibudilast) and interleukin 10 could be useful in PHN. These drugs could be used systemically or even topically. High dose topical vitamin D would appear to offer particular promise because vitamin D has the ability to both reduce glial inflammation and reduce nitric oxide production. PMID:19635651

  11. Nur77 Was Essential for Neurite Outgrowth and Involved in Schwann Cell Differentiation After Sciatic Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Zhu, Xudong; Liu, Yang; Chen, Minhao; Yan, Shixian; Mao, Xingxing; Liu, Zhongbing; Wu, Weijie; Chen, Chen; Xu, Xinbao; Wang, Youhua

    2015-09-01

    Nur77, together with Nurr1 and NOR-1, constitutes the NR4A subgroup of orphan nuclear receptors and plays critical roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Among them, Nur77 is universally well known to contribute to neurite outgrowth. However, information regarding its regulation and possible function in the peripheral nervous system is still limited. In this study, we performed a sciatic nerve injury model in adult rats and detected an increased expression of Nur77 in the sciatic nerve, which was similar to the expression of Oct-6. Immunofluorescence indicated that Nur77 was located in both axons and Schwann cells. In vitro, we observed enhanced expression of Nur77 during the process of both basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced Schwann cells differentiation and nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced PC12 cell neurite outgrowth. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that inhibiting the function of Nur77 by specific short hairpin RNA could depress Schwann cells myelinization and axons regeneration. Collectively, all these results suggested that upregulation of Nur77 might be involved in Schwann cells differentiation and neurite elongation following sciatic nerve crush. PMID:25957997

  12. Developmental changes in myelin-induced proliferation of cultured Schwann cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshino, J.E.; Mason, P.W.; DeVries, G.H.

    1987-03-01

    Schwann cell proliferation induced by a myelin-enriched fraction was examined in vitro. Although nearly all the Schwann cells contained material that was recognized by antisera to myelin basic protein after 24 h, only 1% of the cells were synthesizing DNA. 72 h after the addition of the mitogen a maximum of 10% of the cells incorporated (/sup 3/H)thymidine. If the cultures were treated with the myelin-enriched fraction for 24 h and then washed, the number of proliferating Schwann cells decreased by 75% when compared with those cells that were incubated with the mitogen continuously. When Schwann cells were labeled with (/sup 14/C)thymidine followed by a pulse of (/sup 3/H)thymidine 24 h later, every Schwann cell labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine was also labeled with (/sup 14/C)thymidine. Although almost every Schwann cell can metabolize the myelin membranes within 24 h of exposure, a small population of cell initially utilizes the myelin as a mitogen, and this population continues to divide only if myelin is present in the extracellular media. The percentage of the Schwann cells that initially recognize the myelin-enriched fraction as a mitogen is dependent upon the age of the animal from which the cells were prepared.

  13. ATP Released by Injured Neurons Activates Schwann Cells

    PubMed Central

    Negro, Samuele; Bergamin, Elisanna; Rodella, Umberto; Duregotti, Elisa; Scorzeto, Michele; Jalink, Kees; Montecucco, Cesare; Rigoni, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Injured nerve terminals of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) can regenerate. This remarkable and complex response is governed by molecular signals that are exchanged among the cellular components of this synapse: motor axon nerve terminal (MAT), perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs), and muscle fiber. The nature of signals that govern MAT regeneration is ill-known. In the present study the spider toxin α-latrotoxin has been used as tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying peripheral neuroregeneration. Indeed this neurotoxin induces an acute, specific, localized and fully reversible damage of the presynaptic nerve terminal, and its action mimics the cascade of events that leads to nerve terminal degeneration in injured patients and in many neurodegenerative conditions. Here we provide evidence of an early release by degenerating neurons of adenosine triphosphate as alarm messenger, that contributes to the activation of a series of intracellular pathways within Schwann cells that are crucial for nerve regeneration: Ca2+, cAMP, ERK1/2, and CREB. These results contribute to define the cross-talk taking place among degenerating nerve terminals and PSCs, involved in the functional recovery of the NMJ. PMID:27242443

  14. Jab1 regulates Schwann cell proliferation and axonal sorting through p27.

    PubMed

    Porrello, Emanuela; Rivellini, Cristina; Dina, Giorgia; Triolo, Daniela; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Ungaro, Daniela; Panattoni, Martina; Feltri, Maria Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Pardi, Ruggero; Quattrini, Angelo; Previtali, Stefano Carlo

    2014-01-13

    Axonal sorting is a crucial event in nerve formation and requires proper Schwann cell proliferation, differentiation, and contact with axons. Any defect in axonal sorting results in dysmyelinating peripheral neuropathies. Evidence from mouse models shows that axonal sorting is regulated by laminin211- and, possibly, neuregulin 1 (Nrg1)-derived signals. However, how these signals are integrated in Schwann cells is largely unknown. We now report that the nuclear Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (Jab1) may transduce laminin211 signals to regulate Schwann cell number and differentiation during axonal sorting. Mice with inactivation of Jab1 in Schwann cells develop a dysmyelinating neuropathy with axonal sorting defects. Loss of Jab1 increases p27 levels in Schwann cells, which causes defective cell cycle progression and aberrant differentiation. Genetic down-regulation of p27 levels in Jab1-null mice restores Schwann cell number, differentiation, and axonal sorting and rescues the dysmyelinating neuropathy. Thus, Jab1 constitutes a regulatory molecule that integrates laminin211 signals in Schwann cells to govern cell cycle, cell number, and differentiation. Finally, Jab1 may constitute a key molecule in the pathogenesis of dysmyelinating neuropathies. PMID:24344238

  15. Jab1 regulates Schwann cell proliferation and axonal sorting through p27

    PubMed Central

    Porrello, Emanuela; Rivellini, Cristina; Dina, Giorgia; Triolo, Daniela; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Ungaro, Daniela; Panattoni, Martina; Feltri, Maria Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Pardi, Ruggero; Quattrini, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Axonal sorting is a crucial event in nerve formation and requires proper Schwann cell proliferation, differentiation, and contact with axons. Any defect in axonal sorting results in dysmyelinating peripheral neuropathies. Evidence from mouse models shows that axonal sorting is regulated by laminin211– and, possibly, neuregulin 1 (Nrg1)–derived signals. However, how these signals are integrated in Schwann cells is largely unknown. We now report that the nuclear Jun activation domain–binding protein 1 (Jab1) may transduce laminin211 signals to regulate Schwann cell number and differentiation during axonal sorting. Mice with inactivation of Jab1 in Schwann cells develop a dysmyelinating neuropathy with axonal sorting defects. Loss of Jab1 increases p27 levels in Schwann cells, which causes defective cell cycle progression and aberrant differentiation. Genetic down-regulation of p27 levels in Jab1-null mice restores Schwann cell number, differentiation, and axonal sorting and rescues the dysmyelinating neuropathy. Thus, Jab1 constitutes a regulatory molecule that integrates laminin211 signals in Schwann cells to govern cell cycle, cell number, and differentiation. Finally, Jab1 may constitute a key molecule in the pathogenesis of dysmyelinating neuropathies. PMID:24344238

  16. Axonal and Schwann Cell BACE1 Is Equally Required for Remyelination of Peripheral Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiangyou; Hu, Jinxuan; Dai, Lu; Trapp, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is being pursued as a therapeutic target for treating patients with Alzheimer's disease because BACE1 is the sole β-secretase for generating β-amyloid peptide. Knowledge regarding the other cellular functions of BACE1 is therefore critical for the safe use of BACE1 inhibitors in human patients. BACE1 deficiency in mice causes hypomyelination during development and impairs remyelination in injured sciatic nerves. Since BACE1 is expected to be ubiquitously expressed, we asked whether axonal or Schwann cell BACE1 is required for optimal remyelination. By swapping sciatic nerve segments from BACE1-null mice with the corresponding wild-type nerve segments or vice versa, we tested how a deficiency of BACE1 in Schwann cells or axons affects remyelination. Our results show that BACE1 in axons and Schwann cells is similarly important for remyelination of regenerated axons. Nerve injury induces BACE1 transcription and protein levels are elevated in Schwann cells. Expression of type I neuregulin 1 (Nrg1), rather than type III Nrg1, was induced by Schwann cells, and the abolished Nrg1 cleavage in BACE1-null Schwann cells contributed to decreased remyelination of regenerated axons. Hence, this study is the first to demonstrate the equal importance of axonal and Schwann cell BACE1 for remyelination of injured nerves. PMID:25740511

  17. Autophagic myelin destruction by schwann cells during wallerian degeneration and segmental demyelination.

    PubMed

    Jang, So Young; Shin, Yoon Kyung; Park, So Young; Park, Joo Youn; Lee, Hye Jeong; Yoo, Young Hyun; Kim, Jong Kuk; Park, Hwan Tae

    2016-05-01

    As lysosomal hydrolysis has long been suggested to be responsible for myelin clearance after peripheral nerve injury, in this study, we investigated the possible role of autophagolysosome formation in myelin phagocytosis by Schwann cells and its final contribution to nerve regeneration. We found that the canonical formation of autophagolysosomes was induced in demyelinating Schwann cells after injury, and the inhibition of autophagy via Schwann cell-specific knockout of the atg7 gene or pharmacological intervention of lysosomal function caused a significant delay in myelin clearance. However, Schwann cell dedifferentiation, as demonstrated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and c-Jun induction, and redifferentiation were not significantly affected, and thus the entire repair program progressed normally in atg7 knockout mice. Finally, autophagic Schwann cells were also found during segmental demyelination in a mouse model of inflammatory peripheral neuropathy. Together, our findings suggest that autophagy is the self-myelin destruction mechanism of Schwann cells, but mechanistically, it is a process distinct from Schwann cell plasticity for nerve repair. GLIA 2016;64:730-742. PMID:26712109

  18. Axonal and Schwann cell BACE1 is equally required for remyelination of peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiangyou; Hu, Jinxuan; Dai, Lu; Trapp, Bruce; Yan, Riqiang

    2015-03-01

    Inhibition of β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is being pursued as a therapeutic target for treating patients with Alzheimer's disease because BACE1 is the sole β-secretase for generating β-amyloid peptide. Knowledge regarding the other cellular functions of BACE1 is therefore critical for the safe use of BACE1 inhibitors in human patients. BACE1 deficiency in mice causes hypomyelination during development and impairs remyelination in injured sciatic nerves. Since BACE1 is expected to be ubiquitously expressed, we asked whether axonal or Schwann cell BACE1 is required for optimal remyelination. By swapping sciatic nerve segments from BACE1-null mice with the corresponding wild-type nerve segments or vice versa, we tested how a deficiency of BACE1 in Schwann cells or axons affects remyelination. Our results show that BACE1 in axons and Schwann cells is similarly important for remyelination of regenerated axons. Nerve injury induces BACE1 transcription and protein levels are elevated in Schwann cells. Expression of type I neuregulin 1 (Nrg1), rather than type III Nrg1, was induced by Schwann cells, and the abolished Nrg1 cleavage in BACE1-null Schwann cells contributed to decreased remyelination of regenerated axons. Hence, this study is the first to demonstrate the equal importance of axonal and Schwann cell BACE1 for remyelination of injured nerves. PMID:25740511

  19. Plasticity of integrin expression by nerve-derived connective tissue cells. Human Schwann cells, perineurial cells, and fibroblasts express markedly different patterns of beta 1 integrins during nerve development, neoplasia, and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, L L; Peltonen, J; Jaakkola, S; Gralnick, H; Uitto, J

    1991-01-01

    Strikingly selective expression patterns of beta 1, alpha 2, alpha 3, and alpha 5 integrin subunits were revealed in endoneurium, perineurium, and epineurium of fetal and adult human peripheral nerve by immunostaining with specific antibodies. The alpha 2 subunit was expressed only on Schwann cells both in fetal and adult nerve, whereas the alpha 3 epitopes were expressed exclusively in the adult tissue and were primarily present on perineurial cells. The alpha 5 epitopes were expressed only on the innermost cell layer of perineurium of fetal and adult nerve. The tumor cells within schwannomas and cutaneous neurofibromas expressed both alpha 2 and alpha 3 subunits, indicating that Schwann cells have the potential to express also the alpha 3 subunit in vivo. Cell cultures established from human fetal nerve and neurofibromas revealed expression of the alpha 2 and alpha 5 epitopes on Schwann cells, perineurial cells, and fibroblasts, whereas only Schwann cells contained the alpha 3 epitopes which were occasionally concentrated on the adjacent Schwann cells at cell-cell contacts. Our findings emphasize that nerve connective tissue cells change their profiles for expression of extracellular matrix receptors under conditions which have different regulatory control signals exerted by, for example, axons, humoral factors, or the extracellular matrix of the peripheral nerve. This plasticity may play an important role during nerve development and in neoplastic processes affecting the connective tissue compartments of peripheral nerve. Images PMID:1999496

  20. Macrophage polarization in nerve injury: do Schwann cells play a role?

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Jo Anne; Shah, Prajay T.

    2016-01-01

    In response to peripheral nerve injury, the inflammatory response is almost entirely comprised of infiltrating macrophages. Macrophages are a highly plastic, heterogenic immune cell, playing an indispensable role in peripheral nerve injury, clearing debris and regulating the microenvironment to allow for efficient regeneration. There are several cells within the microenvironment that likely interact with macrophages to support their function – most notably the Schwann cell, the glial cell of the peripheral nervous system. Schwann cells express several ligands that are known to interact with receptors expressed by macrophages, yet the effects of Schwann cells in regulating macrophage phenotype remains largely unexplored. This review discusses macrophages in peripheral nerve injury and how Schwann cells may regulate their behavior. PMID:26981078

  1. Molecular mechanisms promoting the pathogenesis of Schwann cell neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Steven L

    2012-03-01

    Neurofibromas, schwannomas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) all arise from the Schwann cell lineage. Despite their common origin, these tumor types have distinct pathologies and clinical behaviors; a growing body of evidence indicates that they also arise via distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Identification of the genes that are mutated in genetic diseases characterized by the development of either neurofibromas and MPNSTs [neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)] or schwannomas [neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), schwannomatosis and Carney complex type 1] has greatly advanced our understanding of these mechanisms. The development of genetically engineered mice with ablation of NF1, NF2, SMARCB1/INI1 or PRKAR1A has confirmed the key role these genes play in peripheral nerve sheath tumorigenesis. Establishing the functions of the NF1, NF2, SMARCB1/INI1 and PRKAR1A gene products has led to the identification of key cytoplasmic signaling pathways promoting Schwann cell neoplasia and identified new therapeutic targets. Analyses of human neoplasms and genetically engineered mouse models have established that interactions with other tumor suppressors such as TP53 and CDKN2A promote neurofibroma-MPNST progression and indicate that intratumoral interactions between neoplastic and non-neoplastic cell types play an essential role in peripheral nerve sheath tumorigenesis. Recent advances have also provided new insights into the identity of the neural crest-derived populations that give rise to different types of peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Based on these findings, we now have an initial outline of the molecular mechanisms driving the pathogenesis of neurofibromas, MPNSTs and schwannomas. However, this improved understanding in turn raises a host of intriguing new questions. PMID:22160322

  2. Molecular mechanisms promoting the pathogenesis of Schwann cell neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Neurofibromas, schwannomas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) all arise from the Schwann cell lineage. Despite their common origin, these tumor types have distinct pathologies and clinical behaviors; a growing body of evidence indicates that they also arise via distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Identification of the genes that are mutated in genetic diseases characterized by the development of either neurofibromas and MPNSTs [neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)] or schwannomas [neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), schwannomatosis and Carney complex type 1] has greatly advanced our understanding of these mechanisms. The development of genetically engineered mice with ablation of NF1, NF2, SMARCB1/INI1 or PRKAR1A has confirmed the key role these genes play in peripheral nerve sheath tumorigenesis. Establishing the functions of the NF1, NF2, SMARCB1/INI1 and PRKAR1A gene products has led to the identification of key cytoplasmic signaling pathways promoting Schwann cell neoplasia and identified new therapeutic targets. Analyses of human neoplasms and genetically engineered mouse models have established that interactions with other tumor suppressors such as TP53 and CDKN2A promote neurofibroma-MPNST progression and indicate that intratumoral interactions between neoplastic and non-neoplastic cell types play an essential role in peripheral nerve sheath tumorigenesis. Recent advances have also provided new insights into the identity of the neural crest-derived populations that give rise to different types of peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Based on these findings, we now have an initial outline of the molecular mechanisms driving the pathogenesis of neurofibromas, MPNSTs and schwannomas. However, this improved understanding in turn raises a host of intriguing new questions. PMID:22160322

  3. ErbB expressing Schwann cells control lateral line progenitor cells via non-cell-autonomous regulation of Wnt/β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Lush, Mark E; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Proper orchestration of quiescence and activation of progenitor cells is crucial during embryonic development and adult homeostasis. We took advantage of the zebrafish sensory lateral line to define niche-progenitor interactions to understand how integration of diverse signaling pathways spatially and temporally regulates the coordination of these processes. Our previous studies demonstrated that Schwann cells play a crucial role in negatively regulating lateral line progenitor proliferation. Here we demonstrate that ErbB/Neuregulin signaling is not only required for Schwann cell migration but that it plays a continued role in postmigratory Schwann cells. ErbB expressing Schwann cells inhibit lateral line progenitor proliferation and differentiation through non-cell-autonomous inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Subsequent activation of Fgf signaling controls sensory organ differentiation, but not progenitor proliferation. In addition to the lateral line, these findings have important implications for understanding how niche-progenitor cells segregate interactions during development, and how they may go wrong in disease states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01832.001. PMID:24642408

  4. Astrocyte Activation via Stat3 Signaling Determines the Balance of Oligodendrocyte versus Schwann Cell Remyelination.

    PubMed

    Monteiro de Castro, Glaucia; Deja, Natalia A; Ma, Dan; Zhao, Chao; Franklin, Robin J M

    2015-09-01

    Remyelination within the central nervous system (CNS) most often is the result of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells differentiating into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes. In some cases, however, Schwann cells, the peripheral nervous system myelinating glia, are found remyelinating demyelinated regions of the CNS. The reason for this peripheral type of remyelination in the CNS and what governs it is unknown. Here, we used a conditional astrocytic phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 knockout mouse model to investigate the effect of abrogating astrocyte activation on remyelination after lysolecithin-induced demyelination of spinal cord white matter. We show that oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination decreases and Schwann cell remyelination increases in lesioned knockout mice in comparison with lesioned controls. Our study shows that astrocyte activation plays a crucial role in the balance between Schwann cell and oligodendrocyte remyelination in the CNS, and provides further insight into remyelination of CNS axons by Schwann cells. PMID:26193667

  5. Astrocyte Activation via Stat3 Signaling Determines the Balance of Oligodendrocyte versus Schwann Cell Remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro de Castro, Glaucia; Deja, Natalia A.; Ma, Dan; Zhao, Chao; Franklin, Robin J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Remyelination within the central nervous system (CNS) most often is the result of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells differentiating into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes. In some cases, however, Schwann cells, the peripheral nervous system myelinating glia, are found remyelinating demyelinated regions of the CNS. The reason for this peripheral type of remyelination in the CNS and what governs it is unknown. Here, we used a conditional astrocytic phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 knockout mouse model to investigate the effect of abrogating astrocyte activation on remyelination after lysolecithin-induced demyelination of spinal cord white matter. We show that oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination decreases and Schwann cell remyelination increases in lesioned knockout mice in comparison with lesioned controls. Our study shows that astrocyte activation plays a crucial role in the balance between Schwann cell and oligodendrocyte remyelination in the CNS, and provides further insight into remyelination of CNS axons by Schwann cells. PMID:26193667

  6. Detection, Distribution and Amount of Posttranslational α-Tubulin Modifications in Immortalized Rat Schwann Cells.

    PubMed

    Gadau, S D

    2015-12-01

    Microtubules (MTs), heterodimers of α- and β-tubulin, are involved in different cellular processes including mitosis, cell motility, intracellular transport, cell shape and polarization. In most eukaryotes tubulins, especially the α, are subjected to several post-translational modifications (PTMs) which include acetylation, tyrosination, detyrosination, Δ2 modification, polyglutamylation, that characterize different type of MTs and regulate the interactions between MTs and certain MAPs or motor proteins. Despite neurons, in which presence and distributions of tubulin PTMs are well evaluated, in glial cells like Schwann cells, little is known about the diverse tubulin PTMs amount, distribution and their functional role. So that, the purpose of the present work was to deepen the knowledge about the diverse tubulin PTMs in a commonly used immortalized Schwann cell line. By Western blot analysis we found a higher amount of polyglutamylated and tyrosinated α-tubulin, whereas acetylated, Δ2 and detyrosinated α-tubulin were less expressed.  Immunofluorescence staining, highlighted the distribution of acetylated and detyrosinated α-tubulin along the Schwann cells prolongations. In contrast, polyglutamylated α-tubulin was more detectable close to the cell body of Schwann cells, whereas the Δ2-modification was mainly distributed round the nuclear profile. Summing up, our investigation offers insight on several tubulin PTMs amount and distribution in Schwann cells. This could be a further contribution to better understand the role played by different MTs in Schwann cells biology and during the onset of certain disorders of peripheral nervous system. PMID:27168411

  7. Neurally Evoked Calcium Transients in Terminal Schwann Cells at the Neuromuscular Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reist, Noreen E.; Smith, Stephen J.

    1992-08-01

    We examined the effects of motor-nerve stimulation on the intracellular Ca2+ levels of Schwann cells, the glial cells at the frog neuromuscular junction. Schwann cells, which were loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 and examined by confocal microscopy, showed a transient increase in free Ca2+ within a few seconds of the onset of tetanic stimulation of the motor nerve. The Ca2+ response was specific to the synapse in that it was found in the terminal Schwann cells at the junction but not in the myelinating Schwann cells along the axon. The Ca2+ transients occurred in the presence of d-tubocurare, indicating that they were not mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and recurred when the stimulus was repeated. The Ca2+ response persisted after degeneration of the postsynaptic muscle fiber, demonstrating that the terminal Schwann cell was stimulated directly by presynaptic activity. The finding that terminal Schwann cells at the neuromuscular junction respond to presynaptic activity suggests that glial-cell function is modulated by synaptic transmission.

  8. Arrest of Myelination and Reduced Axon Growth when Schwann Cells Lack mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Diane L.; Krols, Michiel; Wu, Lai-Man; Grove, Matthew; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Gangloff, Yann-Gaël; Brophy, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    In developing peripheral nerves differentiating Schwann cells sort individual axons from bundles and ensheath them to generate multiple layers of myelin. In recent years there has been an increasing understanding of the extracellular and intracellular factors that initiate and stimulate Schwann cell myelination together with a growing appreciation of some of the signalling pathways involved. However, our knowledge of how Schwann cell growth is regulated during myelination is still incomplete. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a core kinase in two major complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, that regulate cell growth and differentiation in a variety of mammalian cells. Here we show that elimination of mTOR from murine Schwann cells prevented neither radial sorting nor the initiation of myelination. However, normal post-natal growth of myelinating Schwann cells, both radially and longitudinally, was highly retarded. The myelin sheath in the mutant was much thinner than normal; nevertheless, sheath thickness relative to axon diameter (g-ratio) remained constant in both wild-type and mutant nerves from P14 to P90. Although axon diameters were normal in the mutant at the initiation of myelination, further growth as myelination proceeded was retarded, and this was associated with reduced phosphorylation of neurofilaments. Consistent with thinner axonal diameters and internodal lengths, conduction velocities in mutant quadriceps nerves were also reduced. These data establish a critical role for mTOR signalling in both the longitudinal and radial growth of the myelinating Schwann cell. PMID:22302821

  9. Arrest of myelination and reduced axon growth when Schwann cells lack mTOR.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Diane L; Krols, Michiel; Wu, Lai-Man N; Grove, Matthew; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Gangloff, Yann-Gaël; Brophy, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    In developing peripheral nerves, differentiating Schwann cells sort individual axons from bundles and ensheath them to generate multiple layers of myelin. In recent years, there has been an increased understanding of the extracellular and intracellular factors that initiate and stimulate Schwann cell myelination, together with a growing appreciation of some of the signaling pathways involved. However, our knowledge of how Schwann cell growth is regulated during myelination is still incomplete. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a core kinase in two major complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, that regulate cell growth and differentiation in a variety of mammalian cells. Here we show that elimination of mTOR from murine Schwann cells prevented neither radial sorting nor the initiation of myelination. However, normal postnatal growth of myelinating Schwann cells, both radially and longitudinally, was highly retarded. The myelin sheath in the mutant was much thinner than normal; nevertheless, sheath thickness relative to axon diameter (g-ratio) remained constant in both wild-type and mutant nerves from P14 to P90. Although axon diameters were normal in the mutant at the initiation of myelination, further growth as myelination proceeded was retarded, and this was associated with reduced phosphorylation of neurofilaments. Consistent with thinner axonal diameters and internodal lengths, conduction velocities in mutant quadriceps nerves were also reduced. These data establish a critical role for mTOR signaling in both the longitudinal and radial growth of the myelinating Schwann cell. PMID:22302821

  10. The HMGB1 signaling pathway activates the inflammatory response in Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Man, Li-li; Liu, Fan; Wang, Ying-jie; Song, Hong-hua; Xu, Hong-bo; Zhu, Zi-wen; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Yong-jun

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cells are not only myelinating cells, but also function as immune cells and express numerous innate pattern recognition receptors, including the Toll-like receptors. Injury to peripheral nerves activates an inflammatory response in Schwann cells. However, it is unclear whether specific endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern molecules are involved in the inflammatory response following nerve injury. In the present study, we demonstrate that a key damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), is upregulated following rat sciatic nerve axotomy, and we show colocalization of the protein with Schw-ann cells. HMGB1 alone could not enhance expression of Toll-like receptors or the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), but was able to facilitate migration of Schwann cells. When Schwann cells were treated with HMGB1 together with lipopolysaccharide, the expression levels of Toll-like receptors and RAGE, as well as inflammatory cytokines were upregulated. Our novel findings demonstrate that the HMGB1 pathway activates the inflammatory response in Schwann cells following peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26692874

  11. Synergistic effects of micropatterned biodegradable conduits and Schwann cells on sciatic nerve regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, Gregory E.; Miller, Cheryl A.; Jeftinija, Srdija; Mallapragada, Surya K.

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes a novel biodegradable conduit that provides a combination of physical, chemical and biological cues at the cellular level to facilitate peripheral nerve regeneration. The conduit consists of a porous poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) tubular support structure with a micropatterned inner lumen. Schwann cells were pre-seeded into the lumen to provide additional trophic support. Conduits with micropatterned inner lumens pre-seeded with Schwann cells (MS) were fabricated and compared with three types of conduits used as controls: M (conduits with micropatterned inner lumens without pre-seeded Schwann cells), NS (conduits without micropatterned inner lumens pre-seeded with Schwann cells) and N (conduits without micropatterned inner lumens, without pre-seeded Schwann cells). The conduits were implanted in rats with 1 cm sciatic nerve transections and the regeneration and functional recovery were compared in the four different cases. The number or size of regenerated axons did not vary significantly among the different conduits. The time of recovery, and the sciatic function index, however, were significantly enhanced using the MS conduits, based on qualitative observations as well as quantitative measurements using walking track analysis. This demonstrates that biodegradable micropatterned conduits pre-seeded with Schwann cells that provide a combination of physical, chemical and biological guidance cues for regenerating axons at the cellular level offer a better alternative for repairing sciatic nerve transactions than conventional biodegradable conduits.

  12. Abnormal Schwann cell/axon interactions in the Trembler-J mouse

    PubMed Central

    ROBERTSON, A. M.; KING, R. H. M.; MUDDLE, J. R.; THOMAS, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    The Trembler-J (TrJ) mouse has a point mutation in the gene coding for peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22). Disturbances in PMP22 are associated with abnormal myelination in a range of inherited peripheral neuropathies both in mice and humans. PMP22 is produced mainly by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system where it is localised to compact myelin. The function of PMP22 is unclear but its low abundance (∼5% of total myelin protein) means that it is unlikely to play a structural role. Its inclusion in a recently discovered family of proteins suggests a function in cell proliferation/differentiation and possibly in adhesion. Nerves from TrJ and the allelic Trembler (Tr) mouse are characterised by abnormally thin myelin for the size of the axon and an increased number of Schwann cells. We report ultrastructural evidence of abnormal Schwann cell-axon interactions. Schwann cell nuclei have been found adjacent to the nodes of Ranvier whereas in normal animals they are located near the centre of the internodes. In some fibres the terminal myelin loops faced outwards into the extracellular space instead of turning inwards and terminating on the axon. In severely affected nerves many axons were only partially surrounded by Schwann cell cytoplasm. All these features suggest a failure of Schwann cell–axon recognition or interaction. In addition to abnormalities related to abnormal myelination there was significant axonal loss in the dorsal roots. PMID:9147228

  13. Cytokines and Mycobacterium leprae induce apoptosis in human Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rosane B; Sampaio, Elizabeth P; Aarestrup, Fernando; Teles, Rosane M B; Silva, Tatiana P; Oliveira, Ariane L; Antas, Paulo R Z; Sarno, Euzenir N

    2005-10-01

    The development of deformities during the course of leprosy disease is a major public health concern worldwide. It is possible that cytokine production and apoptosis of Schwann cells (SCs) directly affect nerve degeneration and regeneration leading to injury of the myelin sheath and axon. In the present study, the expression of TNFalpha, TGFbeta, and their receptors, in addition to cell death triggered by cytokines or whole Mycobacterium leprae were investigated in a human SC line. The results showed the presence of TNF-Rs and TGF-RII on the SC membrane and the shedding of TNF-Rs during the culture period. Evaluation of cell death was performed through TUNEL and flow cytometry techniques. TNFalpha/TGFbeta combination as well as M. leprae infection triggered an increase in the apoptosis rate in the cultured SC. Moreover, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay revealed that M. leprae upregulated the expression of such cytokines and their receptors on the SC line. Despite the detection of TNFalpha mRNA, no protein was found in the culture supernatants. The data indicate that induction of SC death after cell interaction with M. leprae may, in fact, be implicated in the pathogenesis of nerve damage, which can most likely be modulated by in vivo cytokine production. PMID:16215460

  14. Effects of cerebrolysin on rat Schwann cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Benjamin; Pinkernelle, Josephine; Fansa, Hisham; Keilhoff, Gerburg

    2014-06-01

    Although the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is capable of regeneration, these processes are limited. As a potential means to augment PNS regeneration, the effects of cerebrolysin (CL), a proteolytic peptide fraction, were tested in vitro on Schwann cell (SC) proliferation, stress resistance, phagocytic and cluster-forming capacity. Primary SC/fibrocyte co-cultures were prepared from dorsal root ganglia of 5-7-day-old rats. SCs were subjected to mechanical stress by media change and metabolic stress by serum glucose deprivation (SGD). Cell survival was assessed using MTT test. SC proliferation was determined by counting BrdU-labeled cells. SC clustering was studied by ImageJ analysis of S100 immunostaining. Wallerian degeneration (WD) was evaluated by measuring acetylcholine-esterase staining within sciatic nerves in vitro. It was found that CL caused no effect on MTT turnover in the tested doses. CL inhibited SC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Media change and additional SGD stress inhibited SC clustering. CL enhanced the reorganization of SC clusters and was able to counteract SGD-induced cluster defects. Moreover, CL accelerated WD in vitro. CL was able to enhance the functions of SCs that are relevant to nerve regeneration. Thus, our findings suggest that CL may be suitable for therapeutic usage to enhance PNS regeneration/reconstruction. PMID:24636538

  15. c-Jun activation in Schwann cells protects against loss of sensory axons in inherited neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hantke, Janina; Carty, Lucy; Wagstaff, Laura J.; Turmaine, Mark; Wilton, Daniel K.; Quintes, Susanne; Koltzenburg, Martin; Baas, Frank; Mirsky, Rhona

    2014-01-01

    Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A is the most frequent inherited peripheral neuropathy. It is generally due to heterozygous inheritance of a partial chromosomal duplication resulting in over-expression of PMP22. A key feature of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A is secondary death of axons. Prevention of axonal loss is therefore an important target of clinical intervention. We have previously identified a signalling mechanism that promotes axon survival and prevents neuron death in mechanically injured peripheral nerves. This work suggested that Schwann cells respond to injury by activating/enhancing trophic support for axons through a mechanism that depends on upregulation of the transcription factor c-Jun in Schwann cells, resulting in the sparing of axons that would otherwise die. As c-Jun orchestrates Schwann cell support for distressed neurons after mechanical injury, we have now asked: do Schwann cells also activate a c-Jun dependent neuron-supportive programme in inherited demyelinating disease? We tested this by using the C3 mouse model of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A. In line with our previous findings in humans with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A, we found that Schwann cell c-Jun was elevated in (uninjured) nerves of C3 mice. We determined the impact of this c-Jun activation by comparing C3 mice with double mutant mice, namely C3 mice in which c-Jun had been conditionally inactivated in Schwann cells (C3/Schwann cell-c-Jun−/− mice), using sensory-motor tests and electrophysiological measurements, and by counting axons in proximal and distal nerves. The results indicate that c-Jun elevation in the Schwann cells of C3 nerves serves to prevent loss of myelinated sensory axons, particularly in distal nerves, improve behavioural symptoms, and preserve F-wave persistence. This suggests that Schwann cells have two contrasting functions in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A: on the one hand they are the genetic source of

  16. Use of engineered Schwann cells in peripheral neuropathy: Hopes and hazards.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Helmar C; Höke, Ahmet

    2016-05-01

    Many diseases of the peripheral nervous system affect the function of Schwann cells. Recent developments in stem cell technology offer the opportunity to engineer stem cell derived glial cell populations that reveal essential phenotypic characteristics of Schwann cells including growth support and myelination of peripheral axons. Potential applications of these cells include its use as platform for human cell-based disease models as well as potential source for cell transplantation strategies. In this review we provide an update on the latest developments in engineering Schwann cells as diagnostic tools or for cell replacement therapies in peripheral neuropathic conditions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled PSC and the brain. PMID:26529642

  17. Association of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans of Schwann cells with extracellular matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Carey, D J; Crumbling, D M; Stahl, R C; Evans, D M

    1990-11-25

    The terminal differentiation of Schwann cells is dependent on contact with basement membrane. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in mediating Schwann cell responses to extracellular matrix contact. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-releasable cell surface HSPGs purified from cultures of neonatal rat Schwann cells were subjected to affinity chromatography on immobilized laminin and fibronectin. Binding of the HSPG to both affinity matrices was observed. The strength of the association, however, was sensitive to the ionic strength of the buffer. In 0.1 M Tris-HCl, HSPG binding was essentially irreversible whereas in physiological ionic strength buffer (e.g. 0.142 M NaCl, 10 mM Tris), weaker binding was detected as a delay in elution of the HSPG from the affinity columns. Further studies of HSPG-laminin binding suggested that the binding was mediated by the glycosaminoglycan chains of the proteoglycans. Results of equilibrium gel filtration chromatography provided additional evidence for a reversible association of the HSPG and laminin with a Kd of approximately 1 x 10(-6) M. When Schwann cells were plated on plastic dishes coated with laminin, the cells attached and extended long slender processes. Inclusion of heparin, but not chondroitin sulfate, in the assay medium resulted in partial inhibition of process extension, but at concentrations of heparin which were higher than that needed to disrupt laminin-HSPG association in vitro. Addition of anti-integrin receptor antibodies resulted in more extensive inhibition of laminin-dependent process extension. Anti-integrin antibodies plus heparin essentially totally inhibited laminin-dependent process extension. These results demonstrate that cell surface HSPGs are capable of reversible association with extracellular matrix molecules and suggest that HSPG-laminin interactions play a role in laminin-dependent Schwann cell spreading. PMID

  18. Effects of surface functional groups on proliferation and biofunction of Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaling; Ji, Yawei; Zhao, Yahong; Kong, Yan; Gao, Ming; Feng, Qilin; Wu, Yue; Yang, Yumin

    2016-05-01

    Scaffolds in tissue engineering should be rationally designed to become an adhesion substrate friendly to cells. Schwann cells play an important role in nerve regeneration and repair. Previous studies have suggested that surface chemical groups have effect on many types of cells. However, there have hitherto been few reports on Schwann cells. In this study, we investigated cell adhesion, survival, proliferation, and neurotrophic actions of Schwann cells cultured on glass coverslips modified with different chemical groups, including methyl, carboxyl, amino, hydroxyl, mercapto, and sulfonic groups. Schwann cells on amino and carboxyl surfaces had higher attachment rate, presenting good morphology, high proliferation, and strong neurotrophic functions, while on methyl surfaces, few cells can survive, cells shrunk into round shape, exhibiting poor proliferation and weak neurotrophic functions. Growth of cells on other groups was between methyl and amino, carboxyl, and had little difference among them. Our data indicated that chemical groups can regulate behavior of Schwann cells, indicating a way to design new scaffolds for peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:26911577

  19. Topographic Cue from Electrospun Scaffolds Regulate Myelin-Related Gene Expressions in Schwann Cells.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kuppuswamy, Ashok Ayyappa; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2015-03-01

    Matured Schwann cells play a vital role in promoting regeneration and restoration of functional peripheral nervous tissue. In the present study, two dimensional film, three dimensional random and longitudinally aligned electrospun fibers of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) were used to evaluate the effect of topography on expressions of myelin related genes. The aligned nanofibrous scaffold demonstrated significant increase in Schwann cell adhesion using after 3, 6 and 12 hours of culture compared to the film and random fibers. Cell morphology, degree of orientation and elongation factor evaluated using a scanning electron microscope revealed that cells on aligned scaffold have spindle morphology, whereas cells on random and two dimensional films favor spherical morphology confirming the effect of topography. Significant increase in elongation factor was observed in aligned scaffold as compared to film and random fibers (p < 0.05). The gene expression analysis revealed that aligned scaffold significantly up-regulated the expression of early myelination markers: myelin-associated glycoprotein and myelin protein zero, cell adhesion molecule: neural cadherin, extracellular matrix molecule: neurocan, as well the down-regulation of non-myelinating Schwann cell marker: neural cell adhesion molecule when compared to random and film (p < 0.05). The gene expression patterns of aligned fibers favor myelination of Schwann cells when compared to film and random fibers. Thus, our results demonstrate that the aligned topography of the scaffold promotes maturation of Schwann cells and thereby its myelination to maintain its functionality. PMID:26307833

  20. Ribosomal trafficking is reduced in Schwann cells following induction of myelination

    PubMed Central

    Love, James M.; Shah, Sameer B.

    2015-01-01

    Local synthesis of proteins within the Schwann cell periphery is extremely important for efficient process extension and myelination, when cells undergo dramatic changes in polarity and geometry. Still, it is unclear how ribosomal distributions are developed and maintained within Schwann cell projections to sustain local translation. In this multi-disciplinary study, we expressed a plasmid encoding a fluorescently labeled ribosomal subunit (L4-GFP) in cultured primary rat Schwann cells. This enabled the generation of high-resolution, quantitative data on ribosomal distributions and trafficking dynamics within Schwann cells during early stages of myelination, induced by ascorbic acid treatment. Ribosomes were distributed throughout Schwann cell projections, with ~2-3 bright clusters along each projection. Clusters emerged within 1 day of culture and were maintained throughout early stages of myelination. Three days after induction of myelination, net ribosomal movement remained anterograde (directed away from the Schwann cell body), but ribosomal velocity decreased to about half the levels of the untreated group. Statistical and modeling analysis provided additional insight into key factors underlying ribosomal trafficking. Multiple regression analysis indicated that net transport at early time points was dependent on anterograde velocity, but shifted to dependence on anterograde duration at later time points. A simple, data-driven rate kinetics model suggested that the observed decrease in net ribosomal movement was primarily dictated by an increased conversion of anterograde particles to stationary particles, rather than changes in other directional parameters. These results reveal the strength of a combined experimental and theoretical approach in examining protein localization and transport, and provide evidence of an early establishment of ribosomal populations within Schwann cell projections with a reduction in trafficking following initiation of myelination

  1. Neuron-glia signaling and the protection of axon function by Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Quintes, Susanne; Goebbels, Sandra; Saher, Gesine; Schwab, Markus H; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2010-03-01

    The interaction between neurons and glial cells is a feature of all higher nervous systems. In the vertebrate peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells ensheath and myelinate axons thereby allowing rapid saltatory conduction and ensuring axonal integrity. Recently, some of the key molecules in neuron-Schwann cell signaling have been identified. Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) type III presented on the axonal surface determines the myelination fate of axons and controls myelin sheath thickness. Recent observations suggest that NRG1 regulates myelination via the control of Schwann cell cholesterol biosynthesis. This concept is supported by the finding that high cholesterol levels in Schwann cells are a rate-limiting factor for myelin protein production and transport of the major myelin protein P0 from the endoplasmic reticulum into the growing myelin sheath. NRG1 type III activates ErbB receptors on the Schwann cell, which leads to an increase in intracellular PIP3 levels via the PI3-kinase pathway. Surprisingly, enforced elevation of PIP3 levels by inactivation of the phosphatase PTEN in developing and mature Schwann cells does not entirely mimic NRG1 type III stimulated myelin growth, but predominantly causes focal hypermyelination starting at Schmidt-Lanterman incisures and nodes of Ranvier. This indicates that the glial transduction of pro-myelinating signals has to be under tight and life-long control to preserve integrity of the myelinated axon. Understanding the cross talk between neurons and Schwann cells will help to further define the role of glia in preserving axonal integrity and to develop therapeutic strategies for peripheral neuropathies such as CMT1A. PMID:20433601

  2. The neuronal cell-surface molecule mitogenic for Schwann cells is a heparin-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ratner, N; Hong, D M; Lieberman, M A; Bunge, R P; Glaser, L

    1988-01-01

    The cell surface of embryonic peripheral neurons provides a mitogenic stimulus for Schwann cells. We report (i) the solubilization of this mitogenic activity from rat dorsal root ganglion neurons grown in tissue culture and (ii) the solubilization and partial purification of mitogenic activity from neonatal rat brains. Extracted mitogenic activity is peripheral rather than intrinsic to the membrane, stable after extraction, and active as a mitogen in the absence of serum (the most stringent criterion defining the neuronal mitogen). We have previously provided evidence suggesting that a neuronal cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan is required for expression of the neurons' mitogenic activity. We now show that mitogenic activity can be extracted from the membrane dissociated from proteoglycan as assayed by its ability to bind to immobilized heparin. After dissociation, low concentrations of heparin (1 micrograms/ml) inhibit the ability of the mitogen to stimulate Schwann cell division. Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is weakly mitogenic for Schwann cells, but it is not present in mitogenic brain extracts (based on immunoblotting). Immunodepletion experiments with specific antibodies to FGF indicate that the mitogenic activity extracted from neurons is not a form of this heparin-binding mitogen. Acidic FGF is not mitogenic for Schwann cells and is not present in mitogenic brain extracts. We suggest that these and previous data indicate the neurite mitogen is a proteoglycan-growth factor complex that limits mitogenic activity to the axonal surface, protects mitogen against inactivation by other proteoglycans, and provides for effective presentation of mitogen to the Schwann cell. PMID:3413130

  3. Peptidergic modulation of the membrane potential of the Schwann cell of the squid giant nerve fibre.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, P D; Reale, V; Villegas, J

    1986-01-01

    The effects of a range of neuropeptides were investigated on the membrane potential of the Schwann cells of the giant nerve fibre of the tropical squid. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) produced a dose-dependent, long-lasting hyperpolarization of the Schwann-cell membrane potential. Among peptides structurally related to VIP, similar effects were produced by peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) but not by secretin and glucagon. Substance P and somatostatin also hyperpolarized the Schwann-cell membrane potential but via receptor systems distinct from those activated by VIP. Methionine enkephalin ([Met]-enkephalin) blocked the actions of all the above peptides as well as the effects of DL-octopamine and carbachol. The actions of [Met]-enkephalin upon the VIP responses were antagonized by naloxone. VIP produces its effects on the Schwann-cell membrane potential via a receptor system that is independent from those described previously which mediate the effects of carbachol and DL-octopamine. However, VIP can potentiate the effects of the latter systems. The actions of VIP on the Schwann cell are unlikely to be mediated via changes in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels and are insensitive to changes in the level of extracellular calcium in the superfusate. The actions of VIP are, however, potentiated in the presence of low concentrations of lithium ions suggesting that the VIP receptor may mediate its effects by inducing the hydrolysis of polyphosphatidylinositols in the Schwann-cell membrane. Evidence is presented for the existence of an endogenous VIP-like component in the normal hyperpolarizing action of giant-axon activity on the membrane potential of the Schwann cell. PMID:2435897

  4. Reconstitution of the NF1 GAP-related domain in NF1-deficient human Schwann cells

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Stacey L.; Deadwyler, Gail D.; Tang, Jun; Stubbs, Evan B.; Muir, David; Hiatt, Kelly K. . E-mail: George.Devries@med.va.gov

    2006-09-29

    Schwann cells derived from peripheral nerve sheath tumors from individuals with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) are deficient for the protein neurofibromin, which contains a GAP-related domain (NF1-GRD). Neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells have increased Ras activation, increased proliferation in response to certain growth stimuli, increased angiogenic potential, and altered cell morphology. This study examined whether expression of functional NF1-GRD can reverse the transformed phenotype of neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells from both benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. We reconstituted the NF1-GRD using retroviral transduction and examined the effects on cell morphology, growth potential, and angiogenic potential. NF1-GRD reconstitution resulted in morphologic changes, a 16-33% reduction in Ras activation, and a 53% decrease in proliferation in neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells. However, NF1-GRD reconstitution was not sufficient to decrease the in vitro angiogenic potential of the cells. This study demonstrates that reconstitution of the NF1-GRD can at least partially reverse the transformation of human NF1 tumor-derived Schwann cells.

  5. Schwann cell invasion of the central nervous system of the myelin mutants

    PubMed Central

    DUNCAN, I. D.; HOFFMAN, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    Schwann cells are excluded from the CNS during development by the glial limiting membrane, an area of astrocytic specialisation present at the nerve root transitional zone, and at blood vessels in the neuropil. This barrier, however, can be disrupted and, with the highly migratory nature of Schwann cells, can result in their invasion and myelination of the CNS in many pathological situations. In this paper we demonstrate that this occurs in a number of myelin mutants, including the myelin deficient (md) and taiep rats and the canine shaking (sh) pup. While it is still relatively uncommon in the rodent mutants, the sh pup shows extensive Schwann cell invasion along the neuraxis. This invasion involves the spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebellum and increases in amount and distribution with age. In situ hybridisation studies using a P0 riboprobe suggest that the likely origin of these cells in the sh pup is the nerve roots, primarily the dorsal roots. Paradoxically, Schwann cell myelination of the CNS increases with time in the sh pup despite a marked, progressive gliosis involving the glia limitans and neuropil. Thus the mechanism by which these cells migrate into the CNS through the gliosed nerve root transitional zone or from vasa nervorum remains unknown. Extensive Schwann cell CNS myelination may have therapeutic significance in human myelin disease. PMID:9034880

  6. Clustering of voltage-dependent sodium channels on axons depends on Schwann cell contact.

    PubMed

    Joe, E H; Angelides, K

    1992-03-26

    In myelinated nerves, segregation of voltage-dependent sodium channels to nodes of Ranvier is crucial for saltatory conduction along axons. As sodium channels associate and colocalize with ankyrin at nodes of Ranvier, one possibility is that sodium channels are recruited and immobilized at axonal sites which are specified by the subaxolemmal cytoskeleton, independent of glial cell contact. Alternatively, segregation of channels at distinct sites along the axon may depend on glial cell contact. To resolve this question, we have examined the distribution of sodium channels, ankyrin and spectrin in myelination-competent cocultures of sensory neurons and Schwann cells by immunofluorescence, using sodium channel-, ankyrin- and spectrin-specific antibodies. In the absence of Schwann cells, sodium channels, ankyrin and spectrin are homogeneously distributed on sensory axons. When Schwann cells are introduced into these cultures, the distribution of sodium channels dramatically changes so that channel clusters on axons are abundant, but ankyrin and spectrin remain homogeneously distributed. Addition of latex beads or Schwann cell membranes does not induce channel clustering. Our results suggest that segregation of sodium channels on axons is highly dependent on interactions with active Schwann cells and that continuing axon-glial interactions are necessary to organize and maintain channel distribution during differentiation of myelinated axons. PMID:1312680

  7. S-100 protein in soft-tissue tumors derived from Schwann cells and melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Stefansson, K.; Wollmann, R.; Jerkovic, M.

    1982-01-01

    In soft tissues outside the central nervous system, S-100 protein is found normally only in Schwann cells. Using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunohistochemical method S-100 was also found in tumors derived from Schwann cells and melanocytes, including neurofibromas, neurilemomas, granular cell myoblastomas, cutaneous nevi, and malignant melanomas. S-100 was not detected in malignant Schwannomas, neuroblastomas, oat cell carcinomas, medullary carcinomas of the thyroid, paragangliomas, or meningiomas. S-100 was also absent from neoplasms of soft tissues not usually considered to arise from cells of neural crest origin. S-100 appears to be a useful marker for identifying neoplasms derived from Schwann cells and melanocytes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:6278936

  8. Schwann cells genetically modified to express neurotrophins promote spiral ganglion neuron survival in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pettingill, Lisa N.; Minter, Ricki L.; Shepherd, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    The intracochlear infusion of neurotrophic factors via a mini-osmotic pump has been shown to prevent deafness-induced spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) degeneration; however, the use of pumps may increase the incidence of infection within the cochlea, making this technique unsuitable for neurotrophin administration in a clinical setting. Cell- and gene-based therapies are potential therapeutic options. This study investigated whether Schwann cells which were genetically modified to over-express the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurotrophin 3 (Ntf3, formerly NT-3) could support SGN survival in an in vitro model of deafness. Co-culture of either BDNF over-expressing Schwann cells or Ntf3 over-expressing Schwann cells with SGNs from early postnatal rats significantly enhanced neuronal survival in comparison to both control Schwann cells and conventional recombinant neurotrophin proteins. Transplantation of neurotrophin over-expressing Schwann cells into the cochlea may provide an alternative means of delivering neurotrophic factors to the deaf cochlea for therapeutic purposes. PMID:18304740

  9. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling drives human schwann cell transformation, progression, and tumor maintenance.

    PubMed

    Watson, Adrienne L; Rahrmann, Eric P; Moriarity, Branden S; Choi, Kwangmin; Conboy, Caitlin B; Greeley, Andrew D; Halfond, Amanda L; Anderson, Leah K; Wahl, Brian R; Keng, Vincent W; Rizzardi, Anthony E; Forster, Colleen L; Collins, Margaret H; Sarver, Aaron L; Wallace, Margaret R; Schmechel, Stephen C; Ratner, Nancy; Largaespada, David A

    2013-06-01

    Genetic changes required for the formation and progression of human Schwann cell tumors remain elusive. Using a Sleeping Beauty forward genetic screen, we identified several genes involved in canonical Wnt signaling as potential drivers of benign neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). In human neurofibromas and MPNSTs, activation of Wnt signaling increased with tumor grade and was associated with downregulation of β-catenin destruction complex members or overexpression of a ligand that potentiates Wnt signaling, R-spondin 2 (RSPO2). Induction of Wnt signaling was sufficient to induce transformed properties in immortalized human Schwann cells, and downregulation of this pathway was sufficient to reduce the tumorigenic phenotype of human MPNST cell lines. Small-molecule inhibition of Wnt signaling effectively reduced the viability of MPNST cell lines and synergistically induced apoptosis when combined with an mTOR inhibitor, RAD-001, suggesting that Wnt inhibition represents a novel target for therapeutic intervention in Schwann cell tumors. PMID:23535903

  10. SncRNA715 Inhibits Schwann Cell Myelin Basic Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christina; Hochhaus, Nina M.; Fontana, Xavier; Luhmann, Heiko J.; White, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Myelin basic proteins (MBP) are major constituents of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In the CNS Mbp translation occurs locally at the axon-glial contact site in a neuronal activity-dependent manner. Recently we identified the small non-coding RNA 715 (sncRNA715) as a key inhibitor of Mbp translation during transport in oligodendrocytes. Mbp mRNA localization in Schwann cells has been observed, but has not been investigated in much detail. Here we could confirm translational repression of Mbp mRNA in Schwann cells. We show that sncRNA715 is expressed and its levels correlate inversely with MBP in cultured Schwann cells and in the sciatic nerve in vivo. Furthermore we could reduce MBP protein levels in cultured Schwann cells by increasing the levels of the inhibitory sncRNA715. Our findings suggest similarities in sncRNA715-mediated translational repression of Mbp mRNA in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. PMID:26317513

  11. SncRNA715 Inhibits Schwann Cell Myelin Basic Protein Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christina; Hochhaus, Nina M; Fontana, Xavier; Luhmann, Heiko J; White, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Myelin basic proteins (MBP) are major constituents of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In the CNS Mbp translation occurs locally at the axon-glial contact site in a neuronal activity-dependent manner. Recently we identified the small non-coding RNA 715 (sncRNA715) as a key inhibitor of Mbp translation during transport in oligodendrocytes. Mbp mRNA localization in Schwann cells has been observed, but has not been investigated in much detail. Here we could confirm translational repression of Mbp mRNA in Schwann cells. We show that sncRNA715 is expressed and its levels correlate inversely with MBP in cultured Schwann cells and in the sciatic nerve in vivo. Furthermore we could reduce MBP protein levels in cultured Schwann cells by increasing the levels of the inhibitory sncRNA715. Our findings suggest similarities in sncRNA715-mediated translational repression of Mbp mRNA in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. PMID:26317513

  12. Macrophage-mediated myelin-related mitogenic factor for cultured Schwann cells.

    PubMed Central

    Baichwal, R R; Bigbee, J W; DeVries, G H

    1988-01-01

    Conditioned medium from cultured peritoneal macrophages that have phagocytosed a myelin membrane fraction is mitogenic for cultured Schwann cells. Production of the mitogenic supernatant was time- and dose-dependent with a maximal Schwann cell-proliferative response from supernatants after 48-hr incubation of cultured macrophages with myelin-enriched fraction (200 micrograms of protein per ml). The response was specific for myelin membrane: supernatants derived from macrophages incubated with axolemma, liver microsomes, polystyrene beads, or lipopolysaccharide were not mitogenic. Lysosomal processing of the myelin membrane was necessary for the production of the mitogenic factor, which was shown to be heat labile and trypsin sensitive. There was no species specificity because myelin membranes isolated from the central and peripheral nervous systems of rat, bovine, and human were equally potent in eliciting mitogenic supernatant. However, supernatants derived from central nervous system myelin membranes were two to three times more mitogenic than those obtained from peripheral nervous system fractions of the same species. Previous observations that myelin is mitogenic for cultured Schwann cells may, in part, involve the intermediate processing of myelin by macrophages that are present in Schwann cell cultures. These results suggest that macrophages play a crucial role in Schwann cell proliferation during Wallerian degeneration. Images PMID:3422757

  13. Transcriptional profiling in an MPNST-derived cell line and normal human Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    LEE, PHILIP R.; COHEN, JONATHAN E.; TENDI, ELISABETTA A.; FARRER, ROBERT; DE VRIES, GEORGE H.; BECKER, KEVIN G.; FIELDS, R. DOUGLAS

    2005-01-01

    cDNA microarrays were utilized to identify abnormally expressed genes in a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST)-derived cell line, T265, by comparing the mRNA abundance profiles with that of normal human Schwann cells (nhSCs). The findings characterize the molecular phenotype of this important cell-line model of MPNSTs, and elucidate the contribution of Schwann cells in MPNSTs. In total, 4608 cDNA sequences were screened and hybridizations replicated on custom cDNA microarrays. In order to verify the microarray data, a large selection of differentially expressed mRNA transcripts were subjected to semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (LightCycler). Western blotting was performed to investigate a selection of genes and signal transduction pathways, as a further validation of the microarray data. The data generated from multiple microarray screens, semi-quantitative RT–PCR and Western blotting are in broad agreement. This study represents a comprehensive gene-expression analysis of an MPNST-derived cell line and the first comprehensive global mRNA profile of nhSCs in culture. This study has identified ~900 genes that are expressed abnormally in the T265 cell line and detected many genes not previously reported to be expressed in nhSCs. The results provide crucial information on the T265 cells that is essential for investigation using this cell line in experimental studies in neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), and important information on normal human Schwann cells that is applicable to a wide range of studies on Schwann cells in cell culture. PMID:16429615

  14. Gliomedin mediates Schwann cell-axon interaction and the molecular assembly of the nodes of Ranvier.

    PubMed

    Eshed, Yael; Feinberg, Konstantin; Poliak, Sebastian; Sabanay, Helena; Sarig-Nadir, Offra; Spiegel, Ivo; Bermingham, John R; Peles, Elior

    2005-07-21

    Accumulation of Na(+) channels at the nodes of Ranvier is a prerequisite for saltatory conduction. In peripheral nerves, clustering of these channels along the axolemma is regulated by myelinating Schwann cells through a yet unknown mechanism. We report the identification of gliomedin, a glial ligand for neurofascin and NrCAM, two axonal immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecules that are associated with Na+ channels at the nodes of Ranvier. Gliomedin is expressed by myelinating Schwann cells and accumulates at the edges of each myelin segment during development, where it aligns with the forming nodes. Eliminating the expression of gliomedin by RNAi, or the addition of a soluble extracellular domain of neurofascin to myelinating cultures, which caused the redistribution of gliomedin along the internodes, abolished node formation. Furthermore, a soluble gliomedin induced nodal-like clusters of Na+ channels in the absence of Schwann cells. We propose that gliomedin provides a glial cue for the formation of peripheral nodes of Ranvier. PMID:16039564

  15. Electrical Stimulation of Schwann Cells Promotes Sustained Increases in Neurite Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Koppes, Abigail N.; Nordberg, Andrea L.; Paolillo, Gina M.; Goodsell, Nicole M.; Darwish, Haley A.; Zhang, Linxia

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous electric fields are instructive during embryogenesis by acting to direct cell migration, and postnatally, they can promote axonal growth after injury (McCaig 1991, Al-Majed 2000). However, the mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. Application of an appropriate electrical stimulus may increase the rate and success of nerve repair by directly promoting axonal growth. Previously, DC electrical stimulation at 50 mV/mm (1 mA, 8 h duration) was shown to promote neurite outgrowth and a more pronounced effect was observed if both peripheral glia (Schwann cells) and neurons were co-stimulated. If electrical stimulation is delivered to an injury site, both the neurons and all resident non-neuronal cells [e.g., Schwann cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts] will be treated and this biophysical stimuli can influence axonal growth directly or indirectly via changes to the resident, non-neuronal cells. In this work, non-neuronal cells were electrically stimulated, and changes in morphology and neuro-supportive cells were evaluated. Schwann cell response (morphology and orientation) was examined after an 8 h stimulation over a range of DC fields (0–200 mV/mm, DC 1 mA), and changes in orientation were observed. Electrically prestimulating Schwann cells (50 mV/mm) promoted 30% more neurite outgrowth relative to co-stimulating both Schwann cells with neurons, suggesting that electrical stimulation modifies Schwann cell phenotype. Conditioned medium from the electrically prestimulated Schwann cells promoted a 20% increase in total neurite outgrowth and was sustained for 72 h poststimulation. An 11-fold increase in nerve growth factor but not brain-derived neurotrophic factor or glial-derived growth factor was found in the electrically prestimulated Schwann cell-conditioned medium. No significant changes in fibroblast or endothelial morphology and neuro-supportive behavior were observed poststimulation. Electrical stimulation is widely used in

  16. N-WASp is required for Schwann cell cytoskeletal dynamics, normal myelin gene expression and peripheral nerve myelination

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Fuzi; Dong, Baoxia; Georgiou, John; Jiang, Qiuhong; Zhang, Jinyi; Bharioke, Arjun; Qiu, Frank; Lommel, Silvia; Feltri, M. Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Roder, John C.; Eyer, Joel; Chen, Xiequn; Peterson, Alan C.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Schwann cells elaborate myelin sheaths around axons by spirally wrapping and compacting their plasma membranes. Although actin remodeling plays a crucial role in this process, the effectors that modulate the Schwann cell cytoskeleton are poorly defined. Here, we show that the actin cytoskeletal regulator, neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASp), is upregulated in myelinating Schwann cells coincident with myelin elaboration. When N-WASp is conditionally deleted in Schwann cells at the onset of myelination, the cells continue to ensheath axons but fail to extend processes circumferentially to elaborate myelin. Myelin-related gene expression is also severely reduced in the N-WASp-deficient cells and in vitro process and lamellipodia formation are disrupted. Although affected mice demonstrate obvious motor deficits these do not appear to progress, the mutant animals achieving normal body weights and living to advanced age. Our observations demonstrate that N-WASp plays an essential role in Schwann cell maturation and myelin formation. PMID:21385763

  17. From the cell of Schwann to schwannoma--a century's fruition.

    PubMed

    Sonig, Ashish; Gandhi, Viraj; Nanda, Anil

    2014-11-01

    The word "schwannoma" is pervasive throughout the neurosurgical community. However, little is known about the origin of the cell of "Schwann cell," the manifestation of the tumor's nomenclature, or the prominent physicians who studied its etiopathogenesis. Schwann was a founding father of cellular theory and one of the greatest scientists of the 19th century. He not only proposed cell theory but also discovered the "secondary" nerve cell and hypothesized its possible function in myelination. It took a century to confirm Schwann's hypothesis. In 1954, Geren, aided by the electron microscope, demonstrated that the cell of Schwann is responsible for nerve myelination. Concurrently, researchers worked to understand the etiology and pathogenesis of peripheral nerve neoplasms. Several attempts were made; Older, Virchow, and von Recklinghausen were the first pioneers who worked on the classification of these neoplasms. However, Masson first used the word "schwannoma" to describe peripheral nerve neoplasms other than neuromas. His French colleague Nageotte used the term "peripheral-glioma" to denote these tumors. These schwannomas were considered to have a malignant course. In 1932, Penfield attempted to classify peripheral nerve neoplasms into 3 categories: peripheral fibroblastoma, peripheral glioma, and neurofibroma of von Recklinghausen. He classified "Verocay's neurinoma," "Masson's schwannoma," and "cerebellopontine angle" tumors as perineural fibroblastoma. He believed that these tumors have a non-nerve cell, non-Schwann cell origin. He classified the tumors arising from the Schwann cell sheath as peripheral gliomas and articulated, "If any tumors are to be called schwannomas, these should be." The neurofibroma of von Recklinghausen was recognized as a separate entity, as described by von Recklinghausen himself. Murray and Stout proposed that schwannomas are essentially benign in nature clarifying the abstruseness of the benign or malignant nature of schwannoma

  18. Immortalized Human Schwann Cell Lines Derived From Tumors of Schwannomatosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Ostrow, Kimberly Laskie; Donaldson, Katelyn; Blakeley, Jaishri; Belzberg, Allan; Hoke, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomatosis, a rare form of neurofibromatosis, is characterized predominantly by multiple, often painful, schwannomas throughout the peripheral nervous system. The current standard of care for schwannomatosis is surgical resection. A major obstacle to schwannomatosis research is the lack of robust tumor cell lines. There is a great need for mechanistic and drug discovery studies of schwannomatosis, yet appropriate tools are not currently available. Schwannomatosis tumors are difficult to grow in culture as they survive only a few passages before senescence. Our lab has extensive experience in establishing primary and immortalized human Schwann cell cultures from normal tissue that retain their phenotypes after immortalization. Therefore we took on the challenge of creating immortalized human Schwann cell lines derived from tumors from schwannomatosis patients. We have established and fully characterized 2 schwannomatosis cell lines from 2 separate patients using SV40 virus large T antigen. One patient reported pain and the other did not. The schwannomatosis cell lines were stained with S100B antibodies to confirm Schwann cell identity. The schwannomatosis cells also expressed the Schwann cell markers, p75NTR, S100B, and NGF after multiple passages. Cell morphology was retained following multiple passaging and freeze/ thaw cycles. Gene expression microarray analysis was used to compare the cell lines with their respective parent tumors. No differences in key genes were detected, with the exception that several cell cycle regulators were upregulated in the schwannomatosis cell lines when compared to their parent tumors. This upregulation was apparently a product of cell culturing, as the schwannomatosis cells exhibited the same expression pattern of cell cycle regulatory genes as normal primary human Schwann cells. Cell growth was also similar between normal primary and immortalized tumor cells in culture. Accurate cell lines derived directly from human tumors

  19. Immortalized Human Schwann Cell Lines Derived From Tumors of Schwannomatosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ostrow, Kimberly Laskie; Donaldson, Katelyn; Blakeley, Jaishri; Belzberg, Allan; Hoke, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomatosis, a rare form of neurofibromatosis, is characterized predominantly by multiple, often painful, schwannomas throughout the peripheral nervous system. The current standard of care for schwannomatosis is surgical resection. A major obstacle to schwannomatosis research is the lack of robust tumor cell lines. There is a great need for mechanistic and drug discovery studies of schwannomatosis, yet appropriate tools are not currently available. Schwannomatosis tumors are difficult to grow in culture as they survive only a few passages before senescence. Our lab has extensive experience in establishing primary and immortalized human Schwann cell cultures from normal tissue that retain their phenotypes after immortalization. Therefore we took on the challenge of creating immortalized human Schwann cell lines derived from tumors from schwannomatosis patients. We have established and fully characterized 2 schwannomatosis cell lines from 2 separate patients using SV40 virus large T antigen. One patient reported pain and the other did not. The schwannomatosis cell lines were stained with S100B antibodies to confirm Schwann cell identity. The schwannomatosis cells also expressed the Schwann cell markers, p75NTR, S100B, and NGF after multiple passages. Cell morphology was retained following multiple passaging and freeze/ thaw cycles. Gene expression microarray analysis was used to compare the cell lines with their respective parent tumors. No differences in key genes were detected, with the exception that several cell cycle regulators were upregulated in the schwannomatosis cell lines when compared to their parent tumors. This upregulation was apparently a product of cell culturing, as the schwannomatosis cells exhibited the same expression pattern of cell cycle regulatory genes as normal primary human Schwann cells. Cell growth was also similar between normal primary and immortalized tumor cells in culture. Accurate cell lines derived directly from human tumors

  20. The Effect of Hypoxic Preconditioning on Induced Schwann Cells under Hypoxic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ou; Wu, Miaomiao; Jiang, Liangfu

    2015-01-01

    Object Our objective was to explore the protective effects of hypoxic preconditioning on induced Schwann cells exposed to an environment with low concentrations of oxygen. It has been observed that hypoxic preconditioning of induced Schwann cells can promote axonal regeneration under low oxygen conditions. Method Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were differentiated into Schwann cells and divided into a normal oxygen control group, a hypoxia-preconditioning group and a hypoxia group. The ultrastructure of each of these groups of cells was observed by electron microscopy. In addition, flow cytometry was used to measure changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining was used to detect apoptosis, and Western blots were used to detect the expression of Bcl-2/Bax. Fluorescence microscopic observations of axonal growth in NG-108 cells under hypoxic conditions were also performed. Results The hypoxia-preconditioning group maintained mitochondrial cell membrane and crista integrity, and these cells exhibited less edema than the hypoxia group. In addition, the cells in the hypoxia-preconditioning group were found to be in early stages of apoptosis, whereas cells from the hypoxia group were in the later stages of apoptosis. The hypoxia-preconditioning group also had higher levels of Bcl-2/Bax expression and longer NG-108 cell axons than were observed in the hypoxia group. Conclusion Hypoxic preconditioning can improve the physiological state of Schwann cells in a severe hypoxia environment and improve the ability to promote neurite outgrowth. PMID:26509259

  1. Specific inhibition of secreted NRG1 types I-II by heparin enhances Schwann Cell myelination.

    PubMed

    Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Gordon, Aaron; Sukhanov, Natalya; Peles, Elior

    2016-07-01

    Primary cultures of mixed neuron and Schwann cells prepared from dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are extensively used as a model to study myelination. These dissociated DRG cultures have the particular advantage of bypassing the difficulty in purifying mouse Schwann cells, which is often required when using mutant mice. However, the drawback of this experimental system is that it yields low amounts of myelin. Here we report a simple and efficient method to enhance myelination in vitro. We show that the addition of heparin or low molecular weight heparin to mixed DRG cultures markedly increases Schwann cells myelination. The myelin promoting activity of heparin results from specific inhibition of the soluble immunoglobulin (Ig)-containing isoforms of neuregulin 1 (i.e., NRG1 types I and II) that negatively regulates myelination. Heparin supplement provides a robust and reproducible method to increase myelination in a simple and commonly used culture system. GLIA 2016;64:1227-1234. PMID:27143444

  2. Platelet-rich plasma gel in combination with Schwann cells for repair of sciatic nerve injury☆

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fagang; Li, Haiyan; Qiao, Guangxi; Chen, Feng; Tao, Hao; Ji, Aiyu; Hu, Yanling

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from New Zealand white rabbits, culture-expanded and differentiated into Schwann cell-like cells. Autologous platelet-rich plasma and Schwann cell-like cells were mixed in suspension at a density of 1 × 106 cells/mL, prior to introduction into a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) conduit. Fabricated tissue-engineered nerves were implanted into rabbits to bridge 10 mm sciatic nerve defects (platelet-rich plasma group). Controls were established using fibrin as the seeding matrix for Schwann cell-like cells at identical density to construct tissue-engineered nerves (fibrin group). Twelve weeks after implantation, toluidine blue staining and scanning electron microscopy were used to demonstrate an increase in the number of regenerating nerve fibers and thickness of the myelin sheath in the platelet-rich plasma group compared with the fibrin group. Fluoro-gold retrograde labeling revealed that the number of Fluoro-gold-positive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion and the spinal cord anterior horn was greater in the platelet-rich plasma group than in the fibrin group. Electrophysiological examination confirmed that compound muscle action potential and nerve conduction velocity were superior in the platelet-rich plasma group compared with the fibrin group. These results indicate that autologous platelet-rich plasma gel can effectively serve as a seeding matrix for Schwann cell-like cells to construct tissue-engineered nerves to promote peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:25538751

  3. Schwann cell myelination of the myelin deficient rat spinal cord following X-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, I.D.; Hammang, J.P.; Gilmore, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The myelin-deficient (md) rat is an X-linked myelin mutant that has an abnormality of oligodendrocytes and a severe paucity of myelin throughout the CNS. This lack of myelin makes it an ideal model in which to study the cellular interactions that occur when foreign myelinating cells are induced in the milieu of this nonmyelinated CNS. In this study, Schwann cells were induced in the lumbosacral spinal cord by exposing it to radiation, a technique demonstrated repeatedly in other nonmutant strains of rats. Md rats and their age-matched littermates were irradiated (3,000 to 4,000 R) at 3 days of age and perfused 16-22 days later after pulse labeling with tritiated thymidine. In the md rat, Schwann cell invasion progressed from the area of the spinal cord-nerve root junction and extended into the dorsal columns and adjacent gray matter. Autoradiographic evidence revealed that many of these cells incorporated 3H-thymidine, indicating that they were undergoing proliferation. Ultrastructural observations showed that there was an integration of these intraspinal Schwann cells with the cells normally occurring in this environment, i.e., oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. The extent of migration and division of Schwann cells, as well as their interactions with glial cells, were similar to those seen in the nonmutant irradiated littermates. These studies provide conclusive evidence that md rat axons are normal with respect to their ability to provide trophic and mitogenic signals to myelinating cells.

  4. Production of Plasminogen Activator in Cultures of Superior Cervical Ganglia and Isolated Schwann Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Valinsky, Jay E.

    1985-05-01

    Plasminogen activator has been implicated in tissue remodeling and cell migration during embryogenesis. In the developing nervous system, these processes are evident in the migration of neurons, axonal extension, Schwann cell migration, and the ensheathment and myelination of nerves. We have studied the production of plasminogen activator in cultures of superior cervical ganglia under conditions in which both neurons and glia are present. We have found that a principal source of the enzyme in these cultures is the glial cells and that the enzyme could not be detected at the growing tips of neurites. Plasminogen activator is also produced by Schwann cells isolated from neonatal rat sciatic nerve. The production of the enzyme by these cells is stimulated 6- to 10-fold by cholera toxin. Isolated Schwann cells and glial cells in the ganglion explant cultures produce the tissue form of plasminogen activator, a form of the enzyme not often found in nonmalignant cells. Preliminary experiments suggest that neuronal-glial interactions may regulate enzyme production by Schwann cells.

  5. Schwann cells promote EMT and the Schwann-like differentiation of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells via the BDNF/TrkB axis.

    PubMed

    Shan, Chun; Wei, Jianhua; Hou, Rui; Wu, Baolei; Yang, Zihui; Wang, Lei; Lei, Delin; Yang, Xinjie

    2016-01-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is a striking biological behavior observed in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). The present study was designed to establish a co-culture model of SACC cells with Schwann cells (SCs), and then study epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the Schwann-like differentiation of SACC cells to investigate the likely molecular mechanism of PNI. The co-culture models of SCs with tumor cells (SACC-83, SACC-LM and MEC-1) were established using a Transwell system. An elevated concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was detected by ELISA assay in the co-cultured medium of the SACC-83 group and SACC-LM group rather than the MEC-1 group. The EMT process and Schwann-like differentiation in SACC-83 cells were analyzed by RT-PCR, western blotting, immunofluorescence, photography, and migration and perineural invasion assays. The SACC-83 cells under the co-culture condition with SCs changed to a mesenchymal morphology and had higher migration and invasion capabilities compared with the solely cultured SACC-83 cells, accompanied by the downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of N-cadherin and vimentin. The co-cultured SACC-83 cells also developed Schwann-like differentiation with increased expression of SC markers, S100A4 and GFAP. However, inhibition of tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) by K252a markedly blocked these effects. Additionally, the expression and correlation of TrkB, E-cadherin and S100A4 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 187 primary SACC cases. The levels of TrkB and S100A4 expression were both positively associated with PNI in the SACC cases, while E-cadherin expression was negatively associated with PNI. Elevated expression of TrkB was significantly correlated with the downregulated expression of E-cadherin and the upregulated expression of S100A4 in the SACC cases. Our results suggest that SCs play a pivotal role in the PNI process by inducing the EMT process and the Schwann-like differentiation

  6. Exploration of molecular pathways mediating electric field-directed Schwann cell migration by RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li; Li, Yongchao; Knapp, Jennifer; Smith, Peter

    2015-07-01

    In peripheral nervous systems, Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath. Following spinal cord injury, Schwann cells regenerate and migrate to the lesion and are involved in the spinal cord regeneration process. Transplantation of Schwann cells into injured neural tissue results in enhanced spinal axonal regeneration. Effective directional migration of Schwann cells is critical in the neural regeneration process. In this study, we report that Schwann cells migrate anodally in an applied electric field (EF). The directedness and displacement of anodal migration increased significantly when the strength of the EF increased from 50 mV/mm to 200 mV/mm. The EF did not significantly affect the cell migration speed. To explore the genes and signaling pathways that regulate cell migration in EFs, we performed a comparative analysis of differential gene expression between cells stimulated with an EF (100 mV/mm) and those without using next-generation RNA sequencing, verified by RT-qPCR. Based on the cut-off criteria (FC > 1.2, q < 0.05), we identified 1,045 up-regulated and 1,636 down-regulated genes in control cells versus EF-stimulated cells. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis found that compared to the control group, 21 pathways are down-regulated, while 10 pathways are up-regulated. Differentially expressed genes participate in multiple cellular signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cell migration, including pathways of regulation of actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and PI3K-Akt. PMID:25557037

  7. Porous chitosan scaffolds with surface micropatterning and inner porosity and their effects on Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Guicai; Zhao, Xueying; Zhao, Weixin; Zhang, Luzhong; Wang, Caiping; Jiang, Maorong; Gu, Xiaosong; Yang, Yumin

    2014-10-01

    Chitosan is found to promote the regeneration of peripheral nerve system in our previous studies, whereas the regeneration speed is not satisfied with clinical request. Micropatterning could promote cell orientation and growth, however, the effect of porous chitosan micropatterning on nerve regeneration is rarely reported. In this study, the porous chitosan micropatterning with surface ridge/groove and inner porosity structure was fabricated using a combination of micromodeling and lyophilization method. The morphology and stability of the prepared chitosan micropatterning were evaluated, the regulation of Schwann cells behavior by chitosan micropatterning was evaluated. The results showed that the chitosan micropatterning displayed stripe-like structure with a clear and complete edge. The micropatterning with 30/30 μm was more stable than 20/20 μm sample. Schwann cells on chitosan micropatterning showed orientation adhesion and began to grow along a certain direction after culture for 2 h, and displayed the minimal orientation angle and the largest length/width ratio on 30/30 μm micropatterning after further culture for 3 d and 5 d, indicating the most obvious cell orientation. Moreover, the secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) demonstrated that the micropatterned chitosan had no negative influence on the physiological function of Schwann cells. Thus, the results indicate that the porous chitosan micropatterning can regulate Schwann cell growth well, which may have potential application in nerve regeneration. The study provides an important basis for constructing porous nerve conduit with micropatterning structure in the inner wall. PMID:25002265

  8. Schwann Cells Increase Prostate and Pancreatic Tumor Cell Invasion Using Laminin Binding A6 Integrin

    PubMed Central

    Sroka, Isis C.; Chopra, Harsharon; Das, Lipsa; Gard, Jaime M.C.; Nagle, Raymond B.; Cress, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Human pancreatic and prostate cancers metastasize along nerve axons during perineural invasion. The extracellular matrix laminin class of proteins is an abundant component of both myelinated and non-myelinated nerves. Analysis of human pancreatic and prostate tissue revealed both perineural and endoneural invasion with Schwann cells surrounded or disrupted by tumor, respectively. Tumor and nerve cell co-culture conditions were used to determine if myelinating or non-myelinating Schwann cell (S16 and S16Y, respectively) phenotype was equally likely to promote integrin-dependent cancer cell invasion and migration on laminin. Conditioned medium from S16 cells increased tumor cell (DU145, PC3, and CFPAC1) invasion into laminin approximately 1.3–2.0 fold compared to fetal bovine serum (FBS) treated cells. Integrin function (e.g., ITGA6p formation) increased up to 1.5 fold in prostate (DU145, PC3, RWPE-1) and pancreatic (CFPAC1) cells, and invasion was dependent on ITGA6p formation and ITGB1 as determined by function-blocking antibodies. In contrast, conditioned medium isolated from S16Y cells (non-myelinating phenotype) decreased constitutive levels of ITGA6p in the tumor cells by 50% compared to untreated cells and decreased ITGA6p formation 3.0 fold compared to S16 treated cells. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis revealed loss of ITGA6p formation as reversible and independent of overall loss of ITGA6 expression. These results suggest that the myelinating phenotype of Schwann cells within the tumor microenvironment increased integrin-dependent tumor invasion on laminin. PMID:26239765

  9. Neurite outgrowth is significantly increased by the simultaneous presentation of Schwann cells and moderate exogenous electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppes, Abigail N.; Seggio, Angela M.; Thompson, Deanna M.

    2011-08-01

    Axonal extension is influenced by a variety of external guidance cues; therefore, the development and optimization of a multi-faceted approach is probably necessary to address the intricacy of functional regeneration following nerve injury. In this study, primary dissociated neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and Schwann cells were examined in response to an 8 h dc electrical stimulation (0-100 mV mm-1). Stimulated samples were then fixed immediately, immunostained, imaged and analyzed to determine Schwann cell orientation and characterize neurite outgrowth relative to electric field strength and direction. Results indicate that Schwann cells are viable following electrical stimulation with 10-100 mV mm-1, and retain a normal morphology relative to unstimulated cells; however, no directional bias is observed. Neurite outgrowth was significantly enhanced by twofold following exposure to either a 50 mV mm-1 electric field (EF) or co-culture with unstimulated Schwann cells by comparison to neurons cultured alone. Neurite outgrowth was further increased in the presence of simultaneously applied cues (Schwann cells + 50 mV mm-1 dc EF), exhibiting a 3.2-fold increase over unstimulated control neurons, and a 1.2-fold increase over either neurons cultured with unstimulated Schwann cells or the electrical stimulus alone. These results indicate that dc electric stimulation in combination with Schwann cells may provide synergistic guidance cues for improved axonal growth relevant to nerve injuries in the peripheral nervous system.

  10. Detection and processing of peripheral myelin protein PMP22 in cultured Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Pareek, S; Suter, U; Snipes, G J; Welcher, A A; Shooter, E M; Murphy, R A

    1993-05-15

    Peripheral myelin protein, 22 kDa (PMP22), is a myelin molecule associated with Schwann cells in peripheral nerves (Snipes, G. J., Suter, U., Welcher, A. A., and Shooter, E. M. (1992) J. Cell Biol. 117, 225-238). Mutations affecting the PMP22 gene have been implicated in the trembler mutation in mice (Suter, U., Welcher, A. A., Ozcelik, T., Snipes, G. J., Kosaras, B., Francke, U., Billings-Gagliardi, S., Sidman, R. L., and Shooter, E. M. (1992) Nature 356, 241-244; Suter, U., Moskow, J. J., Welcher, A. A., Snipes, G. J., Kosaras, B., Sidman, R. L., Buchberg, A. M., and Shooter, E. M. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 89, 4382-4386) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease in humans (Patel, P. I., Roa, B. B., Welcher, A. A., Schoener-Scott, R., Trask, B. J., Pentao, L., Snipes, G. J., Garcia, C. A., Francke, U., Shooter, E. M., Lupski, J. R., and Suter, U. (1992) Nature genet. 1, 159-165). In this report, we have studied PMP22 production in cultured rat Schwann cells. Schwann cells contain a 1.8-kilobase mRNA transcript coding for PMP22, and its production is up-regulated in vitro by forskolin. Metabolic labeling combined with immunoprecipitation methods using antibodies raised against synthetic peptides of PMP22 reveal that Schwann cells generate the protein from an 18-kDa precursor form which is post-translationally modified by N-linked glycosylation. A second molecule (molecular mass, 48 kDa) that reacted with PMP22 antibodies was also detected in Schwann cells but is not related chemically to PMP22 as determined by pulse-chase labeling. Metabolic labeling of rat sciatic nerve and Western blot analyses of purified rat sciatic nerve myelin reveal that deglycosylation of PMP22 gives rise to an 18-kDa protein similar in size to that in Schwann cells. These results indicate that cultured Schwann cells may provide a good model in which to investigate the production and function of PMP22 and to establish the cellular basis for the protein's involvement in inherited

  11. The NMDA receptor functions independently and as an LRP1 co-receptor to promote Schwann cell survival and migration.

    PubMed

    Mantuano, Elisabetta; Lam, Michael S; Shibayama, Masataka; Campana, W Marie; Gonias, Steven L

    2015-09-15

    NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors, which associate with LDL-receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) to trigger cell signaling in response to protein ligands in neurons. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the NMDA-R is expressed by rat Schwann cells and functions independently and with LRP1 to regulate Schwann cell physiology. The NR1 (encoded by GRIN1) and NR2b (encoded by GRIN2B) NMDA-R subunits were expressed by cultured Schwann cells and upregulated in sciatic nerves following crush injury. The ability of LRP1 ligands to activate ERK1/2 (also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, respectively) and promote Schwann cell migration required the NMDA-R. NR1 gene silencing compromised Schwann cell survival. Injection of the LRP1 ligands tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, also known as PLAT) or MMP9-PEX into crush-injured sciatic nerves activated ERK1/2 in Schwann cells in vivo, and the response was blocked by systemic treatment with the NMDA-R inhibitor MK801. tPA was unique among the LRP1 ligands examined because tPA activated cell signaling and promoted Schwann cell migration by interacting with the NMDA-R independently of LRP1, albeit with delayed kinetics. These results define the NMDA-R as a Schwann cell signaling receptor for protein ligands and a major regulator of Schwann cell physiology, which may be particularly important in peripheral nervous system (PNS) injury. PMID:26272917

  12. Axon-Schwann cell interaction in degenerating and regenerating peripheral nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrino, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Severance of a peripheral nerve stimulates a characteristic sequence of events in the distal stump, including the dissolution of axons and myelin and the proliferation of Schwann cells within their basal lamina. The first part of this thesis employs the cat tibial nerve to examine the relationship between the spatio-temporal pattern of Schwann cell mitosis, loss of the structural and functional properties of axolemma, synthesis of P/sub 0/, the major myelin glycoprotein, and the clearance of morphological myelin. Induction of S phase was measured by determining the uptake of /sup 3/H thymidine into trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitates following a 3 hour in vitro incubation in Krebs-Ringers buffer containing /sup 3/H thymidine. Nerve transection stimulated a monophasic increase in /sup 3/H thymidine uptake that peaked at 4 days post-transection throughout an 80 mm length of distal stump. Light microscope autoradiography revealed prominent incorporation into Schwann cells of myelinated fibers. Nerve transection also produced dramatic changes in the intrafascicular binding of /sup 3/H STX which binds to voltage-sensitive sodium channels STX binding fell precipitously to 20% of normal at 4 days post-transection, concurrent with the peak of /sup 3/H thymidine uptake. In conclusion, these studies suggest: (a) Schwann cells divide more or less contemporaneously throughout the distal stump; (b) changes in axons rather than myelin are likely to stimulate the Schwann cell to divide; (c) mitosis regulates other events during Wallerian degeneration, including myelin degeneration and the clearance of sodium channels from nodal axolemma.

  13. Fuzi Attenuates Diabetic Neuropathy in Rats and Protects Schwann Cells from Apoptosis Induced by High Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jing; Tan, Peng; Li, Zhiyong; Wu, Yan; Li, Chun; Wang, Yong; Wang, Beibei; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    Radix aconite lateralis preparata (Fuzi), a folk medicine, has long been used for the treatment of diabetes and paralysis in China. We examined the effect of Fuzi alone on diabetic rats and Schwann cells in high glucose and the components responsible for its activity. The major constituents of FZE were identified by HPLC-MS/MS data. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 36) were randomly divided into control, diabetic, FZE 1.75 g/kg, FZE 3.50 g/kg, FZE 7.00 g/kg, and methylcobalamin groups. After two weeks treatment, nerve conduction velocity and paw withdrawal latency were measured. In vitro, the Schwann cells were grouped according to exposure: normal glucose (NG), normal glucose plus mannitol (NG+M), high glucose (HG), and HG plus different concentrations of FZE (0.1 µg/ml, 1.0 µg/ml, and 10.0 µg/ml). Oxygen free radicals and apoptosis were evaluated through DCFH2DA, DHE and annexin-PE/7-AAD assay, respectively. Apoptosis factors (Bax, Bcl-2, CytoC, caspase-3, and caspase-9) were analyzed using immunofluorescence. Nine alkaloids were identified. The results from animal model showed that FZE was effective in accelerating nerve conduction velocity and shortening paw withdrawal latency in diabetic rats. And in vitro, FZE was also found to protect Schwann cells against high glucose injury. FZE could significantly decrease the apoptotic ratio, superoxide anion and peroxide level. Furthermore, the apoptosis factors, including Bax, Bcl-2, CytoC, caspase-3, and caspase-9 were ameliorated in FZE treated groups. The HPLC-MSn method is simple and suitable for the identification of alkaloids in Fuzi. FZE has a protective effect in diabetic neuropathic rats, which is probably achieved by the antiapoptotic effect of FZE on Schwann cells. Apoptosis factor data imply that FZE protected Schwann cells through the mitochondria pathway. Alkaloids are major components contributing to the protective effect. PMID:24466139

  14. [Theodor Schwann and reductionism].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, M

    1992-01-01

    In this article I have examined the cell theory of T. Schwann and considered whether Schwann is to be called a reductionist. Schwann paid more attention to the development of cells rather than to the structure of them. That was because he intended to establish the unified theory of organisms which can be used to explain the regularity of the development. Schwann assumed the unteleological force of cell development, regarded physical method as the ideal method of science, and used the analogy between cell development and crystal development. But he did not identify organic forces with unorganic forces and intended to certify the unity of organic world. So it is true that Schwann introduced physical method to life science, but reduction of biological theory to physico-chemical theory has little to do with him. PMID:11639601

  15. Genetically modified canine Schwann cells--In vitro and in vivo evaluation of their suitability for peripheral nerve tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Schmitte, Ruth; Tipold, Andrea; Stein, Veronika M; Schenk, Henning; Flieshardt, Cornelia; Grothe, Claudia; Haastert, Kirsten

    2010-02-15

    After peripheral nerve injury, Schwann cells (SC) guarantee for a regeneration-promoting milieu and are crucially involved in axonal regeneration. For extended nerve defects, bridging with an autologous nerve transplant is the gold standard therapy. Artificial biohybrid nerve transplants which combine a synthetic conduit with autologous SC genetically modified to express regeneration-promoting proteins may provide an alternative therapy to autotransplantation. The dog seems to be an ideal translational animal model for new treatment strategies. In the present study, utilizing a new transfection protocol, we transplanted enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing adult canine SC (cSC) into a 5mm epineural pouch in the sciatic nerve of adult rats (n=9). The epineurial pouch technique serves as proof of principle to follow the fate of the transplanted cSC for up to 14 days after surgery. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed survival and integration of EGFP-expressing cSC into the regenerating host nerve tissue. We demonstrate that transplanted cSC contribute to the formation of bands of Büngner and are located in close vicinity to growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) expressing regenerating nerve fibers. This provides first evidence that transplanted genetically modified Schwann cells do successfully integrate into the host tissue where they could actively contribute to the regeneration process. PMID:19962404

  16. Suspension Matrices for Improved Schwann-Cell Survival after Implantation into the Injured Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vivek; Joseph, Gravil; Patel, Amit; Patel, Samik; Bustin, Devin; Mawson, David; Tuesta, Luis M.; Puentes, Rocio; Ghosh, Mousumi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Trauma to the spinal cord produces endogenously irreversible tissue and functional loss, requiring the application of therapeutic approaches to achieve meaningful restoration. Cellular strategies, in particular Schwann-cell implantation, have shown promise in overcoming many of the obstacles facing successful repair of the injured spinal cord. Here, we show that the implantation of Schwann cells as cell suspensions with in-situ gelling laminin:collagen matrices after spinal-cord contusion significantly enhances long-term cell survival but not proliferation, as well as improves graft vascularization and the degree of axonal in-growth over the standard implantation vehicle, minimal media. The use of a matrix to suspend cells prior to implantation should be an important consideration for achieving improved survival and effectiveness of cellular therapies for future clinical application. PMID:20144012

  17. Cytotoxic effects of ZnO hierarchical architectures on RSC96 Schwann cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yixia; Lin, Qiang; Sun, Haiming; Chen, Dan; Wu, Qingzhi; Chen, Xiaohui; Li, Shipu

    2012-08-01

    The alteration in intracellular Zn2+ homeostasis is attributed to the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which subsequently results in oxidative damage of organelles and cell apoptosis. In this work, the neurotoxic effects of ZnO hierarchical architectures (nanoparticles and microspheres, the prism-like and flower-like structures) were evaluated through the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay using RSC96 Schwann cells as the model. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were detected using flow cytometry. The concentration of Zn2+ in the culture media was monitored using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results show that ZnO nanoparticles and microspheres displayed significant cytotoxic effects on RSC96 Schwann cells in dose- and time-dependent manners, whereas no or low cytotoxic effect was observed when the cells were treated with the prism-like and flower-like ZnO. A remarkable cell apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest were observed when RSC96 Schwann cells were exposed to ZnO nanoparticles and microspheres at a dose of 80 μg/mL for 12 h. The time-dependent increase of Zn2+ concentration in the culture media suggests that the cytotoxic effects were associated with the decomposition of ZnO hierarchical architecture and the subsequent release of Zn2+. These results provide new insights into the cytotoxic effects of complex ZnO architectures, which could be prominently dominated by nanoscale building blocks.

  18. A role for neuropilins in the interaction between Schwann cells and meningeal cells.

    PubMed

    Roet, Kasper C D; Wirz, Kerstin T S; Franssen, Elske H P; Verhaagen, Joost

    2014-01-01

    In their natural habitat, the peripheral nerve, Schwann cells (SCs) form nicely aligned pathways (also known as the bands of Büngner) that guide regenerating axons to their targets. Schwann cells that are implanted in the lesioned spinal cord fail to align in pathways that could support axon growth but form cellular clusters that exhibit only limited intermingling with the astrocytes and meningeal cells (MCs) that are present in the neural scar. The formation of cell clusters can be studied in co-cultures of SCs and MCs. In these co-cultures SCs form cluster-like non-overlapping cell aggregates with well-defined boundaries. There are several indications that neuropilins (NRPs) play an important role in MC-induced SC aggregation. Both SCs and MCs express NRP1 and NRP2 and SCs express the NRP ligands Sema3B, C and E while MCs express Sema3A, C, E and F. We now demonstrate that in SC-MC co-cultures, siRNA mediated knockdown of NRP2 in SCs decreased the formation of SC clusters while these SCs maintained their capacity to align in bands of Büngner-like columnar arrays. Unexpectedly, knockdown of NRP1 expression resulted in a significant increase in SC aggregation. These results suggest that a reduction in NRP2 expression may enhance the capacity of implanted SCs to interact with MCs that invade a neural scar formed after a lesion of the spinal cord. PMID:25314276

  19. Electric field stimulation through a substrate influences Schwann cell and extracellular matrix structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hieu T.; Wei, Claudia; Chow, Jacqueline K.; Nguy, Lindsey; Nguyen, Hieu K.; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Electric field (EF) stimulation has been used to cue cell growth for tissue engineering applications. In this study, we explore the electrical parameters and extracellular mechanisms that elicit changes in cell behavior when stimulated through the substrate. Approach. Rat Schwann cell morphology was compared when exposed to EF through the media or a conductive indium tin oxide substrate. Ionic and structural effects were then analyzed on Matrigel and collagen I, respectively. Main results. When stimulating through media, cells had greater alignment perpendicular to the EF with higher current densities (106 mA cm-2 at 245 mV mm-1), and reached maximum alignment within 8 h. Stimulation through the substrate with EF (up to 110 mV mm-1) did not affect Schwann cell orientation, however the EF caused extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings on substrates to peel away, suggesting EF can physically change the ECM. Applying alternating current (ac) 2-1000 Hz signals through the media or substrate both caused cells to flatten and protrude many processes, without preferential alignment. Matrigel exposed to a substrate EF of 10 mV mm-1 for 2 h had a greater calcium concentration near the cathode, but quickly dissipated when the EF was removed. Schwann cells seeded 7 d after gels were exposed to substrate EF still aligned perpendicular to the EF direction. Microscopy of collagen I exposed to substrate EF shows alignment and bundling of fibrils. Significance. These findings demonstrate EF exposure can control Schwann cell alignment and morphology, change ECM bulk/surface architecture, and align ECM structures.

  20. MAL Overexpression Leads to Disturbed Expression of Genes That Influence Cytoskeletal Organization and Differentiation of Schwann Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Daniela; Zeis, Thomas; Sobrio, Monia

    2014-01-01

    In the developing peripheral nervous system, a coordinated reciprocal signaling between Schwann cells and axons is crucial for accurate myelination. The myelin and lymphocyte protein MAL is a component of lipid rafts that is important for targeting proteins and lipids to distinct domains. MAL overexpression impedes peripheral myelinogenesis, which is evident by a delayed onset of myelination and reduced expression of the myelin protein zero (Mpz/P0) and the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. This study shows that MAL overexpression leads to a significant reduction of Mpz and p75NTR expression in primary mouse Schwann cell cultures, which was already evident before differentiation, implicating an effect of MAL in early Schwann cell development. Their transcription was robustly reduced, despite normal expression of essential transcription factors and receptors. Further, the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways important for Schwann cell differentiation were correctly induced, highlighting that other so far unknown rate limiting factors do exist. We identified novel genes expressed by Schwann cells in a MAL-dependent manner in vivo and in vitro. A number of those, including S100a4, RhoU and Krt23, are implicated in cytoskeletal organization and plasma membrane dynamics. We showed that S100a4 is predominantly expressed by nonmyelinating Schwann cells, whereas RhoU was localized within myelin membranes, and Krt23 was detected in nonmyelinating as well as in myelinating Schwann cells. Their differential expression during early peripheral nerve development further underlines their possible role in influencing Schwann cell differentiation and myelination. PMID:25290060

  1. Retinoic acid regulates Schwann cell migration via NEDD9 induction by transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Latasa, Maria-Jesus; Jiménez-Lara, Ana María; Cosgaya, Jose Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Schwann cell migration is essential during the regenerative response to nerve injury, however, the factors that regulate this phenomenon are not yet clear. Here we describe that retinoic acid (RA), whose production and signaling activity are greatly enhanced during nerve regeneration, increases Schwann cell migration. This is accompanied by the up-regulation of NEDD9, a member of the CAS family of scaffold proteins previously implicated in migratory and invasive behavior in gliomas, melanomas and the neural crest cells from which Schwann cells derive. This RA-induced NEDD9 accumulation is due to augmented mRNA levels, as well as an increase of NEDD9 protein stability. Although all NEDD9 phospho-isoforms present in Schwann cells are induced by the retinoid, the hormone also changes its phosphorylation status, thus altering the ratio between the different isoforms. Silencing NEDD9 in Schwann cells had no effect on basal migratory ability, but completely abrogated RA-induced enhanced migration. Collectively, our results indicate that RA could be a major regulator of Schwann cell migration after nerve injury, thus offering a new insight into peripheral nerve repair. PMID:27085739

  2. Cooperative roles of BDNF expression in neurons and Schwann cells are modulated by exercise to facilitate nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Jennifer C.; Xu, Mei; Cucoranu, Delia; Chmielewski, Sarah; Holmes, Tiffany; Lau, Kelly (Shukkwan); Bassell, Gary J.; English, Arthur W.

    2012-01-01

    After peripheral nerve injury, neurotrophins play a key role in the regeneration of damaged axons which can be augmented by exercise, although the distinct roles played by neurons and Schwann cells are unclear. In this study, we evaluated the requirement for the neurotrophin, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in neurons and Schwann cells, for the regeneration of peripheral axons after injury. Common fibular or tibial nerves in thy-1-YFP-H mice were cut bilaterally and repaired using a graft of the same nerve from transgenic mice lacking BDNF in Schwann cells (BDNF-/-) or wild-type mice (WT). Two weeks post-repair, axonal regeneration into BDNF-/- grafts were markedly less than WT grafts, emphasizing the importance of Schwann cell BDNF. Nerve regeneration was enhanced by treadmill training post-transection, regardless of the BDNF content of the nerve graft. We further tested the hypothesis that training-induced increases in BDNF in neurons allow regenerating axons to overcome a lack of BDNF expression in cells in the pathway through which they regenerate. Nerves in mice lacking BDNF in YFP+ neurons (SLICK) were cut and repaired with BDNF-/- and WT nerves. SLICK axons lacking BDNF did not regenerate into grafts lacking Schwann cell BDNF. Treadmill training could not rescue the regeneration into BDNF-/- grafts if the neurons also lacked BDNF. Both Schwann cell- and neuron-derived BDNF are thus important for axon regeneration in cut peripheral nerves. PMID:22492055

  3. Axonal neuregulin 1 type III activates NF-kappaB in Schwann cells during myelin formation.

    PubMed

    Limpert, Allison S; Carter, Bruce D

    2010-05-28

    The formation of myelin requires a series of complex signaling events initiated by the axon to surrounding glial cells, which ultimately respond by tightly wrapping the axon with layers of specialized plasma membrane thereby allowing for saltatory conduction. Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB in Schwann cells has been suggested to be critical for these cells to differentiate into a myelinating phenotype; however, the mechanisms by which it is activated have yet to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that axonal membranes are sufficient to promote NF-kappaB activation in cultured Schwann cells and identify neuregulin 1 (NRG1), specifically the membrane-bound type III isoform, as the signal responsible for activating this transcription factor. Surprisingly, neither membrane-bound type I nor the soluble NRG1 EGF domain could activate NF-kappaB, indicating that type III induces a qualitatively unique signal. The transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB was significantly enhanced by treatment with forskolin, indicating these two signals converge for maximal activation. Both ErbB2 and -3 receptors were required for transducing the NRG1 signal, because gene deletion of ErbB3 in Schwann cells or treatment with the ErbB2 selective inhibitor, PKI-166, prevented the stimulation of NF-kappaB by axonal membranes. Finally, PKI-166 blocked the activation of the transcription factor in myelinating neuron/Schwann cell co-cultures and in vivo, in developing sciatic nerves. Taken together, these data establish NRG1 type III as the activator of NF-kappaB during myelin formation. PMID:20360002

  4. Mitochondrial alarmins released by degenerating motor axon terminals activate perisynaptic Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Duregotti, Elisa; Negro, Samuele; Scorzeto, Michele; Zornetta, Irene; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Chang, Christopher J.; Montecucco, Cesare; Rigoni, Michela

    2015-01-01

    An acute and highly reproducible motor axon terminal degeneration followed by complete regeneration is induced by some animal presynaptic neurotoxins, representing an appropriate and controlled system to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying degeneration and regeneration of peripheral nerve terminals. We have previously shown that nerve terminals exposed to spider or snake presynaptic neurotoxins degenerate as a result of calcium overload and mitochondrial failure. Here we show that toxin-treated primary neurons release signaling molecules derived from mitochondria: hydrogen peroxide, mitochondrial DNA, and cytochrome c. These molecules activate isolated primary Schwann cells, Schwann cells cocultured with neurons and at neuromuscular junction in vivo through the MAPK pathway. We propose that this inter- and intracellular signaling is involved in triggering the regeneration of peripheral nerve terminals affected by other forms of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25605902

  5. Diminished Schwann cell repair responses underlie age-associated impaired axonal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Michio W.; Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Cheng, Yung-Chih; Latremoliere, Alban; Duong, Kelly; Miller, Christine M.; Posada, Sean; Cobos, Enrique J.; Zhang, Alice X.; Wagers, Amy J.; Havton, Leif A.; Barres, Ben; Omura, Takao

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system declines with age. Why this occurs, however, is unknown. We demonstrate that 24-month old mice exhibit an impairment of functional recovery after nerve injury compared to 2-month old animals. We find no difference in the intrinsic growth capacity between aged and young sensory neurons in vitro nor in their ability to activate growth-associated transcriptional programs after injury. Instead, using age-mismatched nerve transplants in vivo, we show that the extent of functional recovery depends on the age of the nerve graft, and not the age of the host. Molecular interrogation of the sciatic nerve reveals that aged Schwann cells (SCs) fail to rapidly activate a transcriptional repair program after injury. Functionally, aged SCs exhibit impaired de-differentiation, myelin clearance and macrophage recruitment. These results suggest that the age-associated decline in axonal regeneration results from diminished Schwann cell plasticity, leading to slower myelin clearance. PMID:25033179

  6. Diminished Schwann cell repair responses underlie age-associated impaired axonal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Painter, Michio W; Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Cheng, Yung-Chih; Latremoliere, Alban; Duong, Kelly; Miller, Christine M; Posada, Sean; Cobos, Enrique J; Zhang, Alice X; Wagers, Amy J; Havton, Leif A; Barres, Ben; Omura, Takao; Woolf, Clifford J

    2014-07-16

    The regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system declines with age. Why this occurs, however, is unknown. We demonstrate that 24-month-old mice exhibit an impairment of functional recovery after nerve injury compared to 2-month-old animals. We find no difference in the intrinsic growth capacity between aged and young sensory neurons in vitro or in their ability to activate growth-associated transcriptional programs after injury. Instead, using age-mismatched nerve transplants in vivo, we show that the extent of functional recovery depends on the age of the nerve graft, and not the age of the host. Molecular interrogation of the sciatic nerve reveals that aged Schwann cells (SCs) fail to rapidly activate a transcriptional repair program after injury. Functionally, aged SCs exhibit impaired dedifferentiation, myelin clearance, and macrophage recruitment. These results suggest that the age-associated decline in axonal regeneration results from diminished Schwann cell plasticity, leading to slower myelin clearance. PMID:25033179

  7. Type 1 neurofibromatosis: selective expression of extracellular matrix genes by Schwann cells, perineurial cells, and fibroblasts in mixed cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, S; Peltonen, J; Riccardi, V; Chu, M L; Uitto, J

    1989-01-01

    Cutaneous neurofibromas, characteristic lesions of neurofibromatosis 1, are composed of an abundant extracellular matrix and nerve connective tissue-derived cell types: Schwann cells, perineurial cells, and fibroblasts. In this study, the extracellular matrix gene expression by these cells was examined under culture conditions that allowed them to be metabolically active and readily identifiable by morphologic and immunocytochemical criteria. Northern hybridizations demonstrated expression of genes for type I, III, IV, and VI collagens, as well as for fibronectin, laminin, and elastin. In situ hybridizations revealed that all three cell types expressed pro alpha 1 (I), pro alpha 2 (VI), and laminin B1 chain genes. However, fibroblasts did not contain [35S]cDNA-mRNA hybrids specific for type IV collagen, whereas both Schwann cells and perineurial cells expressed these genes. Perineurial cells and fibroblasts readily expressed the fibronectin gene whereas Schwann cells were essentially devoid of the corresponding mRNA. Perineurial cells also expressed the gene for laminin A chain. The results indicate that the extracellular matrix gene expression profiles of Schwann cells, perineurial cells, and fibroblasts are distinct: all three cell types are capable of expressing some of the genes for extracellular matrix components, such as type I and VI collagens, whereas Schwann cells and perineurial cells may have the primary role in synthesizing basement membrane zone components, type IV collagen and laminin. These observations potentially relate to the mechanisms of growth and development of human neurofibromas. The results attest to the applicability of the methodology utilized here to study other human tumors with mixed cell populations. Images PMID:2500456

  8. Transfer of newly synthesized proteins from Schwann cells to the squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Lasek, R J; Gainer, H; Przybylski, R J

    1974-04-01

    The squid giant axon is presented as a model for the study of macromolecular interaction between cells in the nervous system. When the isolated giant axon was incubated in sea water containing [(3)H]leucine for 0.5-5 hr, newly synthesized proteins appeared in the sheath and axoplasm as demonstrated by: (i) radioautography, (ii) separation of the sheath and axoplasm by extrusion, and (iii) perfusion of electrically excitable axons. The absence of ribosomal RNA in the axoplasm [Lasek, R. J. et al. (1973) Nature 244, 162-165] coupled with other evidence indicates that the labeled proteins that are found in the axoplasm originate in the Schwann cells surrounding the axon. Approximately 50% of the newly synthesized Schwann cell proteins are transferred to the giant axon. These transferred proteins are soluble for the most part and range in molecular size from 12,000 to greater than 200,000 daltons. It is suggested that proteins transferred from the Schwann cell to the axon have a regulatory role in neuronal function. PMID:4524631

  9. Clustering of neuronal sodium channels requires contact with myelinating Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Ching, W; Zanazzi, G; Levinson, S R; Salzer, J L

    1999-01-01

    Efficient and rapid conduction of action potentials by saltatory conduction requires the clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier. This clustering results from interactions between neurons and myelinating glia, although it has not been established whether this glial signal is contact-dependent or soluble. To investigate the nature of this signal, we examined sodium channel clustering in co-cultures of embryonic rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and Schwann cells. Cultures maintained under conditions promoting or preventing myelination were immunostained with antibodies against the alpha subunit of the sodium channel and against ankyrin(G), a cytoskeletal protein associated with these channels. Consistent with previous in vivo studies (Vabnick et al., 1996), sodium channels and ankyrin G cluster at the onset of myelination. These clusters form adjacent to the ends of the myelinating Schwann cells and appear to fuse to form mature nodes. In contrast, sodium channels and ankyrin G do not cluster in neurons grown alone or in co-cultures where myelination is precluded by growing cells in defined media. Conditioned media from myelinating co-cultures also failed to induce sodium channel or ankyrin G clusters in cultures of neurons alone. Finally, no clusters develop in the amyelinated portions of suspended fascicles of dorsal root ganglia explants despite being in close proximity to myelinated segments in other areas of the dish. These results indicate that clustering of sodium channels requires contact with myelinating Schwann cells. PMID:10739572

  10. DDIT4/REDD1/RTP801 is a novel negative regulator of Schwann cell myelination.

    PubMed

    Noseda, Roberta; Belin, Sophie; Piguet, Françoise; Vaccari, Ilaria; Scarlino, Stefania; Brambilla, Paola; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Feltri, Maria Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Quattrini, Angelo; Feinstein, Elena; Huganir, Richard L; Bolino, Alessandra

    2013-09-18

    Signals that promote myelination must be tightly modulated to adjust myelin thickness to the axonal diameter. In the peripheral nervous system, axonal neuregulin 1 type III promotes myelination by activating erbB2/B3 receptors and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in Schwann cells. Conversely, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10) dephosphorylates PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and negatively regulates the AKT pathway and myelination. Recently, the DLG1/SAP97 scaffolding protein was described to interact with PTEN to enhance PIP3 dephosphorylation. Here we now report that nerves from mice with conditional inactivation of Dlg1 in Schwann cells display only a transient increase in myelin thickness during development, suggesting that DLG1 is a transient negative regulator of myelination. Instead, we identified DDIT4/RTP801/REDD1 as a sustained negative modulator of myelination. We show that DDIT4 is expressed in Schwann cells and its maximum expression level precedes the peak of AKT activation and of DLG1 activity in peripheral nerves. Moreover, loss of DDIT4 expression both in vitro and in vivo in Ddit4-null mice provokes sustained hypermyelination and enhanced mTORC1 activation, thus suggesting that this molecule is a novel negative regulator of PNS myelination. PMID:24048858

  11. Biphasic bisperoxovanadium administration and Schwann cell transplantation for repair after cervical contusive spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Chandler L.; Wang, Xiaofei; Bullis, Carli; Liu, Nai-Kui; Lu, Qingbo; Fry, Colin; Deng, Lingxiao; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) hold promise for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair; however, there are limitations for use as a lone treatment. We showed acute inhibition of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) by bisperoxovanadium (bpV) was neuroprotective and enhanced function following cervical hemicontusion SCI. We hypothesized that combining acute bpV therapy and delayed SC engraftment would further improve neuroprotection and recovery after cervical SCI. Adult female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly sorted into 5 groups: sham, vehicle, bpV, SC transplantation, and bpV + SC transplantation. SCs were isolated from adult green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing SD rats (GFP-SCs). 200 g/kg bpV(pic) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice daily for 7 days post-SCI in bpV-treated groups. GFP-SCs (1 × 106 in 5 μl medium) were transplanted into the lesion epicenter at the 8th day post-SCI. Forelimb function was tested for 10 weeks and histology was assessed. bpV alone significantly reduced lesion (by 40%, p<0.05) and cavitation (by 65%, p<0.05) and improved functional recovery (p <0.05) compared to injury alone. The combination promoted similar neuroprotection (p<0.01 vs. injury); however, GFP-SCs alone did not. Both SC-transplanted groups exhibited remarkable long-term SC survival, SMI-31+ axon ingrowth and RECA-1+ vasculature presence in the SC graft; however, bpV + SCs promoted an 89% greater axon-to-lesion ratio than SCs only. We concluded that bpV likely contributed largely to the neuroprotective and functional benefits while SCs facilitated considerable host-tissue interaction and modification. The combination of the two shows promise as an attractive strategy to enhance recovery after SCI. PMID:25510318

  12. Oriented growth and transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells towards a Schwann cell fate on micropatterned substrates.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anup D; Zbarska, Svitlana; Petersen, Emma M; Marti, Mustafa E; Mallapragada, Surya K; Sakaguchi, Donald S

    2016-03-01

    While Schwann cells (SCs) have a significant role in peripheral nerve regeneration, their use in treatments has been limited because of lack of a readily available source. To address this issue, this study focused on the effect of guidance cues by employing micropatterned polymeric films to influence the alignment, morphology and transdifferentiation of bone marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) towards a Schwann cell-like fate. Two different types of polymers, biocompatible polystyrene (PS) and biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were used to fabricate patterned films. Percentages of transdifferentiated MSCs (tMSCs) immunolabeled with SC markers (α-S100β and α-p75(NTR)) were found to be similar on patterned versus smooth PS and PLA substrates. However, patterning had a significant effect on the alignment and elongation of the tMSCs. More than 80% of the tMSCs were oriented in the direction of microgrooves (0°-20°), while cells on the smooth substrates were randomly oriented. The aspect ratio [AR, ratio of length (in direction of microgrooves) and breadth (in direction perpendicular to microgrooves)] of the tMSCs on patterned substrates had a value of approximately five, as compared to cells on smooth substrates where the AR was one. Understanding responses to these cues in vitro helps us in understanding the behavior and interaction of the cells with the 3D environment of the scaffolds, facilitating the application of these concepts to designing effective nerve guidance conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:26371993

  13. Characterisation of cell-substrate interactions between Schwann cells and three-dimensional fibrin hydrogels containing orientated nanofibre topographical cues.

    PubMed

    Hodde, Dorothee; Gerardo-Nava, José; Wöhlk, Vanessa; Weinandy, Stefan; Jockenhövel, Stefan; Kriebel, Andreas; Altinova, Haktan; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Möller, Martin; Weis, Joachim; Mey, Jörg; Brook, Gary A

    2016-02-01

    The generation of complex three-dimensional bioengineered scaffolds that are capable of mimicking the molecular and topographical cues of the extracellular matrix found in native tissues is a field of expanding research. The systematic development of such scaffolds requires the characterisation of cell behaviour in response to the individual components of the scaffold. In the present investigation, we studied cell-substrate interactions between purified populations of Schwann cells and three-dimensional fibrin hydrogel scaffolds, in the presence or absence of multiple layers of highly orientated electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibres. Embedded Schwann cells remained viable within the fibrin hydrogel for up to 7 days (the longest time studied); however, cell behaviour in the hydrogel was somewhat different to that observed on the two-dimensional fibrin substrate: Schwann cells failed to proliferate in the fibrin hydrogel, whereas cell numbers increased steadily on the two-dimensional fibrin substrate. Schwann cells within the fibrin hydrogel developed complex process branching patterns, but, when presented with orientated nanofibres, showed a strong tendency to redistribute themselves onto the nanofibres, where they extended long processes that followed the longitudinal orientation of the nanofibres. The process length along nanofibre-containing fibrin hydrogel reached near-maximal levels (for the present experimental conditions) as early as 1 day after culturing. The ability of this three-dimensional, extracellular matrix-mimicking scaffold to support Schwann cell survival and provide topographical cues for rapid process extension suggest that it may be an appropriate device design for the bridging of experimental lesions of the peripheral nervous system. PMID:26215203

  14. Schwann Cells Overexpressing FGF-2 Alone or Combined with Manual Stimulation Do Not Promote Functional Recovery after Facial Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Haastert, Kirsten; Grosheva, Maria; Angelova, Srebrina K.; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Skouras, Emmanouil; Michael, Joern; Grothe, Claudia; Dunlop, Sarah A.; Angelov, Doychin N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether transplantation of Schwann cells (SCs) overexpressing different isoforms of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) combined with manual stimulation (MS) of vibrissal muscles improves recovery after facial nerve transection in adult rat. Procedures. Transected facial nerves were entubulated with collagen alone or collagen plus naïve SCs or transfected SCs. Half of the rats received daily MS. Collateral branching was quantified from motoneuron counts after retrograde labeling from 3 facial nerve branches. Quality assessment of endplate reinnervation was combined with video-based vibrissal function analysis. Results. There was no difference in the extent of collateral axonal branching. The proportion of polyinnervated motor endplates for either naïve SCs or FGF-2 over-expressing SCs was identical. Postoperative MS also failed to improve recovery. Conclusions. Neither FGF-2 isoform changed the extent of collateral branching or polyinnervation of motor endplates; furthermore, this motoneuron response could not be overridden by MS. PMID:19830246

  15. Axon-Schwann cell interactions during peripheral nerve regeneration in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Peripheral nerve injuries can severely affect the way that animals perceive signals from the surrounding environment. While damage to peripheral axons generally has a better outcome than injuries to central nervous system axons, it is currently unknown how neurons re-establish their target innervations to recover function after injury, and how accessory cells contribute to this task. Here we use a simple technique to create reproducible and localized injury in the posterior lateral line (pLL) nerve of zebrafish and follow the fate of both neurons and Schwann cells. Results Using pLL single axon labeling by transient transgene expression, as well as transplantation of glial precursor cells in zebrafish larvae, we individualize different components in this system and characterize their cellular behaviors during the regenerative process. Neurectomy is followed by loss of Schwann cell differentiation markers that is reverted after nerve regrowth. We show that reinnervation of lateral line hair cells in neuromasts during pLL nerve regeneration is a highly dynamic process with promiscuous yet non-random target recognition. Furthermore, Schwann cells are required for directional extension and fasciculation of the regenerating nerve. We provide evidence that these cells and regrowing axons are mutually dependant during early stages of nerve regeneration in the pLL. The role of ErbB signaling in this context is also explored. Conclusion The accessibility of the pLL nerve and the availability of transgenic lines that label this structure and their synaptic targets provides an outstanding in vivo model to study the different events associated with axonal extension, target reinnervation, and the complex cellular interactions between glial cells and injured axons during nerve regeneration. PMID:25326036

  16. Pro-neurogenic effect of β-asarone on RSC96 Schwann cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuben; Wu, Huayu; Zhang, Kun; Lv, Peizhen; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jinmin

    2016-03-01

    Nerve regeneration is a challenge for the therapy of peripheral nerve injury. β-Asarone, a major compound extracted from Acorus tatarinowii Schott rhizome, has been traditionally used in China and other parts of Asia for the treatment of common psychiatric diseases. It has been reported to have significant pharmacological effects on the central nervous system. This suggested that β-asarone may be a promising anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective agent to relieve destruction and accelerate proliferation of Schwann cells after peripheral nerve injury. In this study, we investigated the effects of β-asarone on RSC96 Schwann cells, a spontaneously immortalized rat Schwann cell line in vitro. RSC96 cells were treated with a range of β-asarone concentrations (0-90 μM) for 2, 4, and 6 days. Results showed that β-asarone at concentrations down to 22.5 μM were not cytotoxic to RSC96 cells (p < 0.05). Concentrations of 5-20 μM β-asarone induced a net increase in cell proliferation (reflected in total DNA) compared to basal medium controls (p < 0.05). β-Asarone could promote expression of GDNF, BDNF, and CNTF genes (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the viability assay, hematoxylin-eosin, and immunohistochemical staining also showed better performances in β-asarone groups. As to the doses, 10 μM β-asarone showed the best performance. The results indicate that β-asarone can accelerate proliferation of RSC96 cells in vitro and meanwhile maintain the phenotype, which may provide valuable references for further exploration on peripheral nerve diseases. PMID:26659394

  17. Treatment Modality Affects Allograft-Derived Schwann Cell Phenotype and Myelinating Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Ayato; Moradzadeh, Arash; Tong, Alice; Wei, Cindy; Tuffaha, Sami H.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Tung, Thomas H.; Parsadanian, Alexander; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Myckatyn, Terence M.

    2009-01-01

    We used peripheral nerve allografts, already employed clinically to reconstruct devastating peripheral nerve injuries, to study Schwann cell (SC) plasticity in adult mice. By modulating the allograft treatment modality we were able to study migratory, denervated, rejecting, and reinnervated phenotypes in transgenic mice whose SCs expressed GFP under regulatory elements of either the S100β (S100-GFP) or nestin (Nestin-GFP) promoters. Well-differentiated SCs strongly expressed S100-GFP, while Nestin-GFP expression was stimulated by denervation, and in some cases, axons were constitutively labeled with CFP to enable in vivo imaging. Serial imaging of these mice demonstrated that untreated allografts were rejected within 20 days. Cold preserved (CP) allografts required an initial phase of SC migration that preceded axonal regeneration thus delaying myelination and maturation of the SC phenotype. Mice immunosuppressed with FK506 demonstrated mild subacute rejection, but the most robust regeneration of myelinated and unmyelinated axons and motor endplate reinnervation. While characterized by fewer regenerating axons, mice treated with the co-stimulatory blockade (CSB) agents anti-CD40L mAb and CTLAIg-4 demonstrated virtually no graft rejection during the 28 day experiment, and had significant increases in myelination, connexin-32 expression, and Akt phosphorylation compared with any other group. These results indicate that even with SC rejection, nerve regeneration can occur to some degree, particularly with FK506 treatment. However, we found that co-stimulatory blockade facilitate optimal myelin formation and maturation of SCs as indicated by protein expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), connexin-32 and phospho-Akt. PMID:18514192

  18. TRANSDUCED SCHWANN CELLS PROMOTE AXON GROWTH AND MYELINATION AFTER SPINAL CORD INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Kevin L.; Pearse, Damien D.; Blits, Bas; Garg, Maneesh S.; Oudega, Martin; Wood, Patrick M.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2007-01-01

    We sought to directly compare growth and myelination of local and supraspinal axons by implanting into the injured spinal cord Schwann cells (SCs) transduced ex vivo with adenoviral (AdV) or lentiviral (LV) vectors encoding a bifunctional neurotrophin molecule (D15A). D15A mimics actions of both neurotrophin-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Transduced SCs were injected into the injury center one week after a moderate thoracic (T8) adult rat spinal cord contusion. D15A expression and bioactivity in vitro; D15A levels in vivo; and graft volume, SC number, implant axon number and cortico-, reticulo-, raphe-, coerulo-spinal and sensory axon growth were determined for both types of vectors employed to transduce SCs. ELISAs revealed that D15A-secreting SC implants contained significantly higher levels of neurotrophin than non-transduced SC and AdV/GFP and LV/GFP SC controls early after implantation. At 6 wk post-implantation, D15A-secreting SC grafts exhibited 5-fold increases in graft volume, SC number and myelinated axon counts and a 3-fold increase in myelinated to unmyelinated (ensheathed) axon ratios. The total number of axons within grafts of LV/GFP/D15A SCs was estimated to be over 70,000. Also 5-HT, DβH, and CGRP axon length was increased up to 5-fold within D15A grafts. In sum, despite qualitative differences using the two vectors, increased neurotrophin secretion by the implanted D15A SCs led to the presence of a significantly increased number of axons in the contusion site. These results demonstrate the therapeutic potential for utilizing neurotrophin-transduced SCs to repair the injured spinal cord. PMID:17719577

  19. Inkjet printing Schwann cells and neuronal analogue NG108-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Tse, Christopher; Whiteley, Robert; Yu, Tong; Stringer, Jonathan; MacNeil, Sheila; Haycock, John W; Smith, Patrick J

    2016-03-01

    Porcine Schwann cells and neuronal analogue NG108-15 cells were printed using a piezoelectric-inkjet-printer with a nozzle diameter of 60 μm, within the range of 70-230 V, with analysis of viability and quality after printing. Neuronal and glial cell viabilities of >86% and >90% were detected immediately after printing and no correlation between voltage applied and cell viability could be seen. Printed neuronal cells were shown to produce neurites earlier compared to controls, and over several days, produced longer neurites which become most evident by day 7. The number of neurites becomes similar by day 7 also, and cells proliferate with a similar viability to that of non-printed cells (controls). This method of inkjet printing cells provides a technical platform for investigating neuron-glial cell interactions with no significant difference to cell viability than standard cell seeding. Such techniques can be utilized for lab-on-a-chip technologies and to create printed neural networks for neuroscience applications. PMID:26930268

  20. In vitro cytocompatibility assessment of amorphous carbon structures using neuroblastoma and Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shilpee; Sharma, Ashutosh; Basu, Bikramjit

    2013-05-01

    The development of scaffolds for neural tissue engineering application requires an understanding of cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration of neuronal cells. Considering the potential application of carbon as scaffold materials and the lack of understanding of compatibility of amorphous carbon with neuronal cells, the carbon-based materials in the forms of carbon films and continuous electrospun carbon nanofibers having average diameter of ~200 nm are being investigated with or without ultraviolet (UV) and oxy-plasma (OP) treatments for cytocompatibility property using mouse Neuroblastoma (N2a) and rat Schwann cells (RT4-D6P2T). The use of Raman spectroscopy in combination with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction establishes the amorphous nature and surface-bonding characteristics of the studied carbon materials. Although both UV and OP treatments make carbon surfaces more hydrophilic, the cell viability of N2a cells is statistically more significant on OP treated fibers/films compared to UV fiber/film substrates after 4 days in culture. The electrospun carbon fibrous substrate provides the physical guidance to the cultured Schwann cells. Overall, the experimental results of this study demonstrate that the electrospun amorphous carbon nanofibrous scaffolds can be used as a suitable biomaterial substrate for supporting cell adhesion and proliferation of neuronal cells in the context of their applications as artificial nerve implants. PMID:23359403

  1. Drp2 and Periaxin form Cajal Bands with Dystroglycan but have Distinct Roles in Schwann Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Diane L.; Wu, Lai Man N.; Grove, Matthew; Gillespie, C. Stewart; Brophy, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Cajal bands are cytoplasmic channels flanked by appositions where the abaxonal surface of Schwann cell myelin apposes and adheres to the overlying plasma membrane. These appositions contain a dystroglycan complex that includes periaxin and dystrophin-related protein 2 (Drp2). Loss of periaxin disrupts appositions and Cajal bands in Schwann cells and causes a severe demyelinating neuropathy in mouse and man. Here we have investigated the role of mouse Drp2 in apposition assembly and Cajal band function and compared it to periaxin. We show that Periaxin and Drp2 are not only both required to form appositions, but they must also interact. Periaxin-Drp2 interaction is also required for Drp2 phosphorylation but phosphorylation is not required for the assembly of appositions. Drp2 loss causes corresponding increases in Dystrophin family members, utrophin and dystrophin Dp116 though dystroglycan remains unchanged. We also show that all dystroglycan complexes in Schwann cells utilise the uncleaved form of β-dystroglycan. Drp2-null Schwann cells have disrupted appositions and Cajal bands, and they undergoe focal hypermyelination and concomitant demyelination. Nevertheless, they do not have the short internodal lengths and associated reduced nerve conduction velocity seen in the absence of periaxin, showing that periaxin regulates Schwann cell elongation independent of its role in the dystroglycan complex. We conclude that the primary role of the dystroglycan complex in appositions is to stabilize and limit the radial growth of myelin. PMID:22764250

  2. Myelin is dependent on the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 4H disease culprit protein FRABIN/FGD4 in Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Horn, Michael; Baumann, Reto; Pereira, Jorge A; Sidiropoulos, Páris N M; Somandin, Christian; Welzl, Hans; Stendel, Claudia; Lühmann, Tessa; Wessig, Carsten; Toyka, Klaus V; Relvas, João B; Senderek, Jan; Suter, Ueli

    2012-12-01

    Studying the function and malfunction of genes and proteins associated with inherited forms of peripheral neuropathies has provided multiple clues to our understanding of myelinated nerves in health and disease. Here, we have generated a mouse model for the peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4H by constitutively disrupting the mouse orthologue of the suspected culprit gene FGD4 that encodes the small RhoGTPase Cdc42-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Frabin. Lack of Frabin/Fgd4 causes dysmyelination in mice in early peripheral nerve development, followed by profound myelin abnormalities and demyelination at later stages. At the age of 60 weeks, this was accompanied by electrophysiological deficits. By crossing mice carrying alleles of Frabin/Fgd4 flanked by loxP sequences with animals expressing Cre recombinase in a cell type-specific manner, we show that Schwann cell-autonomous Frabin/Fgd4 function is essential for proper myelination without detectable primary contributions from neurons. Deletion of Frabin/Fgd4 in Schwann cells of fully myelinated nerve fibres revealed that this protein is not only required for correct nerve development but also for accurate myelin maintenance. Moreover, we established that correct activation of Cdc42 is dependent on Frabin/Fgd4 function in healthy peripheral nerves. Genetic disruption of Cdc42 in Schwann cells of adult myelinated nerves resulted in myelin alterations similar to those observed in Frabin/Fgd4-deficient mice, indicating that Cdc42 and the Frabin/Fgd4-Cdc42 axis are critical for myelin homeostasis. In line with known regulatory roles of Cdc42, we found that Frabin/Fgd4 regulates Schwann cell endocytosis, a process that is increasingly recognized as a relevant mechanism in peripheral nerve pathophysiology. Taken together, our results indicate that regulation of Cdc42 by Frabin/Fgd4 in Schwann cells is critical for the structure and function of the peripheral nervous system. In particular, this

  3. Myelin is dependent on the Charcot–Marie–Tooth Type 4H disease culprit protein FRABIN/FGD4 in Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Michael; Baumann, Reto; Pereira, Jorge A.; Sidiropoulos, Páris N. M.; Somandin, Christian; Welzl, Hans; Stendel, Claudia; Lühmann, Tessa; Wessig, Carsten; Toyka, Klaus V.; Relvas, João B.; Senderek, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Studying the function and malfunction of genes and proteins associated with inherited forms of peripheral neuropathies has provided multiple clues to our understanding of myelinated nerves in health and disease. Here, we have generated a mouse model for the peripheral neuropathy Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 4H by constitutively disrupting the mouse orthologue of the suspected culprit gene FGD4 that encodes the small RhoGTPase Cdc42-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Frabin. Lack of Frabin/Fgd4 causes dysmyelination in mice in early peripheral nerve development, followed by profound myelin abnormalities and demyelination at later stages. At the age of 60 weeks, this was accompanied by electrophysiological deficits. By crossing mice carrying alleles of Frabin/Fgd4 flanked by loxP sequences with animals expressing Cre recombinase in a cell type-specific manner, we show that Schwann cell-autonomous Frabin/Fgd4 function is essential for proper myelination without detectable primary contributions from neurons. Deletion of Frabin/Fgd4 in Schwann cells of fully myelinated nerve fibres revealed that this protein is not only required for correct nerve development but also for accurate myelin maintenance. Moreover, we established that correct activation of Cdc42 is dependent on Frabin/Fgd4 function in healthy peripheral nerves. Genetic disruption of Cdc42 in Schwann cells of adult myelinated nerves resulted in myelin alterations similar to those observed in Frabin/Fgd4-deficient mice, indicating that Cdc42 and the Frabin/Fgd4–Cdc42 axis are critical for myelin homeostasis. In line with known regulatory roles of Cdc42, we found that Frabin/Fgd4 regulates Schwann cell endocytosis, a process that is increasingly recognized as a relevant mechanism in peripheral nerve pathophysiology. Taken together, our results indicate that regulation of Cdc42 by Frabin/Fgd4 in Schwann cells is critical for the structure and function of the peripheral nervous system. In particular

  4. Primary culture of human Schwann and schwannoma cells: Improved and simplified protocol

    PubMed Central

    Dilwali, Sonam; Patel, Pratik B.; Roberts, Daniel S.; Basinsky, Gina M.; Harris, Gordon J.; Emerick, Kevin; Stankovic, Konstantina M.

    2014-01-01

    Primary culture of human Schwann cells (SCs) and vestibular schwannoma (VS) cells are invaluable tools to investigate SC physiology and VS pathobiology, and to devise effective pharmacotherapies against VS, which are sorely needed. However, existing culture protocols, in aiming to create robust, pure cultures, employ methods that can lead to loss of biological characteristics of the original cells, potentially resulting in misleading biological findings. We have developed a minimally manipulative method to culture primary human SC and VS cells, without the use of selective mitogens, toxins, or time-consuming and potentially transformative laboratory techniques. Schwann cell purity was quantified longitudinally using S100 staining in SC cultures derived from the great auricular nerve and VS cultures followed for 7 and 12 weeks, respectively. SC cultures retained approximately ≥85% purity for 2 weeks. VS cultures retained approximately ≥80% purity for the majority of the span of 12 weeks, with maximal purity of 87% at 2 weeks. The VS cultures showed high level of biological similarity (68% on average) to their respective parent tumors, as assessed using a protein array featuring 41 growth factors and receptors. Apoptosis rate in vitro negatively correlated with tumor volume. Our results, obtained using a faster, simplified culturing method than previously utilized, indicate that highly pure, primary human SC and VS cultures can be established with minimal manipulation, reaching maximal purity at 2 weeks of culture. The VS cultures recapitulate the parent tumors' biology to a great degree, making them relevant models to investigate VS pathobiology. PMID:24910344

  5. Chemical surface modification of poly-ε-caprolactone improves Schwann cell proliferation for peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    de Luca, Alba C; Terenghi, Giorgio; Downes, Sandra

    2014-02-01

    Poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer used in tissue engineering for various clinical applications. Schwann cells (SCs) play an important role in nerve regeneration and repair. SCs attach and proliferate on PCL films but cellular responses are weak due to the hydrophobicity and neutrality of PCL. In this study, PCL films were hydrolysed and aminolysed to modify the surface with different functional groups and improve hydrophilicity. Hydrolysed films showed a significant increase in hydrophilicity while maintaining surface topography. A significant decrease in mechanical properties was also observed in the case of aminolysis. In vitro tests with Schwann cells (SCs) were performed to assess film biocompatibility. A short-time experiment showed improved cell attachment on modified films, in particular when amino groups were present on the material surface. Cell proliferation significantly increased when both treatments were performed, indicating that surface treatments are necessary for SC response. It was also demonstrated that cell morphology was influenced by physico-chemical surface properties. PCL can be used to make artificial conduits and chemical modification of the inner lumen improves biocompatibility. PMID:22508573

  6. Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation that is induced by ferulic acid through MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling promotes peripheral nerve remyelination following crush injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Kun; Guo, Xin; Wang, Jian; Xiang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation is critical for the remyelination of injured peripheral nerves. Ferulic acid (FA) is a widely used antioxidant agent with neuroprotective properties. However, the potentially beneficial effects of FA on Schwann cells are unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the effects of FA on Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation. By using the cultured primary Schwann cells and proliferation assay, the results identified that FA was capable of increasing Schwann cell proliferation and expression of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and myelin basic protein (MBP) in vitro. It was also observed that the beneficial effect of FA treatment on Schwann cells was mainly dependent on the activation of MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling. Furthermore, FA was intraperitoneally administered to rats with sciatic nerve crush injury, and the results revealed an increase in Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation, while the MAG and MBP expression levels in sciatic nerves were markedly upregulated following FA administration. In conclusion, the current results demonstrate that Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation is induced by FA through MEK1/ERK1/2 signalling and that FA may accelerate injured peripheral nerve remyelination.

  7. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II antigens in human Schwann cell cultures and effects of infection with Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed

    Samuel, N M; Mirsky, R; Grange, J M; Jessen, K R

    1987-06-01

    Recent experiments on rats have raised the possibility that Schwann cells can present antigens to T lymphocytes. We have investigated whether this mechanism might be relevant in leprosy by determining under what conditions human Schwann cells express class I and class II antigens, and whether infection with Mycobacterium leprae affects this expression. The distribution of these antigens was examined on human Schwann cells in dissociated cell cultures derived from human fetal peripheral nerves. We find that both Schwann cells and fibroblastic cells in these cultures normally express class I antigens but not class II antigens. When Schwann cells are infected with live Mycobacterium leprae for 48 h, 73% of Schwann cells phagocytose the bacteria. Mycobacterium leprae prevents 3H-thymidine incorporation into cultured human Schwann cells, but does not affect class I expression in these cells. Treatment of normal and Mycobacterium leprae infected cultures with gamma-interferon for 72 h induces class II expression on most Schwann cells but not on the majority of fibroblastic cells. The fact that human Schwann cells infected with Mycobacterium leprae can be induced by gamma-interferon to express class II antigens suggests that they may be able to present Mycobacterium leprae antigens to T lymphocytes and thus initiate immune responses against the bacteria. We suggest that a failure of this response, such as that seen within nerve trunks in lepromatous leprosy, is caused by deficient class II expression on Schwann cells. This deficiency in class II expression, in turn, may be caused by the reduced gamma-interferon production characteristic of lepromatous leprosy. PMID:3115648

  8. Predegenerated Schwann cells--a novel prospect for cell therapy for glaucoma: neuroprotection, neuroregeneration and neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Smedowski, Adrian; Liu, Xiaonan; Pietrucha-Dutczak, Marita; Matuszek, Iwona; Varjosalo, Markku; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy that leads to irreversible blindness. Because the current therapies are not sufficient to protect against glaucoma-induced visual impairment, new treatment approaches are necessary to prevent disease progression. Cell transplantation techniques are currently considered to be among the most promising opportunities for nervous system damage treatment. The beneficial effects of undifferentiated cells have been investigated in experimental models of glaucoma, however experiments were accompanied by various barriers, which would make putative treatment difficult or even impossible to apply in a clinical setting. The novel therapy proposed in our study creates conditions to eliminate some of the identified barriers described for precursor cells transplantation and allows us to observe direct neuroprotective and pro-regenerative effects in ongoing optic neuropathy without additional modifications to the transplanted cells. We demonstrated that the proposed novel Schwann cell therapy might be promising, effective and easy to apply, and is safer than the alternative cell therapies for the treatment of glaucoma. PMID:27034151

  9. α6β1 and α7β1 integrins are required in Schwann cells to sort axons.

    PubMed

    Pellegatta, Marta; De Arcangelis, Adèle; D'Urso, Alessandra; Nodari, Alessandro; Zambroni, Desirée; Ghidinelli, Monica; Matafora, Vittoria; Williamson, Courtney; Georges-Labouesse, Elisabeth; Kreidberg, Jordan; Mayer, Ulrike; McKee, Karen K; Yurchenco, Peter D; Quattrini, Angelo; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Feltri, Maria Laura

    2013-11-13

    During development, Schwann cells extend lamellipodia-like processes to segregate large- and small-caliber axons during the process of radial sorting. Radial sorting is a prerequisite for myelination and is arrested in human neuropathies because of laminin deficiency. Experiments in mice using targeted mutagenesis have confirmed that laminins 211, 411, and receptors containing the β1 integrin subunit are required for radial sorting; however, which of the 11 α integrins that can pair with β1 forms the functional receptor is unknown. Here we conditionally deleted all the α subunits that form predominant laminin-binding β1 integrins in Schwann cells and show that only α6β1 and α7β1 integrins are required and that α7β1 compensates for the absence of α6β1 during development. The absence of either α7β1 or α6β1 integrin impairs the ability of Schwann cells to spread and to bind laminin 211 or 411, potentially explaining the failure to extend cytoplasmic processes around axons to sort them. However, double α6/α7 integrin mutants show only a subset of the abnormalities found in mutants lacking all β1 integrins, and a milder phenotype. Double-mutant Schwann cells can properly activate all the major signaling pathways associated with radial sorting and show normal Schwann cell proliferation and survival. Thus, α6β1 and α7β1 are the laminin-binding integrins required for axonal sorting, but other Schwann cell β1 integrins, possibly those that do not bind laminins, may also contribute to radial sorting during peripheral nerve development. PMID:24227711

  10. A double transgenic mouse used to track migrating Schwann cells and regenerating axons following engraftment of injured nerves

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Ayato; Koob, Jason W; Liu, Daniel Z; Tong, Alice Y; Hunter, Daniel A.; Parsadanian, Alexander; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Myckatyn, Terence M.

    2007-01-01

    We propose that double transgenic thy1-CFP(23)/S100-GFP mice whose Schwann cells constitutively express green fluorescent protein (GFP) and axons express cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) can be used to serially evaluate the temporal relationship between nerve regeneration and Schwann cell migration through acellular nerve grafts. Thy1-CFP(23)/S100-GFP and S100-GFP mice received non-fluorescing cold preserved nerve allografts from immunologically disparate donors. In vivo fluorescent imaging of these grafts was then performed at multiple points. The transected sciatic nerve was reconstructed with a 1 cm nerve allograft harvested from a Balb-C mouse and acellularized via 7 weeks of cold preservation prior to transplantation. The presence of regenerated axons and migrating Schwann cells was confirmed with confocal and electron microscopy on fixed tissue. Schwann cells migrated into the acellular graft (163 ± 15 intensity units) from both proximal and distal stumps, and bridged the whole graft within 10 days (388 ± 107 intensity units in the central 4-6 mm segment). Nerve regeneration lagged behind Schwann cell migration with 5 or 6 axons imaged traversing the proximal 4 mm of the graft under confocal microcopy within 10 days, and up to 21 labeled axons crossing the distal coaptation site by 15 days. Corroborative electron and light microscopy 5 mm into the graft demonstrated relatively narrow diameter myelinated (431±31) and unmyelinated (64±9) axons by 28 but not 10 days. Live imaging of the double-transgenic thy1-CFP(23)/S100-GFP murine line enabled serial assessment of Schwann cell-axonal relationships in traumatic nerve injuries reconstructed with acellular nerve allografts. PMID:17628544

  11. Data in support on the shape of Schwann cells and sympathetic neurons onto microconically structured silicon surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Simitzi, C.; Efstathopoulos, P.; Kourgiantaki, A.; Ranella, A.; Charalampopoulos, I.; Fotakis, C.; Αthanassakis, Ι.; Stratakis, E.; Gravanis, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Laser fabricated discontinuous anisotropic microconical substrates as a new model scaffold to control the directionality of neuronal network outgrowth” in the Biomaterials journal [1]. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis is performed to investigate whether Schwann cells and sympathetic neurons alter their morphology according to the underlying topography, comprising arrays of silicon microcones with anisotropic geometrical characteristics [1]. It is observed that although soma of sympathetic neurons always preserves its round shape, this is not the case for Schwann cells that become highly polarized in high roughness microconical substrates. PMID:26401519

  12. 3-D Imaging Reveals Participation of Donor Islet Schwann Cells and Pericytes in Islet Transplantation and Graft Neurovascular Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Juang, Jyuhn-Huarng; Kuo, Chien-Hung; Peng, Shih-Jung; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The primary cells that participate in islet transplantation are the endocrine cells. However, in the islet microenvironment, the endocrine cells are closely associated with the neurovascular tissues consisting of the Schwann cells and pericytes, which form sheaths/barriers at the islet exterior and interior borders. The two cell types have shown their plasticity in islet injury, but their roles in transplantation remain unclear. In this research, we applied 3-dimensional neurovascular histology with cell tracing to reveal the participation of Schwann cells and pericytes in mouse islet transplantation. Longitudinal studies of the grafts under the kidney capsule identify that the donor Schwann cells and pericytes re-associate with the engrafted islets at the peri-graft and perivascular domains, respectively, indicating their adaptability in transplantation. Based on the morphological proximity and cellular reactivity, we propose that the new islet microenvironment should include the peri-graft Schwann cell sheath and perivascular pericytes as an integral part of the new tissue. PMID:26137552

  13. 3-D Imaging Reveals Participation of Donor Islet Schwann Cells and Pericytes in Islet Transplantation and Graft Neurovascular Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Juang, Jyuhn-Huarng; Kuo, Chien-Hung; Peng, Shih-Jung; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    The primary cells that participate in islet transplantation are the endocrine cells. However, in the islet microenvironment, the endocrine cells are closely associated with the neurovascular tissues consisting of the Schwann cells and pericytes, which form sheaths/barriers at the islet exterior and interior borders. The two cell types have shown their plasticity in islet injury, but their roles in transplantation remain unclear. In this research, we applied 3-dimensional neurovascular histology with cell tracing to reveal the participation of Schwann cells and pericytes in mouse islet transplantation. Longitudinal studies of the grafts under the kidney capsule identify that the donor Schwann cells and pericytes re-associate with the engrafted islets at the peri-graft and perivascular domains, respectively, indicating their adaptability in transplantation. Based on the morphological proximity and cellular reactivity, we propose that the new islet microenvironment should include the peri-graft Schwann cell sheath and perivascular pericytes as an integral part of the new tissue. PMID:26137552

  14. Self-aligned Schwann cell monolayers demonstrate an inherent ability to direct neurite outgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seggio, A. M.; Narayanaswamy, A.; Roysam, B.; Thompson, D. M.

    2010-08-01

    In vivo nerve guidance channel studies have identified Schwann cell (SC) presence as an integral factor in axonal number and extension in an injury site, and in vitro studies have provided evidence that oriented SCs can direct neurite outgrowth. However, traditional methods used to create oriented SC monolayers (e.g. micropatterns/microtopography) potentially introduce secondary guidance cues to the neurons that are difficult to de-couple. Although SCs expanded on uniform laminin-coated coverslips lack a global orientation, the monolayers contain naturally formed regions of locally oriented cells that can be used to investigate SC-mediated neurite guidance. In this work, novel image analysis techniques have been developed to quantitatively assess local neurite orientation with respect to the underlying regional orientation of the Schwann cell monolayer. Results confirm that, in the absence of any secondary guidance cues, a positive correlation exists between neurite outgrowth and regional orientation of the SC monolayer. Thus, SCs alone possess an inherent ability to direct neurite outgrowth, and expansion of the co-culture-based quantitative method described can be used to further deconstruct specific biomolecular mechanisms of neurite guidance.

  15. Involvement of membrane skeletal molecules in the Schmidt-Lanterman incisure in Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Terada, Nobuo; Saitoh, Yurika; Kamijo, Akio; Ohno, Shinichi; Ohno, Nobuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Membrane skeletal networks form a two-dimensional lattice structure beneath erythrocyte membranes. 4.1R-MPP (membrane palmitoylated protein) 1-glycophorin C is one of the basic molecular complexes of the membrane skeleton. An analogous molecular complex, 4.1G-MPP6-cell adhesion molecule 4 (CADM4), is incorporated into the Schmidt-Lanterman incisure (SLI), a truncated cone shape in the myelin internode that is a specific feature of myelinated nerve fibers formed in Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. In this review, the dynamic structure of peripheral nerve fibers under stretching conditions is demonstrated using in vivo cryotechnique. The structures of nerve fibers had a beaded appearance, and the heights of SLI circular-truncated cones increased at the narrow sites of nerve fibers under the stretched condition. The height of SLI-truncated cones was lower in 4.1G-deficient nerve fibers than in wild-type nerve fibers. 4.1G was essential for the molecular targeting of MPP6 and CADM4 in SLI. The signal transduction protein, Src, was also involved in the 4.1G-MPP6-CADM4 molecular complex. The phosphorylation of Src was altered by the deletion of 4.1G. Thus, we herein demonstrate a membrane skeletal molecular complex in SLI that has potential roles in the regulation of adhesion and signal transduction as well as in structural stability in Schwann cells. PMID:26541343

  16. Label-free imaging of Schwann cell myelination by third harmonic generation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyungsik; Sharoukhov, Denis; Kassim, Imran; Zhang, Yanqing; Salzer, James L; Melendez-Vasquez, Carmen V

    2014-12-16

    Understanding the dynamic axon-glial cell interaction underlying myelination is hampered by the lack of suitable imaging techniques. Here we demonstrate third harmonic generation microscopy (THGM) for label-free imaging of myelinating Schwann cells in live culture and ex vivo and in vivo tissue. A 3D structure was acquired for a variety of compact and noncompact myelin domains, including juxtaparanodes, Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, and Cajal bands. Other subcellular features of Schwann cells that escape traditional optical microscopies were also visualized. We tested THGM for morphometry of compact myelin. Unlike current methods based on electron microscopy, g-ratio could be determined along an extended length of myelinated fiber in the physiological condition. The precision of THGM-based g-ratio estimation was corroborated in mouse models of hypomyelination. Finally, we demonstrated the feasibility of THGM to monitor morphological changes of myelin during postnatal development and degeneration. The outstanding capabilities of THGM may be useful for elucidation of the mechanism of myelin formation and pathogenesis. PMID:25453108

  17. Transcriptional control of cholesterol biosynthesis in Schwann cells by axonal neuregulin 1.

    PubMed

    Pertusa, Maria; Morenilla-Palao, Cruz; Carteron, Christelle; Viana, Felix; Cabedo, Hugo

    2007-09-28

    A characteristic feature of many vertebrate axons is their wrapping by a lamellar stack of glially derived membranes known as the myelin sheath. Myelin is a cholesterol-rich membrane that allows for rapid saltatory nerve impulse conduction. Axonal neuregulins instruct glial cells on when and how much myelin they should produce. However, how neuregulin regulates myelin sheath development and thickness is unknown. Here we show that neuregulin receptors are activated by drops in plasma membrane cholesterol, suggesting that they can sense sterol levels. In Schwann cells neuregulin-1 increases the transcription of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis. Neuregulin activity is mediated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and a cAMP-response element located on the reductase promoter. We propose that by activating neuregulin receptors, neurons exploit a cholesterol homeostatic mechanism forcing Schwann cells to produce new membranes for the myelin sheath. We also show that a strong phylogenetic correlation exists between myelination and cholesterol biosynthesis, and we propose that the absence of the sterol branch of the mevalonate pathway in invertebrates precluded the myelination of their nervous system. PMID:17652086

  18. mTORC1 Is Essential for Early Steps during Schwann Cell Differentiation of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells and Regulates Lipogenic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Schörghofer, David; Kinslechner, Katharina; Schütz, Birgit; Thi Thanh Pham, Ha; Rosner, Margit; Joo, Gabor Jozsef; Röhrl, Clemens; Weichhart, Thomas; Stangl, Herbert; Lubec, Gert; Hengstschläger, Markus; Mikula, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cell development is hallmarked by the induction of a lipogenic profile. Here we used amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells and focused on the mechanisms occurring during early steps of differentiation along the Schwann cell lineage. Therefore, we initiated Schwann cell differentiation in AFS cells and monitored as well as modulated the activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, the major regulator of anabolic processes. Our results show that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity is essential for glial marker expression and expression of Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein (SREBP) target genes. Moreover, SREBP target gene activation by statin treatment promoted lipogenic gene expression, induced mTORC1 activation and stimulated Schwann cell differentiation. To investigate mTORC1 downstream signaling we expressed a mutant S6K1, which subsequently induced the expression of the Schwann cell marker S100b, but did not affect lipogenic gene expression. This suggests that S6K1 dependent and independent pathways downstream of mTORC1 drive AFS cells to early Schwann cell differentiation and lipogenic gene expression. In conclusion our results propose that future strategies for peripheral nervous system regeneration will depend on ways to efficiently induce the mTORC1 pathway. PMID:25221943

  19. A novel marker for terminal Schwann cells, homocysteine-responsive ER-resident protein, as isolated by a single cell PCR-differential display.

    PubMed

    Oda, Ryo; Yaoi, Takeshi; Okajima, Seiichiro; Kobashi, Hiroaki; Kubo, Toshikazu; Fushiki, Shinji

    2003-09-01

    Terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) that cover motor neuron terminals are known to play important roles in maintaining neuromuscular junctions, as well as in the repair process after nerve injury. However, molecular characteristics of TSCs remain unknown, because of the difficulties in analyzing them due to their paucity. We have established a method of selectively and efficiently collecting TSCs so that cDNA analysis can be done properly. The expression of 1-2% of whole mRNAs was compared between myelinating Schwann cells (MSCs) and TSCs, and it turned out that approximately one-third of the bands could be categorized as cell-type-specific bands. TSCs thus constitute a distinct entity from the viewpoint of gene expression. As one of the cDNA clones belonging to TSC-specific bands was identified homocysteine-responsive ER-resident protein (Herp), and in situ hybridization confirmed that Herp mRNA is expressed in TSCs on motor nerve terminals but not in MSCs, both in developing and adult rats. In conclusion, we have been able to identify Herp as a novel molecular marker for TSCs. PMID:12927800

  20. Effect of metformin on Schwann cells under hypoxia condition

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junxiong; Liu, Jun; Yu, Hailong; Chen, Yu; Wang, Qi; Xiang, Liangbi

    2015-01-01

    Metformin, which is the first-line drug for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2, has been proved to possess beneficial effects on nerve regeneration in many studies. However, the underlying mechanism is currently unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial effect of metformin on SCs under hypoxia condition, which is a biological process at the injury site. The cell number and cell viability of SCs were examined using fluorescence observation and MTT assay. The migration of SCs was evaluated using a Transwell chamber. The expression and secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) in SCs were assayed by RT-PCR and ELISA method. The results showed that metformin could help SCs recover from hypoxia injury and inhibit hypoxia-induced apoptosis. In addition, metformin could partially reverse the detrimental effect of hypoxia on cell number, viability, migration and adhesion. Metformin is also capable of maintaining the biological activities of SCs after hypoxia injury, such as increasing the expression and secretion of BDNF, NGF, GDNF, and N-CAM. Further studies showed that pre-incubation with AMPK (5’-AMP-activated protein kinase) inhibitor Compound C might partially inhibit the effect of metformin mentioned above, indicating the possible involvement of AMPK pathway in the beneficial effects of metformin on peripheral nervous system. In conclusion, metformin is capable of alleviating hypoxia-induced injury to SCs and AMPK pathway might be involved in this process. PMID:26261558

  1. Coseeded Schwann cells myelinate neurites from differentiated neural stem cells in neurotrophin-3-loaded PLGA carriers.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yi; Zhu, Ji-Xiang; Fang, Zheng-Yu; Zeng, Cheng-Guang; Zhang, Chao; Qi, Guo-Long; Li, Man-Hui; Zhang, Wei; Quan, Da-Ping; Wan, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Biomaterials and neurotrophic factors represent promising guidance for neural repair. In this study, we combined poly-(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) conduits and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) to generate NT-3-loaded PLGA carriers in vitro. Bioactive NT-3 was released stably and constantly from PLGA conduits for up to 4 weeks. Neural stem cells (NSCs) and Schwann cells (SCs) were coseeded into an NT-releasing scaffold system and cultured for 14 days. Immunoreactivity against Map2 showed that most of the grafted cells (>80%) were differentiated toward neurons. Double-immunostaining for synaptogenesis and myelination revealed the formation of synaptic structures and myelin sheaths in the coculture, which was also observed under electron microscope. Furthermore, under depolarizing conditions, these synapses were excitable and capable of releasing synaptic vesicles labeled with FM1-43 or FM4-64. Taken together, coseeding NSCs and SCs into NT-3-loaded PLGA carriers increased the differentiation of NSCs into neurons, developed synaptic connections, exhibited synaptic activities, and myelination of neurites by the accompanying SCs. These results provide an experimental basis that supports transplantation of functional neural construction in spinal cord injury. PMID:22619535

  2. Spatiotemporal Expression of Poly(rC)-Binding Protein PCBP2 Modulates Schwann Cell Proliferation After Sciatic Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Weidong; Ni, Li; Wang, Genlin; Cao, Yi; Wu, Weijie; Sun, Chi; Yuan, Damin; Ni, Haidan; Wang, Youhua; Yang, Huilin

    2016-07-01

    Poly(C)-binding proteins (PCBPs), also known as RNA-binding proteins, interact in a sequence-specific fashion with single-stranded poly(C). It was reported that PCBP2 contributed to gastric cancer proliferation and survival through miR-34a, and knockdown of PCBP2 inhibited glioma proliferation through inhibition of cell cycle progression. In addition, PCBP2 might play a critical role in the regulation of cortical neurons apoptosis induced by hypoxia or ischemia. Because of the essential role of PCBP2 in nervous system and cell growth, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of PCBP2 in a rat sciatic nerve crush (SNC) model. We detected the upregulated expression of PCBP2 in Schwann cell after SNC. Besides, the peak expression of PCBP2 was in parallel with proliferation cell nuclear antigen. In vitro, we observed increased expression of PCBP2 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation. Specially, PCBP2-specific siRNA-transfected Schwann cell showed significantly decreased ability for proliferation. Together, all these data indicated that the change of PCBP2 protein expression was associated with Schwann cell proliferation after the trauma of the peripheral nervous system. PMID:26250704

  3. Loss of Fig4 in both Schwann cells and motor neurons contributes to CMT4J neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Vaccari, Ilaria; Carbone, Antonietta; Previtali, Stefano Carlo; Mironova, Yevgeniya A.; Alberizzi, Valeria; Noseda, Roberta; Rivellini, Cristina; Bianchi, Francesca; Del Carro, Ubaldo; D'Antonio, Maurizio; Lenk, Guy M.; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Giger, Roman J.; Meisler, Miriam H.; Bolino, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of FIG4 are responsible for Yunis-Varón syndrome, familial epilepsy with polymicrogyria, and Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4J neuropathy (CMT4J). Although loss of the FIG4 phospholipid phosphatase consistently causes decreased PtdIns(3,5)P2 levels, cell-specific sensitivity to partial loss of FIG4 function may differentiate FIG4-associated disorders. CMT4J is an autosomal recessive neuropathy characterized by severe demyelination and axonal loss in human, with both motor and sensory involvement. However, it is unclear whether FIG4 has cell autonomous roles in both motor neurons and Schwann cells, and how loss of FIG4/PtdIns(3,5)P2-mediated functions contribute to the pathogenesis of CMT4J. Here, we report that mice with conditional inactivation of Fig4 in motor neurons display neuronal and axonal degeneration. In contrast, conditional inactivation of Fig4 in Schwann cells causes demyelination and defects in autophagy-mediated degradation. Moreover, Fig4-regulated endolysosomal trafficking in Schwann cells is essential for myelin biogenesis during development and for proper regeneration/remyelination after injury. Our data suggest that impaired endolysosomal trafficking in both motor neurons and Schwann cells contributes to CMT4J neuropathy. PMID:25187576

  4. Loss of Fig4 in both Schwann cells and motor neurons contributes to CMT4J neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vaccari, Ilaria; Carbone, Antonietta; Previtali, Stefano Carlo; Mironova, Yevgeniya A; Alberizzi, Valeria; Noseda, Roberta; Rivellini, Cristina; Bianchi, Francesca; Del Carro, Ubaldo; D'Antonio, Maurizio; Lenk, Guy M; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Giger, Roman J; Meisler, Miriam H; Bolino, Alessandra

    2015-01-15

    Mutations of FIG4 are responsible for Yunis-Varón syndrome, familial epilepsy with polymicrogyria, and Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4J neuropathy (CMT4J). Although loss of the FIG4 phospholipid phosphatase consistently causes decreased PtdIns(3,5)P₂ levels, cell-specific sensitivity to partial loss of FIG4 function may differentiate FIG4-associated disorders. CMT4J is an autosomal recessive neuropathy characterized by severe demyelination and axonal loss in human, with both motor and sensory involvement. However, it is unclear whether FIG4 has cell autonomous roles in both motor neurons and Schwann cells, and how loss of FIG4/PtdIns(3,5)P₂-mediated functions contribute to the pathogenesis of CMT4J. Here, we report that mice with conditional inactivation of Fig4 in motor neurons display neuronal and axonal degeneration. In contrast, conditional inactivation of Fig4 in Schwann cells causes demyelination and defects in autophagy-mediated degradation. Moreover, Fig4-regulated endolysosomal trafficking in Schwann cells is essential for myelin biogenesis during development and for proper regeneration/remyelination after injury. Our data suggest that impaired endolysosomal trafficking in both motor neurons and Schwann cells contributes to CMT4J neuropathy. PMID:25187576

  5. Deficiency in the mRNA export mediator Gle1 impairs Schwann cell development in the zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Seytanoglu, A; Alsomali, N I; Valori, C F; McGown, A; Kim, H R; Ning, K; Ramesh, T; Sharrack, B; Wood, J D; Azzouz, M

    2016-05-13

    GLE1 mutations cause lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1 (LCCS1), a severe autosomal recessive fetal motor neuron disease, and more recently have been associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The gene encodes a highly conserved protein with an essential role in mRNA export. The mechanism linking Gle1 function to motor neuron degeneration in humans has not been elucidated, but increasing evidence implicates abnormal RNA processing as a key event in the pathogenesis of several motor neuron diseases. Homozygous gle1(-/-) mutant zebrafish display various aspects of LCCS, showing severe developmental abnormalities including motor neuron arborization defects and embryonic lethality. A previous gene expression study on spinal cord from LCCS fetuses indicated that oligodendrocyte dysfunction may be an important factor in LCCS. We therefore set out to investigate the development of myelinating glia in gle1(-/-) mutant zebrafish embryos. While expression of myelin basic protein (mbp) in hindbrain oligodendrocytes appeared relatively normal, our studies revealed a prominent defect in Schwann cell precursor proliferation and differentiation in the posterior lateral line nerve. Other genes mutated in LCCS have important roles in Schwann cell development, thereby suggesting that Schwann cell deficits may be a common factor in LCCS pathogenesis. These findings illustrate the potential importance of glial cells such as myelinating Schwann cells in motor neuron diseases linked to RNA processing defects. PMID:26921650

  6. Dorsal root ganglion-derived Schwann cells combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Qu, Wei; Wu, Yuxuan; Ma, Hao; Jiang, Huajun

    2014-01-01

    Schwann cells, nerve regeneration promoters in peripheral nerve tissue engineering, can be used to repair both the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, isolation and purification of Schwann cells are complicated by contamination with fibroblasts. Current reported measures are mainly limited by either high cost or complicated procedures with low cell yields or purity. In this study, we collected dorsal root ganglia from neonatal rats from which we obtained highly purified Schwann cells using serum-free melanocyte culture medium. The purity of Schwann cells (> 95%) using our method was higher than that using standard medium containing fetal bovine serum. The obtained Schwann cells were implanted into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan conduits to repair 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats. Results showed that axonal diameter and area were significantly increased and motor functions were obviously improved in the rat sciatic nerve tissue. Experimental findings suggest that serum-free melanocyte culture medium is conducive to purify Schwann cells and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan nerve conduits combined with Schwann cells contribute to restore sciatic nerve defects. PMID:25598778

  7. How Does the Schwann Cell Lineage Form Tumors in NF1?

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Steven L.; Ratner, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Neurofibromas are benign tumors of peripheral nerve that occur sporadically or in patients with the autosomal dominant tumor predisposition syndrome neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Multiple neurofibroma subtypes exist which differ in their site of occurrence, their association with NF1 and their tendency to undergo transformation to become malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), the most common malignancy associated with NF1. Most NF1 patients carry a constitutional mutation of the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Neurofibromas develop in these patients when an unknown cell type in the Schwann cell lineage loses its remaining functional NF1 gene and initiates a complex series of interactions with other cell types; these interactions may be influenced by aberrant expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors and the action of modifier genes. Cells within certain neurofibroma subtypes subsequently accumulate additional mutations affecting the p19ARF-MDM2-TP53 and p16INK4ARb signaling cascades, mutations of other as yet unidentified genes and amplification of growth factor receptor genes, resulting in their transformation into MPNSTs. These observations have been validated using a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models that recapitulate neurofibroma and MPNST pathogenesis. A new generation of mouse models is also providing important new insights into the identity of the cell type in the Schwann cell lineage that gives rise to neurofibromas. Our improving understanding of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurofibromas and MPNSTs raises intriguing new questions about the origin and pathogenesis of these neoplasms and establishes models for the development of new therapies targeting these neoplasms. PMID:18803326

  8. miR-148b-3p promotes migration of Schwann cells by targeting cullin-associated and neddylation-dissociated 1

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Tian-mei; Zhao, Li-li; Wang, Jing; Li, Ping; Qin, Jing; Liu, Yi-sheng; Yu, Bin; Ding, Fei; Gu, Xiao-song; Zhou, Song-lin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that negatively adjust gene expression in multifarious biological processes. However, the regulatory effects of miRNAs on Schwann cells remain poorly understood. Previous microarray analysis results have shown that miRNA expression is altered following sciatic nerve transaction, thereby affecting proliferation and migration of Schwann cells. This study investigated whether miR-148b-3p could regulate migration of Schwann cells by directly targeting cullin-associated and neddylation-dissociated 1 (Cand1). Up-regulated expression of miR-148b-3p promoted Schwann cell migration, whereas silencing of miR-148b-3p inhibited Schwann cell migration in vitro. Further experiments confirmed that Cand1 was a direct target of miR-148b-3p, and Cand1 knockdown reversed suppression of the miR-148b-3p inhibitor on Schwann cell migration. These results suggested that miR-148b-3p promoted migration of Schwann cells by directly targeting Cand1 in vitro. PMID:27482232

  9. Effects of cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline, an inhibitor of Schwann cell differentiation, on the secretion of collagenous and noncollagenous proteins by Schwann cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, C.F.; Bunge, R.P.; Bunge, M.B. )

    1988-02-01

    The proline analog cis-4-hydroxy-L-proline (CHP) was previously shown to inhibit both Schwann cell (SC) differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation in cultures of rat SCs and dorsal root ganglion neurons. The authors confirmed that CHP inhibits basal lamina formation by immunofluorescence with antibodies to laminin, type IV collagen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan. In order to test the hypothesis that CHP inhibits SC differentiation by specifically inhibiting the secretion of collagen. Cultures grown in the presence or absence of CHP were metabolically labeled with ({sup 3}H)leucine and the media were analyzed for relative amounts of (a) collagenous and noncollagenous proteins by assay with bacterial collagenase and by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), or (b) triple-helical collagen by pepsin digestion followed by SDS-PAGE. The results indicate that although CHP inhibited the accumulation of secreted collagen in the culture medium and disrupted collagen triple-helix formation, it also significantly inhibited the accumulation of secreted noncollagenous proteins in the medium. They conclude that CHP does not act as a specific inhibitor of collagen secretion in this system, and thus data from these experiments cannot be used to relate SC collagen production to other aspects of SC differentiation. They discuss the evidence for and against specificity of CHP action in other systems.

  10. Neuregulin1 displayed on motor axons regulates terminal Schwann cell-mediated synapse elimination at developing neuromuscular junctions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Mikesh, Michelle; Smith, Ian; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Schwab, Markus H.; Thompson, Wesley J.

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic connections in the nervous system are rearranged during development and in adulthood as a feature of growth, plasticity, aging, and disease. Glia are implicated as active participants in these changes. Here we investigated a signal that controls the participation of peripheral glia, the terminal Schwann cells (SCs), at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in mice. Transgenic manipulation of the levels of membrane-tethered neuregulin1 (NRG1-III), a potent activator of SCs normally presented on motor axons, alters the rate of loss of motor inputs at NMJs during developmental synapse elimination. In addition, NMJs of adult transgenic mice that expressed excess axonal NRG1-III exhibited continued remodeling, in contrast to the more stable morphologies of controls. In fact, synaptic SCs of these adult mice with NRG1-III overexpression exhibited behaviors evident in wild type neonates during synapse elimination, including an affinity for the postsynaptic myofiber surface and phagocytosis of nerve terminals. Given that levels of NRG1-III expression normally peak during the period of synapse elimination, our findings identify axon-tethered NRG1 as a molecular determinant for SC-driven neuromuscular synaptic plasticity. PMID:26755586

  11. Protocatechuic Acid from Alpinia oxyphylla Induces Schwann Cell Migration via ERK1/2, JNK and p38 Activation.

    PubMed

    Ju, Da-Tong; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Paul, Catherine Reena; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Lin, Chien-Chung; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Chang, Yung-Ming; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Alpinia oxyphylla MIQ (Alpinate Oxyphyllae Fructus, AOF) is an important traditional Chinese medicinal herb whose fruits is widely used to prepare tonics and is used as an aphrodisiac, anti salivary, anti diuretic and nerve-protective agent. Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a simple phenolic compound was isolated from the kernels of AOF. This study investigated the role of PCA in promoting neural regeneration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Nerve regeneration is a complex physiological response that takes place after injury. Schwann cells play a crucial role in the endogenous repair of peripheral nerves due to their ability to proliferate and migrate. The role of PCA in Schwann cell migration was determined by assessing the induced migration potential of RSC96 Schwann cells. PCA induced changes in the expression of proteins of three MAPK pathways, as determined using Western blot analysis. In order to determine the roles of MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38) pathways in PCA-induced matrix-degrading proteolytic enzyme (PAs and MMP2/9) production, the expression of several MAPK-associated proteins was analyzed after siRNA-mediated inhibition assays. Treatment with PCA-induced ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation that activated the downstream expression of PAs and MMPs. PCA-stimulated ERK1/2, JNK and p38 phosphorylation was attenuated by individual pretreatment with siRNAs or MAPK inhibitors (U0126, SP600125, and SB203580), resulting in the inhibition of migration and the uPA-related signal pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that PCA extract regulate the MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38)/PA (uPA, tPA)/MMP (MMP2, MMP9) mediated regeneration and migration signaling pathways in Schwann cells. Therefore, PCA plays a major role in Schwann cell migration and the regeneration of damaged peripheral nerve. PMID:26119854

  12. Dynamic Quantification of Host Schwann Cell Migration into Peripheral Nerve Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Elizabeth L.; Myckatyn, Terence M.; Tong, Alice Y.; Yee, Andrew; Yan, Ying; Magill, Christina K.; Johnson, Philip J.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Host Schwann cell (SC) migration into nerve allografts is the limiting factor in the duration of immunosuppression following peripheral nerve allotransplantation, and may be affected by different immunosuppressive regimens. Our objective was to compare SC migration patterns between clinical and experimental immunosuppression regimens both over time and at the harvest endpoint. Eighty mice that express GFP under the control of the Schwann cell specific S100 promoter were engrafted with allogeneic, nonfluorescent sciatic nerve grafts. Mice received immunosuppression with either tacrolimus (FK506), or experimental T-cell triple costimulation blockade (CSB), consisting of CTLA4-immunoglobulin fusion protein, anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, and anti-inducible costimulator monoclonal antibody. Migration of GFP-expressing host SCs into wild-type allografts was assessed in vivo every 3 weeks until 15 weeks postoperatively, and explanted allografts were evaluated for immunohistochemical staining patterns to differentiate graft from host SCs. Immunosuppression with tacrolimus exhibited a plateau of SC migration, characterized by significant early migration (< 3 weeks) followed by a constant level of host SCs in the graft (15 weeks). At the endpoint, graft fluorescence was decreased relative to surrounding host nerve, and donor SCs persisted within the graft. CSB-treated mice displayed gradually increasing migration of host SCs into the graft, without the plateau noted in tacrolimus-treated mice, and also maintained a population of donor SCs at the 15-week endpoint. SC migration patterns are affected by immunosuppressant choice, particularly in the immediate postoperative period, and the use of a single treatment of CSB may allow for gradual population of nerve allografts with host SCs. PMID:20633557

  13. Influence of mechanical properties of alginate-based substrates on the performance of Schwann cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Ning, Liqun; Xu, Yitong; Chen, Xiongbiao; Schreyer, David J

    2016-06-01

    In tissue engineering, artificial tissue scaffolds containing living cells have been studied for tissue repair and regeneration. Notably, the performance of these encapsulated-in-scaffolds cells in terms of cell viability, proliferation, and expression of function during and after the scaffold fabrication process, has not been well documented because of the influence of mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the scaffold substrate materials. This paper presents our study on the influence of mechanical properties of alginate-based substrates on the performance of Schwann cells, which are the major glial cells of peripheral nervous system. Given the fact that alginate polysaccharide hydrogel has poor cell adhesion properties, in this study, we examined several types of cell-adhesion supplements and found that alginate covalently modified with RGD peptide provided improved cell proliferation and adhesion. We prepared alginate-based substrates for cell culture using varying alginate concentrations for altering their mechanical properties, which were confirmed by compression testing. Then, we examined the viability, proliferation, morphology, and expression of the extracellular matrix protein laminin of Schwann cells that were seeded on the surface of alginate-based substrates (or 2D culture) or encapsulated within alginate-based substrates (3D cultures), and correlated the examined cell performance to the alginate concentration (or mechanical properties) of hydrogel substrates. Our findings suggest that covalent attachment of RGD peptide can improve the success of Schwann cell encapsulation within alginate-based scaffolds, and provide guidance for regulating the mechanical properties of alginate-based scaffolds containing Schwann cells for applications in peripheral nervous system regeneration and repair. PMID:27012482

  14. Coculture of Primary Motor Neurons and Schwann Cells as a Model for In Vitro Myelination

    PubMed Central

    Hyung, Sujin; Yoon Lee, Bo; Park, Jong-Chul; Kim, Jinseok; Hur, Eun-Mi; Francis Suh, Jun-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    A culture system that can recapitulate myelination in vitro will not only help us better understand the mechanism of myelination and demyelination, but also find out possible therapeutic interventions for treating demyelinating diseases. Here, we introduce a simple and reproducible myelination culture system using mouse motor neurons (MNs) and Schwann cells (SCs). Dissociated motor neurons are plated on a feeder layer of SCs, which interact with and wrap around the axons of MNs as they differentiate in culture. In our MN-SC coculture system, MNs survived over 3 weeks and extended long axons. Both viability and axon growth of MNs in the coculture were markedly enhanced as compared to those of MN monoculture. Co-labeling of myelin basic proteins (MBPs) and neuronal microtubules revealed that SC formed myelin sheaths by wrapping around the axons of MNs. Furthermore, using the coculture system we found that treatment of an antioxidant substance coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) markedly facilitated myelination. PMID:26456300

  15. Study of the Peripheral Nerve Fibers Myelin Structure Changes during Activation of Schwann Cell Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Verdiyan, Ekaterina E.; Allakhverdiev, Elvin S.; Maksimov, Georgy V.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we consider a new type of mechanism by which neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) regulates the properties of peripheral nerve fibers myelin. Our data show the importance of the relationship between the changes in the number of Schwann cell (SC) acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and the axon excitation (different intervals between action potentials (APs)). Using Raman spectroscopy, an effect of activation of SC AChRs on the myelin membrane fluidity was investigated. It was found, that ACh stimulates an increase in lipid ordering degree of the myelin lipids, thus providing evidence for specific role of the “axon-SC” interactions at the axon excitation. It was proposed, that during the axon excitation, the SC membrane K+- depolarization and the Ca2+—influx led to phospholipase activation or exocytosis of intracellular membrane vesicles and myelin structure reorganization. PMID:27455410

  16. Patterns of x-radiation-induced Schwann cell development in spinal cords of immature rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, S.A.; Heard, J.K.; Leiting, J.E.

    1983-03-01

    Schwann cells, Schwann cell myelin, and connective tissue components develop in the spinal cord of the immature rat following exposure to x-rays. For the purposes of this paper, these intraspinal peripheral nervous tissue constituents are referred to as IPNT. A series of investigations are in progress to elucidate factors related to the development of IPNT, and the present study is a light microscopic evaluation of the relationship between the amount of radiation administered (1,000-3,000R) to the lumbosacral spinal cord in 3-day-old rats and the incidence and distribution of IPNT at intervals up to 60 days postirradiation (P-I). The results showed that IPNT was present in only 33% of the rats exposed to 1,000R, whereas its presence was observed in 86% or more of those in the 2,000-, 2,500-, and 3,000R groups. The distribution of IPNT was quite limited in the 1,000R group, where it was restricted to the spinal cord-dorsal root junction and was found in only a few sections within the irradiated area. The distribution was more widespread with increasing amounts of radiation, and IPNT occupied substantial portions of the dorsal funiculi and extended into the dorsal gray matter in the 3,000R group. In all aR mals developing IPNT in the groups receiving 2,000R or more, the IPNT was present in essentially all sections from the irradiated area. Further studies will compare in detail spinal cords exposed to 1,000R in which IPNT is an infrequent, limited occurrence with those exposed to higher doses where IPNT occurs in a more widespread fashion in essentially all animals.

  17. An attenuated immune response by Schwann cells and macrophages inhibits nerve regeneration in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Scheib, Jami L; Höke, Ahmet

    2016-09-01

    Although peripheral nerves are capable of regeneration, advanced age decreases the potential for functional recovery after injury. The cellular mechanisms for this are not currently understood. Here, we performed sciatic nerve grafting with young (2 months old) and aged (18 months old) Brown-Norway male rats, in which 1 cm nerve grafts from young or aged rats were sutured into nerves of young or aged rats. Axons were allowed to regenerate until the nerve grafts and distal nerves were harvested at 1, 3, and 7 days and 2 and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, our data suggested that young nerve grafts supported regeneration better than aged nerve grafts. In addition, myelin debris clearance was inhibited in young nerves when grafted into aged rats, but clearance was faster when aged nerves were grafted into young rats. Further analysis revealed that aged macrophages have delayed migration into injured nerve, and macrophages and Schwann cells from aged rats were less phagocytic for myelin debris in vitro. To understand these impairments, expression levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were analyzed at 1 day after injury. Based on these levels, there was not a clear polarization to either an M1 or M2 phenotype; however, expression levels of IL-6, IL-10, CCL2 (MCP1), and Arg-1 were decreased in aged nerves. Taken together, both macrophages and Schwann cells had attenuated responses to nerve injury in aged rats, leading to inefficient clearance of debris and impaired axonal regeneration. PMID:27459920

  18. Impact of Scaffold Micro and Macro Architecture on Schwann Cell Proliferation under Dynamic Conditions in a Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Valmikinathan, Chandra M.; Hoffman, John; Yu, Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade tissue engineering has emerged as a powerful alternative to regenerate lost tissues owing to trauma or tumor. Evidence shows that Schwann cell containing scaffolds have improved performance in vivo as compared to scaffolds that depend on cellularization post implantation. However, owing to limited supply of cells from the patients themselves, several approaches have been taken to enhance cell proliferation rates to produce complete and uniform cellularization of scaffolds. The most common approach is the application of a bioreactor to enhance cell proliferation rate and therefore reduce the time needed to obtain sufficiently significant number of glial cells, prior to implantation. In this study, we show the application of a rotating wall bioreactor system for studying Schwann cell proliferation on nanofibrous spiral shaped scaffolds, prepared by solvent casting and salt leaching techniques. The scaffolds were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL), which has ideal mechanical properties and upon degradation does not produce acidic byproducts. The spiral scaffolds were coated with aligned or random nanofibers, produced by electrospinning, to provide a substrate that mimics the native extracellular matrix and the essential contact guidance cues. At the 4 day time point, an enhanced rate of cell proliferation was observed on the open structured nanofibrous spiral scaffolds in a rotating wall bioreactor, as compared to static culture conditions. However, the cell proliferation rate on the other contemporary scaffolds architectures such as the tubular and cylindrical scaffolds show reduced cell proliferation in the bioreactor as compared to static conditions, at the same time point. Moreover, the rotating wall bioreactor does not alter the orientation or the phenotype of the Schwann cells on the aligned nanofiber containing scaffolds, wherein, the cells remain aligned along the length of the scaffolds. Therefore, these open structured spiral

  19. Spatially- and temporally-controlled postnatal p53 knockdown cooperates with embryonic Schwann cell precursor Nf1 gene loss to promote malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor formation

    PubMed Central

    Hirbe, Angela C.; Dahiya, Sonika; Friedmann-Morvinski, Dinorah; Verma, Inder M.; Clapp, D. Wade; Gutmann, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are highly aggressive sarcomas that arise sporadically or in association with the Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome. In individuals with NF1, MPNSTs are hypothesized to arise from Nf1-deficient Schwann cell precursor cells following the somatic acquisition of secondary cooperating genetic mutations (e.g., p53 loss). To model this sequential genetic cooperativity, we coupled somatic lentivirus-mediated p53 knockdown in the adult right sciatic nerve with embryonic Schwann cell precursor Nf1 gene inactivation in two different Nf1 conditional knockout mouse strains. Using this approach, ∼60% of mice with Periostin-Cre-mediated Nf1 gene inactivation (Periostin-Cre; Nf1flox/flox mice) developed tumors classified as low-grade MPNSTs following p53 knockdown (mean, 6 months). Similarly, ∼70% of Nf1+/− mice with GFAP-Cre-mediated Nf1 gene inactivation (GFAP-Cre; Nf1flox/null mice) developed low-grade MPNSTs following p53 knockdown (mean, 3 months). In addition, wild-type and Nf1+/− mice with GFAP-Cre-mediated Nf1 loss develop MPNSTs following somatic p53 knockout with different latencies, suggesting potential influences of Nf1+/− stromal cells in MPNST pathogenesis. Collectively, this new MPNST model system permits the analysis of somatically-acquired events as well as tumor microenvironment signals that potentially cooperate with Nf1 loss in the development and progression of this deadly malignancy. PMID:26859681

  20. Schwann Cell Contact Guidance versus Boundary -Interaction in Functional Wound Healing along Nano and Microstructured Membranes.

    PubMed

    Tonazzini, Ilaria; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Meucci, Sandro; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2015-08-26

    Peripheral nerve transection is often encountered after trauma and can lead to long-term/permanent loss of sensor/motor functionality. Here, the effect of pure contact interaction of nano/microgrooved substrates on Schwann cells (SCs) is studied in view of their possible use for nerve-repair applications. Elastomeric gratings (GRs; i.e., alternating lines of ridges and grooves) are developed with different lateral periods (1-20 μm) and depths (0.3-2.5 μm), leading to two distinct cell-material interaction regimes: contact guidance (grating period < cell body diameter) and boundary guidance (grating period ≥ cell body diameter). Here, it is shown that boundary guidance leads to the best single-cell polarization, actin organization, and single-cell directional migration. Remarkably, contact guidance is instead more effective in driving collective SC migration and improves functional wound healing. It is also demonstrated that this behavior is linked to the properties of the SC monolayers on different GRs. SCs on large-period GRs are characterized by N-Cadherin downregulation and enhanced single-cell scattering into the wound with respect to SCs on small-period GRs, indicating a less compact monolayer characterized by looser cell-cell junctions in the boundary guidance regime. The present results provide information on the impact of specific sub-micrometer topographical elements on SC functional response, which can be exploited for nerve-regeneration applications. PMID:26097140

  1. Guidance of dorsal root ganglion neurites and Schwann cells by isolated Schwann cell topography on poly(dimethyl siloxane) conduits and films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. A.; Rementer, C. W.; Bruder, Jan M.; Hoffman-Kim, D.

    2011-08-01

    Biomimetic replicas of cellular topography have been utilized to direct neurite outgrowth. Here, we cultured postnatal rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants in the presence of Schwann cell (SC) topography to determine the influence of SC topography on neurite outgrowth. Four distinct poly(dimethyl siloxane) conduits were fabricated within which DRG explants were cultured. To determine the contribution of SC topographical features to neurite guidance, the extent of neurite outgrowth into unpatterned conduits, conduits with randomly oriented SC replicas, and conduits with SC replicas parallel or perpendicular to the conduit long axis was measured. Neurite directionality and outgrowth from DRG were also quantified on two-dimensional SC replicas with orientations corresponding to the four conduit conditions. Additionally, live SC migration and neurite extension from DRG on SC replicas were examined as a first step toward quantification of the interactions between live SC and navigating neurites on SC replicas. DRG neurite outgrowth and morphology within conduits and on two-dimensional SC replicas were directed by the underlying SC topographical features. Maximal neurite outgrowth and alignment to the underlying features were observed into parallel conduits and on parallel two-dimensional substrates, whereas the least extent of outgrowth was observed into perpendicular conduits and on perpendicular two-dimensional replica conditions. Additionally, neurites on perpendicular conditions turned to extend along the direction of underlying SC topography. Neurite outgrowth exceeded SC migration in the direction of the underlying anisotropic SC replica after two days in culture. This finding confirms the critical role that SC have in guiding neurite outgrowth and suggests that the mechanism of neurite alignment to SC replicas depends on direct contact with cellular topography. These results suggest that SC topographical replicas may be used to direct and optimize neurite

  2. A novel alternative splicing isoform of NF2 identified in human Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fang; Zhou, Zhengguang; Su, Wen; Wang, Zishu; Wu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular schwannoma (VS) is a benign, slow-growing cranial tumor that originates from the hypertrophy of Schwann cells. The majority of sporadic VS are unilateral, and the mechanisms underlying VS tumorigenesis are not fully understood. The human neurofibromin 2 (NF2) gene encodes the tumor suppressor protein merlin and the NF2 transcript can be alternatively spliced to form numerous isoforms. The present study investigated human Schwann cells (HSCs) at the mRNA and protein level to understand the function of the alternative splicing (AS) isoform of NF2. The total RNA of HSCs was isolated and the full-length coding sequence of NF2 was amplified. The amplified products were excised from agarose gels, purified and sequenced. NF2 at a protein level was assayed by immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis. The full-length and spliced NF2 forms were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the HSC complementary DNA and ligated into eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+). The plasmids were transfected into the HSC HEI-193 cell line and cell proliferation assays were performed using Cell Counting Kit-8. PCR analysis using HSC total RNA as a template revealed the presence of a shortened NF2 transcript, which was due to splicing at the 3′-end of the NF2 mRNA. Sequence analysis confirmed that this AS isoform omitted exons 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16. Immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis demonstrated that the AS isoform was highly expressed in the HSCs at 38 kDa, while the wild-type (WT) isoform, which was expected at 66 kDa, was undetectable. Transfection and cell proliferation assays revealed that the WT isoform exhibited significant growth inhibition, while the AS isoform did not suppress cell growth. In conclusion, the present study detected AS NF2 isoforms in HSC for the first time, and investigated the function of the principle AS isoform. The present study suggests that although HSCs have an undetectable level of WT isoform of the NF2 protein

  3. Diabetic Schwann cells suffer from nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 underproduction and poor associability with axons.

    PubMed

    Dey, Indranil; Midha, Nisha; Singh, Geeta; Forsyth, Amanda; Walsh, Sarah K; Singh, Bhagat; Kumar, Ranjan; Toth, Cory; Midha, Rajiv

    2013-12-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) are integral to peripheral nerve biology, contributing to saltatory conduction along axons, nerve and axon development, and axonal regeneration. SCs also provide a microenvironment favoring neural regeneration partially due to production of several neurotrophic factors. Dysfunction of SCs may also play an important role in the pathogenesis of peripheral nerve diseases such as diabetic peripheral neuropathy where hyperglycemia is often considered pathogenic. In order to study the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) upon the regenerative capacity of adult SCs, we investigated the differential production of the neurotrophic factors nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT3) by SCs harvested from the sciatic nerves of murine models of type 1 DM (streptozotocin treated C57BL/6J mice) and type 2 DM (LepR(-/-) or db/db mice) or non-diabetic cohorts. In vitro, SCs from diabetic and control mice were maintained under similar hyperglycemic and euglycemic conditions respectively. Mature SCs from diabetic mice produced lower levels of NGF and NT3 under hyperglycemic conditions when compared to SCs in euglycemia. In addition, SCs from both DM and non-DM mice appear to be incapable of insulin production, but responded to exogenous insulin with greater proliferation and heightened myelination potentiation. Moreover, SCs from diabetic animals showed poorer association with co-cultured axons. Hyperglycemia had significant impact upon SCs, potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24123456

  4. Predegenerated Schwann cells–a novel prospect for cell therapy for glaucoma: neuroprotection, neuroregeneration and neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Smedowski, Adrian; Liu, Xiaonan; Pietrucha-Dutczak, Marita; Matuszek, Iwona; Varjosalo, Markku; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy that leads to irreversible blindness. Because the current therapies are not sufficient to protect against glaucoma-induced visual impairment, new treatment approaches are necessary to prevent disease progression. Cell transplantation techniques are currently considered to be among the most promising opportunities for nervous system damage treatment. The beneficial effects of undifferentiated cells have been investigated in experimental models of glaucoma, however experiments were accompanied by various barriers, which would make putative treatment difficult or even impossible to apply in a clinical setting. The novel therapy proposed in our study creates conditions to eliminate some of the identified barriers described for precursor cells transplantation and allows us to observe direct neuroprotective and pro-regenerative effects in ongoing optic neuropathy without additional modifications to the transplanted cells. We demonstrated that the proposed novel Schwann cell therapy might be promising, effective and easy to apply, and is safer than the alternative cell therapies for the treatment of glaucoma. PMID:27034151

  5. Two types of 4-aminopyridine-sensitive potassium current in rabbit Schwann cells.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, M; Howe, J R; Ritchie, J M

    1993-01-01

    1. Delayed rectifier K+ currents were studied in Schwann cells cultured from neonatal rabbit sciatic nerves with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. 2. Depolarizing voltage steps (40 ms duration) activated two types of K+ current: type I, whose apparent activation threshold was about -60 mV (half-maximal conductance at -40 +/- 1 mV, n = 10); and type II, whose apparent activation threshold was about -25 mV (half-maximal conductance at + 11 +/- 1 mV, n = 9). 3. Type I current was blocked by alpha-dendrotoxin (alpha-DTX) with an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 1.3 nM, whereas the type II current was unaffected by exposure to 500 nM toxin. The action of alpha-DTX on the type I current was reversible. 4. Most cells exhibited both types of current, but occasionally some cells displayed just type I or just type II. 5. Type I current activated rapidly and then showed a much slower fade, which became more noticeable with larger depolarizations. Activation of type II current was slower than that of type I and depended less steeply on voltage. The time constants of activation for type I and type II currents were derived with a Hodgkin-Huxley formalism (based on second-power activation and deactivation kinetics). The longest activation time constant for type II gating was more than twice the corresponding time constant for type I; however, the time constants determined from tail current decays at potentials more negative than -60 mV were shorter for the type II currents than for the type I currents. 6. Both type I and type II currents were sensitive to micromolar concentrations of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). The KD for 4-AP blockade of type II current was 630 microM (pH 7.2, membrane potential (Em) = -10 mV), which is about 6 times higher than the corresponding value for 4-AP blockade of type I current at negative membrane potentials. The differential sensitivity of the type I and type II currents to 4-AP may account for the apparent voltage dependence of 4

  6. Pulsed magnetic field promotes proliferation and neurotrophic genes expression in Schwann cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liang; Liu, Zhongyang; Huang, Liangliang; Sun, Zhen; Ma, Teng; Zhu, Shu; Quan, Xin; Yang, Yafeng; Huang, Jinghui; Luo, Zhuojing

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most classic supportive cells, Schwann cells (SCs) have been considered as potential candidates for nerve regeneration. However, SCs cultured in vitro are found with attenuated biological activities, which limits their application. Pulsed magnetic field (PMF) has been demonstrated to be safe and efficient to regulate several cells activities. However, it is still unclear the effect of PMF on proliferation and expression of neurotrophic factors in SCs. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine such possible effects. The tolerance of SCs to PMF was examined by flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proliferation of cells was detected by an EdU labeling assay and a Prestoblue assay. The expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors in SCs was assayed by RT-PCR and ELISA. We found that 2.0 mT was the optimal intensity that caused relatively little apoptosis with profound proliferation in SCs. The gene expression and protein level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were up-regulated following PMF stimulation, additionally, the gene expression and protein level of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) was not enhanced by PMF. Our results suggested that PMF could improve SC proliferation and biological function, which might shed a light on the potential utilization of PMF in nerve regeneration via SC activation. PMID:26045741

  7. Neuregulin Facilitates Nerve Regeneration by Speeding Schwann Cell Migration via ErbB2/3-Dependent FAK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hung-Ming; Shyu, Ming-Kwang; Tseng, Guo-Fang; Liu, Chiung-Hui; Chang, Hung-Shuo; Lan, Chyn-Tair; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Liao, Wen-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate migration of Schwann cells (Sc) is crucial for axon-guidance in the regenerative process after peripheral nerve injury (PNI). Considering neuregulin-erbB-FAK signaling is an essential pathway participating in the regulation of Sc migration during development, the present study is aimed to examine whether neuregulin would exert its beneficial effects on adult following PNI and further determine the potential changes of downstream pathway engaged in neuro-regeneration by both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methodology and Principal Findings Cultured RSC96 cells treated with neuregulin were processed for erbB2/3 immunofluorescence and FAK immunoblotings. The potential effects of neuregulin on Sc were assessed by cell adherence, spreading, and migration assays. In order to evaluate the functional significance of neuregulin on neuro-regeneration, the in vivo model of PNI was performed by chronic end-to-side neurorrhaphy (ESN). In vitro studies indicated that after neuregulin incubation, erbB2/3 were not only expressed in cell membranes, but also distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus of RSC96 cells. Activation of erbB2/3 was positively correlated with FAK phosphorylation. Neuregulin also increases Sc adherence, spreading, and migration by 127.2±5.0%, 336.8±3.0%, and 80.0±5.7%, respectively. As for in vivo study, neuregulin significantly accelerates the speed of Sc migration and increases Sc expression in the distal stump of injured nerves. Retrograde labeling and compound muscle action potential recordings (CMAP) also showed that neuregulin successfully facilitates nerve regeneration by eliciting noticeably larger CMAP and promoting quick re-innervation of target muscles. Conclusions As neuregulin successfully improves axo-glial interaction by speeding Sc migration via the erbB2/3-FAK pathway, therapeutic use of neuregulin may thus serve as a promising strategy to facilitate the progress of nerve regeneration after PNI. PMID:23301073

  8. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Through Hydrogel-Enriched Chitosan Conduits Containing Engineered Schwann Cells for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Cora; Wrobel, Sandra; Raimondo, Stefania; Rochkind, Shimon; Heimann, Claudia; Shahar, Abraham; Ziv-Polat, Ofra; Geuna, Stefano; Grothe, Claudia; Haastert-Talini, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Critical length nerve defects in the rat sciatic nerve model were reconstructed with chitosan nerve guides filled with Schwann cells (SCs) containing hydrogel. The transplanted SCs were naive or had been genetically modified to overexpress neurotrophic factors, thus providing a cellular neurotrophic factor delivery system. Prior to the assessment in vivo, in vitro studies evaluating the properties of engineered SCs overexpressing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2(18kDa)) demonstrated their neurite outgrowth inductive bioactivity for sympathetic PC-12 cells as well as for dissociated dorsal root ganglion cell drop cultures. SCs within NVR-hydrogel, which is mainly composed of hyaluronic acid and laminin, were delivered into the lumen of chitosan hollow conduits with a 5% degree of acetylation. The viability and neurotrophic factor production by engineered SCs within NVR-Gel inside the chitosan nerve guides was further demonstrated in vitro. In vivo we studied the outcome of peripheral nerve regeneration after reconstruction of 15-mm nerve gaps with either chitosan/NVR-Gel/SCs composite nerve guides or autologous nerve grafts (ANGs). While ANGs did guarantee for functional sensory and motor regeneration in 100% of the animals, delivery of NVR-Gel into the chitosan nerve guides obviously impaired sufficient axonal outgrowth. This obstacle was overcome to a remarkable extent when the NVR-Gel was enriched with FGF-2(18kDa) overexpressing SCs. PMID:25876520

  9. Preparation of graphene oxide/polyacrylamide composite hydrogel and its effect on Schwann cells attachment and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Li, Guicai; Zhao, Yinxin; Zhang, Luzhong; Gao, Ming; Kong, Yan; Yang, Yumin

    2016-07-01

    Various hydrogel materials have been developed for improving the regeneration of peripheral nerve. Among which the graphene related hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties have attracted great attention. However, the effect of these hydrogels on peripheral nerve regeneration is still unclear. In the present study, the graphene oxide/polyacrylamide (GO/PAM) composite hydrogels were fabricated by in-situ free radical polymerization. The morphology, wettability, composition, swelling ratio, mechanical property and degradation behavior of the prepared GO/PAM composite hydrogels were separately characterized. The effect of GO/PAM hydrogel on the attachment and proliferation of Schwann cells was evaluated. Moreover, the release of biofactors by Schwann cells and adsorption of matrix proteins were further measured. The results showed that the color of the hydrogel became darker with the increased GO concentration, while the surface pore structure also displayed large variation when GO concentration was increased. The hydrophobicity and mechanical properties of hydrogel were increased with the ascending GO concentration. In addition, the variation of GO concentration displayed no obvious influence on the degradation of the composite hydrogel in different medium. The GO/PAM composite hydrogel with 0.4% GO (G0.4) could effectively enhance the attachment and proliferation of Schwann cells. Furthermore, the cells on G0.4 hydrogel displayed higher biofactors release and larger matrix adsorption than other samples. The results demonstrated that GO with suitable concentration in PAM hydrogel could effectively promote Schwann cell growth. The study may provide an important experimental basis for the design and development of new nerve grafts with potential application for peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:27058512

  10. Neural crest and Schwann cell progenitor-derived melanocytes are two spatially segregated populations similarly regulated by Foxd3

    PubMed Central

    Nitzan, Erez; Pfaltzgraff, Elise R.; Labosky, Patricia A.; Kalcheim, Chaya

    2013-01-01

    Skin melanocytes arise from two sources: either directly from neural crest progenitors or indirectly from neural crest-derived Schwann cell precursors after colonization of peripheral nerves. The relationship between these two melanocyte populations and the factors controlling their specification remains poorly understood. Direct lineage tracing reveals that neural crest and Schwann cell progenitor-derived melanocytes are differentially restricted to the epaxial and hypaxial body domains, respectively. Furthermore, although both populations are initially part of the Foxd3 lineage, hypaxial melanocytes lose Foxd3 at late stages upon separation from the nerve, whereas we recently found that epaxial melanocytes segregate earlier from Foxd3-positive neural progenitors while still residing in the dorsal neural tube. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in avians and mice, respectively, reveal that Foxd3 is both sufficient and necessary for regulating the balance between melanocyte and Schwann cell development. In addition, Foxd3 is also sufficient to regulate the switch between neuronal and glial fates in sensory ganglia. Together, we propose that differential fate acquisition of neural crest-derived cells depends on their progressive segregation from the Foxd3-positive lineage. PMID:23858437

  11. Schwann cells transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding Fgf-2 promote motor neuron regeneration following sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Allodi, Ilary; Mecollari, Vasil; González-Pérez, Francisco; Eggers, Ruben; Hoyng, Stefan; Verhaagen, Joost; Navarro, Xavier; Udina, Esther

    2014-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a trophic factor expressed by glial cells and different neuronal populations. Addition of FGF-2 to spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explants demonstrated that FGF-2 specifically increases motor neuron axonal growth. To further explore the potential capability of FGF-2 to promote axon regeneration, we produced a lentiviral vector (LV) to overexpress FGF-2 (LV-FGF2) in the injured rat peripheral nerve. Cultured Schwann cells transduced with FGF-2 and added to collagen matrix embedding spinal cord or DRG explants significantly increased motor but not sensory neurite outgrowth. LV-FGF2 was as effective as direct addition of the trophic factor to promote motor axon growth in vitro. Direct injection of LV-FGF2 into the rat sciatic nerve resulted in increased expression of FGF-2, which was localized in the basal lamina of Schwann cells. To investigate the in vivo effect of FGF-2 overexpression on axonal regeneration after nerve injury, Schwann cells transduced with LV-FGF2 were grafted in a silicone tube used to repair the resected rat sciatic nerve. Electrophysiological tests conducted for up to 2 months after injury revealed accelerated and more marked reinnervation of hindlimb muscles in the animals treated with LV-FGF2, with an increase in the number of motor and sensory neurons that reached the distal tibial nerve at the end of follow-up. PMID:24989458

  12. Nerve Regeneration Potential of Protocatechuic Acid in RSC96 Schwann Cells by Induction of Cellular Proliferation and Migration through IGF-IR-PI3K-Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ju, Da-Tong; Liao, Hung-En; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chung, Li-Chin; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Lin, Chien-Chung; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-12-31

    Peripheral nerve injuries, caused by accidental trauma, acute compression or surgery, often result in temporary or life-long neuronal dysfunctions and inflict great economic or social burdens on the patients. Nerve cell proliferation is an essential process to restore injured nerves of adults. Schwann cells play a crucial role in endogenous repair of peripheral nerves due to their ability to proliferate, migrate and provide trophic support to axons via expression of various neurotrophic factors, such as the nerve growth factor (NGF), especially after nerve injury. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a dihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, isolated from the kernels of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq (AOF), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine the fruits of which are widely used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, anti-salivation and anti-diarrheatic. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms by which PCA induces Schwann cell proliferation by activating IGF-IR-PI3K-Akt pathway. Treatment with PCA induces phosphorylation of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/serine - threonine kinase (PI3K/Akt) pathway, and activates expression of cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis after 18 h of treatment showed that proliferation of the RSC96 cells was enhanced by PCA treatment. The PCA induced proliferation was accompanied by modulation in the expressions of cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A. Knockdown of PI3K using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and inhibition of IGF-IR receptor resulted in the reduction in cell survival proteins. The results collectively showed that PCA treatment promoted cell proliferation and cell survival via IGF-I signaling. PMID:26717920

  13. Stimulating the proliferation, migration and lamellipodia of Schwann cells using low-dose curcumin.

    PubMed

    Tello Velasquez, J; Nazareth, L; Quinn, R J; Ekberg, J A K; St John, J A

    2016-06-01

    Transplantation of peripheral glia is being trialled for neural repair therapies, and identification of compounds that enhance the activity of glia is therefore of therapeutic interest. We have previously shown that curcumin potently stimulates the activity of olfactory glia. We have now examined the effect of curcumin on Schwann cell (SC) activities including proliferation, migration and the expression of protein markers. SCs were treated with control media and with different concentrations of curcumin (0.02-20μM). Cell proliferation was determined by MTS assay and migration changes were determined by single live cell migration tracking. We found that small doses of curcumin (40nM) dramatically increased the proliferation and migration in SCs within just one day. When compared with olfactory glia, curcumin stimulated SC proliferation more rapidly and at lower concentrations. Curcumin significantly increased the migration of SCs, and also increased the dynamic activity of lamellipodial waves which are essential for SC migration. Expression of the activated form of the MAP kinase p38 (p-p38) was significantly decreased in curcumin-treated SCs. These results show that curcumin's effects on SCs differ remarkably to its effects on olfactory glia, suggesting that subtypes of closely related glia can be differentially stimulated by curcumin. Overall these results demonstrate that the therapeutically beneficial activities of glia can be differentially enhanced by curcumin which could be used to improve outcomes of neural repair therapies. PMID:26955781

  14. Human Neural Crest Stem Cells Derived from Human ESCs and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Induction, Maintenance, and Differentiation into Functional Schwann Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiuyue; Spusta, Steven C.; Mi, Ruifa; Lassiter, Rhonda N.T.; Stark, Michael R.; Höke, Ahmet; Rao, Mahendra S.

    2012-01-01

    The neural crest (NC) is a transient, multipotent, migratory cell population unique to vertebrates that gives rise to diverse cell lineages. Much of our knowledge of NC development comes from studies of organisms such as chicken and zebrafish because human NC is difficult to obtain because of its transient nature and the limited availability of human fetal cells. Here we examined the process of NC induction from human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We showed that NC cells could be efficiently induced from hESCs by a combination of growth factors in medium conditioned on stromal cells and that NC stem cells (NCSCs) could be purified by p75 using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). FACS-isolated NCSCs could be propagated in vitro in five passages and cryopreserved while maintaining NCSC identity characterized by the expression of a panel of NC markers such as p75, Sox9, Sox10, CD44, and HNK1. In vitro-expanded NCSCs were able to differentiate into neurons and glia (Schwann cells) of the peripheral nervous system, as well as mesenchymal derivatives. hESC-derived NCSCs appeared to behave similarly to endogenous embryonic NC cells when injected in chicken embryos. Using a defined medium, we were able to generate and propagate a nearly pure population of Schwann cells that uniformly expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100, and p75. Schwann cells generated by our protocol myelinated rat dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first report on myelination by hESC- or iPSC-derived Schwann cells. PMID:23197806

  15. Role of Schwann cells in the regeneration of penile and peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Sanford, Melissa T; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system. The end point of SC development is the formation of myelinating and nonmyelinating cells which ensheath large and small diameter axons, respectively. They play an important role in axon regeneration after injury, including cavernous nerve injury that leads to erectile dysfunction (ED). Despite improvement in radical prostatectomy surgical techniques, many patients still suffer from ED postoperatively as surgical trauma causes traction injuries and local inflammatory changes in the neuronal microenvironment of the autonomic fibers innervating the penis resulting in pathophysiological alterations in the end organ. The aim of this review is to summarize contemporary evidence regarding: (1) the origin and development of SCs in the peripheral and penile nerve system; (2) Wallerian degeneration and SC plastic change following peripheral and penile nerve injury; (3) how SCs promote peripheral and penile nerve regeneration by secreting neurotrophic factors; (4) and strategies targeting SCs to accelerate peripheral nerve regeneration. We searched PubMed for articles related to these topics in both animal models and human research and found numerous studies suggesting that SCs could be a novel target for treatment of nerve injury-induced ED. PMID:25999359

  16. c-Jun in Schwann cells promotes axonal regeneration and motoneuron survival via paracrine signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Xavier; Hristova, Mariya; Da Costa, Clive; Patodia, Smriti; Thei, Laura; Makwana, Milan; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Latouche, Morwena; Mirsky, Rhona; Jessen, Kristjan R.; Klein, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    The AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun is a master regulator of the axonal response in neurons. c-Jun also functions as a negative regulator of myelination in Schwann cells (SCs) and is strongly reactivated in SCs upon axonal injury. We demonstrate here that, after injury, the absence of c-Jun specifically in SCs caused impaired axonal regeneration and severely increased neuronal cell death. c-Jun deficiency resulted in decreased expression of several neurotrophic factors, and GDNF and Artemin, both of which encode ligands for the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase, were identified as novel direct c-Jun target genes. Genetic inactivation of Ret specifically in neurons resulted in regeneration defects without affecting motoneuron survival and, conversely, administration of recombinant GDNF and Artemin protein substantially ameliorated impaired regeneration caused by c-Jun deficiency. These results reveal an unexpected function for c-Jun in SCs in response to axonal injury, and identify paracrine Ret signaling as an important mediator of c-Jun function in SCs during regeneration. PMID:22753894

  17. Role of Schwann cells in the regeneration of penile and peripheral nerves

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Sanford, Melissa T; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system. The end point of SC development is the formation of myelinating and nonmyelinating cells which ensheath large and small diameter axons, respectively. They play an important role in axon regeneration after injury, including cavernous nerve injury that leads to erectile dysfunction (ED). Despite improvement in radical prostatectomy surgical techniques, many patients still suffer from ED postoperatively as surgical trauma causes traction injuries and local inflammatory changes in the neuronal microenvironment of the autonomic fibers innervating the penis resulting in pathophysiological alterations in the end organ. The aim of this review is to summarize contemporary evidence regarding: (1) the origin and development of SCs in the peripheral and penile nerve system; (2) Wallerian degeneration and SC plastic change following peripheral and penile nerve injury; (3) how SCs promote peripheral and penile nerve regeneration by secreting neurotrophic factors; (4) and strategies targeting SCs to accelerate peripheral nerve regeneration. We searched PubMed for articles related to these topics in both animal models and human research and found numerous studies suggesting that SCs could be a novel target for treatment of nerve injury-induced ED. PMID:25999359

  18. A Fibrin Matrix Promotes the Differentiation of EMSCs Isolated from Nasal Respiratory Mucosa to Myelinating Phenotypical Schwann-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Zhang, Zhijian; Liu, Jinbo; He, Qinghua; Zhou, Yuepeng; Shao, Genbao; Sun, Xianglan; Cao, Xudong; Gong, Aihua; Jiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Because Schwann cells perform the triple tasks of myelination, axon guidance and neurotrophin synthesis, they are candidates for cell transplantation that might cure some types of nervous-system degenerative diseases or injuries. However, Schwann cells are difficult to obtain. As another option, ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) can be easily harvested from the nasal respiratory mucosa. Whether fibrin, an important transplantation vehicle, can improve the differentiation of EMSCs into Schwann-like cells (SLCs) deserves further research. EMSCs were isolated from rat nasal respiratory mucosa and were purified using anti-CD133 magnetic cell sorting. The purified cells strongly expressed HNK-1, nestin, p75NTR, S-100, and vimentin. Using nuclear staining, the MTT assay and Western blotting analysis of the expression of cell-cycle markers, the proliferation rate of EMSCs on a fibrin matrix was found to be significantly higher than that of cells grown on a plastic surface but insignificantly lower than that of cells grown on fibronectin. Additionally, the EMSCs grown on the fibrin matrix expressed myelination-related molecules, including myelin basic protein (MBP), 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) and galactocerebrosides (GalCer), more strongly than did those grown on fibronectin or a plastic surface. Furthermore, the EMSCs grown on the fibrin matrix synthesized more neurotrophins compared with those grown on fibronectin or a plastic surface. The expression level of integrin in EMSCs grown on fibrin was similar to that of cells grown on fibronectin but was higher than that of cells grown on a plastic surface. These results demonstrated that fibrin not only promoted EMSC proliferation but also the differentiation of EMSCs into the SLCs. Our findings suggested that fibrin has great promise as a cell transplantation vehicle for the treatment of some types of nervous system diseases or injuries. PMID:25666351

  19. A history of plant biotechnology: from the Cell Theory of Schleiden and Schwann to biotech crops.

    PubMed

    Vasil, Indra K

    2008-09-01

    Plant biotechnology is founded on the principles of cellular totipotency and genetic transformation, which can be traced back to the Cell Theory of Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, and the discovery of genetic transformation in bacteria by Frederick Griffith, respectively. On the 25th anniversary of the genetic transformation of plants, this review provides a historical account of the evolution of the theoretical concepts and experimental strategies that led to the production and commercialization of biotech (transformed or transgenic) plants expressing many useful genes, and emphasizes the beneficial effects of plant biotechnology on food security, human health, the environment, and conservation of biodiversity. In so doing, it celebrates and pays tribute to the contributions of scores of scientists who laid the foundation of modern plant biotechnology by their bold and unconventional thinking and experimentation. It highlights also the many important lessons to be learnt from the fascinating history of plant biotechnology, the significance of history in science teaching and research, and warns against the danger of the growing trends of ignoring history and historical illiteracy. PMID:18612644

  20. Schwann cell mitochondrial metabolism supports long-term axonal survival and peripheral nerve function

    PubMed Central

    Viader, Andreu; Golden, Judith P.; Baloh, Robert H.; Schmidt, Robert E.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common cause of peripheral neuropathies. While the role of neuron and axonal mitochondria in peripheral nerve disease is well appreciated, whether Schwann cell (SC) mitochondrial deficits contribute to peripheral neuropathies is unclear. Here we examine how SC mitochondrial dysfunction affects axonal survival and contributes to the decline of peripheral nerve function by generating mice with SC-specific mitochondrial deficits. These mice (Tfam-SCKOs) were produced through the tissue-specific deletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor A gene (Tfam), which is essential for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transcription and maintenance. Tfam-SCKOs were viable but, as they aged, they developed a progressive peripheral neuropathy characterized by nerve conduction abnormalities as well as extensive muscle denervation. Morphological examination of Tfam-SCKO nerves revealed early preferential loss of small unmyelinated fibers followed by prominent demyelination and degeneration of larger-caliber axons. Tfam-SCKOs displayed sensory and motor deficits consistent with this pathology. Remarkably, the severe mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain abnormalities in Tfam-SCKO mice did not affect SC proliferation or survival. Mitochondrial function in SCs is therefore essential for maintenance of axonal survival and normal peripheral nerve function, suggesting that SC mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to human peripheral neuropathies. PMID:21752989

  1. Polyneuropathy with lipid deposits in Schwann cells and axonal degeneration in cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis.

    PubMed

    Voiculescu, V; Alexianu, M; Popescu-Tismana, G; Pastia, M; Petrovici, A; Dan, A

    1987-12-01

    The present paper is a histological, histochemical and electron microscopic study of biopsied specimens from both right and left Achilles tendon, sural nerve and gastrocnemius muscle in a case of peripheral neuropathy with decreased sensory conduction velocity within a cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis confirmed biochemically in a 29-year-old woman. The tendon specimens contained large deposits of complex, non-homogeneous lipids, distributed intra- and extracellularly. The right sural nerve specimen showed a very severe neuropathy with massive diffuse myelinated fiber loss, presence of foamy macrophages and lipid droplets in Schwann cells. Segmental de- and remyelination was noted in 17% of the teased myelinated fibers. No onion bulbs were observed. Two years later, the left sural nerve specimen revealed a mild diffuse myelinated fiber loss, a more active segmental de- and remyelination (23%) without onion bulbs, and an active regeneration. Lipid storage aspects were absent. The gastrocnemius muscle specimens exhibited slight alterations of neurogenic origin. The pathogenesis of this neuropathy is discussed. PMID:2831311

  2. BMP7 retards peripheral myelination by activating p38 MAPK in Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yahong; Peng, Su; Zhang, Shuqiang; Wang, Meihong; Chen, Yeyue; Zhang, Shan; Yang, Yumin; Sun, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cell (SC) myelination is pivotal for the proper physiological functioning of the nervous system, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains less well understood. Here, we showed that the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) inversely correlates with myelin gene expression during peripheral myelination, which suggests that BMP7 is likely a negative regulator for myelin gene expression. Our experiments further showed that the application of BMP7 attenuates the cAMP induced myelin gene expression in SCs. Downstream pathway analysis suggested that both p38 MAPK and SMAD are activated by exogenous BMP7 in SCs. The pharmacological intervention and gene silence studies revealed that p38 MAPK, not SMAD, is responsible for BMP7-mediated suppression of myelin gene expression. In addition, c-Jun, a potential negative regulator for peripheral myelination, was up-regulated by BMP7. In vivo experiments showed that BMP7 treatment greatly impaired peripheral myelination in newborn rats. Together, our results established that BMP7 is a negative regulator for peripheral myelin gene expression and that p38 MAPK/c-Jun axis might be the main downstream target of BMP7 in this process. PMID:27491681

  3. BMP7 retards peripheral myelination by activating p38 MAPK in Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yahong; Peng, Su; Zhang, Shuqiang; Wang, Meihong; Chen, Yeyue; Zhang, Shan; Yang, Yumin; Sun, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cell (SC) myelination is pivotal for the proper physiological functioning of the nervous system, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains less well understood. Here, we showed that the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) inversely correlates with myelin gene expression during peripheral myelination, which suggests that BMP7 is likely a negative regulator for myelin gene expression. Our experiments further showed that the application of BMP7 attenuates the cAMP induced myelin gene expression in SCs. Downstream pathway analysis suggested that both p38 MAPK and SMAD are activated by exogenous BMP7 in SCs. The pharmacological intervention and gene silence studies revealed that p38 MAPK, not SMAD, is responsible for BMP7-mediated suppression of myelin gene expression. In addition, c-Jun, a potential negative regulator for peripheral myelination, was up-regulated by BMP7. In vivo experiments showed that BMP7 treatment greatly impaired peripheral myelination in newborn rats. Together, our results established that BMP7 is a negative regulator for peripheral myelin gene expression and that p38 MAPK/c-Jun axis might be the main downstream target of BMP7 in this process. PMID:27491681

  4. Permissive Schwann cell graft/spinal cord interfaces for axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ryan R; Henao, Martha; Pearse, Damien D; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of autologous Schwann cells (SCs) to repair the injured spinal cord is currently being evaluated in a clinical trial. In support, this study determined properties of spinal cord/SC bridge interfaces that enabled regenerated brainstem axons to cross them, possibly leading to improvement in rat hindlimb movement. Fluid bridges of SCs and Matrigel were placed in complete spinal cord transections. Compared to pregelled bridges of SCs and Matrigel, they improved regeneration of brainstem axons across the rostral interface. The regenerating brainstem axons formed synaptophysin(+) bouton-like terminals and contacted MAP2A(+) dendrites at the caudal interface. Brainstem axon regeneration was directly associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP(+)) astrocyte processes that elongated into the SC bridge. Electron microscopy revealed that axons, SCs, and astrocytes were enclosed together within tunnels bounded by a continuous basal lamina. Neuroglycan (NG2) expression was associated with these tunnels. One week after injury, the GFAP(+) processes coexpressed nestin and brain lipid-binding protein, and the tips of GFAP(+)/NG2(+) processes extended into the bridges together with the regenerating brainstem axons. Both brainstem axon regeneration and number of GFAP(+) processes in the bridges correlated with improvement in hindlimb locomotion. Following SCI, astrocytes may enter a reactive state that prohibits axon regeneration. Elongation of astrocyte processes into SC bridges, however, and formation of NG2(+) tunnels enable brainstem axon regeneration and improvement in function. It is important for spinal cord repair to define conditions that favor elongation of astrocytes into lesions/transplants. PMID:24152553

  5. Glutamate signals through mGluR2 to control Schwann cell differentiation and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Fuminori; Wakatsuki, Shuji; Tokunaga, Shinji; Fujieda, Hiroki; Araki, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Rapid saltatory nerve conduction is facilitated by myelin structure, which is produced by Schwann cells (SC) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Proper development and degeneration/regeneration after injury requires regulated phenotypic changes of SC. We have previously shown that glutamate can induce SC proliferation in culture. Here we show that glutamate signals through metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) to induce Erk phosphorylation in SC. mGluR2-elicited Erk phosphorylation requires ErbB2/3 receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation to limit the signaling cascade that promotes phosphorylation of Erk, but not Akt. We found that Gβγ and Src are involved in subcellular signaling downstream of mGluR2. We also found that glutamate can transform myelinating SC to proliferating SC, while inhibition of mGluR2 signaling can inhibit demyelination of injured nerves in vivo. These data suggest pathophysiological significance of mGluR2 signaling in PNS and its possible therapeutic importance to combat demyelinating disorders including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. PMID:27432639

  6. Glutamate signals through mGluR2 to control Schwann cell differentiation and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Fuminori; Wakatsuki, Shuji; Tokunaga, Shinji; Fujieda, Hiroki; Araki, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Rapid saltatory nerve conduction is facilitated by myelin structure, which is produced by Schwann cells (SC) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Proper development and degeneration/regeneration after injury requires regulated phenotypic changes of SC. We have previously shown that glutamate can induce SC proliferation in culture. Here we show that glutamate signals through metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) to induce Erk phosphorylation in SC. mGluR2-elicited Erk phosphorylation requires ErbB2/3 receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation to limit the signaling cascade that promotes phosphorylation of Erk, but not Akt. We found that Gβγ and Src are involved in subcellular signaling downstream of mGluR2. We also found that glutamate can transform myelinating SC to proliferating SC, while inhibition of mGluR2 signaling can inhibit demyelination of injured nerves in vivo. These data suggest pathophysiological significance of mGluR2 signaling in PNS and its possible therapeutic importance to combat demyelinating disorders including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. PMID:27432639

  7. Culturing Schwann Cells from Neonatal Rats by Improved Enzyme Digestion Combined with Explants-culture Method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Liang, Xiao-Chun; Zhang, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Objective To develop an improved method for culturing Schwann cells(SCs) by using both enzyme digestion and explants-culture approaches and compared with traditional explants-culture method and general hemi-explants-culture method. Methods Bilaterally sciatic nerves and brachial plexus nerves were dissected from 3 to 5-day-old neonatal SD rats and explants-culture method,general hemi-explants-culture method,and improved enzyme digestion combined with explants-culture method were adopted to culture SCs,respectively. SCs were digested and passaged after 7 days in culture and counted under the microscope. The purity of SCs was identified by S-100 immunofluorescence staining. Results The SCs of improved method group grew fastest and the total number of cells obtained was(1.85±0.13)×10(6);the SCs of the hemi-explants-culture method group grew slower than the improved method group and the total number of cells obtained was (1.10±0.10)×10(6);the SCs of the explants-culture method group grew slowest and the total number of cells obtained was (0.77±0.03)×10(6).The total number of cells obtained showed significant difference among the three groups(P<0.01). Immunofluorescence staining showed that the SCs purity was (95.73±1.51)% in the improved method group,(84.66±2.68)% in the hemi-explants-culture method group,and (74.50±4.23)% in the explants-culture method group(P<0.01). Conclusion The improved enzyme digestion combined with explants-culture method can obtain sufficient amount of high-purity SCs in a short time and thus may be applied in further research on peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:27594149

  8. Geometrical versus Random β-TCP Scaffolds: Exploring the Effects on Schwann Cell Growth and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Lauren; Kang, Yunqing; Czisch, Christopher; Witek, Lukasz; Shi, Yang; Smay, Jim; Plant, Giles W; Yang, Yunzhi

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs) play a role in nerve regeneration; however, their role in innervating a bioceramic scaffold for potential application in bone regeneration is still unknown. Here we report the cell growth and functional behavior of SCs on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds arranged in 3D printed-lattice (P-β-TCP) and randomly-porous, template-casted (N-β-TCP) structures. Our results indicate that SCs proliferated well and expressed the phenotypic markers p75LNGFR and the S100-β subunit of SCs as well as displayed growth morphology on both scaffolds, but SCs showed spindle-shaped morphology with a significant degree of SCs alignment on the P-β-TCP scaffolds, seen to a lesser degree in the N-β-TCP scaffold. The gene expressions of nerve growth factor (β-ngf), neutrophin-3 (nt-3), platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf-bb), and vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf-a) were higher at day 7 than at day 14. While no significant differences in protein secretion were measured between these last two time points, the scaffolds promoted the protein secretion at day 3 compared to that on the cell culture plates. These results together imply that the β-TCP scaffolds can support SC cell growth and that the 3D-printed scaffold appeared to significantly promote the alignment of SCs along the struts. Further studies are needed to investigate the early and late stage relationship between gene expression and protein secretion of SCs on the scaffolds with refined characteristics, thus better exploring the potential of SCs to support vascularization and innervation in synthetic bone grafts. PMID:26444999

  9. Investigation of Schwann cell behaviour on RGD-functionalised bioabsorbable nanocomposite for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sedaghati, Tina; Jell, Gavin; Seifalian, Alexander

    2014-05-25

    Current commercially available nerve conduits fail to support nerve regeneration gaps larger than 30 mm in length due to the simple intra-luminal design of these conduits which are unable to biomimic the native neural environment. There is, therefore, a major clinical demand for new smart biomaterials, which can stimulate neuronal cell proliferation and migration, and facilitate nerve regeneration across these critical sized defects. In this study, we aimed to investigate Schwann cell (SC) behaviour seeded on the bioabsorbable version of the nanocomposite material, POSS modified poly (caprolactone) urea urethane (PCL), functionalised with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide. Successful synthesis of RGD peptide as well as the chemical structure of POSS-PCL nanocomposite film was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cell viability assay and morphological assessment were performed to investigate the cytocompatibility of the fabricated constructs. Successful immobilisation of RGD peptide onto the nanocomposite surface was confirmed by water contact angle, Brilliant Blue (BB) staining and thin layer chromatography. Both POSS-PCL and RGD-POSS-PCL nanocomposite scaffolds supported SC attachment, proliferation and morphological differentiation, important aspects for peripheral nerve regeneration. However, a significant increase in SC process length and morphological differentiation towards maturation was observed on the cells grown on RGD-POSS-PCL film. RGD-POSS-PCL nanocomposite demonstrated a significant improvement in SCs spreading and its integrin-dependent process outgrowth (P<0.05). Conduits made by POSS-nanocomposite may be suitable for the next generation of commercially available conduit required to meet current clinical demand in peripheral nerve regeneration and repair as they are currently undergoing in vivo preclinical study. PMID:24503165

  10. Viral transduction of primary Schwann cells using a Cre-lox system to regulate GDNF expression.

    PubMed

    Wu-Fienberg, Yuewei; Moore, Amy M; Marquardt, Laura M; Newton, Piyaraj; Johnson, Philip J; Mackinnon, Susan E; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E; Wood, Matthew D

    2014-09-01

    Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor known to enhance motor nerve regeneration following its delivery. However, recent studies have determined that extended GDNF delivery to regenerating axons can entrap motor axons at the site of GDNF delivery. This entrapment leads to reduced motor axons available to reinnervate muscle. To address this issue, we designed a cell-based GDNF expression system that can temporally regulate protein expression using an inducible gene excision mechanism to prevent entrapment at the site of expression. To design this system for regulation of GDNF expression, we transduced two lentiviral vectors, one containing a constitutively active GDNF transgene flanked by two loxP sites, and the other containing a tetracycline-inducible cre transgene along with its constitutively active transactivator, into Schwann cells (SCs). These SCs over-express GDNF, but expression can be suppressed through the administration of tetracycline family antibiotics, such as doxycycline. The engineered SCs produced significantly more GDNF as compared to untransduced controls, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Following doxycycline treatment, these SCs produced significantly lower levels of GDNF and induced less neurite extension as compared to untreated SCs. Engineered SCs treated with doxycycline showed a marked increase in Cre recombinase expression, as visualized by immunohistochemistry (IHC), providing evidence of a mechanism for the observed changes in GDNF expression levels and biological activity. This cell-based GDNF expression system could have potential for future in vivo studies to provide a temporally controlled GDNF source to promote axon growth. PMID:24728940

  11. Viral transduction of primary Schwann cells using a Cre-lox system to regulate GDNF expression

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Fienberg, Yuewei; Moore, Amy M.; Marquardt, Laura M.; Newton, Piyaraj; Johnson, Philip J.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E.; Wood, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor known to enhance motor nerve regeneration following its delivery. However, recent studies have determined that extended GDNF delivery to regenerating axons can entrap motor axons at the site of GDNF delivery. This entrapment leads to reduced motor axons available to reinnervate muscle. To address this issue, we designed a cell-based GDNF expression system that can temporally regulate protein expression using an inducible gene excision mechanism to prevent entrapment at the site of expression. To design this system for regulation of GDNF expression, we transduced two lentiviral vectors, one containing a constitutively active GDNF transgene flanked by two loxP sites, and the other containing a tetracycline-inducible cre transgene along with its constitutively active transactivator, into Schwann cells (SCs). These SCs over-express GDNF, but expression can be suppressed through the administration of tetracycline family antibiotics, such as doxycycline. The engineered SCs produced significantly more GDNF as compared to untransduced controls, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Following doxycycline treatment, these SCs produced significantly lower levels of GDNF and induced less neurite extension as compared to untreated SCs. Engineered SCs treated with doxycycline showed a marked increase in Cre recombinase expression, as visualized by immunohistochemistry (IHC), providing evidence of a mechanism for the observed changes in GDNF expression levels and biological activity. This cell-based GDNF expression system could have potential for future in vivo studies to provide a temporally-controlled GDNF source to promote axon growth. PMID:24728940

  12. Geometrical versus Random β-TCP Scaffolds: Exploring the Effects on Schwann Cell Growth and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Czisch, Christopher; Witek, Lukasz; Shi, Yang; Smay, Jim; Plant, Giles W.; Yang, Yunzhi

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs) play a role in nerve regeneration; however, their role in innervating a bioceramic scaffold for potential application in bone regeneration is still unknown. Here we report the cell growth and functional behavior of SCs on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds arranged in 3D printed-lattice (P-β-TCP) and randomly-porous, template-casted (N-β-TCP) structures. Our results indicate that SCs proliferated well and expressed the phenotypic markers p75LNGFR and the S100-β subunit of SCs as well as displayed growth morphology on both scaffolds, but SCs showed spindle-shaped morphology with a significant degree of SCs alignment on the P-β-TCP scaffolds, seen to a lesser degree in the N-β-TCP scaffold. The gene expressions of nerve growth factor (β-ngf), neutrophin–3 (nt–3), platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf-bb), and vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf-a) were higher at day 7 than at day 14. While no significant differences in protein secretion were measured between these last two time points, the scaffolds promoted the protein secretion at day 3 compared to that on the cell culture plates. These results together imply that the β-TCP scaffolds can support SC cell growth and that the 3D-printed scaffold appeared to significantly promote the alignment of SCs along the struts. Further studies are needed to investigate the early and late stage relationship between gene expression and protein secretion of SCs on the scaffolds with refined characteristics, thus better exploring the potential of SCs to support vascularization and innervation in synthetic bone grafts. PMID:26444999

  13. Efficacy of Schwann cell transplantation for spinal cord repair is improved with combinatorial strategies.

    PubMed

    Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2016-07-01

    When cells (including Schwann cells; SCs) of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) could be purified and expanded in number in tissue culture, Richard Bunge in 1975 envisioned that the SCs could be introduced to repair the central nervous system (CNS), as SCs enable axons to regenerate after PNS injury. Importantly, autologous human SCs could be transplanted into injured human spinal cord. Availability of the new culture systems to study interactions between sensory neurons, SCs and fibroblasts increased our knowledge of SC biology in the 1970s and '80s. Joining the Miami Project to Cure Paralysis in 1989 brought the opportunity to use this knowledge to initiate spinal cord repair studies. Development of a rat complete spinal cord transection/SC bridge model allowed the demonstration that axons regenerate into the SC bridge. Together with study of contused rat spinal cord, it was concluded that implanted SCs reduce cavitation, protect tissue around the lesion, support axon regeneration and form myelin. SC transplantation efficacy was improved when combined with neurotrophins, elevation of cyclic AMP levels, olfactory ensheathing cells, a steroid or chondroitinase. Increased efficacy meant higher numbers of axons, particularly from the brainstem, and more SC-myelinated axons in the implants and improvement in hindlimb movements. Human SCs support axon regeneration as do rat SCs. Astrocytes at the SC bridge-host spinal cord interfaces play a key role in determining whether axons enter the SC milieu. The SC work described here contributed to gaining approval from the FDA for an initial autologous human SC clinical trial (at the Miami Project) that has been completed and found to be safe. PMID:26876753

  14. Schwann-like cells seeded in acellular nerve grafts improve nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluated whether Schwann-like cells (SLCs) induced from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) transplanted into acellular nerve grafts (ANGs) could repair nerve defects compared with nerve isografts and ANGs with BM-MSCs. Methods BM-MSCs extracted, separated and purified from the bone marrow of rats, and some of the BM-MSCs were cultured with mixed induction agents that could induce BM-MSCs into SLCs. Either SLCs or BM-MSCs were seeded onto 10-mm ANGs, and the isografts were chosen as the control. The walking-track test, tibialis anterior muscle weight measurement, electrophysiological examination, toluidine blue staining, transmission electron micrographs and immunostaining of S-100 and VEGF in these three groups were evaluated in a 10-mm rat sciatic injury-repair model. Results The walking-track test, tibialis anterior muscle weight measurement and electrophysiological examination of the sciatic nerve suggested the groups of ANGs with SLCs and isografts obtained better results than the BM-MSC group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the results of the SLCs and isograft groups were similar (P > 0.05). All the histomorphometric analyses (toluidine blue staining, transmission electron micrographs and immunostaining of S-100 and VEGF) showed that there were more regenerating nerve fibers in the group of ANGs with SLCs than the BM-MSCs (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the SLC and isograft groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions SLCs seeded in ANGs and isografts show better functional regeneration compared with BM-MSCs seeded in ANGs. Additionally, SLCs combined with ANGs present almost the same outcome as the isografts. Therefore, SLCs with ANGs can be a good choice in nerve defect repairs. PMID:24885337

  15. Photopolymerized microfeatures for directed spiral ganglion neurite and Schwann cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Tuft, Bradley W.; Li, Shufeng; Xu, Linjing; Clarke, Joseph C.; White, Scott P.; Guymon, Bradley A.; Perez, Krystian X.; Hansen, Marlan R.; Guymon, C. Allan

    2015-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) provide auditory perception to individuals with severe hearing impairment. However, their ability to encode complex auditory stimuli is limited due, in part, to poor spatial resolution caused by electrical current spread in the inner ear. Directing nerve cell processes towards target electrodes may reduce the problematic current spread and improve stimulatory specificity. In this work, photopolymerization was used to fabricate micro- and nano-patterned methacrylate polymers to probe the extent of spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) neurite and Schwann cell (SGSC) contact guidance based on variations in substrate topographical cues. Micropatterned substrates are formed in a rapid, single-step reaction by selectively blocking light with photomasks which have parallel line-space gratings with periodicities of 10 – 100 μm. Channel amplitudes of 250 nm – 10 μm are generated by modulating UV exposure time, light intensity, and photoinitiator concentration. Gradual transitions are observed between ridges and grooves using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The transitions stand in contrast to vertical features generated via etching lithographic techniques. Alignment of neural elements increases significantly with increasing feature amplitude and constant periodicity, as well as with decreasing periodicity and constant amplitude. SGN neurite alignment strongly correlates (r = 0.93) with maximum feature slope. Multiple neuronal and glial types orient to the patterns with varying degrees of alignment. This work presents a method to fabricate gradually-sloping micropatterns for cellular contact guidance studies and demonstrates spatial control of inner ear neural elements in response to micro- and nano-scale surface topography. PMID:23069708

  16. Netrin-1 induces the migration of Schwann cells via p38 MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway mediated by the UNC5B receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Jianwei; Sun, Xiaolei; Ma, Jianxiong; Ma, Xinlong; Zhang, Yang; Li, Fengbo; Li, Yanjun; Zhao, Zhihu

    2015-08-14

    Schwann cells (SCs) play an essentially supportive role in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve system (PNS). As Netrin-1 is crucial for the normal development of nervous system (NS) and can direct the process of damaged PNS regeneration, our study was designed to determine the role of Netrin-1 in RSC96 Schwann cells (an immortalized rat Schwann cell line) proliferation and migration. Our studies demonstrated that Netrin-1 had no effect on RSC96 cells proliferation, while significantly promoted RSC96 cells migration. The Netrin-1-induced RSC96 cells migration was significantly attenuated by inhibition of p38 and PI3K through pretreatment with SB203580 and LY294002 respectively, but not inhibition of MEK1/2 and JNK by U0126-EtOH and SP600125 individually. Treatment with Netrin-1 enhanced the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt. QRT-PCR indicated that Netrin-1 and only its receptors Unc5a, Unc5b and Neogenin were expressed in RSC96 cells, among which Unc5b expressed the most. And UNC5B protein was significantly increased after stimulated by Netrin-1. In conclusion, we show here that Netrin-1-enhanced SCs migration is mediated by activating p38 MAPK and PI3K-Akt signal cascades via receptor UNC5B, which suggests that Netrin-1 could serve as a new therapeutic strategy and has potential application value for PNS regeneration. - Highlights: • Netrin-1 attracts RSC96 Schwann cells migration in a dose dependent manner. • Netrin-1 induced Schwann cells migration is p38 and PI3K-Akt signaling dependent. • UNC5B may be dominant receptor mediating Netrin-1′ effect on RSC96 cells motility. • Netrin-1 may promote peripheral nerve repair by enhancing Schwann cells motility.

  17. C3-induced release of neurotrophic factors from Schwann cells - potential mechanism behind its regeneration promoting activity.

    PubMed

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Stahl, Frank; Höltje, Markus; Hettwer, Timo; Lindner, Patrick; Hagemann, Sandra; Pich, Andreas; Haastert-Talini, Kirsten

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies revealed a peripheral nerve regeneration (PNR)(1) promoting activity of Clostridium botulinum C3(2) exoenzyme or a 26(mer) C-terminal peptide fragment covering amino acids 156-181 (C3(156-181)),(3) when delivered as one-time injection at the lesion site. The current study was performed to 1) investigate if prolonged availability of C3 and C3(156-181) at the lesion site can further enhance PNR in vivo and to 2) elucidate effects of C3 and C3(156-181) on Schwann cells (SCs)(4)in vitro. For in vivo studies, 10 mm adult rat sciatic nerve gaps were reconstructed with the epineurial pouch technique or autologous nerve grafts. Epineurial pouches were filled with a hydrogel containing i) vehicle, ii) 40 μM C3 or iii) 40 μM C3(156-181). Sensory and motor functional recovery was monitored over 12 weeks and the outcome of PNR further analyzed by nerve morphometry. In vitro, we compared gene expression profiles (microarray analysis) and neurotrophic factor expression (western blot analysis) of untreated rat neonatal SCs with those treated with C3 or C3(156-181) for 72 h. Effects on neurotrophic factor expression levels were proven in adult human SCs. Unexpectedly, prolonged delivery of C3 and C3(156-181) at the lesion site did not increase the outcome of PNR. Regarding the potential mechanism underlying their previously detected PNR promoting action, however, 6 genes were found to be commonly altered in SCs upon treatment with C3 or C3(156-181). We demonstrate significant down-regulation of genes involved in glutamate uptake (Eaac1,(5)Grin2a(6)) and changes in neurotrophic factor expression (increase of FGF-2(7) and decrease of NGF(8)). Our microarray-based expression profiling revealed novel C3-regulated genes in SCs possibly involved in the axonotrophic (regeneration promoting) effects of C3 and C3(156-181). Detection of altered neurotrophic factor expression by C3 or C3(156-181) treated primary neonatal rat SCs and primary adult human SCs supports

  18. Effect of Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair on Nerve Regeneration, Schwann Cell Function and Target Muscle Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Samuel; Wiberg, Rebecca; McGrath, Aleksandra M.; Novikov, Lev N.; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, functional restitution remains incomplete. The timing of surgery is one factor influencing the extent of recovery but it is not yet clearly defined how long a delay may be tolerated before repair becomes futile. In this study, rats underwent sciatic nerve transection before immediate (0) or 1, 3, or 6 months delayed repair with a nerve graft. Regeneration of spinal motoneurons, 13 weeks after nerve repair, was assessed using retrograde labeling. Nerve tissue was also collected from the proximal and distal stumps and from the nerve graft, together with the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. A dramatic decline in the number of regenerating motoneurons and myelinated axons in the distal nerve stump was observed in the 3- and 6-months delayed groups. After 3 months delay, the axonal number in the proximal stump increased 2–3 folds, accompanied by a smaller axonal area. RT-PCR of distal nerve segments revealed a decline in Schwann cells (SC) markers, most notably in the 3 and 6 month delayed repair samples. There was also a progressive increase in fibrosis and proteoglycan scar markers in the distal nerve with increased delayed repair time. The yield of SC isolated from the distal nerve segments progressively fell with increased delay in repair time but cultured SC from all groups proliferated at similar rates. MG muscle at 3- and 6-months delay repair showed a significant decline in weight (61% and 27% compared with contra-lateral side). Muscle fiber atrophy and changes to neuromuscular junctions were observed with increased delayed repair time suggestive of progressively impaired reinnervation. This study demonstrates that one of the main limiting factors for nerve regeneration after delayed repair is the distal stump. The critical time point after which the outcome of regeneration becomes too poor appears to be 3-months. PMID:23409189

  19. Schwann cell-derived Apolipoprotein D controls the dynamics of post-injury myelin recognition and degradation

    PubMed Central

    García-Mateo, Nadia; Ganfornina, Maria D.; Montero, Olimpio; Gijón, Miguel A.; Murphy, Robert C.; Sanchez, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Management of lipids, particularly signaling lipids that control neuroinflammation, is crucial for the regeneration capability of a damaged nervous system. Knowledge of pro- and anti-inflammatory signals after nervous system injury is extensive, most of them being proteins acting through well-known receptors and intracellular cascades. However, the role of lipid binding extracellular proteins able to modify the fate of lipids released after injury is not well understood. Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is an extracellular lipid binding protein of the Lipocalin family induced upon nervous system injury. Our previous study shows that axon regeneration is delayed without ApoD, and suggests its participation in early events during Wallerian degeneration. Here we demonstrate that ApoD is expressed by myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells and is induced early upon nerve injury. We show that ApoD, known to bind arachidonic acid (AA), also interacts with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in vitro. We use an in vivo model of nerve crush injury, a nerve explant injury model, and cultured macrophages exposed to purified myelin, to uncover that: (i) ApoD regulates denervated Schwann cell-macrophage signaling, dampening MCP1- and Tnf-dependent macrophage recruitment and activation upon injury; (ii) ApoD controls the over-expression of the phagocytosis activator Galectin-3 by infiltrated macrophages; (iii) ApoD controls the basal and injury-triggered levels of LPC and AA; (iv) ApoD modifies the dynamics of myelin-macrophage interaction, favoring the initiation of phagocytosis and promoting myelin degradation. Regulation of macrophage behavior by Schwann-derived ApoD is therefore a key mechanism conditioning nerve injury resolution. These results place ApoD as a lipid binding protein controlling the signals exchanged between glia, neurons and blood-borne cells during nerve recovery after injury, and open the possibility for a therapeutic use of ApoD as a regeneration-promoting agent

  20. Activation of Schwann cells in vitro by magnetic nanocomposites via applied magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongyang; Huang, Liangliang; Liu, Liang; Luo, Beier; Liang, Miaomiao; Sun, Zhen; Zhu, Shu; Quan, Xin; Yang, Yafeng; Ma, Teng; Huang, Jinghui; Luo, Zhuojing

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) are attractive seed cells in neural tissue engineering, but their application is limited by attenuated biological activities and impaired functions with aging. Therefore, it is important to explore an approach to enhance the viability and biological properties of SCs. In the present study, a magnetic composite made of magnetically responsive magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and a biodegradable chitosan–glycerophosphate polymer were prepared and characterized. It was further explored whether such magnetic nanocomposites via applied magnetic fields would regulate SC biological activities. The magnetization of the magnetic nanocomposite was measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer. The compositional characterization of the magnetic nanocomposite was examined by Fourier-transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The tolerance of SCs to the magnetic fields was tested by flow-cytometry assay. The proliferation of cells was examined by a 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine-labeling assay, a PrestoBlue assay, and a Live/Dead assay. Messenger ribonucleic acid of BDNF, GDNF, NT-3, and VEGF in SCs was assayed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The amount of BDNF, GDNF, NT-3, and VEGF secreted from SCs was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was found that magnetic nanocomposites containing 10% MNPs showed a cross-section diameter of 32.33±1.81 µm, porosity of 80.41%±0.72%, and magnetization of 5.691 emu/g at 8 kOe. The 10% MNP magnetic nanocomposites were able to support cell adhesion and spreading and further promote proliferation of SCs under magnetic field exposure. Interestingly, a magnetic field applied through the 10% MNP magnetic scaffold significantly increased the gene expression and protein secretion of BDNF, GDNF, NT-3, and VEGF. This work is the first stage in our understanding of how to precisely regulate the viability and biological properties of SCs in tissue-engineering grafts, which combined with additional

  1. Studies of adhesion molecules mediating interactions between cells of peripheral nervous system indicate a major role for L1 in mediating sensory neuron growth on Schwann cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Seilheimer, B; Schachner, M

    1988-07-01

    The involvement of the adhesion molecules L1, N-CAM, and J1 in adhesion and neurite outgrowth in the peripheral nervous system was investigated. We prepared Schwann cells and fibroblasts (from sciatic nerves) and neurons (from dorsal root ganglia) from 1-d mice. These cells were allowed to interact with each other in a short-term adhesion assay. We also measured outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion neurons on Schwann cell and fibroblast monolayers. Schwann cells (which express L1, N-CAM, and J1) adhered most strongly to dorsal root ganglion neurons by an L1-dependent mechanism and less by N-CAM and J1. Schwann cell-Schwann cell adhesion was mediated by L1 and N-CAM, but not J1. Adhesion of fibroblasts (which express N-CAM, but not L1 or J1) to neurons or Schwann cells was mediated by L1 and N-CAM and not J1. However, inhibition by L1 and N-CAM antibodies was found to be less pronounced with fibroblasts than with Schwann cells. N-CAM was also strongly involved in fibroblast-fibroblast adhesion. Neurite outgrowth was most extensive on Schwann cells and less on fibroblasts. A difference in extent of neurite elongation was seen between small- (10-20 microns) and large- (20-35 microns) diameter neurons, with the larger neurons tending to exhibit longer neurites. Fab fragments of polyclonal L1, N-CAM, and J1 antibodies exerted slightly different inhibitory effects on neurite outgrowth, depending on whether the neurites were derived from small or large neurons. L1 antibodies interfered most strikingly with neurite outgrowth on Schwann cells (inhibition of 88% for small and 76% for large neurons), while no inhibition was detectable on fibroblasts. Similarly, although to a smaller extent than L1, N-CAM appeared to be involved in neurite outgrowth on Schwann cells and not on fibroblasts. Antibodies to J1 only showed a very small effect on neurite outgrowth of large neurons on Schwann cells. These observations show for the first time that identified adhesion molecules are potent

  2. Human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into a Schwann-cell phenotype and promote neurite outgrowth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jiang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Bin; Zhao, Zhe; Chen, JiFeng; Guo, QuanYi; Liu, ShuYun; Sui, Xiang; Xu, WenJing; Lu, ShiBi

    2011-02-28

    Cell-based therapy has achieved promising functional recovery for peripheral nerve repair. Although Schwann cells (SCs) and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are the main cell source for nerve tissue engineering, the clinical application is limited because of donor site morbidity, the invasive procedure, and the decreased number of SCs and BM-MSCs. Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) could be a promising cell source for nerve tissue engineering because they are easily accessible and their use has no ethical issues. We investigated the phenotypic, molecular and functional characteristics of WJMSCs differentiated along a Schwann-cell lineage. Cultured WJMSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord, and the undifferentiated WJMSCs were confirmed by the detection of MSC-specific cell-surface markers. WJMSCs treated with a mixture of glial growth factors (basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor and forskolin) adopted a spindle-like morphology similar to SCs. Immunocytochemical staining, RT-PCR analysis, and Western blot analysis revealed that the treated cells expressed the glial markers glial fibrillary acidic protein, p75, S100 and P0 and indicative of differentiation. On co-culture with dorsal root ganglia neurons, the differentiated WJMSCs enhanced the number of sprouting neurites and neurite length in dorsal root ganglia neurons. Furthermore, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RT-PCR methodology, we found differentiated WJMSCs secrete and express neurotrophic factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). Quantification of neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells grown in differentiated WJMSCs-conditioned media demonstrates that the neurite length is significantly more than control medium and undifferentiated WJMSCs group. WJMSCs can be differentiated into cells that are Schwann-like in terms of morphologic features, phenotype, and

  3. Lysosomal delivery of the major myelin glycoprotein in the absence of myelin assembly: posttranslational regulation of the level of expression by Schwann cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brunden, K.R.; Poduslo, J.F.

    1987-03-01

    The major myelin protein, P0, has been shown to have decreased levels of expression and altered oligosaccharide processing after the disruption of Schwann cell-axon interaction. We show here that lysosomal degradation of the glycoprotein shortly after its synthesis accounts for much of its decreased expression in the permanently transected adult rat sciatic nerve, a denervated preparation where there is no axonal regeneration or myelin assembly. If (/sup 3/H)mannose incorporation into sciatic nerve endoneurial slices is examined in the presence of the lysosomotropic agent, NH/sub 4/Cl, a marked increase in the level of newly synthesized P0 is seen. Pulse-chase analysis of (/sup 3/H)mannose-labeled P0 in the presence of NH/sub 4/Cl indicates that this increase is a consequence of inhibition of P0 degradation that normally occurs 1-2 h after biosynthesis in the transected nerve. P0 degradation can also be inhibited if lysosomal function is disturbed by dilation of secondary lysosomes with L-methionine methyl ester. The addition of deoxymannonojirimycin or swainsonine (SW), inhibitors of oligosaccharide-processing mannosidases I and II, respectively, also results in a decrease in P0 degradation. This inhibition is presumably caused by a blockage of transport to the lysosomes due to altered processing of the glycoprotein, although the direct inhibition of lysosomal mannosidases cannot be excluded. In contrast to the transected nerve, addition of NH/sub 4/Cl or SW has no effect on P0 levels in the crushed nerve, where myelin assembly occurs. The delivery of P0 to the lysosomes of the transected nerve Schwann cells does not appear to be triggered by the mannose-6-phosphate transport system involved in acid hydrolase routing.

  4. Human Schwann Cells Seeded on a Novel Collagen-Based Microstructured Nerve Guide Survive, Proliferate, and Modify Neurite Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    van Neerven, Sabien G. A.; Haastert-Talini, Kirsten; Tolba, René H.; Pallua, Norbert; Bozkurt, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    A variety of new bioartificial nerve guides have been tested preclinically for their safety and nerve regeneration supporting properties. So far, only a limited number of biomaterials have been tested in humans since the step from preclinical work to a clinical application is challenging. We here present an in vitro model with human Schwann cells (hSCs) as an intermediate step towards clinical application of the nerve guide Perimaix, a collagen-based microstructured 3D scaffold containing numerous longitudinal guidance channels for directed axonal growth. hSCs were seeded onto different prototypes of Perimaix and cultivated for 14 days. hSC adhered to the scaffold, proliferated, and demonstrated healthy Schwann cell morphology (spindle shaped cell bodies, bipolar oriented processes) not only at the surface of the material, but also in the deeper layers of the scaffold. The general well-being of the cells was quantitatively confirmed by low levels of lactate dehydrogenase release into the culture medium. Moreover, conditioned medium of hSCs that were cultivated on Perimaix was able to modify neurite outgrowth from sensory dorsal root ganglion neurons. Overall these data indicate that Perimaix is able to provide a matrix that can promote the attachment and supports process extension, migration, and proliferation of hSC. PMID:24895582

  5. Interplay between VEGF-A and cMET signaling in human vestibular schwannomas and schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Dilwali, Sonam; Roberts, Daniel; Stankovic, Konstantina M

    2015-01-01

    Vestibular schwannoma (VS), the fourth most common intracranial tumor, arises from the Schwann cells of the vestibular nerve. Although several pathways have been independently implicated in VS pathobiology, interactions among these pathways have not been explored in depth. We have investigated the potential cross-talk between hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in human VS, an interaction that has been described in other physiological and pathological cell types. We affirmed previous findings that VEGF-A signaling is aberrantly upregulated in VS, and established that expression of HGF and its receptor cMET is also significantly higher in sporadic VS than in healthy nerves. In primary human VS and Schwann cell cultures, we found that VEGF-A and HGF signaling pathways modulate each other. siRNAs targeting cMET decreased both cMET and VEGF-A protein levels, and siRNAs targeting VEGF-A reduced cMET expression. Additionally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of VEGF-A or cMET and pharmacologic inhibition of cMET decreased cellular proliferation in primary human VS cultures. Our data suggest cross-talk between these 2 prominent pathways in VS and highlight the HGF/cMET pathway as an additional important therapeutic target in VS. PMID:25692621

  6. Temporal Analysis of Gene Expression in the Murine Schwann Cell Lineage and the Acutely Injured Postnatal Nerve.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Anjali; Stykel, Morgan G; Touahri, Yacine; Stratton, Jo Anne; Biernaskie, Jeff; Schuurmans, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) arise from neural crest cells (NCCs) that first give rise to SC precursors (SCPs), followed by immature SCs, pro-myelinating SCs, and finally, non-myelinating or myelinating SCs. After nerve injury, mature SCs 'de-differentiate', downregulating their myelination program while transiently re-activating early glial lineage genes. To better understand molecular parallels between developing and de-differentiated SCs, we characterized the expression profiles of a panel of 12 transcription factors from the onset of NCC migration through postnatal stages, as well as after acute nerve injury. Using Sox10 as a pan-glial marker in co-expression studies, the earliest transcription factors expressed in E9.0 Sox10+ NCCs were Sox9, Pax3, AP2α and Nfatc4. E10.5 Sox10+ NCCs coalescing in the dorsal root ganglia differed slightly, expressing Sox9, Pax3, AP2α and Etv5. E12.5 SCPs continued to express Sox10, Sox9, AP2α and Pax3, as well as initiating Sox2 and Egr1 expression. E14.5 immature SCs were similar to SCPs, except that they lost Pax3 expression. By E18.5, AP2α, Sox2 and Egr1 expression was turned off in the nerve, while Jun, Oct6 and Yy1 expression was initiated in pro-myelinating Sox9+/Sox10+ SCs. Early postnatal and adult SCs continued to express Sox9, Jun, Oct6 and Yy1 and initiated Nfatc4 and Egr2 expression. Notably, at all stages, expression of each marker was observed only in a subset of Sox10+ SCs, highlighting the heterogeneity of the SC pool. Following acute nerve injury, Egr1, Jun, Oct6, and Sox2 expression was upregulated, Egr2 expression was downregulated, while Sox9, Yy1, and Nfatc4 expression was maintained at similar frequencies. Notably, de-differentiated SCs in the injured nerve did not display a transcription factor profile corresponding to a specific stage in the SC lineage. Taken together, we demonstrate that uninjured and injured SCs are heterogeneous and distinct from one another, and de-differentiation recapitulates

  7. Temporal Analysis of Gene Expression in the Murine Schwann Cell Lineage and the Acutely Injured Postnatal Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Touahri, Yacine; Stratton, Jo Anne; Biernaskie, Jeff; Schuurmans, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) arise from neural crest cells (NCCs) that first give rise to SC precursors (SCPs), followed by immature SCs, pro-myelinating SCs, and finally, non-myelinating or myelinating SCs. After nerve injury, mature SCs ‘de-differentiate’, downregulating their myelination program while transiently re-activating early glial lineage genes. To better understand molecular parallels between developing and de-differentiated SCs, we characterized the expression profiles of a panel of 12 transcription factors from the onset of NCC migration through postnatal stages, as well as after acute nerve injury. Using Sox10 as a pan-glial marker in co-expression studies, the earliest transcription factors expressed in E9.0 Sox10+ NCCs were Sox9, Pax3, AP2α and Nfatc4. E10.5 Sox10+ NCCs coalescing in the dorsal root ganglia differed slightly, expressing Sox9, Pax3, AP2α and Etv5. E12.5 SCPs continued to express Sox10, Sox9, AP2α and Pax3, as well as initiating Sox2 and Egr1 expression. E14.5 immature SCs were similar to SCPs, except that they lost Pax3 expression. By E18.5, AP2α, Sox2 and Egr1 expression was turned off in the nerve, while Jun, Oct6 and Yy1 expression was initiated in pro-myelinating Sox9+/Sox10+ SCs. Early postnatal and adult SCs continued to express Sox9, Jun, Oct6 and Yy1 and initiated Nfatc4 and Egr2 expression. Notably, at all stages, expression of each marker was observed only in a subset of Sox10+ SCs, highlighting the heterogeneity of the SC pool. Following acute nerve injury, Egr1, Jun, Oct6, and Sox2 expression was upregulated, Egr2 expression was downregulated, while Sox9, Yy1, and Nfatc4 expression was maintained at similar frequencies. Notably, de-differentiated SCs in the injured nerve did not display a transcription factor profile corresponding to a specific stage in the SC lineage. Taken together, we demonstrate that uninjured and injured SCs are heterogeneous and distinct from one another, and de-differentiation recapitulates

  8. Zeb2 recruits HDAC-NuRD to inhibit Notch and controls Schwann cell differentiation and remyelination.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lai Man Natalie; Wang, Jincheng; Conidi, Andrea; Zhao, Chuntao; Wang, Haibo; Ford, Zachary; Zhang, Liguo; Zweier, Christiane; Ayee, Brian G; Maurel, Patrice; Zwijsen, An; Chan, Jonah R; Jankowski, Michael P; Huylebroeck, Danny; Lu, Q Richard

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms that coordinate and balance a complex network of opposing regulators to control Schwann cell (SC) differentiation remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (Zeb2, also called Sip1) transcription factor is a critical intrinsic timer that controls the onset of SC differentiation by recruiting histone deacetylases HDAC 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) and nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex (NuRD) co-repressor complexes in mice. Zeb2 deletion arrests SCs at an undifferentiated state during peripheral nerve development and inhibits remyelination after injury. Zeb2 antagonizes inhibitory effectors including Notch and Sox2. Importantly, genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals a Zeb2 target gene encoding the Notch effector Hey2 as a potent inhibitor for Schwann cell differentiation. Strikingly, a genetic Zeb2 variant associated with Mowat-Wilson syndrome disrupts the interaction with HDAC1/2-NuRD and abolishes Zeb2 activity for SC differentiation. Therefore, Zeb2 controls SC maturation by recruiting HDAC1/2-NuRD complexes and inhibiting a Notch-Hey2 signaling axis, pointing to the critical role of HDAC1/2-NuRD activity in peripheral neuropathies caused by ZEB2 mutations. PMID:27294509

  9. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth differentiate toward neural cells in a medium dynamically cultured with Schwann cells in a series of polydimethylsiloxanes scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wen-Ta; Pan, Yu-Jing

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Schwann cells (SCs) are primary structural and functional cells in the peripheral nervous system. These cells play a crucial role in peripheral nerve regeneration by releasing neurotrophic factors. This study evaluated the neural differentiation potential effects of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) in a rat Schwann cell (RSC) culture medium. Approach. SHEDs and RSCs were individually cultured on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) scaffold, and the effects of the RSC medium on the SHEDs differentiation between static and dynamic cultures were compared. Main results. Results demonstrated that the SHED cells differentiated by the RSC cultured medium in the static culture formed neurospheres after 7 days at the earliest, and SHED cells formed neurospheres within 3 days in the dynamic culture. These results confirm that the RSC culture medium can induce neurospheres formation, the speed of formation and the number of neurospheres (19.16 folds high) in a dynamic culture was superior to the static culture for 3 days culture. The SHED-derived spheres were further incubated in the RSCs culture medium, these neurospheres continuously differentiated into neurons and neuroglial cells. Immunofluorescent staining and RT-PCR revealed nestin, β-III tubulin, GFAP, and γ-enolase of neural markers on the differentiated cells. Significance. These results indicated that the RSC culture medium can induce the neural differentiation of SHED cells, and can be used as a new therapeutic tool to repair nerve damage.

  10. FAK is required for Schwann cell spreading on immature basal lamina to coordinate the radial sorting of peripheral axons with myelination.

    PubMed

    Grove, Matthew; Brophy, Peter J

    2014-10-01

    Without Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), developing murine Schwann cells (SCs) proliferate poorly, sort axons inefficiently, and cannot myelinate peripheral nerves. Here we show that FAK is required for the development of SCs when their basal lamina (BL) is fragmentary, but not when it is mature in vivo. Mutant SCs fail to spread on fragmentary BL during development in vivo, and this is phenocopied by SCs lacking functional FAK on low laminin (LN) in vitro. Furthermore, SCs without functional FAK initiate differentiation prematurely, both in vivo and in vitro. In contrast to their behavior on high levels of LN, SCs lacking functional FAK grown on low LN display reduced spreading, proliferation, and indicators of contractility (i.e., stress fibers, arcs, and focal adhesions) and are primed to differentiate. Growth of SCs lacking functional FAK on increasing LN concentrations in vitro revealed that differentiation is not regulated by G1 arrest but rather by cell spreading and the level of contractile actomyosin. The importance of FAK as a critical regulator of the specific response of developing SCs to fragmentary BL was supported by the ability of adult FAK mutant SCs to remyelinate demyelinated adult nerves on mature BL in vivo. We conclude that FAK promotes the spreading and actomyosin contractility of immature SCs on fragmentary BL, thus maintaining their proliferation, and preventing differentiation until they reach high density, thereby promoting radial sorting. Hence, FAK has a critical role in the response of SCs to limiting BL by promoting proliferation and preventing premature SC differentiation. PMID:25274820

  11. Lysophospholipid Receptors Are Differentially Expressed in Rat Terminal Schwann Cells, As Revealed by a Single Cell RT-PCR and In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Kobashi, Hiroaki; Yaoi, Takeshi; Oda, Ryo; Okajima, Seiichiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu; Fushiki, Shinji

    2006-01-01

    Terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) that cover motor neuron terminals, are known to play an important role in maintaining neuromuscular junctions, as well as in the repair process after nerve injury. However, the molecular characteristics of TSCs remain unknown, because of the difficulties in analyzing them due to their paucity. By using our previously reported method of selectively and efficiently collecting TSCs, we have analyzed the difference in expression patterns of lysophospholipid (LPL) receptor genes (LPA1, LPA2, LPA3, S1P1, S1P2, S1P3, S1P4, and S1P5) between TSCs and myelinating Schwann cells (MSCs). LPL, which includes lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), is the bioactive lipid that induces a myriad of cellular responses through specific members of G-protein coupled receptors for LPA. It turned out that LPA3 was expressed only in TSCs, whereas S1P1 was expressed in TSCs and skeletal muscle, but not in MSCs. Other types of LPL receptor genes, including LPA1, S1P2, S1P3, S1P4, were expressed in both types of Schwann cells. None of the LPL receptor gene family showed MSCs-specific expression. PMID:17375210

  12. Lysophospholipid receptors are differentially expressed in rat terminal Schwann cells, as revealed by a single cell rt-PCR and in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Kobashi, Hiroaki; Yaoi, Takeshi; Oda, Ryo; Okajima, Seiichiro; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu; Fushiki, Shinji

    2006-04-22

    Terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) that cover motor neuron terminals, are known to play an important role in maintaining neuromuscular junctions, as well as in the repair process after nerve injury. However, the molecular characteristics of TSCs remain unknown, because of the difficulties in analyzing them due to their paucity. By using our previously reported method of selectively and efficiently collecting TSCs, we have analyzed the difference in expression patterns of lysophospholipid (LPL) receptor genes (LPA1, LPA2, LPA3, S1P1, S1P2, S1P3, S1P4, and S1P5) between TSCs and myelinating Schwann cells (MSCs). LPL, which includes lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), is the bioactive lipid that induces a myriad of cellular responses through specific members of G-protein coupled receptors for LPA. It turned out that LPA3 was expressed only in TSCs, whereas S1P1 was expressed in TSCs and skeletal muscle, but not in MSCs. Other types of LPL receptor genes, including LPA1, S1P2, S1P3, S1P4, were expressed in both types of Schwann cells. None of the LPL receptor gene family showed MSCs-specific expression. PMID:17375210

  13. Tumor suppressor Nf2/merlin drives Schwann cell changes following electromagnetic field exposure through Hippo-dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Colciago, A; Melfi, S; Giannotti, G; Bonalume, V; Ballabio, M; Caffino, L; Fumagalli, F; Magnaghi, V

    2015-01-01

    Previous evidence showed mutations of the neurofibromin type 2 gene (Nf2), encoding the tumor suppressor protein merlin, in sporadic and vestibular schwannomas affecting Schwann cells (SCs). Accordingly, efforts have been addressed to identify possible factors, even environmental, that may regulate neurofibromas growth. In this context, we investigated the exposure of SC to an electromagnetic field (EMF), which is an environmental issue modulating biological processes. Here, we show that SC exposed to 50 Hz EMFs changes their morphology, proliferation, migration and myelinating capability. In these cells, merlin is downregulated, leading to activation of two intracellular signaling pathways, ERK/AKT and Hippo. Interestingly, SC changes their phenotype toward a proliferative/migrating state, which in principle may be pathologically relevant for schwannoma development. PMID:27551454

  14. Mild hypothermia combined with a scaffold of NgR-silenced neural stem cells/Schwann cells to treat spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Liang, Jinhua; Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Shuhong; Sun, Wenwen

    2014-01-01

    Because the inhibition of Nogo proteins can promote neurite growth and nerve cell differentiation, a cell-scaffold complex seeded with Nogo receptor (NgR)-silenced neural stem cells and Schwann cells may be able to improve the microenvironment for spinal cord injury repair. Previous studies have found that mild hypothermia helps to attenuate secondary damage in the spinal cord and exerts a neuroprotective effect. Here, we constructed a cell-scaffold complex consisting of a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold seeded with NgR-silenced neural stem cells and Schwann cells, and determined the effects of mild hypothermia combined with the cell-scaffold complexes on the spinal cord hemi-transection injury in the T9 segment in rats. Compared with the PLGA group and the NgR-silencing cells + PLGA group, hindlimb motor function and nerve electrophysiological function were clearly improved, pathological changes in the injured spinal cord were attenuated, and the number of surviving cells and nerve fibers were increased in the group treated with the NgR-silenced cell scaffold + mild hypothermia at 34°C for 6 hours. Furthermore, fewer pathological changes to the injured spinal cord and more surviving cells and nerve fibers were found after mild hypothermia therapy than in injuries not treated with mild hypothermia. These experimental results indicate that mild hypothermia combined with NgR gene-silenced cells in a PLGA scaffold may be an effective therapy for treating spinal cord injury. PMID:25657741

  15. Methylcobalamin promotes the differentiation of Schwann cells and remyelination in lysophosphatidylcholine-induced demyelination of the rat sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Michio; Okada, Kiyoshi; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) are constituents of the peripheral nervous system. The differentiation of SCs in injured peripheral nerves is critical for regeneration after injury. Methylcobalamin (MeCbl) is a vitamin B12 analog that is necessary for the maintenance of the peripheral nervous system. In this study, we estimated the effect of MeCbl on SCs. We showed that MeCbl downregulated the activity of Erk1/2 and promoted the expression of the myelin basic protein in SCs. In a dorsal root ganglion neuron–SC coculture system, myelination was promoted by MeCbl. In a focal demyelination rat model, MeCbl promoted remyelination and motor and sensory functional regeneration. MeCbl promoted the in vitro differentiation of SCs and in vivo myelination in a rat demyelination model and may be a novel therapy for several types of nervous disorders. PMID:26300733

  16. Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Family Proteins and c-jun Signaling in Injury-induced Schwann Cell Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Jeong; Shin, Yoon Kyung; Park, Hwan Tae

    2014-06-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) in the peripheral nerves myelinate axons during postnatal development to allow saltatory conduction of nerve impulses. Well-organized structures of myelin sheathes are maintained throughout life unless nerves are insulted. After peripheral nerve injury, unidentified signals from injured nerves drive SC dedifferentiation into an immature state. Dedifferentiated SCs participate in axonal regeneration by producing neurotrophic factors and removing degenerating nerve debris. In this review, we focus on the role of mitogen activated protein kinase family proteins (MAP kinases) in SC dedifferentiation. In addition, we will highlight neuregulin 1 and the transcription factor c-jun as upstream and downstream signals for MAP kinases in SC responses to nerve injury. PMID:24963277

  17. Effects of High Glucose on Cell Viability and Differentiation in Primary Cultured Schwann Cells: Potential Role of ERK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Liang, Xiaochun; Zhang, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia is considered to be the major factor in the development and progression of DPN. Because of the contribution of Schwann cells (SCs) to the pathology of DPN, we investigated the effects of high glucose on cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation in primary cultured SCs. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and Hoechst staining showed that high glucose inhibited SCs proliferation and increased apoptosis ratio in time and concentration dependent manner. Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the major myelin proteins and genes expressions including P0, MAG and Krox-20, were downregulated time dependently in SCs exposed to high glucose from 48 to 96 h. To further elucidate the underlying pathogenic mechanisms, we also explored the role of ERK signaling pathway in high glucose induced SC injury, which has been proved to drive demyelination of peripheral nerves. The western blot analysis showed that compared with control group phosphorylation level of ERK was increased by 14.3 % in SCs exposed to high glucose for 72 h (P < 0.01). Using immunocytochemistry analysis, we observed that the ERK specific inhibitor U0126 blocked the ERK activation induced by high glucose and reversed the inhibitory effect of high glucose on P0 expression. Taken together, these results suggest that high glucose can cause damage in primary cultured SCs and may exert the inhibitory effect on SC differentiation and myelination through ERK signaling activation. PMID:26915107

  18. Extensive cell migration, axon regeneration and improved function with polysialic acid-modified Schwann cells after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mousumi; Tuesta, Luis M.; Puentes, Rocio; Patel, Samik; Melendez, Kiara; Maarouf, Abderrahman El; Rutishauser, Urs; Pearse, Damien Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cells (SC) implantation after spinal cord injury (SCI) promotes axonal regeneration, remyelination repair and functional recovery. Reparative efficacy, however, may be limited due to the inability of SCs to migrate outward from the lesion-implant site. Altering SC cell surface properties by over-expressing polysialic acid (PSA) has been shown to promote SC migration. In the current study, a SCI contusion was used to evaluate the migration, supraspinal axon growth support and functional recovery associated with polysialyltransferase (PST)-over-expressing SCs (PST-GFP SCs) or controls (GFP SCs). Compared to GFP SCs, which remained confined to the injection site at the injury center, PST-GFP SCs migrated across the lesion:host cord interface for distances of up to 4.4 mm within adjacent host tissue. In addition, with PST-GFP SCs, there was extensive serotonergic and corticospinal axon in-growth within the implants that was limited in the GFP SC controls. The enhanced migration of PST-GFP SCs was accompanied by significant growth of these axons caudal to lesion. Animals receiving PST-GFP SCs exhibited improved functional outcome, both in the open-field and on the gridwalk test, over modest improvements provided by GFP SC controls. The current study for the first time demonstrates that a lack of migration by SC may hinder their reparative benefits and that cell surface overexpression of PSA enhances the ability of implanted SCs to associate with and support the growth of corticospinal axons. These results provide further promise that PSA modified SCs will be a potent reparative approach for SCI. PMID:22460918

  19. Extensive cell migration, axon regeneration, and improved function with polysialic acid-modified Schwann cells after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Mousumi; Tuesta, Luis M; Puentes, Rocio; Patel, Samik; Melendez, Kiara; El Maarouf, Abderrahman; Rutishauser, Urs; Pearse, Damien Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Schwann cell (SC) implantation after spinal cord injury (SCI) promotes axonal regeneration, remyelination repair, and functional recovery. Reparative efficacy, however, may be limited because of the inability of SCs to migrate outward from the lesion-implant site. Altering SC cell surface properties by overexpressing polysialic acid (PSA) has been shown to promote SC migration. In this study, a SCI contusion model was used to evaluate the migration, supraspinal axon growth support, and functional recovery associated with polysialyltransferase (PST)-overexpressing SCs [PST-green fluorescent protein (GFP) SCs] or controls (GFP SCs). Compared with GFP SCs, which remained confined to the injection site at the injury center, PST-GFP SCs migrated across the lesion:host cord interface for distances of up to 4.4 mm within adjacent host tissue. In addition, with PST-GFP SCs, there was extensive serotonergic and corticospinal axon in-growth within the implants that was limited in the GFP SC controls. The enhanced migration of PST-GFP SCs was accompanied by significant growth of these axons caudal to lesion. Animals receiving PST-GFP SCs exhibited improved functional outcome, both in the open-field and on the gridwalk test, beyond the modest improvements provided by GFP SC controls. This study for the first time demonstrates that a lack of migration by SCs may hinder their reparative benefits and that cell surface overexpression of PSA enhances the ability of implanted SCs to associate with and support the growth of corticospinal axons. These results provide further promise that PSA-modified SCs will be a potent reparative approach for SCI. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22460918

  20. Rac1 is required for Prkar1a-mediated Nf2 suppression in Schwann cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, Parmeet K.; Jones, Georgette N.; Lee, Audrey A.; Pringle, Daphne R.; Zhang, Mei; Yu, Lianbo; La Perle, Krista M. D.; Kirschner, Lawrence S.

    2012-01-01

    Schwannomas are peripheral nerve sheath tumors that often occur in the setting of an inherited tumor predisposition syndrome, including Neurofibromatosis Types 1 (NF1) and 2 (NF2), Familial Schwannomatosis (FS) and Carney Complex (CNC). Loss of the NF2 tumor suppressor (encoding NF2, or Merlin) is associated with upregulation of the Rac1 small GTPase, which is thought to play a key role in mediating tumor formation. In prior studies, we generated a mouse model of schwannomas by performing tissue-specific knockout of the CNC gene Prkar1a, which encodes the type 1A regulatory subunit of Protein Kinase A. These tumors exhibited down-regulation of Nf2 protein and an increase in activated Rac1. To assess the requirement for Rac1 in schwannoma formation, we generated a double knockout of Prkar1a and Rac1 in Schwann cells and monitored tumor formation. Loss of Rac1 reduced tumor formation by reducing proliferation and enhancing apoptosis. Surprisingly, the reduction of tumor formation was accompanied by re-expression of the Nf2 protein. Furthermore, activated Rac1 was able to downregulate Nf2 in vitro in a Pak-dependent manner. These in vivo data indicate that activation of Rac1 is responsible for suppression of Nf2 protein production; deficiency of Nf2 in Schwann cells leads to loss of cellular growth control and tumor formation.. Further, PKA activation through mutation in Prkar1a is sufficient to initiate Rac1 signaling, with subsequent reduction of Nf2 and schwannomagenesis. Although in vitro evidence has shown that loss of Nf2 activates Rac1, our data indicates that signaling between Nf2 and Rac1 occurs in a bidirectional fashion, and these interactions are modulated by PKA. PMID:23045281

  1. Rac1 is required for Prkar1a-mediated Nf2 suppression in Schwann cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, P K; Jones, G N; Lee, A A; Pringle, D R; Zhang, M; Yu, L; La Perle, K M D; Kirschner, L S

    2013-07-25

    Schwannomas are peripheral nerve sheath tumors that often occur in the setting of an inherited tumor predisposition syndrome, including neurofibromatosis types 1 (NF1) and 2 (NF2), familial schwannomatosis and Carney complex. Loss of the NF2 tumor suppressor (encoding NF2, or Merlin) is associated with upregulation of the Rac1 small GTPase, which is thought to have a key role in mediating tumor formation. In prior studies, we generated a mouse model of schwannomas by performing tissue-specific knockout (KO) of the Carney complex gene Prkar1a, which encodes the type 1A regulatory subunit of protein kinase A. These tumors exhibited down-regulation of Nf2 protein and an increase in activated Rac1. To assess the requirement for Rac1 in schwannoma formation, we generated a double KO (DKO) of Prkar1a and Rac1 in Schwann cells and monitored tumor formation. Loss of Rac1 reduced tumor formation by reducing proliferation and enhancing apoptosis. Surprisingly, the reduction of tumor formation was accompanied by re-expression of the Nf2 protein. Furthermore, activated Rac1 was able to downregulate Nf2 in vitro in a Pak-dependent manner. These in vivo data indicate that activation of Rac1 is responsible for suppression of Nf2 protein production; deficiency of Nf2 in Schwann cells leads to loss of cellular growth control and tumor formation. Further, PKA activation through mutation in Prkar1a is sufficient to initiate Rac1 signaling, with subsequent reduction of Nf2 and schwannomagenesis. Although in vitro evidence has shown that loss of Nf2 activates Rac1, our data indicate that signaling between Nf2 and Rac1 occurs in a bidirectional fashion, and these interactions are modulated by PKA. PMID:23045281

  2. A Calpain Inhibitor Enhances the Survival of Schwann Cells In Vitro and after Transplantation into the Injured Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Guller, Yelena; Raffa, Scott J.; Hurtado, Andres; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Despite the diversity of cells available for transplantation into sites of spinal cord injury (SCI), and the known ability of transplanted cells to integrate into host tissue, functional improvement associated with cellular transplantation has been limited. One factor potentially limiting the efficacy of transplanted cells is poor cell survival. Recently we demonstrated rapid and early death of Schwann cells (SCs) within the first 24 h after transplantation, by both necrosis and apoptosis, which results in fewer than 20% of the cells surviving beyond 1 week. To enhance SC transplant survival, in vitro and in vivo models to rapidly screen compounds for their ability to promote SC survival are needed. The current study utilized in vitro models of apoptosis and necrosis, and based on withdrawal of serum and mitogens and the application of hydrogen peroxide, we screened several inhibitors of apoptosis and necrosis. Of the compounds tested, the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 enhanced SC survival both in vitro in response to oxidative stress induced by application of H2O2, and in vivo following delayed transplantation into the moderately contused spinal cord. The results support the use of calpain inhibitors as a promising new treatment for promoting the survival of transplanted cells. They also suggest that in vitro assays for cell survival may be useful for establishing new compounds that can then be tested in vivo for their ability to promote transplanted SC survival. PMID:20568964

  3. The Effect of Electrospun Gelatin Fibers Alignment on Schwann Cell and Axon Behavior and Organization in the Perspective of Artificial Nerve Design

    PubMed Central

    Gnavi, Sara; Fornasari, Benedetta Elena; Tonda-Turo, Chiara; Laurano, Rossella; Zanetti, Marco; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Geuna, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun fibrous substrates mimicking extracellular matrices can be prepared by electrospinning, yielding aligned fibrous matrices as internal fillers to manufacture artificial nerves. Gelatin aligned nano-fibers were prepared by electrospinning after tuning the collector rotation speed. The effect of alignment on cell adhesion and proliferation was tested in vitro using primary cultures, the Schwann cell line, RT4-D6P2T, and the sensory neuron-like cell line, 50B11. Cell adhesion and proliferation were assessed by quantifying at several time-points. Aligned nano-fibers reduced adhesion and proliferation rate compared with random fibers. Schwann cell morphology and organization were investigated by immunostaining of the cytoskeleton. Cells were elongated with their longitudinal body parallel to the aligned fibers. B5011 neuron-like cells were aligned and had parallel axon growth when cultured on the aligned gelatin fibers. The data show that the alignment of electrospun gelatin fibers can modulate Schwann cells and axon organization in vitro, suggesting that this substrate shows promise as an internal filler for the design of artificial nerves for peripheral nerve reconstruction. PMID:26062130

  4. Netrin-1 induces the migration of Schwann cells via p38 MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway mediated by the UNC5B receptor.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jianwei; Sun, Xiaolei; Ma, Jianxiong; Ma, Xinlong; Zhang, Yang; Li, Fengbo; Li, Yanjun; Zhao, Zhihu

    2015-08-14

    Schwann cells (SCs) play an essentially supportive role in the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve system (PNS). As Netrin-1 is crucial for the normal development of nervous system (NS) and can direct the process of damaged PNS regeneration, our study was designed to determine the role of Netrin-1 in RSC96 Schwann cells (an immortalized rat Schwann cell line) proliferation and migration. Our studies demonstrated that Netrin-1 had no effect on RSC96 cells proliferation, while significantly promoted RSC96 cells migration. The Netrin-1-induced RSC96 cells migration was significantly attenuated by inhibition of p38 and PI3K through pretreatment with SB203580 and LY294002 respectively, but not inhibition of MEK1/2 and JNK by U0126-EtOH and SP600125 individually. Treatment with Netrin-1 enhanced the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt. QRT-PCR indicated that Netrin-1 and only its receptors Unc5a, Unc5b and Neogenin were expressed in RSC96 cells, among which Unc5b expressed the most. And UNC5B protein was significantly increased after stimulated by Netrin-1. In conclusion, we show here that Netrin-1-enhanced SCs migration is mediated by activating p38 MAPK and PI3K-Akt signal cascades via receptor UNC5B, which suggests that Netrin-1 could serve as a new therapeutic strategy and has potential application value for PNS regeneration. PMID:26116534

  5. Nerves Control Redox Levels in Mature Tissues Through Schwann Cells and Hedgehog Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Meda, Francesca; Gauron, Carole; Rampon, Christine; Teillon, Jérémie; Volovitch, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Recent advances in redox biology have emphasized the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the modulation of signaling pathways and revealed that H2O2 plays a role in cellular remodeling in adults. Thus, an understanding of the mechanisms that control H2O2 levels in mature tissue would be of great interest. Results: We used a denervation strategy to demonstrate that sensory neurons are responsible for controlling H2O2 levels under normal conditions and after being lesioned. Moreover, we demonstrate that severed nerves respond to appendage amputation via the induction of Hedgehog signaling and that this signaling is responsible for H2O2 production in the wounded epidermis. Finally, we show that H2O2 and nerve growth are regulated via reciprocal action in adults. Innovation and Conclusion: These data support a new paradigm for the regulation of tissue homeostasis: H2O2 attracts nerves and nerves control H2O2 levels in a positive feedback loop. This finding suggests that the peripheral nerve redox environment could be a target for manipulating cell plasticity in adults. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 299–311. PMID:26442784

  6. A complementary density gradient of zwitterionic polymer brushes and NCAM peptides for selectively controlling directional migration of Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tanchen; Yu, Shan; Mao, Zhengwei; Gao, Changyou

    2015-07-01

    Selective enhancement of directional migration of Schwann cells (SCs) over fibroblasts (FIBs) plays a significant role in peripheral nerve regeneration, because this behavior facilitates neuron repair and avoids fibrosis. Herein a complementary density gradient of poly(3-dimethyl-methacryloyloxyethyl ammonium propane sulfonate) (PDMAPS, a zwitterionic polymer with antifouling property) and KHIFSDDSSE peptide (KHI, derived from neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM which mediates cell-cell adhesion) was fabricated. The gradient was visualized by fluorescent labeling, and further characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-d). The SCs exhibited preferential orientation and enhanced directional migration on the gradient surface toward the region of lower PDMAPS density and higher KHI peptide density, while FIBs showed random migration. Moreover, the migration rate of the SCs was significantly enhanced to 2 folds, whereas that of the FIBs was reduced to 60% compared to their natural state on glass, leading to a faster migration rate of SCs than FIBs. The success of the complementary gradient relies on the appropriate interplay between the PDMAPS brushes and the cell-specific ligands, enabling the selective guidance of SCs migration. PMID:25934279

  7. Lentiviral Vector-Mediated Gradients of GDNF in the Injured Peripheral Nerve: Effects on Nerve Coil Formation, Schwann Cell Maturation and Myelination

    PubMed Central

    Eggers, Ruben; de Winter, Fred; Hoyng, Stefan A.; Roet, Kasper C. D.; Ehlert, Erich M.; Malessy, Martijn J. A.; Verhaagen, Joost; Tannemaat, Martijn R.

    2013-01-01

    Although the peripheral nerve is capable of regeneration, only a small minority of patients regain normal function after surgical reconstruction of a major peripheral nerve lesion, resulting in a severe and lasting negative impact on the quality of life. Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has potent survival- and outgrowth-promoting effects on motoneurons, but locally elevated levels of GDNF cause trapping of regenerating axons and the formation of nerve coils. This phenomenon has been called the “candy store” effect. In this study we created gradients of GDNF in the sciatic nerve after a ventral root avulsion. This approach also allowed us to study the effect of increasing concentrations of GDNF on Schwann cell proliferation and morphology in the injured peripheral nerve. We demonstrate that lentiviral vectors can be used to create a 4 cm long GDNF gradient in the intact and lesioned rat sciatic nerve. Nerve coils were formed throughout the gradient and the number and size of the nerve coils increased with increasing GDNF levels in the nerve. In the nerve coils, Schwann cell density is increased, their morphology is disrupted and myelination of axons is severely impaired. The total number of regenerated and surviving motoneurons is not enhanced after the distal application of a GDNF gradient, but increased sprouting does result in higher number of motor axon in the distal segment of the sciatic nerve. These results show that lentiviral vector mediated overexpression of GDNF exerts multiple effects on both Schwann cells and axons and that nerve coil formation already occurs at relatively low concentrations of exogenous GDNF. Controlled expression of GDNF, by using a viral vector with regulatable GDNF expression, may be required to avoid motor axon trapping and to prevent the effects on Schwann cell proliferation and myelination. PMID:23951085

  8. Derivation of Schwann cell precursors from neural crest cells resident in bone marrow for cell therapy to improve peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haiyan; Gong, Yanpei; Qiang, Liang; Li, Xiaoli; Zhang, Shibo; Gao, Jiawen; Li, Kai; Ji, Ximeng; Tian, Ling; Gu, Xiaosong; Ding, Fei

    2016-05-01

    We have previously successfully enriched post-migratory neural crest cells (NCCs) from postnatal rat bone marrow (BM). These BM-NCCs possess glial and neuronal differentiating potential. Based on the neural crest origin of Schwann cells (SCs), in this study, we aimed at using a straightforward protocol to derive Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) from BM-NCCs. Several clonal subpopulations were isolated from BM-NCCs, displaying long-term proliferative capacity and maintaining the NCC identity. The BM-NCC clones could be induced to differentiate into SCs. In particular, clone N1 gave rise to a large and pure population of SCs. Clone N1-derived SCs demonstrated the myelinating capacity in their co-culture with primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The decreased expression of NCC-markers and increased expression of SC-markers were related to the differentiation state of clone N1-derived SCs. To investigate the repair-promoting effects of clone N1 on injured peripheral neurons in vitro and in vivo, on one hand, the oxygen glucose deprivation-injured DRG neurons were treated with clone N1-conditioned medium, improving the cell survival and axon growth of neurons; on the other hand, clone N1 or clone N1-derived SCs were respectively implanted to the crush sciatic nerve of rats, and clone N1 yielded the better outcome of nerve regeneration and function restoration than clone N1-derived SCs. Taken together, all the results collectively showed that clone N1 could be identified as SCPs, which might hold promise for cell therapy to improve peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:26946403

  9. A microscale neuron and Schwann cell coculture model for increasing detection sensitivity of botulinum neurotoxin type A.

    PubMed

    Hong, Won S; Young, Edmond W K; Tepp, William H; Johnson, Eric A; Beebe, David J

    2013-07-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a potent and specific biomolecule that is both implicated as a potential threat in bioterrorism and used in therapeutics. Highly sensitive and robust assays that measure BoNT activity are needed to manage outbreak or controlled distribution of BoNT. Current in vivo and in vitro assays have limitations, including high costs and variability for mouse bioassays, extensive preparations for primary and stem cell-derived neurons, and inherent low sensitivity for cell lines. Sensitivity of cell lines can be increased by direct differentiation and with their physiological relevance (compared with cell-free strategies) and robustness (compared with primary cell strategies); adopting cell lines is an attractive alternative to in vivo assays. Here, we present two distinct strategies that improved sensitivity of a cell line to BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) without direct differentiation. We developed a cell-based BoNT assay using microscale culture and coculture of neuronal and Schwann cell lines, NG108-15 and S16, respectively, to improve both sensitivity and physiological relevance. Results showed that NG108-15 and S16 coculture decreased EC50 from 12.5 to 0.8ng/µl (p < 0.001) in macroscale and from 2.6 to 1.1ng/µl (p = 0.006) in microscale. In addition, NG108-15 monoculture at microscale decreased EC50 from 12.5 to 2.6ng/µl (p < 0.001) compared with macroscale. Finally, controlling the spatial arrangement of microscale coculture revealed that S16-derived soluble factors can increase sensitivity. Thus, our study demonstrates two distinct strategies for increasing the sensitivity of a cell line to BoNT using coculture and microscale culture, thereby advancing assay technology for BoNT detection. PMID:23564642

  10. Expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecules on adult stem cells after neuronal differentiation of inner ear spiral ganglion neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kyoung Ho; Yeo, Sang Won; Troy, Frederic A.

    2014-10-17

    Highlights: • PolySia expressed on neurons primarily during early stages of neuronal development. • PolySia–NCAM is expressed on neural stem cells from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion. • PolySia is a biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. - Abstract: During brain development, polysialylated (polySia) neural cell adhesion molecules (polySia–NCAMs) modulate cell–cell adhesive interactions involved in synaptogenesis, neural plasticity, myelination, and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation. Our findings show that polySia–NCAM is expressed on NSC isolated from adult guinea pig spiral ganglion (GPSG), and in neurons and Schwann cells after differentiation of the NSC with epidermal, glia, fibroblast growth factors (GFs) and neurotrophins. These differentiated cells were immunoreactive with mAb’s to polySia, NCAM, β-III tubulin, nestin, S-100 and stained with BrdU. NSC could regenerate and be differentiated into neurons and Schwann cells. We conclude: (1) polySia is expressed on NSC isolated from adult GPSG and on neurons and Schwann cells differentiated from these NSC; (2) polySia is expressed on neurons primarily during the early stage of neuronal development and is expressed on Schwann cells at points of cell–cell contact; (3) polySia is a functional biomarker that modulates neuronal differentiation in inner ear stem cells. These new findings suggest that replacement of defective cells in the inner ear of hearing impaired patients using adult spiral ganglion neurons may offer potential hope to improve the quality of life for patients with auditory dysfunction and impaired hearing disorders.

  11. Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Activation Is Required for Serine 727 Phosphorylation of STAT3 in Schwann Cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Kyoung; Jung, Junyang; Lee, Sang Hwa; Seo, Su-Yeong; Suh, Duk Joon

    2009-01-01

    In the peripheral nerves, injury-induced cytokines and growth factors perform critical functions in the activation of both the MEK/ERK and JAK/STAT3 pathways. In this study, we determined that nerve injury-induced ERK activation was temporally correlated with STAT3 phosphorylation at the serine 727 residue. In cultured Schwann cells, we noted that ERK activation is required for the serine phosphorylation of STAT3 by neuropoietic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Serine phosphorylated STAT3 by IL-6 was transported into Schwann cell nuclei, thereby indicating that ERK may regulate the transcriptional activity of STAT3 via the induction of serine phosphorylation of STAT3. Neuregulin-1 (NRG) also induced the serine phosphorylation of STAT3 in an ERK-dependent fashion. In contrast with the IL-6 response, serine phosphorylated STAT3 induced by NRG was not detected in the nucleus, thus indicating the non-nuclear function of serine phosphorylated STAT3 in response to NRG. Finally, we determined that the inhibition of ERK prevented injury-induced serine phosphorylation of STAT3 in an ex-vivo explants culture of the sciatic nerves. Collectively, the results of this study show that ERK may be an upstream kinase for the serine phosphorylation of STAT3 induced by multiple stimuli in Schwann cells after peripheral nerve injury. PMID:19885032

  12. Electroactive biodegradable polyurethane significantly enhanced Schwann cells myelin gene expression and neurotrophin secretion for peripheral nerve tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaobin; Wang, Ling; Guo, Baolin; Shao, Yongpin; Ma, Peter X

    2016-05-01

    Myelination of Schwann cells (SCs) is critical for the success of peripheral nerve regeneration, and biomaterials that can promote SCs' neurotrophin secretion as scaffolds are beneficial for nerve repair. Here we present a biomaterials-approach, specifically, a highly tunable conductive biodegradable flexible polyurethane by polycondensation of poly(glycerol sebacate) and aniline pentamer, to significantly enhance SCs' myelin gene expression and neurotrophin secretion for peripheral nerve tissue engineering. SCs are cultured on these conductive polymer films, and the biocompatibility of these films and their ability to enhance myelin gene expressions and sustained neurotrophin secretion are successfully demonstrated. The mechanism of SCs' neurotrophin secretion on conductive films is demonstrated by investigating the relationship between intracellular Ca(2+) level and SCs' myelination. Furthermore, the neurite growth and elongation of PC12 cells are induced by adding the neurotrophin medium suspension produced from SCs-laden conductive films. These data suggest that these conductive degradable polyurethanes that enhance SCs' myelin gene expressions and sustained neurotrophin secretion perform great potential for nerve regeneration applications. PMID:26897537

  13. The Use of Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds Cocultured with Schwann Cells and Vascular Endothelial Cells to Repair Rabbit Sciatic Nerve Defect with Vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hongyang; You, Yang; Zhang, Guoping; Zhao, Feng; Sha, Ziyi; Shen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of biodegradable fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds with satisfactory mechanical properties for the repair of long-distance sciatic nerve defect in rabbits and effects of vascularized graft in early stage on the recovery of neurological function, Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells were cocultured in the fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds. Experiment group which used prevascularized nerve complex for the repair of sciatic nerve defect and control group which only cultured with Schwann cells were set. The animals in both groups underwent electromyography to show the status of the neurological function recovery at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after the surgery. Sciatic nerve regeneration and myelination were observed under the light microscope and electron microscope. Myelin sheath thickness, axonal diameter, and number of myelinated nerve fiber were quantitatively analyzed using image analysis system. The recovery of foot ulcer, the velocity of nerve conduction, the number of regenerating nerve fiber, and the recovery of ultrastructure were increased in the experimental group than those in the control group. Prevascularized tissue engineered fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rabbits can effectively promote the recovery of neurological function. PMID:24490158

  14. The use of fiber-reinforced scaffolds cocultured with Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells to repair rabbit sciatic nerve defect with vascularization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongyang; You, Yang; Zhang, Guoping; Zhao, Feng; Sha, Ziyi; Shen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of biodegradable fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds with satisfactory mechanical properties for the repair of long-distance sciatic nerve defect in rabbits and effects of vascularized graft in early stage on the recovery of neurological function, Schwann cells and vascular endothelial cells were cocultured in the fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds. Experiment group which used prevascularized nerve complex for the repair of sciatic nerve defect and control group which only cultured with Schwann cells were set. The animals in both groups underwent electromyography to show the status of the neurological function recovery at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after the surgery. Sciatic nerve regeneration and myelination were observed under the light microscope and electron microscope. Myelin sheath thickness, axonal diameter, and number of myelinated nerve fiber were quantitatively analyzed using image analysis system. The recovery of foot ulcer, the velocity of nerve conduction, the number of regenerating nerve fiber, and the recovery of ultrastructure were increased in the experimental group than those in the control group. Prevascularized tissue engineered fiber-reinforced 3D scaffolds for the repair of sciatic nerve defects in rabbits can effectively promote the recovery of neurological function. PMID:24490158

  15. Effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) concentration on proliferation, neurotrophic function and migration of Schwann cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Canbin; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Xijun; He, Caifeng; Jiang, Li; Quan, Daping; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Zhaowei

    2016-05-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains various growth factors and appears to have the potential to promote peripheral nerve regeneration, but evidence is lacking regarding its biological effect on Schwann cells (SCs). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of PRP concentration on SCs in order to determine the plausibility of using this plasma-derived therapy for peripheral nerve injury. PRP was obtained from rats by double-step centrifugation and was characterized by determining platelet numbers and growth factor concentrations. Primary cultures of rat SCs were exposed to various concentrations of PRP (40%, 20%, 10%, 5% and 2.5%). Cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry were performed to study to assess SC proliferation. Quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA analysis were performed to determine the ability of PRP to induce SCs to produce nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Microchemotaxis assay was used to analyse the cell migration capacity. The results obtained indicated that the platelet concentration and growth factors in our PRP preparations were significantly higher than in whole blood. Cell culture experiments showed that 2.5-20% PRP significantly stimulated SC proliferation and migration compared to untreated controls in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the expression and secretion of NGF and GDNF were significantly increased. However, the above effects of SCs were suppressed by high PRP concentrations (40%). In conclusion, the appropriate concentration of PRP had the potency to stimulate cell proliferation, induced the synthesis of neurotrophic factors and significantly increased migration of SCs dose-dependently. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23723151

  16. PACAP Interacts with PAC1 Receptors to Induce Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Expression and Activity in Schwann Cell-Like Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Castorina, Alessandro; Waschek, James A.; Marzagalli, Rubina; Cardile, Venera; Drago, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of peripheral nerves depends on the abilities of rejuvenating axons to migrate at the injury site through cellular debris and altered extracellular matrix, and then grow along the residual distal nerve sheath conduit and reinnervate synaptic targets. Considerable evidence suggest that glial cells participate in this process, although the mechanisms remain to be clarified. In cell culture, regenerating neurites secrete PACAP, a peptide shown to induce the expression of the protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in neural cell types. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that PACAP can stimulate peripheral glial cells to produce tPA. More specifically, we addressed whether or not PACAP promoted the expression and activity of tPA in the Schwann cell line RT4-D6P2T, which shares biochemical and physical properties with Schwann cells. We found that PACAP dose- and time-dependently stimulated tPA expression both at the mRNA and protein level. Such effect was mimicked by maxadilan, a potent PAC1 receptor agonist, but not by the PACAP-related homolog VIP, suggesting a PAC1-mediated function. These actions appeared to be mediated at least in part by the Akt/CREB signaling cascade because wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, prevented peptide-driven CREB phosphorylation and tPA increase. Interestingly, treatment with BDNF mimicked PACAP actions on tPA, but acted through both the Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, while causing a robust increase in PACAP and PAC1 expression. PACAP6-38 totally blocked PACAP-driven tPA expression and in part hampered BDNF-mediated effects. We conclude that PACAP, acting through PAC1 receptors, stimulates tPA expression and activity in a Akt/CREB-dependent manner to promote proteolytic activity in Schwann-cell like cultures. PMID:25658447

  17. Microprocessor complex subunit DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (Dgcr8) is required for schwann cell myelination and myelin maintenance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Pin; Oksuz, Idil; Hurley, Edward; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Awatramani, Rajeshwar

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the role of a key component of the Microprocessor complex, DGCR8, in the regulation of myelin formation and maintenance. We found that conditionally ablating Dgcr8 in Schwann cells (SCs) during development results in an arrest of SC differentiation. Dgcr8 conditional knock-out (cKO) SCs fail to form 1:1 relationships with axons or, having achieved this, fail to form myelin sheaths. The expression of genes normally found in immature SCs, such as sex-determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2), is increased in Dgcr8 cKO SCs, whereas the expression of myelin-related genes, including the master regulatory transcription factor early growth response 2 (Egr2), is decreased. Additionally, expression of a novel gene expression program involving sonic hedgehog (Shh), activated de novo in injured nerves, is elevated in Dgcr8 cKOs but not in Egr2 null mice, a model of SC differentiation arrest, suggesting that the injury-related gene expression program in Dgcr8 cKOs cannot be attributed to differentiation arrest. Inducible ablation of Dgcr8 in adult SCs results in gene expression changes similar to those found in cKOs, including an increase in the expression of Sox2 and Shh. Analyses of these nerves mainly reveal normal myelin thickness and axon size distribution but some dedifferentiated SCs and increased macrophage infiltration. Together our data suggest that Dgcr8 is responsible for modulation of gene expression programs underlying myelin formation and maintenance as well as suppression of an injury-related gene expression program. PMID:26272614

  18. Late Onset Neuropathy with Spontaneous Clinical Remission in Mice Lacking the POZ Domain of the Transcription Factor Myc-interacting Zinc Finger Protein 1 (Miz1) in Schwann Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Moreno, Adrián; Fuhrmann, David; Zankel, Armin; Reingruber, Herbert; Kern, Lara; Meijer, Dies; Niemann, Axel; Elsässer, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Miz1 (Myc-interacting zinc finger 1) is a known regulator of the cell cycle but also has cell cycle-independent functions. Here we analyzed the role of Miz1 in the peripheral nervous system, using an early embryonic conditional knock-out model in which the Miz1 POZ domain is ablated in Schwann cells. Although the development of myelinated nerve fibers was not impaired, Miz1ΔPOZ mice acquired behavioral signs of a peripheral neuropathy at the age of 3 months. At this time, ultrastructural analysis of the sciatic nerve showed de- and dysmyelination of fibers, with massive outfoldings and a focal infiltration of macrophages. Although the expression of genes encoding structural myelin proteins, such as periaxin, myelin basic protein, and myelin protein zero, was decreased, genes associated with a negative regulation of myelination, including c-Jun, Sox2, and Id2, were up-regulated in Miz1ΔPOZ mice compared with controls. In animals older than 4 months, the motor disabilities vanished, and the ultrastructure of the sciatic nerve exhibited numerous tomacula and remyelinated fibers, as indicated by thinner myelin. No second acute attack was observed up to the age of 1 year. Thus, the deletion of the Miz1 POZ domain in Schwann cells induces an acute neuropathy with a subsequent regeneration in which there is ongoing balancing between de- and remyelination. Miz1ΔPOZ mice are impaired in the maintenance of myelinated fibers and are a promising model for studying remyelination in adult peripheral nerves. PMID:25416780

  19. Dixdc1 targets CyclinD1 and p21 via PI3K pathway activation to promote Schwann cell proliferation after sciatic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weijie; Liu, Qingqing; Liu, Yuxi; Yu, Zhaohui; Wang, Youhua

    2016-09-16

    Dixdc1 (DIX domain containing-1), the mammalian homolog of Ccd1 (Coiled-coil-Dishevelled-Axin1), is a protein containing a coiled-coil domain and a Dishevelled-Axin (DIX) domain. As a novel component of the Wnt pathway, Dixdc1 has been reported to be able to promote neural progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. But there still remains something unknown about Dixdc1 distribution and functions in the lesion and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), so we tried to investigate dynamic changes of Dixdc1 expression in a rat sciatic nerve crush (SNC) model in this study. First of all, we detected SNC-induced increased levels of Dixdc1 in Schwann cells and interestingly identified parallel expression of PCNA (proliferation cell nuclear antigen) with Dixdc1. Besides, we observed up-regulated Dixdc1 during the process of TNF-α-induced Schwann cell proliferation. Also, we discovered that Dixdc1 could promote G1-S phase transition accompanied with the up-regulation of CyclinD1 and down-regulation of p21. More importantly, enhanced effects of Dixdc1 on cell proliferation were confirmed to be associated with PI3K activation. Not only blocking of the PI3K but Dixdc1 knockdown led to significantly decreased ability for proliferation, as well as down-regulation of CyclinD1 and up-regulation of p21. In summary, these data demonstrated that Dixdc1 might participate in Schwann cell proliferation by targeting CyclinD1 and p21 at least partially through the PI3K/AKT activation. PMID:27521891

  20. Giant scaffolding protein AHNAK1 interacts with β-dystroglycan and controls motility and mechanical properties of Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    von Boxberg, Ysander; Soares, Sylvia; Féréol, Sophie; Fodil, Redouane; Bartolami, Sylvain; Taxi, Jacques; Tricaud, Nicolas; Nothias, Fatiha

    2014-09-01

    The profound morphofunctional changes that Schwann cells (SCs) undergo during their migration and elongation on axons, as well as during axon sorting, ensheathment, and myelination, require their close interaction with the surrounding laminin-rich basal lamina. In contrast to myelinating central nervous system glia, SCs strongly and constitutively express the giant scaffolding protein AHNAK1, localized essentially underneath the outer, abaxonal plasma membrane. Using electron microscopy, we show here that in the sciatic nerve of ahnak1(-) (/) (-) mice the ultrastructure of myelinated, and unmyelinated (Remak) fibers is affected. The major SC laminin receptor β-dystroglycan co-immunoprecipitates with AHNAK1 shows reduced expression in ahnak1(-) (/) (-) SCs, and is no longer detectable in Cajal bands on myelinated fibers in ahnak1(-) (/) (-) sciatic nerve. Reduced migration velocity in a scratch wound assay of purified ahnak1(-) (/) (-) primary SCs cultured on a laminin substrate indicated a function of AHNAK1 in SC motility. This was corroborated by atomic force microscopy measurements, which revealed a greater mechanical rigidity of shaft and leading tip of ahnak1(-) (/) (-) SC processes. Internodal lengths of large fibers are decreased in ahnak1(-) (/) (-) sciatic nerve, and longitudinal extension of myelin segments is even more strongly reduced after acute knockdown of AHNAK1 in SCs of developing sciatic nerve. Together, our results suggest that by interfering in the cross-talk between the transmembrane form of the laminin receptor dystroglycan and F-actin, AHNAK1 influences the cytoskeleton organization of SCs, and thus plays a role in the regulation of their morphology and motility and lastly, the myelination process. PMID:24796807

  1. Neutralization of Schwann Cell-Secreted VEGF Is Protective to In Vitro and In Vivo Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Taiana, Michela M.; Lombardi, Raffaella; Porretta-Serapiglia, Carla; Ciusani, Emilio; Oggioni, Norberto; Sassone, Jenny; Bianchi, Roberto; Lauria, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenetic role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in long-term retinal and kidney complications of diabetes has been demonstrated. Conversely, little is known in diabetic neuropathy. We examined the modulation of VEGF pathway at mRNA and protein level on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and Schwann cells (SC) induced by hyperglycaemia. Moreover, we studied the effects of VEGF neutralization on hyperglycemic DRG neurons and streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy. Our findings demonstrated that DRG neurons were not affected by the direct exposition to hyperglycaemia, whereas showed an impairment of neurite outgrowth ability when exposed to the medium of SC cultured in hyperglycaemia. This was mediated by an altered regulation of VEGF and FLT-1 receptors. Hyperglycaemia increased VEGF and FLT-1 mRNA without changing their intracellular protein levels in DRG neurons, decreased intracellular and secreted protein levels without changing mRNA level in SC, while reduced the expression of the soluble receptor sFLT-1 both in DRG neurons and SC. Bevacizumab, a molecule that inhibits VEGF activity preventing the interaction with its receptors, restored neurite outgrowth and normalized FLT-1 mRNA and protein levels in co-cultures. In diabetic rats, it both prevented and restored nerve conduction velocity and nociceptive thresholds. We demonstrated that hyperglycaemia early affected neurite outgrowth through the impairment of SC-derived VEGF/FLT-1 signaling and that the neutralization of SC-secreted VEGF was protective both in vitro and in vivo models of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25268360

  2. Combination of Engineered Schwann Cell Grafts to Secrete Neurotrophin and Chondroitinase Promotes Axonal Regeneration and Locomotion after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pressman, Yelena; Moody, Alison; Berg, Randall; Muir, Elizabeth M.; Rogers, John H.; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Itoi, Eiji; Pearse, Damien D.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2014-01-01

    Transplantation of Schwann cells (SCs) is a promising therapeutic strategy for spinal cord repair. SCs introduced into lesions support axon regeneration, but because these axons do not exit the transplant, additional approaches with SCs are needed. Here, we transplanted SCs genetically modified to secrete a bifunctional neurotrophin (D15A) and chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) into a subacute contusion injury in rats. We examined the effects of these modifications on graft volume, SC number, degradation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), astrogliosis, SC myelination of axons, propriospinal and supraspinal axon numbers, locomotor outcome (BBB scoring, CatWalk gait analysis), and mechanical and thermal sensitivity on the hind paws. D15A secreted from transplanted SCs increased graft volume and SC number and myelinated axon number. SCs secreting ChABC significantly decreased CSPGs, led to some egress of SCs from the graft, and increased propriospinal and 5-HT-positive axons in the graft. SCs secreting both D15A and ChABC yielded the best responses: (1) the largest number of SC myelinated axons, (2) more propriospinal axons in the graft and host tissue around and caudal to it, (3) more corticospinal axons closer to the graft and around and caudal to it, (4) more brainstem neurons projecting caudal to the transplant, (5) increased 5-HT-positive axons in the graft and caudal to it, (6) significant improvement in aspects of locomotion, and (7) improvement in mechanical and thermal allodynia. This is the first evidence that the combination of SC transplants engineered to secrete neurotrophin and chondroitinase further improves axonal regeneration and locomotor and sensory function. PMID:24478364

  3. Curcumin derivatives promote Schwann cell differentiation and improve neuropathy in R98C CMT1B mice.

    PubMed

    Patzkó, Agnes; Bai, Yunhong; Saporta, Mario A; Katona, István; Wu, Xingyao; Vizzuso, Domenica; Feltri, M Laura; Wang, Suola; Dillon, Lisa M; Kamholz, John; Kirschner, Daniel; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Shy, Michael E

    2012-12-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B is caused by mutations in myelin protein zero. R98C mice, an authentic model of early onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B, develop neuropathy in part because the misfolded mutant myelin protein zero is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum where it activates the unfolded protein response. Because oral curcumin, a component of the spice turmeric, has been shown to relieve endoplasmic reticulum stress and decrease the activation of the unfolded protein response, we treated R98C mutant mice with daily gastric lavage of curcumin or curcumin derivatives starting at 4 days of age and analysed them for clinical disability, electrophysiological parameters and peripheral nerve morphology. Heterozygous R98C mice treated with curcumin dissolved in sesame oil or phosphatidylcholine curcumin performed as well as wild-type littermates on a rotarod test and had increased numbers of large-diameter axons in their sciatic nerves. Treatment with the latter two compounds also increased compound muscle action potential amplitudes and the innervation of neuromuscular junctions in both heterozygous and homozygous R98C animals, but it did not improve nerve conduction velocity, myelin thickness, G-ratios or myelin period. The expression of c-Jun and suppressed cAMP-inducible POU (SCIP)-transcription factors that inhibit myelination when overexpressed-was also decreased by treatment. Consistent with its role in reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress, treatment with curcumin dissolved in sesame oil or phosphatidylcholine curcumin was associated with decreased X-box binding protein (XBP1) splicing. Taken together, these data demonstrate that treatment with curcumin dissolved in sesame oil or phosphatidylcholine curcumin improves the peripheral neuropathy of R98C mice by alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress, by reducing the activation of unfolded protein response and by promoting Schwann cell differentiation. PMID:23250879

  4. Rat sciatic nerve reconstruction across a 30 mm defect bridged by an oriented porous PHBV tube with Schwann cell as artificial nerve graft.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mina; Biazar, Esmaeil; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Ronaghi, Abdolaziz; Doostmohamadpour, Jafar; Janfada, Alireza; Montazeri, Arash

    2014-01-01

    An oriented poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit has been used to evaluate its efficiency based on the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. The oriented porous micropatterned artificial nerve conduit was designed onto the micropatterned silicon wafers, and then their surfaces were modified with oxygen plasma to increase cell adhesion. The designed conduits were investigated by cell culture analyses with Schwann cells (SCs). The conduits were implanted into a 30 mm gap in sciatic nerves of rats. Four months after surgery, the regenerated nerves were monitored and evaluated by macroscopic assessments and histology and behavioral analyses. Results of cellular analyses showed suitable properties of designed conduit for nerve regeneration. The results demonstrated that in the polymeric graft with SCs, the rat sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed with restoration of nerve continuity and formatted nerve fibers with myelination. Histological results demonstrated the presence of Schwann and glial cells in regenerated nerves. Functional recovery such as walking, swimming, and recovery of nociceptive function was illustrated for all the grafts especially conduits with SCs. This study proves the feasibility of the artificial nerve graft filled with SCs for peripheral nerve regeneration by bridging a longer defect in an animal model. PMID:24399063

  5. Transplantation of autologous activated Schwann cells in the treatment of spinal cord injury: six cases, more than five years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xian-Hu; Ning, Guang-Zhi; Feng, Shi-Qing; Kong, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Jia-Tong; Zheng, Yong-Fa; Ban, De-Xiang; Liu, Tao; Li, Hui; Wang, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) are the main glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, which can promote neural regeneration. Grafting of autologous SCs is one of the well-established and commonly performed procedures for peripheral nerve repair. With the aim to improve the clinical condition of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), a program of grafting autologous activated Schwann cells (AASCs), as well as a series of appropriate neurorehabilitation programs, was employed to achieve the best therapeutic effects. We selected six patients who had a history of SCI before transplantation. At first, AASCs were obtained by prior ligation of sural nerve and subsequently isolated, cultured, and purified in vitro. Then the patients accepted an operation of laminectomy and cell transplantation, and no severe adverse event was observed in any of these patients. Motor and sensitive improvements were evaluated by means of American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grading and Functional Independence Measure (FIM); bladder and urethral function were determined by clinical and urodynamic examination; somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were used to further confirm the functional recovery following transplantation. The patients were followed up for more than 5 years. All of the patients showed some signs of improvement in autonomic, motor, and sensory function. So we concluded that AASC transplantation might be feasible, safe, and effective to promote neurorestoration of SCI patients. PMID:22507679

  6. Rat Sciatic Nerve Reconstruction Across a 30 mm Defect Bridged by an Oriented Porous PHBV Tube With Schwann Cell as Artificial Nerve Graft

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An oriented poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) nerve conduit has been used to evaluate its efficiency based on the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. The oriented porous micropatterned artificial nerve conduit was designed onto the micropatterned silicon wafers, and then their surfaces were modified with oxygen plasma to increase cell adhesion. The designed conduits were investigated by cell culture analyses with Schwann cells (SCs). The conduits were implanted into a 30 mm gap in sciatic nerves of rats. Four months after surgery, the regenerated nerves were monitored and evaluated by macroscopic assessments and histology and behavioral analyses. Results of cellular analyses showed suitable properties of designed conduit for nerve regeneration. The results demonstrated that in the polymeric graft with SCs, the rat sciatic nerve trunk had been reconstructed with restoration of nerve continuity and formatted nerve fibers with myelination. Histological results demonstrated the presence of Schwann and glial cells in regenerated nerves. Functional recovery such as walking, swimming, and recovery of nociceptive function was illustrated for all the grafts especially conduits with SCs. This study proves the feasibility of the artificial nerve graft filled with SCs for peripheral nerve regeneration by bridging a longer defect in an animal model. PMID:24399063

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells engrafted in a fibrin scaffold stimulate Schwann cell reactivity and axonal regeneration following sciatic nerve tubulization.

    PubMed

    Cartarozzi, Luciana P; Spejo, Aline B; Ferreira, Rui S; Barraviera, Benedito; Duek, Eliana; Carvalho, Juliana L; Góes, Alfredo M; Oliveira, Alexandre L R

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) associated with a fibrin scaffold (FS) for the peripheral regenerative process after nerve tubulization. Adult female Lewis rats received a unilateral sciatic nerve transection followed by repair with a polycaprolactone (PCL)-based tubular prosthesis. Sixty days after injury, the regenerated nerves were studied by immunohistochemistry. Anti-p75NTR immunostaining was used to investigate the reactivity of the MSCs. Basal labeling, which was upregulated during the regenerative process, was detected in uninjured nerves and was significantly greater in the MSC-treated group. The presence of GFP-positive MSCs was detected in the nerves, indicating the long term survival of such cells. Moreover, there was co-localization between MSCs and BNDF immunoreactivity, showing a possible mechanism by which MSCs improve the reactivity of SCs. Myelinated axon counting and morphometric analyses showed that MSC engrafting led to a higher degree of fiber compaction combined with a trend of increased myelin sheath thickness, when compared with other groups. The functional result of MSC engrafting was that the animals showed higher motor function recovery at the seventh and eighth week after lesion. The findings herein show that MSC+FS therapy improves the nerve regeneration process by positively modulating the reactivity of SCs. PMID:25602253

  8. A Silk Fibroin/Collagen Nerve Scaffold Seeded with a Co-Culture of Schwann Cells and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Sciatic Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruixin; Li, Dong; Feng, Shiqing

    2016-01-01

    As a promising alternative to autologous nerve grafts, tissue-engineered nerve grafts have been extensively studied as a way to bridge peripheral nerve defects and guide nerve regeneration. The main difference between autogenous nerve grafts and tissue-engineered nerve grafts is the regenerative microenvironment formed by the grafts. If an appropriate regenerative microenvironment is provided, the repair of a peripheral nerve is feasible. In this study, to mimic the body’s natural regenerative microenvironment closely, we co-cultured Schwann cells (SCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) as seed cells and introduced them into a silk fibroin (SF)/collagen scaffold to construct a tissue-engineered nerve conduit (TENC). Twelve weeks after the three different grafts (plain SF/collagen scaffold, TENC, and autograft) were transplanted to bridge 1-cm long sciatic nerve defects in rats, a series of electrophysiological examinations and morphological analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of the tissue-engineered nerve grafts on peripheral nerve regeneration. The regenerative outcomes showed that the effect of treatment with TENCs was similar to that with autologous nerve grafts but superior to that with plain SF/collagen scaffolds. Meanwhile, no experimental animals had inflammation around the grafts. Based on this evidence, our findings suggest that the TENC we developed could improve the regenerative microenvironment and accelerate nerve regeneration compared to plain SF/collagen and may serve as a promising strategy for peripheral nerve repair. PMID:26799619

  9. Schwann cell differentiation inhibits interferon-gamma induction of expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    Lisak, Robert P; Bealmear, Beverly; Benjamins, Joyce A

    2016-06-15

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) upregulates major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) antigens and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on Schwann cells (SC) in vitro, but in nerves of animals and patients MHC class II is primarily expressed on inflammatory cells. We investigated whether SC maturation influences their expression. IFN-γ induced MHC class II and upregulated ICAM-1; the axolemma-like signal 8-bromo cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8 Br cAMP) with IFN-γ inhibited expression. Delaying addition of 8 Br cAMP to SC already exposed to IFN-γ inhibited ongoing expression; addition of IFN-γ to SC already exposed to 8 Br cAMP resulted in minimal expression. Variability of cytokine-induced MHC class II and ICAM-1 expression by SC in vivo may represent the variability of signals from axolemma. PMID:27235355

  10. Co-transplantation of MRF-overexpressing oligodendrocyte precursor cells and Schwann cells promotes recovery in rat after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiu-Mei; Shi, Ling-Ling; Shen, Lin; Wang, Rui; Qi, Qi; Wang, Qi-Yi; Zhang, Lun-Jun; Lü, He-Zuo; Hu, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Oligodendrocyte (OL) replacement is a promising treatment strategy for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the poor survival of transplanted OLs or their precursors and inhibition of axonal regeneration are two major challenges with this approach. Our previous study showed that Schwann cells (SCs) promoted survival, proliferation, and migration of transplanted OL progenitor cells (OPCs) and neurological recovery. Remyelination is an important basis for functional recovery following spinal cord injury. It has been reported that myelin gene regulatory factor (MRF), a transcriptional regulator which specifically is expressed in postmitotic OLs within the CNS, is essential for OL maturation and CNS myelination. In the present study, we investigated whether co-transplantation of MRF-overexpressing OPCs (MRF-OPCs) and SCs could improve functional recovery in a rat model of contusional SCI. MRF overexpression had no effect on OPC survival or migration, but stimulated the differentiation of OPCs both in vitro and in vivo. Co-transplantation of MRF-OPCs and SCs increased myelination and tissue repair after SCI, leading to the recovery of neurological function. These results indicate that co-transplantation of MRF-OPCs and SCs may be an effective treatment strategy for SCI. PMID:27370227

  11. Study of synergistic role of allogenic skin-derived precursor differentiated Schwann cells and heregulin-1β in nerve regeneration with an acellular nerve allograft.

    PubMed

    Wang, Houlei; Wu, Jingping; Zhang, Xinchao; Ding, Lei; Zeng, Qingmin

    2016-07-01

    Development of tissue structure and three-dimensional microenvironment is crucial for regeneration of axons in the peripheral nerve repair. In this study we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of nerve regeneration by using an acellular nerve allograft (ANA) injected with allogenic skin-derived precursor differentiated Schwann cells (SKP-SCs) and heregulin-1β. Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) were generated from dermis of newborn (postnatal day 2) Wistar rats. In a rat model, nerve regeneration was determined across a 15 mm lesion in the sciatic nerve by using an ANA injected with allogenic SKP-SCs and heregulin-1β. The electrophysiological analysis, histological examination and electron microscopy were involved in this study. Cultured SKPs expressed nestin and fibronectin, and differentiated into cells with phenotype of SCs that presented characteristic markers of p75NGFR and S100-β. Implantation of SKP-SCs into the rat models by using ANA and allogenic skin-derived precursor differentiated Schwann cells (SKP-SCs) increases sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), peak amplitudes, nerve conduction velocities, number of myelinated fibers within the graft, while reduces incubation period, sciatic nerve injury-induced weight and contractions loss. Using ANA injected with SKP-SCs combined with heregulin-1β greatly promote peripheral nerve repair in a rat model. Our results suggest that SKP-SCs transplantation with heregulin-1β represents a powerful therapeutic approach, and facilitates the efficacy of acellular nerve allograft in peripheral nerve injury, though the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. PMID:27063890

  12. Human Schwann-like cells derived from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells rapidly de-differentiate in the absence of stimulating medium.

    PubMed

    Faroni, Alessandro; Smith, Richard J P; Lu, Li; Reid, Adam J

    2016-02-01

    Finding a viable cell-based therapy to address peripheral nerve injury holds promise for enhancing the currently suboptimal microsurgical approaches to peripheral nerve repair. Autologous nerve grafting is the current gold standard for surgical repair of nerve gaps; however, this causes donor nerve morbidity in the patient, and the results remain unsatisfactory. Transplanting autologous Schwann cells (SCs) results in similar morbidity, as well as limited cell numbers and restricted potential for expansion in vitro. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), 'differentiated' towards an SC-like phenotype in vitro (dASCs), have been presented as an alternative to SC therapies. The differentiation protocol stimulates ASCs to mimic the SC phenotype; however, the efficacy of dASCs in nerve repair is not yet convincing, and the practicality of the SC-like phenotype is unproven. Here, we examined the stability of dASCs by withdrawing differentiation medium for 72 h after the full 18-day differentiation protocol, and measuring changes in morphology, gene expression, and protein levels. Withdrawal of differentiation medium from dASCs resulted in a rapid reversion to stem cell-like characteristics. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in gene and protein expression of growth factors that were expressed at high levels following 'differentiation'. Therefore, we question the relevance of differentiation to an SC-like phenotype, as withdrawal of differentiation medium, a model of transplantation into an injured nerve, results in rapid reversion of the dASC phenotype to stem cell-like characteristics. Further investigation into the differentiation process and the response of dASCs to an injured environment must be undertaken prior to the use of dASCs in peripheral nerve repair therapies. PMID:26309136

  13. A prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial using a combination of olfactory ensheathing cells and Schwann cells for the treatment of chronic complete spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Huang, Hongyun; Xi, Haitao; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yancheng; Chen, Di; Xiao, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized double-blind clinical study is to examine the benefits of using olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) combined with or without Schwann cells (SCs) in treating chronic complete spinal cord injuries (SCIs). This would offer patients a better alternative for neurological functional recovery. According to the initial design, 28 eligible participants with cervical chronic complete SCI were recruited and randomly allocated into four groups of seven participants each. The neurological assessments were to be performed according to the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) Functional Rating Scales, in combination with electrophysiological tests, for example, electromyography (EMG) and paraspinal somatosensory evoked potentials (PSSEPs). Here we have summarized the data from seven patients; three patients received an OEC intraspinal transplantation, one underwent SC implantation, and one received a combination of OECs and SCs. The remaining two patients were used as controls. The scores were evaluated independently by at least two neurologists in a blinded fashion for comparing the neurological functional changes during pre- and post-cell transplantation (6-month follow-up). All patients who received OECs, SCs alone, and a combination of them showed functional improvement. Mild fever occurred in one of the patients with OEC transplant that subsided after symptomatic treatments. All treated patients except one showed improvement in the electrophysiological tests. The functional improvement rate comprises 5/5 (100%) in the treated group, but 0/2 (0%) in the control group (p = 0.008). These preliminary findings show that transplanting OECs, SCs, or a combination of them is well tolerated and that they have beneficial effects in patients. Thus, further studies in larger patient cohorts are warranted to assess the benefits and risks of these intervention strategies. This

  14. Fabrication of growth factor- and extracellular matrix-loaded, gelatin-based scaffolds and their biocompatibility with Schwann cells and dorsal root ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Gámez Sazo, Rodolfo E.; Maenaka, Katsumi; Gu, Weiyong; Wood, Patrick M.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2012-01-01

    One of the most exciting new avenues of research to repair the injured spinal cord is to combine cells for implantation with scaffolds that protect the cells and release growth factors to improve their survival and promote host axonal regeneration. To realize this goal, we fabricated biodegradable, photocurable gelatin tubes and membranes for exploratory in vitro studies. Detailed methods are described for their fabrication with a high gelatin concentration. Gelatin membranes fabricated in the same way as tubes and photo-co-immobilized with rhBDNF or rhNT-3, with or without Schwann cells (SCs), showed an initial burst of neurotrophin release within 24h, with release diminishing progressively for 21 days thereafter. SCs attained their typical bipolar conformation on membranes without neurotrophins but adhesion, alignment and proliferation were improved with neurotrophins, particularly rhBDNF. When dorsal root ganglion explants were cultured on membranes containing laminin and fibronectin plus both neurotrophins, neurite outgrowth was lengthier compared to combining one neurotrophin with laminin and fibronectin. Thus, these gelatin membranes allow SC survival and effectively release growth factors and harbor extracellular matrix components to improve cell survival and neurite growth. These scaffolds, based on the combination of cross-linked gelatin technology and incorporation of neurotrophins and extracellular matrix components, are promising candidates for spinal cord repair. PMID:22906605

  15. Construction of nerve guide conduits from cellulose/soy protein composite membranes combined with Schwann cells and pyrroloquinoline quinone for the repair of peripheral nerve defect

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Lihua; Gan, Li; Liu, Yongming; Tian, Weiqun; Tong, Zan; Wang, Xiong; Huselstein, Celine; Chen, Yun

    2015-02-20

    Regeneration and functional reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects remained a significant clinical challenge. Nerve guide conduits, with seed cells or neurotrophic factors (NTFs), had been widely used to improve the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was an antioxidant that can stimulate nerve growth factors (NGFs) synthesis and accelerate the Schwann cells (SCs) proliferation and growth. In present study, three kinds of nerve guide conduits were constructed: one from cellulose/SPI hollow tube (CSC), another from CSC combined with SCs (CSSC), and the third one from CSSC combined with PQQ (CSSPC), respectively. And then they were applied to bridge and repair the sciatic nerve defect in rats, using autograft as control. Effects of different nerve guide conduits on the nerve regeneration were comparatively evaluated by general analysis, sciatic function index (SFI) and histological analysis (HE and TEM). Newly-formed regenerative nerve fibers were observed and running through the transparent nerve guide conduits 12 weeks after surgery. SFI results indicated that the reconstruction of motor function in CSSPC group was better than that in CSSC and CSC groups. HE images from the cross-sections and longitudinal-sections of the harvested regenerative nerve indicated that regenerative nerve fibers had been formed and accompanied with new blood vessels and matrix materials in the conduits. TEM images also showed that lots of fresh myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers had been formed. Parts of vacuolar, swollen and abnormal axons occurred in CSC and CSSC groups, while the vacuolization and swell of axons was the least serious in CSSPC group. These results indicated that CSSPC group had the most ability to repair and reconstruct the nerve structure and functions due to the comprehensive contributions from hollow CSC tube, SCs and PQQ. As a result, the CSSPC may have the potential for the applications as nerve guide

  16. Exclusive expression of the Rab11 effector SH3TC2 in Schwann cells links integrin-α6 and myelin maintenance to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Sauparnika; Chiu, Meagan; Dacks, Joel B; Roberts, Rhys C

    2016-07-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C (CMT4C) is one of the commonest autosomal recessive inherited peripheral neuropathies and is associated with mutations in the Rab11 effector, SH3TC2. Disruption of the SH3TC2-Rab11 interaction is the molecular abnormality underlying this disease. However, why SH3TC2 mutations cause an isolated demyelinating neuropathy remains unanswered. Here we show that SH3TC2 is an exclusive Schwann cell protein expressed late in myelination and is downregulated following denervation suggesting a functional role in myelin sheath maintenance. We support our data with an evolutionary cell biological analysis showing that the SH3TC2 gene, and its paralogue SH3TC1, are derived from an ancestral homologue, the duplication of which occurred in the common ancestor of jawed vertebrates, coincident with the appearance of Schwann cells and peripheral axon myelination. Furthermore, we report that SH3TC2 associates with integrin-α6, suggesting that aberrant Rab11-dependent endocytic trafficking of this critical laminin receptor in myelinated Schwann cells is connected to the demyelination seen in affected nerves. Our study therefore highlights the inherent evolutionary link between SH3TC2 and peripheral nerve myelination, pointing also towards a molecular mechanism underlying the specific demyelinating neuropathy that characterizes CMT4C. PMID:27068304

  17. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibition Enhances the Rate of Nerve Regeneration In Vivo by Promoting De-Differentiation and Mitosis of Supporting Schwann Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huaqing; Kim, Youngsoon; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Shubayev, Igor; Dolkas, Jennifer; Shubayev, Veronica I.

    2010-01-01

    Following peripheral nerve injury, Schwann cells (SCs) vigorously divide to survive and produce a sufficient number of cells to accompany regenerating axons. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have emerged as modulators of SC signaling and mitosis. Using a 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay, we previously found that a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (MMPi), GM6001 (or Ilomastat), enhanced division of cultured primary SCs. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the ability of MMPi to stimulate SC mitosis may advance nerve regeneration in vivo. GM6001 administration immediately after rat sciatic nerve crush and daily thereafter produced increased nerve regeneration as determined by nerve pinch test and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) expression. MMPi promoted endoneurial BrdU incorporation relative to vehicle control. The dividing cells were mainly SCs and were associated with GAP-43-positive regenerating axons. After MMP inhibition, myelin basic protein mRNA expression (determined by Taqman RT-qPCR) and active mitosis of myelin-forming SCs were reduced, indicating that MMPs suppressed their de-differentiation preceding mitosis. Intra-sciatic injection of the inhibitor of SC mitosis mitomycin suppressed nerve regrowth is reversed by MMPi, suggesting that its effect on axonal growth promotion depends on its pro-mitogenic action in SCs. These studies establish novel roles for MMPs in peripheral nerve repair via control of SC mitosis, differentiation and myelin protein mRNA expression. PMID:20448483

  18. Schwann cell-specific JAM-C-deficient mice reveal novel expression and functions for JAM-C in peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Colom, Bartomeu; Poitelon, Yannick; Huang, Wenlong; Woodfin, Abigail; Averill, Sharon; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Zambroni, Desirée; Brain, Susan D; Perretti, Mauro; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Priestley, John V; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Imhof, Beat A; Feltri, M Laura; Nourshargh, Sussan

    2012-03-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C) is an adhesion molecule expressed at junctions between adjacent endothelial and epithelial cells and implicated in multiple inflammatory and vascular responses. In addition, we recently reported on the expression of JAM-C in Schwann cells (SCs) and its importance for the integrity and function of peripheral nerves. To investigate the role of JAM-C in neuronal functions further, mice with a specific deletion of JAM-C in SCs (JAM-C SC KO) were generated. Compared to wild-type (WT) controls, JAM-C SC KO mice showed electrophysiological defects, muscular weakness, and hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli. In addressing the underlying cause of these defects, nerves from JAM-C SC KO mice were found to have morphological defects in the paranodal region, exhibiting increased nodal length as compared to WTs. The study also reports on previously undetected expressions of JAM-C, namely on perineural cells, and in line with nociception defects of the JAM-C SC KO animals, on finely myelinated sensory nerve fibers. Collectively, the generation and characterization of JAM-C SC KO mice has provided unequivocal evidence for the involvement of SC JAM-C in the fine organization of peripheral nerves and in modulating multiple neuronal responses. PMID:22090315

  19. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is present in motor neuron mitochondria and Schwann cells and contributes to disease mechanisms in ALS mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kevin; Northington, Frances J.

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons (MNs). The molecular pathogenesis of ALS is not understood, thus effective therapies for this disease are lacking. Some forms of ALS are inherited by mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene. Transgenic mice expressing human Gly93 → Ala (G93A) mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) develop severe MN disease, oxidative and nitrative damage, and mitochondrial pathology that appears to involve nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms. We used G93A-mSOD1 mice to test the hypothesis that the degeneration of MNs is associated with an aberrant up-regulation of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS or NOS2) activity within MNs. Western blotting and immunoprecipitation showed that iNOS protein levels in mitochondrial-enriched membrane fractions of spinal cord are increased significantly in mSOD1 mice at pre-symptomatic stages of disease. The catalytic activity of iNOS was also increased significantly in mitochondrial-enriched membrane fractions of mSOD1 mouse spinal cord at pre-symptomatic stages of disease. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that iNOS mRNA was present in the spinal cord and brainstem MN regions in mice and was increased in pre-symptomatic and early symptomatic mice. Immunohistochemistry showed that iNOS immunoreactivty was up-regulated first in spinal cord and brainstem MNs in pre-symptomatic and early symptomatic mice and then later in the course of disease in numerous microglia and few astrocytes. iNOS accumulated in the mitochondria in mSOD1 mouse MNs. iNOS immunoreactivity was also up-regulated in Schwann cells of peripheral nerves and was enriched particularly at the paranodal regions of the nodes of Ranvier. Drug inhibitors of iNOS delayed disease onset and significantly extended the lifespan of G93A-mSOD1 mice. This work identifies two new potential early mechanisms for MN degeneration in mouse ALS involving iNOS at MN mitochondria and Schwann cells and suggests

  20. 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, an oligodendrocyte-Schwann cell and myelin-associated enzyme of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sprinkle, T J

    1989-01-01

    2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase (E.C. 3.1.4.37; CNPase) is a myelin-associated enzyme. In central and peripheral nervous system tissues, the enzyme is localized almost exclusively in the two cell types that elaborate myelin, the oligodendrocyte and the Schwann cell, respectively. Nonneural sources of CNPase have also been described, but they all have much lower activities than those found in brain. The freshly isolated brain enzymes appear as closely spaced doublets at approximately 46 and 48 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The primary sequence appears highly conserved between these two proteins, designated CNP1 and CNP2. Major structural differences between these two proteins are most likely due to posttranslational modifications of the enzyme itself (certainly phosphorylation, possibly others) or to alternative splicing. The primary sequences of rat and bovine brain CNPase have now been deduced from the cDNA sequences and the enzymes appear to be unique. Current research suggests that CNPase is involved in the very rapid growth of myelin membrane during early oligodendrocyte membrane biogenesis and possibly maintenance. The absolute hydrolysis specificity, yielding 2'-mononucleotides from 2',3'-cyclic substrates, strongly suggests that CNPase is a nucleic acid enzyme, possibly related to RNA metabolism. PMID:2537684

  1. Regulation of Schwann cell proliferation and migration by miR-1 targeting brain-derived neurotrophic factor after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sheng; Yuan, Ying; Chen, Qianqian; Wang, Xinghui; Gong, Leilei; Liu, Jie; Gu, Xiaosong; Li, Shiying

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a global problem that causes disability and severe socioeconomic burden. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) benefits peripheral nerve regeneration and becomes a promising therapeutic molecule. In the current study, we found that microRNA-1 (miR-1) directly targeted BDNF by binding to its 3′-UTR and caused both mRNA degradation and translation suppression of BDNF. Moreover, miR-1 induced BDNF mRNA degradation primarily through binding to target site 3 rather than target site 1 or 2 of BDNF 3′-UTR. Following rat sciatic nerve injury, a rough inverse correlation was observed between temporal expression profiles of miR-1 and BDNF in the injured nerve. The overexpression or silencing of miR-1 in cultured Schwann cells (SCs) inhibited or enhanced BDNF secretion from the cells, respectively, and also suppressed or promoted SC proliferation and migration, respectively. Interestingly, BDNF knockdown could attenuate the enhancing effect of miR-1 inhibitor on SC proliferation and migration. These findings will contribute to the development of a novel therapeutic strategy for peripheral nerve injury, which overcomes the limitations of direct administration of exogenous BDNF by using miR-1 to regulate endogenous BDNF expression. PMID:27381812

  2. The adhesion GPCR GPR126 has distinct, domain-dependent functions in Schwann cell development mediated by interaction with Laminin-211

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Sarah C.; Luo, Rong; Liebscher, Ines; Giera, Stefanie; Jeong, Sung-jin; Mogha, Amit; Ghidinelli, Monica; Feltri, M. Laura; Schöneberg, Torsten; Piao, Xianhua; Monk, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Myelin ensheathes axons to allow rapid propagation of action potentials and proper nervous system function. In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells (SCs) radially sort axons into a 1:1 relationship before wrapping an axonal segment to form myelin. SC myelination requires the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor GPR126, which undergoes autoproteolytic cleavage into an N-terminal fragment (NTF) and a 7-transmembrane-containing C-terminal fragment (CTF). Here, we show that GPR126 has domain-specific functions in SC development whereby the NTF is necessary and sufficient for axon sorting while the CTF promotes wrapping through cAMP elevation. These biphasic roles of GPR126 are governed by interactions with Laminin-211, which we define as a novel ligand for GPR126 that modulates receptor signaling via a tethered agonist. Our work suggests a model in which Laminin-211 mediates GPR126-induced cAMP levels to control early and late stages of SC development. PMID:25695270

  3. Concentrated growth factor promotes Schwann cell migration partly through the integrin β1-mediated activation of the focal adhesion kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jie; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Ling; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yidi; Yang, Tingting; Zhou, Yanmin

    2016-05-01

    Nerve injury is a serious complication associated with dental implant surgery. Following nerve injury, the migration of Schwann cells (SCs) supports nerve regeneration. Concentrated growth factor (CGF) belongs to a new generation of biomaterials that contain fibrin matrix, as well as a number of growth factors that affect the migration of various types of cells, including endothelial cells and cancer cells. To the very best of our knowledge, there are no available studies to date on the promoting effect of CGF on the migration of SCs. Thus, the aim of the present study was to characterize the structure of CGF and growth factor release, examine the effects of CGF on the migration of SCs, and to examine the role of integrin β1 and the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway in the CGF-induced migration of SCs. For this purpose, CGF was prepared by centrifuging rat venous blood, which produced a fiber-like matrix capable of releasing transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) over a sustained period of time (at least 13 days). The soluble component of CGF was used to produce conditioned media to treat the SC cells in culture. The results demonstrated that CGF promoted the migration of SCs and increased the expression of integrin β1. These effects appeared to involve FAK phosphorylation, which occurred downstream of integrin β1 activation. The short-interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated downregulation of integrin β1 expression did not block the ability of CGF to promote the migration of SCs. These data suggest that CGF promotes the migration of SCs partly through the integrin β1-mediated activation of the FAK pathway. PMID:26986804

  4. Fabrication and characterization of vitamin B5 loaded poly (l-lactide-co-caprolactone)/silk fiber aligned electrospun nanofibers for schwann cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bhutto, M Aqeel; Wu, Tong; Sun, Binbin; Ei-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Mo, Xiumei

    2016-08-01

    Bioengineering strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration have been focusing on the development of alternative treatments for nerve repair. In present study we have blended the Vitamin B5 (50mg) with 8% P(LLA-CL) and P(LLA-CL)/SF solutions and produced aligned electrospun nanofiber mashes and characterized the material for its physiochemical and mechanical characteristics. The vitamin loaded composites nanofibers showed tensile strength of 8.73±1.38 and 8.4±1.37 in P(LLA-CL)/Vt and P(LLA-CL)/SF/Vt nanofibers mashes, respectively. By the addition of vitamin B5 the P(LLA-CL) nanofibers become hydrophilic and the contact angle decreased from 96° to 0° in 6min of duration. The effect of vitamin B5 on Schwann cells proliferation and viability were analyzed by using MTT assay and the number of cells cultured on vitamin loaded nanofiber mashes was significantly higher than the without vitamin loaded nanofiber samples after 5th day (p<0.05) whereas, P (LLA-CL)/SF/Vt exhibit the consistently highest cell numbers after 7th days culture as compare to P (LLA-CL)/Vt. The in vitro vitamin release behavior was observed in PBS solution and released vitamin was calculated by revers phase HPLC method. The sustain release behavior of vitamin B5 were noted higher in P(LLA-CL)/Vt (80%) nanofibers as compared to P (LLA-CL)/SF/Vt (62%) nanofibers after 24h. The present work provided a basis for further studies of this novel aligned nanofibrous material in nerve tissue repair or regeneration. PMID:27085042

  5. Construction of nerve guide conduits from cellulose/soy protein composite membranes combined with Schwann cells and pyrroloquinoline quinone for the repair of peripheral nerve defect.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lihua; Gan, Li; Liu, Yongming; Tian, Weiqun; Tong, Zan; Wang, Xiong; Huselstein, Celine; Chen, Yun

    2015-02-20

    Regeneration and functional reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects remained a significant clinical challenge. Nerve guide conduits, with seed cells or neurotrophic factors (NTFs), had been widely used to improve the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was an antioxidant that can stimulate nerve growth factors (NGFs) synthesis and accelerate the Schwann cells (SCs) proliferation and growth. In present study, three kinds of nerve guide conduits were constructed: one from cellulose/SPI hollow tube (CSC), another from CSC combined with SCs (CSSC), and the third one from CSSC combined with PQQ (CSSPC), respectively. And then they were applied to bridge and repair the sciatic nerve defect in rats, using autograft as control. Effects of different nerve guide conduits on the nerve regeneration were comparatively evaluated by general analysis, sciatic function index (SFI) and histological analysis (HE and TEM). Newly-formed regenerative nerve fibers were observed and running through the transparent nerve guide conduits 12 weeks after surgery. SFI results indicated that the reconstruction of motor function in CSSPC group was better than that in CSSC and CSC groups. HE images from the cross-sections and longitudinal-sections of the harvested regenerative nerve indicated that regenerative nerve fibers had been formed and accompanied with new blood vessels and matrix materials in the conduits. TEM images also showed that lots of fresh myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers had been formed. Parts of vacuolar, swollen and abnormal axons occurred in CSC and CSSC groups, while the vacuolization and swell of axons was the least serious in CSSPC group. These results indicated that CSSPC group had the most ability to repair and reconstruct the nerve structure and functions due to the comprehensive contributions from hollow CSC tube, SCs and PQQ. As a result, the CSSPC may have the potential for the applications as nerve guide

  6. Design of super-elastic biodegradable scaffolds with longitudinally oriented microchannels and optimization of the channel size for Schwann cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uto, Koichiro; Muroya, Takanari; Okamoto, Michio; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Aoyagi, Takao

    2012-12-01

    We newly designed super-elastic biodegradable scaffolds with longitudinally oriented microchannels for repair and regeneration of peripheral nerve defects. Four-armed poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide)s (P(CL-co-DLLA)s) were synthesized by ring-opening copolymerization of CL and DLLA from terminal hydroxyl groups of pentaerythritol, and acryloyl chloride was then reacted with the ends of the chains. The end-functionalized P(CL-co-DLLA) was crosslinked in a cylindrical mold in the presence of longitudinally oriented silica fibers as the templates, which were later dissolved by hydrofluoric acid. The elastic moduli of the crosslinked P(CL-co-DLLA)s were controlled between 10-1 and 102 MPa at 37 °C, depending on the composition. The scaffolds could be elongated to 700% of their original size without fracture or damage (‘super-elasticity’). Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that well-defined and highly aligned multiple channels consistent with the mold design were produced in the scaffolds. Owing to their elastic nature, the microchannels in the scaffolds did not collapse when they were bent to 90°. To evaluate the effect of the channel diameter on Schwann cell migration, microchannels were also fabricated in transparent poly(dimethylsiloxane), allowing observation of cell migration. The migration speed increased with channel size, but the Young's modulus of the scaffold decreased as the channel diameter increased. These findings may serve as the basis for designing tissue-engineering scaffolds for nerve regeneration and investigating the effects of the geometrical and dimensional properties on axonal outgrowth.

  7. Adult Stem and Progenitor Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

    The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.

  8. Calcitriol prevents peripheral RSC96 Schwann neural cells from high glucose & methylglyoxal-induced injury through restoration of CBS/H2S expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhuang, Xiao-dong; Meng, Fu-hui; Chen, Li; Dong, Xiao-bian; Liu, Guo-Hui; Li, Jian-hua; Dong, Qi; Xu, Ji-de; Yang, Chun-tao

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis has suggested that vitamin D deficiency is involved in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and the levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are also decreased in type 2 diabetes. The injection of vitamin D induces cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) expression and H2S generation. However, it remains unclear whether the supplementation of vitamin D prevents DPN through improvement of CBS/H2S expression. In the present study, RSC96 cells, a rat Schwann cell line, were exposed to high glucose and methylglyoxal (HG&MG) to simulate diabetic peripheral nerve injury in vivo. Before the exposure to HG&MG, the cells were preconditioned with calcitriol (CCT), an active form of vitamin D, and then CCT-mediated neuroprotection was investigated in respect of cellular viability, superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation, inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS)/NO expression, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), as well as CBS expression and activity. It was found that both high glucose and MGO decreased cell viability and co-treatment with the two induced a more serious injury in RSC96 cells. Therefore, the exposure to HG&MG was used in the present study. The exposure to HG&MG markedly induced iNOS expression, NO and O2(-) generation, as well as MMP loss. In addition, the exposure to HG&MG depressed CBS expression and activity in RSC96 cells. However, the preconditioning with CCT significantly antagonized HG&MG-induced cell injury including the decreased viability, iNOS overexpression, NO and O2(-) accumulation, as well as MMP loss. CCT also partially restored the decreased CBS expression and activity triggered by HG&MG, while the inhibition of CBS with hydroxylamine attenuated CCT-mediated neuroprotection. Moreover, the exogenous donation of H2S produced similar cellular protective effects to CCT. The data indicate that the supplementation of vitamin D prevents HG&MG-induced peripheral nerve injury involving the restoration of endogenous H2S system, which may provide a

  9. Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural and Functional Analysis of Axonal Regeneration through Peripheral Nerve Grafts Containing Schwann Cells Expressing BDNF, CNTF or NT3

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Maria João; Teh, Lip; Pollett, Margaret A.; Goodman, Douglas; Hodgetts, Stuart I.; Sweetman, Iain; Walters, Mark; Verhaagen, Joost; Plant, Giles W.; Harvey, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    We used morphological, immunohistochemical and functional assessments to determine the impact of genetically-modified peripheral nerve (PN) grafts on axonal regeneration after injury. Grafts were assembled from acellular nerve sheaths repopulated ex vivo with Schwann cells (SCs) modified to express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a secretable form of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), or neurotrophin-3 (NT3). Grafts were used to repair unilateral 1 cm defects in rat peroneal nerves and 10 weeks later outcomes were compared to normal nerves and various controls: autografts, acellular grafts and grafts with unmodified SCs. The number of regenerated βIII-Tubulin positive axons was similar in all grafts with the exception of CNTF, which contained the fewest immunostained axons. There were significantly lower fiber counts in acellular, untransduced SC and NT3 groups using a PanNF antibody, suggesting a paucity of large caliber axons. In addition, NT3 grafts contained the greatest number of sensory fibres, identified with either IB4 or CGRP markers. Examination of semi- and ultra-thin sections revealed heterogeneous graft morphologies, particularly in BDNF and NT3 grafts in which the fascicular organization was pronounced. Unmyelinated axons were loosely organized in numerous Remak bundles in NT3 grafts, while the BDNF graft group displayed the lowest ratio of umyelinated to myelinated axons. Gait analysis revealed that stance width was increased in rats with CNTF and NT3 grafts, and step length involving the injured left hindlimb was significantly greater in NT3 grafted rats, suggesting enhanced sensory sensitivity in these animals. In summary, the selective expression of BDNF, CNTF or NT3 by genetically modified SCs had differential effects on PN graft morphology, the number and type of regenerating axons, myelination, and locomotor function. PMID:23950907

  10. Morphological, molecular and functional differences of adult bone marrow- and adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rats of different ages

    SciTech Connect

    Mantovani, Cristina; Raimondo, Stefania; Haneef, Maryam S.; Geuna, Stefano; Terenghi, Giorgio; Shawcross, Susan G.; Wiberg, Mikael

    2012-10-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells have self-renewal and multiple differentiation potentials, and play important roles in regenerative medicine. However, their use may be limited by senescence or age of the donor, leading to changes in stem cell functionality. We investigated morphological, molecular and functional differences between bone marrow-derived (MSC) and adipose-derived (ASC) stem cells isolated from neonatal, young and old rats compared to Schwann cells from the same animals. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, proliferation assays, western blotting and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate expression of senescence markers. Undifferentiated and differentiated ASC and MSC from animals of different ages expressed Notch-2 at similar levels; protein-38 and protein-53 were present in all groups of cells with a trend towards increased levels in cells from older animals compared to those from neonatal and young rats. Following co-culture with adult neuronal cells, dMSC and dASC from animals of all ages elicited robust neurite outgrowth. Mitotracker{sup Registered-Sign} staining was consistent with ultrastructural changes seen in the mitochondria of cells from old rats, indicative of senescence. In conclusion, this study showed that although the cells from aged animals expressed markers of senescence, aged MSC and ASC differentiated into SC-like cells still retain potential to support axon regeneration. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aged MSC and ASC differentiated into Schwann-like cells support axon regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53 expression does not appreciably influence the biology of Schwann or stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch 2 expression was similar in cells derived from animals of different ages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation rates of dMSC varied little over time or with animal age.

  11. Characterization of a unique cell population marked by transgene expression in the adult cochlea of nestin-CreER(T2)/tdTomato-reporter mice.

    PubMed

    Chow, Cynthia L; Guo, Weixiang; Trivedi, Parul; Zhao, Xinyu; Gubbels, Samuel P

    2015-07-01

    Hair cells in the adult mammalian cochlea cannot spontaneously regenerate after damage, resulting in the permanency of hearing loss. Stem cells have been found to be present in the cochlea of young rodents; however, there has been little evidence for their existence into adulthood. We used nestin-CreER(T2)/tdTomato-reporter mice to trace the lineage of putative nestin-expressing cells and their progeny in the cochleae of adult mice. Nestin, an intermediate filament found in neural progenitor cells during early development and adulthood, is regarded as a multipotent and neural stem cell marker. Other investigators have reported its presence in postnatal and young adult rodents; however, there are discrepancies among these reports. Using lineage tracing, we documented a robust population of tdTomato-expressing cells and evaluated these cells at a series of adult time points. Upon activation of the nestin promoter, tdTomato was observed just below and medial to the inner hair cell layer. All cells colocalized with the stem cell and cochlear-supporting-cell marker Sox2 as well as the supporting cell and Schwann cell marker Sox10; however, they did not colocalize with the Schwann cell marker Krox20, spiral ganglion marker NF200, nor glial fibrillary acidic acid (GFAP)-expressing supporting cell marker. The cellular identity of this unique population of tdTomato-expressing cells in the adult cochlea of nestin-CreER(T2)/tdTomato mice remains unclear; however, these cells may represent a type of supporting cell on the neural aspect of the inner hair cell layer. PMID:25611038

  12. Characterization of a Unique Cell Population Marked by Transgene Expression in the Adult Cochlea of Nestin-CreERT2/tdTomato-Reporter Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Cynthia L.; Guo, Weixiang; Trivedi, Parul; Zhao, Xinyu; Gubbels, Samuel P.

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells in the adult mammalian cochlea cannot spontaneously regenerate after damage resulting in the permanency of hearing loss. Stem cells have been found to be present in the cochlea of young rodents; however, there has been little evidence for their existence into adulthood. We used nestin-CreERT2/tdTomato-reporter mice to trace the lineage of putative nestin-expressing cells and their progeny in the cochleae of adult mice. Nestin, an intermediate filament found in neural progenitor cells during early development and adulthood, is regarded as a multi-potent and neural stem cell marker. Other investigators have reported its presence in postnatal and young adult rodents; however, there are discrepancies amongst these reports. Using lineage tracing, we documented a robust population of tdTomato-expressing cells and evaluated these cells at a series of adult time points. Upon activation of the nestin promoter, tdTomato was observed just below and medial to the inner hair cell layer. All cells co-localized with the stem cell and cochlear-supporting-cell marker Sox2 as well as the supporting cell and Schwann cell marker Sox10; however, they did not co-localize with the Schwann cell marker Krox20, spiral ganglion marker NF200, or GFAP-expressing supporting cell marker. The cellular identity of this unique population of tdTomato-expressing cells in the adult cochlea of nestin-CreERT2/tdTomato mice remains unclear however these cells may represent a type of supporting cell on the neural aspect of the inner hair cell layer. PMID:25611038

  13. [Langerhans cell histiocytosis in adults].

    PubMed

    Néel, A; Artifoni, M; Donadieu, J; Lorillon, G; Hamidou, M; Tazi, A

    2015-10-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease characterized by the infiltration of one or more organs by Langerhans cell-like dendritic cells, most often organized in granulomas. The disease has been initially described in children. The clinical picture of LCH is highly variable. Bone, skin, pituitary gland, lung, central nervous system, lymphoid organs are the main organs involved whereas liver and intestinal tract localizations are less frequently encountered. LCH course ranges from a fulminant multisystem disease to spontaneous resolution. Several randomized controlled trials have enable pediatricians to refine the management of children with LCH. Adult LCH has some specific features and poses distinct therapeutic challenges, knowing that data on these patients are limited. Herein, we will provide an overview of current knowledge regarding adult LCH and its management. We will also discuss recent advances in the understanding of the disease, (i.e. the role of BRAF oncogene) that opens the way toward targeted therapies. PMID:26150351

  14. A new sodium channel {alpha}-subunit gene (Scn9a) from Schwann cells maps to the Scn1a, Scn2a, Scn3a cluster of mouse chromosome 2

    SciTech Connect

    Beckers, M.C.; Ernst, E.; Gros, P.

    1996-08-15

    We have used a total of 27 AXB/BXA recombinant inbred mouse strains to determine the chromosomal location of a newly identified gene encoding an {alpha}-subunit isoform of the sodium channel from Schwann cells, Scn9a. Linkage analysis established that Scn9a mapped to the proximal segment of mouse chromosome 2. The segregation of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in 145 progeny from a Mus spretus x C57BL/6J backcross indicates that Scn9a is very tightly linked to Scn1a (gene encoding the type I sodium channel {alpha}-subunit of the brain) and forms part of a cluster of four Scna genes located on mouse chromosome 2. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Generalized Potential of Adult Neural Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Diana L.; Johansson, Clas B.; Wilbertz, Johannes; Veress, Biborka; Nilsson, Erik; Karlström, Helena; Lendahl, Urban; Frisén, Jonas

    2000-06-01

    The differentiation potential of stem cells in tissues of the adult has been thought to be limited to cell lineages present in the organ from which they were derived, but there is evidence that some stem cells may have a broader differentiation repertoire. We show here that neural stem cells from the adult mouse brain can contribute to the formation of chimeric chick and mouse embryos and give rise to cells of all germ layers. This demonstrates that an adult neural stem cell has a very broad developmental capacity and may potentially be used to generate a variety of cell types for transplantation in different diseases.

  16. Adult stem cells and tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Körbling, M; Estrov, Z; Champlin, R

    2003-08-01

    Recently, adult stem cells originating from bone marrow or peripheral blood have been suggested to contribute to repair and genesis of cells specific for liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle, gut, and brain tissue. The mechanism involved has been termed transdifferentiation, although other explanations including cell fusion have been postulated. Using adult stem cells to generate or repair solid organ tissue obviates the immunologic, ethical, and teratogenic issues that accompany embryonic stem cells. PMID:12931235

  17. Progenitor cells in the adult pancreas.

    PubMed

    Holland, Andrew M; Góñez, L Jorge; Harrison, Leonard C

    2004-01-01

    The beta-cell mass in the adult pancreas possesses the ability to undergo limited regeneration following injury. Identifying the progenitor cells involved in this process and understanding the mechanisms leading to their maturation will open new avenues for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, despite steady advances in determining the molecular basis of early pancreatic development, the identification of pancreatic stem cells or beta-cell progenitors and the molecular mechanisms underlying beta-cell regeneration remain unclear. Recent advances in the directed differentiation of embryonic and adult stem cells has heightened interest in the possible application of stem cell therapy in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Drawing on the expanding knowledge of pancreas development, beta-cell regeneration and stem cell research, this review focuses on progenitor cells in the adult pancreas as a potential source of beta-cells. PMID:14737742

  18. Schwann cells generated from neonatal skin-derived precursors or neonatal peripheral nerve improve functional recovery after acute transplantation into the partially injured cervical spinal cord of the rat.

    PubMed

    Sparling, Joseph S; Bretzner, Frederic; Biernaskie, Jeff; Assinck, Peggy; Jiang, Yuan; Arisato, Hiroki; Plunet, Ward T; Borisoff, Jaimie; Liu, Jie; Miller, Freda D; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2015-04-29

    The transplantation of Schwann cells (SCs) holds considerable promise as a therapy for spinal cord injury, but the optimal source of these cells and the best timing for intervention remains debatable. Previously, we demonstrated that delayed transplantation of SCs generated from neonatal mouse skin-derived precursors (SKP-SCs) promoted repair and functional recovery in rats with thoracic contusions. Here, we conducted two experiments using neonatal rat cells and an incomplete cervical injury model to examine the efficacy of acute SKP-SC transplantation versus media control (Experiment 1) and versus nerve-derived SC or dermal fibroblast (Fibro) transplantation (Experiment 2). Despite limited graft survival, by 10 weeks after injury, rats that received SCs from either source showed improved functional recovery compared with media- or fibroblast-treated animals. Compared with media treatment, SKP-SC-transplanted rats showed enhanced rubrospinal tract (RST) sparing/plasticity in the gray matter (GM) rostral to injury, particularly in the absence of immunosuppression. The functional benefits of SC transplantations over fibroblast treatment correlated with the enhanced preservation of host tissue, reduced RST atrophy, and/or increased RST sparing/plasticity in the GM. In summary, our results indicate that: (1) early transplantation of neonatal SCs generated from skin or nerve promotes repair and functional recovery after incomplete cervical crush injury; (2) either of these cell types is preferable to Fibros for these purposes; and (3) age-matched SCs from these two sources do not differ in terms of their reparative effects or functional efficacy after transplantation into the injured cervical spinal cord. PMID:25926450

  19. Isolation of Novel Multipotent Neural Crest-Derived Stem Cells from Adult Human Inferior Turbinate

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Stefan; Widera, Darius; Qunneis, Firas; Müller, Janine; Zander, Christin; Greiner, Johannes; Strauss, Christina; Lüningschrör, Patrick; Heimann, Peter; Schwarze, Hartmut; Ebmeyer, Jörg; Sudhoff, Holger; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Greber, Boris; Zaehres, Holm; Schöler, Hans; Kaltschmidt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Adult human neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are of extraordinary high plasticity and promising candidates for the use in regenerative medicine. Here we describe for the first time a novel neural crest-derived stem cell population within the respiratory epithelium of human adult inferior turbinate. In contrast to superior and middle turbinates, high amounts of source material could be isolated from human inferior turbinates. Using minimally-invasive surgery methods isolation is efficient even in older patients. Within their endogenous niche, inferior turbinate stem cells (ITSCs) expressed high levels of nestin, p75NTR, and S100. Immunoelectron microscopy using anti-p75 antibodies displayed that ITSCs are of glial origin and closely related to nonmyelinating Schwann cells. Cultivated ITSCs were positive for nestin and S100 and the neural crest markers Slug and SOX10. Whole genome microarray analysis showed pronounced differences to human ES cells in respect to pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, LIN28, and NANOG, whereas expression of WDR5, KLF4, and c-MYC was nearly similar. ITSCs were able to differentiate into cells with neuro-ectodermal and mesodermal phenotype. Additionally ITSCs are able to survive and perform neural crest typical chain migration in vivo when transplanted into chicken embryos. However ITSCs do not form teratomas in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Finally, we developed a separation strategy based on magnetic cell sorting of p75NTR positive ITSCs that formed larger neurospheres and proliferated faster than p75NTR negative ITSCs. Taken together our study describes a novel, readily accessible source of multipotent human NCSCs for potential cell-replacement therapy. PMID:22128806

  20. Clinical grade adult stem cell banking

    PubMed Central

    Thirumala, Sreedhar; Goebel, W Scott

    2009-01-01

    There has been a great deal of scientific interest recently generated by the potential therapeutic applications of adult stem cells in human care but there are several challenges regarding quality and safety in clinical applications and a number of these challenges relate to the processing and banking of these cells ex-vivo. As the number of clinical trials and the variety of adult cells used in regenerative therapy increases, safety remains a primary concern. This has inspired many nations to formulate guidelines and standards for the quality of stem cell collection, processing, testing, banking, packaging and distribution. Clinically applicable cryopreservation and banking of adult stem cells offers unique opportunities to advance the potential uses and widespread implementation of these cells in clinical applications. Most current cryopreservation protocols include animal serum proteins and potentially toxic cryoprotectant additives (CPAs) that prevent direct use of these cells in human therapeutic applications. Long term cryopreservation of adult stem cells under good manufacturing conditions using animal product free solutions is critical to the widespread clinical implementation of ex-vivo adult stem cell therapies. Furthermore, to avoid any potential cryoprotectant related complications, reduced CPA concentrations and efficient post-thaw washing to remove CPA are also desirable. The present review focuses on the current strategies and important aspects of adult stem cell banking for clinical applications. These include current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs), animal protein free freezing solutions, cryoprotectants, freezing & thawing protocols, viability assays, packaging and distribution. The importance and benefits of banking clinical grade adult stem cells are also discussed. PMID:20046678

  1. Adult stem-like cells in kidney.

    PubMed

    Hishikawa, Keiichi; Takase, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Taro; Nangaku, Masaomi; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-26

    Human pluripotent cells are promising for treatment for kidney diseases, but the protocols for derivation of kidney cell types are still controversial. Kidney tissue regeneration is well confirmed in several lower vertebrates such as fish, and the repair of nephrons after tubular damages is commonly observed after renal injury. Even in adult mammal kidney, renal progenitor cell or system is reportedly presents suggesting that adult stem-like cells in kidney can be practical clinical targets for kidney diseases. However, it is still unclear if kidney stem cells or stem-like cells exist or not. In general, stemness is defined by several factors such as self-renewal capacity, multi-lineage potency and characteristic gene expression profiles. The definite use of stemness may be obstacle to understand kidney regeneration, and here we describe the recent broad findings of kidney regeneration and the cells that contribute regeneration. PMID:25815133

  2. Sleep Disorders in Adult Sickle Cell Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunil; Efird, Jimmy T.; Knupp, Charles; Kadali, Renuka; Liles, Darla; Shiue, Kristin; Boettger, Peter; Quan, Stuart F.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: While sleep apnea has been studied in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), little is known about sleep disorders in adult sickle cell patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate sleep disordered breathing and its polysomnographic characteristics in adult patients with sickle cell disease. Methods: The analysis cohort included 32 consecutive adult SCD patients who underwent a comprehensive sleep evaluation and overnight polysomnography in an accredited sleep center after reporting symptoms suggesting disordered sleep or an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥ 10. Epworth score, sleep parameters, comorbid conditions, and narcotic use were reviewed and compared in patients with and without sleep disordered breathing. SCD complication rates in the two groups also were compared. Results: In adult SCD patients who underwent overnight polysomnography, we report a high prevalence (44%) of sleep disordered breathing. Disease severity was mild to moderate (mean apnea-hypopnea index = 17/h (95% CI: 10–24/h). Concomitant sleep disorders, including insomnia complaints (57%) and delayed sleep-phase syndrome (57%), also were common in this population. In this limited cohort, we did not find increased SCD complications associated with sleep disordered breathing in adult patients with sickle cell disease. Conclusions: A high burden of sleep disordered breathing and other sleep-related complaints were identified in the adult sickle cell population. Our results provide important information on this unique population. Citation: Sharma S, Efird JT, Knupp C, Kadali R, Liles D, Shiue K, Boettger P, Quan SF. Sleep disorders in adult sickle cell patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):219–223. PMID:25515282

  3. Adult Stem Cell Responses to Nanostimuli

    PubMed Central

    Tsimbouri, Penelope M.

    2015-01-01

    Adult or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found in different tissues in the body, residing in stem cell microenvironments called “stem cell niches”. They play different roles but their main activity is to maintain tissue homeostasis and repair throughout the lifetime of an organism. Their ability to differentiate into different cell types makes them an ideal tool to study tissue development and to use them in cell-based therapies. This differentiation process is subject to both internal and external forces at the nanoscale level and this response of stem cells to nanostimuli is the focus of this review. PMID:26193326

  4. Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Boyette, Lisa B.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan. PMID:24757526

  5. Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging.

    PubMed

    Boyette, Lisa B; Tuan, Rocky S

    2014-01-21

    Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan. PMID:24757526

  6. 28. Embryonic and adult stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Henningson, Carl T; Stanislaus, Marisha A; Gewirtz, Alan M

    2003-02-01

    Stem cells are characterized by the ability to remain undifferentiated and to self-renew. Embryonic stem cells derived from blastocysts are pluripotent (able to differentiate into many cell types). Adult stem cells, which were traditionally thought to be monopotent multipotent, or tissue restricted, have recently also been shown to have pluripotent properties. Adult bone marrow stem cells have been shown to be capable of differentiating into skeletal muscle, brain microglia and astroglia, and hepatocytes. Stem cell lines derived from both embryonic stem and embryonic germ cells (from the embryonic gonadal ridge) are pluripotent and capable of self-renewal for long periods. Therefore embryonic stem and germ cells have been widely investigated for their potential to cure diseases by repairing or replacing damaged cells and tissues. Studies in animal models have shown that transplantation of fetal, embryonic stem, or embryonic germ cells may be able to treat some chronic diseases. In this review, we highlight recent developments in the use of stem cells as therapeutic agents for three such diseases: Diabetes, Parkinson disease, and congestive heart failure. We also discuss the potential use of stem cells as gene therapy delivery cells and the scientific and ethical issues that arise with the use of human stem cells. PMID:12592319

  7. The Use of Cell Transplantation in Spinal Cord Injuries.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-04-01

    Acute spinal cord injuries are life-changing events that lead to substantial morbidity and mortality, but the role of cell-based treatment for these injuries is unclear. Cell therapy is a rapidly evolving treatment methodology, with basic science and early phase I/II human trials showing promise. Multiple cell lines can be used in cell therapy, including adult or embryonic stem cells, Schwann cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. Adult stem cells, Schwann cells, and olfactory ensheathing cells are readily available but lack the ability to differentiate into cells of the central nervous system. Mesenchymal stem cells can decrease cell death by modifying the local environment into which they are introduced. Peripheral nerve cells, such as Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing cells, can myelinate existing axons and foster axonal growth in the central nervous system, and embryonic stem cells can differentiate into neural progenitor stem cells of the central nervous system. Induced pluripotent stem cells are the basis of an emerging technology that has yet to be implemented in human trials but may offer a means of cell therapy without the ethical dilemmas associated with embryonic cells. PMID:26945167

  8. Adult neural stem cells stake their ground

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Daniel A.; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The birth of new neurons in the walls of the adult brain lateral ventricles has captured the attention of many neuroscientists for over two decades, yielding key insights into the identity and regulation of neural stem cells (NSCs). In the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), NSCs are a specialized form of astrocyte that generates several types of neurons for the olfactory bulb. Here we discuss recent findings regarding the unique organization of the V-SVZ NSCs niche, the multiple regulatory controls of neuronal production, the distinct regional identities of adult NSCs, and the epigenetic mechanisms that maintain adult neurogenesis. Understanding how V-SVZ NSCs establish and maintain lifelong neurogenesis continues to provide surprising insights into the cellular and molecular regulation of neural development. PMID:25223700

  9. Tissue engineering using adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Eberli, Daniel; Atala, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Patients with a variety of diseases may be treated with transplanted tissues and organs. However, there is a shortage of donor tissues and organs, which is worsening yearly because of the aging population. Scientists in the field of tissue engineering are applying the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that will restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. The stem cell field is also advancing rapidly, opening new options for cellular therapy and tissue engineering. The use of adult stem cells for tissue engineering applications is promising. This chapter discusses applications of these new technologies for the engineering of tissues and organs. The first part provides an overview of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering techniques; the second highlights different adult stem cell populations used for tissue regeneration. PMID:17161702

  10. Epigenetic regulation in adult stem cells and cancers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Adult stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate to distinct cell types. Multiple signaling pathways have been shown to play essential roles as extrinsic cues in maintaining adult stem cell identity and activity. Recent studies also show dynamic regulation by epigenetic mechanisms as intrinsic factors in multiple adult stem cell lineages. Emerging evidence demonstrates intimate crosstalk between these two mechanisms. Misregulation of adult stem cell activity could lead to tumorigenesis, and it has been proposed that cancer stem cells may be responsible for tumor growth and metastasis. However, it is unclear whether cancer stem cells share commonalities with normal adult stem cells. In this review, we will focus on recent discoveries of epigenetic regulation in multiple adult stem cell lineages. We will also discuss how epigenetic mechanisms regulate cancer stem cell activity and probe the common and different features between cancer stem cells and normal adult stem cells. PMID:24172544

  11. Unique multipotent cells in adult human mesenchymal cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Yasumasa; Kitada, Masaaki; Wakao, Shohei; Nishikawa, Kouki; Tanimura, Yukihiro; Makinoshima, Hideki; Goda, Makoto; Akashi, Hideo; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Niwa, Akira; Shigemoto, Taeko; Nabeshima, Yoko; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Dezawa, Mari

    2010-01-01

    We found adult human stem cells that can generate, from a single cell, cells with the characteristics of the three germ layers. The cells are stress-tolerant and can be isolated from cultured skin fibroblasts or bone marrow stromal cells, or directly from bone marrow aspirates. These cells can self-renew; form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency; and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal, and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. When transplanted into immunodeficient mice by local or i.v. injection, the cells integrated into damaged skin, muscle, or liver and differentiated into cytokeratin 14-, dystrophin-, or albumin-positive cells in the respective tissues. Furthermore, they can be efficiently isolated as SSEA-3(+) cells. Unlike authentic ES cells, their proliferation activity is not very high and they do not form teratomas in immunodeficient mouse testes. Thus, nontumorigenic stem cells with the ability to generate the multiple cell types of the three germ layers can be obtained through easily accessible adult human mesenchymal cells without introducing exogenous genes. These unique cells will be beneficial for cell-based therapy and biomedical research. PMID:20421459

  12. Quantifying Spiral Ganglion Neurite and Schwann Behavior on Micropatterned Polymer Substrates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Elise L; Leigh, Braden; Guymon, C Allan; Hansen, Marlan R

    2016-01-01

    The first successful in vitro experiments on the cochlea were conducted in 1928 by Honor Fell (Fell, Arch Exp Zellforsch 7(1):69-81, 1928). Since then, techniques for culture of this tissue have been refined, and dissociated primary culture of the spiral ganglion has become a widely accepted in vitro model for studying nerve damage and regeneration in the cochlea. Additionally, patterned substrates have been developed that facilitate and direct neural outgrowth. A number of automated and semi-automated methods for quantifying this neurite outgrowth have been utilized in recent years (Zhang et al., J Neurosci Methods 160(1):149-162, 2007; Tapias et al., Neurobiol Dis 54:158-168, 2013). Here, we describe a method to study the effect of topographical cues on spiral ganglion neurite and Schwann cell alignment. We discuss our microfabrication process, characterization of pattern features, cell culture techniques for both spiral ganglion neurons and spiral ganglion Schwann cells. In addition, we describe protocols for reducing fibroblast count, immunocytochemistry, and methods for quantifying neurite and Schwann cell alignment. PMID:27259935

  13. Adult stem cells in the knifefish cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Sîrbulescu, Ruxandra F; Ilieş, Iulian; Vitalo, Antonia G; Trull, Krystal; Zhu, Jenny; Traniello, Ian M; Zupanc, Günther K H

    2015-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis has been described in dozens of brain regions in teleost fish, with the largest number of new neurons being generated in the cerebellum. Here, we characterized the cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the brown ghost knifefish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus), an established model system of adult neurogenesis. The majority of the new cerebellar cells arise from neurogenic niches located medially, at the interface of the dorsal/ventral molecular layers and the granular layer. NSPCs within these niches give rise to transit-amplifying progenitors which populate the molecular layer, where they continue to proliferate during their migration toward target areas in the granular layer. At any given time, the majority of proliferating cells are located in the molecular layer. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the stem cell markers Sox2, Meis1/2/3, Islet1, and, to a lesser extent, Pax6, are widely expressed in all regions of the adult cerebellum. A large subpopulation of these NSPCs coexpress S100, GFAP, and/or vimentin, indicating astrocytic identity. This is further supported by the specific effect of the gliotoxin l-methionine sulfoximine, which leads to a targeted decrease in the number of GFAP+ cells that coexpress Sox2 or the proliferation marker PCNA. Pulse-chase analysis of the label size associated with new cells after administration of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine demonstrated that, on average, two additional cell divisions occur after completion of the initial mitotic cycle. Overall numbers of NSPCs in the cerebellum niches increase consistently over time, presumably in parallel with the continuous growth of the brain. PMID:25044932

  14. Progesterone induces adult mammary stem cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Purna A; Jackson, Hartland W; Beristain, Alexander G; Di Grappa, Marco A; Mote, Patricia A; Clarke, Christine L; Stingl, John; Waterhouse, Paul D; Khokha, Rama

    2010-06-10

    Reproductive history is the strongest risk factor for breast cancer after age, genetics and breast density. Increased breast cancer risk is entwined with a greater number of ovarian hormone-dependent reproductive cycles, yet the basis for this predisposition is unknown. Mammary stem cells (MaSCs) are located within a specialized niche in the basal epithelial compartment that is under local and systemic regulation. The emerging role of MaSCs in cancer initiation warrants the study of ovarian hormones in MaSC homeostasis. Here we show that the MaSC pool increases 14-fold during maximal progesterone levels at the luteal dioestrus phase of the mouse. Stem-cell-enriched CD49fhi cells amplify at dioestrus, or with exogenous progesterone, demonstrating a key role for progesterone in propelling this expansion. In aged mice, CD49fhi cells display stasis upon cessation of the reproductive cycle. Progesterone drives a series of events where luminal cells probably provide Wnt4 and RANKL signals to basal cells which in turn respond by upregulating their cognate receptors, transcriptional targets and cell cycle markers. Our findings uncover a dynamic role for progesterone in activating adult MaSCs within the mammary stem cell niche during the reproductive cycle, where MaSCs are putative targets for cell transformation events leading to breast cancer. PMID:20445538

  15. Adult mouse cortical cell taxonomy revealed by single cell transcriptomics.

    PubMed

    Tasic, Bosiljka; Menon, Vilas; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Kim, Tae Kyung; Jarsky, Tim; Yao, Zizhen; Levi, Boaz; Gray, Lucas T; Sorensen, Staci A; Dolbeare, Tim; Bertagnolli, Darren; Goldy, Jeff; Shapovalova, Nadiya; Parry, Sheana; Lee, Changkyu; Smith, Kimberly; Bernard, Amy; Madisen, Linda; Sunkin, Susan M; Hawrylycz, Michael; Koch, Christof; Zeng, Hongkui

    2016-02-01

    Nervous systems are composed of various cell types, but the extent of cell type diversity is poorly understood. We constructed a cellular taxonomy of one cortical region, primary visual cortex, in adult mice on the basis of single-cell RNA sequencing. We identified 49 transcriptomic cell types, including 23 GABAergic, 19 glutamatergic and 7 non-neuronal types. We also analyzed cell type-specific mRNA processing and characterized genetic access to these transcriptomic types by many transgenic Cre lines. Finally, we found that some of our transcriptomic cell types displayed specific and differential electrophysiological and axon projection properties, thereby confirming that the single-cell transcriptomic signatures can be associated with specific cellular properties. PMID:26727548

  16. Adult Mouse Cortical Cell Taxonomy by Single Cell Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Tasic, Bosiljka; Menon, Vilas; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Kim, Tae Kyung; Jarsky, Tim; Yao, Zizhen; Levi, Boaz; Gray, Lucas T.; Sorensen, Staci A.; Dolbeare, Tim; Bertagnolli, Darren; Goldy, Jeff; Shapovalova, Nadiya; Parry, Sheana; Lee, Changkyu; Smith, Kimberly; Bernard, Amy; Madisen, Linda; Sunkin, Susan M.; Hawrylycz, Michael; Koch, Christof; Zeng, Hongkui

    2016-01-01

    Nervous systems are composed of various cell types, but the extent of cell type diversity is poorly understood. Here, we construct a cellular taxonomy of one cortical region, primary visual cortex, in adult mice based on single cell RNA-sequencing. We identify 49 transcriptomic cell types including 23 GABAergic, 19 glutamatergic and seven non-neuronal types. We also analyze cell-type specific mRNA processing and characterize genetic access to these transcriptomic types by many transgenic Cre lines. Finally, we show that some of our transcriptomic cell types display specific and differential electrophysiological and axon projection properties, thereby confirming that the single cell transcriptomic signatures can be associated with specific cellular properties. PMID:26727548

  17. Molecular Hallmarks of Adult T Cell Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Makoto; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2012-01-01

    The molecular hallmarks of adult T cell leukemia (ATL) comprise outstanding deregulations of signaling pathways that control the cell cycle, resistance to apoptosis, and proliferation of leukemic cells, all of which have been identified by early excellent studies. Nevertheless, we are now confronted the therapeutic difficulties of ATL that is a most aggressive T cell leukemia/lymphoma. Using next-generation strategies, emerging molecular characteristics such as specific surface markers and an additional catalog of signals affecting the fate of leukemic cells have been added to the molecular hallmarks that constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of ATL. Although human T cell leukemia virus type 1 is undoubtedly involved in ATL leukemogenesis, most leukemic cells do not express the viral protein Tax. Instead, cellular gene expression changes dominate homeostasis disorders of infected cells and characteristics of ATL. In this review, we summarize the state of the art of ATL molecular pathology, which supports the biological properties of leukemic cells. In addition, we discuss the recent discovery of two molecular hallmarks of potential generality; an abnormal microRNA pattern and epigenetic reprogramming, which strongly involve the imbalance of the molecular network of lymphocytes. Global analyses of ATL have revealed the functional impact of crosstalk between multifunctional pathways. Clinical and biological studies on signaling inhibitory agents have also revealed novel oncogenic drivers that can be targeted in future. ATL cells, by deregulation of such pathways and their interconnections, may become masters of their own destinies. Recognizing and understanding of the widespread molecular applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of novel strategies for treating ATL. PMID:23060864

  18. Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Radiation Injury.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Juliann G

    2016-08-01

    Recent understanding of the cellular and molecular signaling activations in adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has provided new insights into their potential clinical applications, particularly for tissue repair and regeneration. This review focuses on these advances, specifically in the context of self-renewal for tissue repair and recovery after radiation injury. Thus far, MSCs have been characterized extensively and shown to be useful in mitigation and therapy for acute radiation syndrome and cognitive dysfunction. Use of MSCs for treating radiation injury alone or in combination with additional trauma is foreseeable. PMID:27356065

  19. Adult stem cell-based apexogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yao; Shu, Li-Hong; Yan, Ming; Dai, Wen-Yong; Li, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Guang-Dong; Yu, Jin-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Generally, the dental pulp needs to be removed when it is infected, and root canal therapy (RCT) is usually required in which infected dental pulp is replaced with inorganic materials (paste and gutta percha). This treatment approach ultimately brings about a dead tooth. However, pulp vitality is extremely important to the tooth itself, since it provides nutrition and acts as a biosensor to detect the potential pathogenic stimuli. Despite the reported clinical success rate, RCT-treated teeth are destined to be devitalized, brittle and susceptible to postoperative fracture. Recently, the advances and achievements in the field of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have inspired novel biological approaches to apexogenesis in young patients suffering from pulpitis or periapical periodontitis. This review mainly focuses on the benchtop and clinical regeneration of root apex mediated by adult stem cells. Moreover, current strategies for infected pulp therapy are also discussed here. PMID:25332909

  20. Adult stem cell-based apexogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Shu, Li-Hong; Yan, Ming; Dai, Wen-Yong; Li, Jun-Jun; Zhang, Guang-Dong; Yu, Jin-Hua

    2014-06-26

    Generally, the dental pulp needs to be removed when it is infected, and root canal therapy (RCT) is usually required in which infected dental pulp is replaced with inorganic materials (paste and gutta percha). This treatment approach ultimately brings about a dead tooth. However, pulp vitality is extremely important to the tooth itself, since it provides nutrition and acts as a biosensor to detect the potential pathogenic stimuli. Despite the reported clinical success rate, RCT-treated teeth are destined to be devitalized, brittle and susceptible to postoperative fracture. Recently, the advances and achievements in the field of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have inspired novel biological approaches to apexogenesis in young patients suffering from pulpitis or periapical periodontitis. This review mainly focuses on the benchtop and clinical regeneration of root apex mediated by adult stem cells. Moreover, current strategies for infected pulp therapy are also discussed here. PMID:25332909

  1. [Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis in adults].

    PubMed

    Feuillet, Séverine; Giroux-Leprieur, Bénédicte; Tazi, Abdellatif

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans-cell histiocytosis in adults is a rare condition of unknown etiology characterized by the accumulation of Langerhans cells organized in granulomas involving the distal bronchioles and destroying their walls. It occurs in young subjects who smoke, with frequency peaking between 20 and 40 years. High-resolution thoracic CT is essential for diagnosis; in typical forms it shows a combination of nodules, cavitary nodules, thick-walled cysts, and thin-walled cysts. Diagnostic certainty requires a surgical lung biopsy, by videothoracoscopy, but only if a specialist considers it indicated. It is difficult to predict the disease course for any given patient. A prospective multicenter cohort study currently underway should provide more information about the natural history of this disease. Management is empirical, for efficacy has not been proved for any treatment. Stopping smoking is especially important to prevent the added development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular complications, or the onset of bronchopulmonary cancer, the frequency of which appears elevated in these patients. Oral corticosteroids are used to treat disease progression, especially in the symptomatic mainly nodular forms, but their efficacy for respiratory function has not been shown. Vinblastine, the reference treatment for multisystem forms of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis, is not indicated for pulmonary involvement in adults. Better knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in this condition should eventually make it possible to develop innovative treatment strategies. The creation of the national reference center for Langerhans-cell histiocytosis has given new momentum to clinical and pathophysiologic research on this orphan disease. PMID:19959324

  2. Sertoli Cells Maintain Leydig Cell Number and Peritubular Myoid Cell Activity in the Adult Mouse Testis

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Ana; Milne, Laura; Cruickshanks, Lyndsey; Jeffrey, Nathan; Guillou, Florian; Freeman, Tom C.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Smith, Lee B.

    2014-01-01

    The Sertoli cells are critical regulators of testis differentiation and development. In the adult, however, their known function is restricted largely to maintenance of spermatogenesis. To determine whether the Sertoli cells regulate other aspects of adult testis biology we have used a novel transgenic mouse model in which Amh-Cre induces expression of the receptor for Diphtheria toxin (iDTR) specifically within Sertoli cells. This causes controlled, cell-specific and acute ablation of the Sertoli cell population in the adult animal following Diphtheria toxin injection. Results show that Sertoli cell ablation leads to rapid loss of all germ cell populations. In addition, adult Leydig cell numbers decline by 75% with the remaining cells concentrated around the rete and in the sub-capsular region. In the absence of Sertoli cells, peritubular myoid cell activity is reduced but the cells retain an ability to exclude immune cells from the seminiferous tubules. These data demonstrate that, in addition to support of spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells are required in the adult testis both for retention of the normal adult Leydig cell population and for support of normal peritubular myoid cell function. This has implications for our understanding of male reproductive disorders and wider androgen-related conditions affecting male health. PMID:25144714

  3. Persistent Disparities in Adult Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Crockett, David G; Loberiza, Fausto R

    2015-09-01

    The use of large databases has provided advancements in the understanding of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in the field of adult hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT). Disparities exist on individual, institutional, and systemic levels for both allogeneic and autologous HCT. We reviewed the most recent publications that utilized large databases to elucidate disparities in HCT and placed them into historical context of the other major studies in the field. Two emerging themes were identified. These themes are persistent inequalities in both allogeneic HCT and autologous HCT for myeloma and the importance of improving homogeneity of care in HCT. Minimization of inequalities can be achieved only with an understanding of the persistent barriers that exist in the field. PMID:26104908

  4. [Pulmonary complications in adult sickle cell disease].

    PubMed

    Maître, B; Mekontso-Dessap, A; Habibi, A; Bachir, D; Parent, F; Godeau, B; Galacteros, F

    2011-02-01

    Sickle cell disease is an autosomal genetic condition which represents the most frequent genetic disease in Île-de-France and Caribbean islands. The main clinical manifestations can be divided into infectious disease, hemolytic anemia and vaso-occlusive events. Pulmonary complications represent 20 to 30% of mortality due to sickle cell and can be divided into acute and chronic events. Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is an acute lung injury often preceded by a vaso-occlusive crisis and triggered by different factors including: hypoventilation, pulmonary infectious disease and vascular occlusions. These occlusions can be secondary to fat embolism, thrombosis or sickling. Treatment is mainly supportive combining oxygen supplementation adequate hydration analgesia and sedation. Exchange transfusion may be indicated in severe forms of ACS, characterized by a right ventricular dysfunction and acute respiratory failure. Pulmonary hypertension is the most serious chronic complication. Its frequency is estimated at 6% in adult patients and is more often described in patients with venous ulcers and higher levels of chronic hemolysis. Prognosis is poor with 12.5% of patients dying in the first two years following diagnosis irrespective of the actual pulmonary artery pressure level. There are currently limited data on the effects of any treatment modality. Other respiratory complications such as sleep disorders and nocturnal hypoxemia, infiltrative lung disease and exertional dyspnea are described and should be considered. PMID:21402228

  5. [Progress in treating diabetes mellitus with adult stem cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixin; Teng, Chunbo; An, Tiezhu

    2008-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic diseases, mainly including type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Treatment for type 1 and part of type 2 often involves regular insulin injection. However, this treatment neither precisely controls the blood sugar levels, nor prevents the diabetes complications. Transplantation of islets of Langerhans offers an attractive strategy for diabetes therapies, but its wide application has been limited by donor shortage and immunological rejection after transplantation. Stem cells with strong proliferation capacity and multipotential may be potential cell sources in diabetes therapies. For this, adult stem cells are interesting because of absence of teratoma formation and ethnical problems. Adult pancreatic stem cells (PSCs) really exist and could produce insulin-secreting cells both under the condition of pancreatic injury and in vitro culture, but lack of effective markers to enrich PSCs hampers the studies of exploring the expanding and differentiating conditions in vitro. Some other adult stem cells, such as hepatic stem cells, marrow stem cells or intestine stem cells, were also suggested to transdifferentiate into insulin-producing cells under special culture conditions in vitro or by genetic modifications. Moreover, transplanting these adult stem cells-derived insulin-secreting cells into the diabetic mouse could cure diabetes. Thus, adult stem cells would supply the abundant beta-cell sources for cell replacement therapy of diabetes. PMID:18464596

  6. Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tsukasaki, Kunihiro

    2012-04-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) was first described in 1977 as a distinct clinico-pathological entity with a suspected viral etiology. Subsequently, a novel RNA retrovirus, human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was isolated from a cell line established from the leukemic cells of an ATL patient, and the finding of a clear association with ATL led to its inclusion among human carcinogenic pathogens. The three major routes of HTLV-1 transmission are mother-to-child infections via breast milk, sexual intercourse, and blood transfusions. HTLV-1 infection early in life, presumably from breast feeding, is crucial in the development of ATL. The diversity in clinical features and prognosis of patients with this disease has led to its subtype-classification into four categories, acute, lymphoma, chronic, and smoldering types defined by organ involvement, and LDH and calcium values. In cases of acute, lymphoma, or unfavorable chronic subtypes (aggressive ATL), intensive chemotherapy such as VCAP-AMP-VECP is usually recommended. In cases of favorable chronic or smoldering ATL (indolent ATL), watchful waiting until disease progression has been recommended although the long term prognosis was inferior to those of, for instance, chronic lymphoid leukemia. Retrospective analysis suggested that the combination of interferon alpha and zidovudine was apparently promising for the treatment of ATL, especially for types with leukemic manifestation. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is also promising for the treatment of aggressive ATL possibly reflecting graft vs. ATL effect. Several new agent-trials for ATL are ongoing and in preparation, including a defucosylated humanized anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 monoclonal antibody. Two steps should be considered for the prevention of HTLV-1-associated ATL. The first is the prevention of HTLV-1 infections and the second is the prevention of ATL among HTLV-1 carriers. So far, no agent has been found to be

  7. Cell Phone Use by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryen, Diane Nelson; Carey, Allison; Friedman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Although cell phone use has grown dramatically, there is a gap in cell phone access between people with disabilities and the general public. The importance of cell phone use among people with intellectual disabilities and studies about use of cell phones by adults with intellectual disabilities was described. Our goal was to determine the extent…

  8. Hepatic cancer stem cells may arise from adult ductal progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaou, Kostas C; Talianidis, Iannis

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined as cells within tumors that can self-renew and differentiate into heterogeneous lineages of cancerous cells. The origin of CSCs is not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that CSCs in hepatocellular carcinoma could be generated via oncogenic transformation and partial differentiation of adult hepatic ductal progenitor cells.

  9. The effect of modified polysialic acid based hydrogels on the adhesion and viability of primary neurons and glial cells.

    PubMed

    Haile, Yohannes; Berski, Silke; Dräger, Gerald; Nobre, Andrè; Stummeyer, Katharina; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Grothe, Claudia

    2008-04-01

    In this study we present the enzymatic and biological analysis of polysialic acid (polySia) based hydrogel in terms of its degradation and cytocompatibility. PolySia based hydrogel is completely degradable by endosialidase enzyme which may avoid second surgery after tissue recovery. Viability assay showed that soluble components of polySia hydrogel did not cause any toxic effect on cultured Schwann cells. Moreover, green fluorescence protein transfected neonatal and adult Schwann cells, neural stem cells and dorsal root ganglionic cells (unlabelled) were seeded on polySia hydrogel modified with poly-L-lysine (Pll), poly-L-ornithine-laminin (porn-laminin) or collagen. Water soluble tetrazolium salt assay revealed that modification of the hydrogel significantly improved cell adhesion and viability. These results infer that polySia based scaffolds in combination with cell adhesion molecules and cells genetically modified to express growth factors would potentially be promising alternative in reconstructive therapeutic strategies. PMID:18255143

  10. Anonymous sources: where do adult β cells come from?

    PubMed

    German, Michael S

    2013-05-01

    Evidence that the pool of insulin-producing β cells in the pancreas is reduced in both major forms of diabetes mellitus has led to efforts to understand β cell turnover in the adult pancreas. Unfortunately, previous studies have reached opposing conclusions regarding the source of new β cells during regeneration in the adult pancreas. In this issue of the JCI, Xiao et al. use a novel mouse model for detecting new β cells derived from non-β cells to demonstrate the absence of β cell neogenesis from non-β cells during normal postnatal growth and in models of β cell regeneration. This work adds to mounting evidence that in most physiological and pathological conditions, β cell neogenesis may not make large contributions to the postnatal β cell pool - at least not in rodents. PMID:23619356

  11. HIV is inactivated after transepithelial migration via adult oral epithelial cells but not fetal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tugizov, Sharof M.; Herrera, Rossana; Veluppillai, Piri; Greenspan, Deborah; Soros, Vanessa; Greene, Warner C.; Levy, Jay A.; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    Oral transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in adult populations is rare. However, HIV spread across fetal/neonatal oropharyngeal epithelia could be important in mother-to-child transmission. Analysis of HIV transmission across polarized adult and fetal oral epithelial cells revealed that HIV transmigrates through both adult and fetal cells. However, only virions that passed through the fetal cells – and not those that passed through the adult cells – remained infectious. Analysis of expression of anti-HIV innate proteins beta-defensins 2 and 3, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in adult, fetal, and infant oral epithelia showed that their expression is predominantly in the adult oral epithelium. Retention of HIV infectivity after transmigration correlated inversely with the expression of these innate proteins. Inactivation of innate proteins in adult oral keratinocytes restored HIV infectivity. These data suggest that high-level innate protein expression may contribute to the resistance of the adult oral epithelium to HIV transmission. PMID:21056450

  12. The adult human brain harbors multipotent perivascular mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gesine; Özen, Ilknur; Christophersen, Nicolaj S; Reinbothe, Thomas; Bengzon, Johan; Visse, Edward; Jansson, Katarina; Dannaeus, Karin; Henriques-Oliveira, Catarina; Roybon, Laurent; Anisimov, Sergey V; Renström, Erik; Svensson, Mikael; Haegerstrand, Anders; Brundin, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Blood vessels and adjacent cells form perivascular stem cell niches in adult tissues. In this perivascular niche, a stem cell with mesenchymal characteristics was recently identified in some adult somatic tissues. These cells are pericytes that line the microvasculature, express mesenchymal markers and differentiate into mesodermal lineages but might even have the capacity to generate tissue-specific cell types. Here, we isolated, purified and characterized a previously unrecognized progenitor population from two different regions in the adult human brain, the ventricular wall and the neocortex. We show that these cells co-express markers for mesenchymal stem cells and pericytes in vivo and in vitro, but do not express glial, neuronal progenitor, hematopoietic, endothelial or microglial markers in their native state. Furthermore, we demonstrate at a clonal level that these progenitors have true multilineage potential towards both, the mesodermal and neuroectodermal phenotype. They can be epigenetically induced in vitro into adipocytes, chondroblasts and osteoblasts but also into glial cells and immature neurons. This progenitor population exhibits long-term proliferation, karyotype stability and retention of phenotype and multipotency following extensive propagation. Thus, we provide evidence that the vascular niche in the adult human brain harbors a novel progenitor with multilineage capacity that appears to represent mesenchymal stem cells and is different from any previously described human neural stem cell. Future studies will elucidate whether these cells may play a role for disease or may represent a reservoir that can be exploited in efforts to repair the diseased human brain. PMID:22523602

  13. High Glucose Accelerates Autophagy in Adult Rat Intervertebral Disc Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Man Soo; Park, Eun-Young

    2014-01-01

    Study Design In vitro cell culture. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high glucose on autophagy in adult rat intervertebral disc cells. Overview of Literature Diabetes mellitus is considered to be an important etiologic factor for intervertebral disc degeneration, resulting in degenerative disc diseases. A glucose-mediated increase of autophagy is a major causative factor for the development of diseases associated with diabetes mellitus. However, no information is available for the effect of high glucose on autophagy in adult intervertebral disc cells. Methods Nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells were isolated from 24-week-old adult rats, cultured and placed in either 10% fetal bovine serum (normal control) or 10% fetal bovine serum plus two different high glucose concentrations (0.1 M and 0.2 M) (experimental conditions) for one and three days, respectively. The expressions of autophagy markers, such as beclin-1, light chain 3-I (LC3-I) and LC3-II, autophagy-related gene (Atg) 3, 5, 7 and 12, were identified and quantified. Results Two high glucoses significantly increased the expressions of beclin-1, LC3-II, Atg3, 5, 7, and 12 in adult rat nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I expression was also increased in a dose-respectively time-dependent manner. Conclusions The results suggest that autophagy of adult nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells might be a potential mechanism for the intervertebral disc degeneration in adult patients with diabetes mellitus. Thus, the prevention of autophagy in adult intervertebral disc cells might be considered as a novel therapeutic target to prevent or to delay the intervertebral disc degeneration in adult patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:25346805

  14. Muscle stem cells contribute to myofibers in sedentary adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Alexandra C.; Lawson, Jennifer A.; Flygare, Steven D.; Fox, Zachary D.; Colasanto, Mary P.; Mathew, Sam J.; Yandell, Mark; Kardon, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is essential for mobility, stability, and whole body metabolism, and muscle loss, for instance during sarcopenia, has profound consequences. Satellite cells (muscle stem cells) have been hypothesized, but not yet demonstrated, to contribute to muscle homeostasis and a decline in their contribution to myofiber homeostasis to play a part in sarcopenia. To test their role in muscle maintenance, we genetically labeled and ablated satellite cells in adult sedentary mice. We demonstrate via genetic lineage experiments that even in the absence of injury, satellite cells contribute to myofibers in all adult muscles, although the extent and timing differs. However, genetic ablation experiments showed that satellite cells are not globally required to maintain myofiber cross-sectional area of uninjured adult muscle. PMID:25971691

  15. Signaling mechanisms regulating adult neural stem cells and neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Faigle, Roland; Song, Hongjun

    2012-01-01

    Background Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life in discrete regions of the mammalian brain and is tightly regulated via both extrinsic environmental influences and intrinsic genetic factors. In recent years, several crucial signaling pathways have been identified in regulating self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation of neural stem cells, as well as migration and functional integration of developing neurons in the adult brain. Scope of review Here we review our current understanding of signaling mechanisms, including Wnt, notch, sonic hedgehog, growth and neurotrophic factors, bone morphogenetic proteins, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic modulators, and crosstalk between these signaling pathways in the regulation of adult neurogenesis. We also highlight emerging principles in the vastly growing field of adult neural stem cell biology and neural plasticity. Major conclusions Recent methodological advances have enabled the field to identify signaling mechanisms that fine-tune and coordinate neurogenesis in the adult brain, leading to a better characterization of both cell-intrinsic and environmental cues defining the neurogenic niche. Significant questions related to niche cell identity and underlying regulatory mechanisms remain to be fully addressed and will be the focus of future studies. General significance A full understanding of the role and function of individual signaling pathways in regulating neural stem cells and generation and integration of newborn neurons in the adult brain may lead to targeted new therapies for neurological diseases in humans. PMID:22982587

  16. Strategies to Optimize Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Zhou, Jingli; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Jin; Hu, Bo; Song, Jinlin; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy aims to replace damaged or aged cells with healthy functioning cells in congenital defects, tissue injuries, autoimmune disorders, and neurogenic degenerative diseases. Among various types of stem cells, adult stem cells (i.e., tissue-specific stem cells) commit to becoming the functional cells from their tissue of origin. These cells are the most commonly used in cell-based therapy since they do not confer risk of teratomas, do not require fetal stem cell maneuvers and thus are free of ethical concerns, and they confer low immunogenicity (even if allogenous). The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of the art and advances in using stem cell therapy for tissue repair in solid organs. Here we address key factors in cell preparation, such as the source of adult stem cells, optimal cell types for implantation (universal mesenchymal stem cells vs. tissue-specific stem cells, or induced vs. non-induced stem cells), early or late passages of stem cells, stem cells with endogenous or exogenous growth factors, preconditioning of stem cells (hypoxia, growth factors, or conditioned medium), using various controlled release systems to deliver growth factors with hydrogels or microspheres to provide apposite interactions of stem cells and their niche. We also review several approaches of cell delivery that affect the outcomes of cell therapy, including the appropriate routes of cell administration (systemic, intravenous, or intraperitoneal vs. local administration), timing for cell therapy (immediate vs. a few days after injury), single injection of a large number of cells vs. multiple smaller injections, a single site for injection vs. multiple sites and use of rodents vs. larger animal models. Future directions of stem cell-based therapies are also discussed to guide potential clinical applications. PMID:27338364

  17. Strategies to Optimize Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Zhou, Jingli; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Jin; Hu, Bo; Song, Jinlin; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy aims to replace damaged or aged cells with healthy functioning cells in congenital defects, tissue injuries, autoimmune disorders, and neurogenic degenerative diseases. Among various types of stem cells, adult stem cells (i.e., tissue-specific stem cells) commit to becoming the functional cells from their tissue of origin. These cells are the most commonly used in cell-based therapy since they do not confer risk of teratomas, do not require fetal stem cell maneuvers and thus are free of ethical concerns, and they confer low immunogenicity (even if allogenous). The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of the art and advances in using stem cell therapy for tissue repair in solid organs. Here we address key factors in cell preparation, such as the source of adult stem cells, optimal cell types for implantation (universal mesenchymal stem cells vs. tissue-specific stem cells, or induced vs. non-induced stem cells), early or late passages of stem cells, stem cells with endogenous or exogenous growth factors, preconditioning of stem cells (hypoxia, growth factors, or conditioned medium), using various controlled release systems to deliver growth factors with hydrogels or microspheres to provide apposite interactions of stem cells and their niche. We also review several approaches of cell delivery that affect the outcomes of cell therapy, including the appropriate routes of cell administration (systemic, intravenous, or intraperitoneal vs. local administration), timing for cell therapy (immediate vs. a few days after injury), single injection of a large number of cells vs. multiple smaller injections, a single site for injection vs. multiple sites and use of rodents vs. larger animal models. Future directions of stem cell-based therapies are also discussed to guide potential clinical applications. PMID:27338364

  18. Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Wayne; Palmero, Emily; Bianco, John; Stangeland, Biljana; Joel, Mrinal; Paulson, Linda; Thiede, Bernd; Grieg, Zanina; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Skjellegrind, Håvard K.; Nygård, Ståle; Brandal, Petter; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Palmero, Sheryl; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of stem cells in the adult human brain has revealed new possible scenarios for treatment of the sick or injured brain. Both clinical use of and preclinical research on human adult neural stem cells have, however, been seriously hampered by the fact that it has been impossible to passage these cells more than a very few times and with little expansion of cell numbers. Having explored a number of alternative culturing conditions we here present an efficient method for the establishment and propagation of human brain stem cells from whatever brain tissue samples we have tried. We describe virtually unlimited expansion of an authentic stem cell phenotype. Pluripotency proteins Sox2 and Oct4 are expressed without artificial induction. For the first time multipotency of adult human brain-derived stem cells is demonstrated beyond tissue boundaries. We characterize these cells in detail in vitro including microarray and proteomic approaches. Whilst clarification of these cells’ behavior is ongoing, results so far portend well for the future repair of tissues by transplantation of an adult patient’s own-derived stem cells. PMID:23967194

  19. Multipotent progenitor cells isolated from adult human pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Todorov, I; Nair, I; Ferreri, K; Rawson, J; Kuroda, A; Pascual, M; Omori, K; Valiente, L; Orr, C; Al-Abdullah, I; Riggs, A; Kandeel, F; Mullen, Y

    2005-10-01

    The supply of islet cells is a limiting factor for the widespread application of islet transplantation of type-1 diabetes. Islets constitute 1% to 2% of pancreatic tissue, leaving approximately 98% as discard after islet isolation and purification. In this report we present our data on the isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from discarded adult human pancreatic tissue. The collected cells from discarded nonislet fractions, after enzymatic digestion and gradient purification of islets, were dissociated for suspension culture in a serum-free medium. The cell clusters grown to a size of 100 to 150 mum contained cells staining for stage-specific embryonic antigens, but not insulin or C-peptide. To direct cell differentiation toward islets, clusters were recultured in a pancreatic differentiation medium. Insulin and C-peptide-positive cells by immunocytochemistry appeared within a week, reaching over 10% of the cell population. Glucagon and somatostatin-positive cells were also detected. The cell clusters were found to secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Cells from the same clusters also had the capacity for differentiation into neural cells, as documented by staining for neural and glial cell markers when cultured as monolayers in media containing neurotrophic factors. These data suggest that multipotent pancreatic progenitor cells exist within the human pancreatic tissue that is typically discarded during islet isolation procedures. These adult progenitor cells can be successfully differentiated into insulin-producing cells, and thus they have the potential for treatment of type-1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16298614

  20. Therapeutics from Adult Stem Cells and the Hype Curve.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Greg

    2016-05-12

    The Gartner curve for regenerative and stem cell therapeutics is currently climbing out of the "trough of disillusionment" and into the "slope of enlightenment". Understanding that the early years of stem cell therapy relied on the model of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and then moved into a period of the overhype of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), instead of using the model of 40 years of success, i.e. adult stem cells used in bone marrow transplants, the field of stem cell therapy has languished for years, trying to move beyond the early and poorly understood success of bone marrow transplants. Recent studies in the lab and clinic show that adult stem cells of various types, and the molecules that they release, avoid the issues associated with ESCs and iPSCs and lead to better therapeutic outcomes and into the slope of enlightenment. PMID:27190588

  1. Tax fingerprint in adult T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bazarbachi, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In this issue of Blood, Fujikawa et al demonstrate that the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax induces an epigenetic-dependent global modification of host gene expression in adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL). Hence, the fingerprint of Tax is all over ATL and this may be used for finally capturing ATL. PMID:27056993

  2. Adult stem cells: the therapeutic potential of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Saini, Amarjit; Stewart, Claire E H

    2006-05-01

    Embryonic stem cells have revolutionised our understanding of normal and deregulated growth and development. The potential to produce cells and tissues as needed offers enormous therapeutic potential. The use of these cells, however, is accompanied by ongoing ethical, religious and biomedical issues. The expansion potential and plasticity of adult stem cells have therefore received much interest. Adult skeletal muscle is highly adaptable, responding to both the hypertrophic and degenerative stresses placed upon it. This extreme plasticity is in part regulated by resident stem cells. In addition to regenerating muscle, if exposed to osteogenic or adipogenic inducers, these cells spontaneously form osteoblasts or adipocytes. The potential for and heterogeneity of muscle stem cells is underscored by the observation that CD45+ muscle side population cells are capable of reconstituting bone marrow in lethally irradiated mice and of contributing to neo-vascularisation of regenerating muscle. Finally, first attempts to replace infarcted myocardium relied on injection of skeletal myoblasts into the heart. Cells successfully engrafted and cardiac function was improved. Harnessing their differentiation/trans-differentiation capacity provides enormous potential for adult stem cells. In this review, current understanding of the different stem cells within muscle will be discussed as will their potential utility for regenerative medicine. PMID:18220864

  3. Engineering of the Embryonic and Adult Stem Cell Niches

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinkhani, Mohsen; Shirazi, Reza; Rajaei, Farzad; Mahmoudi, Masoud; Mohammadi, Navid; Abbasi, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Context Stem cells have the potential to generate a renewable source of cells for regenerative medicine due to their ability to self-renew and differentiate to various functional cell types of the adult organism. The extracellular microenvironment plays a pivotal role in controlling stem cell fate responses. Therefore, identification of appropriate environmental stimuli that supports cellular proliferation and lineage-specific differentiation is critical for the clinical application of the stem cell therapies. Evidence Acquisition Traditional methods for stem cells culture offer limited manipulation and control of the extracellular microenvironment. Micro engineering approaches are emerging as powerful tools to control stem cell-microenvironment interactions and for performing high-throughput stem cell experiments. Results In this review, we provided an overview of the application of technologies such as surface micropatterning, microfluidics, and engineered biomaterials for directing stem cell behavior and determining the molecular cues that regulate cell fate decisions. Conclusions Stem cells have enormous potential for therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications, because they can give rise to various cell types. Despite their therapeutic potential, many challenges, including the lack of control of the stem cell microenvironment remain. Thus, a greater understanding of stem cell biology that can be used to expand and differentiate embryonic and adult stem cells in a directed manner offers great potential for tissue repair and regenerative medicine. PMID:23682319

  4. Effects of Neuroendocrine CB1 Activity on Adult Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cobellis, Gilda; Meccariello, Rosaria; Chianese, Rosanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Endocannabinoids control male reproduction acting at central and local level via cannabinoid receptors. The cannabinoid receptor CB1 has been characterized in the testis, in somatic and germ cells of mammalian and non-mammalian animal models, and its activity related to Leydig cell differentiation, steroidogenesis, spermiogenesis, sperm quality, and maturation. In this short review, we provide a summary of the insights concerning neuroendocrine CB1 activity in male reproduction focusing on adult Leydig cell ontogenesis and steroid biosynthesis. PMID:27375550

  5. Optimized cell transplantation using adult rag2 mutant zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qin; Abdelfattah, Nouran S.; Blackburn, Jessica S.; Moore, John C.; Martinez, Sarah A.; Moore, Finola E.; Lobbardi, Riadh; Tenente, Inês M.; Ignatius, Myron S.; Berman, Jason N.; Liwski, Robert S.; Houvras, Yariv; Langenau, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Cell transplantation into adult zebrafish has lagged behind mouse due to the lack of immune compromised models. Here, we have created homozygous rag2E450fs mutant zebrafish that have reduced numbers of functional T and B cells but are viable and fecund. Mutant fish engraft zebrafish muscle, blood stem cells, and cancers. rag2E450fs mutant zebrafish are the first immune compromised zebrafish model that permits robust, long-term engraftment of multiple tissues and cancer. PMID:25042784

  6. Effects of Neuroendocrine CB1 Activity on Adult Leydig Cells.

    PubMed

    Cobellis, Gilda; Meccariello, Rosaria; Chianese, Rosanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Endocannabinoids control male reproduction acting at central and local level via cannabinoid receptors. The cannabinoid receptor CB1 has been characterized in the testis, in somatic and germ cells of mammalian and non-mammalian animal models, and its activity related to Leydig cell differentiation, steroidogenesis, spermiogenesis, sperm quality, and maturation. In this short review, we provide a summary of the insights concerning neuroendocrine CB1 activity in male reproduction focusing on adult Leydig cell ontogenesis and steroid biosynthesis. PMID:27375550

  7. Adult T-cell leukaemia lymphoma in an aborigine.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, M A; Frasca, J; Bastian, I

    1991-10-01

    A 44-year-old Aborigine with Adult T-cell Leukaemia/Lymphoma (ATLL) due to HTLV-I is reported. He presented with transverse myelitis of subacute onset, and subsequently developed frank T-cell leukaemia complicated by splenomegaly and hypercalcaemia. Cell surface marker studies showed a phenotype of CD3+ CD4+ CD8- CD25+, and serological and molecular studies confirmed HTLV-I infection. This is the first report of ATLL in an Australian Aborigine. PMID:1759923

  8. Young Adult Perspectives on a Successful Transition from Pediatric to Adult Care in Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sobota, Amy E.; Umeh, Emeka; Mack, Jennifer W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This qualitative study sought to learn from young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) about their experience leaving pediatric care and perspective on what makes a successful transition. Methods Fifteen young adults with SCD who had left pediatric care within the previous five years participated in focus groups led by a trained moderator. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory. Results Four main themes emerged from the analysis: facilitators of transition (meeting the adult provider prior to transfer, knowing what to expect, gradually taking over disease self-management and starting the process early), barriers to transition (negative perceived attitude of adult staff, lack of SCD specific knowledge by both patients and staff, and competing priorities interfering with transition preparation), what young adults wished for in a transition program (opportunities to meet more staff prior to transfer, more information about the differences between pediatric and adult care, learning from a peer who has been through the process, more SCD teaching, and flexibility in transition preparation) and how they define a successful transition (gradually assuming responsibility for self-management of their SCD). Conclusion Our findings present unique opportunities to learn from young adults with SCD about ways to improve current transition programs. PMID:27175364

  9. Adult granulosa cell tumor of the testis masquerading as hydrocele

    PubMed Central

    Vallonthaiel, Archana George; Kakkar, Aanchal; Singh, Animesh; Dogra, Prem N; Ray, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adult testicular granulosa cell tumor is a rare, potentially malignant sex cord-stromal tumor, of which 30 cases have been described to date. We report the case of a 43-year-old male who complained of a left testicular swelling. Scrotal ultrasound showed a cystic lesion, suggestive of hydrocele. However, due to a clinical suspicion of a solid-cystic neoplasm, a high inguinal orchidectomy was performed, which, on pathological examination, was diagnosed as adult granulosa cell tumor. Adult testicular granulosa cell tumors have aggressive behaviour as compared to their ovarian counterparts. They may rarely be predominantly cystic and present as hydrocele. Lymph node and distant metastases have been reported in few cases. Role of MIB-1 labelling index in prognostication is not well defined. Therefore, their recognition and documentation of their behaviour is important from a diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic point of view. PMID:26742984

  10. Properties of Adult Lung Stem and Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Bertoncello, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has seen significant progress in understanding the organisation of regenerative cells in the adult lung. Cell-lineage tracing and in vitro clonogenic assays have enabled the identification and characterisation of endogenous lung epithelial stem and progenitor cells. Selective lung injury models, and genetically engineered mice have revealed highly conserved gene networks, factors, signalling pathways, and cellular interactions important in maintaining lung homeostasis and regulating lung regeneration and repair following injury. This review describes the current models of lung epithelial stem and progenitor cell organisation in adult mice, and the impediments encountered in translational studies aiming to identify and characterise their human homologs. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2582-2589, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27062064

  11. Adult stem cells and their ability to differentiate.

    PubMed

    Tarnowski, Maciej; Sieron, Aleksander L

    2006-08-01

    This is a review of the current status of knowledge on adult stem cells as well as the criteria and evidence for their potential to transform into different cell types and cell lineages. Reports on stem cell sources, focusing on tissues from adult subjects, were also investigated. Numerous reports have been published on the search for early markers of both stem cells and the precursors of various cell lineages. The question is still open about the characteristics of the primary stem cell. The existing proofs and hypotheses have not yielded final solutions to this problem. From a practical point of view it is also crucial to find a minimal set of markers determining the phenotypes of the precursor cells of a particular cell lineage. Several lines of evidence seem to bring closer the day when we will be able to detect the right stem cell niche and successfully isolate precursor cells that are needed for the treatment of a particular disorder. Recent reports on cases of cancer in patients subjected to stem cell therapy are yet another controversial issue looked into in this review, although the pros and cons emerging from the results of published studies still do not provide satisfying evidence to fully understand this issue. PMID:16865077

  12. Adult stem cells underlying lung regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Despite the massive toll in human suffering imparted by degenerative lung disease, including COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and ARDS, the scientific community has been surprisingly agnostic regarding the potential of lung tissue and, in particular, the alveoli, to regenerate. However, there is circumstantial evidence in humans and direct evidence in mice that ARDS triggers robust regeneration of lung tissue rather than irreversible fibrosis. The stem cells responsible for this remarkable regenerative process has garnered tremendous attention, most recently yielding a defined set of cloned human airway stem cells marked by p63 expression but with distinct commitment to differentiated cell types typical of the upper or lower airways, the latter of which include alveoli-like structures in vitro and in vivo. These recent advances in lung regeneration and distal airway stem cells and the potential of associated soluble factors in regeneration must be harnessed for therapeutic options in chronic lung disease. PMID:22333577

  13. Embryonic and adult stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Brignier, Anne C; Gewirtz, Alan M

    2010-02-01

    There are many types of stem cells. All share the characteristics of being able to self-renew and to give rise to differentiated progeny. Over the last decades, great excitement has been generated by the prospect of being able to exploit these properties for the repair, improvement, and/or replacement of damaged organs. However, many hurdles, both scientific and ethical, remain in the path of using human embryonic stem cells for tissue-engineering purposes. In this report we review current strategies for isolating, enriching, and, most recently, inducing the development of human pluripotent stem cells. In so doing, we discuss the scientific and ethical issues associated with this endeavor. Finally, progress in the use of stem cells as therapies for type 1 diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and various neurologic and immunohematologic disorders, and as vehicles for the delivery of gene therapy, is briefly discussed. PMID:20061008

  14. Hair cell replacement in adult mouse utricles after targeted ablation of hair cells with diphtheria toxin.

    PubMed

    Golub, Justin S; Tong, Ling; Ngyuen, Tot B; Hume, Cliff R; Palmiter, Richard D; Rubel, Edwin W; Stone, Jennifer S

    2012-10-24

    We developed a transgenic mouse to permit conditional and selective ablation of hair cells in the adult mouse utricle by inserting the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) gene into the Pou4f3 gene, which encodes a hair cell-specific transcription factor. In adult wild-type mice, administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) caused no significant hair cell loss. In adult Pou4f3(+/DTR) mice, DT treatment reduced hair cell numbers to 6% of normal by 14 days post-DT. Remaining hair cells were located primarily in the lateral extrastriola. Over time, hair cell numbers increased in these regions, reaching 17% of untreated Pou4f3(+/DTR) mice by 60 days post-DT. Replacement hair cells were morphologically distinct, with multiple cytoplasmic processes, and displayed evidence for active mechanotransduction channels and synapses characteristic of type II hair cells. Three lines of evidence suggest replacement hair cells were derived via direct (nonmitotic) transdifferentiation of supporting cells: new hair cells did not incorporate BrdU, supporting cells upregulated the pro-hair cell gene Atoh1, and supporting cell numbers decreased over time. This study introduces a new method for efficient conditional hair cell ablation in adult mouse utricles and demonstrates that hair cells are spontaneously regenerated in vivo in regions where there may be ongoing hair cell turnover. PMID:23100430

  15. Intestinal stem cells in the adult Drosophila midgut

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Huaqi; Edgar, Bruce A.

    2011-11-15

    Drosophila has long been an excellent model organism for studying stem cell biology. Notably, studies of Drosophila's germline stem cells have been instrumental in developing the stem cell niche concept. The recent discovery of somatic stem cells in adult Drosophila, particularly the intestinal stem cells (ISCs) of the midgut, has established Drosophila as an exciting model to study stem cell-mediated adult tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Here, we review the major signaling pathways that regulate the self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of Drosophila ISCs, discussing how this regulation maintains midgut homeostasis and mediates regeneration of the intestinal epithelium after injury. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The homeostasis and regeneration of adult fly midguts are mediated by ISCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Damaged enterocytes induce the proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGFR and Jak/Stat signalings mediate compensatory ISC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch signaling regulates ISC self-renewal and differentiation.

  16. In Vivo Dedifferentiation of Adult Adipose Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Feng; Dong, Ziqing; Chang, Qiang; Gao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adipocytes can dedifferentiate into fibroblast-like cells in vitro and thereby acquire proliferation and multipotent capacities to participate in the repair of various organs and tissues. Whether dedifferentiation occurs under physiological or pathological conditions in vivo is unknown. Methods A tissue expander was placed under the inguinal fat pads of rats and gradually expanded by injection of water. Samples were collected at various time points, and morphological, histological, cytological, ultrastructural, and gene expression analyses were conducted. In a separate experiment, purified green fluorescent protein+ adipocytes were transplanted into C57 mice and collected at various time points. The transplanted adipocytes were assessed by bioluminescence imaging and whole-mount staining. Results The expanded fat pad was obviously thinner than the untreated fat pad on the opposite side. It was also tougher in texture and with more blood vessels attached. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy indicated there were fewer monolocular adipocytes in the expanded fat pad and the morphology of these cells was altered, most notably their lipid content was discarded. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expanded fat pad contained an increased number of proliferative cells, which may have been derived from adipocytes. Following removal of the tissue expander, many small adipocytes were observed. Bioluminescence imaging suggested that some adipocytes survived when transplanted into an ischemic-hypoxic environment. Whole-mount staining revealed that surviving adipocytes underwent a process similar to adipocyte dedifferentiation in vitro. Monolocular adipocytes became multilocular adipocytes and then fibroblast-like cells. Conclusions Mature adipocytes may be able to dedifferentiate in vivo, and this may be an adipose tissue self-repair mechanism. The capacity of adipocytes to dedifferentiate into stem cell-like cells may also have a

  17. EMPOWERING ADULT STEM CELLS FOR MYOCARDIAL REGENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Mohsin, Sadia; Siddiqi, Sailay; Collins, Brett; Sussman, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment strategies for heart failure remain a high priority for ongoing research due to the profound unmet need in clinical disease coupled with lack of significant translational progress. The underlying issue is the same whether the cause is acute damage, chronic stress from disease, or aging: progressive loss of functional cardiomyocytes and diminished hemodynamic output. To stave off cardiomyocyte losses, a number of strategic approaches have been embraced in recent years involving both molecular and cellular approaches to augment myocardial structure and performance. Resultant excitement surrounding regenerative medicine in the heart has been tempered by realizations that reparative processes in the heart are insufficient to restore damaged myocardium to normal functional capacity and that cellular cardiomyoplasty is hampered by poor survival, proliferation, engraftment and differentiation of the donated population. To overcome these limitations, a combination of molecular and cellular approaches needs to be adopted involving use of genetic engineering to enhance resistance to cell death and increase regenerative capacity. This review will highlight biological properties of approached to potentiate stem cell-mediated regeneration to promote enhanced myocardial regeneration, persistence of donated cells, and long lasting tissue repair. Optimizing cell delivery and harnessing the power of survival signaling cascades for ex vivo genetic modification of stem cells prior to reintroduction into the patient will be critical to enhance the efficacy of cellular cardiomyoplasty. Once this goal is achieved, then cell-based therapy has great promise for treatment of heart failure to combat the loss of cardiac structure and function associated with acute damage, chronic disease or aging. PMID:22158649

  18. Isolation, culture and analysis of adult subependymal neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Belenguer, Germán; Domingo-Muelas, Ana; Ferrón, Sacri R; Morante-Redolat, José Manuel; Fariñas, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Individual cells dissected from the subependymal neurogenic niche of the adult mouse brain proliferate in medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF) as mitogens, to produce multipotent clonal aggregates called neurospheres. These cultures constitute a powerful tool for the study of neural stem cells (NSCs) provided that they allow the analysis of their features and potential capacity in a controlled environment that can be modulated and monitored more accurately than in vivo. Clonogenic and population analyses under mitogen addition or withdrawal allow the quantification of the self-renewing and multilineage potency of these cells and the identification of the mechanisms involved in these properties. Here, we describe a set of procedures developed and/or modified by our group including several experimental options that can be used either independently or in combination for the ex vivo assessment of cell properties of NSCs obtained from the adult subependymal niche. PMID:27016251

  19. Medical perspectives of adults and embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; André-Schmutz, Isabelle; Lagresle, Chantal; Fischer, Alain

    2002-10-01

    In the last 30 years, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation has become the treatment of choice for many hematologic malignancies or inherited disorders and a number of changes have been registered in terms of long-term survival rate of transplanted patients as well as of available sources of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). In parallel to the publication of better results in HSC transplantation, several recent discoveries have opened a scientific and ethical debate on the therapeutical potential of stem cells isolated from adult or embryonic tissues. One of the major discoveries in this field is the capacity of bone marrow-derived stem cells to treat a genetic liver disease in a mouse model, thus justifying the concept of transdifferentiation of adult stem cell and raising hopes on its possible therapeutical applications. We have tried here to summarise the advances in this field and to discuss the limits of these biological data. PMID:12494504

  20. Langerhans' cell histiocytosis in an adult.

    PubMed

    Lindelöf, B; Forslind, B; Hilliges, M; Johansson, O; Aström, L

    1991-01-01

    A woman with typical skin lesions of histiocytosis X is reported. Electron microscopic and immunohistochemical investigations revealed a large number of markedly long Birbeck Langerhans' cell granulae. During treatment with Interferon alpha -2b, the patient developed infarctus cerebri and died. PMID:1675535

  1. Adult stem cells for chronic lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Mora, Ana L; Rojas, Mauricio

    2013-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic, progressive and lethal lung diseases. The incidence of IPF and COPD increases with age, independent of exposure to common environmental risk factors. At present, there is limited understanding of the relationship between ageing and the development of chronic lung diseases. One hypothesis is that chronic injury drives to exhaustion the local and systemic repair responses in the lung. These changes are accentuated during ageing where there is a progressive accumulation of senescent cells. Recently, stem cells have emerged as a critical reparative mechanism for lung injury. In this review, we discuss the repair response of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (B-MSC) after lung injury and how their function is affected by ageing. Our own work has demonstrated a protective role of B-MSC in several animal models of acute and chronic lung injury. We recently demonstrated the association, using animal models, between age and an increase in the susceptibility to develop severe injury and fibrosis. At the same time, we have identified functional differences between B-MSC isolated from young and old animals. Further studies are required to understand the functional impairment of ageing B-MSC, ultimately leading to a rapid stem cell depletion or fatigue, interfering with their ability to play a protective role in lung injury. The elucidation of these events will help in the development of rational and new therapeutic strategies for COPD and IPF. PMID:23648014

  2. New Nerve Cells for the Adult Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempermann, Gerd; Gage, Fred H.

    1999-01-01

    Contrary to dogma, the human brain does produce new nerve cells in adulthood. The mature human brain spawns neurons routinely in the hippocampus, an area important to memory and learning. This research can make it possible to ease any number of disorders involving neurological damage and death. (CCM)

  3. Live Imaging of Adult Neural Stem Cells in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Felipe; Costa, Marcos R.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of cells of the neural lineage within the brain is not restricted to early development. New neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes are produced in the adult brain throughout the entire murine life. However, despite the extensive research performed in the field of adult neurogenesis during the past years, fundamental questions regarding the cell biology of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) remain to be uncovered. For instance, it is crucial to elucidate whether a single aNSC is capable of differentiating into all three different macroglial cell types in vivo or these distinct progenies constitute entirely separate lineages. Similarly, the cell cycle length, the time and mode of division (symmetric vs. asymmetric) that these cells undergo within their lineage progression are interesting questions under current investigation. In this sense, live imaging constitutes a valuable ally in the search of reliable answers to the previous questions. In spite of the current limitations of technology new approaches are being developed and outstanding amount of knowledge is being piled up providing interesting insights in the behavior of aNSCs. Here, we will review the state of the art of live imaging as well as the alternative models that currently offer new answers to critical questions. PMID:27013941

  4. Calcium exchange, structure, and function in cultured adult myocardial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, G.A.; Frank, J.S.; Rich, T.L.; Orner, F.B.

    1987-02-01

    Cells digested from adult rat heart and cultured for 14 days demonstrate all the structural elements, in mature form, associated with the process of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. The transverse tubular (TT) system is well developed with an extensive junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (JSR). In nonphosphate-containing buffer contraction of the cells is lost as rapidly as zero extracellular Ca concentration ((Ca)/sup 0/) solution is applied and a negative contraction staircase is produced on increase of stimulation frequency. Structurally and functionally the cells have the characteristics of adult cells in situ. /sup 45/Ca exchange and total /sup 45/Ca measurement in N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES)-buffered perfusate define three components of cellular Ca: 1) a rapidly exchangeable component accounting for 36% of total Ca, 2) a slowly exchangeable component (t/sub 1/2/ 53 min) accounting for 7% total Ca, and 3) the remaining 57% cellular Ca is inexchangeable (demonstrates no significant exchange within 60 min). The slowly exchangeable component can be increased 10-fold within 60 min by addition of phosphate to the perfusate. The Ca distribution and exchange characteristics are little different from those of 3-day cultures of neonatal rat heart previously studied. The results suggest that the cells are representative of adult cells in situ and that both sarcolemmal-bound and sarcoplasmic reticular Ca contribute to the component of Ca that is rapidly exchangeable.

  5. A developmentally plastic adult mouse kidney cell line spontaneously generates multiple adult kidney structures

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Carol F.; Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R.; Lakiza, Olga; Obara, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting new possibilities for regenerative therapy posed by the ability to induce pluripotent stem cells, recapitulation of three-dimensional kidneys for repair or replacement has not been possible. ARID3a-deficient mouse tissues generated multipotent, developmentally plastic cells. Therefore, we assessed the adult mouse ARID3a−/− kidney cell line, KKPS5, which expresses renal progenitor surface markers as an alternative cell source for modeling kidney development. Remarkably, these cells spontaneously developed into multicellular nephron-like structures in vitro, and engrafted into immunocompromised medaka mesonephros, where they formed mouse nephron structures. These data implicate KKPS5 cells as a new model system for studying kidney development. PMID:26111446

  6. Wnt signaling in adult intestinal stem cells and cancer.

    PubMed

    Krausova, Michaela; Korinek, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    Signaling initiated by secreted glycoproteins of the Wnt family regulates many aspects of embryonic development and it is involved in homeostasis of adult tissues. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract the Wnt pathway maintains the self-renewal capacity of epithelial stem cells. The stem cell attributes are conferred by mutual interactions of the stem cell with its local microenvironment, the stem cell niche. The niche ensures that the threshold of Wnt signaling in the stem cell is kept in physiological range. In addition, the Wnt pathway involves various feedback loops that balance the opposing processes of cell proliferation and differentiation. Today, we have compelling evidence that mutations causing aberrant activation of the Wnt pathway promote expansion of undifferentiated progenitors and lead to cancer. The review summarizes recent advances in characterization of adult epithelial stem cells in the gut. We mainly focus on discoveries related to molecular mechanisms regulating the output of the Wnt pathway. Moreover, we present novel experimental approaches utilized to investigate the epithelial cell signaling circuitry in vivo and in vitro. Pivotal aspects of tissue homeostasis are often deduced from studies of tumor cells; therefore, we also discuss some latest results gleaned from the deep genome sequencing studies of human carcinomas of the colon and rectum. PMID:24308963

  7. Intraganglionic interactions between satellite cells and adult sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Christie, Kimberly; Koshy, Dilip; Cheng, Chu; Guo, GuiFang; Martinez, Jose A; Duraikannu, Arul; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2015-07-01

    Perineuronal satellite cells have an intimate anatomical relationship with sensory neurons that suggests close functional collaboration and mutual support. We examined several facets of this relationship in adult sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Collaboration included the support of process outgrowth by clustering of satellite cells, induction of distal branching behavior by soma signaling, the capacity of satellite cells to respond to distal axon injury of its neighboring neurons, and evidence of direct neuron-satellite cell exchange. In vitro, closely adherent coharvested satellite cells routinely clustered around new outgrowing processes and groups of satellite cells attracted neurite processes. Similar clustering was encountered in the pseudounipolar processes of intact sensory neurons within intact DRG in vivo. While short term exposure of distal growth cones of unselected adult sensory neurons to transient gradients of a PTEN inhibitor had negligible impacts on their behavior, exposure of the soma induced early and substantial growth of their distant neurites and branches, an example of local soma signaling. In turn, satellite cells sensed when distal neuronal axons were injured by enlarging and proliferating. We also observed that satellite cells were capable of internalizing and expressing a neuron fluorochrome label, diamidino yellow, applied remotely to distal injured axons of the neuron and retrogradely transported to dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons. The findings illustrate a robust interaction between intranganglionic neurons and glial cells that involve two way signals, features that may be critical for both regenerative responses and ongoing maintenance. PMID:25979201

  8. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in the adult.

    PubMed

    Malpas, J S; Norton, A J

    1996-12-01

    A study of 47 well-documented patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) showed a slight female preponderance, with onset as late as the ninth decade. The skin was the commonest site of presentation, but pulmonary and bone involvement was frequent. Patients with single-site disease did best. The worst prognosis was seen in the elderly or those with organ dysfunction. A high incidence of associated malignant disease was seen, which could precede, be coincidental with, or occur after a diagnosis of LCH. PMID:8888814

  9. Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

  10. Axonal Control of the Adult Neural Stem Cell Niche

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Cheuk Ka; Chen, Jiadong; Cebrián-Silla, Arantxa; Mirzadeh, Zaman; Obernier, Kirsten; Guinto, Cristina D.; Tecott, Laurence H.; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Kriegstein, Arnold; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) is an extensive germinal niche containing neural stem cells (NSC) in the walls of the lateral ventricles of the adult brain. How the adult brain’s neural activity influences the behavior of adult NSCs remains largely unknown. We show that serotonergic (5HT) axons originating from a small group of neurons in the raphe form an extensive plexus on most of the ventricular walls. Electron microscopy revealed intimate contacts between 5HT axons and NSCs (B1) or ependymal cells (E1) and these cells were labeled by a transsynaptic viral tracer injected into the raphe. B1 cells express the 5HT receptors 2C and 5A. Electrophysiology showed that activation of these receptors in B1 cells induced small inward currents. Intraventricular infusion of 5HT2C agonist or antagonist increased or decreased V-SVZ proliferation, respectively. These results indicate that supraependymal 5HT axons directly interact with NSCs to regulate neurogenesis via 5HT2C. PMID:24561083

  11. Axonal control of the adult neural stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Tong, Cheuk Ka; Chen, Jiadong; Cebrián-Silla, Arantxa; Mirzadeh, Zaman; Obernier, Kirsten; Guinto, Cristina D; Tecott, Laurence H; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Kriegstein, Arnold; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2014-04-01

    The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) is an extensive germinal niche containing neural stem cells (NSCs) in the walls of the lateral ventricles of the adult brain. How the adult brain's neural activity influences the behavior of adult NSCs remains largely unknown. We show that serotonergic (5HT) axons originating from a small group of neurons in the raphe form an extensive plexus on most of the ventricular walls. Electron microscopy revealed intimate contacts between 5HT axons and NSCs (B1) or ependymal cells (E1) and these cells were labeled by a transsynaptic viral tracer injected into the raphe. B1 cells express the 5HT receptors 2C and 5A. Electrophysiology showed that activation of these receptors in B1 cells induced small inward currents. Intraventricular infusion of 5HT2C agonist or antagonist increased or decreased V-SVZ proliferation, respectively. These results indicate that supraependymal 5HT axons directly interact with NSCs to regulate neurogenesis via 5HT2C. PMID:24561083

  12. Germ Cell Tumors in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Calaminus, Gabriele; Joffe, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a group of biologically complex malignancies that affect patients at different sites within the body and at different ages. The varying nature of these tumors reflects their cell of origin which is the primordial germ cell, which normally gives rise to ovarian and testicular egg and sperm producing cells. These cells retain an ability to give rise to all types of human tissues, and this is illustrated by the different kinds of GCTs that occur. In adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients, GCTs predominantly present as testicular, ovarian or mediastinal primary GCTs, and represent some of the most complex therapeutic challenges within any AYA practice. The varying types of GCTs, defined by primary site and/or age at presentation, can look very similar microscopically. However, there is growing evidence that they may have different molecular characteristics, different biology and different requirements for curative treatments. Whilst in adult testicular GCTs there is evidence for an environmental cause during fetal development and a genetic component, these causative factors are much less well understood in other GCTs. GCTs are some of the most curable cancers in adults, but some patients exhibit resistance to standard treatments. Because of this, today's clinical research is directed at understanding how to best utilize toxic therapies and promote healthy survivorship. This chapter explores the biology, behavior and treatment of GCTs and discusses how the AYA group of GCTs may hold some of the keys to understanding fundamental unanswered questions of biological variance and curability in GCTs. PMID:27595361

  13. In vivo cell tracking and quantification method in adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Alt, Clemens; Li, Pulin; White, Richard M.; Zon, Leonard I.; Wei, Xunbin; Lin, Charles P.

    2012-03-01

    Zebrafish have become a powerful vertebrate model organism for drug discovery, cancer and stem cell research. A recently developed transparent adult zebrafish using double pigmentation mutant, called casper, provide unparalleled imaging power in in vivo longitudinal analysis of biological processes at an anatomic resolution not readily achievable in murine or other systems. In this paper we introduce an optical method for simultaneous visualization and cell quantification, which combines the laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and the in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC). The system is designed specifically for non-invasive tracking of both stationary and circulating cells in adult zebrafish casper, under physiological conditions in the same fish over time. The confocal imaging part in this system serves the dual purposes of imaging fish tissue microstructure and a 3D navigation tool to locate a suitable vessel for circulating cell counting. The multi-color, multi-channel instrument allows the detection of multiple cell populations or different tissues or organs simultaneously. We demonstrate initial testing of this novel instrument by imaging vasculature and tracking circulating cells in CD41: GFP/Gata1: DsRed transgenic casper fish whose thrombocytes/erythrocytes express the green and red fluorescent proteins. Circulating fluorescent cell incidents were recorded and counted repeatedly over time and in different types of vessels. Great application opportunities in cancer and stem cell researches are discussed.

  14. Recent advances in bone regeneration using adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zigdon-Giladi, Hadar; Rudich, Utai; Michaeli Geller, Gal; Evron, Ayelet

    2015-04-26

    Bone is a highly vascularized tissue reliant on the close spatial and temporal association between blood vessels and bone cells. Therefore, cells that participate in vasculogenesis and osteogenesis play a pivotal role in bone formation during prenatal and postnatal periods. Nevertheless, spontaneous healing of bone fracture is occasionally impaired due to insufficient blood and cellular supply to the site of injury. In these cases, bone regeneration process is interrupted, which might result in delayed union or even nonunion of the fracture. Nonunion fracture is difficult to treat and have a high financial impact. In the last decade, numerous technological advancements in bone tissue engineering and cell-therapy opened new horizon in the field of bone regeneration. This review starts with presentation of the biological processes involved in bone development, bone remodeling, fracture healing process and the microenvironment at bone healing sites. Then, we discuss the rationale for using adult stem cells and listed the characteristics of the available cells for bone regeneration. The mechanism of action and epigenetic regulations for osteogenic differentiation are also described. Finally, we review the literature for translational and clinical trials that investigated the use of adult stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells and CD34(+) blood progenitors) for bone regeneration. PMID:25914769

  15. Wildtype adult stem cells, unlike tumor cells, are resistant to cellular damages in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meifang; Zhao, Hang; Zhao, Hanfei; Binari, Richard; Perrimon, Norbert; Li, Zhouhua

    2016-03-15

    Adult stem cells or residential progenitor cells are critical to maintain the structure and function of adult tissues (homeostasis) throughout the lifetime of an individual. Mis-regulation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation often leads to diseases including cancer, however, how wildtype adult stem cells and cancer cells respond to cellular damages remains unclear. We find that in the adult Drosophila midgut, intestinal stem cells (ISCs), unlike tumor intestinal cells, are resistant to various cellular damages. Tumor intestinal cells, unlike wildtype ISCs, are easily eliminated by apoptosis. Further, their proliferation is inhibited upon autophagy induction, and autophagy-mediated tumor inhibition is independent of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interestingly, inhibition of tumorigenesis by autophagy is likely through the sequestration and degradation of mitochondria, as compromising mitochondria activity in these tumor models mimics the induction of autophagy and increasing the production of mitochondria alleviates the tumor-suppression capacity of autophagy. Together, these data demonstrate that wildtype adult stem cells and tumor cells show dramatic differences in sensitivity to cellular damages, thus providing potential therapeutic implications targeting tumorigenesis. PMID:26845534

  16. Loss of Fbw7 Reprograms Adult Pancreatic Ductal Cells into α, δ, and β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Rocio; Gruber, Ralph; Gu, Guoqiang; Behrens, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Summary The adult pancreas is capable of limited regeneration after injury but has no defined stem cell population. The cell types and molecular signals that govern the production of new pancreatic tissue are not well understood. Here, we show that inactivation of the SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate recognition component Fbw7 induces pancreatic ductal cells to reprogram into α, δ, and β cells. Loss of Fbw7 stabilized the transcription factor Ngn3, a key regulator of endocrine cell differentiation. The induced β cells resemble islet β cells in morphology and histology, express genes essential for β cell function, and release insulin after glucose challenge. Thus, loss of Fbw7 appears to reawaken an endocrine developmental differentiation program in adult pancreatic ductal cells. Our study highlights the plasticity of seemingly differentiated adult cells, identifies Fbw7 as a master regulator of cell fate decisions in the pancreas, and reveals adult pancreatic duct cells as a latent multipotent cell type. PMID:25105579

  17. Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation in Adult Haematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Parmesar, Kevon; Raj, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a well-established treatment option for both hematological malignancies and nonmalignant conditions such as aplastic anemia and haemoglobinopathies. For those patients lacking a suitable matched sibling or matched unrelated donor, haploidentical donors are an alternative expedient donor pool. Historically, haploidentical transplantation led to high rates of graft rejection and GVHD. Strategies to circumvent these issues include T cell depletion and management of complications thereof or T replete transplants with GVHD prophylaxis. This review is an overview of these strategies and contemporaneous outcomes for hematological malignancies in adult haploidentical stem cell transplant recipients. PMID:27313619

  18. [Hypercalcemia of T-cell leukemia in adults].

    PubMed

    Jean-Baptiste, G; Arfi, S; Plumelle, Y; Panelatti, G; Mangin, J L; Pascaline, N

    1993-04-01

    A retrospective study of 26 adults with acute T-cell leukemia showed that 14 patients (54%) had hypercalcemia at some point of the disease. Hypercalcemia was found at presentation in nine patients and revealed the disease in one. Eight patients had hypercalcemia at the time of death. Serum phosphorus and parathyroid hormone levels were normal. All patients with hypercalcemia tested positive for the HTLV-1 by Elisa and Western blot. Six patients had focalized or diffuse lytic roentgenographic bone lesions. Hypercalcemia in acute T-cell leukemia may involve production of interleukin-1-alpha and parathyroid hormone-related protein by HTLV-1-infected cells. PMID:8167627

  19. Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation in Adult Haematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Parmesar, Kevon; Raj, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a well-established treatment option for both hematological malignancies and nonmalignant conditions such as aplastic anemia and haemoglobinopathies. For those patients lacking a suitable matched sibling or matched unrelated donor, haploidentical donors are an alternative expedient donor pool. Historically, haploidentical transplantation led to high rates of graft rejection and GVHD. Strategies to circumvent these issues include T cell depletion and management of complications thereof or T replete transplants with GVHD prophylaxis. This review is an overview of these strategies and contemporaneous outcomes for hematological malignancies in adult haploidentical stem cell transplant recipients. PMID:27313619

  20. Regeneration through reprogramming adult cell identity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek K; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2015-10-01

    The discovery and in vivo application of cell fate reprogramming concepts have jumpstarted new technologies aimed at the functional regeneration of damaged tissues. As most adult organ systems retain only a limited potential for self-regeneration after trauma, the production of fate-specific cells by in vivo transdifferentiation offers a targeted method for tissue bioengineering. Proof-of-principle studies have demonstrated the induction of neural precursor cells, neurons, cardiomyocytes, and insulin-producing β islet cells. Each of these induced cell types survive, mature, and integrate into the local environment in a functionally meaningful manner. Here, we briefly highlight recent advances in the in vivo reprogramming of cell identity and the current challenges that face the clinical relevance of these methods. PMID:26056931

  1. Dendritic cells in humans--from fetus to adult.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Naomi; Chan, Jerry K Y; Ginhoux, Florent

    2015-02-01

    The human immune system evolves continuously during development from the embryo into the adult, reflecting the ever-changing environment and demands of our body. This ability of our immune system to sense external cues and adapt as we develop is just as important in the early tolerogenic environment of the fetus, as it is in the constantly pathogen-challenged adult. Dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen-sensing and antigen-presenting components of the immune system, play a crucial role in this process where they act as sentinels, both initiating and regulating immune responses. Here, we provide an overview of the human immune system in the developing fetus and the adult, with a focus on DC ontogeny and function during these discrete but intimately linked life stages. PMID:25323843

  2. Adult stem cell plasticity: will engineered tissues be rejected?

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Te-Chao; Alison, Malcolm R; Wright, Nicholas A; Poulsom, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The dogma that adult tissue-specific stem cells remain committed to supporting only their own tissue has been challenged; a new hypothesis, that adult stem cells demonstrate plasticity in their repertoires, is being tested. This is important because it seems possible that haematopoietic stem cells, for example, could be exploited to generate and perhaps deliver cell-based therapies deep within existing nonhaematopoietic organs. Much of the evidence for plasticity derives from histological studies of tissues from patients or animals that have received grafts of cells or whole organs, from a donor bearing (or lacking) a definitive marker. Detection in the recipient of appropriately differentiated cells bearing the donor marker is indicative of a switch in phenotype of a stem cell or a member of a transit amplifying population or of a differentiated cell. In this review, we discuss evidence for these changes occurring but do not consider the molecular basis of cell commitment. In general, the extent of engraftment is low but may be increased if tissues are damaged. In model systems of liver regeneration, the repeated application of a selection pressure increases levels of engraftment considerably; how this occurs is unclear. Cell fusion plays a part in regeneration and remodelling of the liver, skeletal muscle and even regions of the brain. Genetic disease may be amenable to some forms of cell therapy, yet immune rejection will present challenges. Graft-vs.-host disease will continue to present problems, although this may be avoided if the cells were derived from the recipient or they were tolerized. Despite great expectations for cellular therapies, there are indications that attempts to replace missing proteins could be confounded simply by the development of specific immunity that rejects the new phenotype. PMID:15255965

  3. Differentiation of embryonic and adult stem cells into insulin producing cells.

    PubMed

    Zulewski, H

    2008-03-01

    Replacement of insulin producing cells represents an almost ideal treatment for patients with diabetes mellitus type 1. Transplantation of pancreatic islets of Langerhans is successful in experienced centers. The wider application of this therapy, however, is limited by the lack of donor organs. Insulin producing cells generated from stem cells represent an attractive alternative. Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into insulin producing cells include embryonic stem cells (ESC) as well as adult stem cells from various tissues including the pancreas, liver, bone marrow and adipose tissue. The use of human ESC is hampered by ethical concerns but research with human ESC may help us to decipher important steps in the differentiation process in vitro since almost all information available on pancreas development are based on animal studies. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the development of insulin producing cells from embryonic and adult stem cells with special emphasis on pancreatic, hepatic and human mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:18427390

  4. GFRalpha-3, a protein related to GFRalpha-1, is expressed in developing peripheral neurons and ensheathing cells.

    PubMed

    Widenfalk, J; Tomac, A; Lindqvist, E; Hoffer, B; Olson, L

    1998-04-01

    We report here the identification of a gene, termed GFRalpha-3 (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha-3), related to GFRalpha-1 and GFRalpha-2 (also known as GDNFR-alpha and GDNFR-beta), and describe distribution of GDNFalpha-3 in the nervous system and other parts of the mouse body during development and in the adult. GFRalpha-3 in situ hybridization signals were found mainly in the peripheral nervous system, with prominent signals in developing dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. Sympathetic ganglia were also positive. Developing nerves manifested strong GFRalpha-3 mRNA signals, presumably generated by the Schwann cells. Olfactory ensheathing cells were also positive. Other non-neuronal cells appearing positive during development included chromaffin cells in the adrenal gland and small clusters of cells in the intestinal epithelium. In the central nervous system no robust signals could be detected at any stage investigated with the present probes. Compared with the previously described GFRalpha-1 and GFRalpha-2 mRNAs, which are widely distributed in the central nervous system and peripheral organs, the expression of GFRalpha-3 mRNA is much more restricted. The prominent expression in Schwann cells during development suggests a key role for GFRalpha-3 in the development of the peripheral nervous system. As Schwann cells are known to lack expression of the transducing RET receptor, we propose that a possible function of GFRalpha-3 during development could be to bind Schwann cell-derived GDNF-like ligands, thus presenting such molecules to growing axons. PMID:9749804

  5. IMMATURE RAT LEYDIG CELLS ARE INTRINSICALLY LESS SENSITIVE THAN ADULT LEYDIG CELLS TO ETHANE DIMETHANESULFONATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leydig cells from immature rat tests appear to be insensitive to doses of ethane-1,2-dimethanesulfonate (EDS) which eliminate Leydig cells from adult rat testes. e sought to determine whether this differential response to EDS is intrinsic to the Leydig cell or mediated by other i...

  6. Prolactin Stimulates Precursor Cells in the Adult Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Tara L.; Vukovic, Jana; Koudijs, Margaretha M.; Blackmore, Daniel G.; Mackay, Eirinn W.; Sykes, Alex M.; Overall, Rupert W.; Hamlin, Adam S.; Bartlett, Perry F.

    2012-01-01

    In the search for ways to combat degenerative neurological disorders, neurogenesis-stimulating factors are proving to be a promising area of research. In this study, we show that the hormonal factor prolactin (PRL) can activate a pool of latent precursor cells in the adult mouse hippocampus. Using an in vitro neurosphere assay, we found that the addition of exogenous PRL to primary adult hippocampal cells resulted in an approximate 50% increase in neurosphere number. In addition, direct infusion of PRL into the adult dentate gyrus also resulted in a significant increase in neurosphere number. Together these data indicate that exogenous PRL can increase hippocampal precursor numbers both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, PRL null mice showed a significant reduction (approximately 80%) in the number of hippocampal-derived neurospheres. Interestingly, no deficit in precursor proliferation was observed in vivo, indicating that in this situation other niche factors can compensate for a loss in PRL. The PRL loss resulted in learning and memory deficits in the PRL null mice, as indicated by significant deficits in the standard behavioral tests requiring input from the hippocampus. This behavioral deficit was rescued by direct infusion of recombinant PRL into the hippocampus, indicating that a lack of PRL in the adult mouse hippocampus can be correlated with impaired learning and memory. PMID:22973440

  7. Stem cell niches in the adult mouse heart

    PubMed Central

    Urbanek, Konrad; Cesselli, Daniela; Rota, Marcello; Nascimbene, Angelo; De Angelis, Antonella; Hosoda, Toru; Bearzi, Claudia; Boni, Alessandro; Bolli, Roberto; Kajstura, Jan; Anversa, Piero; Leri, Annarosa

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in the adult heart, but the microenvironment that protects the slow-cycling, undifferentiated, and self-renewing CSCs remains to be determined. We report that the myocardium possesses interstitial structures with the architectural organization of stem cell niches that harbor long-term BrdU-retaining cells. The recognition of long-term label-retaining cells provides functional evidence of resident CSCs in the myocardium, indicating that the heart is an organ regulated by a stem cell compartment. Cardiac niches contain CSCs and lineage-committed cells, which are connected to supporting cells represented by myocytes and fibroblasts. Connexins and cadherins form gap and adherens junctions at the interface of CSCs–lineage-committed cells and supporting cells. The undifferentiated state of CSCs is coupled with the expression of α4-integrin, which colocalizes with the α2-chain of laminin and fibronectin. CSCs divide symmetrically and asymmetrically, but asymmetric division predominates, and the replicating CSC gives rise to one daughter CSC and one daughter committed cell. By this mechanism of growth kinetics, the pool of primitive CSCs is preserved, and a myocyte progeny is generated together with endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Thus, CSCs regulate myocyte turnover that is heterogeneous across the heart, faster at the apex and atria, and slower at the base–midregion of the ventricle. PMID:16754876

  8. A developmentally plastic adult mouse kidney cell line spontaneously generates multiple adult kidney structures

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Carol F.; Ratliff, Michelle L.; Powell, Rebecca; Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R.; Lakiza, Olga; Obara, Tomoko

    2015-08-07

    Despite exciting new possibilities for regenerative therapy posed by the ability to induce pluripotent stem cells, recapitulation of three-dimensional kidneys for repair or replacement has not been possible. ARID3a-deficient mouse tissues generated multipotent, developmentally plastic cells. Therefore, we assessed the adult mouse ARID3a−/− kidney cell line, KKPS5, which expresses renal progenitor surface markers as an alternative cell source for modeling kidney development. Remarkably, these cells spontaneously developed into multicellular nephron-like structures in vitro, and engrafted into immunocompromised medaka mesonephros, where they formed mouse nephron structures. These data implicate KKPS5 cells as a new model system for studying kidney development. - Highlights: • An ARID3a-deficient mouse kidney cell line expresses multiple progenitor markers. • This cell line spontaneously forms multiple nephron-like structures in vitro. • This cell line formed mouse kidney structures in immunocompromised medaka fish kidneys. • Our data identify a novel model system for studying kidney development.

  9. Genetic landscape of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Keisuke; Ogawa, Seishi

    2016-04-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a peripheral T-cell malignancy associated with HTLV-1 infection. To decipher the genetic landscape of ATL, we performed an integrated molecular analysis, which included whole-genome, whole-exome, transcriptome and targeted sequencing, as well as array-based copy number and methylation analyses. The somatic alterations are highly enriched for T-cell receptor/NF-κB signaling, the G-protein coupled receptor associated with T-cell migration, and other T-cell-related pathways as well as immune surveillance related genes. Among these, PLCG1, PRKCB, CARD11, VAV1, IRF4, CCR4, and CCR7 activating mutations and CTLA4-CD28 and ICOS-CD28 fusion genes have been identified. In addition, these genes significantly overlap with HTLV-1 Tax interactome. These results provide an important basis for the development of new ATL diagnostics and therapeuticsregimens. PMID:27169444

  10. Adult mesenchymal stem cells: differentiation potential and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Jackson, L; Jones, D R; Scotting, P; Sottile, V

    2007-01-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of multipotent cells found primarily in the bone marrow. They have long been known to be capable of osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation and are currently the subject of a number of trials to assess their potential use in the clinic. Recently, the plasticity of these cells has come under close scrutiny as it has been suggested that they may have a differentiation potential beyond the mesenchymal lineage. Myogenic and in particular cardiomyogenic potential has been shown in vitro. MSCs have also been shown to have the ability to form neural cells both in vitro and in vivo, although the molecular mechanisms underlying these apparent transdifferentiation events are yet to be elucidated. We describe here the cellular characteristics and differentiation potential of MSCs, which represent a promising stem cell population for future applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:17495381

  11. Adult langerhans cell histiocytosis with hepatic and pulmonary involvement.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Bruno; Costa, Francisco; Lopes, Joanne; Castro, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare proliferative disorder of Langerhans cells of unknown etiology. It can involve multiple organ systems with different clinical presentation, which complicates the diagnosis. It can range from isolated to multisystem disease with different prognosis. Although common among children, liver involvement is relatively rare in adults and frequently overlooked. Natural history of liver LCH fits into two stages: an early stage with infiltration by histiocytes and a late stage with sclerosis of the biliary tree. Pulmonary findings are more common and include multiple nodules in different stages of cavitation, predominantly in the upper lobes. We present a case of adult LCH with pulmonary and biopsy proven liver involvement with resolution of the hepatic findings after treatment. PMID:25977828

  12. Adult stem cell lineage tracing and deep tissue imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Juergen; Andersson-Rolf, Amanda; Koo, Bon-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Lineage tracing is a widely used method for understanding cellular dynamics in multicellular organisms during processes such as development, adult tissue maintenance, injury repair and tumorigenesis. Advances in tracing or tracking methods, from light microscopy-based live cell tracking to fluorescent label-tracing with two-photon microscopy, together with emerging tissue clearing strategies and intravital imaging approaches have enabled scientists to decipher adult stem and progenitor cell properties in various tissues and in a wide variety of biological processes. Although technical advances have enabled time-controlled genetic labeling and simultaneous live imaging, a number of obstacles still need to be overcome. In this review, we aim to provide an in-depth description of the traditional use of lineage tracing as well as current strategies and upcoming new methods of labeling and imaging. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(12): 655-667] PMID:26634741

  13. Gender and age related expression of Oct-6--a POU III domain transcription factor, in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ilia, Maria; Sugiyama, Yuka; Price, Jack

    2003-06-26

    Oct-6 is a POU III domain transcription factor whose primary role is thought to be developmental. It is expressed in embryonic stem cells, Schwann cells, and in neuronal subpopulations during telencephalic development. Its best characterised role is in Schwann cells where it is thought to regulate myelin specific gene expression. Expression of Oct-6 was recently discovered in neurons in post-mortem human schizophrenic specimens while being undetectable in matched controls. This study of human tissue contrasted in a number of regards with earlier studies of rodent brain, and questioned what we can consider to be normal adult expression of this gene. In this study, we have investigated Oct-6 expression via in situ hybridisation and Western blot analysis in normal adult female mice of different ages. We show that both RNA and protein levels of Oct-6 expression are highly sustained in the adult and aging cerebellum, whereas they are attenuated in the telencephalon by PW30 (postnatal week 30). These observations suggest that Oct-6 expression takes place in a sex and age dependent way. PMID:12782346

  14. Neural stem/progenitor cell properties of glial cells in the adult mouse auditory nerve

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Hainan; Xing, Yazhi; Brown, LaShardai N.; Samuvel, Devadoss J.; Panganiban, Clarisse H.; Havens, Luke T.; Balasubramanian, Sundaravadivel; Wegner, Michael; Krug, Edward L.; Barth, Jeremy L.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory nerve is the primary conveyor of hearing information from sensory hair cells to the brain. It has been believed that loss of the auditory nerve is irreversible in the adult mammalian ear, resulting in sensorineural hearing loss. We examined the regenerative potential of the auditory nerve in a mouse model of auditory neuropathy. Following neuronal degeneration, quiescent glial cells converted to an activated state showing a decrease in nuclear chromatin condensation, altered histone deacetylase expression and up-regulation of numerous genes associated with neurogenesis or development. Neurosphere formation assays showed that adult auditory nerves contain neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPs) that were within a Sox2-positive glial population. Production of neurospheres from auditory nerve cells was stimulated by acute neuronal injury and hypoxic conditioning. These results demonstrate that a subset of glial cells in the adult auditory nerve exhibit several characteristics of NSPs and are therefore potential targets for promoting auditory nerve regeneration. PMID:26307538

  15. Immunological characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells and multipotent adult progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Sandra A; Roobrouck, Valerie D; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2013-01-01

    Somatic, also termed adult, stem cells are highly attractive biomedical cell candidates because of their extensive replication potential and functional multilineage differentiation capacity. They can be used for drug and toxicity screenings in preclinical studies, as in vitro model to study differentiation or for regenerative medicine to aid in the repair of tissues or replace tissues that are lost upon disease, injury or ageing. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are two types of adult stem cells derived from bone marrow that are currently being used clinically for tissue regeneration and for their immunomodulatory and trophic effects. This review will give an overview of the phenotypic and functional differences between human MAPCs and MSCs, with a strong emphasis on their immunological characteristics. Finally, we will discuss the clinical studies in which MSCs and MAPCs are already used. PMID:23295415

  16. Adult Stem Cells as a Renewable Source of Insulin-Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hee-Sook; Park, Eun-Young

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder resulting from an inadequate mass of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. The replacement or restoration of damaged beta cells would be considered the optimal therapeutic options. Islet transplantation seems to be a promising approach for replacement therapy; however, the main obstacle is the shortage of organ donors. As mature beta cells have been shown to be difficult to expand in vitro, regeneration of beta cells from embryonic or adult stem cells or pancreatic progenitor cells is an attractive method to restore the islet cell mass. So far, multiple studies using various strategies have shown direct differentiation of stem and progenitor cells toward insulin-producing cells. The important issue to be solved is how to differentiate these cells into mature functional insulin-producing cells. Further research is required to understand how endogenous beta cells differentiate and to develop methods to regenerate enough functional beta cells for clinically applicable therapies for diabetes. PMID:24855530

  17. Evidence of progenitor cells of glandular and myoepithelial cell lineages in the human adult female breast epithelium: a new progenitor (adult stem) cell concept.

    PubMed

    Boecker, Werner; Buerger, Horst

    2003-10-01

    Although experimental data clearly confirm the existence of self-renewing mammary stem cells, the characteristics of such progenitor cells have never been satisfactorily defined. Using a double immunofluorescence technique for simultaneous detection of the basal cytokeratin 5, the glandular cytokeratins 8/18 and the myoepithelial differentiation marker smooth muscle actin (SMA), we were able to demonstrate the presence of CK5+ cells in human adult breast epithelium. These cells have the potential to differentiate to either glandular (CK8/18+) or myoepithelial cells (SMA+) through intermediary cells (CK5+ and CK8/18+ or SMA+). We therefore proceeded on the assumption that the CK5+ cells are phenotypically and behaviourally progenitor (committed adult stem) cells of human breast epithelium. Furthermore, we furnish evidence that most of these progenitor cells are located in the luminal epithelium of the ductal lobular tree. Based on data obtained in extensive analyses of proliferative breast disease lesions, we have come to regard usual ductal hyperplasia as a progenitor cell-derived lesion, whereas most breast cancers seem to evolve from differentiated glandular cells. Double immunofluorescence experiments provide a new tool to characterize phenotypically progenitor (adult stem) cells and their progenies. This model has been shown to be of great value for a better understanding not only of normal tissue regeneration but also of proliferative breast disease. Furthermore, this model provides a new tool for unravelling further the regulatory mechanisms that govern normal and pathological cell growth. PMID:14521517

  18. Switching roles: the functional plasticity of adult tissue stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wabik, Agnieszka; Jones, Philip H

    2015-05-01

    Adult organisms have to adapt to survive, and the same is true for their tissues. Rates and types of cell production must be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to meet tissue demands in response to both local and systemic challenges. Recent work reveals how stem cell (SC) populations meet these requirements by switching between functional states tuned to homoeostasis or regeneration. This plasticity extends to differentiating cells, which are capable of reverting to SCs after injury. The concept of the niche, the micro-environment that sustains and regulates stem cells, is broadening, with a new appreciation of the role of physical factors and hormonal signals. Here, we review different functions of SCs, the cellular mechanisms that underlie them and the signals that bias the fate of SCs as they switch between roles. PMID:25812989

  19. Switching roles: the functional plasticity of adult tissue stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wabik, Agnieszka; Jones, Philip H

    2015-01-01

    Adult organisms have to adapt to survive, and the same is true for their tissues. Rates and types of cell production must be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to meet tissue demands in response to both local and systemic challenges. Recent work reveals how stem cell (SC) populations meet these requirements by switching between functional states tuned to homoeostasis or regeneration. This plasticity extends to differentiating cells, which are capable of reverting to SCs after injury. The concept of the niche, the micro-environment that sustains and regulates stem cells, is broadening, with a new appreciation of the role of physical factors and hormonal signals. Here, we review different functions of SCs, the cellular mechanisms that underlie them and the signals that bias the fate of SCs as they switch between roles. PMID:25812989

  20. Adult stem cells in bone and cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Salgado, António J; Oliveira, João T; Pedro, Adriano J; Reis, Rui L

    2006-09-01

    The progressive increase in life expectancy within the last century has led to the appearance of novel health related problems, some of those within the musculoskeletal field. Among the latter, one can find diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and bone cancer, just to mention some of the most relevant. Other related problems are those that arise from serious injuries, often leading to non-recoverable critical size defects. The therapies currently used to treat this type of diseases/injuries are based on the use of pharmaceutical agents, auto/allotransplant and synthetic materials. However, such solutions present a number of inconveniences and therefore, there is a constant search for novel therapeutic solutions. The appearance of a novel field of science called Tissue engineering brought some hope for the solution of the above mentioned problems. In this field, it is believed that by combining a 3D porous template--scaffold--with an adequate cell population, with osteo or chondrogenic potential, it will be possible to develop bone and cartilage tissue equivalents that when implanted in vivo, could lead to the total regeneration of the affected area. This ideal cell population should have a series of properties, namely a high osteo and chondrogenic potential and at the same time, should be easily expandable and maintained in cultures for long periods of time. Due to its natural and intrinsic properties, stem cells are one of the best available cell types. However, after this sentence, the readers may ask, "Which Stem Cells?". During the last 10/15 years, the scientific community witnessed and reported the appearance of several sources of stem cells with both osteo and chondrogenic potential. Therefore, the present review intends to make an overview of data reported on different sources of adult stem cells (bone marrow, periosteum, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and umbilical cord) for bone and cartilage regenerative medicine, namely those focusing on

  1. Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Adults.

    PubMed

    Speziali, Craig; Paulson, Kristjan; Seftel, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    The majority of adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia will achieve a first complete remission (CR). However relapse is the most common cause of treatment failure. Outcomes after relapse remain poor, with long-term survival in the order of 10 %. Treatment decisions made at the time of first complete remission are thus critical to ensuring long-term survival. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is effective at preventing relapse in many transplant recipients but is also associated with significant treatment related morbidity and mortality. Alternatively, ongoing systemic chemotherapy offers lower toxicity at the expense of increased relapse rates. Over the past decades, both the safety of transplant and the efficacy of non-transplant chemotherapy have improved. Emerging data show substantially improved outcomes for young adults treated with pediatric-inspired chemotherapy regimens that question the role of HCT in the upfront setting. In this review, we review the data supporting the role of allogeneic transplantation in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and we propose a therapeutic algorithm for upfront therapy of adults with ALL. PMID:26984203

  2. A novel view of the adult bone marrow stem cell hierarchy and stem cell trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak, M Z

    2015-01-01

    This review presents a novel view and working hypothesis about the hierarchy within the adult bone marrow stem cell compartment and the still-intriguing question of whether adult bone marrow contains primitive stem cells from early embryonic development, such as cells derived from the epiblast, migrating primordial germ cells or yolk sac-derived hemangioblasts. It also presents a novel view of the mechanisms that govern stem cell mobilization and homing, with special emphasis on the role of the complement cascade as a trigger for egress of hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow into blood as well as the emerging role of novel homing factors and priming mechanisms that support stromal-derived factor 1-mediated homing of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells after transplantation. PMID:25486871

  3. A novel view of the adult bone marrow stem cell hierarchy and stem cell trafficking.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, M Z

    2015-04-01

    This review presents a novel view and working hypothesis about the hierarchy within the adult bone marrow stem cell compartment and the still-intriguing question of whether adult bone marrow contains primitive stem cells from early embryonic development, such as cells derived from the epiblast, migrating primordial germ cells or yolk sac-derived hemangioblasts. It also presents a novel view of the mechanisms that govern stem cell mobilization and homing, with special emphasis on the role of the complement cascade as a trigger for egress of hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow into blood as well as the emerging role of novel homing factors and priming mechanisms that support stromal-derived factor 1-mediated homing of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells after transplantation. PMID:25486871

  4. Epigenomic Reprogramming of Adult Cardiomyocyte-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Zhong, Jiang F; Qiu, Hongyu; MacLellan, W Robb; Marbán, Eduardo; Wang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    It has been believed that mammalian adult cardiomyocytes (ACMs) are terminally-differentiated and are unable to proliferate. Recently, using a bi-transgenic ACM fate mapping mouse model and an in vitro culture system, we demonstrated that adult mouse cardiomyocytes were able to dedifferentiate into cardiac progenitor-like cells (CPCs). However, little is known about the molecular basis of their intrinsic cellular plasticity. Here we integrate single-cell transcriptome and whole-genome DNA methylation analyses to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the dedifferentiation and cell cycle reentry of mouse ACMs. Compared to parental cardiomyocytes, dedifferentiated mouse cardiomyocyte-derived CPCs (mCPCs) display epigenomic reprogramming with many differentially-methylated regions, both hypermethylated and hypomethylated, across the entire genome. Correlated well with the methylome, our transcriptomic data showed that the genes encoding cardiac structure and function proteins are remarkably down-regulated in mCPCs, while those for cell cycle, proliferation, and stemness are significantly up-regulated. In addition, implantation of mCPCs into infarcted mouse myocardium improves cardiac function with augmented left ventricular ejection fraction. Our study demonstrates that the cellular plasticity of mammalian cardiomyocytes is the result of a well-orchestrated epigenomic reprogramming and a subsequent global transcriptomic alteration. PMID:26657817

  5. Epigenomic Reprogramming of Adult Cardiomyocyte-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Zhong, Jiang F; Qiu, Hongyu; Robb MacLellan, W.; Marbán, Eduardo; Wang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    It has been believed that mammalian adult cardiomyocytes (ACMs) are terminally-differentiated and are unable to proliferate. Recently, using a bi-transgenic ACM fate mapping mouse model and an in vitro culture system, we demonstrated that adult mouse cardiomyocytes were able to dedifferentiate into cardiac progenitor-like cells (CPCs). However, little is known about the molecular basis of their intrinsic cellular plasticity. Here we integrate single-cell transcriptome and whole-genome DNA methylation analyses to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the dedifferentiation and cell cycle reentry of mouse ACMs. Compared to parental cardiomyocytes, dedifferentiated mouse cardiomyocyte-derived CPCs (mCPCs) display epigenomic reprogramming with many differentially-methylated regions, both hypermethylated and hypomethylated, across the entire genome. Correlated well with the methylome, our transcriptomic data showed that the genes encoding cardiac structure and function proteins are remarkably down-regulated in mCPCs, while those for cell cycle, proliferation, and stemness are significantly up-regulated. In addition, implantation of mCPCs into infarcted mouse myocardium improves cardiac function with augmented left ventricular ejection fraction. Our study demonstrates that the cellular plasticity of mammalian cardiomyocytes is the result of a well-orchestrated epigenomic reprogramming and a subsequent global transcriptomic alteration. PMID:26657817

  6. Robust G2 pausing of adult stem cells in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Buzgariu, Wanda; Crescenzi, Marco; Galliot, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Hydra is a freshwater hydrozoan polyp that constantly renews its two tissue layers thanks to three distinct stem cell populations that cannot replace each other, epithelial ectodermal, epithelial endodermal, and multipotent interstitial. These adult stem cells, located in the central body column, exhibit different cycling paces, slow for the epithelial, fast for the interstitial. To monitor the changes in cell cycling in Hydra, we established a fast and efficient flow cytometry procedure, which we validated by confirming previous findings, as the Nocodazole-induced reversible arrest of cell cycling in G2/M, and the mitogenic signal provided by feeding. Then to dissect the cycling and differentiation behaviors of the interstitial stem cells, we used the AEP_cnnos1 and AEP_Icy1 transgenic lines that constitutively express GFP in this lineage. For the epithelial lineages we used the sf-1 strain that rapidly eliminates the fast cycling cells upon heat-shock and progressively becomes epithelial. This study evidences similar cycling patterns for the interstitial and epithelial stem cells, which all alternate between the G2 and S-phases traversing a minimal G1-phase. We also found interstitial progenitors with a shorter G2 that pause in G1/G0. At the animal extremities, most cells no longer cycle, the epithelial cells terminally differentiate in G2 and the interstitial progenitors in G1/G0. At the apical pole ~80% cells are post-mitotic differentiated cells, reflecting the higher density of neurons and nematocytes in this region. We discuss how the robust G2 pausing of stem cells, maintained over weeks of starvation, may contribute to regeneration. PMID:24703763

  7. YM155 suppresses cell proliferation and induces cell death in human adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ryousei; Ito, Shigeki; Asahi, Maki; Ishida, Yoji

    2015-12-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy of peripheral T cells infected with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The prognosis of patients with aggressive ATL remains poor because ATL cells acquire resistance to conventional cytotoxic agents. Therefore, development of novel agents is urgently needed. We examined the effects of YM155, sepantronium bromide, on cell proliferation and survival of ATL or HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, S1T, MT-1, and MT-2. We found that YM155 suppressed cell proliferation in these cells and induced cell death in S1T and MT-1 cells. Both real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses showed suppression of survivin expression in S1T, MT-1, and MT-2 cells. In addition, we observed the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in YM155-treated S1T and MT-1 cells, indicating that YM155 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in these cells. To clarify the mechanism of drug tolerance of MT-2 cells in terms of YM155-induced cell death, we examined intracellular signaling status in these cells. We found that STAT3, STAT5, and AKT were constitutively phosphorylated in MT-2 cells but not in S1T and MT-1 cells. Treatment with YM155 combined with the STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 significantly suppressed cell proliferation compared to that with either YM155 or S3I-201 in MT-2 cells, indicating that STAT3 may play a role in tolerance of MT-2 cells to YM155 and that STAT3 may therefore be a therapeutic target for YM155-resistant ATL cells. These results suggest that YM155 presents potent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects via suppression of survivin in ATL cells in which STAT3 is not constitutively phosphorylated. YM155 merits further investigation as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for ATL. PMID:26547260

  8. TRIM32-dependent transcription in adult neural progenitor cells regulates neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hillje, A-L; Pavlou, M A S; Beckmann, E; Worlitzer, M M A; Bahnassawy, L; Lewejohann, L; Palm, T; Schwamborn, J C

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells in the subventricular zone continuously generate new neurons for the olfactory bulb. Cell fate commitment in these adult neural stem cells is regulated by cell fate-determining proteins. Here, we show that the cell fate-determinant TRIM32 is upregulated during differentiation of adult neural stem cells into olfactory bulb neurons. We further demonstrate that TRIM32 is necessary for the correct induction of neuronal differentiation in these cells. In the absence of TRIM32, neuroblasts differentiate slower and show gene expression profiles that are characteristic of immature cells. Interestingly, TRIM32 deficiency induces more neural progenitor cell proliferation and less cell death. Both effects accumulate in an overproduction of adult-generated olfactory bulb neurons of TRIM32 knockout mice. These results highlight the function of the cell fate-determinant TRIM32 for a balanced activity of the adult neurogenesis process. PMID:24357807

  9. DNA Damage Response in Neonatal and Adult Stromal Cells Compared With Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liedtke, Stefanie; Biebernick, Sophie; Radke, Teja Falk; Stapelkamp, Daniela; Coenen, Carolin; Zaehres, Holm; Fritz, Gerhard; Kogler, Gesine

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive analyses comparing individual DNA damage response (DDR) of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with neonatal stromal cells with respect to their developmental age are limited. The imperative necessity of providing developmental age-matched cell sources for meaningful toxicological drug safety assessments in replacement of animal-based testing strategies is evident. Here, DDR after radiation or treatment with N-methyl-N-nitrosurea (MNU) was determined in iPSCs compared with neonatal and bone marrow stromal cells. Neonatal and adult stromal cells showed no significant morphologically detectable cytotoxicity following treatment with 1 Gy or 1 mM MNU, whereas iPSCs revealed a much higher sensitivity. Foci analyses revealed an effective DNA repair in stromal cell types and iPSCs, as reflected by a rapid formation and disappearance of phosphorylated ATM and γH2AX foci. Furthermore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed the highest basic expression level of DDR and repair-associated genes in iPSCs, followed by neonatal stromal cells and adult stromal cells with the lowest expression levels. In addition, the influence of genotoxic stress prior to and during osteogenic differentiation of neonatal and adult stromal cells was analyzed applying common differentiation procedures. Experiments presented here suggest a developmental age-dependent basic expression level of genes involved in the processing of DNA damage. In addition a differentiation-dependent downregulation of repair genes was observed during osteogenesis. These results strongly support the requirement to provide adequate cell sources for toxicological in vitro drug testing strategies that match to the developmental age and differentiation status of the presumptive target cell of interest. Significance The results obtained in this study advance the understanding of DNA damage processing in human neonatal stromal cells as compared with adult stromal cells and induced pluripotent

  10. Optimizing Management of Patients with Adult T Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Yared, Jean A.; Kimball, Amy S.

    2015-01-01

    Adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma is a rare disease with a high mortality rate, and is challenging for the clinician. Early allogeneic stem cell transplant can confer durable remission. As novel therapeutic agents become available to treat T cell malignancies, it is increasingly important that medical oncologists, hematologists, and hematopathologists recognize and accurately diagnose adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma. There is no uniform standard of treatment of adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma, and clinical trials remain critical to improving outcomes. Here we present one management approach based on the recent advances in treatment for adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma patients. PMID:26610571

  11. Survival of glucose phosphate isomerase null somatic cells and germ cells in adult mouse chimaeras.

    PubMed

    Keighren, Margaret A; Flockhart, Jean H; West, John D

    2016-01-01

    The mouse Gpi1 gene encodes the glycolytic enzyme glucose phosphate isomerase. Homozygous Gpi1(-/-) null mouse embryos die but a previous study showed that some homozygous Gpi1(-/-) null cells survived when combined with wild-type cells in fetal chimaeras. One adult female Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaera with functional Gpi1(-/-) null oocytes was also identified in a preliminary study. The aims were to characterise the survival of Gpi1(-/-) null cells in adult Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaeras and determine if Gpi1(-/-) null germ cells are functional. Analysis of adult Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaeras with pigment and a reiterated transgenic lineage marker showed that low numbers of homozygous Gpi1(-/-) null cells could survive in many tissues of adult chimaeras, including oocytes. Breeding experiments confirmed that Gpi1(-/-) null oocytes in one female Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaera were functional and provided preliminary evidence that one male putative Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c) chimaera produced functional spermatozoa from homozygous Gpi1(-/-) null germ cells. Although the male chimaera was almost certainly Gpi1(-/-)↔Gpi1(c/c), this part of the study is considered preliminary because only blood was typed for GPI. Gpi1(-/-) null germ cells should survive in a chimaeric testis if they are supported by wild-type Sertoli cells. It is also feasible that spermatozoa could bypass a block at GPI, but not blocks at some later steps in glycolysis, by using fructose, rather than glucose, as the substrate for glycolysis. Although chimaera analysis proved inefficient for studying the fate of Gpi1(-/-) null germ cells, it successfully identified functional Gpi1(-/-) null oocytes and revealed that some Gpi1(-/-) null cells could survive in many adult tissues. PMID:27103217

  12. Simultaneous characterization of progenitor cell compartments in adult human liver.

    PubMed

    Porretti, Laura; Cattaneo, Alessandra; Colombo, Federico; Lopa, Raffaella; Rossi, Giorgio; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Battiston, Carlo; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Bertolini, Francesco; Rebulla, Paolo; Prati, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The human liver is a complex tissue consisting of epithelial, endothelial, hematopoietic, and mesenchymal elements that probably derive from multiple lineage-committed progenitors, but no comprehensive study aimed at identifying and characterizing intrahepatic precursors has yet been published. Cell suspensions for this study were obtained by enzymatic digestion of liver specimens taken from 20 patients with chronic liver disease and 13 multiorgan donors. Stem and progenitor cells were first isolated, amplified, and characterized ex vivo according to previously validated methods, and then optimized flow cytometry was used to assess their relative frequencies and characterize their immunophenotypes in the clinical specimens. Stem and progenitor cells committed to hematopoietic, endothelial, epithelial, and mesenchymal lineages were clearly identifiable in livers from both healthy and diseased subjects. Within the mononuclear liver cell compartment, epithelial progenitors [epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)(+)/CD49f(+)/CD29(+)/CD45(-)] accounted for 2.7-3.5% whereas hematopoietic (CD34(+)/CD45(+)), endothelial [vascular endothelial growth factor-2 (KDR)(+)/CD146(+)/CD45(-)], and mesenchymal [CD73(+)/CD105(+)/CD90 (Thy-1)(+)/CD45 (-)] stem cells and progenitors accounted for smaller fractions (0.02-0.6%). The patients' livers had higher percentages of hematopoietic and endothelial precursors than those of the donors. In conclusion, we identified and characterized precursors committed to four different lineages in adult human liver. We also optimized a flow cytometry approach that will be useful in exploring the contribution of these cells to the pathogenesis of liver disease. PMID:19960544

  13. Molecular Diversity Subdivides the Adult Forebrain Neural Stem Cell Population

    PubMed Central

    Giachino, Claudio; Basak, Onur; Lugert, Sebastian; Knuckles, Philip; Obernier, Kirsten; Fiorelli, Roberto; Frank, Stephan; Raineteau, Olivier; Alvarez–Buylla, Arturo; Taylor, Verdon

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the ventricular domain of the subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of rodents produce neurons throughout life while those in humans become largely inactive or may be lost during infancy. Most adult NSCs are quiescent, express glial markers, and depend on Notch signaling for their self-renewal and the generation of neurons. Using genetic markers and lineage tracing, we identified subpopulations of adult V-SVZ NSCs (type 1, 2, and 3) indicating a striking heterogeneity including activated, brain lipid binding protein (BLBP, FABP7) expressing stem cells. BLBP+ NSCs are mitotically active components of pinwheel structures in the lateral ventricle walls and persistently generate neurons in adulthood. BLBP+ NSCs express epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, proliferate in response to EGF, and are a major clonogenic population in the SVZ. We also find BLBP expressed by proliferative ventricular and sub-ventricular progenitors in the fetal and postnatal human brain. Loss of BLBP+ stem/progenitor cells correlates with reduced neurogenesis in aging rodents and postnatal humans. These findings of molecular heterogeneity and proliferative differences subdivide the NSC population and have implications for neurogenesis in the forebrain of mammals during aging. PMID:23964022

  14. Sustained Arc expression in adult-generated granule cells.

    PubMed

    Meconi, Alicia; Lui, Erika; Marrone, Diano F

    2015-08-31

    The dentate gyrus (DG) plays a critical role in memory formation and maintenance. Fitting this specialized role, the DG has many unique characteristics. In addition to being one of the few places in which new neurons are continually added in adulthood, the region also shows a unique long-term sustained transcriptional response of the immediate-early gene Arc to sensory input. Although we know that adult-generated granule cells are reliably recruited into behaviorally-driven neuronal network, it remains unknown whether they display robust late-phase sustained transcription in response to activity like their developmentally-generated counterparts. Since this late-phase of transcription is required for enduring plasticity, knowing if sustained transcription appears as soon as these cells are incorporated provides information on their potential for plasticity. To address this question, adult F344 rats were injected with BrdU (50mg/kg/day for 5 days) and 4 weeks later explored a novel environment. Arc expression in both BrdU- and BrdU+ neurons was determined 0.5h, 1h, 2h, 6h, 8h, 12h, or 24h following this behavior. Recently-generated granule cells showed a robust sustained Arc expression following a discrete behavioral experience. These data provide information on a potential mechanism to sculpt the representations of events occurring within hours of each other to create uncorrelated representations of episodes despite a highly excitable population of neurons. PMID:26219984

  15. Adult human adipose tissue contains several types of multipotent cells.

    PubMed

    Tallone, Tiziano; Realini, Claudio; Böhmler, Andreas; Kornfeld, Christopher; Vassalli, Giuseppe; Moccetti, Tiziano; Bardelli, Silvana; Soldati, Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cells that can be easily isolated from various tissues and expanded in vitro. Many reports on their pluripotency and possible clinical applications have raised hopes and interest in MSCs. In an attempt to unify the terminology and the criteria to label a cell as MSC, in 2006 the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) proposed a standard set of rules to define the identity of these cells. However, MSCs are still extracted from different tissues, by diverse isolation protocols, are cultured and expanded in different media and conditions. All these variables may have profound effects on the selection of cell types and the composition of heterogeneous subpopulations, on the selective expansion of specific cell populations with totally different potentials and ergo, on the long-term fate of the cells upon in vitro culture. Therefore, specific molecular and cellular markers that identify MSCs subsets as well as standardization of expansion protocols for these cells are urgently needed. Here, we briefly discuss new useful markers and recent data supporting the rapidly emerging concept that many different types of progenitor cells are found in close association with blood vessels. This knowledge may promote the necessary technical improvements required to reduce variability and promote higher efficacy and safety when isolating and expanding these cells for therapeutic use. In the light of the discussed data, particularly the identification of new markers, and advances in the understanding of fundamental MSC biology, we also suggest a revision of the 2006 ISCT criteria. PMID:21327755

  16. S-adenosylmethionine levels regulate the schwann cell DNA methylome.

    PubMed

    Varela-Rey, Marta; Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta; Lozano, Juan José; Aransay, Ana María; Fernandez, Agustín F; Lavin, José Luis; Mósen-Ansorena, David; Berdasco, María; Turmaine, Marc; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; Lu, Shelly C; Esteller, Manel; Mirsky, Rhona; Jessen, Kristján R; Fraga, Mario F; Martínez-Chantar, María L; Mato, José M; Woodhoo, Ashwin

    2014-03-01

    Axonal myelination is essential for rapid saltatory impulse conduction in the nervous system, and malformation or destruction of myelin sheaths leads to motor and sensory disabilities. DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification during mammalian development, yet its role in myelination remains obscure. Here, using high-resolution methylome maps, we show that DNA methylation could play a key gene regulatory role in peripheral nerve myelination and that S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor in cytosine methylation, regulates the methylome dynamics during this process. Our studies also point to a possible role of SAMe in establishing the aberrant DNA methylation patterns in a mouse model of diabetic neuropathy, implicating SAMe in the pathogenesis of this disease. These critical observations establish a link between SAMe and DNA methylation status in a defined biological system, providing a mechanism that could direct methylation changes during cellular differentiation and in diverse pathological situations. PMID:24607226

  17. S-adenosylmethionine levels regulate the Schwann cell DNA methylome

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Rey, Marta; Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta; Lozano, Juan José; Aransay, Ana María; Fernandez, Agustín F.; Lavin, José Luis; Mósen-Ansorena, David; Berdasco, María; Turmaine, Marc; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; Lu, Shelly C.; Esteller, Manel; Mirsky, Rhona; Jessen, Kristján R.; Fraga, Mario F.; Martínez-Chantar, María L.; Mato, José M.; Woodhoo, Ashwin

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Axonal myelination is essential for rapid saltatory impulse conduction in the nervous system, and malformation or destruction of myelin sheaths leads to motor and sensory disabilities. DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification during mammalian development, yet its role in myelination remains obscure. Here, using high-resolution methylome maps, we show that DNA methylation could play a key gene regulatory role in peripheral nerve myelination and that S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor in cytosine methylation, regulates the methylome dynamics during this process. Our studies also point to a possible role of SAMe in establishing the aberrant DNA methylation patterns in a mouse model of diabetic neuropathy, implicating SAMe in the pathogenesis of this disease. These critical observations establish a link between SAMe and DNA methylation status in a defined biological system, and provides a novel mechanism that could direct methylation changes during cellular differentiation and in diverse pathological situations. PMID:24607226

  18. Characterization of TLX Expression in Neural Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells in Adult Brains

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengxiu; Sun, Guoqiang; Murai, Kiyohito; Ye, Peng; Shi, Yanhong

    2012-01-01

    TLX has been shown to play an important role in regulating the self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cells in adult brains. However, the cellular distribution of endogenous TLX protein in adult brains remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used immunostaining with a TLX-specific antibody to show that TLX is expressed in both neural stem cells and transit-amplifying neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mouse brains. Then, using a double thymidine analog labeling approach, we showed that almost all of the self-renewing neural stem cells expressed TLX. Interestingly, most of the TLX-positive cells in the SVZ represented the thymidine analog-negative, relatively quiescent neural stem cell population. Using cell type markers and short-term BrdU labeling, we demonstrated that TLX was also expressed in the Mash1+ rapidly dividing type C cells. Furthermore, loss of TLX expression dramatically reduced BrdU label-retaining neural stem cells and the actively dividing neural progenitor cells in the SVZ, but substantially increased GFAP staining and extended GFAP processes. These results suggest that TLX is essential to maintain the self-renewing neural stem cells in the SVZ and that the GFAP+ cells in the SVZ lose neural stem cell property upon loss of TLX expression.Understanding the cellular distribution of TLX and its function in specific cell types may provide insights into the development of therapeutic tools for neurodegenerative diseases by targeting TLX in neural stem/progenitors cells. PMID:22952666

  19. Are neonatal stem cells as effective as adult stem cells in providing ischemic protection?

    PubMed Central

    Markel, Troy A.; Crisostomo, Paul R.; Manukyan, Maiuxi C.; Al-Azzawi, Dalia; Herring, Christine M.; Lahm, Tim; Novotny, Nathan M.; Meldrum, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) may be a novel treatment modality for organ ischemia, possibly through beneficial paracrine mechanisms. However, stem cells from older hosts exhibit decreased function during stress. We therefore hypothesized that: 1) BMSCs derived from neonatal hosts would provide protection to ischemic myocardium; and 2) neonatal stem cells would enhance post-ischemic myocardial recovery above that seen with adult stem cell therapy. Materials and Methods Female adult Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were subjected to an ischemia/reperfusion protocol via Langendorff isolated heart preparation (15 minutes equilibration, 25 minutes ischemia, and 60 minutes reperfusion). BMSCs were harvested from adult and neonatal mice and cultured through several passages under normal conditions (37 C, 5% CO2/air). Immediately prior to ischemia, one million adult or neonatal BMSCs were infused into the coronary circulation. Cardiac functional parameters were continuously recorded. Results Pretreatment with adult BMSCs significantly increased post-ischemic myocardial recovery as noted by improved left ventricular developed pressure, end diastolic pressure, contractility, and rate of relaxation. Neonatal stem cells, however, did not cause any noticeable improvement in myocardial functional parameters following ischemia. Conclusion Neonatal and adult BMSCs are distinctly different in the degree of beneficial tissue protection that they can provide. The data herein suggests that a critical age exists as to when stem cells become fully activated to provide their beneficial protective properties. Defining the genes that initiate these protective properties may allow for genetic amplification of beneficial signals, and the generation of “super stem cells” that provide maximum protection to ischemic tissues. PMID:18805555

  20. Cytogenesis in the adult monkey motor cortex: Perivascular NG2 cells are the major adult born cell type

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Gregory B; Kohler, Shawn J; Boklweski, Jennifer; Cameron, Judy L; Greenough, William T

    2015-01-01

    We used confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to look for new cells in the motor cortex of adult macaque monkeys that might form the cellular bases of improved brain function from exercise. Twenty-four female Macaca fascicularis monkeys divided into groups by age (10–12 years, 15–17 years), postexercise survival periods, and controls, received 10 weekly injections of the thymidine analog, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to mark new cells. Sixteen monkeys survived 15 weeks (5 weeks postexercise) and 8 monkeys survived 27 weeks (12 weeks postexercise) after initial BrdU injections. Additionally, five Macaca mulatta female monkeys (∼5.5–7 years) received single injections of BrdU and survived 2 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks after BrdU injections. Neural and glial antibodies were used to identify new cell phenotypes and to look for changes in proportions of these cells with respect to time and experimental conditions. No BrdU+/DCx+ cells were found but about 7.5% of new cells were calretinin-positive (Cr+). BrdU+/GABA+ (gamma-aminobutyric acid) cells were also found but no new Cr+ or GABA+ cells colabeled with a mature neuron marker, NeuN or chondroitin sulfate antibody, NG2. The proportion of new cells that were NG2+ was about 85% for short and long survival monkeys of which two, newly described perivascular phenotypes (Pldv and Elu) and a small percentage of pericytes (2.5%) comprised 44% and 51% of the new NG2+ cells, respectively. Proportions of NG2+ phenotypes were affected by post-BrdU survival periods, monkey age, and possibly a postexercise sedentary period but no direct effect of exercise was found. PMID:25308320

  1. Cultured dermal papilla cells induce follicle formation and hair growth by transdifferentiation of an adult epidermis.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, A J; Jahoda, C A

    1992-06-01

    Adult rat pelage follicle dermal papilla cells induced follicle neogenesis and external hair growth when associated with adult footpad skin epidermis. They thus demonstrated a capacity to completely change the structural arrangement and gene expression of adult epidermis--an ability previously undocumented for cultured adult cells. Isolation chambers ensured that de novo follicle formation must have occurred by eliminating the possibility of cellular contributions, and/or inductive influences, from local skin follicles. These findings argue against previous suggestions of vibrissa follicle specificity, and imply that the potential for hair follicle induction may be common to all adult papilla cells. PMID:1425341

  2. Late adult onset of Langerhans cell histiocytosis mimicking glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Perren, F; Fankhauser, L; Thiévent, B; Pache, J-C; Delavelle, J; Rochat, T; Landis, T; Chizzolini, C

    2011-02-15

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with multiple organ involvement is a rare disorder in adults. Extrapituitary involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is uncommon. We report the unusual case of a 55-year-old woman presenting with a left-sided hemiataxia-hemiparesis, left hemisensory loss and short-lasting episodes of an alien left hand due to lesions of the internal capsule and the right thalamus, extending into the mesencephalon associated with extensive surrounding edema, without pituitary involvement. The neuroradiological image suggested glioblastoma multiforme. Brain biopsy revealed inflammatory tissue and "pseudotumoral" multiple sclerosis was suspected. Biopsy of concomitant lung and bone lesions disclosed Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The treatment with pulsed steroids in association with mycophenolate mofetil led to a sustained, clinical neurological remission. PMID:21131007

  3. Adult somatic stem cells in the human parasite, Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James J.; Wang, Bo; Lambrus, Bramwell G.; Tharp, Marla; Iyer, Harini; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent human parasitic diseases, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide1. The etiological agents of this disease are trematode flatworms (Schistosoma) that live and lay eggs within the vasculature of the host. These eggs lodge in host tissues, causing inflammatory responses that are the primary cause of morbidity. Because these parasites can live and reproduce within human hosts for decades2, elucidating the mechanisms that promote their longevity is of fundamental importance. Although adult pluripotent stem cells, called neoblasts, drive long-term homeostatic tissue maintenance in long-lived free-living flatworms3,4 (e.g., planarians), and neoblast-like cells have been described in some parasitic tapeworms5, little is known about whether similar cell types exist in any trematode species. Here, we describe a population of neoblast-like cells in the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. These cells resemble planarian neoblasts morphologically and share their ability to proliferate and differentiate into derivatives of multiple germ layers. Capitalizing on available genomic resources6,7 and RNAseq-based gene expression profiling, we find that these schistosome neoblast-like cells express a fibroblast growth factor receptor ortholog. Using RNA interference we demonstrate that this gene is required for the maintenance of these neoblast-like cells. Our observations suggest that adaptation of developmental strategies shared by free-living ancestors to modern-day schistosomes likely contributed to the success of these animals as long-lived obligate parasites. We expect that future studies deciphering the function of these neoblast-like cells will have important implications for understanding the biology of these devastating parasites. PMID:23426263

  4. Regenerative capacity of adult cortical thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rode, Immanuel; Boehm, Thomas

    2012-02-28

    Involution of the thymus is accompanied by a decline in the number of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) and a severely restricted peripheral repertoire of T-cell specificities. TECs are essential for T-cell differentiation; they originate from a bipotent progenitor that gives rise to cells of cortical (cTEC) and medullary (mTEC) phenotypes, via compartment-specific progenitors. Upon acute selective near-total ablation during embryogenesis, regeneration of TECs fails, suggesting that losses from the pool of TEC progenitors are not compensated. However, it is unclear whether this is also true for the compartment-specific progenitors. The decline of cTECs is a prominent feature of thymic involution. Because cTECs support early stages of T-cell development and hence determine the overall lymphopoietic capacity of the thymus, it is possible that the lack of sustained regenerative capacity of cTEC progenitor cells underlies the process of thymic involution. Here, we examine this hypothesis by cell-type-specific conditional ablation of cTECs. Expression of the human diphtheria toxin receptor (hDTR) gene under the regulatory influence of the chemokine receptor Ccx-ckr1 gene renders cTECs sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of diphtheria toxin (DT). As expected, DT treatment of preadolescent and adult mice led to a dramatic loss of cTECs, accompanied by a rapid demise of immature thymocytes. Unexpectedly, however, the cTEC compartment regenerated after cessation of treatment, accompanied by the restoration of T-cell development. These findings provide the basis for the development of targeted interventions unlocking the latent regenerative potential of cTECs to counter thymic involution. PMID:22331880

  5. Ex vivo Expansion of Human Adult Pancreatic Cells with Properties of Distributed Stem Cells by Suppression of Asymmetric Cell Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Paré, JF; Sherley, JL

    2013-01-01

    Transplantation therapy for type I diabetes (T1D) might be improved if pancreatic stem cells were readily available for investigation. Unlike macroscopic islets, pancreatic tissue stem cells could more easily access the retroperitoneal pancreatic environment and thereby might achieve more effective pancreatic regeneration. Unfortunately, whether the adult pancreas actually contains renewing stem cells continues as a controversial issue in diabetes research. We evaluated a new method developed in our lab for expanding renewing distributed stem cells (DSCs) from adult tissues as a means to provide more evidence for adult pancreatic stem cells, and potentially advance their availability for future clinical investigation. The new method was designed to switch DSCs from asymmetric self-renewal to symmetric self-renewal, which promotes their exponential expansion in culture with reduced production of differentiated cells. Called suppression of asymmetric cell kinetics (SACK), the method uses natural purine metabolites to accomplish the self-renewal pattern shift. The SACK purine metabolites xanthine, xanthosine, and hypoxanthine were evaluated for promoting expansion of DSCs from the pancreas of adult human postmortem donors. Xanthine and xanthosine were effective for deriving both pooled and clonal populations of cells with properties indicative of human pancreatic DSCs. The expanded human cell strains had signature SACK agent-suppressible asymmetric cell kinetics, produced Ngn3+ bipotent precursors for α-cells and β-cells, and were non-tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice. Our findings support the existence of pancreatic DSCs in the adult human pancreas and indicate a potential path to increasing their availability for future clinical evaluation. PMID:25197614

  6. Multipotent adult progenitor cells on an allograft scaffold facilitate the bone repair process

    PubMed Central

    LoGuidice, Amanda; Houlihan, Alison; Deans, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a recently described population of stem cells derived from the bone marrow stroma. Research has demonstrated the potential of multipotent adult progenitor cells for treating ischemic injury and cardiovascular repair; however, understanding of multipotent adult progenitor cells in orthopedic applications remains limited. In this study, we evaluate the osteogenic and angiogenic capacity of multipotent adult progenitor cells, both in vitro and loaded onto demineralized bone matrix in vivo, with comparison to mesenchymal stem cells, as the current standard. When compared to mesenchymal stem cells, multipotent adult progenitor cells exhibited a more robust angiogenic protein release profile in vitro and developed more extensive vasculature within 2 weeks in vivo. The establishment of this vascular network is critical to the ossification process, as it allows nutrient exchange and provides an influx of osteoprogenitor cells to the wound site. In vitro assays confirmed the multipotency of multipotent adult progenitor cells along mesodermal lineages and demonstrated the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase and production of calcium-containing mineral deposits by multipotent adult progenitor cells, necessary precursors for osteogenesis. In combination with a demineralized bone matrix scaffold, multipotent adult progenitor cells demonstrated enhanced revascularization and new bone formation in vivo in an orthotopic defect model when compared to mesenchymal stem cells on demineralized bone matrix or demineralized bone matrix–only control groups. The potent combination of angiogenic and osteogenic properties provided by multipotent adult progenitor cells appears to create a synergistic amplification of the bone healing process. Our results indicate that multipotent adult progenitor cells have the potential to better promote tissue regeneration and healing and to be a functional cell source for use in orthopedic applications

  7. Multipotent adult progenitor cells on an allograft scaffold facilitate the bone repair process.

    PubMed

    LoGuidice, Amanda; Houlihan, Alison; Deans, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a recently described population of stem cells derived from the bone marrow stroma. Research has demonstrated the potential of multipotent adult progenitor cells for treating ischemic injury and cardiovascular repair; however, understanding of multipotent adult progenitor cells in orthopedic applications remains limited. In this study, we evaluate the osteogenic and angiogenic capacity of multipotent adult progenitor cells, both in vitro and loaded onto demineralized bone matrix in vivo, with comparison to mesenchymal stem cells, as the current standard. When compared to mesenchymal stem cells, multipotent adult progenitor cells exhibited a more robust angiogenic protein release profile in vitro and developed more extensive vasculature within 2 weeks in vivo. The establishment of this vascular network is critical to the ossification process, as it allows nutrient exchange and provides an influx of osteoprogenitor cells to the wound site. In vitro assays confirmed the multipotency of multipotent adult progenitor cells along mesodermal lineages and demonstrated the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase and production of calcium-containing mineral deposits by multipotent adult progenitor cells, necessary precursors for osteogenesis. In combination with a demineralized bone matrix scaffold, multipotent adult progenitor cells demonstrated enhanced revascularization and new bone formation in vivo in an orthotopic defect model when compared to mesenchymal stem cells on demineralized bone matrix or demineralized bone matrix-only control groups. The potent combination of angiogenic and osteogenic properties provided by multipotent adult progenitor cells appears to create a synergistic amplification of the bone healing process. Our results indicate that multipotent adult progenitor cells have the potential to better promote tissue regeneration and healing and to be a functional cell source for use in orthopedic applications. PMID

  8. Pluripotency of adult stem cells derived from human and rat pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, C.; Birth, M.; Rohwedel, J.; Assmuth, K.; Goepel, A.; Wedel, T.

    Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found within fully developed tissues or organs of an adult individuum. Until recently, these cells have been considered to bear less self-renewal ability and differentiation potency compared to embryonic stem cells. In recent studies an undifferentiated cell type was found in primary cultures of isolated acini from exocrine pancreas termed pancreatic stellate cells. Here we show that pancreatic stellate-like cells have the capacity of extended self-renewal and are able to differentiate spontaneously into cell types of all three germ layers expressing markers for smooth muscle cells, neurons, glial cells, epithelial cells, chondrocytes and secretory cells (insulin, amylase). Differentiation and subsequent formation of three-dimensional cellular aggregates (organoid bodies) were induced by merely culturing pancreatic stellate-like cells in hanging drops. These cells were developed into stable, long-term, in vitro cultures of both primary undifferentiated cell lines as well as organoid cultures. Thus, evidence is given that cell lineages of endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal origin arise spontaneously from a single adult undifferentiated cell type. Based on the present findings it is assumed that pancreatic stellate-like cells are a new class of lineage uncommitted pluripotent adult stem cells with a remarkable self-renewal ability and differentiation potency. The data emphasize the versatility of adult stem cells and may lead to a reappraisal of their use for the treatment of inherited disorders or acquired degenerative diseases.

  9. Adult bone marrow: which stem cells for cellular therapy protocols in neurodegenerative disorders?

    PubMed

    Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Laudet, Emerence; Neirinckx, Virginie; Rogister, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crests (NCSCs) might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this paper, we will review all information available concerning NCSC from adult tissues and their possible use in regenerative medicine. Moreover, as multiple recent studies showed the beneficial effect of bone marrow stromal cells in neurodegenerative diseases, we will discuss which stem cells isolated from adult bone marrow should be more suitable for cell replacement therapy. PMID:22319243

  10. Adult Bone Marrow: Which Stem Cells for Cellular Therapy Protocols in Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Laudet, Emerence; Neirinckx, Virginie; Rogister, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The generation of neuronal cells from stem cells obtained from adult bone marrow is of significant clinical interest in order to design new cell therapy protocols for several neurological disorders. The recent identification in adult bone marrow of stem cells derived from the neural crests (NCSCs) might explain the neuronal phenotypic plasticity shown by bone marrow cells. However, little information is available about the nature of these cells compared to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this paper, we will review all information available concerning NCSC from adult tissues and their possible use in regenerative medicine. Moreover, as multiple recent studies showed the beneficial effect of bone marrow stromal cells in neurodegenerative diseases, we will discuss which stem cells isolated from adult bone marrow should be more suitable for cell replacement therapy. PMID:22319243

  11. Surgical and Obstetric Outcomes in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Soheir; Jonassaint, Jude; Kruger, Hillary; Kail, Melanie; Orringer, Eugene P.; Eckman, James R.; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Telen, Marilyn J.; De Castro, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sickle cell disease patients are more likely than the general population to undergo surgery and usually do so at a younger age. Female sickle cell disease patients also have special gynecological and obstetric issues related to their disease. METHODS We collected data through standardized clinical report forms, patient interviews, and medical records from 509 adult sickle cell disease patients. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between multiple variables and each of the surgery types. We also determined the prevalence and outcomes of pregnancy in 284 women with sickle cell disease in this population. RESULTS Almost 50% of patients aged 18–27 years had had a cholecystectomy. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly higher in the postcholecystectomy group; 9.5% of 504 individuals had undergone splenectomy. Hematocrit, body mass index, and red blood cell count were significantly higher in the postsplenectomy group. Hip replacement had been performed in 9.2% of individuals, with the prevalence increasing as early as the fourth decade and continuing to increase through the sixth decade of life. A history of pregnancy was present in 190 women (67%). Of 410 pregnancies, only 53.9% resulted in live births, 16.6% were voluntarily terminated, and 29.5% were complicated by miscarriage, still birth, or ectopic implantation. CONCLUSIONS Sickle cell disease continues to have a strong effect on the mean age for common surgeries and impacts pregnancy outcomes. We conclude that this population has a unique surgical and obstetric history that should be further studied to provide insight into potentially more effective preventive approaches to end-organ damage. PMID:18823864

  12. Cells from the adult corneal stroma can be reprogrammed to a neuron-like cell using exogenous growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Carol Ann Chang, Chuan-Yuan; Fraser, Cameron J.; Nelidova, Dasha E.; Chen, Jing A.; Lim, Angela; Brebner, Alex; McGhee, Jennifer; Sherwin, Trevor; Green, Colin R.

    2014-03-10

    Cells thought to be stem cells isolated from the cornea of the eye have been shown to exhibit neurogenic potential. We set out to uncover the identity and location of these cells within the cornea and to elucidate their neuronal protein and gene expression profile during the process of switching to a neuron-like cell. Here we report that every cell of the adult human and rat corneal stroma is capable of differentiating into a neuron-like cell when treated with neurogenic differentiation specifying growth factors. Furthermore, the expression of genes regulating neurogenesis and mature neuronal structure and function was increased. The switch from a corneal stromal cell to a neuron-like cell was also shown to occur in vivo in intact corneas of living rats. Our results clearly indicate that lineage specifying growth factors can affect changes in the protein and gene expression profiles of adult cells, suggesting that possibly many adult cell populations can be made to switch into another type of mature cell by simply modifying the growth factor environment. - Highlights: • Adult corneal stromal cells can differentiated into neuron-like cells. • Neuronal specification of the adult stromal cell population is stochastic. • Neuronal specification in an adult cell population can be brought about by growth factors.

  13. Expression and localization of Ski determine cell type–specific TGFβ signaling effects on the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Claire; Grabner, Henrik; Atanasoski, Suzana; Suter, Ueli

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) promotes epithelial cell differentiation but induces Schwann cell proliferation. We show that the protooncogene Ski (Sloan-Kettering viral oncogene homologue) is an important regulator of these effects. TGFβ down-regulates Ski in epithelial cells but not in Schwann cells. In Schwann cells but not in epithelial cells, retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is up-regulated by TGFβ. Additionally, both Ski and Rb move to the cytoplasm, where they partially colocalize. In vivo, Ski and phospho-Rb (pRb) appear to interact in the Schwann cell cytoplasm of developing sciatic nerves. Ski overexpression induces Rb hyperphosphorylation, proliferation, and colocalization of both proteins in Schwann cell and epithelial cell cytoplasms independently of TGFβ treatment. Conversely, Ski knockdown in Schwann cells blocks TGFβ-induced proliferation and pRb cytoplasmic relocalization. Our findings reveal a critical function of fine-tuned Ski levels in the control of TGFβ effects on the cell cycle and suggest that at least a part of Ski regulatory effects on TGFβ-induced proliferation of Schwann cells is caused by its concerted action with Rb. PMID:18695043

  14. Conversion of adult pancreatic alpha-cells to beta-cells after extreme beta-cell loss.

    PubMed

    Thorel, Fabrizio; Népote, Virginie; Avril, Isabelle; Kohno, Kenji; Desgraz, Renaud; Chera, Simona; Herrera, Pedro L

    2010-04-22

    Pancreatic insulin-producing beta-cells have a long lifespan, such that in healthy conditions they replicate little during a lifetime. Nevertheless, they show increased self-duplication after increased metabolic demand or after injury (that is, beta-cell loss). It is not known whether adult mammals can differentiate (regenerate) new beta-cells after extreme, total beta-cell loss, as in diabetes. This would indicate differentiation from precursors or another heterologous (non-beta-cell) source. Here we show beta-cell regeneration in a transgenic model of diphtheria-toxin-induced acute selective near-total beta-cell ablation. If given insulin, the mice survived and showed beta-cell mass augmentation with time. Lineage-tracing to label the glucagon-producing alpha-cells before beta-cell ablation tracked large fractions of regenerated beta-cells as deriving from alpha-cells, revealing a previously disregarded degree of pancreatic cell plasticity. Such inter-endocrine spontaneous adult cell conv