Science.gov

Sample records for adult sea bass

  1. 50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) From January 1 through February 28, no person shall possess more than 15 black sea bass in, or harvested from, the...

  2. 50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial quota, recreational landing limit, research set-aside, and other specification measures. The Black Sea Bass...

  3. 50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial quota, recreational landing limit, research set-aside, and other specification measures. The Black Sea Bass...

  4. 50 CFR 648.142 - Black sea bass specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass specifications. 648.142... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Black sea bass specifications. (a) Commercial quota, recreational landing limit, research set-aside, and other specification measures. The Black Sea Bass...

  5. 50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) During the recreational fishing season specified at § 648.146, no person shall possess more than 15 black sea bass in,...

  6. 50 CFR 648.145 - Black sea bass possession limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass possession limit. 648.145... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.145 Black sea bass possession limit. (a) During the recreational fishing season specified at § 648.146, no person shall possess more than 20 black sea bass in,...

  7. 50 CFR 648.144 - Black sea bass gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.144 Black sea bass gear restrictions. (a) Trawl gear restrictions—(1) General. (i) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a black sea bass moratorium permit and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass gear restrictions....

  8. 75 FR 59154 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule Extension... Federal Register a temporary rule to extend the emergency action to increase the 2010 black sea bass... recreational harvest limit (RHL) based on the increased 2010 black sea bass total allowable landings...

  9. 75 FR 38935 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Emergency Rule... emergency action to increase the 2010 black sea bass specifications (i.e., commercial fishing quota... year. Extending the increase to the 2010 black sea bass total allowable landings (TAL) will...

  10. Offshore Habitat Preference of Overwintering Juvenile and Adult Black Sea Bass, Centropristis striata, and the Relationship to Year-Class Success

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Alicia S.; Shepherd, Gary R.; Fratantoni, Paula S.

    2016-01-01

    Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) migrations are believed to play a role in overwinter survival and connectivity between juvenile and adult populations. This study investigated oceanographic drivers of winter habitat choice and regional differences between populations of juvenile and adult black sea bass. Trends in cohort strength, as a result of juvenile survival, were also identified. Oceanographic and fisheries survey data were analyzed using generalized additive models. Among the oceanographic variables investigated, salinity was the main driver in habitat selection with an optimal range of 33–35 practical salinity units (PSU) for both juveniles and adults. Preferred temperature ranges varied between juveniles and adults, but held a similar minimum preference of >8°C. Salinity and temperature ranges also differed by regions north and south of Hudson Canyon. Shelf water volume had less of an effect than temperature or salinity, but showed an overall negative relationship with survey catch. The effect of winter conditions on juvenile abundance was also observed across state and federal survey index trends. A lack of correlation observed among surveys in the fall paired with a strong correlation in the spring identifies the winter period as a factor determining year-class strength of new recruits to the population. A rank order analysis of spring indices identified three of the largest year classes occurring during years with reduced shelf water volumes, warmer winter shelf waters, and a 34 PSU isohaline aligned farther inshore. While greater catches of black sea bass in the northwest Atlantic Ocean remain south of Hudson Canyon, the species’ range has expanded north in recent years. PMID:26824350

  11. Offshore Habitat Preference of Overwintering Juvenile and Adult Black Sea Bass, Centropristis striata, and the Relationship to Year-Class Success.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alicia S; Shepherd, Gary R; Fratantoni, Paula S

    2016-01-01

    Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) migrations are believed to play a role in overwinter survival and connectivity between juvenile and adult populations. This study investigated oceanographic drivers of winter habitat choice and regional differences between populations of juvenile and adult black sea bass. Trends in cohort strength, as a result of juvenile survival, were also identified. Oceanographic and fisheries survey data were analyzed using generalized additive models. Among the oceanographic variables investigated, salinity was the main driver in habitat selection with an optimal range of 33-35 practical salinity units (PSU) for both juveniles and adults. Preferred temperature ranges varied between juveniles and adults, but held a similar minimum preference of >8°C. Salinity and temperature ranges also differed by regions north and south of Hudson Canyon. Shelf water volume had less of an effect than temperature or salinity, but showed an overall negative relationship with survey catch. The effect of winter conditions on juvenile abundance was also observed across state and federal survey index trends. A lack of correlation observed among surveys in the fall paired with a strong correlation in the spring identifies the winter period as a factor determining year-class strength of new recruits to the population. A rank order analysis of spring indices identified three of the largest year classes occurring during years with reduced shelf water volumes, warmer winter shelf waters, and a 34 PSU isohaline aligned farther inshore. While greater catches of black sea bass in the northwest Atlantic Ocean remain south of Hudson Canyon, the species' range has expanded north in recent years.

  12. Vibrio lentus protects gnotobiotic sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae against challenge with Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Schaeck, M; Duchateau, L; Van den Broeck, W; Van Trappen, S; De Vos, P; Coulombet, C; Boon, N; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2016-03-15

    Due to the mounting awareness of the risks associated with the use of antibiotics in aquaculture, treatment with probiotics has recently emerged as the preferred environmental-friendly prophylactic approach in marine larviculture. However, the presence of unknown and variable microbiota in fish larvae makes it impossible to disentangle the efficacy of treatment with probiotics. In this respect, the recent development of a germ-free culture model for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae opened the door for more controlled studies on the use of probiotics. In the present study, 206 bacterial isolates, retrieved from sea bass larvae and adults, were screened in vitro for haemolytic activity, bile tolerance and antagonistic activity against six sea bass pathogens. Subsequently, the harmlessness and the protective effect of the putative probiotic candidates against the sea bass pathogen Vibrio harveyi were evaluated in vivo adopting the previously developed germ-free sea bass larval model. An equivalence trial clearly showed that no harmful effect on larval survival was elicited by all three selected probiotic candidates: Bacillus sp. LT3, Vibrio lentus and Vibrio proteolyticus. Survival of Vibrio harveyi challenged larvae treated with V. lentus was superior in comparison with the untreated challenged group, whereas this was not the case for the larvae supplemented with Bacillus sp. LT3 and V. proteolyticus. In this respect, our results unmistakably revealed the protective effect of V. lentus against vibriosis caused by V. harveyi in gnotobiotic sea bass larvae, rendering this study the first in its kind.

  13. Review on the immunology of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Hellemans, B; Volckaert, F A M

    2007-05-15

    European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) is a marine species of great economic importance, particularly in Mediterranean aquaculture. However, numerous pathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites affect the species, causing various infectious diseases and thereby leading to the most heavy losses in aquaculture production of sea bass. In this respect, knowledge on molecular and genetic mechanisms of resistance to pathogens and specific features of immune response against various infectious agents should greatly benefit the development of effective vaccines and proper vaccination strategies in marker-assisted selection of fish resistant to a range of infections. To date, genetic knowledge on sea bass immune regulatory genes responsible for resistance to pathogens is relatively poor but tends to accumulate rapidly. In this review, we summarize and update current knowledge on the immune system and immune regulatory genes of the sea bass.

  14. 75 FR 6586 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... fax to the attention of the Sustainable Fisheries Division. Include ``Comments on 2010 Black Sea Bass... remaining 3,589,000 lb (1,628 mt) is divided 49 percent for the revised commercial fishery quota and...

  15. 77 FR 76942 - 2013-2014 Summer Flounder and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... and Scup Specifications; 2013 Black Sea Bass Specifications; Preliminary 2013 Quota Adjustments; 2013... the 2013 summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fisheries, as well as the 2014 summer flounder and... necessary to comply with regulations implementing the Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass...

  16. 77 FR 65136 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota Harvested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Fishery; Recreational Quota Harvested AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the 2012 black sea bass recreational harvest limit has been exceeded. No one may fish for or possess black sea bass in Federal waters for the remainder...

  17. 50 CFR 648.149 - Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures. 648.149 Section 648.149 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.149 Black sea bass...

  18. 50 CFR 648.149 - Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures. 648.149 Section 648.149 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.149 Black sea bass...

  19. 50 CFR 648.149 - Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures. 648.149 Section 648.149 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.149 Black sea bass...

  20. 50 CFR 648.149 - Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures. 648.149 Section 648.149 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.149 Black sea bass...

  1. 50 CFR 648.146 - Black sea bass recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass recreational fishing season. 648.146 Section 648.146 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.146 Black sea bass recreational fishing...

  2. 50 CFR 648.146 - Black sea bass recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass recreational fishing season. 648.146 Section 648.146 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.146 Black sea bass recreational fishing...

  3. 50 CFR 648.146 - Black sea bass recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass recreational fishing season. 648.146 Section 648.146 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.146 Black sea bass recreational fishing...

  4. 75 FR 17618 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Recreational Fishery; Emergency Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... United States; Black Sea Bass Recreational Fishery; Emergency Rule Correction and Extension AGENCY... recreational black sea bass fishery in the Federal waters of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) from 3 to 200... implemented with no end date, and to extend the prohibition on recreational fishing for black sea bass in...

  5. NMR metabolic profiling of organic and aqueous sea bass extracts: implications in the discrimination of wild and cultured sea bass.

    PubMed

    Mannina, L; Sobolev, A P; Capitani, D; Iaffaldano, N; Rosato, M P; Ragni, P; Reale, A; Sorrentino, E; D'Amico, I; Coppola, R

    2008-10-19

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was used as analytical tool to determine the complete metabolic profiling of sea bass extracts: water-soluble metabolites belonging to different classes such as sugars, amino acids, dipeptides and organic acids as well as metabolites soluble in organic solvent such as lipids, sterols and fatty acids were identified. The metabolite profiling together with a suitable statistical analysis were used to discriminate between wild and cultured sea bass samples. Preliminary results show that discrimination between wild and cultured sea bass was obtained not only using fatty acid composition but also cholesterol and phosphatidylethanolamine and some water-soluble metabolites such as choline, trimethylamine oxide, glutamine, fumaric and malic acids.

  6. NASA OBPG Field Program and SeaBASS Updates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedell, P. Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Calibrating ocean color satellite instruments and validating their data products requires temporal and spatial abundances of high quality in situ oceanographic data. To this end, the Ocean Ecology Laboratory (OEL) maintains two entities that are engaged in field data collection and archival. First, the OEL houses a Field Support Group to collect in situ oceanographic measurements, execute laboratory analyses, revise community-vetted protocols for conducting these exercises, and host community training events. Second, the OEL maintains the SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) as the permanent archive for all in situ data collected under the auspices of the NASA Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program (OBB; Dr. Paula Bontempi, Program Manager). This talk provides the OBB community and interested researchers their annual update on both the Field Support Group and SeaBASS.

  7. The fundamental thermal niche of adult landlocked striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have described the temperatures selected by landlocked striped bass Morone saxatilis in different locales throughout the USA. However, seasonally low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) in many systems prevented striped bass from using the cool waters (<22??C) they may have preferred. In Melton Hill Reservoir, a 92-km-long impoundment on the Clinch River in east Tennessee, 15 adult striped bass were tagged with temperature-sensing radio tags and tracked for an average of 418 d in 1999-2000. Cold, hypolimnetic discharges from an upstream dam and heated discharge from a steam-generating electric facility near the midpoint of this run-of-the-river reservoir provided a broad range of temperatures in most seasons, and hypoxic habitats were uncommon even during stratification. The mean temperature occupied by striped bass varied seasonally (repeated-measures analysis of variance, P < 0.0001) and was highest in summer (17.5??C), intermediate in spring and fall (15.4-16.9??C), and lowest in winter (13.0??C). The mean and modal temperatures occupied during the growing season (May-October 1999) were 17.5??C and 19.0??C, respectively; 30% of the observations were between 9??C and 15??C. These data indicate that the fundamental thermal niche of adult landlocked striped bass may be lower than literature estimates. These results also represent the first unbiased field estimates of the influence of season on the thermal ecology of adult striped bass. The thermal characteristics of habitats considered optimal in habitat suitability index models for adult landlocked striped bass (i.e., 18-24??C) should be revised to include cooler waters. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  8. Posttournament survival and dispersal of adult striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a telemetry study from November 2004 to June 2005 at J. Strom Thurmond Reservoir in South Carolina and Georgia to quantify posttournament survival of striped bass and their dispersal from tournament weigh-in sites. During November-December 2004, 30 adult striped bass weighing 1.0-10.0 kg were angled, held in "striped bass tube" live-holding systems for 2-5 h, transported to a predetermined weigh-in and release site, and surgically implanted with telemetry transmitters. All striped bass survived transport, recovered from the surgical procedure, and were immediately released. The postrelease survival rate after 120 d was 87%. Surviving striped bass dispersed from the release site within 2-9 d. Fifty-four percent returned to their capture sites. Capture, holding, displacement, and weigh-in appeared to have no long-term adverse affects on behavior. Live release of striped bass may now be a viable option after tournaments during periods of cool water temperatures. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  9. Noise Impact on European Sea Bass Behavior: Temporal Structure Matters.

    PubMed

    Neo, Yik Yaw; Seitz, Johanna; Kastelein, Ronald A; Winter, Hendrik V; Cate, Carel Ten; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic sounds come in different forms, varying not only in amplitude and frequency spectrum but also in temporal structure. Although fish are sensitive to the temporal characteristics of sound, little is known about how their behavior is affected by anthropogenic sounds of different temporal patterns. We investigated this question using groups of Dicentrarchus labrax (European sea bass) in an outdoor basin. Our data revealed that the temporal pattern of sound exposure is important in noise impact assessments.

  10. Gonadotropins in European sea bass: Endocrine roles and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Mazón, María José; Molés, Gregorio; Rocha, Ana; Crespo, Berta; Lan-Chow-Wing, Olivier; Espigares, Felipe; Muñoz, Iciar; Felip, Alicia; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia; Gómez, Ana

    2015-09-15

    Follicle stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) are central endocrine regulators of the gonadal function in vertebrates. They act through specific receptors located in certain cell types found in the gonads. In fish, the differential roles of these hormones are being progressively elucidated due to the development of suitable tools for their study. In European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), isolation of the genes coding for the gonadotropin subunits and receptors allowed in first instance to conduct expression studies. Later, to overcome the limitation of using native hormones, recombinant dimeric gonadotropins, which show different functional characteristics depending on the cell system and DNA construct, were generated. In addition, single gonadotropin beta-subunits have been produced and used as antigens for antibody production. This approach has allowed the development of detection methods for native gonadotropins, with European sea bass being one of the few species where both gonadotropins can be detected in their native form. By administering recombinant gonadotropins to gonad tissues in vitro, we were able to study their effects on steroidogenesis and intracellular pathways. Their administration in vivo has also been tested for use in basic studies and as a biotechnological approach for hormone therapy and assisted reproduction strategies. In addition to the production of recombinant hormones, gene-based therapies using somatic gene transfer have been offered as an alternative. This approach has been tested in sea bass for gonadotropin delivery in vivo. The hormones produced by the genes injected were functional and have allowed studies on the action of gonadotropins in spermatogenesis.

  11. 50 CFR 622.189 - Restrictions and requirements for sea bass pots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restrictions and requirements for sea... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO... requirements for sea bass pots. (a) Tending restriction. A sea bass pot in the South Atlantic EEZ may be...

  12. 50 CFR 622.189 - Restrictions and requirements for sea bass pots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictions and requirements for sea... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO... requirements for sea bass pots. (a) Tending restriction. A sea bass pot in the South Atlantic EEZ may be...

  13. European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, in a changing ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, E. C.; Ellis, R. P.; Scolamacchia, M.; Scolding, J. W. S.; Keay, A.; Chingombe, P.; Shields, R. J.; Wilcox, R.; Speirs, D. C.; Wilson, R. W.; Lewis, C.; Flynn, K. J.

    2014-05-01

    Ocean acidification, caused by rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), is widely considered to be a major global threat to marine ecosystems. To investigate the potential effects of ocean acidification on the early life stages of a commercially important fish species, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), 12 000 larvae were incubated from hatch through metamorphosis under a matrix of two temperatures (17 and 19 °C) and two seawater pCO2 levels (ambient and 1,000 μatm) and sampled regularly for 42 days. Calculated daily mortality was significantly affected by both temperature and pCO2, with both increased temperature and elevated pCO2 associated with lower daily mortality and a significant interaction between these two factors. There was no significant pCO2 effect noted on larval morphology during this period but larvae raised at 19 °C possessed significantly larger eyes and lower carbon:nitrogen ratios at the end of the study compared to those raised under 17 °C. Similarly, when the incubation was continued to post-metamorphic (juvenile) animals (day 67-69), fish raised under a combination of 19 °C and 1000 μatm pCO2 were significantly heavier. However, juvenile D. labrax raised under this combination of 19 °C and 1000 μatm pCO2 also exhibited lower aerobic scopes than those incubated at 19 °C and ambient pCO2. Most studies investigating the effects of near-future oceanic conditions on the early life stages of marine fish have used incubations of relatively short durations and suggested that these animals are resilient to ocean acidification. Whilst the increased survival and growth observed in this study supports this view, we conclude that more work is required to investigate whether the differences in juvenile physiology observed in this study manifest as negative impacts in adult fish.

  14. 50 CFR 648.140 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial and...) Sector allocations. The commercial and recreational fishing sector ACLs will be established consistent... Management Plan. (2) Periodicity. The black sea bass commercial and recreational sector ACLs may...

  15. 50 CFR 648.140 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial and...) Sector allocations. The commercial and recreational fishing sector ACLs will be established consistent... Management Plan. (2) Periodicity. The black sea bass commercial and recreational sector ACLs may...

  16. 50 CFR 648.140 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Limit (ACL).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee shall recommend to the MAFMC separate ACLs for the commercial and...) Sector allocations. The commercial and recreational fishing sector ACLs will be established consistent... Management Plan. (2) Periodicity. The black sea bass commercial and recreational sector ACLs may...

  17. Cloning of Wap65 in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) and expression in sea bass tissues.

    PubMed

    Pierre, S; Coupé, S; Prévot-d'Alvise, N; Gaillard, S; Richard, S; Gouze, E; Aubert, J; Grillasca, J P

    2010-04-01

    The complementary DNA encoding WAP65 protein was cloned from the liver of two fish species sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata). Full-length cDNA sequences were obtained from reverse transcribed total RNA, followed by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) experiments. The full-length cDNA sequence of D. labrax is 1709bp and the coding sequence is flanked by a 67bp 5'-UTR and a 358bp 3'-UTR. The full-length cDNA sequence of S. aurata is 1599bp, and the coding sequence is flanked by a 48bp 5'-UTR and a 273bp 3'-UTR. The deduced amino acid putative primary sequences are composed of 427 and 425 amino acid residues for D. labrax and S. aurata, respectively. They display high homologies with previously described fish WAP65 and other hemopexin-like proteins from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Expression of Wap65 has proved to be a natural physiological adaptive answer of teleost fish to warm temperature acclimation. In all fish species studied to date, Wap65 was found expressed mainly by the liver, although other tissues seem able to express Wap65 in response to a warm temperature acclimation, in a specie specific manner. Here, we investigate the tissue specific expression of Wap65 in D. labrax and S. aurata in response to a warm temperature acclimation, by RT-PCR analysis.

  18. Having a BLAST: Searchable transcriptome resources for the gilthead sea bream and the European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Louro, Bruno; Marques, João Pedro; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M

    2016-12-01

    The gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) are the most important aquaculture species in the Mediterranean Sea and since the last decade it has been seen an exponential increase in their available molecular resources. In order to improve accessibility to transcriptome resources, Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs), mRNA sequences and raw read sequences were assembled and deposited in BLAST queryable databases. The publicly available sea bream and sea bass sequences (6.4 and 247.5 million) generated 45,094 and 68,117 assembled sequences, with, respectively, arithmetic mean size of 998 and 2125bp and N50 of 1302 and 2966bp. The assemblies will be regularly updated and new analytical tools added to the web server at http://sea.ccmar.ualg.pt.

  19. Molecular mechanisms of hepcidin regulation in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Neves, J V; Caldas, C; Wilson, J M; Rodrigues, P N S

    2011-12-01

    Hepcidin, an antimicrobial peptide described as a key regulator of iron metabolism, is known to respond in mammals to several stimuli, including iron overload, anemia, hypoxia and inflammation, through a number of molecular pathways. In order to understand the molecular pathways involved in the regulation of hepcidin expression in teleost fish, we have isolated for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) several coding sequences of known molecules involved on these pathways in mammals, namely jak3, stat3, tmprss6, bmp6, bmpr2, hjv, smad4, smad5, tfr1 and tfr2. The transcription levels of the isolated genes were evaluated by real-time PCR on fish subjected to experimental iron modulation (overload/deficiency) or infection with Photobacterium damsela. Results show that genes associated with the major pathway of the inflammatory response (IL6/JAK/STAT pathway) in mammals are also modulated in sea bass, being up-regulated during infection. Similarly, genes of the pathways classically associated with the response to variations in iron status (the HJV/BMP/SMAD and HFE/TfR pathways) are also modulated, mostly through down-regulation in iron deficiency and up-regulation during iron overload. Interestingly, many of these genes are also found to be up-regulated during infection, which may indicate a crosstalk between the known pathways of hepcidin regulation. These observations suggest the evolutionary conservation of the mechanisms of hepcidin regulation in teleost fish.

  20. Embryonic occurrence of ionocytes in the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Sucré, Elliott; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Grousset, Evelyse; Charmantier, Guy; Cucchi-Mouillot, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    Because of the permeability of the chorion, sea bass embryos are exposed to seawater before hatching and hence require precocious osmoregulatory processes. Several studies of other species have demonstrated the existence of ion-transporting cells located on the yolk sac membrane of embryos. In these cells, called ionocytes, ion movements are controlled by a pool of transmembrane proteins. Among them, the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, an abundant driving enzyme, has been used to reveal the presence or absence of ionocytes. We have immunostained the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in sea-bass embryos and shown the presence of the first ionocytes on the yolk sac membrane at stage 12 somites and the occurrence of ionocytes at other sites before hatching. Ionocytes located on the first gill slits have been identified at stage 14 somites. Primitive enteric ionocytes have also been detected at stage 14 somites in the mid and posterior gut. The presence of these cells might be related to the early opening of the gut to perivitelline fluids, both anteriorly by the gill slits and posteriorly by the anus. The role of embryonic ionocytes in osmoregulation before hatching is discussed.

  1. Effect of an experimental oil spill on vertebral bone tissue quality in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Danion, Morgane; Deschamps, Marie-Hélène; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Le Floch, Stéphane; Quentel, Claire; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2011-10-01

    In order to identify biomarkers of oil pollution in fish we tested the effects of an experimental Light Cycle Oil (LCO) exposure on vertebral bone of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L. A total of 60 adult fish were acclimated for fifteen days, then twenty were collected as controls (Day 0) while 40 were exposed to a soluble fraction of LCO (1136 ng L(-1) of ten Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs) for seven days. Twenty of them were sampled at the end of the exposure period and the twenty last after a recovery period of fourteen days in clean seawater. Vertebral abnormalities were counted and bone mineralization, total bone area and bone density profiles were established for several post-cranial and caudal vertebrae. In sea bass, seven days of LCO exposure did not affect the frequency and severity of the vertebral abnormalities. No significant differences were observed in bone density and bone repartition (parameters of bone area profiles) between unexposed (Day 0), exposed (D7) and decontaminated (D21) fish. In contrast, bone mineralization of the vertebrae decreased in contaminated sea bass, but in a reversible way, which confirms a previous study in trout showing that this parameter is an early stress indicator. Our results suggest that vertebral bone mineralization could be used as a biomarker of PAH pollution in sea bass. It would be interesting to check this new biomarker in other teleost species exposed to various xenobiotics.

  2. Skin mucus proteome map of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Cordero, Héctor; Brinchmann, Monica F; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, María A

    2015-12-01

    Skin mucus is the first barrier of fish defence. Proteins from skin mucus of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were identified by 2DE followed by LC-MS/MS. From all the identified proteins in the proteome map, we focus on the proteins associated with several immune pathways in fish. Furthermore, the real-time PCR transcript levels in skin are shown. Proteins found include apolipoprotein A1, calmodulin, complement C3, fucose-binding lectin, lysozyme and several caspases. To our knowledge, this is the first skin mucus proteome study and further transcriptional profiling of the identified proteins done on this bony fish species. This not only contributes knowledge on the routes involved in mucosal innate immunity, but also establishes a non-invasive technique based on locating immune markers with a potential use for prevention and/or diagnosis of fish diseases.

  3. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic): Black sea bass

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, L.P.

    1989-07-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The black sea bass, Centropristis striata, is an abundant species associated with the inshore sponge-coral habitat in the South Atlantic Bight (Cape Hatteras to Cape Canaveral). It is a protogynous hermaphrodite (each individual is first a female and then a male) that spawns from January to June on the Continental shelf. Juveniles utilize estuaries, as well as offshore areas, for nurseries. It is a slow growing species with a life span of about 10 years. Juveniles and adults are bottom-feeding carnivores. Adults have been collected at temperatures as low as 6 /degree/C but are most abundant at temperatures of 8 to 10 /degree/C and above. Juveniles tolerate lower temperatures and greater salinity ranges than adults. Black sea bass are primarily harvested by the recreational hook and line fishery and the commercial trap fishery. Yield-per-recruit analyses indicate that the harvest of black sea bass is less than the maximum possible due to a combination of high fishing pressure and harvest of small fish. 58 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. A CD4 homologue in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): molecular characterization and structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Francesco; Randelli, Elisa; Casani, Daniela; Guerra, Laura; Picchietti, Simona; Costantini, Susan; Facchiano, Angelo M; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Chris J; Scapigliati, Giuseppe

    2008-06-01

    CD4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein fundamental for cell-mediated immunity. Its action as a T cell co-receptor increases the avidity of association between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell by interacting with portions of the complex between MHC class II and TR molecules. In this paper we report the cDNA cloning, expression and structural analysis of a CD4 homologue from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). The sea bass CD4 cDNA consists of 2071 bp that translates in one reading frame to give the entire molecule containing 480 amino acids. The analysis of the sequence shows the presence of four putative Ig-like domains and that some fundamental structural features, like a disulphide bond in domain D2 and the CXC signalling motif in the cytoplasmic tail, are conserved from sea bass to mammals. Real-time PCR analysis showed that very high levels of CD4 mRNA transcripts are present in thymus, followed by gut and gills. In vitro stimulation of head kidney leukocytes with LPS and PHA-L gave an increase of CD4 mRNA levels after 4h and a decrease after 24h. Homology modelling has been applied to create a 3D model of sea bass CD4 and to investigate its interaction with sea bass MHC-II. The analysis of the 3D complex between sea bass CD4 and sea bass MHC-II suggests that the absence of a disulfide bond in the CD4 D1 domain could make this molecule more flexible, inducing a different conformation and affecting the binding and the way of interaction between CD4 and MHC-II. Our results will add new insights into the sea bass T cell immune responses and will help in the identification of T cell subsets in teleost fishes to better understand the evolution of cell-mediated immunity from fish to mammals.

  5. Establishing nursery estuary otolith geochemical tags for Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Is temporal stability estuary dependent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Diarmuid; Wögerbauer, Ciara; Roche, William

    2016-12-01

    The ability to determine connectivity between juveniles in nursery estuaries and adult populations is an important tool for fisheries management. Otoliths of juvenile fish contain geochemical tags, which reflect the variation in estuarine elemental chemistry, and allow discrimination of their natal and/or nursery estuaries. These tags can be used to investigate connectivity patterns between juveniles and adults. However, inter-annual variability of geochemical tags may limit the accuracy of nursery origin determinations. Otolith elemental composition was used to assign a single cohort of 0-group sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax to their nursery estuary thus establishing an initial baseline for stocks in waters around Ireland. Using a standard LDFA model, high classification accuracies to nursery sites (80-88%) were obtained. Temporal stability of otolith geochemical tags was also investigated to assess if annual sampling is required for connectivity studies. Geochemical tag stability was found to be strongly estuary dependent.

  6. Fitness Consequences of Boldness in Juvenile and Adult Largemouth Bass.

    PubMed

    Ballew, Nicholas G; Mittelbach, Gary G; Scribner, Kim T

    2017-04-01

    To date, most studies investigating the relationship between personality traits and fitness have focused on a single measure of fitness (such as survival) at a specific life stage. However, many personality traits likely have multiple effects on fitness, potentially operating across different functional contexts and stages of development. Here, we address the fitness consequences of boldness, under seminatural conditions, across life stages and functional contexts in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Specifically, we report the effect of boldness on (1) juvenile survivorship in an outdoor pond containing natural prey and predators and (2) adult reproductive success in three outdoor ponds across three reproductive seasons (years). Juvenile survival was negatively affected by boldness, with bolder juveniles having a lower probability of survival than shyer juveniles. In contrast, bolder adult male bass had greater reproductive success than their shyer male counterparts. Female reproductive success was not affected by boldness. These findings demonstrate that boldness can affect fitness differently across life stages. Further, boldness was highly consistent across years and significantly heritable, which suggests that boldness has a genetic component. Thus, our results support theory suggesting that fitness trade-offs across life stages may contribute to the maintenance of personality variation within populations.

  7. Daily and seasonal expression of clock genes in the pituitary of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Herrero, María Jesús; Lepesant, Julie M J

    2014-11-01

    The expression of select clock genes (clock, bmal, per1, per2, cry1, cry2) was investigated throughout the day and across the four seasons for two consecutive years in the pituitary of adult sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). A rhythmic pattern of daily expression was consistently observed in summer and autumn, while arrhythmicity was observed for some clock genes during spring and winter, concomitant with low water temperatures. The expression of clock and bmal showed highest values at the end of the day and during the night, while that of per and cry was mostly antiphasic, with high values during the day. Melatonin affects clock-gene expression in the pituitary of mammals. We therefore sought to test the effect of melatonin on clock-gene expression in the pituitary of sea bass both in vivo and in vitro. Melatonin modestly affected the expression of some clock genes (in particular cry genes) when added to the fish diet or the culture medium of pituitary glands. Our data show that clock genes display rhythmic daily expression in the pituitary of adult sea bass, which are profoundly modified according to the season. We suggest that the effect of photoperiod on clock gene expression may be mediated, at least in part, by melatonin, and that temperature may have a key role adjusting seasonal variations.

  8. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic). Black Sea Bass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    length, depths >12 m werp mature, and all age weight, and age. IV females were mature. Black sea bass eggs are pelagic, Sex ratios of black sea bass...fluorescent Management regulations for black sea blue and green around eyes and bass caught in the Fishery Conserva- nape; females are lighter and brownish...hermaphrodites. Most individuals usually absent ir young. Bortone function first as females , undergo (1977), who compared the osteology of sexual

  9. Relation of adult size to movements and distribution of smallmouth bass in a central Maine Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, M.B.; Moring, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-four smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu of three size-classes were radiotracked in Green Lake, Maine, during summer 1993 (10 June-1 September) to determine whether adult size influenced distribution and movement. Large smallmouth bass (>406 mm) used deep water (>8 m) more often than did small (248-279 mm) or medium-sized (305-356 mm) smallmouth bass during the late summer (15 July-1 September). Large smallmouth bass also were found at middepths (4-8 m) significantly more often than were small individuals during late summer. Small fish used cover more frequently than large ones during early summer (10 June-13 July). Both small and medium-sized individuals were associated with cover more frequently than large smallmouth bass were during the late summer. Small smallmouth bass exhibited significantly smaller summer total ranges than did large individuals, and mean active displacement differed among all three size-classes.

  10. Differential activation of kiss receptors by Kiss1 and Kiss2 peptides in the sea bass.

    PubMed

    Felip, Alicia; Espigares, Felipe; Zanuy, Silvia; Gómez, Ana

    2015-09-01

    Two forms of kiss gene (kiss1 and kiss2) have been described in the teleost sea bass. This study assesses the cloning and characterization of two Kiss receptor genes, namely kissr2 and kissr3 (known as gpr54-1b and gpr54-2b, respectively), and their signal transduction pathways in response to Kiss1 and Kiss2 peptides. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses indicate that these paralogs originated by duplication of an ancestral gene before teleost specific duplication. The kissr2 and kissr3 mRNAs encode proteins of 368 and 378 amino acids, respectively, and share 53.1% similarity in amino acid sequences. In silico analysis of the putative promoter regions of the sea bass Kiss receptor genes revealed conserved flanking regulatory sequences among teleosts. Both kissr2 and kissr3 are predominantly expressed in brain and gonads of sea bass, medaka and zebrafish. In the testis, the expression levels of sea bass kisspeptins and Kiss receptors point to a significant variation during the reproductive cycle. In vitro functional analyses revealed that sea bass Kiss receptor signals are transduced both via the protein kinase C and protein kinase A pathway. Synthetic sea bass Kiss1-15 and Kiss2-12 peptides activated Kiss receptors with different potencies, indicating a differential ligand selectivity. Our data suggest that Kissr2 and Kissr3 have a preference for Kiss1 and Kiss2 peptides, respectively, thus providing the basis for future studies aimed at establishing their physiologic roles in sea bass.

  11. Embryonic development of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, Patricia; Sucré, Elliott; Santos, Raphaël; Leclère, Jeremy; Charmantier, Guy; Castille, René

    2012-06-01

    The embryonic development of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax during the endotrophic period is discussed. An 8 cells stage, not reported for other studied species, results from two rapid successive cleavages. Blastula occurs at the eighth division when the embryo is made of 128 cells. During gastrulation, the infolded blastoderm creates the endomesoblastic layer. The Kupffer's vesicle is reported to drive the left/right patterning of brain, heart and digestive tract. Heart formation starts at 8 pairs of somites, differentiation of myotomes and sclerotomes starts at the stage 18 pairs of somites; main parts of the digestive tract are entirely formed at 25 pairs of somites. At 28 pairs of somites, a rectal region is detected, however, the digestive tube is closed at both ends, the jaw appears the fourth day after hatching, but the mouth is not opened before the fifth day. Although cardiac beating and blood circulation are observed, gills are not reported in newly hatched individuals; eye melanization appears concomitant with exotrophic behavior.

  12. Immersion booster vaccination effect on sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, P

    2006-02-01

    In each challenge 30 sea bass juveniles (mean weight 3.3 +/- 0.2 g SD) were used. During the whole experiment (water T: 18 +/- 1 degrees C) the fish were held in four 50l seawater independent recirculation systems (one fish group per 50l system). The protection to the pathogen Vibrio anguillarum was tested on booster vaccinated sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) juveniles. The vaccination was performed by immersion for 60 s in a commercial anti-V. anguillarum vaccine suspension. Booster vaccination took place 60 days after the initial immunization. Thirty days after the booster vaccination all the fish received intraperitoneally (IP) 3.0 x 10(6) cfu/fish (colony forming units) virulent V. anguillarum bacteria. The booster vaccination showed a strong protection effect on the challenged sea bass. In the next 20 days after the challenge the mortality was 0% among the booster vaccinated sea bass, 10% among the once vaccinated fish and 50% in the control group (unvaccinated fish). No mortality was observed among the unvaccinated sea bass injected IP with sterile normal saline by the challenge.

  13. Proteomic profiling of sea bass muscle by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Pisanu, Salvatore; Roggio, Tonina; Preziosa, Elena; Saroglia, Marco; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the proteome profile of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) muscle was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and tandem mass spectrometry with the aim of providing a more detailed characterization of its specific protein expression profile. A highly populated and well-resolved 2-DE map of the sea bass muscle tissue was generated, and the corresponding protein identity was provided for a total of 49 abundant protein spots. Upon Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, the proteins mapped in the sea bass muscle profile were mostly related to glycolysis and to the muscle myofibril structure, together with other biological activities crucial to fish muscle metabolism and contraction, and therefore to fish locomotor performance. The data presented in this work provide important and novel information on the sea bass muscle tissue-specific protein expression, which can be useful for future studies aimed to improve seafood traceability, food safety/risk management and authentication analysis. This work is also important for understanding the proteome map of the sea bass toward establishing the animal as a potential model for muscular studies.

  14. Molecular cloning and characterisation of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) caspase-3 gene.

    PubMed

    Reis, Marta I R; Nascimento, Diana S; do Vale, Ana; Silva, Manuel T; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2007-02-01

    Caspase-3 is one of the major caspases operating in apoptosis, cleaving and inactivating a number of molecules and largely contributing to the apoptotic phenotype and the dismantling of the apoptoting cell. The opening reading frame of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) caspase-3 has 281 amino acids. The complete sequence of caspase-3 shows a very close homology to the correspondent sequence from other vertebrates, in particularly with that of Takifugu rubripes and Oryzias latipes, with 87.7 and 87.9% of similarity, respectively. Furthermore, the sea bass caspase-3 sequence retains the motifs that are functionally important, such as the pentapeptide active-site motif (QACRG) and the putative cleavage sites at the aspartic acids. In the sea bass genome, the caspase-3 gene exists as a single copy gene and is organised in six exons and five introns. A very low expression of caspase-3 was detected by RT-PCR in various organs of non-stimulated sea bass, with slightly higher levels in thymus and heart and was increased in head kidneys of Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida infected sea bass. This increased expression was accompanied by the occurrence of high numbers of apoptoting cells with activated caspase-3.

  15. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    PubMed

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  16. Combining Telephone Surveys and Fishing Catches Self-Report: The French Sea Bass Recreational Fishery Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools. PMID:24489885

  17. 77 FR 68723 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2013-2014 Summer Flounder... summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fisheries, and the 2014 summer flounder and scup fisheries, and... Fishery Management Council's Research Set-Aside Program. The implementing regulations for the...

  18. 76 FR 53831 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2011 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black... December 28, 2010, NMFS published in the Federal Register the final rule to implement the 2011 summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass specifications, which established commercial summer flounder...

  19. Effect of seasonal changes on the gelling properties of farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Carlos L; Mendes, Rogério O; Vaz-Pires, Paulo; Nunes, Maria L

    2014-01-01

    The effect of seasonal changes (summer versus winter) upon the quality of heat-induced gel products from farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was studied. Moreover, the effect of microbial transglutaminase addition (0.5%, w/w) on the quality was assessed. Fat content of gel products attained from sea bass grown during summer was higher (12.0% versus 7.6%). Textural properties of the gels from the summer fish were higher. Protein of gels from winter fish was less soluble in SDS + DTT (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS; dithiothreitol, DTT). Contrary to some literature, higher fat level may have played a protective role during processing. Accordingly, season via fat content variation had a strong effect on the gelling ability of heat-induced gels prepared from sea bass.

  20. Quality changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with lemongrass essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mehraj; Benjakul, Soottawat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash

    2012-04-16

    Microbiological, chemical and physical changes of sea bass slices wrapped with gelatin film incorporated with 25% (w/w) lemongrass essential oil (LEO) during storage of 12 days at 4 °C were investigated. Sea bass slices wrapped with LEO film had the retarded growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), psychrophilic bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including H₂S-producing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae throughout storage of 12 days in comparison with the control and those wrapped with gelatin film without LEO (G film) (P<0.05). Lowered changes of colour, K value, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB) and TBARS value were also found in LEO film wrapped samples, compared with those wrapped with G film and control, respectively. Therefore, the incorporation of LEO into gelatin film could enhance the antimicrobial and antioxidative properties of the film, thereby maintaining the qualities and extending the shelf-life of the sea bass slices stored at refrigerated temperature.

  1. Mixtures of Estrogenic Chemicals Enhance Vitellogenic Response in Sea Bass

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Ana D.; Freitas, Sandro; Scholze, Martin; Goncalves, José F.; Booij, Petra; Lamoree, Marja H.; Mañanós, Evaristo; Reis-Henriques, Maria A.

    2007-01-01

    Background The potential impact of natural and synthetic estrogens on aquatic ecosystems has attracted considerable attention because it is currently accepted that their joint effects are more severe when they are present in mixtures. Although it is well-known that they occur as mixtures in the marine environment, there is little information about the combined effects of estrogenic chemicals on marine biota. Objective In 14-day tests with juvenile sea bass, we analyzed singly and in combination the estrogenic activity of estradiol (E2), ethynylestradiol (EE2), and bisphenol A (BPA) using vitellogenin induction as an end point. Methods Fish were exposed to each compound, and on the basis of these concentration–response data, we predicted mixture effects by applying the model of concentration addition. The mixtures were tested using a fixed-ratio design, and the resulting mixture effects were compared to the predictions. Results EE2 was the most potent steroid, with an EC50 (median effective concentration) of 0.029 μg/L, 3.6 times more potent than E2 (EC50 = 0.104 μg/L); BPA was the least potent chemical, with an EC50 of 77.94 μg/L. The comparative assessment yielded a good agreement between observed and predicted mixture effects. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential hazard of these compounds to seawater life by their ability to act together in an additive manner. It provides evidence that concentration addition can be used as a predictive tool for assessing the combined effects of estrogenic chemicals in marine ecosystems. PMID:18174959

  2. Differential freshwater adaptation in juvenile sea-bass Dicentrarchus labrax: involvement of gills and urinary system.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Catherine; Romestand, Bernard; Nègre-Sadargues, Geneviève; Grousset, Evelyse; Aujoulat, Fabien; Bacal, Julien; Bonhomme, François; Charmantier, Guy

    2005-10-01

    The effects of long-term freshwater acclimatization were investigated in juvenile sea-bass Dicentrarchus labrax to determine whether all sea-bass juveniles are able to live in freshwater and to investigate the physiological basis of a successful adaptation to freshwater. This study particularly focused on the ability of sea-bass to maintain their hydromineral balance in freshwater and on their ion (re)absorbing abilities through the gills and kidneys. Two different responses were recorded after a long-term freshwater acclimatization. (1) Successfully adapted sea-bass displayed standard behavior; their blood osmolality was maintained almost constant after the freshwater challenge, attesting to their efficient hyperosmoregulation. Their branchial and renal Na+/K+-ATPase abundance and activity were high compared to seawater fish due to a high number of branchial ionocytes and to the involvement of the urinary system in active ion reabsorption, producing hypotonic urine. (2) Sea-bass that had not successfully adapted to freshwater were recognized by abnormal schooling behavior. Their blood osmolality was low (30% lower than in the successfully adapted sea-bass), which is a sign of acute osmoregulatory failure. High branchial Na+/K+-ATPase abundance and activity compared to successfully adapted fish were coupled to a proliferation of gill chloride cells, whose ultrastructure did not display pathological signs. The large surface used by the gill chloride cells might negatively interfere with respiratory gas exchanges. In their urinary system, enzyme abundance and activity were low, in accordance with the observed lower density of the kidney tubules. Urine was isotonic to blood in unsuccessfully adapted fish, ruling out any participation of the kidney in hyperosmoregulation. The kidney failure seems to generate a compensatory ion absorption through increased gill activity, but net ion loss through urine seems higher than ion absorption by the gills, leading to lower hyper

  3. Molecular characterisation and structural analysis of an interferon homologue in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Casani, Daniela; Randelli, Elisa; Costantini, Susan; Facchiano, Angelo M; Zou, Jun; Martin, Sam; Secombes, Chris J; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Buonocore, Francesco

    2009-02-01

    The interferons (IFNs) are a large family of soluble cytokines involved in the immune response against viral pathogens. Three families of IFNs have been identified in mammals (type I, type II and type III) and, recently, homologues of type I and type II genes have been found in various teleost fish species. In this paper we report the cloning of a cDNA encoding an type I IFN molecule from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), its expression analysis and gene structure and, finally, its 3D structure obtained by template-based modelling. The sea bass IFN cDNA consists of 1047bp that translates in one reading frame to give the entire molecule containing 185 amino acids. The analysis of the sequence revealed the presence of a putative 22 amino acid signal peptide, two cysteine residues and three potential N-glycosylation sites. The sea bass IFN gene contains four introns as with other type I IFN teleost genes, except medaka that contains three introns. Real time PCR was performed after poly I:C stimulation of DLEC cell line to investigate the expression of sea bass IFN and Mx and an induction was observed for both genes. The predicted 3D structure of sea bass IFN is characterized by an "all-alpha" domain that shows an "up-down bundle" architecture made of six helices (ABB'CDE). The two cysteine residues present in the sequence (i.e. Cys(23) and Cys(126)) are in a position and at a distance that suggest the possible formation of a disulfide bridge that may stabilize the structure. Our results will give the opportunity to investigate more in detail antiviral immune responses in sea bass and add to studies on the evolution of the IFN system in teleosts and vertebrates more generally.

  4. The SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS): Current Architecture and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Fargion, Giulietta S. (Editor); McClain, Charles R. (Editor); Bailey, Sean W.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite ocean color missions require an abundance of high-quality in situ measurements for bio-optical and atmospheric algorithm development and post-launch product validation and sensor calibration. To facilitate the assembly of a global data set, the NASA Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view (SeaWiFS) Project developed the Seafaring Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS), a local repository for in situ data regularly used in their scientific analyses. The system has since been expanded to contain data sets collected by the NASA Sensor Intercalibration and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project, as part of NASA Research Announcements NRA-96-MTPE-04 and NRA-99-OES-99. SeaBASS is a well moderated and documented hive for bio-optical data with a simple, secure mechanism for locating and extracting data based on user inputs. Its holdings are available to the general public with the exception of the most recently collected data sets. Extensive quality assurance protocols, comprehensive data and system documentation, and the continuation of an archive and relational database management system (RDBMS) suitable for bio-optical data all contribute to the continued success of SeaBASS. This document provides an overview of the current operational SeaBASS system.

  5. Isolation of Lacinutrix venerupis strains associated with disease outbreaks in sea bream Sparus aurata and European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    López, Jose R; Alcantara, Rafael; Lorenzo, Laura; Navas, J I

    2017-03-30

    Four Gram-negative bacterial isolates were recovered from 2 disease outbreaks that occurred in 2013 affecting European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax fry and sea bream Sparus aurata adults. Main symptoms were erratic swimming, eroded fins and, in the sea bream outbreak, haemorrhages on the body surface; bacteria were always recovered from internal organs, almost in pure culture. On the basis of phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates were identified as Lacinutrix venerupis, a bacterium not previously reported as a fish pathogen. The highest 16S rDNA sequence similarities were recorded with the type strain of this species (99.9-100% similarity), while other species showed similarities below 97%, the closest relative being L. mariniflava (96.3% similarity). Phenotypic characterization showed some discrepancies with the L. venerupis type strain (mainly in BIOLOG GN profile); however, DNA-DNA hybridization assays with L. venerupis and L. mariniflava type strains confirmed that these isolates belong to the former species (levels of DNA relatedness were 98-100% and 38-50%, respectively). Finally, a virulence evaluation of the isolates using Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis fry was also performed; significant mortalities (80-100% mortality within 4 d) were recorded after intraperitoneal injection, but only with high doses of bacteria (107colony forming units fish-1). Further studies will be necessary to determine the importance of this species as a fish pathogen.

  6. Response of White Sea Bass to practical diets with varying levels of protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in the commercial culture of White Sea Bass atractoscion nobilis on the western coast of the United States has been increasing in recent years. Despite this interest, there is a scarcity of knowledge on the dietary requirements of this species, particularly as it relates to basic nutrient r...

  7. Efficacy of a Listonella anguillarum (syn. Vibrio anguillarum) vaccine for juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Panagiotis; Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Crump, Elizabeth M

    2006-07-11

    The efficacy of a commercial bivalent Listonella anguillarum (serotype 01 and 02) vaccine (MICROViB, Microtek International) was tested on prime- and booster-immersion vaccinated sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax juveniles. We carried out 2 challenge tests on the prime-vaccinated fish, 50 and 90 d after initial vaccination. A second group of fish received a booster vaccination 60 d after the prime vaccination, and were tested with a single challenge 30 d later. Relative percent survival (RPS) was 92 and 84% (both p < 0.01) among the prime-vaccinated fish on the first and second challenges, respectively. The RPS of the booster-vaccinated sea bass was 100% (p < 0.01). Antibody titres were tested only among 10 prime-vaccinated and 10 unvaccinated (control) sea bass, 60 d post-immunisation, and were found to rise to 1/32 in the vaccinated fish. Our results demonstrate that MICROViB immersion vaccine can effectively protect juvenile sea bass from L. anguillarum infection.

  8. Experimental susceptibility of European sea bass and Senegalese sole to different betanodavirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Souto, S; Lopez-Jimena, B; Alonso, M C; García-Rosado, E; Bandín, I

    2015-05-15

    The susceptibility of juvenile European sea bass and Senegalese sole to three VNNV isolates (a reassortant RGNNV/SJNNV, as well as the parental RGNNV and SJNNV genotypes) has been evaluated by challenges using two inoculation ways (bath and intramuscular injection). The results demonstrate that these two fish species are susceptible to all the VNNV isolates tested. In European sea bass, RGNNV caused the highest cumulative mortality, reaching maximum values of viral RNA and titres. Although the SJNNV isolate did not provoke mortality or clinical signs of disease in this fish species, viral production in survivor fish was determined; on the other hand the reassortant isolate did cause mortality and clinical signs of disease, although less evident than those recorded after RGNNV infection. These results suggest that the changes suffered by the SJNNV RNA2 segment of the reassortant isolate, compared to the parental SJNNV, may have involved host-specificity and/or virulence determinants for European sea bass. Regarding Senegalese sole, although the three isolates caused 100% mortality, the reassortant strain provoked the most acute symptoms, and more quickly, especially in the bath challenge. This was also the isolate showing less difference between the number of RNA copies and viral titre, reaching the highest titres of infective viral particles in nervous tissue of infected animals. The RGNNV isolate produced the lowest values of infective viral particles. All these results suggest that the RGNNV and the reassortant isolates are the most suited for infecting European sea bass and Senegalese sole, respectively.

  9. Molecular and structural characterisation of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Francesco; Randelli, Elisa; Facchiano, Angelo M; Pallavicini, Alberto; Modonut, Martina; Scapigliati, Giuseppe

    2010-08-15

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine produced in numerous cell types, mainly T lymphocytes and macrophages, in response to inflammatory stimuli. In this paper we report the identification of a cDNA encoding a MIF molecule from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), its expression analysis and its 3D structure obtained by template-based modelling. The sea bass MIF cDNA consists of 609bp that translates in one reading frame to give the entire molecule containing 115 amino acids. The sequence contains three cysteine residues in conserved positions compared to human MIF and most Teleost fishes, with the exception of zebrafish and carp. The Cys(57)-Ala(58)-Leu(59)-Cys(60) motif, present inside the stretch important for JAB1-interaction and mediator of the thiol-protein oxidoreductase activity of MIF, is conserved in sea bass, together with the Pro(2) residue that is crucial for the tautomerase catalytic activity. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that MIF is constitutively expressed in all selected tissues and organs, with the highest mRNA level observed in thymus. MIF expression was induced after 4h in vitro stimulation of head kidney leukocytes with LPS and decreased after 24h. The predicted 3D model of sea bass MIF has been used to verify the presence of structural requirements for its known biological activities.

  10. The Jossey-Bass Reader on Contemporary Issues in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B., Ed.; Grace, Andre P., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    With contributions from leading experts in the field, The Jossey-Bass Reader on Contemporary Issues in Adult Education collects in one volume the best previously published literature on the issues and trends affecting adult education today. The volume includes influential pieces from foundational authors in the profession such as Eduard C.…

  11. Regulation of progastricsin mRNA levels in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in response to fluctuations in food availability.

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Rimoldi, Simona; Larghi, Stefano; Bernardini, Giovanni; Gornati, Rosalba; Saroglia, Marco

    2007-11-23

    In this study the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) pepsinogen C gene was isolated. The nucleotide sequences of all exons are presented. The organization of the gene is compatible with that of other aspartic proteinases. The predicted 388-residue amino acid (aa) sequence of sea bass pepsinogen C consists of a signal sequence of 16 amino acid residues, an activation peptide of 43 residues, and the mature pepsin of 329 residues containing the two characteristic active-site aspartic acids. We also analyzed fasting-induced changes in the expression of progastricsin mRNA, using real-time RT-PCR absolute quantification. Progastricsin mRNA copy number was downregulated under conditions of negative energy balance, such as starvation, and upregulated during positive energy balance, such as refeeding. These findings offer new information about the sea bass progastricsin gene and support a role of this gastric digestive enzyme in the regulation of food intake in sea bass.

  12. Expression and Localization of Aquaporin 1a in the Sea-Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during Ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Giffard-Mena, Ivone; Boulo, Viviane; Abed, Charline; Cramb, Gordon; Charmantier, Guy

    2011-01-01

    The successful establishment of a species in a given habitat depends on the ability of each of its developing stages to adapt to the environment. In order to understand this process we have studied the adaptation of a euryhaline fish, the sea-bass Dicentrarchus labrax, to various salinities during its ontogeny. The expression and localization of Aquaporin 1a (AQP1a) mRNA and protein were determined in different osmoregulatory tissues. In larvae, the sites of AQP1a expression are variable and they shift according to age, implying functional changes. In juveniles after metamorphosis (D32–D48 post-hatch, 15–25 mm) and in pre-adults, an increase in AQP1a transcript abundance was noted in the digestive tract, and the AQP1a location was observed in the intestine. In juveniles (D87–D100 post-hatch, 38–48 mm), the transcript levels of AQP1a in the digestive tract and in the kidney were higher in sea water (SW) than at lower salinity. These observations, in agreement with existing models, suggest that in SW-acclimated fish, the imbibed water is absorbed via AQP1a through the digestive tract, particularly the intestine and the rectum. In addition, AQP1a may play a role in water reabsorption in the kidney. These mechanisms compensate dehydration in SW, and they contribute to the adaptation of juveniles to salinity changes during sea-lagoon migrations. These results contribute to the interpretation of the adaptation of populations to habitats where salinity varies. PMID:21808622

  13. Effects of garlic and ginger oils on hematological and biochemical variables of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Sevdan; Ergün, Sebahattin

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of garlic and ginger oils on hematological and biochemical health characteristics of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Fish were exposed to garlic oil (0.01 or 0.02 mL/L), ginger oil (0.01 or 0.02 mL/L), or a combination of the two oils (each oil at a concentration of 0.005 or 0.01 mL/L) for 96 h via bath immersion. Results showed that the red blood cell count, hematocrit (%), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration (g/dL), mean corpuscular volume (μm(3)), mean corpuscular Hb (pg), and mean corpuscular Hb concentration (%) were not significantly affected by herb oil exposure. However, some changes in biochemical variables were observed. Sea bass exposed to the 0.005-mL/L garlic oil-ginger oil mixture exhibited a significant increase in serum glucose. Serum total protein and albumin levels decreased in sea bass that were exposed to a garlic oil-ginger oil mixture (0.005 or 0.01 mL/L) or to garlic oil at 0.02 mL/L. Serum globulin levels decreased and triglyceride levels increased in sea bass exposed to 0.02-mL/L garlic oil or to the 0.01-mL/L mixture. The serum lipase level decreased and the cholesterol level increased in fish that were exposed to 0.02-mL/L garlic oil. In summary, ginger oil at 0.01-0.02 mL/L can be used without negative effects, while the garlic oil or garlic oil-ginger oil mixture should be applied at a concentration below 0.005 mL/L for bath immersion of sea bass. This is the first study to examine how garlic oil and ginger oil exposure via bath immersion affects the hematological and biochemical status of sea bass.

  14. The CD8alpha from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): Cloning, expression and 3D modelling.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Francesco; Randelli, Elisa; Bird, Steve; Secombes, Chris J; Costantini, Susan; Facchiano, Angelo; Mazzini, Massimo; Scapigliati, Giuseppe

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we describe the cloning, expression and structural study by modelling techniques of the CD8alpha from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). The sea bass CD8alpha cDNA is comprised of 1490 bp and is translated in one reading frame to give a protein of 217 amino acids, with a predicted 26 amino acids signal peptide, a 88 bp 5'-UTR and a 748 bp 3'-UTR. A multiple alignment of CD8alpha from sea bass with other known CD8alpha sequences shows the conservation of most amino acid residues involved in the peculiar structural domains found within CD8alpha's. Cysteine residues that are involved in disulfide bonding to form the V domain are conserved. In contrast, an extra cysteine residue found in most mammals in this region is not present in sea bass. The transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions are the most conserved regions within the molecule in the alignment analysis. However, the motif (CXCP) that is thought to be responsible for binding p56lck is missing in the sea bass sequence. Phylogenetic analysis conducted using amino acid sequences showed that sea bass CD8alpha grouped with other known teleost sequences and that three different clusters were formed by the mammalian, avian and fish CD8alpha sequences. The thymus was the tissue with the highest CD8alpha expression, followed by gut, gills, peripheral blood leukocytes and spleen. Lower CD8alpha mRNA levels were found in head kidney, liver and brain. It was possible to create a partial 3D model using the human and mouse structures as template. The CD8alpha 11-120 amino acid region was taken into consideration and the best obtained 3D model shows the presence of ten beta-strands, involving about 50% of the sequence. The global structure was defined as an immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich made of two anti-parallel sheets. Two cysteines were present in this region and they were at a suitable distance to form an S-S bond as seen in the template human and mouse structures.

  15. Inhibition of cytochrome p450 enzymes by enrofloxacin in the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, E; Giorgi, M; Longo, V; Mengozzi, G; Gervasi, P G

    2003-01-10

    Currently, there are no reports on the effects of enrofloxacin (EF), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, on the cytochrome p450 enzymes in fish, although its use as antimicrobial agent in aquaculture has been put forward. Therefore, the in vivo and in vitro effects of EF on hepatic p450 enzymes of sea bass, a widespread food-producing fish, have been evaluated. Sea bass pretreated with a single dose of EF (3 mg/kg i.p.) or with three daily doses of EF (1 mg/kg i.p.) markedly depressed the microsomal N-demethylation of aminopyrine, erythromycin, the O-deethylation of 7-ethoxycoumarin, ethoxyresorufin and the 6beta-testosterone hydroxylase. In vitro experiments showed that EF at 10 microM inhibited the above-mentioned activities and, in particular, the erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) and 6beta-testosterone-hydroxylase, likely dependant on a p450 3A isoform. When the nature of ERND inhibition by EF was specifically studied with sea bass liver microsomes, it was found that EF is a potent mechanism-based inhibitor, with K(i) of 3.7 microM and a K(inact) of 0.045 min(-1). An immunoblot analysis with anti p450 3A27 of trout showed that the p450 3A isoform, constitutively expressed in sea bass, is particularly susceptible to inactivation by EF. In vitro experiments with sea bass microsomes have also demonstrated that EF is oxidative deethylated by the p450 system to ciprofloxacin (CF) and that this compound maintains the ability to inactivate the p450 enzymes. The mechanism by which EF or CF inactivate the p450 enzymes has not been studied but an attack of p450 on the cyclopropan ring, present, both in EF and CF structure, with the formation of electrophilic intermediates (i.e. radicals) has been postulated. In conclusion, the EF seems to be a powerful inhibitor of p450s in the sea bass. Therefore, the clinical use of this antibiotic in aquaculture has to be considered with caution.

  16. Temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis: effects on adult striped bass Morone saxatilis metabolic performance.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Dominique; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Fabrizio, Mary C; Gauthier, David T; Brill, Richard W

    2014-02-19

    Mycobacteriosis, a chronic bacterial disease of fishes, is prevalent in adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay (USA). Although environmental factors may play a role in disease expression, the interaction between the disease and environmental stress remains unexplored. We therefore examined the individual and interactive effects of elevated temperature, hypoxia, and mycobacteriosis on the metabolism of wild-caught adult striped bass from Chesapeake Bay using respirometry. Because the spleen is the primary target organ of mycobacteriosis in striped bass, we hypothesized that the disease interferes with the ability of fish to increase their hematocrit in the face of increasing oxygen demands. We determined standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate under normoxia (MMRN), critical oxygen saturation (S(crit)), and MMR under hypoxia (3 mg O(2) l-1: MMR(H)) for healthy and visibly diseased fish (i.e. exhibiting skin lesions indicative of mycobacteriosis). Measurements were taken at a temperature within the preferred thermal range (20°C) and at an elevated temperature (28°C) considered stressful to striped bass. In addition, we calculated aerobic scope (AS(N) = MMR(N) - SMR, AS(H) = MMR(H) - SMR) and factorial scope (FS(N) = MMR(N) SMR-1, FS(H) = MMR(H) SMR-1). SMR increased with increasing temperature, and hypoxia reduced MMR, AS, and FS. Mycobacteriosis alone did not affect either MMR(N) or MMR(H). However, elevated temperature affected the ability of diseased striped bass to tolerate hypoxia (S(crit)). Overall, our data indicate that striped bass performance under hypoxia is impaired, and that elevated water temperatures, hypoxia, and severe mycobacteriosis together reduce aerobic scope more than any of these stressors acting alone. We conclude that the scope for activity of diseased striped bass in warm hypoxic waters is significantly compromised.

  17. 77 FR 60945 - 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements an accountability measure (AM) for the commercial sector of black sea... has determined that the annual catch limit (ACL) (equal to the commercial quota) for black sea...

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) Tapasin.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rute D; da Silva, Diogo V; Pereira, Pedro J B; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian tapasin (TPN) is a key member of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation pathway, being part of the multi-protein complex called the peptide loading complex (PLC). Several studies describe its important roles in stabilizing empty MHC class I complexes, facilitating peptide loading and editing the repertoire of bound peptides, with impact on CD8(+) T cell immune responses. In this work, the gene and cDNA of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) glycoprotein TPN have been isolated and characterized. The coding sequence has a 1329 bp ORF encoding a 442-residue precursor protein with a predicted 24-amino acid leader peptide, generating a 418-amino acid mature form that retains a conserved N-glycosylation site, three conserved mammalian tapasin motifs, two Ig superfamily domains, a transmembrane domain and an ER-retention di-lysine motif at the C-terminus, suggestive of a function similar to mammalian tapasins. Similar to the human counterpart, the sea bass TPN gene comprises 8 exons, some of which correspond to separate functional domains of the protein. A three-dimensional homology model of sea bass tapasin was calculated and is consistent with the structural features described for the human molecule. Together, these results support the concept that the basic structure of TPN has been maintained through evolution. Moreover, the present data provides information that will allow further studies on cell-mediated immunity and class I antigen presentation pathway in particular, in this important fish species.

  19. Melatonin rhythms in European sea bass plasma and eye: influence of seasonal photoperiod and water temperature.

    PubMed

    García-Allegue, R; Madrid, J A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2001-08-01

    The transduction of seasonal information from the environment (i.e., photoperiod and water temperature) into melatonin rhythms was studied in sea bass. Plasma and ocular melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) was determined in autumn, winter, spring and summer (experiment 1) under natural culture conditions, and in the summer and winter solstices under both natural and "6-month out-of-phase" photoperiods (experiment 2). At each sampling, 48 sea bass were sacrificed at a rate of 6 fish every 3 hr and the level of melatonin was determined in plasma and eye cup samples by ELISA. In experiment 1, significant diel changes were observed in plasma melatonin, with nocturnal melatonin varying from 144 pg/mL (summer) to 23 pg/mL (autumn), while diurnal melatonin remained low, around 8 pg/mL throughout the year. In experiment 2, the photoperiod length was shown to control the duration of the nocturnal melatonin rise, while the water temperature determined the amplitude of the melatonin rhythm. Ocular melatonin peaked during daytime in autumn and winter, but no significant changes were detected in summer and spring. In conclusion, plasma melatonin rhythms in sea bass reflect the pineal capacity to integrate seasonal information and supply precise calendar information, which may synchronize different physiological processes such as annual reproduction and feeding rhythms.

  20. Genetic characterization and transcription analyses of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) isg15 gene.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Patricia; Garcia-Rosado, Esther; Borrego, Juan J; Alonso, M Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Fish interferons are cytokines involved in its resistance to viral infections by inducing the transcription of several interferon-induced genes, such as isg15. The aim of the present study was the genetic characterization of the European sea bass isg15 gene, describing the regulatory motifs found in its sequence. In addition, an in vivo analysis of transcription in response to betanodavirus (RGNNV genotype) and poly I:C has been performed. The analysis of the resulting sequences showed that sea bass isg15 gene is composed of two exons and a single 276-bp intron located at the 5'-UTR region. The full length cDNA is 1143-bp, including a 102-bp 5'-UTR region, a 474-bp ORF, and a 291-bp 3'-UTR region. Several mRNA-regulatory elements, including three unusual ATTTA instability motifs in the intron, and four ATTTA motifs along with a cytoplasmic polyadenylation element in the 3'-UTR region, have been found in this sequence. The in vivo analyses revealed a similar kinetics and level of transcription in fish brain and head kidney after poly I:C inoculation; however, the induction caused by RGNNV started earlier in brain, where the upregulation of isg15 gene transcription was high. The present study contributes to further characterize the European sea bass IFN I response against RGNNV infections.

  1. European sea bass show behavioural resilience to near-future ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Duteil, M.; Pope, E. C.; Pérez-Escudero, A.; de Polavieja, G. G.; Fürtbauer, I.; Brown, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA)—caused by rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2)—is thought to be a major threat to marine ecosystems and has been shown to induce behavioural alterations in fish. Here we show behavioural resilience to near-future OA in a commercially important and migratory marine finfish, the Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Sea bass were raised from eggs at 19°C in ambient or near-future OA (1000 µatm pCO2) conditions and n = 270 fish were observed 59–68 days post-hatch using automated tracking from video. Fish reared under ambient conditions, OA conditions, and fish reared in ambient conditions but tested in OA water showed statistically similar movement patterns, and reacted to their environment and interacted with each other in comparable ways. Thus our findings indicate behavioural resilience to near-future OA in juvenile sea bass. Moreover, simulated agent-based models indicate that our analysis methods are sensitive to subtle changes in fish behaviour. It is now important to determine whether the absences of any differences persist under more ecologically relevant circumstances and in contexts which have a more direct bearing on individual fitness. PMID:28018656

  2. European sea bass show behavioural resilience to near-future ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Duteil, M; Pope, E C; Pérez-Escudero, A; de Polavieja, G G; Fürtbauer, I; Brown, M R; King, A J

    2016-11-01

    Ocean acidification (OA)-caused by rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2)-is thought to be a major threat to marine ecosystems and has been shown to induce behavioural alterations in fish. Here we show behavioural resilience to near-future OA in a commercially important and migratory marine finfish, the Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Sea bass were raised from eggs at 19°C in ambient or near-future OA (1000 µatm pCO2) conditions and n = 270 fish were observed 59-68 days post-hatch using automated tracking from video. Fish reared under ambient conditions, OA conditions, and fish reared in ambient conditions but tested in OA water showed statistically similar movement patterns, and reacted to their environment and interacted with each other in comparable ways. Thus our findings indicate behavioural resilience to near-future OA in juvenile sea bass. Moreover, simulated agent-based models indicate that our analysis methods are sensitive to subtle changes in fish behaviour. It is now important to determine whether the absences of any differences persist under more ecologically relevant circumstances and in contexts which have a more direct bearing on individual fitness.

  3. Receptor specificity and functional comparison of recombinant sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) gonadotropins (FSH and LH) produced in different host systems.

    PubMed

    Molés, Gregorio; Zanuy, Silvia; Muñoz, Iciar; Crespo, Berta; Martínez, Iago; Mañanós, Evaristo; Gómez, Ana

    2011-06-01

    Different yields, biopotency, and in vivo pharmacokinetics are obtained for recombinant sea bass gonadoltropins depending on the production system and DNA construct, but they show specific activation of their corresponding receptors. Gonadotropins (GTHs) are glycoprotein hormones that play a major role in the regulation of gonadal functions. Recently, we succeeded in isolating the native sea bass Fsh from sea bass pituitaries, but to ensure the availability of bioactive GTHs and no cross-contamination with other related glycoproteins, recombinant sea bass GTHs were produced using two expression systems-insect and mammalian cells-and different constructs that yielded tethered or noncovalently bound dimers. Their production levels, binding specificity to their homologous cognate receptors, and bioactivity were investigated and compared. Both expression systems were successful in the generation of bioactive recombinant GTHs, but insect Sf9 cells yielded higher amounts of recombinant proteins than mammalian Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) stable clones. All recombinant GTHs activated their cognate receptors without cross-ligand binding and were able to stimulate sea bass gonadal steroidogenesis in vitro, although with different biopotencies. To assess their use for in vivo applications, their half-life in sea bass plasma was evaluated. Sf9-GTHs had a lower in vivo stability compared with CHO-GTHs due to their rapid clearance from the blood circulation. Cell-dependent glycosylation could be contributing to the final in vivo stability and biopotency of these recombinant glycoproteins. In conclusion, both insect and mammalian expression systems produced bioactive sea bass recombinant gonadotropins, although with particular features useful for different proposes (e.g., antibody production or in vivo studies, respectively).

  4. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 20: The SeaWiFS bio-optical archive and storage system (SeaBASS), part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Mcclain, Charles R.; Firestone, James K.; Westphal, Todd L.; Yeh, Eueng-Nan; Ge, Yuntao; Firestone, Elaine R.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS), which will serve as a repository for numerous data sets of interest to the SeaWiFS Science Team and other approved investigators in the oceanographic community. The data collected will be those data sets suitable for the development and evaluation of bio-optical algorithms which include results from SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiments (SIRREXs), prelaunch characterization of the SeaWiFS instrument by its manufacturer -- Hughes/Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC), Marine Optical Characterization Experiment (MOCE) cruises, Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) deployments and refurbishments, and field studies of other scientists outside of NASA. The primary goal of the data system is to provide a simple mechanism for querying the available archive and requesting specific items, while assuring that the data is made available only to authorized users. The design, construction, and maintenance of SeaBASS is the responsibility of the SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Team (CVT). This report is concerned with documenting the execution of this task by the CVT and consists of a series of chapters detailing the various data sets involved. The topics presented are as follows: 1) overview of the SeaBASS file architecture, 2) the bio-optical data system, 3) the historical pigment database, 4) the SIRREX database, and 5) the SBRC database.

  5. Localised residency and inter-annual fidelity to coastal foraging areas may place sea bass at risk to local depletion

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Thomas K.; Haberlin, Damien; Clohessy, Jim; Bennison, Ashley; Jessopp, Mark

    2017-01-01

    For many marine migratory fish, comparatively little is known about the movement of individuals rather than the population. Yet, such individual-based movement data is vitally important to understand variability in migratory strategies and fidelity to foraging locations. A case in point is the economically important European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) that inhabits coastal waters during the summer months before migrating offshore to spawn and overwinter. Beyond this broad generalisation we have very limited information on the movements of individuals at coastal foraging grounds. We used acoustic telemetry to track the summer movements and seasonal migrations of individual sea bass in a large tidally and estuarine influenced coastal environment. We found that the vast majority of tagged sea bass displayed long-term residency (mean, 167 days) and inter-annual fidelity (93% return rate) to specific areas. We describe individual fish home ranges of 3 km or less, and while fish clearly had core resident areas, there was movement of fish between closely located receivers. The combination of inter-annual fidelity to localised foraging areas makes sea bass very susceptible to local depletion; however, the designation of protected areas for sea bass may go a long way to ensuring the sustainability of this species. PMID:28374772

  6. Osmoregulatory response to low salinities in the European sea bass embryos: a multi-site approach.

    PubMed

    Sucré, Elliott; Bossus, Maryline; Bodinier, Charlotte; Boulo, Viviane; Charmantier, Guy; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Cucchi, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic osmoregulation effected by embryonic ionocytes in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax has been studied at several sites, including the yolk sac membrane, the first gill slits and the gut ionocytes. D. labrax embryos, spawned in seawater (SW) (39 ‰), were exposed to dilute seawater (DSW) (5 ‰) during 48 h, from stage 10 pairs of somites (10S) to hatching time (HT). Control embryos originating from the same spawn were maintained in SW. Both SW and DSW embryos were examined after 24- and 48-h exposure. Nanoosmometric measurements of the embryonic fluids osmolality suggest that late embryos are confronted with the variations in external salinity and that they were able to slightly regulate their osmolality. Immunolocalization of Na⁺/K⁺ ATPase, NKCC and CFTR has shown that DSW-exposed embryos can limit ion losses due to compensatory physiological mechanisms. CFTR and NKCC were not observed in DSW embryos in the yolk sac ionocytes and in the tegumentary ionocytes of the gill slits. The quantification of mRNA indicated that NKA, NKCC1 and CFTR transcript levels increased from stage 10S to stage HT. At stage HT, following 48 h of DSW- or SW-exposure, different responses were observed according to salinity. These results, when compared to those obtained in D. labrax juveniles and adults long-term exposed to fresh water (FW), show that in embryos the physiological response following a short-term DSW exposure is different. The mechanisms of hyper-osmoregulation observed in D. labrax embryos, although not fully efficient, allow their survival for several days in DSW.

  7. 75 FR 70192 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries; 2011 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black... specifications; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes specifications for the 2011 summer flounder, scup...-Aside (RSA) program. The implementing regulations for the Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea...

  8. Effect of different dose gamma radiation and refrigeration on the chemical and sensory properties and microbiological status of aqua cultured sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özden, Özkan; İnuğur, Müge; Erkan, Nuray

    2007-07-01

    Quality and shelf life of non-irradiated and irradiated (2.5 and 5 kGy) sea bass in ice conditions and stored at +4C were investigated by measurement in microbiological, chemical sensory analyses. Microbial counts for non-irradiated sea bass samples were higher than irradiated fish. Among chemical indicators of spoilage, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) values increased to 36.44 mg/100 g for non-irradiated sea bass during iced storage, whereas for irradiated fish lower values of 25.26 mg/100 g and 23.61 mg/100 g were recorded at 2.5 and 5 kGy, respectively (day 17). Trimethylamine (TMA-N) values and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values for irradiated samples were lower than that for non-irradiated samples. Acceptability scores for odour, taste and texture of cooked sea bass decreased with storage time. The sensory scores of sea bass stored in control and 2.5-5 kGy at +4C were 13 and 15 days, respectively. The results obtained from this study showed that the shelf life of sea bass stored in ice, as determined by overall acceptability of all data, is 13 days for non-irradiated sea bass and 15 days for 2.5 kGy irradiated and 17 days for 5 kGy irradiated sea bass.

  9. Estrogen-induced yolk precursors in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax: Status and perspectives on multiplicity and functioning of vitellogenins.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Prat, Francisco; Ibañez, Antonio José; Amano, Haruna; Koksoy, Sadi; Sullivan, Craig V

    2015-09-15

    The estrogen-inducible egg yolk precursor, vitellogenin, of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) has received considerable scientific attention by virtue of its central importance in determination of oocyte growth and egg quality in this important aquaculture species. However, the multiplicity of vitellogenins in the sea bass has only recently been examined. Recent cloning and homology analyses have revealed that the sea bass possesses the three forms of vitellogenin, VtgAa, VtgAb and VtgC, reported to occur in some other highly evolved teleosts. Progress has been made in assessing the relative abundance and special structural features of the three Vtgs and their likely roles in oocyte maturation and embryonic nutrition. This report discusses these findings in the context of our prior knowledge of vitellogenesis in this species and of the latest advances in our understanding of the evolution and function of multiple Vtgs in acanthomorph fishes.

  10. Adaptive bone formation in acellular vertebrae of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Kranenbarg, Sander; van Cleynenbreugel, Tim; Schipper, Henk; van Leeuwen, Johan

    2005-09-01

    Mammalian bone is an active tissue in which osteoblasts and osteoclasts balance bone mass. This process of adaptive modelling and remodelling is probably regulated by strain-sensing osteocytes. Bone of advanced teleosts is acellular yet, despite the lack of osteocytes, it is capable of an adaptive response to physical stimuli. Strenuous exercise is known to induce lordosis. Lordosis is a ventrad curvature of the vertebral column, and the affected vertebrae show an increase in bone formation. The effects of lordosis on the strain distribution in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) vertebrae are assessed using finite element modelling. The response of the local tissue is analyzed spatially and ontogenetically in terms of bone volume. Lordotic vertebrae show a significantly increased strain energy due to the increased load compared with normal vertebrae when loaded in compression. High strain regions are found in the vertebral centrum and parasagittal ridges. The increase in strain energy is attenuated by a change in architecture due to the increased bone formation. The increased bone formation is seen mainly at the articular surfaces of the vertebrae, although some extra bone is formed in the vertebral centrum. Regions in which the highest strains are found do not spatially correlate with regions in which the most extensive bone apposition occurs in lordotic vertebrae of sea bass. Mammalian-like strain-regulated bone modelling is probably not the guiding mechanism in adaptive bone modelling of acellular sea bass vertebrae. Chondroidal ossification is found at the articular surfaces where it mediates a rapid adaptive response, potentially attenuating high stresses on the dorsal zygapophyses.

  11. Generation and characterization of the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax brain and liver transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Magnanou, Elodie; Klopp, Christophe; Noirot, Celine; Besseau, Laurence; Falcón, Jack

    2014-07-01

    The sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax is the center of interest of an increasing number of basic or applied research investigations, even though few genomic or transcriptomic data is available. Current public data only represent a very partial view of its transcriptome. To fill this need, we characterized brain and liver transcriptomes in a generalist manner that would benefit the entire scientific community. We also tackled some bioinformatics questions, related to the effect of RNA fragment size on the assembly quality. Using Illumina RNA-seq, we sequenced organ pools from both wild and farmed Atlantic and Mediterranean fishes. We built two distinct cDNA libraries per organ that only differed by the length of the selected mRNA fragments. Efficiency of assemblies performed on either or both fragments size differed depending on the organ, but remained very close reflecting the quality of the technical replication. We generated more than 19,538Mbp of data. Over 193million reads were assembled into 35,073 contigs (average length=2374bp; N50=3257). 59% contigs were annotated with SwissProt, which corresponded to 12,517 unique genes. We compared the Gene Ontology (GO) contig distribution between the sea bass and the tilapia. We also looked for brain and liver GO specific signatures as well as KEGG pathway coverage. 23,050 putative micro-satellites and 134,890 putative SNPs were identified. Our sampling strategy and assembly pipeline provided a reliable and broad reference transcriptome for the sea bass. It constitutes an indisputable quantitative and qualitative improvement of the public data, as it provides 5 times more base pairs with fewer and longer contigs. Both organs present unique signatures consistent with their specific physiological functions. The discrepancy in fragment size effect on assembly quality between organs lies in their difference in complexity and thus does not allow prescribing any general strategy. This information on two key organs will facilitate

  12. Characterization of the sea bass melanocortin 5 receptor: a putative role in hepatic lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, E; Rubio, V C; Cerdá-Reverter, J M

    2009-12-01

    The melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5R) plays a key role in the regulation of exocrine secretion in mammalian species. This receptor has also been characterized in some fish species but its function is unknown. We report the molecular and pharmacological characterization, as well as the tissue expression pattern, of sea bass MC5R. Cloning of five active alleles showing different levels of sensitivity to endogenous melanocortin and one non-functional allele demonstrate the allelic complexity of the MC5R locus. The sea bass receptor was activated by all the melanocortins tested, with ACTH and desacetyl-MSH and beta-MSH showing the lowest efficiency. The acetylation of the MSH isoforms seems to be critical for the effectiveness of the agonist. Agouti-related protein had no effect on basal or agonist-stimulated activation of the receptor. SbMC5R was mainly expressed in the brain but lower expression levels were found in several peripheral tissues, including liver. Progressive fasting did not induce up- or downregulation of hypothalamic MC5R expression, suggesting that central MC5R is not involved in the regulation of food intake in the sea bass. MTII, a sbMC5R agonist, stimulated hepatic lipolysis in vitro, measured as free fatty acid release into the culture medium after melanocortin agonist exposure of liver fragments, suggesting that MC5R is involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Taken together, the data suggest that different allelic combinations may confer differential sensitivity to endogenous melanocortin in tissues where MC5R is expressed and, by extension, in hepatic lipid metabolism.

  13. Characterization of the annual regulation of reproductive and immune parameters on the testis of European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Valero, Yulema; Sánchez-Hernández, Miriam; García-Alcázar, Alicia; García-Ayala, Alfonsa; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2015-10-01

    The European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L., is a seasonal gonochoristic species, the males of which are generally mature during their second year of life. It has been demonstrated that cytokines and immune cells play a key role in the testicular development. This reproductive-immune interaction might be very important in the sea bass since several pathogens are able to colonise the gonad and persist in this tissue, altering further reproductive functions and spreading disease. This study aims to investigate the reproductive cycle of 1-year European sea bass males by analysing cell proliferation and apoptosis and the expression profile of some reproductive and immune-related genes in the testis, as well as the serum sex steroid levels. Our data demonstrate that, in 1-year-old European sea bass males, the testis undergoes the spermatogenesis process and that the reproductive and immune parameters analysed varied during the reproductive cycle. In the testis, the highest proliferative rates were recorded at the spermatogenesis stage, while the highest apoptotic rates were recorded at the spawning stage. We have also analysed, for the first time in European sea bass males, the serum levels of 17β-estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone and the gene expression profile of the enzymes implied in their production, determining that at least E2 might be involved in the regulation of the reproductive cycle. Some immune relevant genes, including cytokines, lymphocyte receptors, and anti-viral and anti-bacterial molecules were detected in the testis of naïve European sea bass specimens, and their expression profile was related to the stages of the reproductive cycle, suggesting an important role for the defence of the reproductive tissues.

  14. European sea bass genome and its variation provide insights into adaptation to euryhalinity and speciation

    PubMed Central

    Tine, Mbaye; Kuhl, Heiner; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Louro, Bruno; Desmarais, Erick; Martins, Rute S.T.; Hecht, Jochen; Knaust, Florian; Belkhir, Khalid; Klages, Sven; Dieterich, Roland; Stueber, Kurt; Piferrer, Francesc; Guinand, Bruno; Bierne, Nicolas; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Bargelloni, Luca; Power, Deborah M.; Bonhomme, François; Canario, Adelino V. M.; Reinhardt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a temperate-zone euryhaline teleost of prime importance for aquaculture and fisheries. This species is subdivided into two naturally hybridizing lineages, one inhabiting the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and the other the Mediterranean and Black seas. Here we provide a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly of its genome that shows a high degree of synteny with the more highly derived teleosts. We find expansions of gene families specifically associated with ion and water regulation, highlighting adaptation to variation in salinity. We further generate a genome-wide variation map through RAD-sequencing of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. We show that variation in local recombination rates strongly influences the genomic landscape of diversity within and differentiation between lineages. Comparing predictions of alternative demographic models to the joint allele-frequency spectrum indicates that genomic islands of differentiation between sea bass lineages were generated by varying rates of introgression across the genome following a period of geographical isolation. PMID:25534655

  15. European sea bass genome and its variation provide insights into adaptation to euryhalinity and speciation.

    PubMed

    Tine, Mbaye; Kuhl, Heiner; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Louro, Bruno; Desmarais, Erick; Martins, Rute S T; Hecht, Jochen; Knaust, Florian; Belkhir, Khalid; Klages, Sven; Dieterich, Roland; Stueber, Kurt; Piferrer, Francesc; Guinand, Bruno; Bierne, Nicolas; Volckaert, Filip A M; Bargelloni, Luca; Power, Deborah M; Bonhomme, François; Canario, Adelino V M; Reinhardt, Richard

    2014-12-23

    The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a temperate-zone euryhaline teleost of prime importance for aquaculture and fisheries. This species is subdivided into two naturally hybridizing lineages, one inhabiting the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and the other the Mediterranean and Black seas. Here we provide a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly of its genome that shows a high degree of synteny with the more highly derived teleosts. We find expansions of gene families specifically associated with ion and water regulation, highlighting adaptation to variation in salinity. We further generate a genome-wide variation map through RAD-sequencing of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. We show that variation in local recombination rates strongly influences the genomic landscape of diversity within and differentiation between lineages. Comparing predictions of alternative demographic models to the joint allele-frequency spectrum indicates that genomic islands of differentiation between sea bass lineages were generated by varying rates of introgression across the genome following a period of geographical isolation.

  16. Scarcity of parasite assemblages in the Adriatic-reared European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Ivona; Petrić, Mirela; Segvić, Tanja; Dobričić, Nikolina

    2010-11-24

    The shaping forces of parasite community structure still is the main subject in the ecological parasitology whilst community predictability and repeatability showed that hardly a generally applicable role is ever going to be assessed. Defining and describing parasite communities can be very useful from the epizootiological point, in order to help in the assessment of the medical and economical impact of certain parasitosis, moreover when hosts are economically valuable species. Since parasite assemblages in reared European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) in Adriatic cage systems can play an important role in the economic feasibility of the rearing process, we evaluated their character through assessing diversity indices, nestedness of parasite communities and their differences in respect to season and composition, as well as fish growth. We observed colonization of a new monogenean species (Furnestinia echeneis) and general impoverishment of parasites populations over time in the Adriatic-reared fish parasite assemblages. Parasite assemblages differed significantly between seasons for both fish species, while species richness, evenness, diversity indices and nestedness of parasitic communities in the sea bream showed to be significantly higher compared to those in the sea bass. Such characteristics define parasite communities of both Adriatic-reared fish as species poor although structured and ordered assemblages.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) calreticulin.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rute D; Moreira, Ana R; Pereira, Pedro J B; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2013-06-01

    Mammalian calreticulin (CRT) is a key molecular chaperone and regulator of Ca(2+) homeostasis in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), also being implicated in a variety of physiological/pathological processes outside the ER. Importantly, it is involved in assembly of MHC class I molecules. In this work, sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) CRT (Dila-CRT) gene and cDNA have been isolated and characterized. The mature protein retains two conserved motifs, three structural/functional domains (N, P and C), three type 1 and 2 motifs repeated in tandem, a conserved pair of cysteines and ER-retention motif. It is a single-copy gene composed of 9 exons. Dila-CRT three-dimensional homology models are consistent with the structural features described for mammalian molecules. Together, these results are supportive of a highly conserved structure of CRT through evolution. Moreover, the present data provides information that will allow further studies on sea bass CRT involvement in immunity and in particular class I antigen presentation.

  18. Applications of NMR metabolomics to the study of foodstuffs: truffle, kiwifruit, lettuce, and sea bass.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Capitani, Donatella

    2012-08-01

    In this review, four examples of the NMR metabolomic approach to foodstuff investigation are reported. Different types of foodstuff of different origin (namely truffle, kiwifruit, lettuce, and sea bass), with different metabolite composition, processing, and storage procedures have been chosen to demonstrate the versatility and potentiality of NMR in the foodstuff analysis. Fundamental aspects of NMR methodology such as sample preparation, metabolites extraction, quantitative elaboration of spectral data, and statistical analysis have been described. Metabolic profilings of aqueous and/or organic extracts as obtained by one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments have been reported together with the results obtained from their statistical elaboration. Discrimination between wild and farmed sea bass and between genetically modified and wild lettuces as well as changes in the kiwifruit metabolic profiles monitored over the season have been investigated. For each foodstuff, some complementary findings provided by other analytical methods are also described to underline the importance of different analytical approaches to explore specific aspects related to foodstuff.

  19. Evaluation of the impact of polyethylene microbeads ingestion in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae.

    PubMed

    Mazurais, D; Ernande, B; Quazuguel, P; Severe, A; Huelvan, C; Madec, L; Mouchel, O; Soudant, P; Robbens, J; Huvet, A; Zambonino-Infante, J

    2015-12-01

    Microplastics are present in marine habitats worldwide and may be ingested by low trophic organisms such as fish larvae, with uncertain physiological consequences. The present study aims at assessing the impact of polyethylene (PE 10-45 μM) microbeads ingestion in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae. Fish were fed an inert diet including 0, 10(4) and 10(5) fluorescent microbeads per gram from 7 until 43 days post-hatching (dph). Microbeads were detected in the gastrointestinal tract in all fish fed diet incorporating PE. Our data revealed an efficient elimination of PE beads from the gut since no fluorescent was observed in the larvae after 48 h depuration. While the mortality rate increased significantly with the amount of microbeads scored per larvae at 14 and 20 dph, only ingestion of the highest concentration slightly impacted mortality rates. Larval growth and inflammatory response through Interleukine-1-beta (IL-1β) gene expression were not found to be affected while cytochrome-P450-1A1 (cyp1a1) expression level was significantly positively correlated with the number of microbeads scored per larva at 20 dph. Overall, these results suggest that ingestion of PE microbeads had limited impact on sea bass larvae possibly due to their high potential of egestion.

  20. Updating control of puberty in male European sea bass: A holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Manuel; Espigares, Felipe; Felip, Alicia; Escobar, Sebastian; Molés, Gregorio; Rodríguez, Rafael; Alvarado, Maria Victoria; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia

    2015-09-15

    Puberty is the process by which an immature animal acquires the ability to reproduce for the first time; its onset occurs soon after sexual differentiation and is characterized by the beginning of gametogenesis in both sexes. Here we present new insights on when and how the onset of puberty occurs in male European sea bass, its dependence on reaching a critical size, and how it can be controlled by photoperiod, revealing the existence of a photolabile period with important applications in aquaculture. Regarding size, apparently only European sea bass above a certain size threshold attain the ability to carry out gametogenesis during their first year of life, while their smaller counterparts fail to do so. This could imply that fish need to achieve an optimal threshold of hormone production, particularly from the kisspeptin/Gnrh/Gth systems, in order to initiate and conclude puberty. However, a long-term restricted feeding regime during the second year of life did not prevent the onset of puberty, thus suggesting that the fish are able to maintain the reproductive function, even at the expense of other functions. Finally, the study of daily hormonal rhythms under different photoperiod regimes revealed the equivalence between their core values and those of seasonal rhythms, in such a way that the daily rhythms could be considered as the functional units of the seasonal rhythms.

  1. Synthetic hepcidin from fish: Uptake and protection against Vibrio anguillarum in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Claudio Andrés; Acosta, Félix; Montero, Daniel; Guzmán, Fanny; Torres, Elisa; Vega, Belinda; Mercado, Luis

    2016-08-01

    The generation of a variety of new therapeutic agents to control and reduce the effects of pathogen in aquaculture is urgently needed. The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the major components of the innate defenses and typically have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, absorption and distributions of exogenous AMPs for therapeutics application on farmed fish species need to be studied. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown the properties of hepcidin as an effective antimicrobial peptide produced in fish in response to LPS and iron. Therefore, we decided to investigate the antimicrobial activity of four synthetic variants of hepcidin against Vibrio anguillarum in vitro, and using the more effective peptide we demonstrated the pathogen's ability to protect against the infection in European Sea bass. Additionally the uptake of this peptide after ip injection was demonstrated, reaching its distribution organs such as intestine, head kidney, spleen and liver. The synthetic peptide did not show cytotoxic effects and significantly reduced the accumulated mortalities percentage (23.5%) compared to the European Sea bass control (72.5%) at day 21. In conclusion, synthetic hepcidin shows antimicrobial activity against V. anguillarum and the in vivo experiments suggest that synthetic hepcidin was distributed trough the different organs in the fish. Thus, synthetic hepcidin antimicrobial peptide could have high potential for therapeutic application in farmed fish species.

  2. Acoustic stress responses in juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax induced by offshore pile driving.

    PubMed

    Debusschere, Elisabeth; Hostens, Kris; Adriaens, Dominique; Ampe, Bart; Botteldooren, Dick; De Boeck, Gudrun; De Muynck, Amelie; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Underwater sound generated by pile driving during construction of offshore wind farms is a major concern in many countries. This paper reports on the acoustic stress responses in young European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (68 and 115 days old), based on four in situ experiments as close as 45 m from a pile driving activity. As a primary stress response, whole-body cortisol seemed to be too sensitive to 'handling' bias. On the other hand, measured secondary stress responses to pile driving showed significant reductions in oxygen consumption rate and low whole-body lactate concentrations. Furthermore, repeated exposure to impulsive sound significantly affected both primary and secondary stress responses. Under laboratory conditions, no tertiary stress responses (no changes in specific growth rate or Fulton's condition factor) were noted in young sea bass 30 days after the treatment. Still, the demonstrated acute stress responses and potentially repeated exposure to impulsive sound in the field will inevitably lead to less fit fish in the wild.

  3. Vaccination trials of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) against pasteurellosis using oral, intraperitoneal and immersion methods.

    PubMed

    Paolini, A; Ridolfi, V; Zezza, D; Cocchietto, M; Musa, M; Pavone, A; Conte, A; Giorgetti, G

    2005-01-01

    Photobacterium damsela subsp. piscicida (Phdp) is the aetiological agent of fish pasteurellosis, causing heavy losses in intensive mariculture plants. The present work compares the protective efficacy of five different vaccine formulation: oral, intraperitoneal, immersion, bivalent immersion (Vibrio anguillarum) and immersion associated with immunostimulants. Each of these vaccine formulations containing whole cells of Phdp formalin inactivated (FKC), was administered to 100 sea bass weighing approximately 2 g; 100 non-vaccinated sea bass were used as controls. Protection against pasteurellosis was tested for 40 days after vaccination by intraperitoneal challenge: each fish was inoculated with Phdp cells at a concentration of 2.75 x 10(4) cfu/ml. Mortality was recorded over the following 14 days, vaccine protection was evaluated using a relative percentage survival (RPS) index. The intraperitoneal formulation gave excellent protection (RPS 82.4%). The most effective immersion form was that followed by simple immersion (RPS 23.1%) followed by the group vaccinated with bivalent vaccine (RPS 18.7%). Protection conferred orally (RPS 28.6%) is of interest for practical purposes.

  4. Pyrosequencing survey of intestinal microbiota diversity in cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed functional diets.

    PubMed

    Carda-Diéguez, Miguel; Mira, Alex; Fouz, Belén

    2014-02-01

    The routine use of chemotherapy to control bacterial diseases in aquatic populations has resulted in the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The inclusion of immunostimulants in fish diets (functional diets) is one of the main strategies to solve this threat. This study aimed to analyse the intestinal microbiota of cultured European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed two functional diets applying pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. Quality-filtered reads were assigned to family and genus taxonomic levels using the Ribosomal Database Project classifier. The autochthonous intestinal microbiota of sea bass consisted of two dominant bacterial genera: Dysgonomonas (Bacteroidetes) and Ralstonia (Betaproteobacteria), but effects of diet on this dominance were observed. In fact, the genus Dysgonomonas significantly decreased in samples from fish fed functional diets, recovering control levels at the end of the study. However, Ralstonia proportion significantly raised in samples from fish fed diet C and maintained this high level along the study period. The developed protocol could be used to study the composition of bacterial communities in the fish intestine under different nutritional and environmental conditions and its impact on infection, immune system and general fitness of fish.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) CD8alpha.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rute D; Nascimento, Diana S; Vale, Ana do; Santos, Nuno M S Dos

    2006-03-15

    In this work, the gene and cDNA of the sea bass CD8alpha have been isolated and characterized. The coding sequence has an ORF of 666 bp. It retains the Ig motif that interacts with MHC and the two cysteines responsible for an intra-chain disulfide bridge. The hinge region contains the two essential cysteines involved in dimerization. The transmembrane region is well conserved in all analysed sequences. Similar to other teleosts, the cytoplasmic region lacks the consensus p56(lck) motif common in higher vertebrates. Analysis of the expression pattern using RT-PCR shows the highest expression in the thymus. Like in the human gene, the sea bass CD8alpha genomic structure is organized into six exons, which roughly correspond to separate functional domains of the protein. Southern blotting shows that CD8alpha exists as a single copy gene. Together, these results support the concept that the basic structure of CD8alpha has been maintained through evolution.

  6. A polygenic hypothesis for sex determination in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Vandeputte, Marc; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Chavanne, Hervé; Chatain, Béatrice

    2007-06-01

    Polygenic sex determination, although suspected in several species, is thought to be evolutionarily unstable and has been proven in very few cases. In the European sea bass, temperature is known to influence the sex ratio. We set up a factorial mating, producing 5.893 individuals from 253 full-sib families, all reared in a single batch to avoid any between-families environmental effects. The proportion of females in the offspring was 18.3%, with a large variation between families. Interpreting sex as a threshold trait, the heritability estimate was 0.62 +/- 0.12. The observed distribution of family sex ratios was in accordance with a polygenic model or with a four-sex-factors system with environmental variance and could not be explained by any genetic model without environmental variance. We showed that there was a positive genetic correlation between weight and sex (r(A) = 0.50 +/- 0.09), apart from the phenotypic sex dimorphism in favor of females. This supports the hypothesis that a minimum size is required for sea bass juveniles to differentiate as females. An evolution of sex ratio by frequency-dependent selection is expected during the domestication process of Dicentrarchus labrax populations, raising concern about the release of such fish in the wild.

  7. Concurrent environmental stressors and jellyfish stings impair caged European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) physiological performances

    PubMed Central

    Bosch-Belmar, Mar; Giomi, Folco; Rinaldi, Alessandro; Mandich, Alberta; Fuentes, Verónica; Mirto, Simone; Sarà, Gianluca; Piraino, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The increasing frequency of jellyfish outbreaks in coastal areas has led to multiple ecological and socio-economic issues, including mass mortalities of farmed fish. We investigated the sensitivity of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a widely cultured fish in the Mediterranean Sea, to the combined stressors of temperature, hypoxia and stings from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, through measurement of oxygen consumption rates (MO2), critical oxygen levels (PO2crit), and histological analysis of tissue damage. Higher levels of MO2, PO2crit and gill damage in treated fish demonstrated that the synergy of environmental and biotic stressors dramatically impair farmed fish metabolic performances and increase their health vulnerability. As a corollary, in the current scenario of ocean warming, these findings suggest that the combined effects of recurrent hypoxic events and jellyfish blooms in coastal areas might also threaten wild fish populations. PMID:27301314

  8. A radiation hybrid map of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) based on 1581 markers: Synteny analysis with model fish genomes.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Richard; Senger, Fabrice; Rakotomanga, Michaelle; Sadequi, Naoual; Volckaert, Filip A M; Hitte, Christophe; Galibert, Francis

    2010-10-01

    The selective breeding of fish for aquaculture purposes requires the understanding of the genetic basis of traits such as growth, behaviour, resistance to pathogens and sex determinism. Access to well-developed genomic resources is a prerequisite to improve the knowledge of these traits. Having this aim in mind, a radiation hybrid (RH) panel of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was constructed from splenocytes irradiated at 3000 rad, allowing the construction of a 1581 marker RH map. A total of 1440 gene markers providing ~4400 anchors with the genomes of three-spined stickleback, medaka, pufferfish and zebrafish, helped establish synteny relationships with these model species. The identification of Conserved Segments Ordered (CSO) between sea bass and model species allows the anticipation of the position of any sea bass gene from its location in model genomes. Synteny relationships between sea bass and gilthead seabream were addressed by mapping 37 orthologous markers. The sea bass genetic linkage map was integrated in the RH map through the mapping of 141 microsatellites. We are thus able to present the first complete gene map of sea bass. It will facilitate linkage studies and the identification of candidate genes and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). The RH map further positions sea bass as a genetic and evolutionary model of Perciformes and supports their ongoing aquaculture expansion.

  9. 77 FR 28305 - Temporary Rule To Delay Start Date of 2012-2013 South Atlantic Black Sea Bass Commercial Fishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... black sea bass, and improves fisheries data collection in the for-hire sector of the snapper-grouper... year, and to improve fisheries data reporting in the for-hire sector of the snapper-grouper fishery... Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) was provided with data from the NMFS Southeast Fisheries...

  10. Exposure to chronic moderate hypoxia impacts physiological and developmental traits of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae.

    PubMed

    Vanderplancke, Gwenaëlle; Claireaux, Guy; Quazuguel, Patrick; Huelvan, Christine; Corporeau, Charlotte; Mazurais, David; Zambonino-Infante, José-Luis

    2015-02-01

    Since European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae occurred in coastal and estuarine waters at early life stages, they are likely to be exposed to reduced dissolved oxygen waters at a sensitive developmental stage. However, the effects of hypoxia at larval stage, which depend in part on fish species, remain very poorly documented in European sea bass. In the present study, the impacts of an experimental exposure to a chronic moderate hypoxia (40 % air saturation) between 30 and 38 days post-hatching on the physiological and developmental traits of European sea bass larvae were assessed. This study was based on the investigation of survival and growth rates, parameters related to energy metabolism [Citrate Synthase (CS) and Cytochrome-c Oxidase (COX) activities], and biological indicators of the maturation of digestive function [pancreatic (trypsin, amylase) and intestinal (Alkaline Phosphatase "AP" and Aminopeptidase-N "N-LAP") enzymes activities]. While condition of hypoxia exposure did not induce any significant mortality event, lower growth rate as well as CS/COX activity ratio was observed in the Hypoxia Treatment group. In parallel, intestinal enzyme activities were also lower under hypoxia. Altogether, the present data suggest that sea bass larvae cope with moderate hypoxia by (1) reducing processes that are costly in energy and (2) regulating mitochondria functions in order to respond to energy-demand conditions. Both these effects are associated with a delay in the maturation of the digestive function.

  11. Regulation of natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) genes in teleost fish, gilthead seabream and European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Esteban, María A; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Arizcun, Marta; Meseguer, José; Cuesta, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are a family of antioxidant proteins also involved in inflammation and innate immunity. Prx1 and Prx2 are also known as natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF)-A and NKEF-B, respectively, by their ability to prime the mammalian NK-cells activity. In teleost fish, NKEF genes have been isolated but their regulation has been scarcely evaluated. We have identified orthologues of the NKEF-A and NKEF-B genes in the teleost European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) which showed constitutive expression and wide distribution in their tissues. In vitro, the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass NKEFs were slightly up-regulated in head-kidney leucocytes after stimulation with unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, poly I:C or pathogenic bacteria. In vivo, seabream and sea bass infection with nodavirus up-regulated the expression of NKEF genes in the brain (target tissue for nodavirus) and head-kidney at different infection times. Although further studies are necessary to ascertain their role as antioxidant proteins and in the immune response in teleost fish, our results suggest a primary role of seabream and sea bass NKEFs in the innate immune response against bacterial and viral agents.

  12. Molecular characterization of two sea bass gonadotropin receptors: cDNA cloning, expression analysis, and functional activity.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ana; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Carrillo, Manuel

    2007-06-30

    The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH) play central roles in vertebrate reproduction. They act through their cognate receptors to stimulate testicular and ovarian functions. The present study reports the cloning and characterization of two sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) cDNAs encoding a FSH receptor (sbsFSHR) and a LH receptor (sbsLHR). The mature proteins display typical features of the glycoprotein hormone receptor family members, but the sbsFSHR also contains some remarkable differences when compared with other fish or mammalian FSHRs. Among them, a distinct extracellular N-terminal cysteine domain as regards to its length and cysteine number, and the presence of an extra leucine-rich repeat. Expression analysis revealed that the sbsFSHR is exclusively expressed in gonadal tissues, specifically in the follicular wall of previtellogenic and early-vitellogenic follicles. On the contrary, sbsLHR mRNA was found to be widely distributed in sea bass somatic tissues. When stably expressed in mammalian cell lines, sbsFSHR was specifically stimulated by bovine FSH, while sbsLHR was activated by both bovine LH and FSH. Nevertheless, specific stimulation of the sbsLHR was observed when recombinant sea bass gonadotropins were used. The isolation of a FSHR and a LHR in sea bass opens new ways to study gonadotropin action in this species.

  13. Distribution and migration of adult striped bass in Lake Whitney, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farquhar, B.W.; Gutreuter, S.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty adult (3.2a??8.6 kg) striped bass Morone saxatilis were tagged with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked for up to 475 d in 9,510-hectare Lake Whitney, a Texas reservoir, to determine seasonal distribution, migration patterns, and water temperatures occupied. Striped bass distribution in summer was limited to an area near the dam, where they survived temperatures as high as 29.0A?C. Tagged fish generally were found in the coolest water available (27.0a??29.0A?C) that contained adequate dissolved oxygen (>4.0 mg/L) in summer and occupied the warmest water (7.4a??8.8A?C) in winter. For the rest of the year, the fish were distributed throughout available water temperatures. Beginning in autumn, most striped bass moved up the reservoir to and into the main tributaries and remained there until spring, when they returned to the main reservoir. No spawning run up main tributaries was observed in either of the two study years, possibly due to low inflows. Individual fish displayed a preference for certain areas to which they returned yearly.

  14. Cloning and organisation analysis of a hepcidin-like gene and cDNA from Japan sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicus.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Lin; Wang, Ke-Jian; Zhou, Hong-Ling; Yang, Ming

    2006-09-01

    A hepcidin gene was amplified from the liver of Lateolabrax japonicus challenged with a mixed bacterial suspension. Using RT-PCR and RACE, a full length cDNA sequence of the hepcidin like antimicrobial peptide was determined. The complete hepcidin cDNA Hepc2 is 581 bases and contains an ORF of 258 bases with a coding capacity of 86 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence, which shares eight cysteines at the identical conserved positions, and gene organisation are conserved between Japan sea bass and other fish species. The predicted molecular weight of the peptide is 9.4 kDa. The 3'-untranslated region is composed of 225 bp with a polyadenylation signal AATAAA sequence appearing at 189 nt and the poly(A) tail at 212 nt downstream of stop codon TGA. The predicted signal peptide cleavage site of its deduced peptide is between codons 24 and 25. Japan sea bass hepcidin-like genomic DNA hepc2 sequence including upstream and downstream regions was composed of two introns and three exons. The cloned 173-bp upstream sequence of Japan sea bass hepcidin-like gene contains putative regulatory elements and several binding motifs for transcription factors. High homologies with hepcidin cDNAs and peptides of white bass (Morone chrysops), human and other fish were shown. Hepc2 of Lateolabrax japonicus is a new member of the hepcidin gene family.

  15. Biological responses of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed to contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    De Domenico, Elena; Mauceri, Angela; Giordano, Daniela; Maisano, Maria; Giannetto, Alessia; Parrino, Vincenzo; Natalotto, Antonino; D'Agata, Alessia; Cappello, Tiziana; Fasulo, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    Multiple anthropogenic activities present along coastal environments may affect the health status of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, specimens of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed for 30 days to highly contaminated sediment collected from the industrial area between Augusta and Priolo (Syracuse, Italy), defined as the most mercury polluted site in the Mediterranean. The aim was to evaluate the responses of juvenile D. labrax to highly contaminated sediments, particularly enriched in Hg, in order to enhance the scarce knowledge on the potential compensatory mechanisms developed by organisms under severe stress conditions. Apoptotic and proliferative activities [cell turnover: Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and FAS Ligand (FasL)], onset of hypoxic condition [hypoxia: Hypoxia Inducibile Factor-1α (HIF-1α)], and changes in the neuroendocrine control mechanisms [neurotransmission: Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH), Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 3 (5-HT3)] were investigated in sea bass gill tissues. In the specimens exposed to the polluted sediment, the occurrence of altered cell turnover may result in impaired gas exchange that leads to a condition of "functional hypoxia". Changes in neurotransmission pathways were also observed, suggesting a remodeling process as an adaptive response to increase the O2-carrying capacity and restore the normal physiological conditions of the gills. Overall, these findings demonstrated that although chronic exposure to heavy metal polluted sediments alters the functioning of both the nervous and endocrine systems, as well as plasticity of the gill epithelium, fish are able to trigger a series of physiological adjustments or adaptations interfering with specific neuroendocrine control mechanisms that enable their long-term survival.

  16. Bio-Mos: an effective inducer of dicentracin gene expression in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Forchino, Andrea; Rimoldi, Simona; Brambilla, Fabio; Antonini, Micaela; Saroglia, Marco

    2009-08-01

    Concern over the use of dietary antibiotics in aquaculture has encouraged the industry to search for alternatives that both enhance performance and afford protection from disease. Bio-Mos, derived from the outer cell wall of a specific strain of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Alltech Inc, USA) is a product that fits these criteria. Here, we present data on the impact of a Bio-Mos supplemented diet on the mRNA copy number of the antimicrobial peptide dicentracin, whose transcript regulation has not yet been explored in fish.We analyzed Bio-Mos-induced changes in the expression of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) dicentracin,using a one-tube two-temperature real-time RT-PCR with which the gene expression can be absolutely quantified using the standard curve method. Our results revealed that 30 days of feeding fish with diets containing Bio-Mos supplemented at either 3 per thousand or 5 per thousand significantly increased the dicentracin mRNA copy number in the head kidney. Furthermore, the mRNA copy number in fish fed at 3 per thousand was significantly higher than that of the group fed at 5 per thousand for the same period of feeding Bio-Mos. A longer feeding period (60 days)did not further increase the dicentracin transcript levels as compared to the values recorded after 30 days of feeding either in the group fed at 3 per thousand or in the one fed at 5 per thousand diet. However, the transcript levels in fish fed at 3 per thousand proved to be significantly higher than those of the controls after 60 days of feeding. These findings offer new information about the response of antimicrobial peptides at the transcriptional level to diets supplemented with immune response modulators, and support a role of Bio-Mos in promoting sea bass nonspecific immune system.

  17. Somatotropic axis genes are expressed before pituitary onset during zebrafish and sea bass development.

    PubMed

    Besseau, Laurence; Fuentès, Michaël; Sauzet, Sandrine; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Chatain, Béatrice; Covès, Denis; Boeuf, Gilles; Falcón, Jack

    2013-12-01

    The somatotropic axis, or growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis, of fish is involved in numerous physiological process including regulation of ionic and osmotic balance, lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, growth, reproduction, immune function and behavior. It is thought that GH plays a role in fish development but conflicting results have been obtained concerning the ontogeny of the somatotropic axis. Here we investigated the developmental expression of GH, GH-receptor (GHR) and IGF-1 genes and of a GH-like protein from fertilization until early stages of larval development in two Teleosts species, Danio rerio and Dicentrarchus labrax, by PCR, in situ hybridization and Western blotting. GH, GHR and IGF-1 mRNA were present in unfertilized eggs and at all stages of embryonic development, all three displaying a similar distribution in the two species. First located in the whole embryo (until 12 hpf in zebrafish and 76 hpf in sea bass), the mRNAs appeared then distributed in the head and tail, from where they disappeared progressively to concentrate in the forming pituitary gland. Proteins immunoreactive with a specific sea bass anti-GH antibody were also detected at all stages in this species. Differences in intensity and number of bands suggest that protein processing varies from early to later stages of development. The data show that all actors of the somatotropic axis are present from fertilization in these two species, suggesting they plays a role in early development, perhaps in an autocrine/paracrine mode as all three elements displayed a similar distribution at each stage investigated.

  18. Behavioural Stress Responses Predict Environmental Perception in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Millot, Sandie; Cerqueira, Marco; Castanheira, Maria-Filipa; Øverli, Øyvind; Oliveira, Rui F.; Martins, Catarina I. M.

    2014-01-01

    Individual variation in the response to environmental challenges depends partly on innate reaction norms, partly on experience-based cognitive/emotional evaluations that individuals make of the situation. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pre-existing differences in behaviour predict the outcome of such assessment of environmental cues, using a conditioned place preference/avoidance (CPP/CPA) paradigm. A comparative vertebrate model (European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax) was used, and ninety juvenile individuals were initially screened for behavioural reactivity using a net restraining test. Thereafter each individual was tested in a choice tank using net chasing as aversive stimulus or exposure to familiar conspecifics as appetitive stimulus in the preferred or non preferred side respectively (called hereafter stimulation side). Locomotor behaviour (i.e. time spent, distance travelled and swimming speed in each tank side) of each individual was recorded and analysed with video software. The results showed that fish which were previously exposed to appetitive stimulus increased significantly the time spent on the stimulation side, while aversive stimulus led to a strong decrease in time spent on the stimulation side. Moreover, this study showed clearly that proactive fish were characterised by a stronger preference for the social stimulus and when placed in a putative aversive environment showed a lower physiological stress responses than reactive fish. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time in sea bass, that the CPP/CPA paradigm can be used to assess the valence (positive vs. negative) that fish attribute to different stimuli and that individual behavioural traits is predictive of how stimuli are perceived and thus of the magnitude of preference or avoidance behaviour. PMID:25264870

  19. Behavioural stress responses predict environmental perception in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Millot, Sandie; Cerqueira, Marco; Castanheira, Maria-Filipa; Overli, Oyvind; Oliveira, Rui F; Martins, Catarina I M

    2014-01-01

    Individual variation in the response to environmental challenges depends partly on innate reaction norms, partly on experience-based cognitive/emotional evaluations that individuals make of the situation. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pre-existing differences in behaviour predict the outcome of such assessment of environmental cues, using a conditioned place preference/avoidance (CPP/CPA) paradigm. A comparative vertebrate model (European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax) was used, and ninety juvenile individuals were initially screened for behavioural reactivity using a net restraining test. Thereafter each individual was tested in a choice tank using net chasing as aversive stimulus or exposure to familiar conspecifics as appetitive stimulus in the preferred or non preferred side respectively (called hereafter stimulation side). Locomotor behaviour (i.e. time spent, distance travelled and swimming speed in each tank side) of each individual was recorded and analysed with video software. The results showed that fish which were previously exposed to appetitive stimulus increased significantly the time spent on the stimulation side, while aversive stimulus led to a strong decrease in time spent on the stimulation side. Moreover, this study showed clearly that proactive fish were characterised by a stronger preference for the social stimulus and when placed in a putative aversive environment showed a lower physiological stress responses than reactive fish. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time in sea bass, that the CPP/CPA paradigm can be used to assess the valence (positive vs. negative) that fish attribute to different stimuli and that individual behavioural traits is predictive of how stimuli are perceived and thus of the magnitude of preference or avoidance behaviour.

  20. Dietary carbohydrate and lipid source affect cholesterol metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Larroquet, Laurence; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2015-10-28

    Plant feedstuffs (PF) are rich in carbohydrates, which may interact with lipid metabolism. Thus, when considering dietary replacement of fishery by-products with PF, knowledge is needed on how dietary lipid source (LS) and carbohydrates affect lipid metabolism and other metabolic pathways. For that purpose, a 73-d growth trial was performed with European sea bass juveniles (IBW 74 g) fed four diets differing in LS (fish oil (FO) or a blend of vegetable oils (VO)) and carbohydrate content (0 % (CH-) or 20 % (CH+) gelatinised starch). At the end of the trial no differences among diets were observed on growth and feed utilisation. Protein efficiency ratio was, however, higher in the CH+ groups. Muscle and liver fatty acid profiles reflected the dietary LS. Dietary carbohydrate promoted higher plasma cholesterol and phospholipids (PL), whole-body and hepatic (mainly 16 : 0) lipids and increased muscular and hepatic glycogen. Except for PL, which were higher in the FO groups, no major alterations between FO and VO groups were observed on plasma metabolites (glucose, TAG, cholesterol, PL), liver and muscle glycogen, and lipid and cholesterol contents. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme - lipogenesis-related enzymes - increased with carbohydrate intake. Hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was up-regulated with carbohydrate (HMGCR and CYP3A27) and VO (HMGCR and CYP51A1) intake. No dietary regulation of long-chain PUFA biosynthesis at the transcriptional level was observed. Overall, very few interactions between dietary carbohydrates and LS were observed. However, important insights on the direct relation between dietary carbohydrate and the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in European sea bass were demonstrated.

  1. LPXRFa peptide system in the European sea bass: A molecular and immunohistochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Paullada-Salmerón, José A; Cowan, Mairi; Aliaga-Guerrero, María; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia; Mañanos, Evaristo; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a neuropeptide that suppresses reproduction in birds and mammals by inhibiting GnRH and gonadotropin secretion. GnIH orthologs with a C-terminal LPXRFamide (LPXRFa) motif have been identified in teleost fish. Although recent work also suggests its role in fish reproduction, studies are scarce and controversial, and have mainly focused on cyprinids. In this work we cloned a full-length cDNA encoding an LPXRFa precursor in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. In contrast to other teleosts, the sea bass LPXRFa precursor contains only two putative RFamide peptides, termed sbLPXRFa1 and sbLPXRFa2. sblpxrfa transcripts were expressed predominantly in the olfactory bulbs/telencephalon, diencephalon, midbrain tegmentum, retina, and gonads. We also developed a specific antiserum against sbLPXRFa2, which revealed sbLPXRFa-immunoreactive (ir) perikarya in the olfactory bulbs-terminal nerve, ventral telencephalon, caudal preoptic area, dorsal mesencephalic tegmentum, and rostral rhombencephalon. These sbLPXRFa-ir cells profusely innervated the preoptic area, hypothalamus, optic tectum, semicircular torus, and caudal midbrain tegmentum, but conspicuous projections also reached the olfactory bulbs, ventral/dorsal telencephalon, habenula, ventral thalamus, pretectum, rostral midbrain tegmentum, posterior tuberculum, reticular formation, and viscerosensory lobe. The retina, pineal, vascular sac, and pituitary were also targets of sbLPXRFa-ir cells. In the pituitary, this innervation was observed close to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) cells. Tract-tracing retrograde labeling suggests that telencephalic and preoptic sbLPXRFa cells might represent the source of pituitary innervation. The immunohistochemical distribution of sbLPXRFa cells and fibers suggest that LPXRFa peptides might be involved in some functions as well as reproduction, such as feeding, growth, and behavior.

  2. Structural elucidation of olive pomace fed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) polar lipids with cardioprotective activities.

    PubMed

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Smith, Terry; Detopoulou, Maria; Tsikrika, Constantina; Papaharisis, Leonidas; Barkas, Dimitris; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2014-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to structurally characterise the polar lipids of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), fed with an experimental diet containing olive pomace (OP), that exhibit cardioprotective activities. OP has been added to conventional fish oil (FO) feed at 4% and this was the OP diet, having been supplemented as finishing diet to fish. Sea bass was aquacultured using either FO or OP diet. At the end of the dietary experiment, lipids in both samples of fish muscle were quantified and HPLC fractionated. The in vitro cardioprotective properties of the polar lipid fractions, using washed rabbit's platelets, have been assessed and the two most biologically active fractions were further analysed by mass spectrometry. The gas-chromatrograpy-mass spectrometric data shows that these two fractions contain low levels of myristic (14:0), oleic (18:1 cis ω-9) and linoleic acids (18:2 ω-6), but high levels of palmitic (16:0) and stearic acids (18:0) as well as eicosadienoic acid (20:2 ω-6). The first fraction (MS1) also contained significant levels of arachidonic acid (20:4 ω-6) and the omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (22:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6). Electrospray-mass spectrometry elucidated that the lipid composition of the two fractions contained various diacyl-glycerophospholipids species, where the majority of them have either 18:0 or 18:1 fatty acids in the sn-1 position and either 22:6 or 20:2 fatty acids in the sn-2 position for MS1 and MS2, respectively. Our research focuses on the structure/function relationship of fish muscle polar lipids and cardiovascular diseases and structural data are given for polar lipid HPLC fractions with strong cardioprotective properties.

  3. Molecular cloning of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) caspase-8 gene and its involvement in Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida triggered apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Reis, Marta I R; Costa-Ramos, Carolina; do Vale, Ana; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2010-07-01

    Caspase-8 is an initiator caspase that plays a crucial role in some cases of apoptosis by extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Caspase-8 structure and function have been extensively studied in mammals, but in fish the characterization of that initiator caspase is still scarce. In this work, the sea bass counterpart of mammalian caspase-8 was sequenced and characterized, and its involvement in the apoptogenic activity of a toxin from a fish pathogen was assessed. A 2472 bp cDNA of sea bass caspase-8 was obtained, consisting of 1455 bp open reading frame coding for 484 amino acids and with a predicted molecular weight of 55.2 kDa. The sea bass caspase-8 gene has 6639 bp and is organized in 11 introns and 12 exons. Several distinctive features of sea bass caspase-8 were identified, which include two death effector domains, the caspase family domains p20 and p10, the caspase-8 active-site pentapeptide and potential aspartic acid cleavage sites. The sea bass caspase-8 sequence revealed a significant degree of similarity to corresponding sequences from several vertebrate taxonomic groups. A low expression of sea bass caspase-8 was detected in various tissues of non-stimulated sea bass. Furthermore, it is shown that stimulation of sea bass with mid-exponential phase culture supernatants from Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida (Phdp), known to induce selective apoptosis of macrophages and neutrophils, resulted in an increased expression of caspase-8 in the spleen, one of the main affected organs by Phdp infection.

  4. Identification and expression of GnRH2 and GnRH3 in the black sea bass (Centropristis striata), a hermaphroditic teleost.

    PubMed

    Morin, Scott J; Decatur, Wayne A; Breton, Timothy S; Marquis, Timothy J; Hayes, Mary K; Berlinsky, David L; Sower, Stacia A

    2015-04-01

    We cloned two cDNAs for two gonadotropin-releasing hormones, GnRH2 (chicken GnRH-II) and GnRH3 (salmon GnRH), respectively, from the black sea bass (Centropristis striata). Black sea bass are protogynous hermaphroditic teleosts that change from females to males between 2 and 5 years of age. Similar to other GnRH precursors, the precursors of black sea bass GnRH2 and GnRH23 consisted of a signal peptide, decapeptide, a downstream processing site, and a GnRH-associated peptide. Our analyses failed to identify GnRH1. GnRH3 precursor transcript was more widely distributed in a variety of tissues compared with GnRH2. Further examination of GnRH expression and gonadal histology was done in black sea bass from three different size groups: small (11.4-44.1 g), medium (179.4-352.2 g) and large (393.8-607.3 g). Interestingly, GnRH3 expression occurred only in the pituitaries of males in the small and medium groups compared with expression of GnRH2. Future functional studies of the sea bass GnRHs will be valuable in elucidating the potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms of black sea bass reproduction and may ultimately contribute to management advances in this commercially important fish.

  5. Lack of evidence for a role of olfaction on first maturation in farmed sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, João L; Martins, Rute S; Hubbard, Peter C; Canário, Adelino V M

    2015-09-15

    Chemical communication is widespread in the animal kingdom and olfaction constitutes a powerful channel for social and environmental cues. In fish, olfactory stimuli are known to influence physiological processes, including reproduction. Here we investigate the effects of olfaction on puberty in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax males. Intact sea bass coming to first maturity (puberty) are able to smell conspecific odours. However, induced anosmia during most of the spermatogenesis period had no effect on the sex ratio, gonad maturation state or gonado-somatic index at the time of reproduction. Furthermore anosmia decreased mRNA expression of brain KISS2 and pituitary LHb and FSHb, but not brain GnRH1 and GnRH3. Thus, although anosmia seems to modify gene expression of key reproduction related genetic factors, it seems to be insufficient to stop or delay growth or gonadal development and maturation.

  6. Differentiation between fresh and frozen-thawed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ethuin, Pierrette; Marlard, Sylvain; Delosière, Mylène; Carapito, Christine; Delalande, François; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Dehaut, Alexandre; Lencel, Valérie; Duflos, Guillaume; Grard, Thierry

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify a protein marker that can differentiate between fresh skinless and frozen-thawed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets using the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) technique. Distinct gel patterns, due to proteins with low molecular weight and low isoelectric points, distinguished fresh fillets from frozen-thawed ones. Frozen-thawed fillets showed two specific protein spots as early as the first day of the study. However, these spots were not observed in fresh fillets until at least 13days of storage between 0 and 4°C, fillets were judged, beyond this period, fish were unfit for human consumption as revealed by complementary studies on fish spoilage indicators namely total volatile basic nitrogen and biogenic amines. Mass spectrometry identified the specific proteins as parvalbumin isoforms. Parvalbumins may thus be useful markers of differentiation between fresh and frozen-thawed sea bass fillets.

  7. Comparative ontogenetic development of two marine teleosts, gilthead seabream and European sea bass: New insights into nutrition and immunity.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Héctor; Guzmán-Villanueva, Laura T; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Arizcun, Marta; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Cuesta, Alberto; Esteban, María A

    2016-12-01

    Gilthead seabream and European sea bass are two of the most commonly farmed fish species. Larval development is critical to ensure high survival rates and thus avoid unacceptable economic losses, while nutrition and immunity are also important factors. For this reason this paper evaluates the ontogenetic development of seabream and sea bass digestive and immune systems from eggs to 73 days post-fertilisation (dpf) by assessing the expression levels of some nutrition-relevant (tryp, amya, alp and pept1) and immune-relevant (il1b, il6, il8, tnfa, cox2, casp1, tf, nccrp1, ighm and ight) genes. The results point to similar ontogenetic development trends for both species as regard nutrition and differences in some immunity related genes.

  8. RNA-Seq analysis of salinity stress–responsive transcriptome in the liver of spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wen, Haishen; Wang, Hailiang; Ren, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ji; Li, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most prominent abiotic factors, which greatly influence reproduction, development, growth, physiological and metabolic activities of fishes. Spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus), as a euryhaline marine teleost, has extraordinary ability to deal with a wide range of salinity changes. However, this species is devoid of genomic resources, and no study has been conducted at the transcriptomic level to determine genes responsible for salinity regulation, which impedes the understanding of the fundamental mechanism conferring tolerance to salinity fluctuations. Liver, as the major metabolic organ, is the key source supplying energy for iono- and osmoregulation in fish, however, little attention has been paid to its salinity-related functions but which should not be ignored. In this study, we perform RNA-Seq analysis to identify genes involved in salinity adaptation and osmoregulation in liver of spotted sea bass, generating from the fishes exposed to low and high salinity water (5 vs 30ppt). After de novo assembly, annotation and differential gene expression analysis, a total of 455 genes were differentially expressed, including 184 up-regulated and 271 down-regulated transcripts in low salinity-acclimated fish group compared with that in high salinity-acclimated group. A number of genes with a potential role in salinity adaptation for spotted sea bass were classified into five functional categories based on the gene ontology (GO) and enrichment analysis, which include genes involved in metabolites and ion transporters, energy metabolism, signal transduction, immune response and structure reorganization. The candidate genes identified in L. maculates liver provide valuable information to explore new pathways related to fish salinity and osmotic regulation. Besides, the transcriptomic sequencing data supplies significant resources for identification of novel genes and further studying biological questions in spotted sea bass. PMID:28253338

  9. A CD83-like molecule in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): molecular characterization and modulation by viral and bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Francesco; Randelli, Elisa; Tranfa, Paola; Scapigliati, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    The CD83 cell surface marker is an important and intriguing component of immune system. It is considered the best marker for mature human dendritic cells, but it is also important for thymic development of T cells, and it also plays a role as a regulator of peripheral B-cell function and homeostasis. A CD83-like molecule was identified in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) by EST sequencing of a thymus cDNA library; the CD83 cDNA is composed of 816 bp and the mature CD83 peptide consists of 195 amino acids, with a putative signal peptide of 18 amino acids and two possible N-glycosylation sites. The comparison of sea bass CD83 sequence with its homologues in other fish species and mammals shows some differences, with two cysteine residues conserved from fish to mammals and a high variability both in the total number of cysteines and in mature CD83 sequence polypeptide length. Basal transcripts levels of CD83 mRNA are highest in liver, followed by thymus. The in vitro treatment of head kidney leukocytes with LPS resulted in a down-regulation on CD83 mRNA leves both after 4 and 24 h, whereas with poly I:C an up-regulation after 4h followed by a down-regulation at 24 h was observed. An in vivo infection of sea bass juveniles with nodavirus induced an increase of CD83 expression on head kidney leukocytes both after 6 and 24 h and a decrease after 72 h. On the other hand, an in vivo infection with Photobacterium damselae bacteria induced a decrease of CD83 transcript levels after 6 and 24 h and an increase after 72 h. These findings suggest in sea bass CD83 expression could be modulated by viral and bacterial immune response.

  10. Molecular characterization and seasonal changes in gonadal expression of a thyrotropin receptor in the European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ana; Gómez, Ana; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Zanuy, Silvia; Sweeney, Glen E; Carrillo, Manuel

    2007-05-15

    The thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a glycoprotein synthesized and secreted from thyrotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland. It acts by binding to and activating its specific receptor, the TSHR, to induce the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones. Recent studies conducted in diverse fish species suggest a direct role of TSH on gonadal physiology. In this work, we describe the cloning of a cDNA encoding a TSHR which was isolated from the gonads of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). The mature protein displays typical features of the members of the glycoprotein hormone receptor family and shows the highest amino acid sequence identity with the TSHRs of other fish species. An insertion of approximately 50 amino acids, specific for the TSHR subfamily is also present in the carboxyl end of the extracellular domain of the sbsTSHR. By RT-PCR analysis, we demonstrate the extrathyroidal expression of sbsTSHR in numerous tissues of the sea bass. Also, two transcripts that differ in the length of their 3' untranslated regions were found. They reflect the use of alternative polyadenylation cleavage sites. Seasonal changes in sbsTSHR mRNA levels in female and male sea bass during the first ovarian and testicular recrudescence suggest that in females the TSHR could participate in active vitellogenesis and in the regulation of gamete maturation and ovulation, whereas in males, the TSHR would be involved in the regulation of processes that occur during the early stages of the gonadal development and also of gamete maturation and spermiation. The results of this work indicate that a sbsTSHR has been cloned from the testis of the European sea bass and they provide the basis for future studies concerning the function of TSHR in this species.

  11. RNA-Seq analysis of salinity stress-responsive transcriptome in the liver of spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wen, Haishen; Wang, Hailiang; Ren, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ji; Li, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most prominent abiotic factors, which greatly influence reproduction, development, growth, physiological and metabolic activities of fishes. Spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus), as a euryhaline marine teleost, has extraordinary ability to deal with a wide range of salinity changes. However, this species is devoid of genomic resources, and no study has been conducted at the transcriptomic level to determine genes responsible for salinity regulation, which impedes the understanding of the fundamental mechanism conferring tolerance to salinity fluctuations. Liver, as the major metabolic organ, is the key source supplying energy for iono- and osmoregulation in fish, however, little attention has been paid to its salinity-related functions but which should not be ignored. In this study, we perform RNA-Seq analysis to identify genes involved in salinity adaptation and osmoregulation in liver of spotted sea bass, generating from the fishes exposed to low and high salinity water (5 vs 30ppt). After de novo assembly, annotation and differential gene expression analysis, a total of 455 genes were differentially expressed, including 184 up-regulated and 271 down-regulated transcripts in low salinity-acclimated fish group compared with that in high salinity-acclimated group. A number of genes with a potential role in salinity adaptation for spotted sea bass were classified into five functional categories based on the gene ontology (GO) and enrichment analysis, which include genes involved in metabolites and ion transporters, energy metabolism, signal transduction, immune response and structure reorganization. The candidate genes identified in L. maculates liver provide valuable information to explore new pathways related to fish salinity and osmotic regulation. Besides, the transcriptomic sequencing data supplies significant resources for identification of novel genes and further studying biological questions in spotted sea bass.

  12. The Cenomanian/Turonian carbon burial event, Bass River, NJ, USA: Geochemical, paleoecological, and sea-level changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sugarman, P.J.; Miller, K.G.; Olsson, R.K.; Browning, J.V.; Wright, J.D.; De Romero, L. M.; White, T.S.; Muller, F.L.; Uptegrove, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Bass River borehole (ODP Leg 174AX) recovered approximately 200 ft (61 m) of upper Cenomanian to lower Turonian strata from the New Jersey Coastal Plain, USA, including the expression of a global carbon burial event. The Cenomanian/Turonian (C/T) boundary is recognized at Bass River at ???1935.5 ft (589.9 m) based on the contact of nannofossil Microstaurus chiastius and Eiffellithus eximius Subzones of the Parhabdolithus asper Zone. Carbon isotopic records of both Gavelinella and Epistomina show a large (>2???) increase immediately below the C/T boundary, with maximum values of 6??? in Epistomina and 4.3??? in Gavelinella. The ??13C offset between these taxa is constant and we conclude that Epistomina, like Gavelinella, faithfully records seawater ??13C changes. Above the sharp ??13C increase, elevated ??13C and sedimentary organic carbon (>0.9%) values continue into the lower Turonian, culminating in a sharp ??13C decrease. High ??13C values in the uppermost Cenomanian-lower Turonian at Bass River correlate with a global carbon burial event recorded in Europe and the U.S. Western Interior; we estimate the duration of this event at Bass River as 400-500 k.y. Although the carbon burial event occurred during a long-term eustatic rise (10 m.y. scale), it occurs within a 1-2 m.y. long sequence at Bass River that indicates no relationship with sea-level lowering on the m.y. scale. The carbon burial event does not appear to be associated with maximum flooding either, indicating little correlation with sea-level rise on a m.y. scale. Within the sequence spanning the carbon event, there are at least 4 shallowing-upward parasequences (durations ???350-460 k.y.) indicated by changes in abundance and type of Epistomina species, ??18O variations, and minor lithologic variations. The highest occurrences of 6 Epistomina species and the origination of Epistomina sliteri Olsson n. sp. are associated with the parasequences and possibly with higher ??18O values. There is no

  13. Consumer preferences regarding the introduction of new organic products. The case of the Mediterranean sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mauracher, C; Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D

    2013-04-01

    The introduction of new products on the market poses several challenges; in particular, whether the characteristics of the proposed product will be judged positively by potential consumers. This paper analyses the preferences of consumers regarding the introduction on the Italian market of a new product: organic Mediterranean sea bass. The aim of this study is to assess the importance given by consumers to four main characteristics of sea bass (country of origin, size, production method - organic or conventional - and price) so as to be able to formulate marketing strategies. We applied a choice experiment (CE) in order to define not only the ordinal ranking of preferences but also the willingness to pay (WTP) for the key characteristics of the newly-introduced product. We found that consumers show a higher WTP for the sea bass country of origin than for the breeding method used. Our results suggest that while organic aquaculture might be a new and important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication, either from a public policy or commercial perspective, and labelling/certification are not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by the final consumers.

  14. Leptin receptor gene in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Cloning, phylogeny, tissue distribution and neuroanatomical organization.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Sebastián; Rocha, Ana; Felip, Alicia; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia; Kah, Olivier; Servili, Arianna

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we report the cloning of three transcripts for leptin receptor in the European sea bass, a marine teleost of economic interest. The two shortest variants, generated by different splice sites, encode all functional extracellular and intracellular domains but missed the transmembrane domain. The resulting proteins are therefore potential soluble binding proteins for leptin. The longest transcript (3605bp), termed sblepr, includes all the essential domains for binding and transduction of the signal. Thus, it is proposed as the ortholog for the human LEPR gene, the main responsible for leptin signaling. Phylogenetic analysis shows the sblepr clustered within the teleost leptin receptor group in 100% of the bootstrap replicates. The neuroanatomical localization of sblepr expressing cells has been assessed by in situ hybridization in brains of sea bass of both sexes during their first sexual maturation. At histological level, the distribution pattern of sblepr expressing cells in the brain shows no clear differences regarding sex or reproductive season. Transcripts of the sblepr have a widespread distribution throughout the forebrain and midbrain until the caudal portion of the hypothalamus. A high hybridization signal is detected in the telencephalon, preoptic area, medial basal and caudal hypothalamus and in the pituitary gland. In a more caudal region, sblepr expressing cells are identified in the longitudinal torus. The expression pattern observed for sblepr suggests that in sea bass, leptin is very likely to be involved in the control of food intake, energy reserves and reproduction.

  15. Laser capture microdissection of intestinal tissue from sea bass larvae using an optimized RNA integrity assay and validated reference genes

    PubMed Central

    Schaeck, M.; De Spiegelaere, W.; De Craene, J.; Van den Broeck, W.; De Spiegeleer, B.; Burvenich, C.; Haesebrouck, F.; Decostere, A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for a sustainable larviculture has promoted research regarding environmental parameters, diseases and nutrition, intersecting at the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract of fish larvae. The combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM) and gene expression experiments allows cell specific expression profiling. This study aimed at optimizing an LCM protocol for intestinal tissue of sea bass larvae. Furthermore, a 3′/5′ integrity assay was developed for LCM samples of fish tissue, comprising low RNA concentrations. Furthermore, reliable reference genes for performing qPCR in larval sea bass gene expression studies were identified, as data normalization is critical in gene expression experiments using RT-qPCR. We demonstrate that a careful optimization of the LCM procedure allows recovery of high quality mRNA from defined cell populations in complex intestinal tissues. According to the geNorm and Normfinder algorithms, ef1a, rpl13a, rps18 and faua were the most stable genes to be implemented as reference genes for an appropriate normalization of intestinal tissue from sea bass across a range of experimental settings. The methodology developed here, offers a rapid and valuable approach to characterize cells/tissues in the intestinal tissue of fish larvae and their changes following pathogen exposure, nutritional/environmental changes, probiotic supplementation or a combination thereof. PMID:26883391

  16. Laser capture microdissection of intestinal tissue from sea bass larvae using an optimized RNA integrity assay and validated reference genes.

    PubMed

    Schaeck, M; De Spiegelaere, W; De Craene, J; Van den Broeck, W; De Spiegeleer, B; Burvenich, C; Haesebrouck, F; Decostere, A

    2016-02-17

    The increasing demand for a sustainable larviculture has promoted research regarding environmental parameters, diseases and nutrition, intersecting at the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract of fish larvae. The combination of laser capture microdissection (LCM) and gene expression experiments allows cell specific expression profiling. This study aimed at optimizing an LCM protocol for intestinal tissue of sea bass larvae. Furthermore, a 3'/5' integrity assay was developed for LCM samples of fish tissue, comprising low RNA concentrations. Furthermore, reliable reference genes for performing qPCR in larval sea bass gene expression studies were identified, as data normalization is critical in gene expression experiments using RT-qPCR. We demonstrate that a careful optimization of the LCM procedure allows recovery of high quality mRNA from defined cell populations in complex intestinal tissues. According to the geNorm and Normfinder algorithms, ef1a, rpl13a, rps18 and faua were the most stable genes to be implemented as reference genes for an appropriate normalization of intestinal tissue from sea bass across a range of experimental settings. The methodology developed here, offers a rapid and valuable approach to characterize cells/tissues in the intestinal tissue of fish larvae and their changes following pathogen exposure, nutritional/environmental changes, probiotic supplementation or a combination thereof.

  17. Growth and immune system performance to assess the effect of dispersed oil on juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Dussauze, Matthieu; Danion, Morgane; Floch, Stéphane Le; Lemaire, Philippe; Theron, Michaël; Pichavant-Rafini, Karine

    2015-10-01

    The potential impact of chemically and mechanically dispersed oil was assessed in a model fish of European coastal waters, the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Juvenile sea bass were exposed for 48h to dispersed oil (mechanically and chemically) or dispersants alone. The impact of these exposure conditions was assessed using growth and immunity. The increase observed in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in bile indicated oil contamination in the fish exposed to chemical and mechanical dispersion of oil without any significant difference between these two groups. After 28 days of exposure, no significant differences were observed in specific growth rate,apparent food conversion efficiency and daily feeding). Following the oil exposure, fish immunity was assessed by a challenge with Viral Nervous Necrosis Virus (VNNV). Fish mortality was observed over a 42 day period. After 12 days post-infection, cumulative mortality was significantly different between the control group (16% p≤0.05) and the group exposed to chemical dispersion of oil (30% p≤0.05). However, at the end of the experiment, no significant difference was recorded in cumulative mortality or in VNNV antibodies secreted in fish in responses to the treatments. These data suggested that in our experimental condition, following the oil exposure, sea bass growth was not affected whereas an impact on immunity was observed during the first days. However, this effect on the immune system did not persist over time.

  18. Infestation of gill copepod Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) and its effect on cage-cultured Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    Kua, B C; Noraziah, M R; Nik Rahimah, A R

    2012-09-01

    Twenty Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer from a floating cage in Bt. Tambun, Penang were examined for the presence of parasitic gill copepod, Lernanthropus latis. The prevalence of L. latis was 100% with the intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 18 parasites per host or 3.75 of mean intensity. Female parasites having oblong cephalothorax and egg-strings were seen mainly on the entire gill of examined Asian sea bass. The infected gill of Asian sea bass was pale and had eccessive mucus production. Under light and scanning electron microscopies (SEM), L. latis was seen grasping or holding tightly to the gill filament using their antenna, maxilla and maxilliped. These structures are characteristically prehensile and uncinate for the parasite to attach onto the host tissue. The damage was clearly seen under SEM as the hooked end of the antenna was embedded into the gill filament. The parasite also has the mandible which is styliform with eight teeth on the inner margin. The pathological effects such as erosion, haemorrhages, hyperplasia and necrosis along the secondary lamellae of gill filaments were seen and more severe at the attachment site. The combined actions of the antenna, maxilla and maxilliped together with the mandible resulted in extensive damage as L. latis attached and fed on the host tissues.

  19. Impact of amoeba and scuticociliatidia infections on the aquaculture European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria João; Cavaleiro, Francisca; Campos, Pamela; Sousa, André; Teixeira, Filipa; Martins, Marta

    2010-07-15

    In this work, a survey of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, for amoebae and scuticociliatidia infections was carried out to evaluate their effects on the aquaculture of this fish species. The study was conducted in two different fish farms, one using seawater and the other brackish water. Infection with parasitic amoebae was found to be fairly high (prevalence: 43-73%), being more frequent in sea bass from the brackish water system. Although it was never found to cause outbreaks of disease or mortality in the surveyed fish, amoebic gill disease (AGD) histopathological signs, i.e., hyperplasia, secondary lamellae fusion and cavity formation (interlamellar vesicles), were observed in fish manifesting no macroscopic lesions. Furthermore, some evidence was found that amoebae affects the fish's general state of health and growth rate. These results indicate that cautious and detailed surveys to detect this sort of infection, and thus carefully plan its control, are fully justified. Compared with amoebic infection, the prevalence of scuticociliatosis was found to be low (7-13%). No outbreaks of disease or mortality were ever recorded, even when scuticociliatidia was present in turbot raised in the same water system, leading to serious outbreaks of disease and mortalities in that species. This suggests that sea bass is far more resistant than turbot to such infections, and if this is the case, the former fish may be a good farming alternative when scuticociliatidia is present.

  20. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and daily rhythms of expression of per1 gene in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jose Antonio; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are controlled by interlocked autoregulatory feedback loops consisting of interactions of a group of circadian clock genes and their proteins. The Period family is a group of genes that are essential components of the molecular clock. In the present study, we cloned a period gene (per1) of the European sea bass, a marine teleost of chronobiological interest. The cloned sequence encoded a protein consisting of 1436 amino acids that homology and phylogenic analyses showed to be related with fish PER1 proteins possessing very high identity with Oryzias latipes (Medaka) per1. Polymerase chain reaction screening of per1 expression showed that this gene is expressed in all the tissues analyzed (brain, heart, liver, gill, muscle, digestive tract, adipose tissue, spleen, and retina). In addition, a daily expression rhythm, with an acrophase (peak time) approximately ZT0 (lights-on), was found in the two tissue types investigated: neural (brain) and peripheral (liver and heart). In conclusion, identification and characterization of the gene encoding sea bass per1 provide valuable information for understanding the circadian mechanism at the molecular level in this species, although further research is needed to clarify the exact role that per1 plays in the circadian oscillator and the dual behavior of European sea bass.

  1. α-MSH and melanocortin receptors at early ontogeny in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.)

    PubMed Central

    Tsalafouta, A.; Gorissen, M.; Pelgrim, T. N. M.; Papandroulakis, N.; Flik, G.; Pavlidis, M.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal patterns of whole-body α-MSH concentrations and of transcripts of melanocortin receptors during early development as well as the endocrine response (α-MSH, cortisol, MCR mRNAs) to stress at the end of the larval period were characterized in Dicentrarchus labrax. Immunohistochemistry showed α-MSH positive cells in the pituitary pars intermedia in all stages examined. As development proceeds, α-MSH content gradually increases; mRNA levels of mc2r and mc4r remain low until first feeding where peak values are observed. Mc1r expression was constant during development, pomc mRNA levels remain low until the stage of flexion after which a significant increase is observed. At the stage of the formation of all fins, whole-body cortisol and α-MSH concentrations responded with peak values at 2 h post stress. Additionally, the stress challenge resulted in elevated transcript levels of pomc, mc2r and mc4r but not in mc1r, with a pattern characterized by peak values at 1 h post stress and a strong correlation with whole body α-MSH concentrations was found. Our data provide for the first time a view on the importance of the α-MSH stress response in early development of European sea bass, an additional and relatively poorly understood signal involved in the stress response in teleosts. PMID:28378841

  2. The effect of environmental salinity on the proteome of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Ky, C L; de Lorgeril, J; Hirtz, C; Sommerer, N; Rossignol, M; Bonhomme, F

    2007-12-01

    The European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L., tolerates a range of salinities from freshwater to hyper-saline. To study differences in protein expression, fish were reared in both freshwater and seawater. After 3-month acclimation, gill and intestine epithelia were collected and the soluble protein extracted. In all, 362 spots were differentially expressed in the gills and intestines of fishes reared in seawater compared to those from freshwater. Fifty differential protein spots were excised from a colloidal Coomassie-stained gel. Nine separate protein spots were identified unambiguously by mass spectrometry and database searching. Among the six proteins over-expressed in gill cells in seawater, five were cytoskeleton proteins and one was the aromatase cytochrome P450. In gill cells under freshwater conditions, the two over-expressed proteins identified were the prolactin receptor and the major histocompatibility complex class II beta-antigen. In intestinal cells under freshwater conditions, the Iroquois homeobox protein Ziro5 was upregulated over ninefold. The expression of these proteins, their possible direct or indirect roles in the adaptation of D. labrax to salinity, and their correspondences with a previous study are discussed.

  3. Embryonic ionocytes in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Structure and functionality.

    PubMed

    Sucré, Elliott; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Grousset, Evelyse; Cucchi-Mouillot, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Early ionocytes have been studied in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) embryos. Structural and functional aspects were analyzed and compared with those observed in the same conditions (38 ppt) in post hatching stages. Immunolocalization of Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase (NKA) in embryos revealed the presence of ionocytes on the yolk sac membrane from a stage 12 pair of somites (S), and an original cluster around the first gill slits from stage 14S. Histological investigations suggested that from these cells, close to the future gill chambers, originate the ionocytes observed on gill arches and gill filaments after hatching. Triple immunocytochemical staining, including NKA, various Na(+) /K(+) /2Cl⁻ cotransporters (NKCCs) and the chloride channel "cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator" (CFTR), point to the occurrence of immature and mature ionocytes in early and late embryonic stages at different sites. These observations were completed with transmission electronic microscopy. The degree of functionality of ionocytes is discussed according to these results. Yolk sac membrane ionocytes and enteric ionocytes seem to have an early role in embryonic osmoregulation, whereas gill slits tegumentary ionocytes are presumed to be fully efficient after hatching.

  4. Intestinal alterations in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to microplastics: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pedà, Cristina; Caccamo, Letteria; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Gai, Francesco; Andaloro, Franco; Genovese, Lucrezia; Perdichizzi, Anna; Romeo, Teresa; Maricchiolo, Giulia

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates, for the first time, the intestinal responses of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax chronically exposed to microplastics through ingestion. Fish (n = 162) were fed with 3 different treatment diets for 90 days: control, native polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polluted polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pellets. Intestines were fixed and processed for histological analysis using standard techniques. Histopathological alterations were examined using a score value (from 0 to 4). The distal part of intestine in all samples proved to be the most affected by pathological alterations, showing a gradual change varying from moderate to severe related to exposure times. The histological picture that characterizes both groups especially after 90 days of exposure, suggests that the intestinal functions can be in some cases totally compromised. The worst condition is increasingly evident in the distal intestine of fish fed with polluted PVC pellets respect to control groups (p < 0.05) to different exposure times. These first results underline the need to assess the impact of increasing microplastics pollution on the marine trophic web.

  5. Tissue responsiveness to estradiol and genistein in the sea bass liver and scale.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Patrícia I S; Estêvão, M Dulce; Andrade, André; Santos, Soraia; Power, Deborah M

    2016-04-01

    As in mammals, estrogens in fish are essential for reproduction but also important regulators of mineral homeostasis. Fish scales are a non-conventional target tissue responsive to estradiol and constitute a good model to study mineralized tissues effects and mechanisms of action of estrogenic compounds, including phytoestrogens. The responsiveness to estradiol and the phytoestrogen genistein, was compared between the scales and the liver, a classical estrogenic target, in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Injection with estradiol and genistein significantly increased circulating vitellogenin (for both compounds) and mineral levels (estradiol only) and genistein also significantly increased scale enzymatic activities suggesting it increased mineral turnover. The repertoire, abundance and estrogenic regulation of nuclear estrogen receptors (ESR1, 2a and 2b) and membrane G-protein receptors (GPER and GPER-like) were different between liver and scales, which presumably explains the tissue-specific changes detected in estrogen-responsive gene expression. In scales changes in gene expression mainly consisted of small rapid increases, while in liver strong, sustained increases/decreases in gene expression occurred. Similar but not overlapping gene expression changes were observed in response to both estradiol and genistein. This study demonstrates for the first time the expression of membrane estrogen receptors in scales and that estrogens and phytoestrogens, to which fish may be exposed in the wild or in aquaculture, both affect liver and mineralized tissues in a tissue-specific manner.

  6. Fragmentation of sea bass populations in the western and eastern Mediterranean as revealed by microsatellite polymorphism.

    PubMed Central

    Bahri-Sfar, L; Lemaire, C; Ben Hassine, O K; Bonhomme, F

    2000-01-01

    We studied the genetic structure at six microsatellite loci of the Mediterranean sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) on 19 samples collected from different localities in the western and eastern Mediterranean basins. Significant divergence was found between the two basins. The distance tree showed two separate clusters of populations which matched well with geography, with the noticeable exception of one Egyptian sample which grouped within the western clade, a fact attributable to the introduction of aquaculture broodstock. No heterogeneity was observed within the western basin (theta = 0.0014 and n.s.). However, a significant level of differentiation was found among samples of the eastern Mediterranean (theta = 0.026 and p < 0.001). These results match with water currents but probably not with the dispersal abilities of this fish species. We thus hypothesize that selective forces are at play which limit long-range dispersal, a fact to be taken into account in the debate about speciation processes in the marine environment. PMID:10853737

  7. Lordotic vertebrae in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) are adapted to increased loads.

    PubMed

    Kranenbarg, Sander; Waarsing, Jan H; Muller, Mees; Weinans, Harrie; van Leeuwen, Johan L

    2005-06-01

    Lordosis in fish is an abnormal ventral curvature of the vertebral column, accompanied by abnormal calcification of the afflicted vertebrae. Incidences of lordosis are a major problem in aquaculture and often correlate with increased swimming activity. To understand the biomechanical causes and consequences of lordosis, we mapped the morphological changes that occur in the vertebrae of European sea bass during their development from larva to juvenile. Our micro-CT analysis of lordotic and non-lordotic vertebrae revealed significant differences in their micro-architecture. Lordotic vertebrae have a larger bone volume, flattened dorsal zygapophyses and extra lateral ridges. They also have a larger second moment of area (both lateral and dorso-ventral) than non-lordotic vertebrae. This morphology suggests lordotic vertebrae to be adapted to an increased bending moment, caused by the axial musculature during increased swimming activity. We hypothesize the increase in swimming activity to have a two-fold effect in animals that become lordotic. The first effect is buckling failure of the axial skeleton due to an increased compressive load. The second effect is extra bone deposition as an adaptive response of the vertebrae at the cellular level, caused by an increased strain and strain rate in these vertebrae. Lordosis thus comprises both a buckling failure of the vertebral column and a molecular response that adapts the lordotic vertebrae to a new loading regime.

  8. Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro-Vidal, Maximino; Gijón, Daniel; Zarza, Carles; Santos, Ysabel

    2012-02-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped gliding bacterial strain, designated 35/09(T), was isolated from diseased European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) in Spain. Colonies were pale-yellow-pigmented with uneven edges and did not adhere to the agar. The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 31.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated affiliation to the genus Tenacibaculum (family Flavobacteriaceae, phylum 'Bacteroidetes'). Sequence similarities between the isolate and type strains of other members of the genus were 93.1-97.3 %. The major fatty acids (>5 % of the total fatty acids) were iso-C(15 : 0) (24.8 %), iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH (18.0 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (8.1 %), C(15 : 1)ω6c (6.9 %) and iso-C(15 : 1) (6.2 %). Genotypic and phenotypic data indicate that strain 35/09(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 35/09(T) ( = CECT 7612(T) = NCIMB 14598(T)).

  9. Mycobiota and Aflatoxin B1 in Feed for Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Inês Filipa Martins; Martins, Hermínia Marina Lourdes; Santos, Sara Maria Oliveira; Freitas, Maria Suzana; da Costa, José Manuel Gaspar Nunes; d´Almeida Bernardo, Fernando Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Thesafety characteristics of feed used in fish and crustacean aquaculture systems are an essential tool to assure the productivity of those animal exploitations. Safety of feed may be affected by different hazards, including biological and chemical groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate fungi contamination and the presence of aflatoxins in 87 samples of feed for sea bass, collected in Portugal. Molds were found in 35 samples (40.2%) in levels ranging from 1 to 3.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. Six genera of molds were found. Aspergillus flavus was the most frequent, found in all positive samples, with a range from 2 to 3.2 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus niger was found in 34 samples (39.1%), ranging from 1 to 2.7 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus glaucus was found in 26 samples (29.9%) with levels between 1 and 2.4 log10 CFU∙g−1. Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were both found in 25 samples (28.7%). Fusarium spp. was found in 22 samples (25.3%), ranging from 1 to 2.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. All feed samples were screened for aflatoxins using a HPLC technique, with a detection limit of 1.0 μg∙kg−1. All samples were aflatoxin negative. PMID:22069703

  10. Seafood substitutions obscure patterns of mercury contamination in Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) or "Chilean sea bass".

    PubMed

    Marko, Peter B; Nance, Holly A; van den Hurk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Seafood mislabeling distorts the true abundance of fish in the sea, defrauds consumers, and can also cause unwanted exposure to harmful pollutants. By combining genetic data with analyses of total mercury content, we have investigated how species substitutions and fishery-stock substitutions obscure mercury contamination in Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides), also known as "Chilean sea bass". Patagonian toothfish show wide variation in mercury concentrations such that consumers may be exposed to either acceptable or unacceptable levels of mercury depending on the geographic origins of the fish and the allowable limits of different countries. Most notably, stocks of Patagonian toothfish in Chile accumulate significantly more mercury than stocks closer to the South Pole, including the South Georgia/Shag Rocks stock, a fishery certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) as sustainably fished. Consistent with the documented geography of mercury contamination, our analysis showed that, on average, retail fish labeled as MSC-certified Patagonian toothfish had only half the mercury of uncertified fish. However, consideration of genetic data that were informative about seafood substitutions revealed a complex pattern of contamination hidden from consumers: species substitutions artificially inflated the expected difference in mercury levels between MSC-certified and uncertified fish whereas fishery stock substitutions artificially reduced the expected difference in mercury content between MSC-certified and uncertified fish that were actually D. eleginoides. Among MSC-certified fish that were actually D. eleginoides, several with exogenous mtDNA haplotypes (i.e., not known from the certified fishery) had mercury concentrations on par with uncertified fish from Chile. Overall, our analysis of mercury was consistent with inferences from the genetic data about the geographic origins of the fish, demonstrated the potential negative impact of seafood

  11. Quality of farmed and wild sea bass lipids studied by (1)H NMR: usefulness of this technique for differentiation on a qualitative and a quantitative basis.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Natalia P; Manzanos, Maria J; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, Maria D

    2012-12-01

    Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy was employed to study the lipids of farmed and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). This technique provided a great deal of detailed information on sea bass lipids composition and, once the spectra signals have been assigned, the simple observation of the spectra enables one to distinguish cultured from wild fish. This distinction is possible due to the presence in the former of high proportions of diunsaturated acyl groups, mainly linoleic. Furthermore, new approaches for quantitative characterization of sea bass lipids were developed. For the same season wild sea bass lipids contain not only higher molar percentages of omega-3 and of docosahexaenoic (DHA), but also higher concentrations of phosphatidylcholine and of cholesterol than farmed ones. However, in general, the absolute content of DHA and of eicosapentaenoic plus arachidonic (EPA+ARA) acyl groups as well as of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, were reasonably higher in farmed than in wild sea bass fillets, due to the higher total lipid content of the former. The presence of omega-1 acyl groups in all farmed samples and in some of the wild specimens was shown. As far as we know, this is the first time that omega-1 acyl groups have been identified and quantified in fish lipids by (1)H NMR.

  12. Melatonin-induced changes in kiss/gnrh gene expression patterns in the brain of male sea bass during spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, María Victoria; Carrillo, Manuel; Felip, Alicia

    2015-07-01

    Evidence exists that melatonin may drive the seasonal changes in kisspeptin-expressing cells and GnRH/gonadotropin secretion in mammals, thus modulating their reproductive activity. This study established the influence of long-term melatonin administration (as an implant) on growth performance and reproduction of adult male sea bass. Melatonin reduced the fish weight and condition factor, thus affecting the performance of fish. Melatonin also affected gonadogenesis, as shown by a decrease in the gonadosomatic index after 150 days of treatment and the lower percentage of running males during the spermatogenesis and full spermiation stages of this species. Exogenous melatonin also resulted in lower plasma androgen levels during the reproductive period, and showed a significant decrease in serum Lh and Fsh concentration after 30 and 60 days of treatment, respectively. Thus, melatonin elicited seasonal changes in key reproductive hormones that affected testicular maturity. The hypothalamic expression of kiss1 was significantly higher in melatonin-treated fish than in controls after 30 days of treatment, while a significant increase in kiss2 expression was detected on day 90 of treatment. By contrast, melatonin showed a significant decrease in kisspeptin expression in the dorsal brain on day 150 of treatment and also affected the expression of gnrh-1 and gnrh-3 and gnrhr-II-1a and 2b and the fshβ gene in the pituitary. These results suggest that in this species, melatonin evokes changes in the mRNA levels of kisspeptin and gnrh system genes that appear to mirror disturbances in spermatogenesis.

  13. Autochthonous Bacterial Isolates Successfully Stimulate In vitro Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of the European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Mladineo, Ivona; Bušelić, Ivana; Hrabar, Jerko; Radonić, Ivana; Vrbatović, Anamarija; Jozić, Slaven; Trumbić, Željka

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available probiotics are routinely administered as feed supplements in aquaculture important species. Among them, the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is the most widely reared fish in the Mediterranean, whose rearing systems are highly variable between countries, affecting at some level the sustainability of production. After random isolation of autochthonous gut bacteria of the sea bass, their identification and pathogenicity testing, we have selected three potentially probiotic isolates; Pseudoalteromonas sp., Alteromonas sp., and Enterovibrio coralii. Selected isolates were tested and their immunostimulative efficiency was compared with a commercially available Lactobacillus casei isolate, inferring inflammatory, apoptotic and anti-pathogen response of sea bass’ peripheral blood leukocytes. Phagocytic activity, respiratory burst, and expression of lysozyme, Mx protein, caspase 3, TNF-α, IL-10 genes was measured 1, 3, 5, and 12 h post-stimulation by four bacterial isolates to evaluate early kinetics of the responses. Best immunostimulative properties were observed in Pseudoalteromonas-stimulated leukocytes, followed by Alteromonas sp. and L. casei, while Enterovibrio coralii failed to induce significant stimulation. Based on such in vitro assay intestinal autochthonous bacterial isolates showed to have better immunostimulative effect in sea bass compared to aquaculture-widely used L. casei, and further steps need to engage tank and field feeding trials to evaluate long-term prophylactic suitability of the chosen isolates. A panel of biomarkers that represent pro-/anti-inflammatory, pro-/anti-apoptotic, and anti-bacteria/viral responses of the fish should be taken into consideration when evaluating the usefulness of the potential probiotic in aquaculture. PMID:27551281

  14. Stress-induced effects on feeding behavior and growth performance of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): a self-feeding approach.

    PubMed

    Leal, Esther; Fernández-Durán, Begoña; Guillot, Raul; Ríos, Diana; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

    2011-12-01

    Repetitive aquaculture-related protocols may act as cyclic stressors that induce chronic stress in cultured fish. The sea bass is particularly sensitive to stressful conditions and the mere presence of humans will disturb feeding behavior. In this paper, we study whether chronic stress induced by repetition of acute stress protocols affects long-term feeding behavior and growth performance in sea bass and whether exogenous cortisol may induce stress-like changes in these parameters. We demonstrate that both chronic stress and dietary cortisol decrease food intake and have a negative effect on feed conversion efficiency, severely impairing sea bass performance. Both experimental approaches induced changes in the daily feeding activity by lengthening the active feeding periods. Fish subjected to a cyclic stressor modify their daily feeding pattern in an attempt to avoid interference with the time of the stressor. The delay in feeding when fish are acutely and repeatedly stressed could be of substantial adaptive importance.

  15. European sea bass gill pathology after exposure to cadmium and terbuthylazine: expert versus fractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Manera, M; Giari, L; Depasquale, J A; Dezfuli, B S

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare expert versus fractal analysis as new methods to evaluate branchial lamellar pathology in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) experimentally exposed to cadmium and to terbuthylazine. In particular, guided expert quantitative and fractal analysis were performed on selected images from semithin sections to test possible differences according to exposure class (unexposed, cadmium exposed, or terbuthylazine exposed) and the discrimination power of the two methods. With respect to guided expert quantitative analysis, the following elementary pathological features were assessed according to pre-determined cover classes: 'epithelial lifting', 'epithelial shrinkage', 'epithelial swelling', 'pillar cells coarctation', 'pillar cells detachment', 'channels fusion', 'chloride cells swelling' and 'chloride cells invasion'. Considering fractal analysis, DB (box dimension), DM (mass dimension), Dx (mean fractal dimension) as fractal dimensions and lacunarity from DM and Dx scan types were calculated both from the outlined and skeletonized (one pixel wide lines) images. Despite significant differences among experimental classes, only expert analysis provided good discrimination with correct classification of 91.7 % of the original cases, and of 87.5 % of the cross-validated cases, with a sensitivity of 95.45 % and 91.3 %, respectively, and a specificity of 75 % in both cases. Guided expert quantitative analysis appears to be a reliable method to objectively characterize fish gill pathology and may represent a powerful tool in environmental biomonitoring to ensure proper standardization and reproducibility. Though fractal analysis did not equal the discrimination power of the expert method, it certainly warrants further study to evaluate local variations in complexity or possible multiple scaling rules.

  16. A rhamnose-binding lectin from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) plasma agglutinates and opsonizes pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cammarata, Matteo; Parisi, Maria Giovanna; Benenati, Gigliola; Vasta, Gerardo R; Parrinello, Nicolò

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of rhamnose-binding lectins (RBLs) in teleost fish eggs led to the identification of a novel lectin family characterized by a unique sequence motif and a structural fold, and initially proposed to modulate fertilization. Further studies of the RBL tissue localization and gene organization were also suggestive of role(s) in innate immunity. Here we describe the purification, and biochemical and functional characterization of a novel RBL (DlRBL) from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) serum. The purified DlRBL had electrophoretic mobilities corresponding to 24 kDa and 100 kDa under reducing and non-reducing conditions, respectively, suggesting that in plasma the DlRBL is present as a physiological homotetramer. DlRBL subunit transcripts revealed an open reading frame encoding 212 amino acid residues that included two tandemly-arrayed carbohydrate-recognition domains, and an 18-residue signal sequence at the N-terminus. The deduced size of 24.1 kDa for the mature protein was in good agreement with the subunit size of the isolated lectin. Binding activity of DlRBL for rabbit erythrocytes could be inhibited in the presence of rhamnose or galactose, did not require calcium, and was optimal at around 20°C and within the pH 6.5-8.0 range. DlRBL agglutinated Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and exposure of formalin-killed Escherichia coli to DlRBL enhanced their phagocytosis by D. labrax peritoneal macrophages relative to the unexposed controls. Taken together, the results suggest that plasma DlRBL may play a role in immune recognition of microbial pathogens and facilitate their clearance by phagocytosis.

  17. Transcriptomic Profiling of Egg Quality in Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Sheds Light on Genes Involved in Ubiquitination and Translation.

    PubMed

    Żarski, Daniel; Nguyen, Thaovi; Le Cam, Aurélie; Montfort, Jérôme; Dutto, Gilbert; Vidal, Marie Odile; Fauvel, Christian; Bobe, Julien

    2017-02-01

    Variable and low egg quality is a major limiting factor for the development of efficient aquaculture production. This stems from limited knowledge on the mechanisms underlying egg quality in cultured fish. Molecular analyses, such as transcriptomic studies, are valuable tools to identify the most important processes modulating egg quality. However, very few studies have been devoted to this aspect so far. Within this study, the microarray-based transcriptomic analysis of eggs (of different quality) of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was performed. An Agilent oligo microarray experiment was performed on labelled mRNA extracted from 16 batches of eggs (each batch obtained from a different female) of sea bass, in which over 24,000 published probe arrays were used. We identified 39 differentially expressed genes exhibiting a differential expression between the groups of low (fertilization rate < 60 %) and high (fertilization rate > 60 %) quality. The mRNA levels of eight genes were further analyzed by quantitative PCR. Seven genes were confirmed by qPCR to be differentially expressed in eggs of low and high quality. This study confirmed the importance of some of the genes already reported to be potential molecular quality indicators (mainly rnf213 and irf7), but we also found new genes (mainly usp5, mem-prot, plec, cenpf), which had not yet been reported to be quality-dependent in fish. These results suggest the importance of genes involved in several important processes, such as protein ubiquitination, translation, DNA repair, and cell structure and architecture; these probably being the mechanisms that contribute to egg developmental competence in sea bass.

  18. Swimming ability and ecological performance of cultured and wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in coastal tidal ponds.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, Corey; Claireaux, Guy; Nelson, Jay A

    2010-01-01

    Locomotor performance is commonly used to predict ecological performance of animals and is often considered a proxy for Darwinian fitness. In fish, swimming performance is often measured in the laboratory, but its contribution to individual success in the field is rarely evaluated. We assessed maximal swimming velocity of wild and cultured juvenile Dicentrarchus labrax (European sea bass) in a sprint performance chamber and found substantial variation among individuals within a cohort and differences between wild and cultured fish. Moreover, individual sprint swimming performance was found to be repeatable on a daily basis, making this test potentially useful for studies of individual fitness. Some animals were also tested for endurance performance with a modified critical swimming speed (U(crit)) test that we had previously reported to be variable among individuals and significantly repeatable over 6 mo. To test whether these different swimming abilities might contribute to differential ecological success in sea bass, cultured juveniles of known sprint and endurance performance were released into experimental estuaries, where they foraged on natural prey under high densities without predation. A second experiment exposed both cultured and wild juveniles of known sprinting ability to natural forage but this time with reduced densities and natural avian predation. Ecological performance was assessed as survival and growth rate. Neither swimming performance was a direct predictor of ecological performance for cultured fish at high densities. Survival under these conditions was significantly predicted by prior growth rate and condition factor. When exposed to natural avian predators, the better-sprinting wild fish outperformed cultured fish (35% vs. 0% survival), and there was some evidence for sprinting ability contributing to survival within wild fish. Measuring sprint performance in mesocosm survivors revealed a significant inverse relationship between rapid growth

  19. Antimicrobial response is increased in the testis of European sea bass, but not in gilthead seabream, upon nodavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Valero, Yulema; García-Alcázar, Alicia; Esteban, M Ángeles; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2015-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have a crucial role in the fish innate immune response, being considered a fundamental component of the first line of defence against pathogens. Moreover, AMPs have not been studied in the fish gonad since this is used by some pathogens as a vehicle or a reservoir to be transmitted to the progeny, as occurs with nodavirus (VNNV), which shows vertical transmission through the gonad and/or gonadal fluids, but no study has looked into the gonad of infected fish. In this framework, we have characterized the antimicrobial response triggered by VNNV in the testis of European sea bass, a very susceptible species of the virus, and in the gilthead seabream, which acts as a reservoir, both in vivo and in vitro, and compared with that present in the serum and brain (target tissue of VNNV). First, our data show a great antiviral response in the brain of gilthead seabream and in the gonad of European sea bass. In addition, for the first time, our results demonstrate that the antimicrobial activities (complement, lysozyme and bactericidal) and the expression of AMP genes such as complement factor 3 (c3), lysozyme (lyz), hepcidin (hamp), dicentracin (dic), piscidin (pis) or β-defensin (bdef) in the gonad of both species are very different, but generally activated in the European sea bass, probably related with the differences of susceptibility upon VNNV infection, and even differs to the brain response. Furthermore, the in vitro data suggest that some AMPs are locally regulated playing a local immune response in the gonad, while others are more dependent of the systemic immune system. Data are discussed in the light to ascertain their potential role in viral clearance by the gonad to avoid vertical transmission.

  20. SJNNV down-regulates RGNNV replication in European sea bass by the induction of the type I interferon system.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Carlos; Garcia-Rosado, Esther; Borrego, Juan J; Alonso, M Carmen

    2016-01-08

    European sea bass is highly susceptible to the betanodavirus RGNNV genotype, although the SJNNV genotype has also been detected in this fish species. The coexistence of both genotypes may affect the replication of both viruses by viral interaction or by stimulation of the host antiviral defense system in which the IFN I system plays a key role. IFN I triggers the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes, including Mx genes, whose expression has been used as a reporter of IFN I activity. The present study evaluated the effect of a primary exposure to an SJNNV isolate on a subsequent RGNNV infection and analyzed the role of the IFN I system in controlling VNNV infections in sea bass using different in vivo approaches. VNNV infection and Mx transcription were comparatively evaluated after single infections, superinfection (SJ+RG) and co-infection (poly I:C+RG). The single RGNNV infection resulted in a 24% survival rate, whereas the previous SJNNV or poly I:C inoculation increased the survival rate up to 96 and 100%, respectively. RGNNV replication in superinfection was reduced compared with RGNNV replication after a single inoculation. Mx transcription analysis shows differential induction of the IFN I system by both isolates. SJNNV was a potent Mx inducer, whereas RGNNV induced lower Mx transcription and did not interfere with the IFN I system triggered by SJNNV or poly I:C. This study demonstrates that an antiviral state exists after SJNNV and poly I:C injection, suggesting that the IFN I system plays an important role against VNNV infections in sea bass.

  1. Vitamin C enhances vitamin E status and reduces oxidative stress indicators in sea bass larvae fed high DHA microdiets.

    PubMed

    Betancor, Mónica B; Caballero, Ma José; Terova, Genciana; Corà, Samuela; Saleh, Reda; Benítez-Santana, Tibiábin; Bell, J Gordon; Hernández-Cruz, Carmen María; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2012-12-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential fatty acid necessary for many biochemical, cellular and physiological functions in fish. However, high dietary levels of DHA increase free radical injury in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae muscle, even when vitamin E (α-tocopherol, α-TOH) is increased. Therefore, the inclusion of other nutrients with complementary antioxidant functions, such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid, vitC), could further contribute to prevent these lesions. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of vitC inclusion (3,600 mg/kg) in high DHA (5% DW) and α-TOH (3,000 mg/kg) microdiets (diets 5/3,000 and 5/3,000 + vitC) in comparison to a control diet (1% DHA DW and 1,500 mg/kg of α-TOH; diet 1/1,500) on sea bass larvae growth, survival, whole body biochemical composition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content, muscle morphology, skeletal deformities and antioxidant enzymes, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and myosin expression (MyHC). Larvae fed diet 1/1,500 showed the best performance in terms of total length, incidence of muscular lesions and ossification degree. IGFs gene expression was elevated in 5/3,000 diet larvae, suggesting an increased muscle mitogenesis that was confirmed by the increase in the mRNA copies of MyHC. vitC effectively controlled oxidative damages in muscle, increased α-TOH larval contents and reduced TBARS content and the occurrence of skull deformities. The results of the present study showed the antioxidant synergism between vitamins E and C when high contents of DHA are included in sea bass larvae diets.

  2. Sensitive periods for 17β-estradiol exposure during immune system development in sea bass head kidney.

    PubMed

    Seemann, Frauke; Knigge, Thomas; Duflot, Aurélie; Marie, Sabine; Olivier, Stéphanie; Minier, Christophe; Monsinjon, Tiphaine

    2016-06-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that sex steroids play an important role in the development and regulation of vertebrate immune defense. Therefore, compounds with estrogenic activity may influence the immune system via receptor-mediated pathways. The presence of estrogen receptors in immune cells and organs during the early stages of development may indicate that female steroid hormones are involved in the maturation of the fish immune system. This is of particular importance, as some marine fish are probably exposed to sources of exogenous estrogens while they reside in their estuarine nursery grounds. In this study, the influence of 17β-estradiol (E2) on estrogen receptor and cytokine gene expression was assessed in juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) together with characterization of the head kidney leukocyte populations and corresponding phagocytic activity during organ regionalization from 98 to 239 dph. E2 exposure, beginning at 90 dph resulted in indirect and delayed modifications of interleukin 1β and estrogen receptor α gene expression, which may affect B-lymphocyte proliferation in the sea bass head kidney. The E2 treatment of 120 dph fish led to an increase in estrogen receptor β2 and a decrease in transforming growth factor β1 gene expression, which coincided with decreased phagocytic activity of head kidney lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Additionally, these changes were observed during developmental periods described as critical phases for B-lymphocyte development in mammals. Consequently, exogenous estrogens have the potential to modify the innate immune response in juvenile sea bass and to exert detrimental effects on head kidney development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Cloning, promoter analysis and expression in response to bacterial exposure of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) interleukin-12 p40 and p35 subunits.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Diana S; do Vale, Ana; Tomás, Ana M; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Christopher J; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2007-03-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine pivotal in resistance to microbial and viral infections. In the search for immunoregulatory genes in sea bass the genes for the two IL-12 subunits p40 and p35 were cloned and sequenced. Molecular characterization of these two genes was performed at both the cDNA and genomic levels. Sea bass IL-12 p40 and p35 conserve most cysteines involved in the intra-chain disulfide bonds of human IL-12 subunits as well as the important structural residues for human IL-12 heterodimerization. The gene organization of sea bass IL-12 p40 is similar to the human orthologue, whilst the sea bass IL-12 p35 gene structure, as reported for pufferfish, differs from the human one in containing an additional exon and lacking a second copy of a duplicated exon present in the mammalian genes. The promoter analysis of both sea bass and pufferfish IL-12 genes showed the presence of the main cis-acting elements involved in the transcriptional regulation of human and mouse orthologues. The involvement of IL-12 in sea bass anti-bacterial immune responses was demonstrated by investigating the expression profiles of IL-1beta, IL-12 p40 and p35 in the head-kidney and spleen following intraperitoneal injection of UV-killed and live Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida (Phdp). Finally, the importance of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB on UV-killed Phdp-induced IL-12 p40 and p35 gene transcription was shown by the use of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC).

  4. [Cloning, physical and chemical property analysis of the Japanese sea bass Wap65-2 gene and its expression following Vibrio harveyi infection].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu-Hong; Chen, Jiong; Gao, Shan-Shan; Shen, Guang-Qiang; Lu, Xin-Jiang; Li, Ming-Yun

    2012-10-01

    The warm temperature acclimation related 65 kDa protein-2 (Wap65-2), a teleost plasma glycoprotein, plays an important role in immune regulation against bacterial infection. Here, for the first time we determined the full length cDNA sequence of the Japanese sea bass Wap65-2 gene (1 601 bp in length excluding the 3'-polyA tail). The sequence contains an open reading frame that encodes a protein of 436 amino acids with a molecular weight of 4.87×10(4). The predicted protein had a signal peptide in the N-terminal domain containing 19 residues. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the Japanese sea bass Wap65-2 has a relatively high similarity to the Dicentrarchus labrax Wap65-2. In the healthy Japanese sea bass, Wap65-2 mRNA was expressed mainly in the liver and weakly in the heart and muscle. qRT-PCR results revealed that liver Wap65-2 transcripts were significantly increased after a Vibrio harveyi infection, and peaked 24 hour post injection (6.89 fold increase). The Japanese sea bass Wap65-2 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently used for antiserum preparation. Western blot analysis showed that Wap65-2 was significantly increased in V. harveyi infected Japanese sea bass and reached a maximum of 5.33-fold increase at 36 h. In conclusion, the alteration of Japanese sea bass Wap65-2 expression was tightly associated with the progression of the V. harveyi bacterial infection.

  5. Effects of in vivo chronic hydrocarbons pollution on sanitary status and immune system in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Danion, Morgane; Le Floch, Stéphane; Kanan, Rami; Lamour, François; Quentel, Claire

    2011-10-01

    Following the development of an experimental system to expose adult fish to low and stable concentration of pollutant over a prolonged period, the in vivo effects of hydrocarbons on sanitary status, i.e. the health status of fish with regard to chemical pollution, and immune system in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax were assessed. A total of 90 fish were acclimated for 15 days, then 45 fish were exposed to the water soluble fraction (WSF) of Arabian crude oil, similar to a complex pollution by hydrocarbons chronically observed in situ in estuaries, while the 45 other control fish sustained the same experimental conditions in clean seawater. After 21 days of exposure, 30 contaminated and control fish were sampled, then 30 other fish were collected after a 15 day recovery period in clean sea water. PAH concentrations in crude oil, WSF, muscles and bile were measured by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. White blood cell counts and differential leucocyte counts were determined by classical haematology methods. Cell mortality and phagocytosis activity of leucocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Haemolytic alternative complement activity and stress parameters were analyzed in blood plasma by spectrophotometry. After a 21 day exposure period to a mixture of 41 parent/alkylated-PAHs (835 ± 52/85 ± 1 5 ng L(-1)). Fish flesh was contaminated by a bioconcentration of naphthalene very closed to the Reference Dose for Oral Exposure estimated by US-EPA's Integrated Risk Information System, causing a potential risk for human consumers. A leucopenia due to a lymphopenia, a rise in leucocyte mortality and a decrease in phagocytosis activity were noted in contaminated fish compared to controls. All these results may be explained by the damage to membrane cells integrity by uptake of PAHs and suggested an impairment of specific and nonspecific immune systems. After a 15 day recovery period, effects were reversible for sanitary status and an offset in

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) MHC class I heavy chain and β2-microglobulin.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rute D; Randelli, Elisa; Buonocore, Francesco; Pereira, Pedro J B; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2013-03-01

    In this work, the gene and cDNA of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) β2-microglobulin (Dila-β2m) and several cDNAs of MHC class I heavy chain (Dila-UA) were characterized. While Dila-β2m is single-copy, numerous Dila-UA transcripts were identified per individual with variability at the peptide-binding domain (PBD), but also with unexpected diversity from the connective peptide (CP) through the 3' untranslated region (UTR). Phylogenetic analysis segregates Dila-β2m and Dila-UA into each subfamily cluster, placing them in the fish class and branching Dila-MHC-I with lineage U. The α1 domains resemble those of the recently proposed L1 trans-species lineage. Although no Dila-specific α1, α2 or α3 sub-lineages could be observed, two highly distinct sub-lineages were identified at the CP/TM/CYT regions. The three-dimensional homology model of sea bass MHC-I complex is consistent with other characterized vertebrate structures. Furthermore, basal tissue-specific expression profiles were determined for both molecules, and expression of β2m was evaluated after poly I:C stimulus. Results suggest these molecules are orthologues of other β2m and teleost classical MHC-I and their basic structure is evolutionarily conserved, providing relevant information for further studies on antigen presentation in this fish species.

  7. Intraspecific individual variation of temperature tolerance associated with oxygen demand in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Ozolina, Karlina; Shiels, Holly A.; Ollivier, Hélène; Claireaux, Guy

    2016-01-01

    The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is an economically important fish native to the Mediterranean and Northern Atlantic. Its complex life cycle involves many migrations through temperature gradients that affect the energetic demands of swimming. Previous studies have shown large intraspecific variation in swimming performance and temperature tolerance, which could include deleterious and advantageous traits under the evolutionary pressure of climate change. However, little is known of the underlying determinants of this individual variation. We investigated individual variation in temperature tolerance in 30 sea bass by exposing them to a warm temperature challenge test. The eight most temperature-tolerant and eight most temperature-sensitive fish were then studied further to determine maximal swimming speed (UCAT), aerobic scope and post-exercise oxygen consumption. Finally, ventricular contractility in each group was determined using isometric muscle preparations. The temperature-tolerant fish showed lower resting oxygen consumption rates, possessed larger hearts and initially recovered from exhaustive exercise faster than the temperature-sensitive fish. Thus, whole-animal temperature tolerance was associated with important performance traits. However, the temperature-tolerant fish also demonstrated poorer maximal swimming capacity (i.e. lower UCAT) than their temperature-sensitive counterparts, which may indicate a trade-off between temperature tolerance and swimming performance. Interestingly, the larger relative ventricular mass of the temperature-tolerant fish did not equate to greater ventricular contractility, suggesting that larger stroke volumes, rather than greater contractile strength, may be associated with thermal tolerance in this species. PMID:27382468

  8. Molecular markers for animal biotechnology: sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) HMG-CoA reductase mRNA.

    PubMed

    Gornati, Rosalba; Papis, Elena; Rimoldi, Simona; Chini, Valentina; Terova, Genciana; Prati, Mariangela; Saroglia, Marco; Bernardini, Giovanni

    2005-01-03

    Modern technologies may improve fish production and quality and, at the same time, reduce environmental impact with benefits on the public perception of the industry. To be economically profitable, these modern technologies request an increase of rearing density that, however, could affect fish welfare. With the aim to search for molecular biomarkers to describe fish welfare, we have recently compared gene expression of sea bass farmed at different population densities by differential display obtaining six bands differentially expressed. In this paper, we have cloned the mRNA corresponding to one of those differentially expressed bands obtaining a 3860-bp sequence with an ORF of 2664 bp. Its virtual translation originated a 887-aa polypeptide that, by comparison with the other sequences available in the public data bases, resulted to be the 3-hydroxil-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). In sea bass, as for the other species, the N- and C-terminus portions are the most conserved and are linked by an hydrophilic region that appears to be quite variable. Due to its role in the synthesis of cholesterol, HMGCR mRNA could be a good biomarker for detecting fish welfare. For this reason, we also followed, by real-time PCR, its expression after crowding stress comparing it with mRNA levels of HSP 70 and 90: HMGCR mRNA resulted highly expressed in the fishes farmed at 100 kg/m(3).

  9. Mechanisms of oocyte development in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): investigations via application of unilateral ovariectomy.

    PubMed

    García-López, Ángel; Sánchez-Amaya, María I; Tyler, Charles R; Prat, Francisco

    2011-08-01

    Unilateral ovariectomy (ULO) was performed in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) during late pre-vitellogenesis/early vitellogenesis. Plasma steroid levels and the expression of a suite of potential oogenesis-relevant genes in the ovary, brain, and pituitary were evaluated with the aim of understanding their involvement in the compensatory oocyte development occurring within the remaining ovarian lobe. After 69 days of surgery the remaining ovarian lobe in ULO fish was gravimetrically equivalent to an intact-paired ovary of sham operated, control fish. This compensatory ovarian growth was based on an increased number of early perinucleolar oocytes and mid-late stage vitellogenic follicles without an apparent recruitment of primary oocytes into the secondary growth phase. Plasma steroid levels were similar in ULO and control females at all time points analyzed, suggesting an increased steroid production of the remaining ovarian lobe in hemi-castrated females. Results of the gene expression survey conducted indicate that the signaling pathways mediated by Fsh and Gnrh1 constitute the central axes orchestrating the observed ovarian compensatory growth. In addition, steroid receptors, Star protein, Igfs, and members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily including anti-Mullerian hormone and bone morphogenetic protein 4 were identified as potentially relevant players within this process, although their specific actions and interactions remain to be established. Our results demonstrate that ULO provides an excellent in vivo model for elucidating the interconnected endocrine and molecular mechanisms controlling oocyte development in European sea bass.

  10. Photoperiod modulates the reproductive axis of European sea bass through regulation of kiss1 and gnrh2 neuronal expression.

    PubMed

    Espigares, F; Rocha, A; Gómez, A; Carrillo, M; Zanuy, S

    2017-01-01

    The onset of puberty is characterized by activation of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis. However, the molecular and endocrine mechanism involved in the process of puberty and the influence of environmental conditions, such as photoperiod signalling, are not well understood in fish. In this study, 1-year-old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to photoperiod manipulation in combination with size-sorting. Two treatment groups, a puberty accelerating photoperiod (AP) group and a continuous light (LL) group, were studied from August to February. Our results indicate that AP and LL are able to entrain the rhythms of both kiss1 and gnrh2 mRNA levels in the brain, while kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA expression does not seem to be directly affected by the photoperiod, at least during testicular growth. It is likely that AP and LL photoperiod regimes affected both plasma Fsh and 11-KT profiles, which might explain, respectively, the phase shift and reduction of testes maturation seen under these conditions. We therefore hypothesize that the unbalanced production of this androgen regulated by circulating Fsh might be limiting the stimulation of germ cell proliferation in European sea bass males. In summary, our study establishes that photoperiod modulates the expression of kiss1 and gnrh2 in the forebrain-midbrain, which may be involved in the translation of the light stimulus to activate the reproductive axis.

  11. T cell transcripts and T cell activities in the gills of the teleost fish sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Nuñez Ortiz, N; Gerdol, M; Stocchi, V; Marozzi, C; Randelli, E; Bernini, C; Buonocore, F; Picchietti, S; Papeschi, C; Sood, N; Pallavicini, A; Scapigliati, G

    2014-12-01

    The gills of fish are a mucosal tissue that contains T cells involved in the recognition of non-self and pathogens, and in this work we describe some features of gill-associated T cells of European sea bass, a marine model species. A whole transcriptome was obtained by deep sequencing of RNA from unstimulated gills that has been analyzed for the presence of T cell-related transcripts. Of the putative expressed sequences identified in the transcriptome, around 30 were related to main functions related to T cells including Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg cell subpopulations, thus suggesting their possible presence in the branchial epithelium. The number of T cells in the gills of sea bass, measured with the specific T cell mAb DLT15 range from 10% to 20%, and IHC analysis shows their abundance and distribution in the epithelium. Leukocytes from gills are able to proliferate in the presence of lectins ConA and PHA, as measured by flow cytometry using CFSE fluorescence incorporation, and during proliferation the number of T cells counted by immunofluorescence increased. In lectin-proliferating cells the expression of T cell-related genes TRβ, TRγ, CD4, CD8α, CD45 and IL-10 increased dramatically. Our data represent a first analysis on T cell genes and on basic T cell activities of fish gills, and suggest the presence of functionally active subpopulations of T lymphocytes in this tissue.

  12. The characteristics of vasa gene from Japanese sea bass ( Lateolabrax japonicas) and its response to the external hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Meili; Wen, Haishen; Ni, Meng; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Pei; Chai, Senhao

    2015-08-01

    The RNA helicase Vasa is an important regulator of primordial germ cell development. Its function in mature fish, especially the hormone-related differences in maturing male fish has seldom been documented. In this study, a full length cDNA sequence of the vasa gene was cloned from Japanese sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicas, and it was named jsb-vasa. Homology analysis showed that jsb-vasa was closely related to its teleost homologs. The spatial distribution of jsb-vasa indicated that it was only highly expressed in testis, showing its germ cell-specific expression pattern. During the testicular development cycle, jsb-vasa was highly expressed during early period of spermatogenesis, and reduced when spermatogenesis advanced. In addition, the jsb-vasa gene expression was significantly inhibited at 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after injecting hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and GnRHa (Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue), indicating that jsb-vasa gene may play an important role in spermatogenesis of Japanese sea bass, and be under the regulation of external sex hormones.

  13. Administration of a Polyphenol-Enriched Feed to Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Modulates Intestinal and Spleen Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Magrone, Thea; Fontana, Sergio; Laforgia, Flavia; Dragone, Teresa; Jirillo, Emilio; Passantino, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    Farmed fish are exposed to a continuous antigenic pressure by microbial and environmental agents, which may lead to a condition of chronic inflammation. In view of the notion that polyphenols, largely contained in fruits and vegetables, are endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) have been administered with red grape polyphenol-enriched feed. Polyphenols were extracted from the seeds of Canosina Nero di Troia Vitis vinifera and mixed with conventional feed at two different concentrations (100 and 200 mg/kg, resp.). Fish samples collected at days 223 and 273, respectively, were evaluated for intestinal and spleen cytokine release as well as for spleen macrophage (MØ) and melanomacrophage center (MMC) areas and distribution. Data will show that in treated fish decrease of intestinal interleukin- (IL-) 1β and IL-6 and increase of splenic interferon- (IFN-) γ occur. On the other hand, in the spleen reduction of MØ number seems to parallel increase in MMCs. Collectively, these data suggest that polyphenol-administered sea bass generate lower levels of intestinal proinflammatory cytokines, while producing larger amounts of spleen IFN-γ, as an expression of a robust and protective adaptive immune response. Increase of MMCs corroborates the evidence for a protective spleen response induced by feed enriched with polyphenols. PMID:26779301

  14. Repeatability of cortisol stress response in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and transcription differences between individuals with divergent responses

    PubMed Central

    Samaras, A.; Dimitroglou, A.; Sarropoulou, E.; Papaharisis, L.; Kottaras, L.; Pavlidis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the stress responses of organisms is of importance in the performance and welfare of farmed animals, including fish. Especially fish in aquaculture commonly face stressors, and better knowledge of their responses may assist in proper husbandry and selection of breeding stocks. European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a species with high cortisol concentrations, is of major importance in this respect. The main objectives of the present study were to assess the repeatability and consistency of cortisol stress response and to identify differences in liver transcription profiles of European sea bass individuals, showing a consistent low (LR) or high (HR) cortisol response. The progeny of six full sib families was used, and sampled for plasma cortisol after an acute stress challenge once per month, for four consecutive months. Results suggest that cortisol responsiveness was a repeatable trait with LR and HR fish showing low or high resting, free and post-stress cortisol concentrations respectively. Finally, the liver transcription profiles of LR and HR fish showed some important differences, indicating differential hepatic regulation between these divergent phenotypes. These transcription differences were related to various metabolic and immunological processes, with 169 transcripts being transcribed exclusively in LR fish and 161 exclusively in HR fish. PMID:27703277

  15. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Diana S; Pereira, Pedro J B; Reis, Marta I R; do Vale, Ana; Zou, Jun; Silva, Manuel T; Secombes, Christopher J; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2007-09-01

    In the search for pro-inflammatory genes in sea bass a TNF-alpha gene was cloned and sequenced. The sea bass TNF-alpha (sbTNF-alpha) putative protein conserves the TNF-alpha family signature, as well as the two cysteines usually involved in the formation of a disulfide bond. The mouse TNF-alpha Thr-Leu cleavage sequence and a potential transmembrane domain were also found, suggesting that sbTNF-alpha exists as two forms: a approximately 28 kDa membrane-bound form and a approximately 18.4 kDa soluble protein. The single copy sbTNF-alpha gene contains a four exon-three intron structure similar to other known TNF-alpha genes. Homology modeling of sbTNF-alpha is compatible with the trimeric quaternary architecture of its mammalian counterparts. SbTNF-alpha is constitutively expressed in several unstimulated tissues, and was not up-regulated in the spleen and head-kidney, in response to UV-killed Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. However, an increase of sbTNF-alpha expression was detected in the head-kidney during an experimental infection using the same pathogen.

  16. Construction and characterization of a cDNA library from head kidney of Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus).

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhan-tao; Cong, Xiao; Yuan, Jin-duo; Yang, Gui-wen; Chen, Ying; Pan, Jie; An, Li-guo

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, a cDNA expression library from head kidney of Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) was constructed for the first time. The first-strand cDNA was synthesized with Moloney Murine Leukaemia virus reverse transcriptase and the double-stranded cDNA was digested by Xho I enzyme. Size fractionation was performed on CHROMA SPIN-400 columns. cDNA fragments longer than 500 bps were ligated into the lambdaZAPExpress vector. The recombinant DNA was packaged in vitro with Gigapack III gold packaging extract. The titers of the primary and amplified library were 1.0 x 10(5) and 5.0 x 10(9) pfu/ml, respectively. To characterize the constructed cDNA library, 15 phage plaques were selected randomly to test the inserted fragments. The results showed that the inserts were mostly longer than 500 bps. To test the utility, the library was screened with primers designed for three immune-related genes of, Myxovirus resistant (Mx), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and Toll-like receptor (TLR). Results of Blastn and alignment showed that they are members of Mx, TNF-alpha and TLR gene families, respectively, which meets our anticipates for this cDNA library as an immune-related one. These results confirmed that the cDNA library constructed will provide a useful tool for gene cloning and expression analysis in immune system of Japanese sea bass.

  17. Characterization, tissue distribution and regulation by fasting of the agouti family of peptides in the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Agulleiro, Maria Josep; Cortés, Raúl; Leal, Esther; Ríos, Diana; Sánchez, Elisa; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

    2014-09-01

    The melanocortin system is one of the most complex hormonal systems in vertebrates. Atypically, the signaling of melanocortin receptors is regulated by the binding of endogenous antagonists, named agouti-signaling protein (ASIP) and agouti-related protein (AGRP). Teleost specific genome duplication (TSGD) rendered new gene copies in teleost fish and up to four different genes of the agouti family of peptides have been characterized. In this paper, molecular cloning was used to characterize mRNA of the agouti family of peptides in sea bass. Four different genes were identified: AGRP1, ASIP1, AGRP2 and ASIP2. The AGRP1 gene is mainly expressed in the brain whereas ASIP1 is mainly expressed in the ventral skin. Both ASIP2 and AGRP2 are expressed in the brain and the pineal gland but also in some peripheral tissues. Immunocytochemical studies demonstrated that AGRP1 is exclusively expressed within the lateral tuberal nucleus, the homologue of the mammalian arcuate nucleus in fish. Long-term fasting (8-29 days) increased the hypothalamic expression of AGRP1 but depressed AGRP2 expression (15-29 days). In contrast, the hypothalamic expression of ASIP2 was upregulated during short-term fasting suggesting that this peptide could be involved in the short term regulation of food intake in the sea bass.

  18. Ozone disinfection of eggs from gilthead seabream Sparus aurata, sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, red porgy, and common dentex Dentex dentex.

    PubMed

    Can, Erkan; Karacalar, Ulviye; Saka, Sahin; Firat, Kursat

    2012-06-01

    The risk of fish pathogen transmission via eggs can be reduced by disinfection in ozonated seawater. The aim of this study was to determine the suitable conditions for ozone disinfection of the eggs of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata, sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, red porgy Pagrus pagrus, and common dentex Dentex dentex. The eggs were disinfected with a concentration (C) of 0.5 mg of ozone/L of water at four different exposure times (T = 2, 4, 8, and 16 min). The hatching rate was determined in triplicate for each treatment. Bacterial colonies were counted on tryptic soy agar and thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar. At the end of the experiment, bacterial load and hatching rate were assessed together to determine the optimal ozone treatment values, which were estimated in CT units (i.e., C [= 0.5 mg/L] x T [min]). Optimal values were CT 2-4 (T = 4-8 min; 18 degrees C) for gilthead seabream and red porgy, CT 2 (T = 4 min; 18 degrees C) for common dentex, and CT 4 (T = 8 min; 15 degrees C) for sea bass.

  19. Connectivity across the Caribbean Sea: DNA barcoding and morphology unite an enigmatic fish larva from the Florida straits with a new species of sea bass from deep reefs off Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Johnson, G David

    2014-01-01

    Integrative taxonomy, in which multiple disciplines are combined to address questions related to biological species diversity, is a valuable tool for identifying pelagic marine fish larvae and recognizing the existence of new fish species. Here we combine data from DNA barcoding, comparative morphology, and analysis of color patterns to identify an unusual fish larva from the Florida Straits and demonstrate that it is the pelagic larval phase of a previously undescribed species of Liopropoma sea bass from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. The larva is unique among larvae of the teleost family Serranidae, Tribe Liopropomini, in having seven elongate dorsal-fin spines. Adults of the new species are similar to the golden bass, Liopropoma aberrans, with which they have been confused, but they are distinct genetically and morphologically. The new species differs from all other western Atlantic liopropomins in having IX, 11 dorsal-fin rays and in having a unique color pattern-most notably the predominance of yellow pigment on the dorsal portion of the trunk, a pale to white body ventrally, and yellow spots scattered across both the dorsal and ventral portions of the trunk. Exploration of deep reefs to 300 m using a manned submersible off Curaçao is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species, improving our genetic databases, and greatly enhancing our understanding of deep-reef fish diversity in the southern Caribbean. Oh the mother and child reunion is only a moment away. Paul Simon.

  20. Cytokine expression in head-kidney leucocytes of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) after incubation with the probiotic Vagococcus fluvialis L-21.

    PubMed

    Román, L; Real, F; Padilla, D; El Aamri, F; Déniz, S; Grasso, V; Acosta, F

    2013-10-01

    The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) is one of the most extensively farmed marine fish in the Mediterranean sea. Under the high-density condition, common in aquaculture, the infectious diseases can cause significant economic losses. Probiotics are presented as an alternative to antibiotics for the control of aquaculture diseases. This study used real-time PCR to investigate in vitro the dynamic of expression of immune-related genes in sea bass after incubation with live and inactivated (heat and Uv-light) probiotic Vagoccus fluvialis L-21 at different times (T1, T12, T24, T48). The immune associated genes, interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), TumourTumour necrosis factor- (TNF-), ciclo-oxigenase-2 (COX-2), caspase-3 (Casp-3) and Mx were studied in head-kidney (HK) leucocytes of sea bass after incubation with the probiotic strain. Transcript of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-, COX-2) was highly up-regulated after 1 h of incubation with the probiotic strain V. fluvialis L-21. We found statistically significant difference in pick of expression of TNF-, after 1 h of incubation with Uv-light inactivated probiotic strain. The COX-2 expression was highly up-regulated at all times studied, with the exception of 12 and 24 h post incubation for the Uv-light inactivated bacteria. Transcript of IL-10 and Casp-3 showed the higher statistically significant differences of expression after 48 h post incubation with live bacteria. In the contrast, sea bass HK leucocytes expressed Mx at 12 and 48 h without statistically differences among treatments. Our results suggest that V. fluvialis L-21 is able to stimulate in vitro some immune-related genes associated with the early inflammatory response. Future studies in vivo are necessary to clarify this process in sea bass.

  1. Transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP) in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.): molecular cloning and characterization of TAP1 and TAP2.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rute D; Pereira, Pedro J B; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2011-11-01

    The transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP), play an important role in the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. In this work, sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) TAP1 and TAP2 genes and transcripts were isolated and characterized. Only the TAP2 gene is structurally similar to its human orthologue. As other TAP molecules, sea bass TAP1 and TAP2 are formed by one N-terminal accessory domain, one core membrane-spanning domain and one canonical C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain. Homology modelling of the sea bass TAP dimer predicts that its quaternary structure is in accordance with that of other ABC transporters. Phylogenetic analysis segregates sea bass TAP1 and TAP2 into each subfamily cluster of transporters, placing them in the fish class and suggesting that the basic structure of these transport-associated proteins is evolutionarily conserved. Furthermore, the present data provides information that will enable more studies on the class I antigen presentation pathway in this important fish species.

  2. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH/AMH) in the European sea bass: its gene structure, regulatory elements, and the expression of alternatively-spliced isoforms.

    PubMed

    Halm, S; Rocha, A; Miura, T; Prat, F; Zanuy, S

    2007-02-15

    In mammals, a multitude of studies have shown that anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH/AMH), apart from inducing Müllerian duct regression during male sexual differentiation, exerts inhibitory effects on male and female gonadal steroidogenesis and differentiation. However, in lower vertebrates like teleost fish, the function of AMH/AMH has been far less explored. As a first step to unravel its potential role in reproduction in teleost fish, we isolated and characterised the AMH gene in the European sea bass (sb), Dicentrachus labrax, determined putative regulatory elements of its 5'-flanking region, and analysed its gene expression and those of alternatively-spliced transcripts. The characterisation of sb-AMH revealed distinct features that distinguishes it from mammalian and bird AMH, suggesting a high rate of diversification of AMH during vertebrate evolution. It contained 7 exons that were divided by 6 introns, of which the last intron (intron vi) was localised only a few nucleotides upstream of the putative peptide cleavage site. The guanine and cytosine content of the open reading frame (ORF) was 52.7% and thus notably lower than that of bird and mammalian AMH. Sb-AMH cDNA was 2045 base pairs (bp) long, containing an ORF of 1599 bp encoding 533 amino acids. Deduced amino acid similarities of the conserved, carboxyterminal domain were highest with AMH in Japanese flounder (84.2%) and lowest with chicken AMH (45.5%). In the proximal promoter sequence of sb-AMH, a steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) binding site was present; however other regulatory sequences essential for transcriptional activation of AMH in mammals were absent. Likewise, there was no sequence homology to an SF3A2 sequence within the first 3200 bp upstream of the sb-AMH translation start site. Gene expression of sb-AMH and of alternatively-spliced sb-AMH transcripts were analysed in male and female juvenile and adult gonads as well as in somatic tissues of juvenile males. sb-AMH expression was highest in

  3. Developing Teaching Style in Adult Education. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Norland, Emmalou

    Designed for adult educators in various settings who are seeking to improve as teachers, this book describes a process adult educators can use to examine their beliefs about teaching and current teaching behavior in depth. It is intended to guide them through an exploration of who they really are as teachers, and then, through experiential…

  4. Summer movements of sub-adult brook trout, landlocked Atlantic salmon, and smallmouth bass in the Rapid River, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, Casey A. L.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Summer movement patterns and spatial overlap of native sub-adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), non-native landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and non-native smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the Rapid River, Maine, were investigated with radio telemetry in 2005. Fishes were captured by angling, surgically implanted with radio transmitters, and tracked actively from June through September. Most brook trout (96%) and landlocked salmon (72%) displayed long distance movements (>1 km) to open water bodies (28 June to 4 July) followed by periods of time spent in presumed thermal refigia (5 July to 16 September). Summer water temperature rose above 25 °C, near the reported lethal limits for these coldwater species. In contrast, the majority of smallmouth bass (68%), a warrnwater species, did not make long distance movements from areas of initial capture, remaining in mainstem sections of the river (28 June to 16 September). Spatial overlap of smallmouth bass and brook trout in the summer is unlikely because brook trout presumably move to thermal rehgia during this time. However, interspecific competition between brook trout and landlocked salmon may occur since they select similar habitats June through September.

  5. Sarcoplasmic reticulum: a key factor in cardiac contractility of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and common sole Solea solea during thermal acclimations.

    PubMed

    Imbert-Auvray, N; Mercier, C; Huet, V; Bois, P

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of acclimation temperature upon (i) contractility of ventricular strips (ii) calcium movements in ventricular cardiomyocytes during excitation-contraction coupling (ECC), and (iii) the role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in myocardial responses, in two marine teleosts, the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and the common sole (Solea solea). Because of the different sensitivities of their metabolism to temperature variation, both species were exposed to different thermal ranges. Sea bass were acclimated to 10, 15, 20, and 25 °C, and common sole to 6, 12, 18, and 24 °C, for 1 month. Isometric tension developed by ventricular strips was recorded over a range of physiological stimulation frequencies, whereas the depolarization-induced calcium transients were recorded on isolated ventricular cells through hyperpotassic solution application (at 100 mM). The SR contribution was assessed by ryanodine (RYAN) perfusion on ventricular strips and by caffeine application (at 10 mM) on isolated ventricular cells. Rates of contraction and relaxation of ventricular strip, in both species, increased with increasing acclimation temperature. At a low range of stimulation frequency, ventricular strips of common sole developed a positive force-frequency relationship at high acclimation temperature. In both the species, SR Ca(2+)-cycling was dependent on fish species, acclimation temperature and pacing frequency. The SR contribution was more important to force development at low acclimation temperatures in sea bass but at high acclimation temperatures in common sole. The results also revealed that high acclimation temperature causes an increase in the maximum calcium response amplitude on ventricular cells in both the species. Although sea bass and common sole occupy similar environments and tolerate similar environmental temperatures, this study indicated that sea bass and common sole can acclimatize to new thermal conditions, adjusting

  6. Characteristics of fads2 gene expression and putative promoter in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): comparison with salmonid species and analysis of CpG methylation.

    PubMed

    Geay, Florian; Zambonino-Infante, José; Reinhardt, Richard; Kuhl, Heiner; Santigosa, Ester; Cahu, Chantal; Mazurais, David

    2012-03-01

    Marine fish species exhibit low capacity to biosynthesise highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) in comparison to strict freshwater and anadromous species. It is admitted that the Delta(6) desaturase (FADS2) is a key enzyme in the HUFA biosynthetic pathway. We investigated by quantitative PCR the relative amounts of FADS2 mRNA in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in comparison with a salmonid species, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss L.). The analysis of the expression data was performed regarding the difference of the characteristics of a critical fragment of the fads2 gene promoter between sea bass and Atlantic salmon. The lower level of fads2 gene expression observed in sea bass suggested that fads2 gene putative promoter, which exhibited an E-box like Sterol Regulatory Element (SRE) site but lacked a Sp1 site, is less active in this marine species. The cytosine methylation of CpG sites in the putative promoter region including E-box like SRE and NF-Y binding sites of sea bass fads2 gene was also investigated following a nutritional conditioning of larvae. However, no significant difference of CpG methylation could be found for any of the 28 CpGs analysed between larvae fed diet with high or low HUFA contents. In conclusion, the present data revealed lower constitutive expression of the fads2 gene possibly related to different characteristics of gene promoter in sea bass in comparison with salmonid species, and indicated that long-term conditioning of fads2 gene expression did not influence the methylation of the gene promoter at potential SRE binding site.

  7. Nodavirus infection of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) induces up-regulation of galectin-1 expression with potential anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Poisa-Beiro, Laura; Dios, Sonia; Ahmed, Hafiz; Vasta, Gerardo R; Martínez-López, Alicia; Estepa, Amparo; Alonso-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2009-11-15

    Sea bass nervous necrosis virus is the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis, a disease responsible of high economic losses in larval and juvenile stages of cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). To identify genes potentially involved in antiviral immune defense, gene expression profiles in response to nodavirus infection were investigated in sea bass head kidney using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique. A total of 8.7% of the expressed sequence tags found in the SSH library showed significant similarities with immune genes, of which a prototype galectin (Sbgalectin-1), two C-type lectins (SbCLA and SbCLB) from groups II and VII, respectively, and a short pentraxin (Sbpentraxin) were selected for further characterization. Results of SSH were validated by in vivo up-regulation of expression of Sbgalectin-1, SbCLA, and SbCLB in response to nodavirus infection. To examine the potential role(s) of Sbgalectin-1 in response to nodavirus infection in further detail, the recombinant protein (rSbgalectin-1) was produced, and selected functional assays were conducted. A dose-dependent decrease of respiratory burst was observed in sea bass head kidney leukocytes after incubation with increasing concentrations of rSbgalectin-1. A decrease in IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and Mx expression was observed in the brain of sea bass simultaneously injected with nodavirus and rSbgalectin-1 compared with those infected with nodavirus alone. Moreover, the protein was detected in the brain from infected fish, which is the main target of the virus. These results suggest a potential anti-inflammatory, protective role of Sbgalectin-1 during viral infection.

  8. Climate influence on juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) populations in an estuarine nursery: A decadal overview.

    PubMed

    Bento, Eduardo G; Grilo, Tiago F; Nyitrai, Dániel; Dolbeth, Marina; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Martinho, Filipe

    2016-12-01

    Estuarine systems support the life cycle stages of commercially important marine fish and are influenced by large and local-scale climatic patterns. In this study, performed in the Mondego estuary, Portugal, we used an 11-year database (2003-2013) for analyzing the variability in the population of a marine juvenile migrant fish, the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, regarding changes in abundance, population structure, growth rates, secondary production and annual day of peak abundance. Higher densities and production occurred in 2003, but no differences in 0-group growth could be observed. In order to detect change points in both biological and climatic data, the cumulative sum (CUSUM) of the deviations from the mean for the 2003-2013 period were determined for each parameter. The relationship between large and local-scale drivers and 0-group biological attributes were evaluated using a Spearman rank correlation analysis of CUSUM of biological and environmental data, considering the correspondent yearly values and with a time-lag of 1 year. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, sea surface temperature (SST) and their respective winter values were tested as large-scale factors, while river runoff, salinity and estuarine water temperature were considered as local climate patterns. The significant factors explaining D. labrax 0-group abundance and production were salinity and the NAO, the latter being also a significant predictor considering the 1-year lag. The NAO with 1-year lag was also positively correlated with the day of peak abundance. The early stages of European sea bass were demonstrated to have a climate-dependent life cycle, controlled by variations in both large-scale climatic patterns and local features. In southern European marine populations, the effects of the NAO seem less direct, and dependent on the magnitude of its expressions and on the time scale considered.

  9. Multiple vitellogenins and product yolk proteins in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Molecular characterization, quantification in plasma, liver and ovary, and maturational proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Prat, Francisco; Ibáñez, A Jose; Köksoy, Sadi; Amano, Haruna; Sullivan, Craig V

    2016-01-01

    Three complete vitellogenin (Vtg) polypeptides of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), an acanthomorph teleost spawning pelagic eggs in seawater, were deduced from cDNA and identified as VtgAa, VtgAb and VtgC based on current Vtg nomenclature and phylogeny. Label free quantitative mass spectrometry verified the presence of the three sea bass Vtgs or their product yolk proteins (YPs) in liver, plasma and ovary of postvitellogenic females. As evidenced by normalized spectral counts, VtgAb-derived protein was 2- to 5-fold more abundant, depending on sample type, than for VtgAa, while VtgC-derived protein was less abundant, albeit only 3-fold lower than for VtgAb in the ovary. Western blotting with Vtg type-specific antisera raised against corresponding gray mullet (Mugil cephalus) lipovitellins (Lvs) detected all three types of sea bass Vtg in the blood plasma of gravid females and/or estrogenized males and showed that all three forms of sea bass Lv undergo limited partial degradation during oocyte maturation. The comparatively high levels of VtgC-derived YPs in fully-grown oocytes and the maturational proteolysis of all three types of Lv differ from what has been reported for other teleosts spawning pelagic eggs in seawater but are similar to recent findings for two species of North American Moronidae, the striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white perch (Morone americana), which spawn pelagic and demersal eggs, respectively in fresh water. Together with the high Vtg sequence homologies and virtually identical structural features of each type of Vtg between species, these findings indicate that the moronid multiple Vtg systems do not substantially vary with reproductive environment.

  10. Exogenous 17β-oestradiol (E2) modifies thymus growth and regionalization in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Seemann, F; Knigge, T; Olivier, S; Monsinjon, T

    2015-03-01

    The effect of 17β-oestradiol (E2) on the growth of the thymus and its regionalization into cortex and medulla was investigated in juvenile European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax as they find themselves close to sources of oestrogenic pollution whilst residing in their estuarine nursery areas. While the exposure to 2, 20 and 200 ng l(-1) in 60 days post-hatch (dph) fish tended to cause a non-monotonous dose-response curve with a significant difference of the cortex size between lowest and highest exposures, the exposure to 20 ng l(-1) E2 from 90 dph onwards resulted in a distinct enlargement of the cortex. It is probable that the alteration of the cortex size also affects the T-cell differentiation and proliferation.

  11. Effects of pressure-shift freezing and pressure-assisted thawing on sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) quality.

    PubMed

    Tironi, V; LeBail, A; de Lamballerie, M

    2007-09-01

    Effects of pressure-shift freezing and/or pressure-assisted thawing on the quality of sea bass muscle were evaluated and compared with conventional (air-blast) frozen and thawed samples. Microstructural analysis showed a marked decrease of muscle cell damage for pressure-assisted frozen samples. According to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), protein extractability, and SDS-PAGE results, high-pressure treatment (200 MPa) produced a partial denaturation with aggregation and insolubilization of the myosin, as well as alterations of the sarcoplasmic proteins. Only small differences between high-pressure processes (freezing or/and thawing) were registered. High-pressure-treated systems led to a decrease of water holding capacity but differences between high-pressure and conventional methods disappeared after cooking. Muscle color showed important alterations due to high-pressure treatments (increasing L* and b*).

  12. Photoperiodic Modulation of Circadian Clock and Reproductive Axis Gene Expression in the Pre-Pubertal European Sea Bass Brain

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Rute S. T.; Gomez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel; Canário, Adelino V. M.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of reproductive competence requires the activation of the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis, which in most vertebrates, including fishes, is initiated by changes in photoperiod. In the European sea bass long-term exposure to continuous light (LL) alters the rhythm of reproductive hormones, delays spermatogenesis and reduces the incidence of precocious males. In contrast, an early shift from long to short photoperiod (AP) accelerates spermatogenesis. However, how photoperiod affects key genes in the brain to trigger the onset of puberty is still largely unknown. Here, we investigated if the integration of the light stimulus by clock proteins is sufficient to activate key genes that trigger the BPG axis in the European sea bass. We found that the clock genes clock, npas2, bmal1 and the BPG genes gnrh, kiss and kissr share conserved transcription factor frameworks in their promoters, suggesting co-regulation. Other gene promoters of the BGP axis were also predicted to be co-regulated by the same frameworks. Co-regulation was confirmed through gene expression analysis of brains from males exposed to LL or AP photoperiod compared to natural conditions: LL fish had suppressed gnrh1, kiss2, galr1b and esr1, while AP fish had stimulated npas2, gnrh1, gnrh2, kiss2, kiss1rb and galr1b compared to NP. It is concluded that fish exposed to different photoperiods present significant expression differences in some clock and reproductive axis related genes well before the first detectable endocrine and morphological responses of the BPG axis. PMID:26641263

  13. Evaluation of different methods of stunning/killing sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) by tissue stress/quality indicators.

    PubMed

    Zampacavallo, Giulia; Parisi, Giuliana; Mecatti, Massimo; Lupi, Paola; Giorgi, Gianluca; Poli, Bianca Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect on the final product quality of certain innovative stunning/killing methods for sea bass as substitutes for the most common methods used by European farmers. The changes in tissue stress/quality parameters were monitored from the first hours after death and during the shelf life of the fish. Two trials were conducted in July and November on n. 231 sea bass stunned/killed by ice-water slurry, by single gas or mixture of gases in ice-water and by single- or two-stage electrical stunning/killing methods. Behavioural responses, stun/death time, rigor index, muscular and ocular pH, lactic acid, ATP and catabolites at death and within the 24 h after death were determined. In the November trial, the sensorial evaluation, rigor index, IMP, inosine, hypoxanthine, and K1 values were also evaluated during refrigerated storage until spoilage. The stunning/killing in ice-water appeared to induce low effects on the analysed parameters and preserve a good product quality as indicated by the highest pH and ATP values at death, the delayed full rigor onset and the 1 day longer shelf life (14 days) in comparison with the single- or two-stage electrical stunning/killing. The gas mixture addition provided a 40 % shortening of the time to obtain stunning/killing and 14 days of shelf life. The actual level of quality loss with the different killing conditions and the actual impact of a significant shortage of rigor mortis onset and pH drop on the possible pre-rigor filleting remain to be studied in depth.

  14. Genetic characterization of hatchery populations of Korean spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    An, H S; Kim, H Y; Kim, J B; Chang, D S; Park, K D; Lee, J W; Myeong, J I; An, C M

    2014-08-28

    The spotted sea bass, Lateolabrax maculatus, is an important commercial and recreational fishery resource in Korea. Aquacultural production of this species has increased because of recent resource declines, growing consumption, and ongoing government-operated stock release programs. Therefore, the genetic characterization of hatchery populations is necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this species and to develop more effective aquaculture practices. In this study, the genetic diversity and structure of three cultured populations in Korea were assessed using multiplex assays with 12 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci; 144 alleles were identified. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 28, with an average of 13.1. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.724 and 0.753, respectively. Low levels of inbreeding were detected according to the inbreeding coefficient (mean FIS = 0.003-0.073). All hatchery populations were significantly differentiated from each other (overall fixation index (FST) = 0.027, P < 0.01), and no population formed a separate cluster. Pairwise multilocus FST tests, estimates of genetic distance, mantel test, and principal component analyses did not show a consistent relationship between geographic and genetic distances. These results could reflect the exchange of breeds and eggs between hatcheries and/or genetic drift due to intensive breeding practices. For optimal resource management, the genetic variation of hatchery stocks should be monitored and inbreeding controlled within the spotted sea bass stocks that are being released every year. This genetic information will be useful for the management of both L. maculatus fisheries and the aquaculture industry.

  15. Testicular Steroidogenesis and Locomotor Activity Are Regulated by Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone in Male European Sea Bass

    PubMed Central

    Paullada-Salmerón, José A.; Cowan, Mairi; Aliaga-Guerrero, María; López-Olmeda, José F.; Mañanós, Evaristo L.; Zanuy, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a neurohormone that suppresses reproduction by acting at both the brain and pituitary levels. In addition to the brain, GnIH may also be produced in gonads and can regulate steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. However, the function of GnIH in gonadal physiology has received little attention in fish. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of peripheral sbGnih-1 and sbGnih-2 implants on gonadal development and steroidogenesis during the reproductive cycle of male sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Both Gnihs decreased testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) plasma levels in November and December (early- and mid-spermatogenesis) but did not affect plasma levels of the progestin 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP). In February (spermiation), fish treated with sbGnih-1 and sbGnih-2 exhibited testicles with abundant type A spermatogonia and partial spermatogenesis. In addition, we determined the effects of peripheral Gnih implants on plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) levels, as well as on brain and pituitary expression of the main reproductive hormone genes and their receptors during the spermiation period (February). Treatment with sbGnih-2 increased brain gnrh2, gnih, kiss1r and gnihr transcript levels. Whereas, both Gnihs decreased lhbeta expression and plasma Lh levels, and sbGnih-1 reduced plasmatic Fsh. Finally, through behavioral recording we showed that Gnih implanted animals exhibited a significant increase in diurnal activity from late spermatogenic to early spermiogenic stages. Our results indicate that Gnih may regulate the reproductive axis of sea bass acting not only on brain and pituitary hormones but also on gonadal physiology and behavior. PMID:27788270

  16. First Insight into Exploration and Cognition in Wild Caught and Domesticated Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in a Maze

    PubMed Central

    Benhaïm, David; Bégout, Marie-Laure; Lucas, Gaël; Chatain, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    European sea bass aquaculture is so recent that very little is known on the effects of the early steps of its domestication. Behavioural parameters are sensitive indicators of the domestication process since they are generally impacted as soon as the first generation. The present work compared wild-caught and domesticated sea bass juvenile swimming activity, exploration and ability to learn to discriminate between two 2-D objects associated to a simple spatial task that enabled the tested individual to visually interact with an unfamiliar congener (the reward) located behind a transparent wall at the end of one of the two arms of a maze. Ten fish from each origin were individually tested 3 times in a row during 3 days (9 trials in total). Fish were placed in a start box closed by a transparent wall located in front of two 2-D objects. Fish were filmed during 10 min after the removal of the start box wall. Different swimming variables including angular velocity, total distance travelled and velocity mean, were analyzed from videos as well as the time spent in each of 6 virtual zones including the reward zone near the congener (Cong) and the zone opposite to the reward zone (OpCong). Two learning criteria were chosen: the number of successful turns and time to reach Cong. Behavioural differences were found between domesticated and wild fish. Angular velocity was higher in wild fish while the distance travelled and the velocity mean were higher in domesticated ones. Wild and domesticated fish spent most of the time in Cong and in OpCong. No differences were seen in learning ability between wild and domesticated fish. However, our findings for learning require confirmation by further studies with larger numbers of learning sessions and experiments designed to minimise stress. This study therefore demonstrated an impact of domestication on swimming behaviour but not on spatial learning. PMID:23805190

  17. Cloning, tissue expression analysis, and functional characterization of two Δ6-desaturase variants of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Santigosa, Ester; Geay, Florian; Tonon, Thierry; Le Delliou, Herve; Kuhl, Heiner; Reinhardt, Richard; Corcos, Laurent; Cahu, Chantal; Zambonino-Infante, José Luis; Mazurais, David

    2011-02-01

    Fish are the main source of the n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids, which are crucial for human health. Their synthesis from C(18) precursors is mediated by desaturases and elongases, but the activity of these enzymes has not been conclusively established in marine fish species. This study reports the cloning, tissue expression, and functional characterization of a sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Δ6-desaturase and one of its splicing variants. Two cDNAs with open reading frames of 1,346 and 1,354 bp were cloned and named D6D and D6D-V, respectively. Both deduced protein sequences (445 and 387 amino acids, respectively) contained two transmembrane regions and the N-terminal cytochrome b(5) domain with the HPGG motif characteristic of microsomal desaturases. D6D presents three histidine-rich regions, whereas in D6D-V, an insertion of eight nucleotides in the boundaries of exons 10 and 11 modified the third histidine-rich domain and led to insertion of a premature STOP codon, resulting in a shorter predicted protein. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of gene expression showed that D6D was highly expressed in the brain and intestine, and to a lesser extent, in muscle and liver; meanwhile, D6D-V was expressed in all tissues tested, but at level at least 200-fold lower than D6D. Functional analysis in yeast showed that sea bass D6D encodes a fully functional Δ6-desaturase with no residual Δ5-desaturase activity. This desaturase does not exhibit a clear preference for n-3 versus n-6 C(18) substrates. Interestingly, D6D-V is a nonfunctional protein, suggesting that the C-terminal end is indispensable for protein activity.

  18. Molecular characterization, gene structure and antibacterial activity of a g-type lysozyme from the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Francesco; Randelli, Elisa; Trisolino, Pamela; Facchiano, Angelo; de Pascale, Donatella; Scapigliati, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    In fish, the first line of defense is represented by the innate immune system and the lysozyme is one of the molecules involved in this mechanism of protection. Three types of lysozymes have been identified in metazoan, the c-type (chicken or conventional), the g-type (goose-type) and the i-type (invertebrate type). They are all involved in the hydrolysation of the bacterial cell wall. Our work has been focused on the molecular characterization, expression analysis by real-time PCR, both at basal condition and after in vivo challenges, and 3D structural studies on the g-type lysozyme from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Moreover, a recombinant sea bass lysozyme has been produced in Escherichia coli and used to investigate the activity of the enzyme at different pH and temperatures and to perform antibacterial assays against typical fish pathogens. The cloned sea bass cDNA for g-type lysozyme (accession number FN667957) consists of 742 bp and translates for a putative protein of 188 amino acids. The molecular weight is 20.251, 41Da with a theoretical pI of 8.53, two cysteine residues along the sequence and no putative signal peptide. These features of the enzyme are in agreement with the expected characteristics of a proper g-type lysozyme, except for the cysteine residues that in fish are quite variable in number. An alignment between known g-type lysozyme sequences evidences that the amino acid residues thought to be involved in the enzyme catalysis (Glu(71), Asp(84) and Asp(95) in sea bass) are quite well conserved between mammalian, avian and fish sequences. The sea bass g-type lysozyme gene is composed of four exons and three introns and this gene structure is more compact compared to other known fish lysozyme homologues. Modeling of 3D structure has been performed on the template structure of g-type lysozyme from Atlantic cod. The catalytic site appears well conserved when compared with known structures of fish g-type lysozymes (cod and salmon). The basal

  19. Learning and Change in the Adult Years: A Developmental Perspective. First Edition. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Mark; Pogson, Philip

    Aimed at adult education practitioners engaged in graduate study, this book draws on the field of developmental psychology to provide new insights into the critical connections between experience and learning in adult education and training. Chapter 1 introduces the role of psychological development in adult learning, investment of "self" in…

  20. Establishment of a new teleost brain cell line (DLB-1) from the European sea bass and its use to study metal toxicology.

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Patricia; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Meseguer, José; Esteban, M Ángeles; Cuesta, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    In teleost fish, there are no commercial cell lines for the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Thus, we have established the sea bass brain (DLB-1) cell line, using a fish retrovirus for immortalization, which resemble epithelial cells and express glial cells markers. Exposure to metals [Cd, methylmercury (MeHg), Pb or As] produces cytotoxicity and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Interestingly, cell cycle analysis of DLB-1 cells shows that exposure to metals alters it significantly. Moreover, all the metals induce apoptosis as indicated by sub-Go/G1 population and annexin V binding. Finally, exposure of DLB-1 cells to metals also produces significant alterations at gene expression level, which confirm the above functional results. This is the first study in which metal cytotoxicity has been evaluated in a fish brain cell line and results seem to support that DLB-1 cells are suitable for toxicological studies.

  1. Induction of CYP1A and ABC transporters in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) upon 2,3,7,8-TCDD waterborne exposure.

    PubMed

    Della Torre, Camilla; Mariottini, Michela; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Trisciani, Anna; Marchi, Davide; Corsi, Ilaria

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the responsiveness of CYP1A and ABC transport proteins in European Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) waterborne exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) (46 pg/L) for 24 h and 7 days. Genes modulation (abcb1, abcc1-2, cyp1a), EROD activity were investigated in liver and 2,3,7,8-TCDD bioconcentration in liver and muscle. TCDD induced significantly cyp1a gene expression and EROD activity at 24 h and 7 d. A significant up-regulation of abcb1 was also observed but only after 7 days. No modulation of abcc1 and abcc2 genes was observed. Waterborne TCDD exposure was able to induce CYP1A and abcb1 encoding for P-glycoprotein in juvenile of European sea bass.

  2. Metabolism of the polycyclic musk galaxolide and its interference with endogenous and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Denise; Dimastrogiovanni, Giorgio; Blázquez, Mercedes; Porte, Cinta

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates the metabolism and mode of action of galaxolide (HHCB) in the European sea bass -Dicentrarchus labrax- following a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg HHCB/kg body weight. In addition, a group of fish was injected with 50 mg/kg of ketoconazole (KCZ), a fungicide that is known to interfere with different Cyp isoenzymes. HHCB was actively metabolised by sea bass and acted as a weak inhibitor of the synthesis of oxyandrogens in gonads of male fish. Both, HHCB and a hydroxylated metabolite were detected in bile. The fungicide ketoconazole was a strong inhibitor of Cyp11β and Cyp3a-catalyzed activities. The work contributes to the better understanding of the impact of synthetic musks on fish and proposes the determination of HHCB and/or its hydroxylated metabolite in bile as a tool to assess environmental exposure in wild fish.

  3. Actions of sex steroids on kisspeptin expression and other reproduction-related genes in the brain of the teleost fish European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, M V; Servili, A; Molés, G; Gueguen, M M; Carrillo, M; Kah, O; Felip, A

    2016-11-01

    Kisspeptins are well known as mediators of the coordinated communication between the brain-pituitary axis and the gonads in many vertebrates. To test the hypothesis that gonadal steroids regulate kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression in European sea bass (a teleost fish), we examined the brains of gonad-intact (control) and castrated animals, as well as castrated males (GDX) and ovariectomized females (OVX) that received testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) replacement, respectively, during recrudescence. In GDX males, low expression of kiss1 mRNA is observed by in situ hybridization in the caudal hypothalamus (CH) and the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), although hypothalamic changes in kiss1 mRNA levels were not statistically different among the groups, as revealed by real-time PCR. However, T strongly decreased kiss2 expression levels in the hypothalamus, which was documented in the MBH and the nucleus of the lateral recess (NRLd) in GDX T-treated sea bass males. Conversely, it appears that E2 evokes low kiss1 mRNA in the CH, while there were cells expressing kiss2 in the MBH and NRLd in these OVX females. These results demonstrate that kisspeptin neurons are presumably sensitive to the feedback actions of sex steroids in the sea bass, suggesting that the MBH represents a major site for sex steroid actions on kisspeptins in this species. Also, recent data provide evidence that both positive and negative actions occur in key factors involved in sea bass reproductive function, including changes in the expression of gnrh-1/gonadotropin, cyp19b, er and ar genes and sex steroid and gonadotropin plasma levels in this teleost fish.

  4. Molecular identification of genes involved in testicular steroid synthesis and characterization of the responses to hormones stimulation in testis of Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas).

    PubMed

    Chi, Mei L; Wen, Hai S; Ni, Meng; He, Feng; Li, Ji F; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Pei; Chai, Sen H; Ding, Yu X; Yin, Xiang H

    2014-06-01

    Testicular steroids are critical hormones for the regulation of spermatogenesis in male teleosts and their productions have been reported to be regulated by gonadotropins and gonadotropin-releasing hormone. In the Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas), the reproductive endocrine, particularly regarding the production and regulation of testicular steroids, are not well understood. For this reason, we first cloned and characterized the response of several key genes regulating the production of testicular steroids and, second, we analyzed the changes of mRNA profiles of these genes during testicular development cycle and in the administration of hCG and GnRHa with corresponding testosterone level in serum, GSI and histological analyses. We succeeded in cloning the full-length cDNAs for the fushi tarazu factor-1 (FTZ-F1) homologues (FTZ-F1a and FTZ-F1b), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in Japanese sea bass. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of these proteins clearly showed that these genes in Japanese sea bass were homologous to those of other piscine species. During the testicular development cycle and hCG/GnRHa administration, quantification of jsbStAR transcripts revealed a trend similar to their serum testosterone levels, while a reciprocal relationship was founded between the serum concentrations of testosterone and jsbAMH and the links between gonadal expression of jsbStAR, jsbAMH and jsbFTZ-F1 were also observed. Our results have identified for the first time several key genes involved in the regulation of steroid production and spermatogenesis in the Japanese sea bass testis and these genes are all detected under gonadotropic hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone control.

  5. Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) invariant chain and class II major histocompatibility complex: sequencing and structural analysis using 3D homology modelling.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daniela S P; Reis, Marta I R; Nascimento, Diana S; do Vale, Ana; Pereira, Pedro J B; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2007-07-01

    The present manuscript reports for the first time the sequencing and characterisation of sea bass (sb) MHCII alpha and beta chains and Ii chain cDNAs as well as their expression analysis under resting state. 3D homology modelling, using crystal structures from mammalian orthologues, has been used to illustrate and support putative structural homologies of the sea bass counterparts. The sbIi cDNA consists of 96 bp of 5'-UTR, a 843 bp open reading frame (ORF) and 899 bp of 3'-UTR including a canonical polyadenylation signal 16 nucleotides before the polyadenylation tail. The ORF was translated into a 280 amino acid sequence, in which all characteristic domains found in the Ii p41 human form could be identified, including the cytoplasmic N-terminus domain, the transmembrane (TM) region, the CLIP domain, the trimerization domain and the thyroglobulin (Tg) type I domain. The trimerization and Tg domains of sbIi were successfully modelled using the human counterparts as templates. Four different sequences of each class II alpha and beta MHCII were obtained from a single fish, apparently not derived from a single locus. All the characteristic features of the MHCII chain structure could be identified in the predicted ORF of sea bass alpha and beta sequences, consisting of leader peptide (LP), alpha1/beta1 and alpha2/beta2 domains, connecting peptide and TM and cytoplasmic regions. Furthermore, independently of the HLA-DR crystal structure used as template in homology modelling, a similar predicted 3D structure and trimeric quaternary architecture was obtained for sbMHC, with major deviations occurring only within the sea bass MHCII alpha1 domain.

  6. In vivo regulation of GLUT2 mRNA in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in response to acute and chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Rimoldi, Simona; Brambilla, Fabio; Gornati, Rosalba; Bernardini, Giovanni; Saroglia, Marco

    2009-04-01

    The expression and regulation of sodium-independent glucose transporter (GLUT)-2, in relation to hypoxia has not yet been explored in fish or other vertebrates. In this study, the complete open-reading frame for sea bass GLUT2 was isolated and deposited in the GenBank. The predicted 12 transmembrane domains of the protein (508 amino acids) are presented. A phylogenetic tree was constructed on GLUT2 sequences of sea bass and those of other teleost, amphibian, avian, and mammalian species. We also analyzed acute and chronic hypoxia-induced changes in the expression of hepatic GLUT2 mRNA, using one-tube, two-temperature, real-time RT-PCR with which gene expression can be absolutely quantified by the standard curve method. The number of GLUT2 mRNA copies was significantly increased in response to both acute (1.9 mg/L, dissolved oxygen for 4 h) and chronic (4.3 mg/L, DO for 15 days) hypoxia conditions. The hypoxia-related changes in GLUT2 mRNA copy number support the view that GLUT2 is involved in the adaptation response to hypoxia in sea bass, a marine hypoxia-sensitive species. We realize that the GLUT2 mRNA levels in our study do not measure the physiological effects produced by the protein. Thus, we can only speculate that, under hypoxic conditions, GLUT2 probably functions to allow the glucose produced from liver glycogen to leave the hepatocytes.

  7. Nodavirus Colonizes and Replicates in the Testis of Gilthead Seabream and European Sea Bass Modulating Its Immune and Reproductive Functions.

    PubMed

    Valero, Yulema; Arizcun, Marta; Esteban, M Ángeles; Bandín, Isabel; Olveira, José G; Patel, Sonal; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are threatening pathogens for fish aquaculture. Some of them are transmitted through gonad fluids or gametes as occurs with nervous necrosis virus (NNV). In order to be transmitted through the gonad, the virus should colonize and replicate inside some cell types of this tissue and avoid the subsequent immune response locally. However, whether NNV colonizes the gonad, the cell types that are infected, and how the immune response in the gonad is regulated has never been studied. We have demonstrated for the first time the presence and localization of NNV into the testis after an experimental infection in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a very susceptible and an asymptomatic host fish species, respectively. Thus, we localized in the testis viral RNA in both species using in situ PCR and viral proteins in gilthead seabream by immunohistochemistry, suggesting that males might also transmit the virus. In addition, we were able to isolate infective particles from the testis of both species demonstrating that NNV colonizes and replicates into the testis of both species. Blood contamination of the tissues sampled was discarded by completely fish bleeding, furthermore the in situ PCR and immunocytochemistry techniques never showed staining in blood vessels or cells. Moreover, we also determined how the immune and reproductive functions are affected comparing the effects in the testis with those found in the brain, the main target tissue of the virus. Interestingly, NNV triggered the immune response in the European sea bass but not in the gilthead seabream testis. Regarding reproductive functions, NNV infection alters 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone production and the potential sensitivity of brain and testis to these hormones, whereas there is no disruption of testicular functions according to several reproductive parameters. Moreover, we have also studied the NNV infection of the testis in vitro to

  8. Nodavirus Colonizes and Replicates in the Testis of Gilthead Seabream and European Sea Bass Modulating Its Immune and Reproductive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Yulema; Arizcun, Marta; Esteban, M. Ángeles; Bandín, Isabel; Olveira, José G.; Patel, Sonal; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are threatening pathogens for fish aquaculture. Some of them are transmitted through gonad fluids or gametes as occurs with nervous necrosis virus (NNV). In order to be transmitted through the gonad, the virus should colonize and replicate inside some cell types of this tissue and avoid the subsequent immune response locally. However, whether NNV colonizes the gonad, the cell types that are infected, and how the immune response in the gonad is regulated has never been studied. We have demonstrated for the first time the presence and localization of NNV into the testis after an experimental infection in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a very susceptible and an asymptomatic host fish species, respectively. Thus, we localized in the testis viral RNA in both species using in situ PCR and viral proteins in gilthead seabream by immunohistochemistry, suggesting that males might also transmit the virus. In addition, we were able to isolate infective particles from the testis of both species demonstrating that NNV colonizes and replicates into the testis of both species. Blood contamination of the tissues sampled was discarded by completely fish bleeding, furthermore the in situ PCR and immunocytochemistry techniques never showed staining in blood vessels or cells. Moreover, we also determined how the immune and reproductive functions are affected comparing the effects in the testis with those found in the brain, the main target tissue of the virus. Interestingly, NNV triggered the immune response in the European sea bass but not in the gilthead seabream testis. Regarding reproductive functions, NNV infection alters 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone production and the potential sensitivity of brain and testis to these hormones, whereas there is no disruption of testicular functions according to several reproductive parameters. Moreover, we have also studied the NNV infection of the testis in vitro to

  9. Genotype by diet interactions in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): Nutritional challenge with totally plant-based diets.

    PubMed

    Le Boucher, R; Vandeputte, M; Dupont-Nivet, M; Quillet, E; Ruelle, F; Vergnet, A; Kaushik, S; Allamellou, J M; Médale, F; Chatain, B

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture of carnivorous species has strongly relied on fish meal and fish oil for feed formulation; however, greater replacement by terrestrial plant-based products is occurring now. This rapid change in dietary environment has been a major revolution and has to be taken into consideration in breeding programs. The present study analyzes potential consequences of this nutritional tendency for selective breeding by estimating genetic parameters of BW and growth rates estimated by the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) over different periods with extremely different diets. European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) from a factorial cross (1,526 fish) between 25 sires and 9 dams were used to estimate heritabilities and genotype by diet interaction. Starting 87 d after fertilization (2.5 g), one-half of the sea bass were fed a diet containing marine products (M), and the other one-half were fed a totally plant-based (PB) diet (without any fish meal or fish oil). The fish were individually tagged, reared in a recirculated system, and genotyped at 13 microsatellites to rebuild parentage of individuals. Body weight and TGC were measured for 335 d until fish fed the M diet reached 108.3 g of BW. These traits were significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (P<0.05) in the very first stages after the dietary shift, but the difference in TGC between diets rapidly disappeared (P>0.1). Survival was significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (PB=64.7%, M=93.7% after 418 d, P<0.05). This work identified moderate heritabilities (0.18 to 0.46) for BW with both diets and high genetic correlations between diets (0.78 to 0.93), meaning low genotype by diet interactions, although diets were extremely different. Heritabilities of TGC (0.11 to 0.3) were less than for BW as well as genetic correlations between diets (0.43 to 0.64). Using such extremely different diets, predicted BW gains in different scenarios indicated that selecting fish for growth on a marine diet should be the most

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls in adult black bass and yellow perch were not associated with their reproductive success in the upper Hudson River, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Maceina, Michael J; Sammons, Steven M

    2013-07-01

    Although production and use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ceased nearly 35 yr ago, questions still remain concerning the potential chronic effects these compounds may have on wild fish, including their reproductive success. In the upper Hudson River, New York, USA, fish were exposed to PCBs primarily from 2 manufacturing plants located approximately 320 km upstream of New York City, New York, from the 1940s to 1977. The authors collected yellow perch (Perca flavescens), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and largemouth bass (M. salmoides) using electrofishing, measured PCBs in these adults, and estimated abundance and size of their offspring at age 1 yr (age-1 fish). Fish were collected annually from 2004 to 2009 from 1 control site upstream of the PCB discharge sites and from 2 sites downstream from where PCBs were released. These sites (pools) are separated by a series of dams, locks, and canals. Muscle tissue wet weight PCB and lipid-based PCB concentrations in adults in the 2 PCB exposure pools averaged approximately 1 to 3 µg/g and 100 to 500 µg/g, respectively. Age-1 abundances were not related to adult PCB concentrations but were inversely related to river flow. Size of age-1 fish was slightly greater at the PCB-exposure sites. Levels of PCBs in yellow perch, largemouth bass, and smallmouth bass in the upper Hudson River did not impair or reduce recruitment or reproductive success.

  11. Genetic Inactivation of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Eggs Using UV-Irradiation: Observations and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Colléter, Julie; Penman, David J.; Lallement, Stéphane; Fauvel, Christian; Hanebrekke, Tanja; Osvik, Renate D.; Eilertsen, Hans C.; D’Cotta, Helena; Chatain, Béatrice; Peruzzi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Androgenesis is a form of uniparental reproduction leading to progenies inheriting only the paternal set of chromosomes. It has been achieved with variable success in a number of freshwater species and can be attained by artificial fertilization of genetically inactivated eggs following exposure to gamma (γ), X-ray or UV irradiation (haploid androgenesis) and by restoration of diploidy by suppression of mitosis using a pressure or thermal shock. The conditions for the genetic inactivation of the maternal genome in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) were explored using different combinations of UV irradiation levels and durations. UV treatments significantly affected embryo survival and generated a wide range of developmental abnormalities. Despite the wide range of UV doses tested (from 7.2 to 720 mJ.cm−2), only one dose (60 mJ.cm−2.min−1 with 1 min irradiation) resulted in a small percentage (14%) of haploid larvae at hatching in the initial trials as verified by flow cytometry. Microsatellite marker analyses of three further batches of larvae produced by using this UV treatment showed a majority of larvae with variable levels of paternal and maternal contributions and only one larva displaying pure paternal inheritance. The results are discussed also in the context of an assessment of the UV-absorbance characteristics of egg extracts in this species that revealed the presence of gadusol, a compound structurally related to mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) with known UV-screening properties. PMID:25329931

  12. Drospirenone intake alters plasmatic steroid levels and cyp17a1 expression in gonads of juvenile sea bass.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Maria; Fernandes, Denise; Medina, Paula; Blázquez, Mercedes; Porte, Cinta

    2016-06-01

    Drospirenone (DRO) is one of the most widely used progestins in contraceptive treatments and hormone replacement therapies. The pharmacokinetics and potential toxicological effects of DRO were investigated in juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed through the diet (0.01-10 μg DRO/g) for up to 31 days. DRO was detected in the blood (4-27 ng/mL) of fish exposed to the highest concentration, with no significant bioaccumulation over time and no alteration of hepatic metabolizing enzymes, namely, CYP1A and CYP3A-catalysed activities and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT). Pregnenolone (P5), progesterone (P4), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17P4), 17α-hydroxypregnenolone (17P5), androstenedione (AD) and testosterone (T) were determined in plasma and gene expression of cyp17a1, cyp19a1a and cyp11β analysed by qRT-PCR in gonads. The significant increase in plasmatic levels of 17P5, 17P4 and AD detected after 31 days exposure to 10 ng DRO/g together with the increased expression of cyp17a1 in females evidence the ability of DRO to alter steroid synthesis at low intake concentrations (7 ng DRO/day). However, the potential consequences of this steroid shift for female reproduction remain to be investigated.

  13. Does Virulence Assessment of Vibrio anguillarum Using Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Larvae Correspond with Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization?

    PubMed Central

    Frans, Ingeborg; Dierckens, Kristof; Crauwels, Sam; Van Assche, Ado; Leisner, Jørgen; Larsen, Marianne H.; Michiels, Chris W.; Willems, Kris A.; Lievens, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Background Vibriosis is one of the most ubiquitous fish diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio such as Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum. Despite a lot of research efforts, the virulence factors and mechanism of V. anguillarum are still insufficiently known, in part because of the lack of standardized virulence assays. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated and compared the virulence of 15 V. anguillarum strains obtained from different hosts or non-host niches using a standardized gnotobiotic bioassay with European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) larvae as model hosts. In addition, to assess potential relationships between virulence and genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strains were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) analyses, as well as by phenotypic analyses using Biolog’s Phenotype MicroArray™ technology and some virulence factor assays. Conclusions/Significance Virulence testing revealed ten virulent and five avirulent strains. While some relation could be established between serotype, genotype and phenotype, no relation was found between virulence and genotypic or phenotypic characteristics, illustrating the complexity of V. anguillarum virulence. Moreover, the standardized gnotobiotic system used in this study has proven its strength as a model to assess and compare the virulence of different V. anguillarum strains in vivo. In this way, the bioassay contributes to the study of mechanisms underlying virulence in V. anguillarum. PMID:23936439

  14. 17β estradiol induced ROS generation, DNA damage and enzymatic responses in the hepatic tissue of Japanese sea bass.

    PubMed

    Thilagam, Harikrishnan; Gopalakrishnan, Singaram; Qu, Hai-Dong; Bo, Jun; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2010-10-01

    The importance of endocrine disrupting chemicals and their effects on fish has been documented in recent years. However, little is known about whether the estrogenic compound 17β estradiol (E2) causes oxidative stress in the hepatic tissue of fish. Therefore, this work tested the hypothesis that E2 might cause oxidative stress in the Japanese sea bass Lateolabrax japonicus liver. To test this hypothesis, its effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA damage, antioxidants and biotransformation enzyme were investigated in two different size groups (fingerling and juvenile groups) following 30 days exposure. Results showed that there was a good relationship between the E2 exposure concentration, plasma E2 level and ROS generation. In addition ROS production correlated negatively with 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity and positively with DNA damage and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase did not show any significant relation with ROS, LPO and DNA damage. In contrast, glutathione mediated enzymes showed a good relationship with the above parameters suggesting that the glutathione system in fish might be responsible for protection against the impact of E2 and also indicating a possible adaptive response during exposure periods. In addition, it was observed that fingerling was more susceptible to E2 exposure than juvenile fish. The present study provided strong evidence that the ROS level increased significantly in the liver of E2 exposed fish, and that ROS might serve as a biomarker to indicate estrogen contamination.

  15. Effect of two thermal regimes on the muscle growth dynamics of sea bass larvae, Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    PubMed

    Ayala, M D; López Albors, O; García Alcázar, A; Abellán, E; Latorre, R; Vázquez, J M; Ramírez Zarzosa, G; Martínez, F; Gil, F

    2003-10-01

    Muscle growth was studied in larvae of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L., reared at two temperatures: real ambient temperature ( congruent with 15 degrees C during vitelline phase and increased gradually) and 19 degrees C from fertilization until the end of larval development. Muscle cellularity, body length and body weight were measured. Early temperature influenced larval development and so, pre-larval phase finished earlier at 19 degrees C than at ambient temperature (4 and 6 days, respectively). Temperature also affected muscle growth such that at hatching and at mouth opening hypertrophy of muscle fibres was greater at 19 degrees C (P < 0.05), whereas hyperplasia was similar in both groups. After 25 days, the cross-sectional area of the white muscle was greater at 19 degrees C (P < 0.05), which was mainly associated with a higher proliferation of new white muscle fibres. At this stage the body length was also higher at 19 degrees C. Metamorphosis finished earlier in fish reared at 19 degrees C (52 days) than at natural temperature (82 days). At this developmental stage body length and cross-sectional area of the myotome were similar in both groups. However, muscle cellularity differed between groups. Thus, hypertrophy of muscle fibres was higher in fish reared at ambient temperature (P < 0.05), whereas proliferation of new muscle fibres was higher at 19 degrees C (P > 0.05).

  16. Spatial and temporal diet patterns of subadult and small adult striped bass in Massachusetts estuaries: Data, a synthesis, and trends across scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferry, K.H.; Mather, Martha E.

    2012-01-01

    Subadult and small adult (375–475 mm total length) striped bass Morone saxatilis are abundant and represent an important component of the recovered U.S. Atlantic coast stocks. However, little is known about these large aggregations of striped bass during their annual foraging migrations to New England. A quantitative understanding of trends in the diets of subadult and small adult migrants is critical to research and management. Because of the complexity of the Massachusetts coast, we were able to compare diets at multiple spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales and evaluate which of these provided the greatest insights into the foraging patterns of this size of fish. Specifically, during spring through autumn, we quantified the diets of 797 migratory striped bass collected from 13 Massachusetts estuaries distributed among three geographic regions in two biogeographic provinces. Our data provided three useful results. First, subadult and young adult striped bass ate a season-specific mixture of fish and invertebrates. For example, more juvenile Atlantic herring Clupea harengus were eaten in spring than in summer or autumn, more juvenile Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus were eaten in autumn than in spring or summer, amphipods were eaten primarily in the southern biogeographic province, and shrimp Crangon sp. were eaten in all locations and seasons. Second, examining diets by season was essential because of the temporal variability in striped bass prey. Grouping prey by fish and invertebrates revealed the potential for predictable differences in growth across geographic locations and seasons, based on the output from simple bioenergetics simulations. Third, of the three spatial scales examined, region provided the most quantitative and interpretable ecological trends. Our results demonstrate the utility of comparing multiple scales to evaluate the best way to depict diet trends in a migrating predator that seasonally uses different geographic locations.

  17. Element levels in cultured and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) from the Adriatic Sea and potential risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zvab Rožič, Petra; Dolenec, Tadej; Baždarić, Branimir; Karamarko, Vatroslav; Kniewald, Goran; Dolenec, Matej

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the role of aquaculture activity as a source of selected metals was analyzed. Significant differences in element content between cultured (Dicentrarchus labrax, Sparus aurata) and wild fishes as well as between fish muscle and their feed were detected. Higher concentrations of trace elements (i.e., As, Cu, Hg, Se) in wild fish tissues in comparison with cultured ones indicate additional sources of metals beside fish feed as natural and/or anthropogenic sources. Generally, mean Cd, Cu, Pb, Se, and Zn concentrations in cultured (0.016, 1.79, 0.14, 0.87, and 34.32 μg/g, respectively) and wild (0.011, 1.97, 0.10, 1.78, and 23,54 μg/g, respectively) fish samples were below the permissible levels, while mean As (2.57 μg/g in cultured, 4.77 μg/g in wild) and Cr (5.25 μg/g in cultured, 2.92 μg/g in wild) values exceeded those limits. Hg values were lower in cultured (0.17 μg/g) and higher in wild (1.04 μg/g) fish specimens. The highest elemental concentrations were observed in almost all fish samples from Korčula sampling site. The smallest cultured sea basses showed As (4.01 μg/g), Cr (49.10 μg/g), Pb (0.65 μg/g), and Zn (136 μg/g) concentrations above the recommended limits; however, values decreased as fish size increased. Therefore, the majority of metal concentrations in commercial fishes showed no problems for human consumption. Also calculated Se:Hg molar ratios (all >1) and selenium health benefit values (Se-HBVs) (all positive) showed that consumption of all observed fishes in human nutrition is not risk.

  18. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest): Striped Bass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    contribute to striped bass of age V and older in the the further reduction of adult striped Estuary, which has been estimated bass in the Estuary...harvest of adult bass of age V and older increased from The striped bass situation in the 15% to 27% (Stevens et al. 1985). The Sacramento-San Joaquin...7 Adults ................................................................. 7*7 GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS

  19. 50 CFR 648.141 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... uncertainty to recommend ACTs for the commercial and recreational fishing sectors as part of the black sea... specific sources of management uncertainty that were considered, technical approaches to mitigating these sources of uncertainty, and any additional relevant information considered in the ACT...

  20. 50 CFR 648.141 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... uncertainty to recommend ACTs for the commercial and recreational fishing sectors as part of the black sea... specific sources of management uncertainty that were considered, technical approaches to mitigating these sources of uncertainty, and any additional relevant information considered in the ACT...

  1. 50 CFR 648.141 - Black sea bass Annual Catch Target (ACT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... uncertainty to recommend ACTs for the commercial and recreational fishing sectors as part of the black sea... specific sources of management uncertainty that were considered, technical approaches to mitigating these sources of uncertainty, and any additional relevant information considered in the ACT...

  2. Subfunctionalization of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferases in the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax: two-ones for one two.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Charles-Hubert; Cazaméa-Catalan, Damien; Zilberman-Peled, Bina; Herrera-Perez, Patricia; Sauzet, Sandrine; Magnanou, Elodie; Fuentès, Michael; Gothilf, Yoav; Muñoz-Cueto, Jose Antonio; Falcón, Jack; Besseau, Laurence

    2015-10-01

    Melatonin is an important component of the vertebrates circadian system, synthetized from serotonin by the successive action of the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat: serotonin→N-acetylserotonin) and acetylserotonin-O-methyltransferase (Asmt: N-acetylserotonin→melatonin). Aanat is responsible for the daily rhythm in melatonin production. Teleost fish are unique because they express two Aanat genes, aanat1 and aanat2, mainly expressed in the retina and pineal gland, respectively. In silico analysis indicated that the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication generated Aanat1 duplicates (aanat1a and aanat1b); some fish express both of them, while others express either one of the isoforms. Here, we bring the first information on the structure, function, and distribution of Aanat1a and Aanat1b in a teleost, the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Aanat1a and Aanat1b displayed a wide and distinct distribution in the nervous system and peripheral tissues, while Aanat2 appeared as a pineal enzyme. Co-expression of Aanats with asmt was found in the pineal gland and the three retinal nuclear layers. Enzyme kinetics indicated subtle differences in the affinity and catalytic efficiency of Aanat1a and Aanat1b for indolethylamines and phenylethylamines, respectively. Our data are consistent with the idea that Aanat2 is a pineal enzyme involved in melatonin production, while Aanat1 enzymes have a broader range of functions including melatonin synthesis in the retina, and catabolism of serotonin and dopamine in the retina and other tissues. The data are discussed in light of the recently uncovered roles of N-acetylserotonin and N-acetyldopamine as antioxidants, neuroprotectants, and modulators of cell proliferation and enzyme activities.

  3. Genome-Wide SNP Discovery, Genotyping and Their Preliminary Applications for Population Genetic Inference in Spotted Sea Bass (Lateolabrax maculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Xue, Dong-Xiu; Zhang, Bai-Dong; Li, Yu-Long; Liu, Bing-Jian; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing and the collection of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) allow identifying fine-scale population genetic structure and genomic regions under selection. The spotted sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) is a non-model species of ecological and commercial importance and widely distributed in northwestern Pacific. A total of 22 648 SNPs was discovered across the genome of L. maculatus by paired-end sequencing of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD-PE) for 30 individuals from two populations. The nucleotide diversity (π) for each population was 0.0028±0.0001 in Dandong and 0.0018±0.0001 in Beihai, respectively. Shallow but significant genetic differentiation was detected between the two populations analyzed by using both the whole data set (FST = 0.0550, P < 0.001) and the putatively neutral SNPs (FST = 0.0347, P < 0.001). However, the two populations were highly differentiated based on the putatively adaptive SNPs (FST = 0.6929, P < 0.001). Moreover, a total of 356 SNPs representing 298 unique loci were detected as outliers putatively under divergent selection by FST-based outlier tests as implemented in BAYESCAN and LOSITAN. Functional annotation of the contigs containing putatively adaptive SNPs yielded hits for 22 of 55 (40%) significant BLASTX matches. Candidate genes for local selection constituted a wide array of functions, including binding, catalytic and metabolic activities, etc. The analyses with the SNPs developed in the present study highlighted the importance of genome-wide genetic variation for inference of population structure and local adaptation in L. maculatus. PMID:27336696

  4. Engineered nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TIO2): Uptake and biological effects in a sea bass cell line.

    PubMed

    Picchietti, S; Bernini, C; Stocchi, V; Taddei, A R; Meschini, R; Fausto, A M; Rocco, L; Buonocore, F; Cervia, D; Scapigliati, G

    2017-02-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology there has been a corresponding increase in the application of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in various consumer and industrial products, consequently their potential health hazards and environmental effects are considered an aspect of great concern. In the present study, in order to assess the impact of TiO2-NPs in the marine environment, the biological effects of TiO2-NPs on a sea bass cell line (DLEC) were investigated. Cells were exposed for 24 h to different concentrations of TiO2-NPs (1, 8, 40, 200 and 1000 μg/ml) or co-exposed with CdCl2 (Cd). The effects of UV light irradiation were also investigated in cells treated with TiO2-NPs and/or Cd. The internalization of TiO2-NPs and the morphological cell modifications induced by the treatments were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, this latter coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for particle element detection. In addition, the effects of controlled exposures were studied evaluating the cytotoxicity, the DNA damage and the expression of inflammatory genes. Our study indicates that TiO2-NPs were localized on the cell surface mainly as agglomerates revealed by EDS analysis and that they were uptaken by the cells inducing morphological changes. Photoactivation of TiO2-NPs and/or co-exposure with Cd affects ATP levels and it contributes to induce acute cellular toxicity in DLEC cells dependent on Ti concentration. The inflammatory potential and the DNA damage, this latter displayed through a caspase-3 independent apoptotic process, were also demonstrated. Overall our data suggest that the interaction of TiO2-NPs with marine water contaminants, such as cadmium, and the UV irradiation, may be an additional threat to marine organisms.

  5. In vitro immunotoxicological effects of heavy metals on European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) head-kidney leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Morcillo, Patricia; Cordero, Héctor; Meseguer, José; Esteban, M Ángeles; Cuesta, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    The knowledge about the direct effects of heavy metals on fish leucocytes is still limited. We investigate the in vitro effects of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb or As) on oxidative stress, viability and innate immune parameters of head-kidney leucocytes (HKLs) from European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Production of free oxygen radicals was induced by Cd, Hg and As, mainly after 30 min of exposure. Cd and Hg promoted both apoptosis and necrosis cell death while Pb and As did only apoptosis, in all cases in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, expression of genes related to oxidative stress and apoptosis was significantly induced by Hg and Pb but down-regulated by As. In addition, the expression of the metallothionein A gene was up-regulated by Cd and Pb exposure though this transcript, as well as the heat shock protein 70, was down-regulated by Hg. Cd, methylmercury (MeHg) and As reduced the phagocytic ability, whereas Hg and Pb increased it. Interestingly, all the heavy metals decreased the phagocytic capacity (the number of ingested particles per cell). Leucocyte respiratory burst changed depending on the metal exposure, usually in a time- and dose-manner. Interestingly, the expression of immune-related genes was slightly affected by Cd, MeHg, As or Pb being Hg the form producing the greatest alterations, which included down-regulation of immunoglobulin M and hepcidin, as well as the up-regulation of interleukin-1 beta mRNA levels. This study provides an in vitro approach for elucidating the heavy metals toxicity, and particularly the immunotoxicity, in fish leucocytes.

  6. Effects of pinealectomy on the neuroendocrine reproductive system and locomotor activity in male European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Mairi; Paullada-Salmerón, José A; López-Olmeda, José Fernando; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2017-02-08

    The seasonally changing photoperiod controls the timing of reproduction in most fish species, however, the transduction of this photoperiodic information to the reproductive axis is still unclear. This study explored the potential role of two candidate neuropeptide systems, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (Gnih) and kisspeptin, as mediators between the pineal organ (a principle transducer of photoperiodic information) and reproductive axis in male European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Two seven-day experiments of pinealectomy (Px) were performed, in March (end of reproductive season) and August (resting season). Effects of Px and season on the brain expression of gnih (sbgnih) and its receptor (sbgnihr), kisspeptins (kiss1, kiss2) and their receptors (kissr2, kissr3) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh1, gnrh2, gnrh3) and the main brain receptor (gnrhr-II-2b) genes, plasma melatonin levels and locomotor activity rhythms were examined. Results showed that Px reduced night-time plasma melatonin levels. Gene expression analyses demonstrated a sensitivity of the Gnih system to Px in March, with a reduction in sbgnih in the mid-hindbrain, a region with bilateral connections to the pineal organ. In August, kiss2 levels increased in Px animals but not in controls. Significant differences in expression were observed for diencephalic sbgnih, sbgnihr, kissr3 and tegmental gnrh2 between seasons. Recordings of locomotor activity following surgery revealed a change from light-synchronised to free-running rhythmic behavior. Altogether, the Gnih and Kiss2 sensitivity to Px and seasonal differences observed for Gnih and its receptor, Gnrh2, and the receptor for Kiss2 (Kissr3), suggested they could be mediators involved in the relay between environment and seasonal reproduction.

  7. Comparative pathogenicity study of ten different betanodavirus strains in experimentally infected European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.).

    PubMed

    Vendramin, N; Toffan, A; Mancin, M; Cappellozza, E; Panzarin, V; Bovo, G; Cattoli, G; Capua, I; Terregino, C

    2014-04-01

    Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN), is a severe pathological condition caused by RNA viruses belonging to the Nodaviridae family, genus Betanodavirus. The disease, described in more than 50 fish species worldwide, is considered as the most serious viral threat affecting marine farmed species in the Mediterranean region, thus representing one of the bottlenecks for further development of the aquaculture industry. To date, four different genotypes have been identified, namely red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus and barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus, with the RGNNV genotype appearing as the most widespread in the Mediterranean region, although SJNNV-type strains and reassortant viruses have also been reported. The existence of these genetically different strains could be the reason for the differences in mortality observed in the field. However, very little experimental data are available on the pathogenicity of these viruses in farmed fish. Therefore, in this study, the pathogenicity of 10 isolates has been assessed with an in vivo trial. The investigation was conducted using the European sea bass, the first target fish species for the disease in the Mediterranean basin. Naive fish were challenged by immersion and clinical signs and mortality were recorded for 68 days; furthermore, samples collected at selected time points were analysed to evaluate the development of the infection. Finally, survivors were weighed to estimate the growth reduction. The statistically supported results obtained in this study demonstrated different pathogenicity patterns, underlined the potential risk represented by different strains in the transmission of the infection to highly susceptible species and highlighted the indirect damage caused by a clinical outbreak of VER/VNN.

  8. Is the kisspeptin system involved in responses to food restriction in order to preserve reproduction in pubertal male sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)?

    PubMed

    Escobar, Sebastián; Felip, Alicia; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Previous works on European sea bass have determined that long-term exposure to restrictive feeding diets alters the rhythms of some reproductive/metabolic hormones, delaying maturation and increasing apoptosis during gametogenesis. However, exactly how these diets affect key genes and hormones on the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis to trigger puberty is still largely unknown. We may hypothesize that all these signals could be integrated, at least in part, by the kisspeptin system. In order to capture a glimpse of these regulatory mechanisms, kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression levels and those of their kiss receptors (kiss1r, kiss2r) were analyzed in different areas of the brain and in the pituitary of pubertal male sea bass during gametogenesis. Furthermore, other reproductive hormones and factors as well as the percentage of males showing full spermiation were also analyzed. Treated fish fed maintenance diets provided evidence of overexpression of the kisspeptin system in the main hypophysiotropic regions of the brain throughout the entire sexual cycle. Conversely, Gnrh1 and gonadotropin pituitary content and plasma sexual steroid levels were downregulated, except for Fsh levels, which were shown to increase during spermiation. Treated fish exhibited lower rates of spermiation as compared to control group and a delay in its accomplishment. These results demonstrate how the kisspeptin system and plasma Fsh levels are differentially affected by maintenance diets, causing a retardation, but not a full blockage of the reproductive process in the teleost fish European sea bass. This suggests that a hormonal adaptive strategy may be operating in order to preserve reproductive function in this species.

  9. Recombinant TNFα as oral vaccine adjuvant protects European sea bass against vibriosis: insights into the role of the CCL25/CCR9 axis.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Villegas, Jorge; Mulero, Iván; García-Alcazar, Alicia; Muñoz, Iciar; Peñalver-Mellado, Marcos; Streitenberger, Sergio; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Meseguer, José; Mulero, Victoriano

    2013-10-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is the main causative agent of vibriosis in cultured sea bass. Unfortunately, available vaccines against this disease do not achieve the desired protection. In this study, to accomplish uptake, processing, and presentation of luminal antigens, a commercial sea bass oral vaccine against V. anguillarum was improved with the addition of recombinant fish-self tumor necrosis factor α (rTNFα), as adjuvant. To explore mechanisms, systemic and local responses were analyzed through serum specific IgM titers, gene expression, lymphocytes spatial distribution in the gut, and in vitro functional assays. We found along the trial, over expressed transcripts of genes encoding cytokines and antimicrobial molecules at the gut of rTNFα supplied group. Orally immunized fish with vaccine alone confer protection against V. anguillarum challenge throughout a short time period. In contrast, adjuvant-treated group significantly extended the response. In both cases, achieved protection was independent of serum IgM. Yet, IgT transcripts were found to increase in the gut of rTNFα-treated fish. More importantly, fish treated with rTNFα showed a dramatic change of their T lymphocytes distribution and localization in gut mucosal tissue, suggesting specific antigen recognition and further intraepithelial T lymphocytes (IEL) activation. To determine the mechanism behind IEL infiltration, we characterized the constitutive and activated pattern of chemokines in sea bass hematopoietic tissues, identifying for the first time in fish gut, an intimate relation between the chemokine ligand/receptor CCL25/CCR9. Ex-vivo, chemotaxis analyses confirmed these findings. Together, our results demonstrate that improved oral vaccines targeting key cytokines may provide a means to selectively modulate fish immune defence.

  10. Influence of season and site location on European cultured sea bass parasites in Corsican fish farms using indicator species analysis (IndVal).

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Laetitia; Foata, Joséphine; Quilichini, Yann; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    The parasites of 536 European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, were studied between January 2012 and December 2013 in six Corsican fish farms. The indicator value (IndVal) method, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity, has been used in this study. Because of its resilience to changes in abundance, IndVal is a particularly effective tool for ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method showed how season can influence the occurrence of parasite species in cultured sea bass and also identified parasites as bioindicators relative to fish farm location. The combination of specificity and fidelity highlighted several parasite species as significant indicators. A randomization test identified five parasite species as having a significant indicator value for season (the monogenean Diplectanum aequans; the copepods Lernanthropus kroyeri and Caligus minimus; the isopod Ceratothoa oestroides, and the myxosporidian Ceratomyxa labracis). If gills parasites are compared, they can be seen to be indicator species for two different seasons. The only Monogenea species D. aequans had fidelity and specificity more pronounced in winter, whereas both copepod species and the Isopoda revealed highest rates of infestation corresponding with an increase of water temperature. Four species have a significant indicator value for site location (D. aequans, L. kroyeri, C. minimus, and C. oestroides). The fact that the farm 6 was isolated on the east coast of Corsica may not have allowed the parasite to infect other farms. The presence of copepods on a single farm can also be explained according to salinity variations. Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the monitoring and management of parasitism in cultured sea bass populations.

  11. Effects of dietary concentrated mannan oligosaccharides supplementation on growth, gut mucosal immune system and liver lipid metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Torrecillas, Silvia; Montero, Daniel; Caballero, Maria José; Robaina, Lidia; Zamorano, Maria Jesús; Sweetman, John; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-02-01

    The study assesses the effects of dietary concentrated mannan oligosaccharides (cMOS) on fish performance, biochemical composition, tissue fatty acid profiles, liver and posterior gut morphology and gen expression of selected parameters involved on the intestinal immune response and liver lipid metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). For that purpose, specimens of 20 g were fed during 8 weeks at 0 and 1.6 g kg(-1) dietary cMOS of inclusion in a commercial sea bass diet. Dietary cMOS enhanced fish length, specific and relative growth without affecting tissue proximate composition. However, cMOS supplementation altered especially liver and muscle fatty acid profiles by reducing levels of those fatty acids that are preferential substrates for β-oxidation in spite of a preferential retention of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), such as 20:4n-6 or 22:5n-6, in relation to the down-regulation of delta 6/5 desaturase gene expression found in liver. Besides, dietary cMOS supplementation reduced posterior gut intestinal folds width and induced changes on the gene expression level of certain immune-related genes mainly by down regulating transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and up-regulating immunoglobulin (Ig), major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII), T cell receptor β (TCRβ) and Caspase 3 (Casp-3). Thus, dietary cMOS inclusion at 0.16% promoted European sea bass specific growth rate and length, stimulated selected cellular GALT-associated parameters and affected lipid metabolism in muscle and liver pointing to a higher LC-PUFA accumulation and promoted β-oxidation.

  12. Whole body cortisol and expression of HSP70, IGF-I and MSTN in early development of sea bass subjected to heat shock.

    PubMed

    Bertotto, Daniela; Poltronieri, Carlo; Negrato, Elena; Richard, Jacopo; Pascoli, Francesco; Simontacchi, Claudia; Radaelli, Giuseppe

    2011-10-01

    Whole body cortisol levels were determined during early larval developmental stages of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) subjected to a heat shock with the aim to investigate the correlation between the stress event and the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis. Moreover, the mRNA expression of inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and myostatin (MSTN) was also detected. Whole body cortisol was determined by a radio-immunoassay (RIA) technique whereas the expression of HSP70, IGF-I and MSTN mRNAs was quantified by Real-Time PCR. Cortisol was detectable in all the larvae from hatching but its level increased significantly in larvae submitted to heat shock from 2-day post hatching onwards. An effect of the sole transfer on cortisol levels was detectable at day 10, indicating an increase of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis sensitivity from this stage of sea bass development. In animals exposed to heat shock, the expression of inducible HSP70 resulted in a marked increase of mRNA levels already at hatching. This increase was significantly higher from 6 days onwards if compared to controls. Moreover, heat shock resulted in a decrease (although not significant) in IGF-I mRNA expression of stressed larvae if compared to controls. On the contrary, heat shock did not influence the expression of MSTN mRNA in all groups. The results indicate a very early activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis and in general of the stress response during the development of European sea bass. Moreover, these results suggest the importance of cortisol and inducible HSP70 as bioindicators of stress in aquaculture and confirm the role of IGF-I and MSTN as regulatory factors during development and growth of fish.

  13. Screening of ecotoxicological, qualitative and reproductive variables in male European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) reared in three different fish farms: Facility location and typology.

    PubMed

    Cangialosi, Maria Vittoria; Corsi, Ilaria; Bonacci, Stefano; Sensini, Cristiana; Cicero, Nicola; Focardi, Silvano; Mazzola, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of both facility location and typology of fish farm on some ecotoxicological, qualitative and reproductive variables in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L. Several variables were investigated: gonado-somatic index (GSI), liver-somatic index (LSI); 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase and acetylcholinesterase activities; glutathione (GSH), testosterone, 17β-estradiol, total lipid, phospholipid (PL) and triglyceride contents. In addition, the histological sections of gonads were examined. Results suggest that LSI, EROD activity, GSI, GSH, PL, hormone levels and gonad morphology were influenced by different facility locations and typologies of fish farm.

  14. Microbiological spoilage and volatiles production of gutted European sea bass stored under air and commercial modified atmosphere package at 2 °C.

    PubMed

    Parlapani, Foteini F; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Nychas, George-John E; Boziaris, Ioannis S

    2015-09-01

    Microbiological, sensory, TVB-N and TMA-N changes and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) detection using the SPME/GC-MS technique, were performed to evaluate potential chemical spoilage indices (CSI) of gutted sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) stored at 2 °C under air and in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP CO2: 60%, O2: 10%, N2: 30%). Shelf-life, determined by sensory evaluation, of gutted sea bass stored at 2 °C under air and MAP was 9 and 13 d respectively. Pseudomonas and H2S producing bacteria were among the dominant spoilage microorganisms under both storage conditions, while Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix thermosphacta were co-dominant with Pseudomonas and H2S producing bacteria under MAP. The traditional CSIs such as TVB-N and TMA-N were increased substantially only at the late stages of storage or after rejection of the products, making them unsuitable for freshness/spoilage monitoring throughout storage. A substantial number of VOCs attributed to microbiological action or chemical activity, were detected including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, organic acids and esters. The level of microbial origin VOCs such as ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal and some ethyl esters increased during storage, suggesting their potential as CSIs.

  15. An oral chitosan DNA vaccine against nodavirus improves transcription of cell-mediated cytotoxicity and interferon genes in the European sea bass juveniles gut and survival upon infection.

    PubMed

    Valero, Yulema; Awad, Elham; Buonocore, Francesco; Arizcun, Marta; Esteban, M Ángeles; Meseguer, José; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Cuesta, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Vaccines for fish need to be improved for the aquaculture sector, with DNA vaccines and the oral administration route providing the most promising improvements. In this study, we have created an oral chitosan-encapsulated DNA vaccine (CP-pNNV) for the nodavirus (NNV) in order to protect the very susceptible European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Our data show that the oral CP-pNNV vaccine failed to induce serum circulating or neutralizing specific antibodies (immunoglobulin M) or to up-regulate their gene expression in the posterior gut. However, the vaccine up-regulated the expression of genes related to the cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC; tcrb and cd8a) and the interferon pathway (IFN; ifn, mx and ifng). In addition, 3 months after vaccination, challenged fish showed a retarded onset of fish death and lower cumulative mortality with a relative survival of 45%. Thus, we created a chitosan-encapsulated DNA vaccine against NNV that is partly protective to European sea bass juveniles and up-regulates the transcription of genes related to CMC and IFN. However, further studies are needed to improve the anti-NNV vaccine and to understand its mechanisms.

  16. Fish consumption and risk of contamination by mercury---considerations on the definition of edible parts based on the case study of European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Mieiro, C L; Pacheco, M; Duarte, A C; Pereira, M E

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, the risk to humans by consuming European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), captured at three sites along a Hg contamination gradient, was evaluated by comparing muscle and kidney total Hg (T-Hg) levels with the European regulations for marketed fish. Moreover, T-Hg and organic Hg (O-Hg) levels in muscle were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) and the Reference Dose (RfD). Although T-Hg levels in muscle were below the European value allowable for marketed fish, kidney's levels were higher than the set value, stressing the importance of redefining the concept of edible tissue and which tissues should be considered. Mercury weekly ingestion in the contaminated areas was higher than the PTWI, and O-Hg daily ingestion rates were higher than the RfD in all sampling sites. Thus, populations consuming sea bass from the contaminated sites may be at risk, with particular relevance for children and pregnant women.

  17. Two thioredoxin-superfamily members from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.): characterization of PDI (PDIA1) and ERp57 (PDIA3).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rute D; Moreira, Ana R; Pereira, Pedro J B; dos Santos, Nuno M S

    2013-10-01

    PDI (PDIA1) and ERp57 (PDIA3), members of the PDI family and of the thioredoxin (Trx) superfamily, are multifunctional proteins with wide physiological roles and have been implicated in several pathologies. Importantly, they are both involved in the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. This paper reports the isolation and characterization of full cDNA and genomic clones from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) PDI (Dila-PDI) and ERp57 (Dila-ERp57). The genes are ~12.4 and ~7.1 kb long, originating 2155 and 2173 bp transcripts and encoding 497 and 484 amino acids mature proteins, for Dila-PDI and -ERp57, respectively. The PDI gene consists of eleven exons and ERp57 of thirteen. As described in other species, both molecules are composed of four Trx-like domains (abb'a') followed by a C-terminal tail, retaining two CGHC active sites and an ER-signalling sequence, suggestive of a conserved function. Additionally, three-dimensional homology models further support Dila-PDI and Dila-ERp57 as orthologs of mammalian PDI and ERp57, respectively. Finally, high similarity is observed to their vertebrate counterparts (>69% identity), especially among the few ones from closely related teleosts (>79% identity). Hence, these results provide relevant primary data and will enable further studies to clarify the roles of PDI and ERp57 in European sea bass immunity.

  18. The Design of Education. Second Edition. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book, which is intended primarily for specialists in the field of adult education (AE) who wish to improve their performance, presents a systematic plan for designing, establishing, and evaluating successful programs for adult learners. The following topics are among those discussed in the book's six chapters: credos and systems (growth of…

  19. Annual Review of Adult Learning and Literacy. Volume 3. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    This review contains current information on research, policy, and practice in adult literacy and learning for individuals and organizations focused on adult basic education (ABE), adult English for speakers of other languages (ESOL), and adult secondary education (ASE) programs. "The Year 2000 In Review" (Lennox L. McLendon) describes…

  20. The ClC-3 chloride channel and osmoregulation in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Bossus, Maryline; Charmantier, Guy; Blondeau-Bidet, Eva; Valletta, Bianca; Boulo, Viviane; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    Dicentrarchus labrax migrates between sea (SW), brackish and fresh water (FW) where chloride concentrations and requirements for chloride handling change: in FW, fish absorb chloride and restrict renal losses; in SW, they excrete chloride. In this study, the expression and localization of ClC-3 and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) were studied in fish adapted to SW, or exposed to FW from 10 min to 30 days. In gills, NKA-α1 subunit expression transiently increased from 10 min and reached a stabilized intermediate expression level after 24 h in FW. ClC-3 co-localized with NKA in the basolateral membrane of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) at all conditions. The intensity of MRC ClC-3 immunostaining was significantly higher (by 50 %) 1 h after the transfer to FW, whereas the branchial ClC-3 protein expression was 30 % higher 7 days after the transfer as compared to SW. This is consistent with the increased number of immunopositive MRCs (immunostained for NKA and ClC-3). However, the ClC-3 mRNA expression was significantly lower in FW gills. In the kidney, after FW transfer, a transient decrease in NKA-α1 subunit expression was followed by significantly higher stable levels from 24 h. The low ClC-3 protein expression detected at both salinities was not observed by immunocytochemistry in the SW kidney; ClC-3 was localized in the basal membrane of the collecting ducts and tubules 7 and 30 days after transfer to FW. Renal ClC-3 mRNA expression, however, seemed higher in SW than in FW. The potential role of this chloride channel ClC-3 in osmoregulatory and osmosensing mechanisms is discussed.

  1. Effect of 17beta-estradiol on the immunocompetence of Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus).

    PubMed

    Thilagam, Harikrishnan; Gopalakrishnan, Singaram; Bo, Jun; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2009-08-01

    Environmental contaminants can interfere with hormonal regulation in both vertebrates and invertebrates, and these contaminants may disrupt the endocrine system of human and other organisms. Evidence is growing that contaminants may be partly responsible for the observed increase of disease in marine organisms by adversely affecting their immunity. Fish are commonly used as sentinel organisms in vertebrate immunotoxicology; however, to date, studies have been undertaken only on a single size group of fish (juvenile/adult) and for acute exposure. In the present study, Lateolabrax japonicus fingerlings and juveniles were exposed to two sublethal concentrations (200 and 2,000 ng/L) of 17beta-estradiol (E2) for 30 d under laboratory conditions, and alterations in immune parameters comprising differential leukocyte count, respiratory burst, myeloperoxidase, immunoglobulin levels, serum lysozyme, and bactericidal activity were investigated to establish whether estrogen produced immunomodulation and to understand the effects of long-term exposure on these immune parameters in fish fingerlings and juveniles. The results revealed a significant elevation of respiratory burst activity, myeloperoxidase, immunoglobulin levels, and differential leukocyte counts of the fish exposed to estrogen compared to the control. The remaining parameters were significantly reduced in the experimental groups when compared to the control. The results indicated that sublethal E(2) exposure induced immunomodulation in both fingerling and juvenile L. japonicus, and the changes caused by estrogen might affect the function of immune system in fish.

  2. Anoplastie périnéale simple pour le traitement des malformations anorectales basses chez l'adulte, à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Echchaoui, Abdelmoughit; Benyachou, Malika; Hafidi, Jawad; Fathi, Nahed; Mohammadine, Elhamid; ELmazouz, Samir; Gharib, Nour-eddine; Abbassi, Abdellah

    2014-01-01

    Les malformations anorectales chez l'adulte sont des anomalies congénitales rares du tube digestif qui prédominent chez le sexe féminin. Notre étude porte sur deux observations de malformation anorectale basses vues et traitées au stade adulte par les 2 équipes (plasticiens et viscéralistes) à l'Hôpital Avicenne à Rabat. Il s'agit d'un homme de 24 ans avec une dyschésie anale l'autre cas est une femme de 18 ans avec une malformation anovulvaire Les caractéristiques cliniques combinées avec les imageries radiologiques (lavement baryté, et la manométrie anorectale) ont confirmé qu'il s'agit d'une malfomation anorectale basse. Les deux cas sont corrigés par une reconstruction sphinctérienne, réimplantation anale avec anoplastie périnéale. Les suites opératoires étaient simples, pas de souffrance cutanée ou nécrose, avec changement de pansement gras chaque jour. Le résultat fonctionnel (la continence) était favorable pour les 2 patients. La présentation des MAR à l’âge adulte est rare, d’étiologie mal connu, elles apparaissent selon le mode sporadique. Les caractéristiques cliniques, couplées à l'imagerie (lavement baryté, IRM pelvienne), l'endoscopie et la manométrie anorectale, permettent de confirmer le diagnostic et classer ces anomalies en 3 types: basses, intermédiaires, et hautes. Les formes basses sont traités d'emblée par une réimplantation anale et anoplastie périnéale simple tels nos deux cas, elles peuvent être traités dans certains cas par un abaissement anorectale associé à une plastie V-Y permettant ainsi un emplacement anatomique correct de l'anus; alors que les formes hautes ou intermédiaires relèvent d'une chirurgie complexe avec souvent une dérivation digestive transitoire. Contrairement aux autres formes, Les formes basses ont un pronostic fonctionnel favorable. PMID:25667689

  3. Supplementation of arachidonic acid rich oil in European sea bass juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax) diets: Effects on leucocytes and plasma fatty acid profiles, selected immune parameters and circulating prostaglandins levels.

    PubMed

    Torrecillas, S; Román, L; Rivero-Ramírez, F; Caballero, M J; Pascual, C; Robaina, L; Izquierdo, M S; Acosta, F; Montero, D

    2017-03-27

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of graded levels of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA), supplemented from alternative sources, on fatty acid composition of plasma and head kidney leucocytes of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). For that purpose, sea bass juveniles were fed four diets containing graded levels of ARA as follows: 0.5% (ARA0.5), 1% (ARA1), 2% (ARA2) and 4% (ARA4) during 60 days. At the end of the feeding trial fatty acid profiles of plasma and head kidney leucocytes were analyzed. Besides, plasma prostaglandins levels, head kidney leucocytes respiratory burst activity; peroxidase activity and phagocytic index were assayed. Reducing dietary ARA levels below 1% markedly reduced European sea bass growth performance. However, fish fed diet ARA0.5 tried to compensate this dietary ARA deficiency by a selective deposition of ARA on plasma and head kidney leucocytes, reaching similar levels to those fish fed diet ARA1 after 60 days of feeding. Nevertheless, head kidney phagocytic capacity was reduced as dietary ARA content in relation not only to variations on membrane composition but also to changes on fish basal prostaglandins levels. Results obtained demonstrated the importance to supply the necessary quantity n-6 LC-PUFA, and not only n-3 LC-PUFA levels, in European sea bass diets, in relation to not only growth performance but also immune system function.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of gonadotropin subunits (GTHα, FSHβ and LHβ) and their regulation by hCG and GnRHa in Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas) in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chi, Mei L; Ni, Meng; Li, Ji F; He, Feng; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Pei; Chai, Sen H; Wen, Hai S

    2015-06-01

    In this study, three cDNA sequences encoding common glycoprotein α subunit (GTHα), follicle-stimulating hormone β subunit (FSHβ) and luteinizing hormone β subunit (LHβ) were isolated from Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicas). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences with other gonadotropic hormones (GTHs) indicated that their cysteine residues and potential N-linked glycosylation sites were highly conserved, and high homology with those of other perciformes was showed in phylogenetic analysis. GTHs transcripts were present highly in the pituitary and brain and weakly in testis and other tissues. During testicular development, GTHs transcriptional levels in pituitary and brain (expect FSHβ subunit in brain) were significantly increased at spermiation period, stage V. Subsequently, the effects of hCG and GnRHa on the mRNA levels of GTHs subunits were examined. In brain, both hormones were detected to improve the expression of GTHα subunit mRNA. In pituitary, three GTHs subunits increased parallelly and abruptly in two hormone treatment groups. In testis, hCG was suggested to improve three GTHs subunits expression in Japanese sea bass for the first time. These results suggest that both gonadotropins are probably involved in the control of Japanese sea bass spermatogenesis and provide a framework for better understanding of the mechanisms of hormone-mediated reproduction control in Japanese sea bass and other teleosts.

  5. Annual Review of Adult Learning and Literacy. Volume 2. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    This document contains eight papers on adult learning and literacy research and practice. "The Year 1999 in Review" (Dave Speights) presents an overview of adult learning and literacy research funding, policy, and activities in 1999. "Making Sense of Critical Pedagogy in Adult Literacy Education" (Sophie C. Degener) details a…

  6. Diversity in destinations, routes and timing of small adult and sub-adult striped bass Morone saxatilis on their southward autumn migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mather, Martha E.; Finn, John T.; Pautzke, Sarah M.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Savoy, Tom; Brundage, Harold M.; Deegan, Linda A.; Muth, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Almost three-quarters of the 46 young adult and sub-adult striped bass Morone saxatilis that were acoustically tagged in Plum Island Estuary, Massachusetts, U.S.A., in the summer of 2006 were detected in one or more southern coastal arrays during their autumn migration. On the basis of the trajectories along which these M. saxatilis moved from feeding to overwintering areas, three migratory groups emerged. After leaving Plum Island Estuary, about half of the fish were detected only in a mid-latitude array, Long Island Sound. The other half of the tagged fish were detected during autumn and winter in a more southern array, the Delaware Estuary. This latter group of fish may have used two routes. Some travelled to the Delaware Estuary through Long Island Sound while other fish may have taken a second, more direct, coastal route that did not include Long Island Sound. Consequently, a seemingly homogeneous group of fish tagged at the same time in the same non-natal feeding location exhibited a diversity of southward movement patterns that could affect population-level processes. These three groups that differed in overwintering location and migration route could be movement contingents with migratory connectivity.

  7. The forebrain-midbrain acts as functional endocrine signaling pathway of Kiss2/Gnrh1 system controlling the gonadotroph activity in the teleost fish European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Espigares, Felipe; Carrillo, Manuel; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia

    2015-03-01

    Some teleost species, including European sea bass, harbor two different kisspeptin coding genes: kiss1 and kiss2. Both genes are expressed in the brain, but their differential roles in the central control of fish reproduction are only beginning to be elucidated. In this study, we have examined the effects of intracerebroventricular injections of the highly active sea bass peptides Kiss1-15 and Kiss2-12 on spermiating male sea bass. Physiological saline, Kiss1-15, or Kiss2-12 was injected into the third ventricle. To establish the gene expression cascade involved in the action of kisspeptins, the expression of the two sea bass kisspeptin receptor genes (kiss1r and kiss2r) and the three sea bass Gnrh genes (gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3) were analyzed in the forebrain-midbrain and the hypothalamus. In addition, the protein levels of hypothalamic and pituitary Gnrh1 were measured. Blood samples were collected at different times after injection to analyze the effects of kisspeptins on the release of gonadotropins (Lh and Fsh) and androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone). The present results provide the first evidence that the effects of Kiss2 on central regulation of reproductive function involve the neuroendocrine areas of the forebrain-midbrain in teleost fish. The marked effect of Kiss2 on kiss2r and gnrh1 expression in the forebrain-midbrain and on Gnrh1 release suggest that this neuronal system is involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotroph activity. This hypothesis was confirmed by a surge of plasma Lh in response to Kiss2, which presumably has a strong stimulatory effect on testosterone release, and thus on sperm quality parameters.

  8. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2014-01-01

    Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two "golden basses" found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberrans and L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus, Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, including Bathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3-135 m, 30-150 m, 133-411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182-241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropoma species. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini.

  9. F-type lectin from the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): purification, cDNA cloning, tissue expression and localization, and opsonic activity.

    PubMed

    Salerno, G; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Benenati, G; Vizzini, A; Vazzana, M; Vasta, G R; Cammarata, M

    2009-08-01

    Recently described biochemical and structural aspects of fucose-binding lectins from the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis) led to the identification of a novel lectin family ("F-type" lectins) characterized by a unique sequence motif and a characteristic structural fold. The F-type fold is shared not only with other members of this lectin family, but also with apparently unrelated proteins ranging from prokaryotes to vertebrates. Here we describe the purification, biochemical and molecular properties, and the opsonic activity of an F-type lectin (DlFBL) isolated from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) serum. DlFBL exhibits two tandemly arranged carbohydrate-recognition domains that display the F-type sequence motif. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that DlFBL is specifically expressed and localized in hepatocytes and intestinal cells. Exposure of formalin-killed Escherichia coli to DlFBL enhanced their phagocytosis by D. labrax peritoneal macrophages relative to the unexposed controls, suggesting that DlFBL may function as an opsonin in plasma and intestinal mucus.

  10. CpG ODN mimicking CpG rich region of myxosporean Myxobolus supamattayai stimulates innate immunity in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) and defense against Streptococcus iniae.

    PubMed

    U-Taynapun, Kittichon; Chirapongsatonkul, Nion; Itami, Toshiaki; Tantikitti, Chutima

    2016-11-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine CpG dinucleotides within specific sequence contexts (CpG motifs) have been reported as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Its immunostimulatory effects have been demonstrated in diverse vertebrate models. CpG ODN is typically found in bacterial or viral genome and recognized by a non-self recognition receptor Toll-like receptor9 (TLR9). Here, a new CpG ODN 1013 which mimics sequence of SSU rDNA of early eukaryotic organism myxosporidia, Myxobolus supamattayai, was employed to stimulate the immune responses of Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer. Its immunostimulant potentiality was comparatively compared with that of CpG ODN 1668, a widely used as functional immunostimulant. Both unmethylated CpG ODNs with some modified phosphorothioated positions were intraperitoneally injection (5 μg/fish). Hematological examination, immunological assays and immune-related genes expression were evaluated 12 h, 1, 3 and 5 d after post CpG ODN challenge. The immunosimulatory effect of these CpG ODNs on fish immunity to protect the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus iniae was also determined. The results demonstrated that these two CpG ODNs could induce immune responses in Asian sea bass including the significant (P < 0.05) increase level of WBC, peroxidase activity and oxidative radicals in head kidney (HK) leukocyte, serum innate immune parameters and up-regulation of four immune responsive genes compared with the control group. Most of immune responses induced by ODN 1668 were strong within 1 d but lesser extended while ODN 1013 prolonged the stimulatory effects during the whole experimental period. After challenge with S. iniae, the survival proportion in ODN 1013-treated fish was apparently higher than that treated with ODN 1668 and PBS, respectively. The results together suggested that CpG ODN 1013 enhanced innate immune responses, including humoral and cellular responses, through

  11. Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides: Counteracting the Side Effects of Soybean Meal Oil Inclusion on European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Gut Health and Skin Mucosa Mucus Production?

    PubMed Central

    Torrecillas, Silvia; Montero, Daniel; Caballero, Maria José; Pittman, Karin A.; Custódio, Marco; Campo, Aurora; Sweetman, John; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of 4 g kg−1 dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) inclusion in soybean oil (SBO)- and fish oil (FO)-based diets on the gut health and skin mucosa mucus production of European sea bass juveniles after 8 weeks of feeding. Dietary MOS, regardless of the oil source, promoted growth. The intestinal somatic index was not affected, however dietary SBO reduced the intestinal fold length, while dietary MOS increased it. The dietary oil source fed produced changes on the posterior intestine fatty acid profiles irrespective of MOS dietary supplementation. SBO down-regulated the gene expression of TCRβ, COX2, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ, and Ig and up-regulated MHCII. MOS supplementation up-regulated the expression of MHCI, CD4, COX2, TNFα, and Ig when included in FO-based diets. However, there was a minor up-regulating effect on these genes when MOS was supplemented in the SBO-based diet. Both dietary oil sources and MOS affected mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut, however the addition of MOS to a SBO diet increased the mucous cell size over the values shown in FO fed fish. Dietary SBO also trends to reduce mucous cell density in the anterior gut relative to FO, suggesting a lower overall mucosal secretion. There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns. Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth. However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis. This denotes the importance of a balanced

  12. Annual Review of Adult Learning and Literacy. Volume 1. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    This book contains eight papers on adult learning and literacy. "The Year 1998 in Review" (Fran Tracy-Mumford) examines educational legislation and policy and developments in adult education program development, program accountability, strategic alliances and partnerships, and instructional methodologies and technologies. "Lessons…

  13. Molecular Characterization and Functional Regulation of Melanocortin 2 Receptor (MC2R) in the Sea Bass. A Putative Role in the Adaptation to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Agulleiro, Maria Josep; Sánchez, Elisa; Leal, Esther; Cortés, Raúl; Fernández-Durán, Begoña; Guillot, Raúl; Davis, Perry; Dores, Robert M.; Gallo-Payet, Nicole; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The activation of melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) by ACTH mediates the signaling cascade leading to steroid synthesis in the interrenal tissue (analogous to the adrenal cortex in mammals) of fish. However, little is known about the functional regulation of this receptor in fish. In this work described, we cloned sea bass MC2R from a liver cDNA. SbMC2R requires the melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) for its functional expression. Dietary cortisol but not long-term stress protocols downregulated interrenal sbMC2R expression. Data suggest the existence of a negative feedback on interrenal sbMC2R expression imposed by local or systemic glucocorticoids. This feedback could be involved in long-term stress adaptation by regulating interrenal sensitivity to ACTH. ACTH-induced MC2R activation stimulates hepatic lipolysis, suggesting that ACTH may mediate stress-induced effects upstream of cortisol release. PMID:23724142

  14. Effect of ingested benzo(a)pyrene and cadmium on tissue accumulation, hydroxylase activity, and intestinal morphology of the black sea bass, Centropristis striata

    SciTech Connect

    Fair, P.H.; Fortner, A.R.

    1987-02-01

    Black sea bass, Centropristis striata, were fed shrimp containing (/sup 14/C)benzo(a)pyrene (200 ppb) in the presence and absence of cadmium (10 ppm) for 10 days. Concentrations of cadmium in muscle tissue were significantly higher when both cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene were ingested simultaneously by the fish. Results indicate that selected tissue concentrations of total benzo(a)pyrene compounds (parent and metabolites) were not affected by the presence of cadmium. The bile contained the majority of benzo(a)pyrene found for all treatments. Ingestion of both contaminants had no effect on hepatic benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase activity. Histological evidence from the feeding study demonstrated the presence of subcellular inclusions in the intestinal columnar cells and the combined effects of both contaminants appeared greater than either alone.

  15. Isolation of TDA-producing Phaeobacter strains from sea bass larval rearing units and their probiotic effect against pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Artemia cultures.

    PubMed

    Grotkjær, Torben; Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; D'Alvise, Paul; Dourala, Nancy; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Gram, Lone

    2016-05-01

    Fish-pathogenic Vibrio can cause large-scale crashes in marine larval rearing units and, since the use of antibiotics can result in bacterial antibiotic resistance, new strategies for disease prevention are needed. Roseobacter-clade bacteria from turbot larval rearing facilities can antagonize Vibrio anguillarum and reduce mortality in V. anguillarum-infected cod and turbot larvae. In this study, it was demonstrated that antagonistic Roseobacter-clade bacteria could be isolated from sea bass larval rearing units. In addition, it was shown that they not only antagonized V. anguillarum but also V. harveyi, which is the major bacterial pathogen in crustaceans and Mediterranean sea bass larvae cultures. Concomitantly, they significantly improved survival of V. harveyi-infected brine shrimp. 16S rRNA gene sequence homology identified the antagonists as Phaeobacter sp., and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that they could belong to a new species. The genomes contained genes involved in synthesis of the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA), and its production was confirmed by UHPLC-TOFMS. The new Phaeobacter colonized live feed (Artemia) cultures and reduced Vibrio counts significantly, since they reached only 10(4)CFUmL(-1), as opposed to 10(8)CFUmL(-1) in non-Phaeobacter treated controls. Survival of V. anguillarum-challenged Artemia nauplii was enhanced by the presence of wild type Phaeobacter compared to challenged control cultures (89±1.0% vs 8±3.2%). In conclusion, TDA-producing Phaeobacter isolated from Mediterranean marine larviculture are promising probiotic bacteria against pathogenic Vibrio in crustacean live-feed cultures for marine fish larvae.

  16. Effects of fish oil replacement by vegetable oil blend on digestive enzymes and tissue histomorphology of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Couto, Ana; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Serra, Cláudia R; Díaz-Rosales, Patricia; Fernandes, Rui; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-02-01

    The impact of replacing circa 70% fish oil (FO) by a vegetable oil (VO) blend (rapeseed, linseed, palm oils; 20:50:30) in diets for European sea bass juveniles (IBW 96 ± 0.8 g) was evaluated in terms of activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, trypsin and total alkaline proteases) in the anterior (AI) and posterior (PI) intestine and tissue morphology (pyloric caeca-PC, AI, PI, distal intestine-DI and liver). For that purpose, fish were fed the experimental diets for 36 days and then liver and intestine were sampled at 2, 6 and 24 h after the last meal. Alkaline protease characterization was also done in AI and PI at 6 h post-feeding. Dietary VO promoted higher alkaline phosphatase activity at 2 h post-feeding in the AI and at all sampling points in the PI. Total alkaline protease activity was higher at 6 h post-feeding in the PI of fish fed the FO diet. Identical number of bands was observed in zymograms of alkaline proteases of fish fed both diets. No alterations in the histomorphology of PC, AI, PI or DI were noticed in fish fed the VO diets, while in the liver a tendency towards increased hepatocyte vacuolization due to lipid accumulation was observed. Overall, and with the exception of a higher intestine alkaline phosphatase activity, 70% FO replacement by a VO blend in diets for European sea bass resulted in no distinctive alterations on the postprandial pattern of digestive enzyme activities and intestine histomorphology.

  17. Modulation of the Expression of Components of the Stress Response by Dietary Arachidonic Acid in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Larvae.

    PubMed

    Montero, Daniel; Terova, Genciana; Rimoldi, Simona; Betancor, Mónica B; Atalah, Eyad; Torrecillas, Silvia; Caballero, María J; Zamorano, María J; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-10-01

    This study reports for the first time on European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.), larvae, the effect of different levels of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n-6) on the expression of genes related to the fish stress response. Copies of mRNA from genes related to steroidogenesis [StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), c-Fos, and CYP11β (11β-hydroxylase gene)], glucocorticoid receptor complex [GR (glucocorticoid receptor) and HSP (heat shock proteins) 70 and 90) and antioxidative stress (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase] were quantified. Eighteen day-old larvae were fed for 14 days with three experimental diets with increasing levels of ARA (0.3, 0.6 and 1.2% d.w.) and similar levels of docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) acids (5 and 3%, respectively). The quantification of stress-related genes transcripts was conducted by One-Step TaqMan real time RT-PCR with the standard curve method (absolute quantification). Increase dietary levels of ARA induced a significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulation of genes related to cortisol synthesis, such as StAR and CYP11β and up-regulated genes related to glucocorticoid receptor complex, such as HSP70 and GR. No effects were observed on antioxidant enzymes gene expression. These results revealed the regulatory role of dietary ARA on the expression of stress-related genes in European sea bass larvae.

  18. Learning from Our Lives: Using Educational Biographies with Adults. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominice, Pierre

    This nine-chapter book, written in Europe by a French-speaking Swiss educator, explores the rationale for using educational biography approaches in adult education and presents examples that illustrate various uses of these life history activities. Chapter 1 provides an introduction and overview of educational biography, and Chapter 2 describes…

  19. Taking Learning to Task: Creative Strategies for Teaching Adults. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, Jane

    This book examines an approach to teaching adults, in which teaching and learning are integrated and where the learning task is the overall design, incorporating the lecture or input along with practice. In 12 chapters, the book challenges the reader to describe the difference between teaching tasks and learning tasks and to examine both the…

  20. Women as Learners: The Significance of Gender in Adult Learning. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Elisabeth; Flannery, Daniele D.

    This book is intended to address the need for information and understanding about adult women's learning and education. It gathers knowledge about women and their learning and places women's learning experiences in the contexts of where women live. The book also promotes an understanding of women's diversity and makes recommendations for future…

  1. Molecular characterisation of growth differentiation factor 9 (gdf9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (bmp15) and their patterns of gene expression during the ovarian reproductive cycle in the European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Halm, S; Ibañez, A J; Tyler, C R; Prat, F

    2008-09-10

    Members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), have crucial roles in primary follicle growth in mammals. To initiate investigations into their significance in teleost oogenesis, we set out to clone and characterise the cDNAs of gdf9 and bmp15 and analysed their patterns of gene expression during the ovarian reproductive cycle in the European sea bass (Dicentrachus labrax). Sea bass gdf9 and bmp15 cDNAs were 2200 and 2049 bp long, coding for 438 and 459 amino acids (aas), respectively, and were most similar to zebrafish gdf9 and bmp15 (64.4 and 56.1%, respectively). By Northern analysis, sea bass gdf9 and bmp15 mRNA transcripts were detected in the ovary only of the tissues analysed and their sizes were 2.2 and 2.1 kb, respectively. Dot-blot analysis revealed high levels of gdf9 and bmp15 expression in the ovary during primary oocyte growth and previtellogenesis (July to October), with a significant decline at the onset of vitellogenesis (November) and remaining low until the beginning of new oocyte growth (April/May). There was a highly significant positive correlation (r=0.939) between gdf9 and bmp15 gene expression in individual samples. The high levels of gdf9 and bmp15 mRNA transcripts in the ovary, especially during the previtellogenic growth period suggest an important role for these factors in early primary oocyte growth in the European sea bass.

  2. Interactive effect of high environmental ammonia and nutritional status on ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) acclimated to reduced seawater salinities.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Pipralia, Nitin; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the interactive effect of ammonia toxicity, salinity challenge and nutritional status on the ecophysiological performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were progressively acclimated to normal seawater (32ppt), to brackish water (20ppt and 10ppt) and to hyposaline water (2.5ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20mg/L ∼1.18mM representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12h, 48h, 84h and 180h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Biochemical responses such as ammonia (Jamm) and urea excretion rate, plasma ammonia, urea and lactate, plasma ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) and osmolality, muscle water content (MWC) and liver and muscle energy budget (glycogen, lipid and protein), as well as branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and H(+)-ATPase activity, and branchial mRNA expression of NKA and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) were investigated in order to understand metabolic and ion- osmoregulatory consequences of the experimental conditions. During HEA, Jamm was inhibited in fasted fish at 10ppt, while fed fish were still able to excrete efficiently. At 2.5ppt, both feeding groups subjected to HEA experienced severe reductions and eventually a reversion in Jamm. Overall, the build-up of plasma ammonia in HEA exposed fed fish was much lower than fasted ones. Unlike fasted fish, fed fish acclimated to lower salinities (10ppt-2.5ppt) could maintain plasma osmolality, [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and MWC during HEA exposure. Thus fed fish were able to sustain ion-osmotic homeostasis which was associated with a more pronounced up-regulation in NKA expression and activity. At 2.5ppt both feeding groups activated H(+)-ATPase. The expression of NKCC1 was down-regulated at lower salinities in both fed and fasted fish, but was upregulated within each salinity after a few days of HEA exposure. Though an

  3. Preliminary study on expression of antimicrobial peptides in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) following in vivo infection with Vibrio anguillarum. A time course experiment.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Mauro; Candusso, Sabrina; Galeotti, Marco; Volpatti, Donatella

    2015-03-01

    Antimicrobial polypeptides (AMPPs) are humoral components of the vertebrates and invertebrates innate immune system. Their potent broad spectrum antimicrobial activities have drawn the attention of the scientific community to their potential use not only as an alternative to antibiotics but also as functional targets for immunostimulants in order to enhance the host immunity. Fish synthesize a great number of these peptides but in European sea bass, an important fish species in the Mediterranean aquaculture, only a few AMPPs have been studied and these surveys have highlighted their functional role as predictive markers of stressful conditions. Many aspects concerning AMPP mode of action in the host during bacterial infections are still unknown. In this work a 72 h time course experiment, performed on juvenile sea bass intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with a sub-lethal dose of Vibrio anguillarum, was aimed to investigate the mRNA expression of four specific AMPP genes and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in skin, gills, spleen, and head kidney. AMPP genes were: dicentracin (DIC), histone-like protein 1 (HLP-1), histone-like protein 2 (HLP-2) and hemoglobin-like protein (Hb-LP). The delta-delta C(T) method in real-time RT-PCR allowed to gain more knowledge about temporal dynamics, preferential sites of expression as well as immunological and physiological role of these molecular markers. DIC was significantly up-regulated mainly in head kidney at 1.5-3 h post-infection (p.i.). HLP-1 showed an extended-time overexpression in gills and a significant up-regulation in spleen. HLP-2 was interestingly overexpressed in gills at 24 h p.i., while Hb-LP showed a significant up-regulation in skin for all the 72 h trial as well as lower but always significant values either in gills or in spleen. Different was the response of IL-1β that showed a dramatic up-regulation in spleen and head kidney at 8 h p.i. whilst in gills it displayed a severe inhibition. During this survey the i

  4. Early development of the digestive tract (pharynx and gut) in the embryos and pre-larvae of the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Sucré, E; Charmantier-Daures, M; Grousset, E; Charmantier, G; Cucchi-Mouillot, P

    2009-10-01

    The European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax is a marine teleost important in Mediterranean aquaculture. The development of the entire digestive tract of D. labrax, including the pharynx, was investigated from early embryonic development to day 5 post hatching (dph), when the mouth opens. The digestive tract is initialized at stage 12 somites independently from two distinct infoldings of the endodermal sheet. In the pharyngeal region, the anterior infolding forms the pharynx and the first gill slits at stage 25 somites. The other three gill arches and slits are formed between 1 and 5 dph. Posteriorly, in the gut tube region, a posterior infolding forms the foregut, midgut and hindgut. The anus opens before hatching, at stage 28 somites. Associated organs (liver, pancreas and gall bladder) are all discernable from 3 dph. Some aspects of the development of the two independent initial infoldings seem original compared with data in the literature. These results are discussed and compared with embryonic and post-embryonic development patterns in other teleosts.

  5. A multidisciplinary study of the extracutaneous pigment system of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). A possible relationship between kidney disease and dopa oxidase activity level.

    PubMed

    Arciuli, Marcella; Brunetti, Adalberto; Fiocco, Daniela; Zacchino, Valentina; Centoducati, Gerardo; Aloi, Antonio; Tommasi, Raffaele; Santeramo, Arcangela; De Nitto, Emanuele; Gallone, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases and breeding conditions can influence fish health status. Furthermore it is well known that human and animal health are strongly correlated. In lower vertebrates melano-macrophage centres, clusters of pigment-containing cells forming the extracutaneous pigment system, are widespread in the stroma of the haemopoietic tissue, mainly in kidney and spleen. In fishes, melano-macrophage centres play an important role in the immune response against antigenic stimulants and pathogens. Hence, they are employed as biomarker of fish health status. We have investigated this cell system in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) following the enzyme activities involved in melanin biosynthesis. We have found a possible relationship between kidney disease of farmed fishes and dopa oxidase activity level, suggesting it as an indicator of kidney disease. Moreover variations of dopa oxidase activity in extracutaneous pigment system have been observed with respect to environmental temperature. At last, for the first time, using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (Femto-TA), we pointed out that pigment-containing cells of fish kidney tissue present melanin pigments.

  6. Innate immunity and antioxidant systems in different tissues of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed to crude oil dispersed mechanically or chemically with Corexit 9500.

    PubMed

    Dussauze, Matthieu; Danion, Morgane; Le Floch, Stéphane; Lemaire, Philippe; Pichavant-Rafini, Karine; Theron, Michaël

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of chemically dispersed oil by the dispersant Corexit 9500 on innate immunity and redox defenses in a marine model fish. Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed 48h to four experimental conditions: a control group (C), a group only exposed to the dispersant (D; 3.6mg/L) and two groups exposed to 80mg/L oil mechanically or chemically dispersed (MD; CD). Alternative pathway of complement activity and lysozyme concentration was measured in plasma in order to evaluate the general fish health status. Total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were analyzed in gills, liver, brain, intestine and muscle. The chemical dispersion induced a significant reduction of lysozyme concentration when compared to the controls, and the hemolytic activity of the alternative complement pathway was increased in mechanical and chemical dispersion. The analysis of SOD, GPX and total glutathione showed that antioxidant defenses were activated in liver and reduced in intestine and brain. Dispersant was also responsible for an SOD activity inhibition in these two last tissues, demonstrating a direct effect of this dispersant on reactive oxygen species homeostasis that can be interpreted as a signal of tissue toxicity. This result should raise concern about the use of dispersants and show that they can lead to adverse effects on marine species.

  7. In Situ Mortality Experiments with Juvenile Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Relation to Impulsive Sound Levels Caused by Pile Driving of Windmill Foundations

    PubMed Central

    Debusschere, Elisabeth; De Coensel, Bert; Bajek, Aline; Botteldooren, Dick; Hostens, Kris; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Van Ginderdeuren, Karl; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Impact assessments of offshore wind farm installations and operations on the marine fauna are performed in many countries. Yet, only limited quantitative data on the physiological impact of impulsive sounds on (juvenile) fishes during pile driving of offshore wind farm foundations are available. Our current knowledge on fish injury and mortality due to pile driving is mainly based on laboratory experiments, in which high-intensity pile driving sounds are generated inside acoustic chambers. To validate these lab results, an in situ field experiment was carried out on board of a pile driving vessel. Juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) of 68 and 115 days post hatching were exposed to pile-driving sounds as close as 45 m from the actual pile driving activity. Fish were exposed to strikes with a sound exposure level between 181 and 188 dB re 1 µPa2.s. The number of strikes ranged from 1739 to 3067, resulting in a cumulative sound exposure level between 215 and 222 dB re 1 µPa2.s. Control treatments consisted of fish not exposed to pile driving sounds. No differences in immediate mortality were found between exposed and control fish groups. Also no differences were noted in the delayed mortality up to 14 days after exposure between both groups. Our in situ experiments largely confirm the mortality results of the lab experiments found in other studies. PMID:25275508

  8. In situ mortality experiments with juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in relation to impulsive sound levels caused by pile driving of windmill foundations.

    PubMed

    Debusschere, Elisabeth; De Coensel, Bert; Bajek, Aline; Botteldooren, Dick; Hostens, Kris; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Van Ginderdeuren, Karl; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Impact assessments of offshore wind farm installations and operations on the marine fauna are performed in many countries. Yet, only limited quantitative data on the physiological impact of impulsive sounds on (juvenile) fishes during pile driving of offshore wind farm foundations are available. Our current knowledge on fish injury and mortality due to pile driving is mainly based on laboratory experiments, in which high-intensity pile driving sounds are generated inside acoustic chambers. To validate these lab results, an in situ field experiment was carried out on board of a pile driving vessel. Juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) of 68 and 115 days post hatching were exposed to pile-driving sounds as close as 45 m from the actual pile driving activity. Fish were exposed to strikes with a sound exposure level between 181 and 188 dB re 1 µPa².s. The number of strikes ranged from 1739 to 3067, resulting in a cumulative sound exposure level between 215 and 222 dB re 1 µPa².s. Control treatments consisted of fish not exposed to pile driving sounds. No differences in immediate mortality were found between exposed and control fish groups. Also no differences were noted in the delayed mortality up to 14 days after exposure between both groups. Our in situ experiments largely confirm the mortality results of the lab experiments found in other studies.

  9. EROD activity and antioxidant defenses of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) after an in vivo chronic hydrocarbon pollution followed by a post-exposure period.

    PubMed

    Danion, Morgane; Le Floch, Stéphane; Lamour, François; Quentel, Claire

    2014-12-01

    Chronic concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been commonly detected in international estuaries ecosystems. Reliable indicators still need to be found in order to properly assess the impact of PAHs in fish. After an in vivo chronic exposure to hydrocarbons, the enzymatic activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and the antioxidant defense system were assessed in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. A total of 45 fish were exposed to the water-soluble fraction of Arabian crude oil, similar to a complex pollution by hydrocarbons chronically observed in situ, while 45 other control fish sustained the same experimental conditions in clean seawater. Fish samples were made after a 21-day exposure period and after a 15-day recovery period in clean fresh water. Throughout the experiment, liver EROD activity was significantly higher in contaminated fish than in control fish. In addition, nonenzymatic (total glutathione) and enzymatic (GPx, SOD, and CAT) antioxidant defense parameters measured in liver were not significantly different in fish. Furthermore, in gills, glutathione content had significantly increased while SOD activity had significantly decreased in contaminated fish compared to controls. On the other hand, CAT and GPx activities were not affected. Chronic exposure to PAHs disturbing the first step (SOD) and inhibiting the second step (GPx and CAT) could induce oxidative stress in tissues by the formation of oxygen radicals. After the postexposure period, there was no significant difference between control and contaminated fish in any of the antioxidant defense parameters measured in gills, attesting to the reversibility of the effects.

  10. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) increases growth performance and intestinal bacterial range-weighted richness in juvenile European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    De Schryver, Peter; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Kunwar, Prabesh Singh; Baruah, Kartik; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico; De Boeck, Gudrun; Bossier, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The bacterial storage polymer poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) has the potential to be used as an alternative anti-infective strategy for aquaculture rearing. In this research, the effects of (partially) replacing the feed of European sea bass juveniles with PHB were investigated. During a 6-week trial period, the PHB showed the ability to act as an energy source for the fish. This indicated that PHB was degraded and used during gastrointestinal passage. The gut pH decreased from 7.7 to 7.2 suggesting that the presence of PHB in the gut led to the increased production of (short-chain fatty) acids. The diets supplemented with 2% and 5% PHB (w/w) induced a gain of the initial fish weight with a factor 2.4 and 2.7, respectively, relative to a factor 2.2 in the normal feed treatment. Simultaneously, these treatments showed the highest bacterial range-weighted richness in the fish intestine. Based on molecular analysis, higher dietary PHB levels induced larger changes in the bacterial community composition. From our results, it seems that PHB can have a beneficial effect on fish growth performance and that the intestinal bacterial community structure may be closely related to this phenomenon.

  11. Modulation of adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH)-induced expression of stress-related genes by PUFA in inter-renal cells from European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Montero, Daniel; Terova, Genciana; Rimoldi, Simona; Tort, Lluis; Negrin, Davinia; Zamorano, María Jesús; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids have been shown to exert a clear effect on the stress response, modulating the release of cortisol. The role of fatty acids on the expression of steroidogenic genes has been described in mammals, but little is known in fish. The effect of different fatty acids on the release of cortisol and expression of stress-related genes of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) head kidney, induced by a pulse of adenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH), was studied. Tissue was maintained in superfusion with 60 min of incubation with EPA, DHA, arachidonic acid (ARA), linoleic acid or α-linolenic acid (ALA) during 490 min. Cortisol was measured by RIA. The quantification of stress-related genes transcripts was conducted by One-Step TaqMan real-time RT-PCR. There was an effect of the type of fatty acid on the ACTH-induced release of cortisol, values from ALA treatment being elevated within all of the experimental period. The expression of some steroidogenic genes, such as the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and c-fos, were affected by fatty acids, ALA increasing the expression of StAR after 1 h of ACTH stimulation whereas DHA, ARA and ALA increased the expression of c-fos after 20 min. ARA increased expression of the 11β-hydroxylase gene. Expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was increased in all the experimental treatments except for ARA. Results corroborate previous studies of the effect of different fatty acids on the release of cortisol in marine fish and demonstrate that those effects are mediated by alteration of the expression of steroidogenic genes.

  12. Acceleration performance of individual European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax measured with a sprint performance chamber: comparison with high-speed cinematography and correlates with ecological performance.

    PubMed

    Vandamm, Joshua P; Marras, Stefano; Claireaux, Guy; Handelsman, Corey A; Nelson, Jay A

    2012-01-01

    Locomotor performance can influence the ecological and evolutionary success of a species. For fish, favorable outcomes of predator-prey encounters are often presumably due to robust acceleration ability. Although escape-response or "fast-start" studies utilizing high-speed cinematography are prevalent, little is known about the contribution of relative acceleration performance to ecological or evolutionary success in a species. This dearth of knowledge may be due to the time-consuming nature of analyzing film, which imposes a practical limit on sample sizes. Herein, we present a high-throughput potential alternative for measuring fish acceleration performance using a sprint performance chamber (SPC). The acceleration performance of a large number of juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from two populations was analyzed. Animals from both hatchery and natural ontogenies were assessed, and animals of known acceleration ability had their ecological performance measured in a mesocosm environment. Individuals from one population also had their acceleration performance assessed by both high-speed cinematography and an SPC. Acceleration performance measured in an SPC was lower than that measured by classical high-speed video techniques. However, short-term repeatability and interindividual variation of acceleration performance were similar between the two techniques, and the SPC recorded higher sprint swimming velocities. Wild fish were quicker to accelerate in an SPC and had significantly greater accelerations than all groups of hatchery-raised fish. Acceleration performance had no significant effect on ecological performance (as assessed through animal growth and survival in the mesocosms). However, it is worth noting that wild animals did survive predation in the mesocosm better than farmed ones. Moreover, the hatchery-originated fish that survived the mesocosm experiment, when no predators were present, displayed significantly increased acceleration

  13. Fast growers sprint slower: effects of food deprivation and re-feeding on sprint swimming performance in individual juvenile European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Killen, Shaun S; Marras, Stefano; McKenzie, David J

    2014-03-15

    While many ectothermic species can withstand prolonged fasting without mortality, food deprivation may have sublethal effects of ecological importance, including reductions in locomotor ability. Little is known about how such changes in performance in individual animals are related to either mass loss during food deprivation or growth rate during re-feeding. This study followed changes in the maximum sprint swimming performance of individual European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, throughout 45 days of food deprivation and 30 days of re-feeding. Maximum sprint speed did not show a significant decline until 45 days of food deprivation. Among individuals, the reduction in sprinting speed at this time was not related to mass loss. After 30 days of re-feeding, mean sprinting speed had recovered to match that of control fish. Among individuals, however, maximum sprinting speed was negatively correlated with growth rate after the resumption of feeding. This suggests that the rapid compensatory growth that occurs during re-feeding after a prolonged fast carries a physiological cost in terms of reduced sprinting capacity, the extent of which shows continuous variation among individuals in relation to growth rate. The long-term repeatability of maximum sprint speed was low when fish were fasted or fed a maintenance ration, but was high among control fish fed to satiation. Fish that had been previously food deprived continued to show low repeatability in sprinting ability even after the initiation of ad libitum feeding, probably stemming from variation in compensatory growth among individuals and its associated negative effects on sprinting ability. Together, these results suggest that food limitation can disrupt hierarchies of maximum sprint performance within populations. In the wild, the cumulative effects on locomotor capacity of fasting and re-feeding could lead to variable survival among individuals with different growth trajectories following a period of food

  14. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two “golden basses” found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberransand L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus,Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, includingBathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3–135 m, 30–150 m, 133–411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182–241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropomaspecies. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini.

  15. Hypo-osmotic stress-induced physiological and ion-osmoregulatory responses in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) are modulated differentially by nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Pipralia, Nitin; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the impact of nutritional status on the physiological, metabolic and ion-osmoregulatory performance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) when acclimated to seawater (32 ppt), brackish water (20 and 10 ppt) and hyposaline water (2.5 ppt) for 2 weeks. Following acclimation to different salinities, fish were either fed or fasted (unfed for 14 days). Plasma osmolality, [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and muscle water content were severely altered in fasted fish acclimated to 10 and 2.5 ppt in comparison to normal seawater-acclimated fish, suggesting ion regulation and acid-base balance disturbances. In contrast to feed-deprived fish, fed fish were able to avoid osmotic perturbation more effectively. This was accompanied by an increase in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase expression and activity, transitory activation of H(+)-ATPase (only at 2.5 ppt) and down-regulation of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) gene expression. Ammonia excretion rate was inhibited to a larger extent in fasted fish acclimated to low salinities while fed fish were able to excrete efficiently. Consequently, the build-up of ammonia in the plasma of fed fish was relatively lower. Energy stores, especially glycogen and lipid, dropped in the fasted fish at low salinities and progression towards the anaerobic metabolic pathway became evident by an increase in plasma lactate level. Overall, the results indicate no osmotic stress in both feeding treatments within the salinity range of 32 to 20 ppt. However, at lower salinities (10-2.5 ppt) feed deprivation tends to reduce physiological, metabolic, ion-osmo-regulatory and molecular compensatory mechanisms and thus limits the fish's abilities to adapt to a hypo-osmotic environment.

  16. Expression of Kisspeptins and Kiss Receptors Suggests a Large Range of Functions for Kisspeptin Systems in the Brain of the European Sea Bass

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Sebastián; Servili, Arianna; Espigares, Felipe; Gueguen, Marie-Madeleine; Brocal, Isabel; Felip, Alicia; Gómez, Ana; Carrillo, Manuel; Zanuy, Silvia; Kah, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    This study, conducted in the brain of a perciform fish, the European sea bass, aimed at raising antibodies against the precursor of the kisspeptins in order to map the kiss systems and to correlate the expression of kisspeptins, kiss1 and kiss2, with that of kisspeptin receptors (kiss-R1 and kiss-R2). Specific antibodies could be raised against the preprokiss2, but not the preoprokiss1. The data indicate that kiss2 neurons are mainly located in the hypothalamus and project widely to the subpallium and pallium, the preoptic region, the thalamus, the pretectal area, the optic tectum, the torus semicircularis, the mediobasal medial and caudal hypothalamus, and the neurohypophysis. These results were compared to the expression of kiss-R1 and kiss-R2 messengers, indicating a very good correlation between the wide distribution of Kiss2-positive fibers and that of kiss-R2 expressing cells. The expression of kiss-R1 messengers was more limited to the habenula, the ventral telencephalon and the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary. Attempts to characterize the phenotype of the numerous cells expressing kiss-R2 showed that neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y and neuronal nitric oxide synthase are targets for kisspeptins, while GnRH1 neurons did not appear to express kiss-R1 or kiss-R2 messengers. In addition, a striking result was that all somatostatin-positive neurons expressed-kissR2. These data show that kisspeptins are likely to regulate a wide range of neuronal systems in the brain of teleosts. PMID:23894610

  17. The in vitro immunomodulatory effect of extracellular products (ECPs) of Vagococcus fluvialis L21 on European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Román, L; Acosta, F; Padilla, D; El Aamri, F; Bravo, J; Vega, B; Rodriguez, E; Vega, J; Déniz, S; Real, F

    2015-02-01

    The immune associated genes, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), ciclo-oxigenase-2 (COX-2), and Mx gene were studied by real-time PCR in head-kidney leucocytes of sea bass after incubation with the extracellular products (ECPs) of the probiotic strain Vagococcus fluvialis L21 and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (POLY I:C), at different times (T1.5, T6, T12, T24, T48 and T72). In general, we can observe how pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and COX-2 studied displayed a strong peak after stimulation with 1.5 h of ECPs of V. fluvialis L21, significant differences (P < 0.05) exist with other periods and with the POLY I: C at the same time. Similarly to the case of IL-10 also produced a statistically significant (P < 0.05) peak of expression on leukocytes that were stimulated with the ECPs of V. fluvialis L21. In the case of Mx gene expression, we note that in almost all sampling times there is an up-regulation of the Mx gene in leucocytes incubated with ECPs and POLY I:C compared to the control and Mx expression was higher in leucocytes that were stimulated with the ECPs of V. fluvialis for all times, except in T24. With these results we can consider that the ECPs of V. fluvialis L21 have a great power of stimulating the in vitro expression of immune-related genes and may even be useful as adjuvants for vaccine in aquaculture.

  18. Developmental changes and day-night expression of the gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone system in the European sea bass: Effects of rearing temperature.

    PubMed

    Paullada-Salmerón, José A; Loentgen, Guillaume Henri; Cowan, Mairi; Aliaga-Guerrero, María; Rendón-Unceta, María Del Carmen; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2017-04-01

    The role of rearing temperature on fish development, sex differentiation and puberty has been largely addressed, but the impact of water temperature on the ontogeny of the main neuroendocrine systems controlling reproduction has received little attention. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) has been shown to act on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and on the pituitary to inhibit gonadotropin release and synthesis in vertebrates, including sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. In the present study we investigated the effects of rearing temperature during the thermosensitive period (5-60days post-fertilization, dpf) on the expression of the GnIH gene (gnih) and its receptor (gnihr). Animals were maintained under two different conditions, low temperature (LT, 15°C) or high temperature (HT, 21°C), throughout the thermosensitive period and sampled from 5 to 360dpf at mid-light (ML) and mid-dark (MD). Our results showed significant effects of temperature on gnih and gnihr expression during the thermosensitive period, with higher transcript levels under LT condition. Some differences were also evident after the completion of the sex differentiation process. Moreover, we revealed daily variations in the developmental expression of gnih and gnihr, with higher diurnal mRNA levels at early stages (until 25dpf), and a shift to higher nocturnal expression levels at 300-360dpf, which corresponded with the beginning of the winter (reproductive season). To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first study reporting the effects of rearing temperature on the transcription of gnih system genes, as well as its daily variations during the development of a fish species.

  19. Comparing the genotoxicity of a potentially carcinogenic and a noncarcinogenic PAH, singly, and in binary combination, on peripheral blood cells of the European sea bass.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marta; Ferreira, Ana M; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Pedro M

    2016-11-01

    Research on the toxicological mechanisms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) deemed carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic has mostly been developed for individual compounds even though, in the environment, PAHs invariably occur in mixtures. The present work aimed at understanding the interaction effects of two model PAHs, the potentially carcinogenic benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F) and the noncarcinogenic phenanthrene (Phe) to a marine fish (the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax). The study endeavoured an ecologically-relevant scenario with respect to concentrations and contaminant matrix, sediments, which are the main reservoirs of these substances in the environment, due to their hydrophobic nature. For the purpose, 28-day laboratorial bioassays with spiked sediments (with individual and combined PAHs at equitoxic concentrations) were conducted. Genotoxicity was determined in peripheral blood through the "Comet" assay and by scoring erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA). The results showed that exposure to either PAHs induced similar levels of DNA strand breaks, although without a clear dose- or time-response, likely due to the low concentrations of exposure and potential shits in PAH bioavailability during the assays. However, clastogenic/aneugenic lesions were only observed in fish exposed to B[b]F-spiked sediments. Conversely, the combination assays revealed a supra-additive effect especially at chromosome level, linked to concentrations of PAHs in water. A decrease in DNA-strand breakage was observed over time during all assays, revealing some ability of fish to cope with this DNA lesion. Overall, the findings show that low-moderate concentrations of sediment-bound mixed PAHs may significantly increase the hazard of mutagenesis even when the individual concentrations indicate low risk, especially considering that chromosome-level damage is unlikely to be repaired, leading to the fixation of DNA lesions upon prolonged exposures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  20. Effects of herbal essential oils used to extend the shelf life of freshwater-reared Asian sea bass fish (Lates calcarifer).

    PubMed

    Harpaz, S; Glatman, L; Drabkin, V; Gelman, A

    2003-03-01

    Sensory and microbiological characteristics of Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) fish raised in a freshwater pond were evaluated during cold storage for 33 days. Whole fish (averaging 400 g each) were stored in a cold storage room at 0 to 2 degrees C. Essential oils of herbs--thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and oregano (Origanum vulgare)--added at 0.05% (vol/vol) were used as preservatives. On the basis of the sensory test results as well as the bacteriological tests, the addition of oregano and thyme essential oils can considerably slow the process of spoilage. The fish treated with these oils were still fit for human consumption after 33 days of storage. The results obtained through sensory tests are corroborated to a great extent by the chemical (hypoxanthine) tests and to a lesser extent by the physical (Cosmos units) tests. The initial total bacteriological counts were 1.7 x 10(3) CFU/cm2 on the fish surface and <10(2) CFU/g in the fish flesh, and in the control treatment (without preservatives), these counts rose continuously, reaching around 10(7) CFU/cm2 on the fish surface and 10(3) CFU/g in the flesh after 33 days of storage at 0 to 2 degrees C. The use of herbal essential oils as preservatives, on the other hand, resulted in a maximal count of 10(5) CFU/cm2 on the fish surface, while the bacterial count in the flesh remained <10(2) CFU/g by the end of the 33-day storage period at 0 to 2 degrees C.

  1. Nutrient budgets, marsh inundation under sea-level rise scenarios, and sediment chronologies for the Bass Harbor Marsh estuary at Acadia National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, Thomas G.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Glibert, Patricia; Sturtevant, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication in the Bass Harbor Marsh estuary on Mount Desert Island, Maine, is an ongoing problem manifested by recurring annual blooms of green macroalgae species, principally Enteromorpha prolifera and Enteromorpha flexuosa, blooms that appear in the spring and summer. These blooms are unsightly and impair the otherwise natural beauty of this estuarine ecosystem. The macroalgae also threaten the integrity of the estuary and its inherent functions. The U.S. Geological Survey and Acadia National Park have collaborated for several years to better understand the factors related to this eutrophication problem with support from the U.S. Geological Survey and National Park Service Water Quality Assessment and Monitoring Program. The current study involved the collection of hydrologic and water-quality data necessary to investigate the relative contribution of nutrients from oceanic and terrestrial sources during summer 2011 and summer 2012. This report provides data on nutrient budgets for this estuary, sedimentation chronologies for the estuary and fringing marsh, and estuary bathymetry. The report also includes data, based on aerial photographs, on historical changes from 1944 to 2010 in estuary surface area and data, based on surface-elevation details, on changes in marsh area that may accompany sea-level rise. The LOADEST regression model was used to calculate nutrient loads into and out of the estuary during summer 2011 and summer 2012. During these summers, tidal inputs of ammonium to the estuary were more than seven times greater than the combined inputs in watershed runoff and precipitation. In 2011 tidal inputs of nitrate were about four times greater than watershed plus precipitation inputs, and in 2012 tidal inputs were only slightly larger than watershed plus precipitation inputs. In 2011, tidal inputs of total organic nitrogen were larger than watershed input by a factor of 1.6. By contrast, in 2012 inputs of total organic nitrogen in watershed runoff

  2. Learning as Transformation: Critical Perspectives on a Theory in Progress. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezirow, Jack, Ed.

    Stemming from a 1998 Columbia University conference on transformative learning, this 3-part book contains 12 articles that examine the concept of how adults learn to change ("transform") their frames of reference. The following are included in Part One: Developing Concepts of Transformative Learning: "Learning To Think Like an Adult: Core Concepts…

  3. Effects of partial substitution of dietary fish oil with blends of vegetable oils, on blood leucocyte fatty acid compositions, immune function and histology in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L).

    PubMed

    Mourente, Gabriel; Good, Joanne E; Thompson, Kim D; Bell, J Gordon

    2007-10-01

    Within a decade or so insufficient fish oil (FO) will be available to meet the requirements for aquaculture growth. Consequently, alternative sources are being investigated to reduce reliance on wild fish as a source of FO. Vegetable oils (VO) are a feasible alternative to FO. However, it is important to establish that alternative dietary lipids are not only supplied in the correct quantities and balance for optimal growth, but can maintain immune function and prevent infection, since it is known that the nutritional state of the fish can influence their immune function and disease resistance. A way of maintaining immune function, while replacing dietary FO, is by using a blend of VO rather than a single oil. In this study, juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were fed diets with a 60 % substitution of FO with a blend of rapeseed, linseed and palm oils. Two oil blends were used to achieve a fatty acid composition similar to FO, in terms of energy content, and provide a similar balance of SFA, MUFA and PUFA. Fish were fed the diets for 64 weeks, after which time growth and fatty acid compositions of liver and blood leucocytes were monitored. The impact of the dietary blends on selected innate immune responses and histopathology were also assessed, together with levels of plasma prostaglandin E2. The results suggest that potential exists for replacing FO with a VO blend in farmed sea bass feeds without compromising growth, non-specific immune function or histology.

  4. Brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (gnrh2 and gnrh3) expression during reproductive development and sex change in black sea bass (Centropristis striata).

    PubMed

    Breton, Timothy S; DiMaggio, Matthew A; Sower, Stacia A; Berlinsky, David L

    2015-03-01

    Teleost fish exhibit diverse reproductive strategies, and some species are capable of changing sex. The influence of many endocrine factors, such as gonadal steroids and neuropeptides, has been studied in relation to sex change, but comparatively less research has focused on gene expression changes within the brain in temperate grouper species with non-haremic social structures. The purpose of the present study was to investigate gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) gene expression patterns during reproductive development and sex change in protogynous (female to male) black sea bass (Centropristis striata). Partial cDNA fragments for cyp19a1b and eef1a (a reference gene) were identified, and included with known gnrh2 and gnrh3 sequences in real time quantitative PCR. Elevated cyp19a1b expression was evident in the olfactory bulbs, telencephalon, optic tectum, and hypothalamus/midbrain region during vitellogenic growth, which may indicate changes in the brain related to neurogenesis or sexual behavior. In contrast, gnrh2 and gnrh3 expression levels were largely similar among gonadal states, and all three genes exhibited stable expression during sex change. Although sex change in black sea bass is not associated with dramatic changes in GnRH or cyp19a1b gene expression among brain regions, these genes may mediate processes at other levels, such as within individual hypothalamic nuclei, or through changes in neuron size, that warrant further research.

  5. Acute toxicity of a commercial glyphosate formulation on European sea bass juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aromatases (cyp19a and cyp19b).

    PubMed

    Prevot-D'Alvise, N; Richard, S; Coupé, S; Bunet, R; Grillasca, J P

    2013-12-31

    Acute toxicity of Roundup, a commercial glyphosate--based herbicide, was evaluated in a teleost marine fish, the European sea bass, after 96 h of exposure. The LC50 96-h value of Roundup was 529 mg/L. Juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) were exposed to a sublethal concentration (35% of the LC50, i.e. 193 mg/L) of Roundup for 96-h. The study of heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1) gene expression was performed in four tissues (liver, gills, brain and gonads) and highlighted the disruption of antioxidant defence system. Results showed that ho-1 mRNA levels in liver and gills significantly decreased (p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively) in fish exposed to 193 mg/L of Roundup, whereas in brain and gonads, ho-1 mRNA level was not altered. The analysis of acetylcholinesterase expression was used to evaluate the overall neurotoxicity of the herbicide and aromatase genes to assess the alteration of the endocrine system. Results showed that AChE and cyp19b gene transcriptions significantly increased (p<0.01) in brain of sea bass, whereas aromatase gene expression (cyp19a) in gonads was not significantly altered. Our results showed complex tissue-specific transcriptional responses after 96 h of exposure to a sublethal concentration. All these disruptions confirmed the deleterious effects of this glyphosate-based herbicide in a marine species.

  6. Effect of a glyphosate-based herbicide on gene expressions of the cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-10 and of heme oxygenase-1 in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    PubMed

    Richard, Simone; Prévot-D'Alvise, Nathalie; Bunet, Robert; Simide, Rémy; Couvray, Sylvain; Coupé, Stéphane; Grillasca, Joël Paul

    2014-03-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most frequently used herbicides in the world. We evaluated the effect of Roundup 360 SL on the expression of interleukin-1β (il-1β), interleukin-10 (il-10) and heme-oxygenase-1 (ho-1) in the gills, intestines and spleen of young European sea bass (Dicentrachus labrax L.), aged 8 mo. A group of fish was exposed to 647 mg/L of Roundup for 96 h. This treatment did not alter gene expression levels of il-1β and il-10 cytokine in the intestines, but significantly lowered both levels in the gills (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04 respectively). Expression levels of ho-1 were increased significantly in the three organs of fish from the treated group (the gills p = 0.04, the intestines p = 0.004 and the spleen p < 0.001). These changes may in turn negatively impact the immune system of European sea bass exposed to Roundup.

  7. Identification and characterisation of a novel immune-type receptor (NITR) gene cluster in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, reveals recurrent gene expansion and diversification by positive selection.

    PubMed

    Ferraresso, Serena; Kuhl, Heiner; Milan, Massimo; Ritchie, David W; Secombes, Christopher J; Reinhardt, Richard; Bargelloni, Luca

    2009-12-01

    In the last decade, a new gene family encoding non-rearranging receptors, called novel immune-type receptors (NITRs), has been discovered in teleost fish. NITRs belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and represent an extraordinarily divergent and rapidly evolving gene complex. Genomic analysis of a region spanning 270 kb led to the discovery of a NITR gene cluster in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In total, 27 NITR genes and three putative pseudogenes, organised in a tandemly arrayed cluster, were identified. Sea bass NITR genes maintain the three major genomic organisations that appear to be essentially conserved among fish species along with new features presumably involving processes of intron loss, exon deletion and acquisition of new exons. Comparative and evolutionary analyses suggest that these receptors have evolved following a "birth-and-death" model of gene evolution in which duplication events together with lineage-specific gain and loss of individual members contributed to the rapid diversification of individual gene families. In this study, we demonstrate that species-specific gene expansions provide the raw material for diversifying, positive Darwinian selection favouring the evolution of a highly diverse array of molecules.

  8. Bafilomycin A1 inhibits proteolytic cleavage and hydration but not yolk crystal disassembly or meiosis during maturation of sea bass oocytes.

    PubMed

    Selman, K; Wallace, R A; Cerdà, J

    2001-08-01

    Oocytes of the black sea bass, Centropristes striata, were enlarged in volume more than three-fold over a 24-hr period during oocyte maturation, both in vivo and in vitro. At the same time, the opaque oocytes clarified while the crystalline yolk inclusions lost their ordered structure, fused with one another, and formed a continuous electron-lucent mass. The oocyte size increase was due almost entirely to water uptake, which was accompanied by the accumulation of Na+, K+, and free amino acids (FAAs). The absolute amounts of each of these small molecular weight osmotic effectors increased 2x, 4x, and over 10x, respectively, indicating that the generation of FAAs is the major cause of water uptake during maturation. Amino acid analyses indicated that the amounts of all amino acids except taurine increased, so that selective amino acids were not produced during maturation. The increase in FAAs was accompanied by the loss of certain high-molecular-weight yolk proteins and the generation of many smaller peptides. Oocytes stimulated to undergo maturation in the presence of bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of the vacuolar ATPase-dependent proton pump, clarified and underwent maturation but did not increase significantly in size. Cytological examination revealed that yolk crystals fused and became homogeneous but maintained their electron density. No evidence of proteolysis was found in bafilomycin A1-treated oocytes and the generation of FAAs together with hydration was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner (I50 = 3 nM bafilomycin A1). Taken together, we postulate that the pronounced oocyte hydration in marine teleosts that spawn pelagic (floating) eggs is accomplished by a two-step process whereby (i) K+ influx promotes yolk crystal disassembly and yolk sphere fusion and (ii) acidification of the yolk spheres activates yolk proteolysis and concomitant hydration. Bafilomycin A1 inhibits only the second step so that many of the events of oocyte maturation, including

  9. Benzocaine as an anesthetic for striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilderhus, Philip A.; Lemm, Carol A.; Woods, L. Curry

    1991-01-01

    Benzocaine was tested as an anesthetic on juvenile and mature adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis ). Concentrations of 55 mg/L at 22 degree C to 80 mg/L at 11 degree C effectively anesthetized fish in about 3 min. Recovery was more rapid as temperature increased. Fish survived concentrations of twice the effective concentration and exposure times up to 60 min at the effective concentration. Striped bass required higher concentrations for anesthetization than had been previously demonstrated for salmonid fishes, but safety margins for both concentration and exposure time were wider than for the salmonids.

  10. Combination effects of nano-TiO2 and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on biotransformation gene expression in the liver of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Grassi, Giacomo; Leaver, Michael J; Corsi, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2, Aeroxide® P25) on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) dependent biotransformation gene expression in liver of juvenile European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. An in vivo 7day waterborne exposure was performed with nano-TiO2 (1mg/L) and 2,3,7,8-TCDD (46pg/L), singly and in combination. The mRNA expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (Ahrr), estrogen receptor (erβ2), ABC transport proteins as Abcb1, Abcc1-c2-g2, cytochrome P450 (cyp1a), glutathione-s-transferase (gsta), glutathione reductase (gr) and engulfment and motility (ELMO) domain-containing protein 2 (elmod2) was investigated. Ahrr, erβ2, abcc1 and abcg2 resulted down-regulated with respect to controls in all experimental groups. Co-exposure to nano-TiO2 and 2,3,7,8-TCDD caused a further significant down regulation of ahrr, erβ2, Abcb1 and Abcc2 compared to single chemical exposure (nano-TiO2 or 2,3,7,8-TCDD alone). No effects were observed for 2,3,7,8-TCDD and nano-TiO2 alone in abcb1 gene, while abcc2 was down-regulated by nano-TiO2 alone. Cyp1a, gst and elmod2 genes were up-regulated by 2,3,7,8-TCDD and to a similar extent after co-exposure. Overall the results indicate that nano-TiO2 is unlikely to interfere with 2,3,7,8-TCDD-dependent biotransformation gene expression in the liver of European sea bass, although the effects of co-exposure observed in ABC transport mRNAs might suggest an impact on xenobiotic metabolite disposition and transport in European sea bass liver.

  11. Hierarchical Bass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2014-03-01

    We propose a new model about diffusion of a product which includes a memory of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing the product. This effect is lacking in the Bass model. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model.

  12. Neurohypophysial hormone regulation of Cl- secretion: physiological evidence for V1-type receptors in sea bass gill respiratory cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Guibbolini, M E; Avella, M

    2003-01-01

    Neurohypophysial hormone receptors were studied in primary cultures of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) gill respiratory-like cells grown on permeable supports. This preparation was previously shown to provide a functional model for investigating the hormonal regulation of Cl- secretion. Under control conditions, the cultured monolayered epithelium had a short-circuit current (ISC) of 3.5+/-1.1 micro A x cm(-2). This current had previously been identified as an active Cl- secretion. The addition of increasing concentrations of the fish neurohypophysial hormones, arginine vasotocin (AVT) or isotocin (IT), elicited a concentration-dependent stimulation of the ISC. Maximal increases of 60.9+/-12.1% and 117.7+/-28.0% above the basal ISC value were obtained for 10(-7) M AVT and IT respectively. Half-maximal effects were obtained for 3.1 x 10(-9) M AVT and for 1.4 x 10(-9) M IT. Mucosal application of 1.0 mM diphenylalamine-2-carboxylic acid (a specific blocker of Cl- channels) after serosal addition of 5 x 10(-8) M AVT or IT inhibited not only the basal but also the stimulated current, revealing a correlation with a hormone-dependent Cl- transport. Specific V1 or V2 receptor analogues of vasopressin (mammalian hormone) were used to characterize the type of neurohypophysial hormone receptors pharmacologically. While the V1 agonist [Phe2,Orn8]-oxytocin stimulated the basal Cl- secretion with a similar profile to that of AVT or IT, the V2 agonist [Deamino1,Val4,d -Arg8]-vasopressin had no effect. The V1 antagonist [d(CH2)5 1,O-Me-Tyr2,Arg8]-vasopressin used at a concentration of 5 x 10(-7) M totally reversed the 10-8 M AVT-stimulated Cl- secretion, whereas the V2 antagonist [d(CH2)5 1,d -Ile2,Ile4,Arg8,Ala9]-vasopressin used at the same concentration had no significant effect. In contrast, similar experiments carried out in the presence of 10(-8) M IT showed that both antagonists significantly reduced the IT-stimulated Cl- secretion, with the efficiency of the V1 receptor

  13. Nutritional Status as the Key Modulator of Antioxidant Responses Induced by High Environmental Ammonia and Salinity Stress in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Zinta, Gaurav; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Asard, Han; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    Salinity fluctuation is one of the main factors affecting the overall fitness of marine fish. In addition, water borne ammonia may occur simultaneously with salinity stress. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may encounter food deprivation. The physiological and ion-osmo regulatory adaptive capacities to cope with all these stressors alone or in combination are extensively addressed in fish. To date, studies revealing the modulation of antioxidant potential as compensatory response to multiple stressors are rather lacking. Therefore, the present work evaluated the individual and combined effects of salinity challenge, ammonia toxicity and nutritional status on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in a marine teleost, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were acclimated to normal seawater (32 ppt), to brackish water (20 ppt and 10 ppt) and to hypo-saline water (2.5 ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20 mg/L representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Results show that in response to decreasing salinities, oxidative stress indices such as xanthine oxidase activity, levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) increased in the hepatic tissue of fasted fish but remained unaffected in fed fish. HEA exposure at normal salinity (32 ppt) and at reduced salinities (20 ppt and 10 ppt) increased ammonia accumulation significantly (84 h–180 h) in both feeding regimes which was associated with an increment of H2O2 and MDA contents. Unlike in fasted fish, H2O2 and MDA levels in fed fish were restored to control levels (84 h–180 h); with a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and

  14. Nutritional Status as the Key Modulator of Antioxidant Responses Induced by High Environmental Ammonia and Salinity Stress in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Asard, Han; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    Salinity fluctuation is one of the main factors affecting the overall fitness of marine fish. In addition, water borne ammonia may occur simultaneously with salinity stress. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may encounter food deprivation. The physiological and ion-osmo regulatory adaptive capacities to cope with all these stressors alone or in combination are extensively addressed in fish. To date, studies revealing the modulation of antioxidant potential as compensatory response to multiple stressors are rather lacking. Therefore, the present work evaluated the individual and combined effects of salinity challenge, ammonia toxicity and nutritional status on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in a marine teleost, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were acclimated to normal seawater (32 ppt), to brackish water (20 ppt and 10 ppt) and to hypo-saline water (2.5 ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20 mg/L representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Results show that in response to decreasing salinities, oxidative stress indices such as xanthine oxidase activity, levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) increased in the hepatic tissue of fasted fish but remained unaffected in fed fish. HEA exposure at normal salinity (32 ppt) and at reduced salinities (20 ppt and 10 ppt) increased ammonia accumulation significantly (84 h-180 h) in both feeding regimes which was associated with an increment of H2O2 and MDA contents. Unlike in fasted fish, H2O2 and MDA levels in fed fish were restored to control levels (84 h-180 h); with a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and

  15. Calcium response of KCl-excited populations of ventricular myocytes from the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): a promising approach to integrate cell-to-cell heterogeneity in studying the cellular basis of fish cardiac performance.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, Hélène; Marchant, James; Le Bayon, Nicolas; Servili, Arianna; Claireaux, Guy

    2015-10-01

    Climate change challenges the capacity of fishes to thrive in their habitat. However, through phenotypic diversity, they demonstrate remarkable resilience to deteriorating conditions. In fish populations, inter-individual variation in a number of fitness-determining physiological traits, including cardiac performance, is classically observed. Information about the cellular bases of inter-individual variability in cardiac performance is scarce including the possible contribution of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. This study aimed at providing insight into EC coupling-related Ca(2+) response and thermal plasticity in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). A cell population approach was used to lay the methodological basis for identifying the cellular determinants of cardiac performance. Fish were acclimated at 12 and 22 °C and changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) following KCl stimulation were measured using Fura-2, at 12 or 22 °C-test. The increase in [Ca(2+)]i resulted primarily from extracellular Ca(2+) entry but sarcoplasmic reticulum stores were also shown to be involved. As previously reported in sea bass, a modest effect of adrenaline was observed. Moreover, although the response appeared relatively insensitive to an acute temperature change, a difference in Ca(2+) response was observed between 12- and 22 °C-acclimated fish. In particular, a greater increase in [Ca(2+)]i at a high level of adrenaline was observed in 22 °C-acclimated fish that may be related to an improved efficiency of adrenaline under these conditions. In conclusion, this method allows a rapid screening of cellular characteristics. It represents a promising tool to identify the cellular determinants of inter-individual variability in fishes' capacity for environmental adaptation.

  16. Cloning and sequence analysis of a vasa homolog in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): tissue distribution and mRNA expression levels during early development and sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, Mercedes; González, Alicia; Mylonas, Constantinos C; Piferrer, Francesc

    2011-01-15

    Vasa is a protein expressed mainly in germ cells and conserved across taxa. However, sex-related differences and environmental influences on vasa expression have not been documented. This study characterized the cDNA of a vasa homolog in the European sea bass, Dicentrarchuslabrax (sb-vasa), a gonochoristic fish with temperature influences on gonadogenesis. The 1911 bp open reading frame predicted a 637-amino acid protein with the eight conserved domains typical of Vasa proteins. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequence with those of other vertebrates and invertebrates revealed the highest homology (68-85%) with those of other teleosts. An updated tree with the full-length sequences for Vasa proteins in 66 species belonging to six different phyla was constructed, establishing the evolutionary relationships of Vasa amino acid sequences. European sea bass vasa was highly expressed in gonads with little or no expression in other tissues. Real time RT-PCR quantification of the temporal expression of sb-vasa from early development throughout sex differentiation showed that mRNA levels were high in unfertilized eggs, decreased during larval development and increased again during the period of germ cell proliferation. Rearing of fish at high temperature resulted in further increased sb-vasa levels, most likely reflecting temperature effects on both somatic and gonadal growth. Differences in expression were also found well before sex differentiation and persisted until the end of the first year, with higher levels present in females. These differences in expression demonstrate the implication of vasa during the initial stages of fish sex differentiation and gametogenesis and suggest that, through its helicase activity, it might be implicated in the translational regulation of mRNAs involved in the specification and differentiation of gonadal-specific cell types.

  17. Planning Programs for Adult Learners: A Practical Guide for Educators, Trainers, and Staff Developers. Second Edition. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffarella, Rosemary S.

    This how-to guide and resource book is designed to help in planning educational and training programs for adults in settings from the corporate sector to educational organizations. Chapters 1-3 lay the groundwork for the rest of the guide by introducing the 12-component Interactive Model of Program Planning. Chapter 1 describes adult programs and…

  18. Adult Education in the American Experience from the Colonial Period to the Present. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubblefield, Harold W.; Keane, Patrick

    This book offers a comprehensive history of adult education in the United States from the colonial period to the present day. Chapter 1 discusses definitions of adult education and explores formative influences. Chapters 2-3 on the colonial and post-Revolutionary periods trace an Atlantic information network, rise of a literate culture, Puritan…

  19. Learning To Listen, Learning To Teach: The Power of Dialogue in Educating Adults. Revised Edition. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, Jane

    This book, based on the work of a teacher and community development expert with many years of teaching adult education in numerous developing countries all over the world, provides a process for teaching and learning with adults. The book is illustrated with stories from the author's experience and examples that show how to begin, set up, carry…

  20. Modulation of stress related protein genes in the bass (Epinephelus guaza) caught from the Gulf of Suez, the Red Sea, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Khalil, Wagdy K B

    2013-10-01

    Impact of chemical pollution on expression of stress protein genes in the bass Epinephelus guaga collected from several locations including Suez Oil Production Port (Floating port), Atakah Fishing Port, Adabiya Port and Tawfik Port in Suez Governorate, Egypt, was investigated. In the current study, levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and fish samples collected from Suez Gulf were assessed. In addition, gills and liver tissues of caught bass fish were used to address the interaction between pollution status and the expression of stress-related genes (Hsp70a, Hsp70b, Hsp47, MT and CYP1A). Our analysis demonstrated that levels of PAHs in Floating and Tawfik ports were higher than those found in the Atakah Fishing Port and the Adabiya Port. In addition, MDA and PC contents were significantly higher in gills and liver tissues collected from Floating and Tawfik ports than those collected from Adabiya and Atakah ports. In correlation to the above results, all fish collected from the Floating and Tawfik ports presented a significant increase in Hsp-, MT- and CYP1A-mRNAs. On the other hand, fish samples collected from the Atakah Fishing and Adabiya ports showed no induction of the stress-related genes transcription in such tissues. In conclusion, the current research demonstrates that remarkable increase in PAH contaminants levels in Floating and Tawfik ports are correlated with the levels stress protein-related genes transcription in E. guaga gills and liver tissues.

  1. Leadership for the Emerging Age: Transforming Practice in Adult and Continuing Education. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apps, Jerold W.

    This book provides adult educators with a blueprint for developing a profoundly different approach to leadership that is all-embracing of ideas and people, capitalizes on diversity, and remains open and responsive to change. Chapter 1 introduces this new approach that has its foundation in the arts, humanities, and sciences. Chapter 2 examines a…

  2. Power in Practice: Adult Education and the Struggle for Knowledge and Power in Society. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervero, Ronald M.; Wilson, Arthur L.

    This book contains 14 papers on adult education and the struggle for knowledge and power in society. The following papers are included: "At the Heart of Practice: The Struggle for Knowledge and Power" (Ronald M. Cervero, Arthur L. Wilson); "The Power of Economic Globalization: Deskilling Immigrant Women through Training"…

  3. Mycobacteriosis in striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a bacterial disease in which striped bass (rockfish) may be disfigured as a result of skin ulcers and internal lesions. The bass may also be skinny or in extremely poor condition due to the chronic nature of this wasting disease. Stripers are a highly prized target species for both recreational anglers and commercial fishermen. As such, the economic impact of diseased and devalued fish could be significant. In addition, some of the mycobacteria that commonly infect fishes can cause infections in people and therefore are a human health concern. The total extent to which the disease is occurring along the Eastern seaboard is unknown but the disease has been reported from stripers taken from North Carolina to New York. During 1998-99, skin ulcers attributed to mycobacterial infection were observed in up to 28% of the striped bass from some Virginia tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. Data obtained during 2002—2003 from fish harvested in Virginia and Maryland waters indicated that, at least in some areas, over 80% of striped bass may be infected with the mycobacteria that are associated with the disease. Given the persistence over the last 8 years of this mycobacteriosis outbreak, this does not appear to be a short-term problem.

  4. The influence of logjams on largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) concentrations on the lower Roanoke River, a large sand-bed river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Edward R.; McCargo, Jeremy W.; Moulin, Bertrand; Hupp, Cliff R.; Richter, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relation between logjams and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) on the alluvial sand-bed lower Roanoke River. Disparate data sets from previous bank erosion, fisheries, and large wood studies were used to compare the distribution of largemouth bass with logjam frequency. Logjams are related to the frequency of bank mass wasting increasing from near an upstream dam to the middle reach of the study segment and then decreasing as the river approaches sea level. The highest concentration of largemouth bass and logjams was in the middle reach (110 fish per hour and 21 jams per km). Another measure of largemouth bass distribution, fish biomass density (g h1 ), had a similar trend with logjams and was a better predictor of fish distribution versus logjams (R2= 0.6 and 0.8 and p = 0.08 and 0.02 for fish per hour and g h1 versus logjam, respectively). We theorize that the preference for adult bass to congregate near logjams indicates the use of the jams as feeding areas. The results of a principal component analysis indicate that fish biomass concentration is much more related to logjam frequency than channel geometry (width, depth, and bank height), bed grain size, bank erosion, or turbidity. The results of this research support recent studies on in-channel wood and fisheries: Logjams appear to be important for maintaining, or increasing, both largemouth bass numbers and total biomass of fish in large eastern North American rivers. Persistent logjams, important as habitat, exist where relatively undisturbed river reaches allow for bank erosion inputs of wood and available anchoring locations. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Atlantic). Striped Bass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    also the dominant prey of adult striped bass in the Santee-Cooper Striped bass undergo an ontogenetic shift in system, although nymphs of burrowing ...Fuller 1965; occurred in the South Atlantic Region. For Smith 1973; Barkuloo 1967). In general, the example, a parasitic nematode (Goezia sp.) has

  6. Hybridization between introduced spotted bass and smallmouth bass in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, P.C.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Introductions of black basses Micropterus spp. beyond their native ranges have led to hybridization within the genus. In the southeastern USA, the potential for hybridization appears high because species introductions have been common in reservoirs. We determined the extent of hybridization between smallmouth bass M. dolomieu and spotted bass M. punctulatus in reservoirs in which introductions of either species into the native range of the other species had occurred. Three allozyme loci were used to distinguish the two species and their hybrids. Significant hybridization occurred in two of three reservoirs where introductions had been reported. In Lake Chatuge, Georgia-North Carolina, where the Alabama subspecies of spotted bass M.p. henshalli was introduced, 77 of 276 fish had hybrid genotypes, and only 2 fish had genotypes of the native smallmouth bass. In Thurlow Reservoir, Alabama, where smallmouth bass were introduced and Alabama spotted bass were native, 3 of 17 fish had hybrid genotypes. Only I fish with a possible hybrid genotype was identified in two reservoirs containing native smallmouth bass and northern spotted bass M.p. punctulatus.

  7. n-TiO2 and CdCl2 co-exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles and cadmium: Genomic, DNA and chromosomal damage evaluation in the marine fish European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Nigro, M; Bernardeschi, M; Costagliola, D; Della Torre, C; Frenzilli, G; Guidi, P; Lucchesi, P; Mottola, F; Santonastaso, M; Scarcelli, V; Monaci, F; Corsi, I; Stingo, V; Rocco, L

    2015-11-01

    Due to the large production and growing use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n-TiO2), their release in the marine environment and their potential interaction with existing toxic contaminants represent a growing concern for biota. Different end-points of genotoxicity were investigated in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax exposed to n-TiO2 (1mgL(-1)) either alone and combined with CdCl2 (0.1mgL(-1)) for 7 days. DNA primary damage (comet assay), apoptotic cells (diffusion assay), occurrence of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities (cytome assay) were assessed in peripheral erythrocytes and genomic stability (random amplified polymorphism DNA-PCR, RAPD assay) in muscle tissue. Results showed that genome template stability was reduced after CdCl2 and n-TiO2 exposure. Exposure to n-TiO2 alone was responsible for chromosomal alteration but ineffective in terms of DNA damage; while the opposite was observed in CdCl2 exposed specimens. Co-exposure apparently prevents the chromosomal damage and leads to a partial recovery of the genome template stability.

  8. cDNA sequence and tissue expression of an antimicrobial peptide, dicentracin; a new component of the moronecidin family isolated from head kidney leukocytes of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Giuseppina; Parrinello, Nicolò; Roch, Philippe; Cammarata, Matteo

    2007-04-01

    A 483-bp cDNA was isolated from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) head kidney leukocytes, dicentracin, using PCR primers designed from conserved moronecidin domains. Gene bank analysis revealed that dicentracin cDNA belongs to the moronecidin family. As deduced from alignment with Morone chrysops moronecidin, the precursor of 79 aa appeared to be composed of a signal peptide of 22 aa, followed by the mature AMP (antimicrobial peptide) of 22 aa named dicentracin, and a C-terminal extension of 35 aa. Dicentracin precursor displayed 3 aa substitutions with other moronecidin sequence but none in the mature peptide sequence. Using in situ hybridization assay, dicentracin gene expression was observed in 68-71% of peripheral blood leukocytes, kidney leukocytes or peritoneal cavity leukocytes without significant statistical differences. Dicentracin mRNA was observed in most of the granulocytes, as well as in monocytes from both peripheral blood and head kidney, and in macrophages from peritoneal cavity. No expression was observed in thrombocytes or in lymphocytes.

  9. Effects of variation in streamflow and channel structure on smallmouth bass habitat in an alluvial stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jason, Remshardt W.; Fisher, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of streamflow-related changes in channel shape and morphology on the quality, quantity, availability and spatial distribution of young-of-year and adult smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu habitat in an alluvial stream, the Baron Fork of the Illinois River, Oklahoma. We developed Habitat Suitability Criteria (HSC) for young-of-year and adult smallmouth bass to assess changes in available smallmouth bass habitat between years, and compare predicted smallmouth bass Weighted Usable Area (WUA) with observed WUA measured the following year. Following flood events between 1999 and 2000, including a record flood, changes in transect cross-sectional area ranged from 62.5% to 93.5% and channel mesohabitat overlap ranged from 29.5% to 67.0% in study three study reaches. Using Physical HABitat SIMulation (PHABSIM) system analysis, we found that both young-of-year and adult smallmouth bass habitat were differentially affected by intra- and inter-annual streamflow fluctuations. Maximum WUA for young-of-year and adults occurred at streamflows of 1.8 and 2.3m3 s-1, respectively, and WUA declined sharply for both groups at lower streamflows. For most microhabitat variables, habitat availability was similar between years. Habitat suitability criteria developed in 1999 corresponded well with observed fish locations in 2000 for adult smallmouth bass but not for young-of-year fish. Our findings suggest that annual variation in habitat availability affects the predictive ability of habitat models for young-of-year smallmouth bass more than for adult smallmouth bass. Furthermore, our results showed that despite the dynamic nature of the gravel-dominated, alluvial Baron Fork, HSC for smallmouth bass were consistent and transferable between years.

  10. Tectonics and hydrocarbons in Bass Strait, SE Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.A. ); Hill, K.C. ); Smith, M.A. )

    1996-01-01

    The hydrocarbon-rich Gippsland, Bass and Otway basins of Bass Strait were intiatied by Neocomian N-S rifting of Australia from Antarctica, their architecture strongly influenced by Paleozoic basement fabric. In the Aptian-Albain, the rift received [approximately]10[sup 6] km[sup 3] of volcaniclastic sediment from the inferred arc along Gondwana's Pacific margin. In distal areas, terrestrial source looks accumulated, productive in the Otway Basin. Global plate realignment induced mid-Cretaceous break-up, passing south of Tasmania, creating successor basins, the Gippsland aulacogen, Bass failed rift and Otway passive margin. Mid Cretaceous uplift around the failed rift supplied quartzose (reservoir) sediment to the Otway and Gippsland basins, tunnelling sediment into the aulacogen in the post-rift. Starved Otway inter-delta and Gippsland/Bass lacustine and delta plain sediments developed hydrocarbon source rocks that generated during Tertiary burial. The Gippsland aulacogen, formed during Late Cretaceous Tasman Sea spreading, is primarily extensional in nature and not a strike-slip basin, with traps created by minor Tertiary inversion. Despite large oil discoveries in the 1960's, the tectonics of the Gippsland Basin remain poorly understood and need to be tied into the Mesozoic evolution of Gondwana's Pacific margin. Continued prospectivity of Bass Strait is illustrated by the Minerva gas discoveries in the Otway Basin and the recent probable [approximately]300[prime] gross oil column in the Turrum structure in the Gippsland Basin. Critical to future success is understanding the regional tectonics and imaging below Tertiary carbonates.

  11. Effects of Sodium Butyrate Treatment on Histone Modifications and the Expression of Genes Related to Epigenetic Regulatory Mechanisms and Immune Response in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax) Fed a Plant-Based Diet

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Noelia; Rimoldi, Simona; Ceccotti, Chiara; Gliozheni, Emi; Piferrer, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria that inhabit the epithelium of the animals’ digestive tract provide the essential biochemical pathways for fermenting otherwise indigestible dietary fibers, leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Of the major SCFAs, butyrate has received particular attention due to its numerous positive effects on the health of the intestinal tract and peripheral tissues. The mechanisms of action of this four-carbon chain organic acid are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effect on gene expression since butyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that play a predominant role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell function. In the present work, we investigated in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) the effects of butyrate used as a feed additive on fish epigenetics as well as its regulatory role in mucosal protection and immune homeostasis through impact on gene expression. Seven target genes related to inflammatory response and reinforcement of the epithelial defense barrier [tnfα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) il1β, (interleukin 1beta), il-6, il-8, il-10, and muc2 (mucin 2)] and five target genes related to epigenetic modifications [dicer1(double-stranded RNA-specific endoribonuclease), ehmt2 (euchromatic histone-lysine-N-methyltransferase 2), pcgf2 (polycomb group ring finger 2), hdac11 (histone deacetylase-11), and jarid2a (jumonji)] were analyzed in fish intestine and liver. We also investigated the effect of dietary butyrate supplementation on histone acetylation, by performing an immunoblotting analysis on liver core histone extracts. Results of the eight-week-long feeding trial showed no significant differences in weight gain or SGR (specific growth rate) of sea bass that received 0.2% sodium butyrate supplementation in the diet in comparison to control fish that received a diet without Na-butyrate. Dietary butyrate led to a twofold increase in the acetylation level of histone H4 at

  12. Environmental quality for striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of environmental changes on the quality of life for striped bass populations can be evaluated objectively with modern procedures of environmental risk analysis. Such analysis requires knowledge of the sources of risk in the context of environmental requirements of the species. A prime environmental requirement of striped bass appears to be a suitable thermal structure that accommodates the hereditary thermal niche, which changes with age. Strong thermal preferences had promoted striped bass survival in the pristine natural estuaries of eastern North America, but they may increase risks to the species in some new environments and in native ones that are altered by man. The magnitude and likelihood of risks for striped bass from many pollutants and physical changes (structures or water flow, for example) depend upon the fish's thermally controlled distribution. The importance of a species' thermal niche and of the thermal structure of aquatic environments for population success is only beginning to be recognized and included in risk assessments.

  13. Testing the thermal-niche oxygen-squeeze hypothesis for estuarine striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Richard T.; Secor, D.H.; Wingate, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many stratified coastal ecosystems, conceptual and bioenergetics models predict seasonal reduction in quality and quantity of fish habitat due to high temperatures and hypoxia. We tested these predictions using acoustic telemetry of 2 to 4 kg striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum) and high-resolution spatial water quality sampling in the Patuxent River, a sub-estuary of the Chesapeake Bay, during 2008 and 2009. Striped bass avoided hypoxic (dissolved oxygen ≤2 mg·l−1) subpycnocline waters, but frequently occupied habitats with high temperatures (>25 °C) in the summer months, as cooler habitats were typically not available. Using traditional concepts of the seasonal thermal-niche oxygen-squeeze, most of the Patuxent estuary would beconsidered unsuitable habitat for adult striped bass during summer. Application of a bioenergetics model revealed that habitats selected by striped bass during summer would support positive growth rates assuming fish could feed at one-half ofmaximum consumption. Occupancy of the estuary during summer by striped bass in this study was likely facilitated by sufficient prey and innate tolerance of high temperatures by sub-adult fish of the size range that we tagged. Our results help extend the thermalniche oxygen-squeeze hypothesis to native populations of striped bass in semi-enclosed coastal systems. Tolerance of for supraoptimal temperatures in our study supports recent suggestions by others that the thermal-niche concept for striped bass should be revised to include warmer temperatures.

  14. A synthesized mating pheromone component increases adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) trap capture in management scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Dawson, Heather; Wang, Huiyong; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Application of chemical cues to manipulate adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) behavior is among the options considered for new sea lamprey control techniques in the Laurentian Great Lakes. A male mating pheromone component, 7a,12a,24-trihydroxy-3-one-5a-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), lures ovulated female sea lamprey upstream into baited traps in experimental contexts with no odorant competition. A critical knowledge gap is whether this single pheromone component influences adult sea lamprey behavior in management contexts containing free-ranging sea lampreys. A solution of 3kPZS to reach a final in-stream concentration of 10-12 mol·L-1 was applied to eight Michigan streams at existing sea lamprey traps over 3 years, and catch rates were compared between paired 3kPZS-baited and unbaited traps. 3kPZS-baited traps captured significantly more sexually immature and mature sea lampreys, and overall yearly trapping efficiency within a stream averaged 10% higher during years when 3kPZS was applied. Video analysis of a trap funnel showed that the likelihood of sea lamprey trap entry after trap encounter was higher when the trap was 3kPZS baited. Our approach serves as a model for the development of similar control tools for sea lamprey and other aquatic invaders.

  15. BASS Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The BASS computational aeroacoustic code solves the fully nonlinear Euler equations in the time domain in two-dimensions. The acoustic response of the stator is determined simultaneously for the first three harmonics of the convected vortical gust of the rotor. The spatial mode generation, propagation and decay characteristics are predicted by assuming the acoustic field away from the stator can be represented as a uniform flow with small harmonic perturbations superimposed. The computed field is then decomposed using a joint temporal-spatial transform to determine the wave amplitudes as a function of rotor harmonic and spatial mode order. This report details the following technical aspects of the computations and analysis. 1) the BASS computational technique; 2) the application of periodic time shifted boundary conditions; 3) the linear theory aspects unique to rotor-stator interactions; and 4) the joint spatial-temporal transform. The computational results presented herein are twofold. In each case, the acoustic response of the stator is determined simultaneously for the first three harmonics of the convected vortical gust of the rotor. The fan under consideration here like modern fans is cut-off at +, and propagating acoustic waves are only expected at 2BPF and 3BPF. In the first case, the computations showed excellent agreement with linear theory predictions. The frequency and spatial mode order of acoustic field was computed and found consistent with linear theory. Further, the propagation of the generated modes was also correctly predicted. The upstream going waves propagated from the domain without reflection from the in ow boundary. However, reflections from the out ow boundary were noticed. The amplitude of the reflected wave was approximately 5% of the incident wave. The second set of computations were used to determine the influence of steady loading on the generated noise. Toward this end, the acoustic response was determined with three steady loading

  16. Habituation of adult sea lamprey repeatedly exposed to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imre, Istvan; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Brown, Grant E.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is an unforgiving selective pressure affecting the life history, morphology and behaviour of prey organisms. Selection should favour organisms that have the ability to correctly assess the information content of alarm cues. This study investigated whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus habituate to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker Catostomus commersoniiextract), predator cues (Northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva and 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl)) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract and human saliva) after they were pre-exposed 4 times or 8 times, respectively, to a given stimulus the previous night. Consistent with our prediction, adult sea lamprey maintained an avoidance response to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a predator cue presented at high relative concentration (PEA HCl) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract plus human saliva), irrespective of previous exposure level. As expected, adult sea lamprey habituated to a sympatric heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker extract) and a predator cue presented at lower relative concentration (human saliva). Adult sea lamprey did not show any avoidance of the Northern water snake washing and the Amazon sailfin catfish extract (heterospecific control). This study suggests that conspecific damage-released alarm cues and PEA HCl present the best options as natural repellents in an integrated management program aimed at controlling the abundance of sea lamprey in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  17. Feeding activity and spawning time of striped bass in the Colorado River Inlet, Lake Powell, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persons, William R.; Bulkly, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Striped bass, Morone saxatilis, from Lake Powell, Utah spawned in or near the mixing zone of the reservoir and the Colorado River in 1980 and 1981. The fish did not move through Cataract Canyon rapids just above the reservoir in either year. Of 321 adult striped bass stomachs examined, 30% contained food and 28% contained threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense. No stomachs contained native threatened or endangered Colorado River fishes.

  18. Steady as He Goes: At-Sea Movement of Adult Male Australian Sea Lions in a Dynamic Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, Andrew D.; Harcourt, Robert G.; Page, Bradley; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region. PMID:24086338

  19. Steady as he goes: at-sea movement of adult male Australian sea lions in a dynamic marine environment.

    PubMed

    Lowther, Andrew D; Harcourt, Robert G; Page, Bradley; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region.

  20. Tectonics and hydrocarbons in Bass Strait, SE Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.A.; Hill, K.C.; Smith, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    The hydrocarbon-rich Gippsland, Bass and Otway basins of Bass Strait were intiatied by Neocomian N-S rifting of Australia from Antarctica, their architecture strongly influenced by Paleozoic basement fabric. In the Aptian-Albain, the rift received {approximately}10{sup 6} km{sup 3} of volcaniclastic sediment from the inferred arc along Gondwana`s Pacific margin. In distal areas, terrestrial source looks accumulated, productive in the Otway Basin. Global plate realignment induced mid-Cretaceous break-up, passing south of Tasmania, creating successor basins, the Gippsland aulacogen, Bass failed rift and Otway passive margin. Mid Cretaceous uplift around the failed rift supplied quartzose (reservoir) sediment to the Otway and Gippsland basins, tunnelling sediment into the aulacogen in the post-rift. Starved Otway inter-delta and Gippsland/Bass lacustine and delta plain sediments developed hydrocarbon source rocks that generated during Tertiary burial. The Gippsland aulacogen, formed during Late Cretaceous Tasman Sea spreading, is primarily extensional in nature and not a strike-slip basin, with traps created by minor Tertiary inversion. Despite large oil discoveries in the 1960`s, the tectonics of the Gippsland Basin remain poorly understood and need to be tied into the Mesozoic evolution of Gondwana`s Pacific margin. Continued prospectivity of Bass Strait is illustrated by the Minerva gas discoveries in the Otway Basin and the recent probable {approximately}300{prime} gross oil column in the Turrum structure in the Gippsland Basin. Critical to future success is understanding the regional tectonics and imaging below Tertiary carbonates.

  1. Spotted bass Micropterus punctulatus (Rafinesque 1819)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchill, Timothy N.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2015-01-01

    Three subspecies of Spotted Bass Micropterus punctulatus were historically recognized: the smaller Northern Spotted Bass M. p. punctulatus, the larger, longer-lived Alabama Spotted Bass M. p. henshalli, and the now invalidated Wichita Spotted Bass M. p. wichitae (Bailey and Hubbs 1940; Cofer 1995; Warren 2009; Rider and Maceina 2015, this volume). The subspecific status has been examined over the past decade as advanced genetic analyses have been developed (e.g., Kassler et al. 2002; Baker et al. 2008; Tringali et al. 2015, this volume). The American Fisheries Society has recently changed the designation of the Alabama Spotted Bass to a separate species, Alabama Bass M. henshalli (Page et al. 2013). The remainder of this paper will discuss the biology and conservation of only Spotted Bass. Both species have been observed to hybridize with other Micropterus spp. (Koppelman 1994; Pierce and Van Den Avyle 1997; Barwick et al. 2006).

  2. Fine-scale pathways used by adult sea lampreys during riverine spawning migrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, Christopher; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Adams, Noah S.; Hatton, Tyson; McLaughlin, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Better knowledge of upstream migratory patterns of spawning Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus, an invasive species in the Great Lakes, is needed to improve trapping for population control and assessment. Although trapping of adult Sea Lampreys provides the basis for estimates of lake-wide abundance that are used to evaluate the Sea Lamprey control program, traps have only been operated at dams due to insufficient knowledge of Sea Lamprey behavior in unobstructed channels. Acoustic telemetry and radiotelemetry were used to obtain movement tracks for 23 Sea Lampreys in 2008 and 18 Sea Lampreys in 2009 at two locations in the Mississagi River, Ontario. Cabled hydrophone arrays provided two-dimensional geographic positions from acoustic transmitters at 3-s intervals; depth-encoded radio tag detections provided depths. Upstream movements occurred at dusk or during the night (2015–0318 hours). Sea Lampreys were closely associated with the river bottom and showed some preference to move near banks in shallow glide habitats, suggesting that bottom-oriented gears could selectively target adult Sea Lampreys in some habitats. However, Sea Lampreys were broadly distributed across the river channel, suggesting that the capture efficiency of nets and traps in open channels would depend heavily on the proportion of the channel width covered. Lack of vertical movements into the water column may have reflected lamprey preference for low water velocities, suggesting that energy conservation was more beneficial for lampreys than was vertical searching in rivers. Improved understanding of Sea Lamprey movement will assist in the development of improved capture strategies for their assessment and control in the Great Lakes.

  3. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) reveals conserved synteny with the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Sixin; Rexroad, Caird E; Couch, Charlene R; Cordes, Jan F; Reece, Kimberly S; Sullivan, Craig V

    2012-04-01

    The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and its relatives (genus Morone) are of great importance to fisheries and aquaculture in North America. As part of a collaborative effort to employ molecular genetics technologies in striped bass breeding programs, we previously developed nearly 500 microsatellite markers. The objectives of this study were to construct a microsatellite linkage map of striped bass and to examine conserved synteny between striped bass and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Of 480 microsatellite markers screened for polymorphism, 289 informative markers were identified and used to genotype two half-sib mapping families. Twenty-six linkage groups were assembled, and only two markers remain unlinked. The sex-averaged map spans 1,623.8 cM with an average marker density of 5.78 cM per marker. Among 287 striped bass microsatellite markers assigned to linkage groups, 169 (58.9%) showed homology to sequences on stickleback chromosomes or scaffolds. Comparison between the stickleback genome and the striped bass linkage map revealed conserved synteny between these two species. This is the first linkage map for any of the Morone species. This map will be useful for molecular mapping and marker-assisted selection of genes of interest in striped bass breeding programs. The conserved synteny between striped bass and stickleback will facilitate fine mapping of genome regions of interest and will serve as a new resource for comparative mapping with other Perciform fishes such as European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), and tilapia (Oreochromis ssp.).

  4. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Bills, T.D.; Marking, L.L.; Howe, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. The authors determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222), metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degrees C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin.

  5. Hooking mortality and physiological responses of striped bass angled in freshwater and held in live-release tubes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettinger, J.M.; Tomasso, J.R.; Isely, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Mortality and physiological responses of adult striped bass Morone saxatilis angled from Lake Murray, South Carolina, and held in live-release tubes were evaluated during the spring and summer of 2003. To estimate mortality, we attached external ultrasonic transmitters to 59 striped bass (mean total length [TL] = 585 mm). Striped bass were caught with angling gear, tagged, and immediately released or held in live-release tubes for 2, 4, or 6 h prior to release. No mortality of striped bass was observed during spring. Overall mortality during summer was 83%. Mortality of summer-caught striped bass was not related to tube residence time, fish TL, depth of capture, or surface water temperature. To characterize physiological stress, we measured the plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality levels of 62 additional striped bass (mean TL = 563 mm) that were angled and immediately released or angled and held in live-release tubes. Plasma cortisol, glucose, lactate, and osmolality were positively related to tube residence time. When the hematological characteristics were considered only in relation to tube residence time, responses indicative of physiological stress continued for about 150 min, after which blood chemistry began to return to normal. Live-release tubes appear to be useful for keeping striped bass alive when they are angled from cool water, but they are not effective for striped bass angled from warm water. The high summer mortality of striped bass suggests a need for restrictive fishing regulations during the summer for the Lake Murray striped bass fishery. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  6. Riparian shading and groundwater enhance growth potential for smallmouth bass in Ozark streams.

    PubMed

    Whitledge, Gregory W; Rabeni, Charles F; Annis, Gust; Sowa, Scott P

    2006-08-01

    Moderation of stream temperatures by riparian shading and groundwater are known to promote growth and survival of salmonid fishes, but effects of riparian shade and groundwater on to be growth of warmwater stream fishes are poorly understood or assumed to be negligible. We used stream temperature models to relate shading from riparian vegetation and groundwater inflow to summer water temperatures in Missouri Ozark streams and evaluated effects of summer water temperatures on smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, growth using a bioenergetics model. Bioenergetics model simulations revealed that adult smallmouth bass in non-spring-fed streams have lower growth potential during summer than fish in spring-fed streams, are subject to mass loss when stream temperatures exceed 27 degrees C, and will likely exhibit greater interannual variation in growth during summer if all growth-influencing factors, other than temperature, are identical between the two stream types. Temperature models indicated that increased riparian shading will expand the longitudinal extent of thermal habitat capable of supporting adult smallmouth bass growth in spring-fed stream reaches when mean daily air temperatures exceed 27 degrees C. Optimum growth temperature (22 degrees C) will be present only in spring-fed streams under these conditions. Potential for increasing shade through riparian restoration is greatest for streams <5 m wide and along north-south reaches of larger streams. However, temperature models also indicated that restoring riparian shading to maximum levels throughout a watershed would increase the total stream mileage capable of supporting positive growth of adult smallmouth bass by only 1-6% when air temperatures are at or near average summer maxima; increases in suitable thermal habitat would be greatest in watersheds with higher spring densities. Riparian management for maintenance or restoration of the thermal habitat of adult smallmouth bass during summer should be

  7. Transcriptome annotation and marker discovery in white bass (Morone chrysops) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Beck, Benjamin H; Fuller, S Adam; Peatman, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and white bass (Morone chrysops) are the parental species of the hybrid striped bass, a major U.S. aquaculture species. Currently, genomic resources for striped bass, white bass, and their hybrid lag behind those of other aquaculture species. Current resources consist of a medium-density genetic linkage map and a well-annotated ovarian transcriptome. A well-annotated transcriptome from across striped bass and white bass tissues is needed to advance both broad-based RNA-seq studies of gene expression as well as aid in more targeted studies of important genes and pathways critical for reproductive physiology and immunity. Here, we carried out Illumina-based transcriptome sequencing and annotation in both species utilizing the trinity and trinotate packages. The assembled Moronid reference transcriptomes and identified SSRs and SNPs should advance ongoing studies of reproduction, physiology, and immunology in these species and provide markers for broodstock management and selection.

  8. Ultrasound imaging of the inguinal region of adult male loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Pease, Anthony; Blanvillain, Gaëlle; Rostal, David; Owens, David; Segars, Al

    2010-03-01

    The biology and reproductive anatomy of male loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) have been difficult to study. The principle method for evaluation of the coelomic cavity in both adult and juvenile male sea turtles is celioscopy. The purpose of this study was to describe the technique and structures seen when scanning the inguinal region of live, wild-caught, adult male loggerhead sea turtles and to compare these findings to those resulting from celioscopy and necropsy. Twenty-one adult male loggerhead sea turtles were collected by trawling in the Cape Canaveral shipping channel in April 2007. All turtles were placed in dorsal recumbency and imaged with a Sonosite 180 Vet Plus (Sonosite, Inc., Bothell, Washington 98021, USA) and a microconvex, 4-7-MHz curvilinear array probe. The inguinal region was divided into four quadrants: cranial, lateral, medial, and caudal. Celioscopy was performed on 13 turtles, and biopsies were obtained of the testes and the epididymides to confirm correct identification of the structures. In the cranial aspect of the inguinal region, the urinary bladder and large and small intestines were identified. In the lateral inguinal region, the lung and kidney were seen. In the medial aspect of the inguinal region, the testis and epididymis were routinely identified. In the caudal aspect of the inguinal region, the coxofemoral joint was seen. A small learning curve was required; however, correlation with celioscopy and biopsy showed that consistent, repeatable identification of caudal coelomic structures was easily achieved. Ultrasound provided an inexpensive, rapid, noninvasive method to evaluate the reproductive anatomy of live-captured, male loggerhead sea turtles.

  9. Reduction in recruitment of white bass in Lake Erie after invasion of white perch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Knight, Roger L.; Bur, Michael; Forney, John L.

    2000-01-01

    Recruitment to the adult population of white bass Morone chrysops in Lake Erie sharply declined during the early 1980s. To explain this phenomenon, we formulated the following four hypotheses: (1) the biological characteristics of adult spawners changed during the early 1980s, so that the ability to produce eggs decreased; (2) the decrease in phosphorus loadings to Lake Erie during the 1970s resulted in a lower abundance of crustacean zooplankton and thus in reduced survival of age-0 white bass; (3) the increase in the population of adult walleyes Stizostedion vitreum in Lake Erie during the 1970s and 1980s led to reduced survival of age-0 white bass; and (4) establishment of the white perch Morone americana population in Lake Erie during the early 1980s led to reduced survival of the early life stages of white bass. The growth, maturity, and fecundity of adults during the period 1981-1997 were compared with the same characteristics found by earlier studies. The mean length, weight, and condition factors that we calculated were higher than those reported for Lake Erie in 1927-1929 for all age groups examined, and white bass in Lake Erie matured at an earlier age during 1981-1997 than during 1927-1929. Fecundity estimates ranged from 128,897 to 1,049,207 eggs/female and were similar to estimates from other populations. Therefore, the first hypothesis was rejected. With respect to the second hypothesis, zooplankton surveys conducted during 1970 and 1983-1987 indicated that the abundance of crustacean zooplankton in Lake Erie did not change between the two time periods. However, these results were not conclusive because only a single-year survey was conducted before 1980. Based on walleye diet studies and estimates of walleye population size, walleye predation pressure on age-0 white bass in Lake Erie during 1986-1988 was just slightly higher than that during 1979-1981. Thus, such pressure can explain only a minor portion of the reduction in white bass recruitment. To

  10. 33 CFR 117.588 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bass River. 117.588 Section 117.588 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.588 Bass River. The Hall Whitaker...

  11. 33 CFR 117.703 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bass River. 117.703 Section 117.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.703 Bass River. The draw of the U.S. 9...

  12. 33 CFR 117.588 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bass River. 117.588 Section 117.588 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.588 Bass River. The Hall Whitaker...

  13. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Terry D.; Marking, Leif L.; Howe, George E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. We determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222) , metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degree C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin. We also determined the effects of selected levels of water temperature, hardness, and pH on the toxicity of chloramine-T, formalin, malachite green, and Roccal. There were no differences in toxicity for any of the chemicals at any water quality variable tested except for chloramine-T, which was about 25 times more toxic in soft, acid water than in soft, alkaline water. Our data show that the striped bass is as sensitive to fishery chemicals as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but is generally less resistant than bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

  14. Blocking and guiding adult sea lamprey with pulsed direct current from vertical electrodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Thompson, Henry T.; Holbrook, Christopher M.; Tix, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the invasion front of aquatic nuisance species is of high importance to resource managers. We tested the hypothesis that adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a destructive invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes, would exhibit behavioral avoidance to dual-frequency pulsed direct current generated by vertical electrodes and that the electric field would not injure or kill sea lamprey or non-target fish. Laboratory and in-stream experiments demonstrated that the electric field blocked sea lamprey migration and directed sea lamprey into traps. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), species that migrate sympatrically with sea lamprey, avoided the electric field and had minimal injuries when subjected to it. Vertical electrodes are advantageous for fish guidance because (1) the electric field produced varies minimally with depth, (2) the electric field is not grounded, reducing power consumption to where portable and remote deployments powered by solar, wind, hydro, or a small generator are feasible, and (3) vertical electrodes can be quickly deployed without significant stream modification allowing rapid responses to new invasions. Similar dual-frequency pulsed direct current fields produced from vertical electrodes may be advantageous for blocking or trapping other invasive fish or for guiding valued fish around dams.

  15. Reproduction, preweaning survival, and survival of adult sea otters at Kodiak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, Daniel H.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    1995-01-01

    Radiotelemetry methods were used to examine the demographic characteristics of sea otters inhabiting the leading edge of an expanding population on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Fifteen male and 30 female sea otters were instrumented and followed from 1986 to 1990. Twenty-one percent of females were sexually mature (had pupped) at age 2, 57% by age 3, 88% by age 4, and 100% by age 5. Fifteen females produced 26 pups, an overall reproduction rate of 94% for mature females. The reproduction rate was 17, 45, 66, and 100% for 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. Eighty-five percent of observed pups survived to weaning (120 days), and the percentage of pups weaned ranged from 34% for pups of 2-year-olds to 100% for pups of 5-year-olds. At least three of four known pup losses occurred within a month of parturition. The mean pup dependency period for weaned pups was 153 days and the mean gestation period was 218 days. No synchrony in pupping activity was observed. Mean annual survival of adults was high. Estimates of survival ranged from 89 to 96% for females and 86 to 91% for males. Human harvest was the primary source of known mortality of adults. Our estimates of reproductive rates and survival of adults are at the high end of those reported for sea otters, but preweaning survival stands out as being particularly high. Abundant food resources and the availability of protected water presumably contributed to the high reproductive success observed in this recently established sea otter population.

  16. Adult sea lamprey tolerates biliary atresia by altering bile salt composition and renal excretion

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shi-Ying; Lionarons, Daniël A.; Hagey, Lee; Soroka, Carol J.; Mennone, Albert; Boyer, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a genetically programmed animal model for biliary atresia as it loses its bile ducts and gallbladder during metamorphosis. However, in contrast to patients with biliary atresia or other forms of cholestasis who develop progressive disease, the post-metamorphosis lampreys grow normally to adult size. To understand how the adult lamprey thrives without the ability to secrete bile, we examined bile salt homeostasis in larval and adult lampreys. Adult livers were severely cholestatic with levels of bile salts >1 mM, but no evidence of necrosis, fibrosis, or inflammation. Interestingly, both larvae and adults had normal plasma levels (~10 μM) of bile salts. In larvae, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS) was the predominant bile salt, whereas the major bile salts in adult liver were sulfated C27 bile alcohols. Cytotoxicity assays revealed that PZS was highly toxic. Pharmacokinetic studies in free-swimming adults revealed that ~35% of intravenously injected bromosulfophthalein (BSP) was eliminated over a 72 hr period. Collection of urine and feces demonstrated that both endogenous and exogenous organic anions, including biliverdin, bile salts and BSP, were predominantly excreted via the kidney with minor amounts also detected in feces. Gene expression analysis detected marked up-regulation of orthologs of known organic anion and bile salt transporters in the kidney with lesser effects in the intestine and gills in adults compared to larvae. These findings indicate that adult lampreys tolerate cholestasis by altering hepatic bile salt composition, while maintaining normal plasma bile salt levels predominantly through renal excretion of bile products. Therefore, we conclude that strategies to accelerate renal excretion of bile salt and other toxins should be beneficial for patients with cholestasis. PMID:23175353

  17. Chemical Characterization of Lipophilic Constituents in the Skin of Migratory Adult Sea Lamprey from the Great Lakes Region

    PubMed Central

    Dissanayake, Amila A.; Wagner, C. Michael; Nair, Muraleedharan G.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromzons marinus) is an invasive ectoparasite of large-bodied fishes that adversely affects the fishing industry and ecology of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lipid content in the whole sea lamprey and muscles, liver and kidney of metamorphosing larval stages has been reported. Similarly, the fatty acid profile of the rope tissues of sexually-mature male sea lampreys has also been reported. The average body weight of a sub-adult migratory sea lamprey is 250 g, which includes 14.4% skin (36 g). Our preliminary extraction data of an adult sea lamprey skin revealed that it contained approximately 8.5% of lipophilic compounds. Lamprey skin is home to a naturally aversive compound (an alarm cue) that is being developed into a repellent for use in pest management. As part of an ongoing investigation to identify the chemical structure of the sea lamprey alarm cue, we extracted the skin with water and methanol, respectively. The methanolic extract (1.55%) contained exclusively lipophilic compounds and did not include the alarm cue. We chemically characterized all compounds present in the methanolic extract as cholesterol esters (CE), tri- and di-glycerides (TG and DG), cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA) and minor amounts of plasticizers. The free fatty acids fraction was composed of saturated (41.8%), monounsaturated (40.7%) and polyunsaturated (17.4%) fatty acids, respectively. The plasticizers characterized were phthalate and benzoate and found to be 0.95 mg and 2.54 mg, respectively, per adult sea lamprey skin. This is the first report of the chemical characterization of all the lipophilic constituents in the skin of sub-adult migratory sea lamprey. The CEs isolated and characterized from sea lamprey skin are also for the first time. PMID:27992570

  18. Same size--same niche? Foraging niche separation between sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions and adult Galapagos fur seals.

    PubMed

    Jeglinski, Jana W E; Goetz, Kimberley T; Werner, Christiane; Costa, Daniel P; Trillmich, Fritz

    2013-05-01

    1. In vertebrates, patterns of resource utilization change throughout development according to age- and or size-specific abilities and requirements. Thus, interspecific competition affects different age classes differently. 2. Adults of sympatric species often show distinct foraging niche segregation, but juvenile resource use might overlap with adult competitors of similar body size. Resultant negative effects on juveniles can have important consequences for population dynamics, yet such interactions have received little attention in studies of mammalian communities. 3. Using GPS tracking devices, time-depth recorders and stable isotope data, we compared diving depth, activity time, trophic position and foraging habitat characteristics to investigate foraging niche overlap between similar-sized sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) and adult Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) and compared each group with much larger-bodied adult Galapagos sea lions. 4. We found little indication for direct competition but a complex pattern of foraging niche segregation: juvenile sea lions and adult fur seals dived to shallow depths at night, but foraged in different habitats with limited spatial overlap. Conversely, juvenile and adult sea lions employed different foraging patterns, but their foraging areas overlapped almost completely. 5. Consistency of foraging habitat characteristics between juvenile and adult sea lions suggests that avoidance of competition may be important in shaping foraging habitat utilization. Resultant specialization on a limited habitat could contribute to low sea lion numbers that contrast with high fur seal abundance. Our data suggest that exploitation by multiple predators within spatially restricted foraging ranges of juveniles might negatively impact juvenile foraging success and ultimately influence population dynamics.

  19. Olfactory-mediated stream-finding behavior of migratory adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vrieze, L.A.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Sorensen, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Stream-finding behavior of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an anadromous fish that relies on pheromones to locate spawning streams, was documented in the vicinity of an important spawning river in the Great Lakes. Untreated and anosmic migrating sea lampreys were implanted with acoustic transmitters and then released outside the Ocqueoc River. Lampreys swam only at night and then actively. When outside of the river plume, lampreys pursued relatively straight bearings parallel to the shoreline while making frequent vertical excursions. In contrast, when within the plume, lampreys made large turns and exhibited a weak bias towards the river mouth, which one-third of them entered. The behavior of anosmic lampreys resembled that of untreated lampreys outside of the plume, except they pursued a more northerly compass bearing. To locate streams, sea lampreys appear to employ a three-phase odor-mediated strategy that involves an initial search along shorelines while casting vertically, followed by river-water-induced turning that brings them close to the river's mouth, which they then enter using rheotaxis. This novel strategy differs from that of salmonids and appears to offer this poor swimmer adaptive flexibility and suggests ways that pheromonal odors might be used to manage this invasive species.

  20. Reproductive and biochemical biomarkers in largemouth bass sampled downstream of a pulp and paper mill in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Gallagher, E.P.; Wieser, C.M.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluents (B/UKME) on the reproductive parameters of free-ranging Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus). The reproductive parameters measured included gonadosomatic index (GSI), histological evaluation of gonads, and plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG), 17??-estradiol, and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was measured as a marker of exposure to cytochrome P450-inducing agents in these effluents. Endpoints were compared among adult bass sampled from tributary and mainstream effluent-contaminated and reference sites. Females sampled from the site closest to the mill outfall had a significant five-fold increase in EROD activity compared to bass sampled from reference streams. Although sex hormones were significantly reduced in bass from exposed sites, there were no differences in VTG and GSI across sites. The absence of organism-level responses was probably not related to a lack of sensitivity, as previous studies in our laboratory have shown that bass exposed to these effluents exhibit changes in GSI and in other measures associated with reproductive success. In females, inverse relationships were observed between VTG and GSI and EROD activity. These relationship, however, were not consistent within all of the sites studied. Collectively, our findings indicate that hepatic EROD induction is an effective marker of B/UKME exposure in largemouth bass and that it might be associated with antiestrogenic effects in this species. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.; Rees, Alan F.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from

  2. Sublethal responses of largemouth bass to parasites and organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    MacRury, N.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1999-05-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA) experience chronic organochlorine exposures and parasitism by nematodes (Contracaecum spiculigerum) and digenean flukes (Posthodiplostomum minimum centrarchi). The authors investigated the influences of nematode intensity, fluke intensity, and whole-body organochlorine concentrations on growth of juvenile RMA bass. Lifetime growth, or age-specific lengths, of bass in three RMA lakes were within the range observed for bass in five reference lakes. However, interlake comparisons can be confounded by differing environmental conditions. Therefore, they conducted mesocosm and laboratory studies to compare growth, consumption, and feeding behavior between RMA bass and bass that had little contaminant or parasite exposure. Mean growth rates of RMA bass were 45% lower compared with hatchery bass in experimental ponds. However, regression analysis revealed that parasite and organochlorine burdens were not negatively associated with either short-term growth or age-specific lengths of RMA bass. Hatchery bass growth was likely higher due to their experience with culture pond conditions. In feeding trials, RMA bass exhibited similar food conversion efficiency and consumption rates and significantly elevated feeding activity compared with hatchery bass. This research demonstrates that current parasite and organochlorine loads had benign influences on growth of juvenile RMA bass.

  3. Physiological disturbances and overwinter mortality of largemouth bass from different latitudes.

    PubMed

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M; Wagner, Curtis P; Wahl, David H; Suski, Cory D

    2013-01-01

    Thermal conditions associated with winter can influence the distribution of a species. Because winter severity varies along latitudes, populations of temperate fish located along a latitudinal gradient may display variation in both sublethal and lethal responses to cold stressors. Sublethal physiological disturbances were quantified in age 1 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from populations originating from Alabama and Illinois but raised in a common environment. Fish were exposed to 6 h of rapid cold shock from 20° to 8°C (controls were held at 20°C) and then sampled for white muscle, whole blood, and plasma. After cold shock, glucose concentrations were elevated in Alabama but not Illinois fish. Sodium was lower and chloride was higher in Alabama largemouth bass, but fish from Illinois had a greater propensity for potassium loss during cold shock. In Illinois ponds, Alabama largemouth bass exhibited lower overwinter survival (adult: 10%; age 0: 22%) than did those from Illinois (adult: 80%; age 0: 82%). Latitudinal variation in physiological responses to cold stressors may therefore influence overwinter survival of largemouth bass and the ability of a fish species to exist over large geographic areas.

  4. Widespread occurrence of intersex in black basses (Micropterus spp.) from U.S. rivers, 1995-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Schmitt, C.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    largemouth bass older than five years and was most common in 1-3-year-old male largemouth bass. The cause(s) of intersex in these species is also unknown, and it remains to be determined whether the intersex we observed in largemouth and smallmouth bass developed during sex differentiation in early life stages, during exposure to environmental factors during adult life stages, or both.

  5. 76 FR 14804 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Bass River, Beverly, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Bass River, Beverly, MA AGENCY... the Hall Whitaker Bridge at mile 0.6 across the Bass River ] at Beverly, Massachusetts. The deviation.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Hall Whitaker Bridge, across the Bass River at Beverly, Massachusetts, has...

  6. Sleep apnea and oxygen saturation in adults at 2640 m above sea level☆

    PubMed Central

    Bazurto Zapata, Maria Angelica; Dueñas Meza, Elida; Jaramillo, Claudia; Maldonado Gomez, Dario; Torres Duque, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the SpO2 in wakefulness, sleep and during the apnea–hypopnea in adults living in Bogotá, located at 2640 m above sea level. Methods Descriptive observational study in adults referred for polysomnogram (PSG). A normal Apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was defined as ≤5 and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was classified as mild (AHI 5–15), moderate (AHI 15–30), and severe (AHI >30). T-test or ANOVA test for SpO2 differences between groups was used. Results 1799 patients, 33% women. 222 (12.8%) did not have OSA (normal IAH), 268 (14.9%) mild OSA, 315 (17.5%) moderate ,and 993 (55.2%) severe. In all cases a low SpO2 (SpO2<90%) was found. The SpO2 was lower when the AHI was higher, in wakefulness, in non-REM and in REM (p<0.001). For all grades of severity, SpO2 decreased significantly from wakefulness to non-REM sleep and to REM sleep (p<0.001). Patients with severe OSA had higher desaturation during wakefulness (85.2±6.6%), non-REM sleep (83.1±7.7%), REM sleep (78.8±10.2), and during events (75.1±9.1%). Conclusions Patients with OSA at 2640 m have nocturnal desaturation lower than 88%, which decreases with higher severity of OSA. The clinical impact of sleep disorders at this point may be greater than at sea level and should be studied. PMID:26483911

  7. Relations between habitat variability and population dynamics of bass in the Huron River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bovee, Ken D.; Newcomb, Tammy J.; Coon, Thomas G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the assumption of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) is that the dynamics of fish populations are directly or indirectly related to habitat availability. Because this assumption has not been successfully tested in coolwater streams, questions arise regarding the validity of the methodology in such streams. The purpose of our study was to determine whether relations existed between habitat availability and population dynamics of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) in a 16-km reach of the Huron River in southeastern Michigan. Both species exhibited strong to moderate carryover of year classes from age 0 through age 2, indicating that adult populations were related to factors affecting recruitment. Year-class strength and subsequent numbers of yearling bass were related to the availability of young-of-year habitat during the first growing season for a cohort. Number of age-0, age-1, and adult smallmouth bass were related to the average length at age 0 for the cohort. Length at age 0 was associated with young-of-year habitat and thermal regime during the first growing season. Rock bass populations exhibited similar associations among age classes and habitat variables. Compared to smallmouth bass, the number of age-2 rock bass was associated more closely with their length at age 0 than with year-class strength. Length at age 0 and year-class strength of rock bass were associated with the same habitat variables as those related to age-0 smallmouth bass. We hypothesize that an energetic mechanism linked thermal regime to length at age 0 and that increased growth resulted in higher survival rates from age 0 to age 1. We also postulate that young-of-year habitat provided protection from predators, higher production of food resources, and increased foraging efficiency. We conclude that the IFIM is a valid methodology for instream flow investigations of coolwater streams. The results for our study support the

  8. Measuring energy expenditure in sub-adult and hatchling sea turtles via accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Lewis G; Jones, T Todd; Jones, David R; Liebsch, Nikolai; Booth, David T

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the metabolic of sea turtles is fundamental to understanding their ecology yet the presently available methods are limited. Accelerometry is a relatively new technique for estimating metabolic rate that has shown promise with a number of species but its utility with air-breathing divers is not yet established. The present study undertakes laboratory experiments to investigate whether rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) at the surface in active sub-adult green turtles Chelonia mydas and hatchling loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta correlates with overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), a derivative of acceleration used as a proxy for metabolic rate. Six green turtles (25-44 kg) and two loggerhead turtles (20 g) were instrumented with tri-axial acceleration logging devices and placed singly into a respirometry chamber. The green turtles were able to submerge freely within a 1.5 m deep tank and the loggerhead turtles were tethered in water 16 cm deep so that they swam at the surface. A significant prediction equation for mean VO2 over an hour in a green turtle from measures of ODBA and mean flipper length (R(2) = 0.56) returned a mean estimate error across turtles of 8.0%. The range of temperatures used in the green turtle experiments (22-30 °C) had only a small effect on Vo₂. A VO2-ODBA equation for the loggerhead hatchling data was also significant (R(2) = 0.67). Together these data indicate the potential of the accelerometry technique for estimating energy expenditure in sea turtles, which may have important applications in sea turtle diving ecology, and also in conservation such as assessing turtle survival times when trapped underwater in fishing nets.

  9. Food utilization of adult flatfishes co-occurring in the Bohai Sea of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuozeng, Dou

    Stomach contents were examined of 4527 adult individuals of 12 flatfish species collected during the 1982-1983 Bohai Sea Fisheries Resources Investigation. Their food habits, diet diversity, similarity of prey taxa, trophic niche breadth and diet overlap were systematically analysed. Ninety-seven prey species belonging to the Coelenterata, Nemertinea, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Hemichordata and fish were found and five of them were considered to be principal prey for flatfishes: Alpheus japonicus, Oratosquilla oratoria, Alpheus distinguendus, Loligo japonicus and Crangon affinis. Among the flatfishes, Paralichthys olivaceus was piscivorous, whereas Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae and Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini both had polychaetes and molluscs as their main prey groups. Pleuronichthys cornutus was classified as a polychaete-mollusc eater, with a strong preference for crustaceans. Verasper variegatus, Cynoglossus semilaevis, Eopsetta grigorjewi and Cleisthenes herzensteini ate crustaceans. Kareius bicoloratus was classified as a mollusc-crustacean eater. Cynoglossus abbreviatus, Cynoglossus joyneri and Zebrias zebra were grouped as crustacean-fish eaters. However, Z. zebra also took polychaetes and C. abbreviatus and C. joyneri preyed on some molluscs. Trophic relationships among the flatfishes were complicated, but they occupied distinctive microhabitats in different seasons and selected their specific prey items, which was favourable to the stability of the flatfish community in the Bohai Sea.

  10. Estimates of growth and mortality of under-yearling smallmouth bass in Spednic Lake, from 1970 through 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Trial, Joan G.

    2014-01-01

    This report is the product of a 2013 cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey, the International Joint Commission, and the Maine Bureau of Sea Run Fisheries and Habitat to quantify the effects of meteorological conditions (from 1970 through 2008) on the survival of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the first year of life in Spednic Lake. This report documents the data and methods used to estimate historical daily mean lake surface-water temperatures from early spring through late autumn, which were used to estimate the dates of smallmouth bass spawning, young-of-the-year growth, and probable strength of each year class. Mortality of eggs and fry in nests was modeled and estimated to exceed 10 percent in 17 of 39 years; during those years, cold temperatures in the early part of the spawning period resulted in mortality to fish that were estimated to have had the longest growing season and attain the greatest length. Modeled length-dependent overwinter survival combined with early mortality identified 1986, 1994, 1996, and 2004 as the years in which temperature was likely to have presented the greatest challenge to year-class strength in the Spednic Lake fishery. Age distribution of bass in fisheries on lakes in the St. Croix and surrounding watersheds confirmed that conditions in 1986 and 1996 resulted in weak smallmouth bass year classes (age-four or age-five bass representing less than 15 percent of a 100-fish sample).

  11. Identification, Molecular Cloning of IL-1β and Its Expression Profile during Nocardia seriolae Infection in Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ping-Yueh; Byadgi, Omkar; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-An; Liaw, Li-Ling; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, IL-1β cDNA was identified and analyzed from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Full length IL-1β mRNA was obtained using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), which contains 78 bp 3′-UTR, a 455 bp 5′-UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 702 bp coding for 233 amino acid residues. The molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of largemouth bass IL-1β protein was predicted to be 26.7 kDa and 6.08 respectively. A largemouth bass IL-1β phylogenetic analysis showed a close relation to the IL-1βs of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata), Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi), and Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Peptidoglycan upregulated IL-1β in the spleen and head kidney, while lipopolysaccharide upregulated detectable levels of IL-1β in the spleen only. Largemouth bass, challenged with Nocardia seriolae (1.0 × 106 cfu/mL), showed a significant increase in IL-1β at 3 and 5 days post infection (dpi) in the spleen, while in the head kidney significant expression was found at 2 and 3 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) showed significantly higher expression in the spleen at 3 and 5 dpi, and in the head kidney at 1 and 3 dpi, with expression decreasing at 5 dpi in both tissues. PMID:27706080

  12. Identification, Molecular Cloning of IL-1β and Its Expression Profile during Nocardia seriolae Infection in Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ping-Yueh; Byadgi, Omkar; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Tsai, Ming-An; Liaw, Li-Ling; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, IL-1β cDNA was identified and analyzed from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Full length IL-1β mRNA was obtained using Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), which contains 78 bp 3'-UTR, a 455 bp 5'-UTR, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 702 bp coding for 233 amino acid residues. The molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of largemouth bass IL-1β protein was predicted to be 26.7 kDa and 6.08 respectively. A largemouth bass IL-1β phylogenetic analysis showed a close relation to the IL-1βs of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata), Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi), and Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus). Peptidoglycan upregulated IL-1β in the spleen and head kidney, while lipopolysaccharide upregulated detectable levels of IL-1β in the spleen only. Largemouth bass, challenged with Nocardia seriolae (1.0 × 10⁶ cfu/mL), showed a significant increase in IL-1β at 3 and 5 days post infection (dpi) in the spleen, while in the head kidney significant expression was found at 2 and 3 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) showed significantly higher expression in the spleen at 3 and 5 dpi, and in the head kidney at 1 and 3 dpi, with expression decreasing at 5 dpi in both tissues.

  13. A model for autumn pelagic distribution of adult female polar bears in the Chukchi Seas, 1987-1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Douglas, D.C.; Nielson, R.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    We made predictions of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) autumn distribution in the Chukchi Sea with a Resource Selection Function (RSF) developed from 1198 satellite radio-collar locations on 124 adult female polar bears, 1987 – 1994. The RSF was created to assist in an aerial survey design for polar bears proposed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The RSF was based on bathymetry and daily sea ice covariates extracted from passive microwave satellite imagery within the pelagic region > 25 km from shore. The RSF indicated that polar bears selected habitats with intermediate amounts (~50%) of ice cover in close proximity to higher ice concentrations, and over relatively shallow waters. The RSF showed good predictive abilities for the years of its construct, worked best in October, and was robust to inter-annual variability. When evaluated with recent (1997 – 2005) data, the RSF performed well for October and November but poorly in September. This loss of predictive abilities appeared to be related to recent changes in habitat due to longer melt seasons and younger sea ice, and testing the retrospective model with a small sample of recent polar bears locations from a limited region of the Chukchi Sea. Contemporary applications of this RSF must consider three factors that could limit its utility: 1) 2 different sea ice phenology; 2) distributions of males and sub-adults; and 3) occupancy in nearshore habitats.

  14. Modeling the effects of potential salinity shifts on the recovery of striped bass in the Savannah River estuary, Georgia-South Carolina, United States.

    PubMed

    Reinert, Thomas R; Peterson, James T

    2008-05-01

    Increased salinity in spawning and nursery grounds in the Savannah River estuary was cited as the primary cause of a 97% decrease in adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and a concomitant 96% decrease in striped bass egg production. Restoration efforts focused on environmental remediation and stock enhancement have resulted in restored salinity patterns and increased egg and adult abundances. However, future water needs or harbor development may preclude further recovery by reducing freshwater inflow or increasing salinity intrusion. To assess the effect of potential changes in the salinity regime, we developed models relating discharge, tidal phase, and salinity to striped bass egg and early larval survival and re-cast these in a quantitative Bayesian belief network. The model indicated that a small upstream shift (< or =1.67 km) in the salinity regime would have the least impact on striped bass early life history survival, whereas shifts >1.67 km would have progressively larger impacts, with a 8.33-km shift potentially reducing our estimated survival probability by >28%. Such an impact could have cumulative and long-term detrimental effects on the recovery of the Savannah River striped bass population. The available salinity data were collected during average and low flows, so our model represents some typical and some extreme conditions during a striped bass spawning season. Our model is a relatively simplistic, "first-order" attempt at evaluating potential effects of changes in the Savannah River estuarine salinity regime and points to areas of concern and potential future research.

  15. 33 CFR 117.703 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.703 Bass River. The draw of the U.S. 9 bridge, mile 2.6, at New Gretna, shall operate as follows: (a) The drawspan must open on signal if at least...

  16. 33 CFR 117.703 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.703 Bass River. The draw of the U.S. 9 bridge, mile 2.6, at New Gretna, shall operate as follows: (a) The drawspan must open on signal if at least...

  17. 33 CFR 117.703 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.703 Bass River. The draw of the U.S. 9 bridge, mile 2.6, at New Gretna, shall operate as follows: (a) The drawspan must open on signal if at least...

  18. 33 CFR 117.703 - Bass River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.703 Bass River. The draw of the U.S. 9 bridge, mile 2.6, at New Gretna, shall operate as follows: (a) The drawspan must open on signal if at least...

  19. An Investigation of Double Bass Vibrato Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe various vibrato characteristics of university double bass students. The primary objectives were: (1) to describe vibrato rate and width for commonly used fingers in first, fourth, and thumb positions; (2) to investigate whether students initiate vibrato in an upward or downward direction;…

  20. Sunshine bass fingerling production without rotifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously reported protocol for culture of sunshine bass larvae to fingerling size in tanks involved an initial feeding of rotifers for several days before the larvae are weaned to feed on Artemia nauplii. Maintaining rotifer cultures requires space, time, equipment, supplies, trained culturists a...

  1. Evaluating the potential for stock size to limit recruitment in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Michael S.; Rogers, Mark W.; Catalano, Mathew J.; Gwinn, Daniel G.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Compensatory changes in juvenile survival allow fish stocks to maintain relatively constant recruitment across a wide range of stock sizes (and levels of fishing), but few studies have experimentally explored recruitment compensation in fish populations. We evaluated the potential for recruitment compensation in largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides by stocking six 0.4-ha hatchery ponds with adult densities ranging from 6 to 40 fish over 2 years. Ponds were drained in October each year, and the age-0 fish densities were used as a measure of recruitment. We found no relationship between stock abundance and recruitment; ponds with low adult densities produced nearly as many recruits as the higher-density ponds in some cases. Both prey abundance and the growth of age-0 largemouth bass declined with age-0 fish density. Recruit abundance was highly variable both within and among the adult density groups, and thus we were unable to identify a clear stock–recruit relationship for largemouth bass. Our results indicate that reducing the number of effective spawners via angling practices would not reduce recruitment over a relatively large range in stock size.

  2. Summer habitat selection by striped bass, Morone Saxatilis, in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, 1977

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, H.R.; Coutant, C.C.; Wilson, J.L.

    1980-02-01

    Summer habitat selection patterns of 18 adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Cherokee Reservoir were monitored with externally attached temperature-sensing acoustic or radio transmitters from June through September 1977. Mortalities of adult striped bass in this reservoir were hypothesized to be related to high summer temperatures and low dissolved oxygen (DO). The inhabited areas or refuges differed from noninhabited areas by maintaining temperatures less than or equal to 22 C and DO concentrations greater than 5 mg/liter. Total water hardness, pH, and water transparency were not significantly different among refuges and noninhabited areas. Movement of fish outside refuges occurred more frequently and for longer periods during June when the summer pattern of high temperatures and low DO was less severe. Fish experienced temperatures between 15 and 27 C with mean temperatures of individuals ranging from 18.5 to 22.0 C. Several tagged fish migrated outside the refuges and selected the lowest available temperature, generally near 21 C, even though DO concentrations at these temperatures were 3 mg/liter or less. Long-term survival of tagged and nontagged fish outside refuges was undetermined because no fish were tracked outside a refuge for more than 12 days without being lost. This study indicates that temperature strongly influences the behavior of striped bass and that adults of this species may have a thermal preferendum of approximately 21 C.

  3. Potential error with in situ surveys of smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu Lacepede, as determined by radio-telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, M.B.; Moring, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    In situ surveys using scuba are important tools in the management of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in boreal, clear lakes of North America. Population estimates that are derived from such surveys may be erroneous if the size composition of the fish observed by divers differs from that of the entire population. Forty-four adult smallmouth bass of three size classes were radio-tagged and tracked during the summer of 1993 (mid June to early September) in Green Lake, Maine, USA, to investigate possible size-related error from observations by divers being towed along the lake shore. Our results indicate that scuba divers may fail to count a significant portion of large smallmouth bass during late summer (mid July to early September), compared to small- or medium-sized fish. The results suggest that scuba surveys should be conducted during early summer (mid June to mid July) to derive more accurate population estimates.

  4. Inter-annual variability in spring abundance of adult Calanus finmarchicus from the overwintering population in the southeastern Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Nicolas; Bagøien, Espen; Melle, Webjørn

    2017-03-01

    Calanus finmarchicus is the dominant copepod species in the Norwegian Sea, where it plays a key role in the ecosystem by transferring energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. This paper analyses a 17-year time series, 1996-2012, on C. finmarchicus collected within the Atlantic Water mass along the Svinøy transect in the southeastern Norwegian Sea. We use the spring abundance of adult as a proxy for the size of C. finmarchicus' overwintered population. The inter-annual trend in spring abundance of adult C. finmarchicus in the 200-0 m depth-stratum is assessed while accounting for spring population development to the adult stage represented by day of year for sampling, inter-annual changes in timing of population development, and spatial differences. For the most oceanic stations, a significant inter-annual trend in spring abundance of adult C. finmarchicus was revealed using generalized additive models (GAM). This trend primarily consists in an increase prior to year 2000 and a decrease between years 2000 and ca. 2011. For the stations closer to the coast, the identified inter-annual trend is a decrease during a longer period from the late 90s until ca. 2011. From 2000 to 2011, our estimates suggest a 50% decrease for the most oceanic stations, and as much as an 81% decrease for the stations closer to the coast. In addition the results suggest a consistent change in phenology over the years and the stations. The predicted spring peak of overwintered adult population abundance is suggested to become shorter by 3 days, and the predicted maximum of abundance to take place 4 days earlier over the 17 years of the time-series. The results highlight significant changes in intensity and timing of the overwintered population of a key zooplankton species in the Norwegian Sea that may have important implications on the scale of an entire ecosystem.

  5. Apparent genetic homogeneity of spawning striped bass in the upper Chesapeak Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Sidell, B.D.; Otto, R.G.; Powers, D.A. Karweit, M.; Smith, J.

    1980-01-01

    The possible existence of genetically distinct populations of spawning striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the river systems of the upper Chesapeake Bay was investigated by a biochemical genetic approach. Samples of blood and liver from adult fish were obtained during the 1976 spawning runs from the Rappanhannock (Virginia), Potomac, Choptank, Sassafras, Bohemia, and Elk rivers (Maryland), and Maryland waters of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. Samples were analyzed for frequency of occurrence of a polymorphic liver enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and variable serum proteins which were not correlated with age or sex. Multivariate and Bayesian analyses of these data indicate apparent genetic homogeneity of spawning bass within the upper Chesapeake Bay. If natal stream homing occurs, a sufficient number of wanderers may provide significant gene flow among river systems. The results suggest that long-term management of the fishery need not be totally on the basis of separate river units.

  6. Mortality of Palmetto bass following catch-and-release angling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.J.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2013-01-01

    Palmetto bass (Striped Bass Morone saxatilis x White Bass M. chrysops) have been stocked into reservoirs in the southeastern USA since the late 1960s and have gained widespread acceptance as a sport fish. These fisheries are growing in popularity and catch-and-release (CR) fishing is commonplace; however, there is a dearth of information on CR mortality of palmetto bass. We experimentally angled palmetto bass (n = 56; >373-mm TL) in a Tennessee reservoir using traditional angling gear in water temperatures ranging from 13 °C to 32 °C. Ultrasonic transmitters equipped with floats were externally attached to fish, which were released immediately and tracked multiple times within 10 d of release. Mortality was negligible (3.6%) in fall and spring at cool water temperatures but was high (39.3%) in summer when water temperatures exceeded 26 °C. The best logistic regression model based on Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes scores relied on water temperature alone to predict CR mortality of palmetto bass; there was little support for other models that included all possible combinations of the six other predictor variables we tested. Palmetto bass in our study experienced lower CR mortality than Striped Bass in other systems, but CR mortality rates for palmetto bass that approach or exceed 40% during summer are still problematic if the goal is to maintain fishing quality.

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Smallmouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Gebhart, Glen; Maughan, O. Eugene

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui), a freshwater species. The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The instream flow suitability curves are intended for use with the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used by the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of Smallmouth bass habitat.

  8. Predictors of Successful Quitting among Thai Adult Smokers: Evidence from ITC-SEA (Thailand) Survey.

    PubMed

    Jampaklay, Aree; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fotuhi, Omid; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-09-25

    This study uses longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia (ITC-SEA Thailand) survey to explore patterns and predictors of successful quitting among Thai adult smokers as a function of time quit. A cohort of a representative sample of 2000 smokers was surveyed four times from 2005 to 2009. A sample of 1533 individuals provided data for at least one of the reported analyses. Over the four years of follow-up, 97% made attempts to quit. Outcomes were successful quitting/relapse: (a) quit attempts of at least one month (short-term relapse, 43%) (57% remaining quit); (b) surviving at least six months (medium-term) (31%); (c) relapse between one and six months (45%); (d) having continuously quit between Waves 3 and 4 (sustained abstinence) (14%); and (e) relapse from six months on (44%) compared to those who continuously quit between Waves 3 and 4 (56%). Predictors for early relapse (<1 month) differ from longer-term relapse. Age was associated with reduced relapse over all three periods, and was much stronger for longer periods of abstinence. Cigarette consumption predicted relapse for short and medium terms. Self-assessed addiction was predictive of early relapse, but reversed to predict abstinence beyond six months. Previous quit history of more than one week was predictive of early abstinence, but became unrelated subsequently. Self-efficacy was strongly predictive of abstinence in the first month but was associated with relapse thereafter. Some determinants of relapse change with time quit, but this may be in somewhat different to patterns found in the West.

  9. Predictors of Successful Quitting among Thai Adult Smokers: Evidence from ITC-SEA (Thailand) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jampaklay, Aree; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fotuhi, Omid; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia (ITC-SEA Thailand) survey to explore patterns and predictors of successful quitting among Thai adult smokers as a function of time quit. A cohort of a representative sample of 2000 smokers was surveyed four times from 2005 to 2009. A sample of 1533 individuals provided data for at least one of the reported analyses. Over the four years of follow-up, 97% made attempts to quit. Outcomes were successful quitting/relapse: (a) quit attempts of at least one month (short-term relapse, 43%) (57% remaining quit); (b) surviving at least six months (medium-term) (31%); (c) relapse between one and six months (45%); (d) having continuously quit between Waves 3 and 4 (sustained abstinence) (14%); and (e) relapse from six months on (44%) compared to those who continuously quit between Waves 3 and 4 (56%). Predictors for early relapse (<1 month) differ from longer-term relapse. Age was associated with reduced relapse over all three periods, and was much stronger for longer periods of abstinence. Cigarette consumption predicted relapse for short and medium terms. Self-assessed addiction was predictive of early relapse, but reversed to predict abstinence beyond six months. Previous quit history of more than one week was predictive of early abstinence, but became unrelated subsequently. Self-efficacy was strongly predictive of abstinence in the first month but was associated with relapse thereafter. Some determinants of relapse change with time quit, but this may be in somewhat different to patterns found in the West. PMID:26404335

  10. Smallmouth bass and largemouth bass predation on juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids in the Lake Washington basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.A.; Footen, B.A.; Fresh, K.L.; Celedonia, M.T.; Mejia, F.; Low, D.L.; Park, L.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the impact of predation by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and largemouth bass M. salmoides on juveniles of federally listed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and other anadromous salmonid populations in the Lake Washington system. Bass were collected with boat electrofishing equipment in the south end of Lake Washington (February-June) and the Lake Washington Ship Canal (LWSC; April-July), a narrow waterway that smolts must migrate through to reach the marine environment. Genetic analysis was used to identify ingested salmonids to obtain a more precise species-specific consumption estimate. Overall, we examined the stomachs of 783 smallmouth bass and 310 largemouth bass greater than 100 mm fork length (FL). Rates of predation on salmonids in the south end of Lake Washington were generally low for both black bass species. In the LWSC, juvenile salmonids made up a substantial part of bass diets; consumption of salmonids was lower for largemouth bass than for smallmouth bass. Smallmouth bass predation on juvenile salmonids was greatest in June, when salmonids made up approximately 50% of their diet. In the LWSC, overall black bass consumption of salmonids was approximately 36,000 (bioenergetics model) to 46,000 (meal turnover consumption model) juveniles, of which about one-third was juvenile Chinook salmon, one-third was coho salmon O. kisutch, and one-third was sockeye salmon O. nerka. We estimated that about 2,460,000 juvenile Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild sources combined) were produced in the Lake Washington basin in 1999; thus, the mortality estimates in the LWSC range from 0.5% (bioenergetics) to 0.6% (meal turnover). Black bass prey mostly on subyearlings of each salmonid species. The vulnerability of subyearlings to predation can be attributed to their relatively small size; their tendency to migrate when water temperatures exceed 15??C, coinciding with greater black bass activity; and their use of nearshore areas, where overlap

  11. Characterization of annual reproductive cycles for pond-reared Florida largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides floridanus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gross, T.S.; Wieser, C.M.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Wiebe, J.J.; Schoeb, T.R.; Denslow, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The annual reproductive cycle of hatchery-raised largemouth bass (Florida subspecies Micropterus salmoides floridanus) was characterized over a one-year period. Largemouth bass have a distinct annual reproductive cycle with a spring spawning season (approximately between mid-January and mid-June). Cycle characterization focused on an evaluation of gonadal development and plasma concentrations of several sex steroids and vitellogenin (VTG). Adult largemouth bass (n = 20: 10 females and 10 males) were collected monthly from hatchery ponds for one full calendar year. Plasma samples were analyzed for estradiol-17?? (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), testosterone (T), progesterone (P), and VTG. Gonadal tissues were weighed to calculate gonadosomatic index (GSI) and evaluated histologically to characterize reproductive stage. In both sexes, GSI began to increase in November, and peaked in February-March. Increases in gonad weights were correlated with maturation of gonads as evidenced by histological evaluations. Bass exhibited seasonal changes in plasma sex steroids and VTG. In males, 11-KT was the only sex steroid that showed strong seasonality, with highest values in February. In females, although E2 and T concentrations followed a similar annual cycle, with highest and lowest values in February and August, respectively, the strongest pattern was observed with E2. 11-KT concentrations were less variable across months, and values were about half of those observed in males. In females, P peaked two months after E2, with high values still in May and June and decreased thereafter, and VTG began to increase in October, but peaked a month prior to the observed peaked in E2. VTG was also detected in males but at concentrations that were about 1/12 that of females, and no seasonal pattern was evident. This study is the first to fully characterize the seasonal endocrine cycle for largemouth bass. These data will be useful when conducting reproductive evaluations of free

  12. Rearing sunshine bass using diets formulated for summer water temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated water temperatures are common in hybrid striped bass or Sunshine bass (HSB; Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) production ponds during summer months in the southern US. Median daily water temperatures often exceed 30 C from June through September. This experiment was conducted to extend and re...

  13. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is of great importance for fisheries and aquaculture in the US. To construct a linkage map of striped bass, 480 microsatellite markers were screened for polymorphism among three parents of two half-sib mapping families that shared a common dam. A total of 289 markers ...

  14. Genetic population structure of US atlantic coastal striped bass (Morone saxatilis).

    PubMed

    Gauthier, David T; Audemard, Corinne A; Carlsson, Jeanette E L; Darden, Tanya L; Denson, Michael R; Reece, Kimberly S; Carlsson, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Genetic population structure of anadromous striped bass along the US Atlantic coast was analyzed using 14 neutral nuclear DNA microsatellites. Young-of-the-year and adult striped bass (n = 1114) were sampled from Hudson River, Delaware River, Chesapeake Bay, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Analyses indicated clear population structure with significant genetic differentiation between all regions. Global multilocus F ST was estimated at 0.028 (P < 0.001). Population structure followed an isolation-by-distance model and temporal sampling indicated a stable population structure more than 2 years at all locations. Significant structure was absent within Hudson River, whereas weak but significant genetic differences were observed between northern and southern samples in Chesapeake Bay. The largest and smallest effective striped bass population sizes were found in Chesapeake Bay and South Carolina, respectively. Coalescence analysis indicated that the highest historical gene flow has been between Chesapeake Bay and Hudson River populations, and that exchange has not been unidirectional. Bayesian analysis of contemporary migration indicated that Chesapeake Bay serves as a major source of migrants for Atlantic coastal regions from Albemarle Sound northward. In addition to examining population genetic structure, the data acquired during this project were capable of serving as a baseline for assigning fish with unknown origin to source region.

  15. SpSM30 gene family expression patterns in embryonic and adult biomineralized tissues of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Killian, Christopher E; Croker, Lindsay; Wilt, Fred H

    2010-01-01

    The SpSM30 gene family of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is comprised of six members, designated SpSM30A through SpSM30F (Livingston et al., 2006). The SpSM30 proteins are found uniquely in embryonic and adult mineralized tissues of the sea urchin. Previous studies have revealed that SpSM30 proteins are occluded within the embryonic endoskeleton and adult mineralized tissues (Killian and Wilt, 1996; Mann et al., 2008a,b; Urry et al., 2000). Furthermore, some of the SpSM30 proteins are among the most abundant of the approximately four-dozen integral matrix proteins of the larval spicule (Killian and Wilt, 1996). The amino acid sequence, protein domain architecture, and contiguity within the genome strongly support the supposition that the six genes constitute a gene family. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is used in the present study to describe the time course of expression of the family members during embryonic development, and their expression in adult tissues. SpSM30A, B, C and E are expressed, albeit at different levels, during overt spicule deposition in the embryo with some differences in the precise timing of expression. SpSM30D is not expressed in the embryo, and SpSM30F is expressed transiently and at low levels just prior to overt spicule formation. Whole mount in situ hybridization studies show that SpSM30A, B, C, and E are expressed exclusively in primary mesenchyme (PMC) cells and their descendants. In addition, tissue fractionation studies indicate that SpSM30F expression is highly enriched in PMCs. Each adult tissue examined expresses a different cohort of the SpSM30 family members at varying levels: SpSM30A mRNA is not expressed in adult tissues. Its expression is limited to the embryo. Conversely, SpSM30D mRNA is not expressed in the embryo, but is expressed in adult spines and teeth. SpSM30B and SpSM30C are expressed at modest levels in all mineralized adult tissues; SpSM30E is expressed highly in tooth and

  16. Daytime avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues by adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Rocco, Richard; Belanger, Cowan; Imre, István; Brown, Grant; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) avoid damage-released and predator chemosensory cues at night, but their response to these cues during the day is unknown. Here, we explored (i) whether sea lamprey avoid these cues during the day and (ii) the effect of water temperature on the avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues in two diurnal laboratory experiments. We hypothesized that daytime activity would be temperature-dependent and that only sea lamprey vulnerable to predation (i.e., not hiding) would behaviourally respond to chemosensory alarm cues. Ten groups of ten sea lamprey were exposed to one of a variety of potential chemosensory cues. The experiments were conducted over a range of temperatures to quantify the effect of temperature on avoidance behaviour. Consistent with our hypothesis, a higher proportion of animals were active during daytime as water temperature increased. Moving sea lamprey showed an avoidance response to 2-phenylethylamine (a compound found in mammalian urine) and human saliva once water temperatures had risen to mean (±SD) = 13.7 (±1.4) °C. Resting and hiding sea lamprey did not show an avoidance response to any of the experimental stimuli.

  17. In Utero Domoic Acid Toxicity: A Fetal Basis to Adult Disease in the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus)

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdell, John S.; Zabka, Tanja S.

    2008-01-01

    California sea lions have been a repeated subject of investigation for early life toxicity, which has been documented to occur with increasing frequency from late February through mid-May in association with organochlorine (PCB and DDT) poisoning and infectious disease in the 1970’s and domoic acid poisoning in the last decade. The mass early life mortality events result from the concentrated breeding grounds and synchronization of reproduction over a 28 day post partum estrus cycle and 11 month in utero phase. This physiological synchronization is triggered by a decreasing photoperiod of 11.48 h/day that occurs approximately 90 days after conception at the major California breeding grounds. The photoperiod trigger activates implantation of embryos to proceed with development for the next 242 days until birth. Embryonic diapause is a selectable trait thought to optimize timing for food utilization and male migratory patterns; yet from the toxicological perspective presented here also serves to synchronize developmental toxicity of pulsed environmental events such as domoic acid poisoning. Research studies in laboratory animals have defined age-dependent neurotoxic effects during development and windows of susceptibility to domoic acid exposure. This review will evaluate experimental domoic acid neurotoxicity in developing rodents and, aided by comparative allometric projections, will analyze potential prenatal toxicity and exposure susceptibility in the California sea lion. This analysis should provide a useful tool to forecast fetal toxicity and understand the impact of fetal toxicity on adult disease of the California sea lion. PMID:18728728

  18. Stage- and tissue-specific expression of two homeo box genes in sea urchin embryos and adults.

    PubMed

    Dolecki, G J; Wang, G; Humphreys, T

    1988-12-23

    We report the isolation of two different homeo box genes, HB3 and HB4, from the Hawaiian sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla. DNA sequencing revealed a definitive Antennapedia (Antp) class homeo box in each gene. Southern transfer hybridizations showed the genes to be single-copy. A 5.7-kb transcript of the HB3 gene was found in ovary, testis, small intestine and gastrula poly(A)+ RNA. The HB4 gene produces three transcripts. A 3.7-kb and a 4.4-kb transcript are expressed during embryogenesis. A 3.5-kb transcript appears in each of the adult tissues studied. The HB4 gene appears to be the sea urchin cognate of the Drosophila infrabdominal-7 (iab-7) gene, the mouse Hox 1.7 and Hox 3.2 genes and the Xenopus X1Hbox 6 gene. An examination of Antp class homeo box genes in deuterostomes indicates that a chromosomal duplication has taken place in the evolutionary line leading to the vertebrates after the divergence of the echinoderms. Thus, the sea urchin represents the primitive condition.

  19. Physiological, toxicological, and population responses of smallmouth bass to acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, M.D.; Gulley, D.D.; Christensen, S.W.; McDonald, D.G.; Van Winkle, W.; Mount, D.R.; Wood, C.M.; Bergman, H.L. . Dept. of Zoology and Physiology)

    1992-08-01

    The Lake Acidification and Fisheries (LAF) project examined effects of acidic water chemistries on four fish species. This report presents an overview of investigations on smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Experiments conducted with this species included as many as 84 exposure combinations of acid, aluminum, and low calcium. In egg, fry, and juvenile stages of smallmouth bass, increased acid and aluminum concentrations increased mortality and decreased growth, while increased calcium concentrations often improved survival. Relative to the juvenile life stages of smallmouth bass tested, yolksac and swim-up fry were clearly more sensitive to stressful exposure conditions. While eggs appeared to be the most sensitive life stage, this conclusion was compromised by heavy mortalities of eggs due to fungal infestations during experimental exposures. As found in our earlier studies with brook and rainbow trout, acid-aluminum stressed smallmouth bass exhibited net losses of electrolytes across gills and increased accumulation of aluminum on gill tissues. Overall, our results indicated that smallmouth bass were generally more sensitive to increased exposure concentrations of aluminum than to increased acidities. Compared to toxicology results from earlier LAF project studies, smallmouth bass were more sensitive than brook trout and slightly less sensitive than rainbow trout when exposed to water quality conditions associated with acidification.An example application of the LAF modeling framework shows how different liming scenarios can improve survival probabilities for smallmouth bass in a set of lakes sensitive to acidification.

  20. 50 CFR 648.143 - Black sea bass Accountability Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... average of the 2012 and 2013 recreational sector ACLs; the average total catch from 2012, 2013, and 2014 will be compared to the average of the 2012, 2013, and 2014 recreational sector ACLs and, for...

  1. 50 CFR 648.143 - Black sea bass Accountability Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... average of the 2012 and 2013 recreational sector ACLs; the average total catch from 2012, 2013, and 2014 will be compared to the average of the 2012, 2013, and 2014 recreational sector ACLs and, for...

  2. 50 CFR 648.143 - Black sea bass Accountability Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... average of the 2012 and 2013 recreational sector ACLs; the average total catch from 2012, 2013, and 2014 will be compared to the average of the 2012, 2013, and 2014 recreational sector ACLs and, for...

  3. 50 CFR 648.144 - Black sea bass gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... have a minimum mesh size of 4.5-inch (11.43-cm) diamond mesh applied throughout the codend for at least... entire net must have a minimum mesh size of 4.5-inch (11.43-cm) diamond mesh throughout. (ii) Mesh...

  4. 50 CFR 648.144 - Black sea bass gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... have a minimum mesh size of 4.5-inch (11.43-cm) diamond mesh applied throughout the codend for at least... entire net must have a minimum mesh size of 4.5-inch (11.43-cm) diamond mesh throughout. (ii) Mesh...

  5. BASS2000-Tarbes: current status and THEMIS data processing .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, N.; Lafon, M.; Maeght, P.; Grimaud, F.; Roudier, Th.

    I will review the history and status of the data archive BASS2000 and will concentrate my presentation on the BASS2000-Tarbes data base, which contains a very large volume of THEMIS data, i.e. spectropolarimetric data. I will insist the implementation of the processing of MTR-THEMIS (multi-line spectropolarimetry) data by the BASS2000 team, which has been our main project in 2006. New data levels are Stokes profiles and clean spectra, maps of continuum intensity and line-center intensity, Dopplergrams, magnetograms and vector magnetic field maps. I will also present the tools and services that we are providing.

  6. Survival of foul-hooked largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, K.L.; Wilde, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a field experiment to determine the survival rate of foul-hooked (hooked external to the oral cavity) largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) caught and released by recreational anglers. Of 42 largemouth bass caught with hard-plastic baits containing three treble hooks, 15 were hooked only within the mouth and 27 had at least one hook penetrating the external surface of the fish (i.e., foul-hooked). There was no difference in survival of mouth-hooked (100%), foul-hooked (100%), or control (100%) largemouth bass.

  7. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation.

    PubMed

    Baylis, Alastair M M; Kowalski, Gabriele J; Voigt, Christian C; Orben, Rachael A; Trillmich, Fritz; Staniland, Iain J; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-01-01

    Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island) foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal) or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use.

  8. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Baylis, Alastair M. M.; Kowalski, Gabriele J.; Voigt, Christian C.; Orben, Rachael A.; Trillmich, Fritz; Staniland, Iain J.; Hoffman, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island) foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal) or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use. PMID:27304855

  9. Modeling the effects of potential salinity shifts on the recovery of striped bass in the Savannah River estuary, Georgia-South Carolina, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, T.R.; Peterson, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Increased salinity in spawning and nursery grounds in the Savannah River estuary was cited as the primary cause of a 97% decrease in adult striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and a concomitant 96% decrease in striped bass egg production. Restoration efforts focused on environmental remediation and stock enhancement have resulted in restored salinity patterns and increased egg and adult abundances. However, future water needs or harbor development may preclude further recovery by reducing freshwater inflow or increasing salinity intrusion. To assess the effect of potential changes in the salinity regime, we developed models relating discharge, tidal phase, and salinity to striped bass egg and early larval survival and re-cast these in a quantitative Bayesian belief network. The model indicated that a small upstream shift (???1.67 km) in the salinity regime would have the least impact on striped bass early life history survival, whereas shifts >1.67 km would have progressively larger impacts, with a 8.33-km shift potentially reducing our estimated survival probability by >28%. Such an impact could have cumulative and long-term detrimental effects on the recovery of the Savannah River striped bass population. The available salinity data were collected during average and low flows, so our model represents some typical and some extreme conditions during a striped bass spawning season. Our model is a relatively simplistic, "first-order" attempt at evaluating potential effects of changes in the Savannah River estuarine salinity regime and points to areas of concern and potential future research. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  10. Book review: Black bass diversity: Multidisciplinary science for conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jelks, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Review info: Black bass diversity: Multidisciplinary science for conservation. Edited by Michael D. Tringali, James M. Long, Timothy W. Birdsong, and Michael S. Allen, 2015. ISBN: 978-1-934874-40-0, 685 pp.

  11. The effects of water temperature on the energetic costs of juvenile and adult California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): the importance of skeletal muscle thermogenesis for thermal balance.

    PubMed

    Liwanag, H E M; Williams, T M; Costa, D P; Kanatous, S B; Davis, R W; Boyd, I L

    2009-12-01

    As highly mobile marine predators, many pinniped species routinely encounter a wide range of water temperatures during foraging and in association with seasonal, geographical and climatic changes. To determine how such variation in environmental temperature may impact energetic costs in otariids, we determined the thermal neutral zone of adult and juvenile California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) by measuring resting metabolic rate using open-flow respirometry. Five adult female (body mass range =82.2-107.2 kg) and four juvenile (body mass=26.2-36.5 kg) sea lions were examined over experimental water temperatures ranging from 0 to 20 degrees C (adults) or 5 to 20 degrees C (juveniles). The metabolic rate of adult sea lions averaged 6.4+/-0.64 ml O(2) kg(-1) min(-1) when resting within the thermal neutral zone. The lower critical temperature of adults was 6.4+/-2.2 degrees C, approximately 4 degrees C lower than sea surface temperatures routinely encountered off coastal California. In comparison, juvenile sea lions did not demonstrate thermal neutrality within the range of water temperatures examined. Resting metabolic rate of the younger animals, 6.3+/-0.53 ml O(2) kg(-1) min(-1), increased as water temperature approached 12 degrees C, and suggested a potential thermal limitation in the wild. To determine whether muscle thermogenesis during activity could mitigate this limitation, we measured the active metabolic rate of juveniles swimming at water temperature (T(water))=5, 12 and 20 degrees C. No significant difference (F=0.377, P=0.583) in swimming metabolic rate was found among water temperatures, suggesting that thermal disadvantages due to small body size in juvenile sea lions may be circumvented by recycling endogenous heat during locomotor activity.

  12. Benthic Acoustic Stress Sensor (BASS): Electronics Check-Out Procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martini, Marinna A.; Williams, Albert

    1993-01-01

    Summary The procedures described here are presented so that a technician with limited experience with BASS can perform basic tests which, when executed properly, should be a thorough evaluation of the health of the system. This is not intended as an in depth explanation of how BASS works. Should any significant problems be found, it is suggested that you contact the manufacturer, Oceanographic Instrument Systems, North Falmouth, MA. The Tattletale controller is manufactured by the Onset Computer Corporation, Cataumet, MA.

  13. Potential of largemouth bass as vectors of 137Cs dispersal.

    PubMed

    Paller, M H; Fletcher, D E; Jones, T; Dyer, S A; Isely, J J; Littrell, J W

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a radio telemetry study on the movements of potentially contaminated largemouth bass between Steel Creek, a restricted access (137)Cs contaminated stream on the Savannah River Site (located in South Carolina, USA), and the publicly accessible Savannah River. Largemouth bass were relatively mobile in lower Steel Creek and the portion of the Savannah River near Steel Creek, and there was considerable movement between these two habitats. Largemouth bass had home ranges of about 500 linear meters of shoreline in the Savannah River but sometimes moved long distances. Such movements occurred primarily during the spawning season, largely upstream, and increased when water levels were changing or elevated. However, approximately 90% of the largemouth bass observations were within 10 km of Steel Creek. The total quantity of (137)Cs transported into the Savannah River by largemouth bass was much less than transported by water and suspended sediments discharged from Steel Creek. We conclude that largemouth bass from the Savannah River Site are unlikely to be responsible for long distance dispersal of substantial radiological contamination in the Savannah River.

  14. Structure, molecular evolution, and hydrolytic specificities of largemouth bass pepsins.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoko; Suzuki-Matsubara, Mieko; Kageyama, Takashi; Moriyama, Akihiko

    2016-02-01

    The nucleotide sequences of largemouth bass pepsinogens (PG1, 2 and 3) were determined after molecular cloning of the respective cDNAs. Encoded PG1, 2 and 3 were classified as fish pepsinogens A1, A2 and C, respectively. Molecular evolutionary analyses show that vertebrate pepsinogens are classified into seven monophyletic groups, i.e. pepsinogens A, F, Y (prochymosins), C, B, and fish pepsinogens A and C. Regarding the primary structures, extensive deletion was obvious in S'1 loop residues in fish pepsin A as well as tetrapod pepsin Y. This deletion resulted in a decrease in hydrophobic residues in the S'1 site. Hydrolytic specificities of bass pepsins A1 and A2 were investigated with a pepsin substrate and its variants. Bass pepsins preferred both hydrophobic/aromatic residues and charged residues at the P'1 sites of substrates, showing the dual character of S'1 sites. Thermodynamic analyses of bass pepsin A2 showed that its activation Gibbs energy change (∆G(‡)) was lower than that of porcine pepsin A. Several sites of bass pepsin A2 moiety were found to be under positive selection, and most of them are located on the surface of the molecule, where they are involved in conformational flexibility. The broad S'1 specificity and flexible structure of bass pepsin A2 are thought to cause its high proteolytic activity.

  15. Bimodal Winter Haul-Out Patterns of Adult Weddell Seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in the Southern Weddell Sea

    PubMed Central

    Fedak, Mike; Årthun, Marius; Nicholls, Keith; Robinson, Patrick; Costa, Dan; Biuw, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hauling out is an essential component of pinniped life-history. Haul-out behaviour may be affected by biological (e.g. sex, age and condition) and physical factors (e.g. food availability and environmental conditions), and identifying these factors may help explain the spatio-temporal distribution and habitat use of pinnipeds. The aim of this study is to describe observed winter haul-out patterns of adult Weddell seals in the Weddell Sea and investigate the role of potential predictors to gain insight into the way these animals interact with the physical environment in this region. We examined the haul-out behaviour in relation to available biological (i.e., diving effort, sex) and physical information (i.e., sun angle). Thirty-three satellite telemetry tags were deployed on adult Weddell seals in the southern Weddell Sea during February 2007, 2009 and 2011, following their annual moult recording information on the behavioural mode of the animal: at surface, hauled out or diving. At the end of the austral summer Weddell seals spent, on average, more than 40% of their time hauled out on the ice. Under constant light conditions, it appears that physiological factors drive sex differences in the timing and duration of haul-out behaviour, with females spending on average more time hauled out than males during daylight hours. This time spent hauled-out declined to around 15% in both sexes by the beginning of autumn and remained at this level with a clear nocturnal haul-out pattern during the winter. The time spent diving increased during this period, indicating an increase in foraging effort during the winter months, and led to a common haul-out pattern in both sexes over winter. We found a positive relationship between haul-out duration and the percentage of time spent diving prior to a haul-out in both sexes, with the exception of female daytime haul-outs early in the year. PMID:27196097

  16. The olfactory system of migratory adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is specifically and acutely sensitive to unique bile acids released by conspecific larvae

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Larval sea lamprey inhabit freshwater streams and migrate to oceans or lakes to feed after a radical metamorphosis; subsequently, mature adults return to streams to spawn. Previous observations suggested that lamprey utilize the odor of conspecific larvae to select streams for spawning. Here we report biochemical and electrophysiological evidence that this odor is comprised of two unique bile acids released by larvae. High performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry demonstrated that larval sea lamprey produce and release two unique bile acids, allocholic acid (ACA) and petromyzonol sulfate (PS). Electro-olfactogram (EOG) recording also demonstrated that the olfactory system of migratory adult sea lamprey is acutely and specifically sensitive to ACA and PS; detection thresholds for these compounds were approximately 10(-12) M. ACA and PS were the most potent of 38 bile acids tested and cross-adaptation experiments suggested that adult sea lamprey have specific olfactory receptor sites associated with independent signal transduction pathways for these bile acids. These receptor sites specifically recognize the key substituents of ACA and PS such as a 5 alpha-hydrogen, three axial hydroxyls, and a C-24 sulfate ester or carboxyl. In conclusion, the unique lamprey bile acids, ACA and PS, are potent and specific stimulants of the adult olfactory system, strongly supporting the hypothesis that these unique bile acids function as migratory pheromones in lamprey. PMID:7658193

  17. Expression of spicule matrix protein gene SM30 in embryonic and adult mineralized tissues of sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitajima, T.; Tomita, M.; Killian, C. E.; Akasaka, K.; Wilt, F. H.

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone for spicule matrix protein, SM30, from sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and have studied the expression of this gene in comparison with that of another spicule matrix protein gene, SM50. In cultured micromeres as well as in intact embryos transcripts of SM30 were first detectable around the onset of spicule formation and rapidly increased with the growth of spicules, which accompanied accumulation of glycosylated SM30 protein(s). When micromeres were cultured in the presence of Zn2+, spicule formation and SM30 expression were suppressed, while both events resumed concurrently after the removal of Zn2+ from the culture medium. Expression of SM50, in contrast, started before the appearance of spicules and was not sensitive to Zn2+. Differences were also observed in adult tissues; SM30 mRNA was detected in spines and tube feet but not in the test, while SM50 mRNA was apparent in all of these mineralized tissues at similar levels. These results strongly suggest that the SM30 gene is regulated by a different mechanism to that of the SM50 gene and that the products of these two genes are differently involved in sea urchin biomineralization. A possible role of SM30 protein in skeleton formation is discussed.

  18. A new species of Coryogalops (Perciformes: Gobiidae) and the first adult record of Feia nympha from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-03-31

    A new species of the gobiid genus Coryogalops, C. nanus sp. nov. is described from the Red Sea. Coryogalops nanus sp. nov. is distinguished from congeners in having dorsal-fin rays VI + I,10; anal-fin rays I,9; pectoral-fin rays 12-14 (lowest count known for the genus), two upper rays with free tips; pelvic fins I,5, joined to form an emarginate disc, no pelvic frenum; predorsal area and narrow area at base of first dorsal fin naked; longitudinal scale series 26-29; transverse scale rows counted forward 6-7; transverse scale rows counted backward 7-8; circumpeduncular scale rows 11-12; seven transverse suborbital rows of sensory papillae; no tentacle above upper eye margin; anterior nostril tubular, without flap at its tip, posterior nostril pore-like; body semitranslucent, covered with small scattered orange-yellow spots and speckles, those in predorsal area contain black dots; an internal row of white spots along ventral part of body above anal-fin base and on caudal peduncle; head with small scattered orange to yellowish brown spots; first dorsal fin with two broad white bands at base of fin and distally, and with hyaline area densely dotted with melanophores in the middle of fin; preserved specimens opaque white to yellowish with sparse melanophores. An adult specimen of Feia nympha is recorded for the first time in the Red Sea and the lateral line system of this species is described.

  19. Prevalence of oxygen desaturation and use of oxygen at home in adults at sea level and at moderate altitude.

    PubMed

    Perez-Padilla, R; Torre-Bouscoulet, L; Muiño, A; Marquez, M N; Lopez, M V; de Oca, M M; Talamo, C; Menezes, A M B

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of oxygen desaturation in adults aged>or=40 yrs as altitude above sea level increases. A population-based, cross-sectional study with a multistage cluster sampling of 1,063 subjects from metropolitan Mexico City (Mexico; 2,240 m above sea level), 1,357 from Caracas (Venezuela; 950 m) and 943 from Montevideo (Uruguay; 35 m). The mean of six measurements of arterial oxygen saturation (SP,O2) was estimated using a pulse oximeter. Mean SP,O2 decreased with altitude. No subject from Montevideo had a mean SP,O288%. In conclusion, the prevalence of hypoxaemia was closely related to altitude. Priorities for oxygen prescription must be defined in moderate altitudes because it is unfeasible to provide it to all subjects fulfilling the criteria commonly used.

  20. Overcompensatory response of a smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) population to harvest: Release from competition?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipkin, E.F.; Sullivan, P.J.; Cooch, E.G.; Kraft, C.E.; Shuter, B.J.; Weidel, B.C.

    2008-01-01

    An intensive seven-year removal of adult, juvenile, and young-of-the-year smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) from a north temperate lake (Little Moose Lake, New York, USA) resulted in an increase in overall population abundance, primarily due to increased abundance of immature individuals. We developed a density-dependent, stage-structured model to examine conditions under which population control through harvest could result in the increase of a targeted species. Parameter values were derived from a 54-year data set collected from another north temperate lake (Lake Opeongo, Ontario, Canada) smallmouth bass population. Sensitivity analyses identified the demographic conditions that could lead to increased abundance in response to harvest. An increase in population abundance with harvest was most likely to occur when either (i) per capita recruitment at low levels of spawner abundance was large, juvenile survivorship was high, and maturation of age-4 and older juveniles was moderately high or (ii) per capita recruitment at low levels of spawner abundance was slightly lower, yet the maturation rate of age-3 juveniles and adult survivorship were high. Our modeling results together with empirical evidence further demonstrate the importance of overcompensation as a substantial factor to consider in efforts to regulate population abundance through harvest. ?? 2008 NRC.

  1. Notes on Myxobolus inoratus, n sp, a Myxosporidian, parasitic in the black bass (Huro floridana, Le Sueur)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1939-01-01

    A largemouth black bass fingerling preserved in formalin was sent to the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries Pathology Laboratory at Seattle, Washington, during the autumn of 1937, by a hatchery employee at Miles City, Montana. The fish exhibited several wart-like protuberances on the caudal peduncle, which aroused the curiosity of Mr. H. C. Topel, in charge of fish distribution at Miles City. He had observed the gradually increasing numbers of these lesions on the fish at this station for several years previous to 1937. Mr. Topel estimated that in 1937, 20 per cent of the adult bass were infected at the time of distribution, and lesions were noted on the fingerling and yearling stock as well.

  2. Zooplankton variability and larval striped bass foraging: Evaluating potential match/mismatch regulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chick, J.H.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    We quantified temporal and spatial variability of zooplankton in three potential nursery sites (river, transition zone, lake) for larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Lake Marion, South Carolina, during April and May 1993-1995. In two of three years, microzooplankton (rotifers and copepod nauplii) density was significantly greater in the lake site than in the river or transition zone. Macrozooplankton (>200 ??m) composition varied among the three sites in all years with adult copepods and cladocerans dominant at the lake, and juvenile Corbicula fluminea dominant at the river and transition zone. Laboratory feeding experiments, simulating both among-site (site treatments) and within-site (density treatments) variability, were conducted in 1995 to quantify the effects of the observed zooplankton variability on foraging success of larval striped bass. A greater proportion of larvae fed in the lake than in the river or transition-zone treatments across all density treatments: mean (x), 10x and 100x. Larvae also ingested significantly more dry mass of prey in the lake treatment in both the mean and 10x density treatments. Field zooplankton and laboratory feeding data suggest that both spatial and temporal variability of zooplankton influence larval striped bass foraging. Prey density levels that supported successful foraging in our feeding experiments occurred in the lake during late April and May in 1994 and 1995 but were never observed in the river or transition zone. Because the rivers flowing into Lake Marion are regulated, it may be possible to devise flow management schemes that facilitate larval transport to the lake and thereby increase the proportion of larvae matched to suitable prey resources.

  3. Hybridization threatens shoal bass populations in the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin: Chapter 37

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dakin, Elizabeth E; Porter, Brady A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Long, James M.; Tringali, Michael D.; Long, James M.; Birdsong, Timothy W.; Allen, Micheal S.

    2015-01-01

    Shoal bass are native only to the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river system of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, and are vulnerable to extinction as a result of population fragmentation and introduction of non-native species. We assessed the genetic integrity of isolated populations of shoal bass in the upper Chattahoochee River basin (above Lake Lanier, Big Creek, and below Morgan Falls Dam) and sought to identify rates of hybridization with non-native, illegally stocked smallmouth bass and spotted bass.

  4. Death in the octopus' garden: fatal blue-lined octopus envenomations of adult green sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Kathy A; Altvater, Jens; Thomas, Michael C; Schuyler, Qamar A; Nette, Geoffrey W

    2012-01-01

    The blue-lined octopus Hapalochlaena fasciata contains the powerful neuromuscular blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), which causes muscle weakness and respiratory failure. H. fasciata is regarded as one of the most venomous marine animals in the world, and multiple human fatalities have been attributed to the octopus. To date, there have been no recorded incidents of an envenomation of a wild animal. Here, we present a newly developed, multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry technique that provides unequivocal evidence for two cases of envenomation of two ~110 kg herbivorous green sea turtles by two tiny cryptic blue-lined octopuses (~4 cm body length). These cases of accidental ingestion provide evidence for the first time of the antipredator effect of TTX and highlight a previously unconsidered threat to turtles grazing within seagrass beds.

  5. Pharmacokinetic indices for cefovecin after single-dose administration to adult sea otters (Enhydra lutris).

    PubMed

    Lee, E A; Byrne, B A; Young, M A; Murray, M; Miller, M A; Tell, L A

    2016-12-01

    Seven sea otters received a single subcutaneous dose of cefovecin at 8 mg/kg body weight. Plasma samples were collected at predetermined time points and assayed for total cefovecin concentrations using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The mean (±SD) noncompartmental pharmacokinetic indices were as follows: CMax (obs) 70.6 ± 14.6 μg/mL, TMax (obs) 2.9 ± 1.5 h, elimination rate constant (kel ) 0.017 ± 0.002/h, elimination half-life (t1/2kel) 41.6 ± 4.7 h, area under the plasma concentration-vs.-time curve to last sample (AUClast) 3438.7 ± 437.7 h·μg/mL and AUC extrapolated to infinity (AUC0→∞ ) 3447.8 ± 439.0 h·μg/mL. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for select isolates were determined and used to suggest possible dosing intervals of 10 days, 5 days, and 2.5 days for gram-positive, gram-negative, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus bacterial species, respectively. This study found a single subcutaneous dose of cefovecin sodium in sea otters to be clinically safe and a viable option for long-acting antimicrobial therapy.

  6. Survey of intersex largemouth bass from impoundments in Georgia USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellock, Kristen A.; Trushel, Brittany E.; Ely, Patrick C.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Bringolf, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Intersex fish are increasingly being reported worldwide, primarily in rivers that receive treated wastewater, but few studies have investigated intersex in waters that do not receive wastewater. In a recent reconnaissance survey of intersex fish in North America, a high rate of intersex was reported for Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides in some southeastern U.S. rivers; however, the occurrence of intersex in impoundments has not been well described, especially on a statewide scale. Therefore, our objective for this project was to survey the occurrence of intersex Largemouth Bass in a variety of impoundment habitats across Georgia. Largemouth Bass were collected from 11 impoundments without direct municipal or agricultural wastewater inputs. Gonads from all male Largemouth Bass were evaluated for the incidence and severity of the intersex condition based on presence and arrangement of testicular oocytes. Overall 48% of male Largemouth Bass collected from impoundments were intersex, which was found in 9 of the 11 impoundments. Among impoundments, incidence of intersex ranged from 0 to 82% of the males sampled and surface area of the impoundment was a significant predictor of intersex incidence. Intersex fish were smaller than normal males, but population-level effects of intersex and causative factors of endocrine disruption in the impoundments remain unknown. The high incidence of intersex males in small impoundments demonstrates that the condition is not confined to rivers and suggests that factors other than those previously associated with intersex (i.e., municipal wastewater) may be involved.

  7. Sub-lethal ammonia toxicity in largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    Suski, C D; Kieffer, J D; Killen, S S; Tufts, B L

    2007-03-01

    Guidelines for ammonia toxicity in fish are often determined using static exposure tests with immature fish over a 96-h period. These results may not be relevant to aquaculture, hauling or angling tournament scenarios where mature fish can be exposed to ammonia for shorter durations, often following additional stressors such as handling. The current study sought to quantify (1) the impact of ambient ammonia on the ability of largemouth bass to recover from exercise, (2) the behavioural response of largemouth bass to elevated ambient ammonia and (3) the concentration of ammonia that can accumulate in a live-release vessel at an angling tournament. After approximately 3 h, total ammonia (T(amm)) concentrations in a live-release vessel at an angling tournament were almost 200 muM. Exposure of fish to 1000 microM T(amm) (a value approximately 80% below the criteria maximum concentration for largemouth bass) caused significant reductions in ventilation rates, and increases in erratic swimming and irregular ventilation. Exposure to 100 microM T(amm) impaired the ability of largemouth bass to recover from exercise relative to fish recovering in fresh water. Therefore, sub-lethal ambient ammonia concentrations cause physiological disturbances that can impair the recovery of largemouth bass from exercise.

  8. Dealing with largemouth bass virus: benefits of multisector collaboration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terre, David R.; Schramm, Harold; Grizzle , John M.; Fries, Loraine T.

    2015-01-01

    Largemouth bass virus (LMBV), a recently identified pathogen, affected largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the southeastern United States beginning in the 1990s. Concern about the impacts of this little-known pathogen on largemouth bass populations, effects on fisheries management, and the need to provide anglers and the media with consistent and accurate information prompted a private organization (Bass Anglers Sportsman Society) to invite managers and researchers from state and federal agencies and universities to a series of five annual public workshops beginning in 2000. These workshops provided a mechanism to share information, identify and prioritize action items, and develop consensus information and outreach materials that could be provided to bass anglers and the media. Regionalizing the LMBV issue and collaboration among researchers, managers, and a fishing organization may also have allayed angler and media concerns. The process embodied in these workshops is offered as a successful example of multi-agency, multi-sector collaboration to facilitate information acquisition and guide action to address a regional fisheries management issue.

  9. Development and characterization of a largemouth bass cell line.

    PubMed

    Getchell, Rodman G; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Cornwell, Emily R; Schumacher, Vanessa L; Glasner, Lindsay I; Baker, Barry J; Frattini, Stephen A; Wooster, Gregory A; Bowser, Paul R

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The development and characterization of a new cell line, derived from the ovary of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, is described. Gonad tissue was collected from Largemouth Bass that were electrofished from Oneida Lake, New York. The tissue was processed and grown in culture flasks at approximately 22°C for more than 118 passages during an 8-year period from 2004 to 2011. The identity of these cells as Largemouth Bass origin was confirmed by sequencing a portion of the cytochrome b gene. Growth rate at three different temperatures was documented. The cell line was susceptible to Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV) and its replication was compared with that of Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus fry (BF-2), one of the cell lines recommended for LMBV isolation by the American Fisheries Society Fish Health Section Blue Book. Quantitative PCR results from the replication trial showed the BF-2 cell line produced approximately 10-fold more LMBV copies per cell than the new Largemouth Bass cell line after 6 d, while the titration assay showed similar quantities in each cell line after 1 week. Received February 18, 2014; accepted April 16, 2014.

  10. Growth of the rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris (Rafinesque), in five lakes of northeastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1942-01-01

    Rock bass of corresponding length from Allequash, Silver, and Trout Lakes were so nearly of the same weight that one curve described the length-weight relationship of the three stocks. Muskellunge Lake rock bass were considerably lighter than fish of the same length from these three lakes, and Nebish Lake rock bass were somewhat lighter than those from Muskellunge Lake.

  11. 78 FR 32355 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bass Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bass Harbor, ME AGENCY... Airspace at Bass Harbor, ME, to accommodate a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) special Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) serving Bass Harbor Heliport. This action...

  12. 75 FR 59078 - Safety Zone; Ledge Removal Project, Bass Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ledge Removal Project, Bass Harbor, ME... temporary safety zone around a ledge removal project in Bass Harbor, Maine. The United States Army Corps of... and around Bass Harbor both to increase mooring capacity for fishing trawlers and recreational...

  13. 78 FR 18931 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bass Harbor, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bass Harbor, ME...: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Bass Harbor, ME, to accommodate a new Area...) serving Bass Harbor Heliport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of...

  14. Hybrid striped bass National Breeding Program: Research towards genetic improvement of a non-model species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hybrid striped bass (HSB) farming industry at present relies almost totally on wild broodstock for annual production of larvae and fingerlings, and industry efforts to domesticate the parent species of the HSB (white bass: WB, Morone chrysops; striped bass: SB, M. saxatilis) have been fairly lim...

  15. Hybrid striped bass national breeding program: research towards genetic improvement of a non-model species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hybrid striped bass (HSB) farming industry at present relies almost totally on wild broodstock for annual production of larvae and fingerlings, and industry efforts to domesticate the parent species of the HSB (white bass: WB, Morone chrysops; striped bass: SB, M. saxatilis) have been fairly lim...

  16. Use of copper sulfate to control Saprolegniasis at a commercial sunshine bass hatchery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  17. Egg saprolegniasis in a commercial sunshine bass hatchery: Control regime developed using copper sulfate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  18. Comparative cost analysis of hybrid striped bass fingerling production in ponds and tanks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Year-round production of hybrid striped bass (female white bass Morone chrysops×male striped bass M. saxatilis) fingerlings would allow food fish growers to sell their product throughout the year, which would improve the consistency of market supply and cash flow for the farm. However, pond producti...

  19. Immunological discrimination of Atlantic striped bass stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schill, W.B.; Dorazio, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Stocks of Atlantic striped bass Morone saxatilis that were assumed to be geographically isolated during spawning showed strong antigenic differences in blood serum albumin. A discriminant function was estimated from the immunologic responses of northern (Canadian and Hudson River) and southern (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River) stocks to two reference antisera. The function correctly classified 92% of the northern and 95% of the southern fish in the training set. Cross-validation revealed similar percentages of correct classification for fish that were of known origin but not used to estimate the discriminant function. Monte Carlo experiments were used to evaluate the ability of the discriminant function to predict the relative contribution of northern fish in samples of various size and stock composition. Averages of predicted proportions of northern fish in the samples agreed well with actual proportions. Coefficients of variation (100 × SD/mean) in the predicted proportions ranged from 1.5 to 36% for samples of 50–400 fish that contained at least 10% northern stock. In samples that contained only 2% northern stock, however, at least 1,600 fish were required to achieve similar levels of precision.

  20. A 66-bp deletion in growth hormone releasing hormone gene 5'-flanking region with largemouth bass recessive embryonic lethal.

    PubMed

    Ma, D M; Han, L Q; Bai, J J; Li, S J; Fan, J J; Yu, L Y; Quan, Y C

    2014-06-01

    Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) regulates the secretion of growth hormone (GH) in the pituitary gland. A 66-bp deletion (c.-923_-858del) was detected in the 5'-flanking sequence of the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) GHRH gene. In two cultured random populations of adult individuals (A: n = 170 and B: n = 150), the genotype ratios of +/+:+/- were 2.5:1 and 2.8:1 respectively. Only one -/- fish was detected. A Largemouth bass family was constructed with two heterozygous individuals (+/-) as parents. The genotype ratio of +/+:+/-:-/- in the filial generation embryos was 1:1.6:0.1 at the neurula and 1:2:0 at hatched larvae stages. This indicated that the 66-bp deletion was a recessive lethal site and that homozygous individuals (-/-) died off in embryonic development. The growth traits (body weight, body length and body depth) were measured, and the GHRH mRNA expression levels in brain tissue were detected using real-time PCR. The effects of genotype (+/-) on growth traits and GHRH mRNA expression were not significant. Although the cause of death was not clear, the results hint that the 66-bp deletion site in GHRH 5'-flanking sequence significantly affects the livability in largemouth bass embryonic development.

  1. Competitive interactions between walleye (Sander vitreus) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) under various controlled conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wuellner, M.R.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Willis, D.W.; Galster, B.J.; Selch, T.M.; Chipps, S.R.

    2011-01-01

    The range of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) is expanding northward, creating new interactions with native predators, including walleye (Sander vitreus). We used a series of experiments to investigate competition between walleye (WAE) and smallmouth bass (SMB) at different life stages and light conditions, identified behaviors that allowed one fish to outcompete another, and evaluated whether prey switching mitigated competitive interactions. Juvenile and adult SMB appeared to outcompete WAE when fed during the daytime; neither species dominated when fed near dusk. Attack rates and capture efficiencies of both species were similar with an intra- or interspecific competitor, but SMB often exploited prey before the competitor had a chance to feed (exploitative competition) or displayed agonistic behaviors toward a potential competitor (interference competition). Prey selectivity of WAE or SMB did not differ when by themselves or with a potential competitor. These results indicate that SMB could outcompete WAE under limiting prey conditions due to the aggressive nature of SMB, but resources may be partitioned at least along a temporal scale. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  2. Visual implant elastomer and anchor tag retention in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    We double-marked largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides with Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant elastomer (VIE) marks before stocking to compare retention of the two marks for age-0 (178 mm total length [TL]) and age-1 (273 mm TL) largemouth bass. In a short-term (31-d) evaluation, retention rate of anchor tags was over 94% for each age-class and retention of VIE marks was 98% in both age-classes. In a longer-term comparison of fish stocked into the Ohio River, retention was substantially higher for VIE marks (92.9%) than for anchor tags (42.9%) after 403 d (ages combined). Although anchor tags had high retention in two sizes of largemouth bass during the short-term experiment, they should not be used in situations where accurate identification of marked fish is required for periods longer than 123 d. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  3. Groundwater influences on the distribution and abundance of riverine smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, in pasture landscapes of the midwestern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, Shannon K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how spring-flow (SF) contributions to streams related to the distribution and abundance of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in a predominately pasture landscape in Missouri, USA. Stream segments (N=13) with similar landscape characters were classified by SF volume into high SF (HSF) or low SF (LSF) groups. The densities of smallmouth bass, channel unit (CU) use and temperature-selection patterns were assessed for several life stages and frequency distributions for age 0 fish. More smallmouth bass were present in stream segments with HSF influence. Age 0 fish were twice as likely to be present in HSF stream segments. Older age classes were present in stream reaches independent of SF contribution. For all age classes, the use of particular CUs did not depend on SF influence. All age classes were more likely to be present in pools than other CUs. Microhabitat temperature selection differed among age classes. Age 0 fish selected warmer temperatures with a gradual shift towards cooler temperatures for older age classes. The length frequency of age 0 fish was skewed towards larger individuals in streams with limited SF influence, whereas the length frequency in HSF stream segments was skewed towards smaller individuals. The benefits of significant groundwater via SF influence seem to be related to increased hatch or survival of age 0 fish and the availability of optimal temperatures for adult smallmouth bass growth. Thermal refugia and stable flows provided by springs should be recognised for their biological potential to provide suitable habitat as climate change and other land-use alterations increase temperature regimes and alter flow patterns.

  4. Population dynamics modeling of introduced smallmouth bass in the upper Colorado River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breton, André R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Bestgen, Kevin R.; Hawkins, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to identify an effective control strategy to further reduce smallmouth bass in the upper Colorado River basin from the current level. Our simulation results showed that “the surge”, an early to mid-summer increase in electrofishing effort targeting nest-guarding male smallmouth bass, should be made a core component of any future smallmouth bass management strategy in the upper basin. Immigration from off channel reservoirs is supporting smallmouth bass popualtions in the Yampa River and our modeling analyses suggest that smallmouth bass  in Little Yampa Canyon might go extinct in a few years under the present level of exploitation.

  5. Forecasting Diffusion of Technology by using Bass Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do-Hoi; Shin, Young-Geun; Park, Sang-Sung; Jang, Dong-Sik

    2009-08-01

    Generally, researching method of technology forecasting has been depended on intuition of expert until now. So there were many defects like consuming much time and money and so on. In this paper, we forecast diffusion of technology by using Bass model that is one of the quantitative analysis methods. We applied this model at technology market. And for input data of experiment, we use patent data that is representing each technology in technology market. We expect this research will be suggest new possibility that patent data can be applied in Bass model.

  6. Interactions between striped bass and other gamefish in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Raborn, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions among reservoir fishes may be pronounced because fish assemblages in these artificial environments have had little time to develop niche-partitioning strategies that alleviate negative interspecific interactions. Such interactions may at times have been intensified by introductions of predators such as striped bass Morone saxatilis, introduced to create additional fisheries and control pelagic clupeids. Possible interactions between existing fish assemblages and striped bass include predation and competition. While there is a perception among angler groups that predation by striped bass on co-existing game fish is significant, most studies have reported little or no predation on game fish my striped bass and have considered predation rare and inconsequential. Moreover, predation that occurs will likely be compensatory and fail to reduce overall game fish survival. Any indirect effect of striped bass predation by restricting prey-sized game fish to limited refuge sites remains unknown. Exploitative competition may be more common. Although infrequently, introduced striped bass have depleted prey resources shared with other piscivores, particularly when stocking rates have been high, when there is a high rate of natural reproduction, or when prey supply has plunged in response to environmental fluxes. Fluctuation in prey supply, associated with ordinary environmental variability, and associated time lages in prey supply and predator demand, preclude adjusting predator densities to exactly balance demand with supply. The frequency of low supply-demand rations varies across systems and exhibits seasonal trends. Nevertheless, chronic supply-demand imbalances are manageable where the predator assemblage is at least partially controlled through stocking, harvest regulations, or both. Because of the poor state of knowledge concerning the parameters defining balance and because uncontrollable annual fluctuations preclude exact management of

  7. Response by anglers to a differential harvest regulation on three black bass species at Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Hyler, Randy G.; Fisher, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Angler responses to a differential harvest regulation on black bass, Micropterus spp. at Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma was assessed from 1997 to 1999. This regulation allowed anglers to harvest 15 spotted bass, M. punctulatus (Rafinesque) of any size and six largemouth bass, M. salmoides (Lacepède) and smallmouth bass, M. dolomieu Lacepède greater than 356 mm (in aggregate) per day. Anglers’ ability to differentiate spotted bass increased after the first year of the study, but their willingness to target or harvest spotted bass declined. Mean angler catch rates (number of fish per angling hour) for all three species remained steady throughout the study. Total harvest of largemouth bass and smallmouth bass was reduced by 1999 while total harvest of spotted bass remained steady throughout the study period. Despite the more liberal regulations as incentive, the regulation failed to accomplish the primary objective of increasing angler harvest of spotted bass because of high rates of voluntary catch and release.

  8. Experimental mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier, David T.; Rhodes, M.W.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Kator, H.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis were infected intraperitoneally with approximately 105 Mycobacterium marinum, M. shottsii sp. nov., or M. gordonae. Infected fish were maintained in a flow-through freshwater system at 18 to 21??C, and were examined histologically and bacteriologically at 2, 4, 6, 8, 17, 26, 36 and 45 wk post-infection (p.i.). M. marinum caused acute peritonitis, followed by extensive granuloma development in the mesenteries, spleen and anterior kidney. Granulomas in these tissues underwent a temporal progression of distinct morphological stages, culminating in well-circumscribed lesions surrounded by normal or healing tissue. Mycobacteria were cultured in high numbers from splenic tissue at all times p.i. Standard Ziehl-Neelsen staining, however, did not demonstrate acid-fast rods in most early inflammatory foci and granulomas. Large numbers of acid-fast rods were present in granulomas beginning at 8 wk p.i. Between 26 and 45 wk p.i., reactivation of disease was observed in some fish, with disintegration of granulomas, renewed inflammation, and elevated splenic bacterial densities approaching 109 colony-forming units g-1. Infection with M. shottsii or M. gordonae did not produce severe pathology. Mild peritonitis was followed by granuloma formation in the mesenteries, but, with 1 exception, granulomas were not observed in the spleen or anterior kidney. M. shottsii and M. gordonae both established persistent infections in the spleen, but were present at densities at least 2 orders of magnitude less than M. marinum at all time points observed. Granulomas in the mesenteries of M. shottsii- and M. gordonae-infected fish resolved over time, and no reactivation of disease was observed.

  9. The BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Ricci, Claudio; Lamperti, Isabella; Oh, Kyuseok; Berney, Simon; Schawinski, Kevin; Balokovic, Mislav; Baronchelli, Linda; Gehrels, Neil; Stern, Daniel; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Harrison, Fiona; Fischer, Travis C.; Treister, Ezequiel; BASS Team; Swift BAT Team

    2017-01-01

    We present the Swift BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) and discus the first four papers. The catalog represents an unprecedented census of hard-X-ray selected AGN in the local universe, with ~90% of sources at z<0.2. Starting from an all-sky catalog of AGN detected based on their 14-195 keV flux from the 70-month Swift/BAT catalog, we analyze a total of 1279 optical spectra, taken from twelve dierent telescopes, for a total of 642 spectra of unique AGN. We present the absorption and emission line measurements as well as black hole masses and accretion rates for the majority of obscured and un-obscured AGN (473), representing more than a factor of 10 increase from past studies. Consistent with previous surveys, we find an increase in the fraction of un-obscured (type 1) AGN, as measured from broad Hbeta and Halpha, with increasing 14-195 keV and 2-10 keV luminosity. We find the FWHM of the emission lines to show broad agreement with the X-ray obscuration measurements. Compared to narrow line AGN in the SDSS, the X-ray selected AGN in our sample with emission lines have a larger fraction of dustier galaxies suggesting these types of galaxies are missed in optical AGN surveys using emission line diagnostics. Additionally, we discuss follow-on efforts to study the variation of [OIII] to Xray measurements, a new method to measure accretion rates from using line ratios, a sample of 100 AGN observed with NIR spectroscopy, and an effort to measure the accretion rates and obscuration with merger stage in a subsample of mergers.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BANYAN. VII. Candidate YMG members from BASS (Gagne+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, J.; Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Lafreniere, D.; Doyon, R.; Malo, L.; Burgasser, A. J.; Naud, M.-E.; Artigau, E.; Bouchard, S.; Gizis, J. E.; Albert, L.

    2015-09-01

    We obtained low-resolution NIR spectra of 241 candidate young moving group (YMG) members from the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS), LP-BASS, and PRE-BASS samples. A description of individual observations is included in Table 1. There are three samples that are referred to in this Paper: (1) PRE-BASS consists of targets that were initially selected as potential members and followed up with spectroscopy, but that were later rejected as we modified our selection criteria to reject contaminants; (2) Low-Priority BASS (LP-BASS) consists of targets that have NIR colors only slightly redder than field dwarfs; and (3) BASS is the final sample presented in Paper V (Gagne et al., 2015, J/ApJ/798/73) that contains targets at least 1σ redder than field dwarfs and that has a lower fraction of contaminants. (6 data files).

  11. Development of summer diets for hybrid striped bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature and ammonia increase dramatically during summer production of sunshine bass. Global temperatures are projected to increase. A factorial experiment investigated the effects of three digestible protein (DP; 33, 40, 47%), two lipid (L; 10, 18 %) and two ration levels (satiation, restricted)...

  12. Response of sunshine bass to ration at elevated culture temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature and ammonia increase dramatically during summer production of sunshine bass. Global temperatures are projected to increase. A factorial experiment investigated the effects of three digestible protein (DP; 33, 40, 47%), two lipid (L; 10, 18 %) and two ration levels (satiation, restricted)...

  13. Results from BASS, the BANYAN All-Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Jonathan; Lafreniere, David; Doyon, Rene; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    We present results from the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS), a systematic all-sky survey for brown dwarf candidates in young moving groups. We describe a cross-match of the 2MASS and ALLWISE catalogs that provides a list of 98 970 potential nearby dwarfs with spectral types later than M5 with measurements of proper motion at precisions typically better than 15 masyr, as well as the Bayesian Analysis for Nearby Young AssociatioNs II tool (BANYAN II) which we use to build the BASS catalog from this 2MASS-ALLWISE cross-match, consisting of more than 300 candidate members of young moving groups. We present the first results of a spectroscopic follow-up of those candidates, which allowed us to identify several new low-mass stars and brown dwarfs displaying signs of low gravity. We use the BASS catalog to show tentative evidence for mass segregation in AB Doradus and Argus, and reveal a new ˜ 13 Mjup\\ co-moving companion to a young low-mass star in BASS. We obtain a moderate-resolution near-infrared spectrum for the companion, which reveals typical signs of youth and a spectral type L4γ.

  14. Production of sunshine bass fingerlings in tanks without using rotifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously reported protocol for culture of sunshine bass larvae to fingerling size in tanks involved an initial feeding of rotifers for several days before the larvae are weaned to feed on Artemia nauplii. Maintaining rotifer cultures requires space, time, equipment, supplies, trained culturists a...

  15. Production of sunshine bass fingerlings without using rotifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accepted protocol for production of fingerling size sunshine bass in tanks included the feeding of rotifers for several days before the larvae were weaned to feed on Artemia nauplii. Maintaining rotifer cultures requires space, time, equipment, supplies, trained culturists and the cultures are ...

  16. Tank culture of sunshine bass without using rotifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously reported protocols for culture of sunshine bass larvae to fingerling size in tanks involved an initial feeding of rotifers for several days before the larvae were weaned to Artemia nauplii and prepared feed. Maintaining rotifer cultures requires space, time, equipment, supplies, and trai...

  17. The Bass Parasites of Oneida Lake, 80 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eric F; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    A survey of largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) parasite communities in Oneida Lake, New York, was conducted in the summer of 2012 and compared to an earlier survey conducted by Van Cleave and Mueller during the summers of 1929 to 1931. The component helminth communities between surveys were 31% similar in composition for largemouth and 28% similar for smallmouth bass. Between species, the component helminth communities were considerably more similar in the present survey (71%) than in the survey conducted by Van Cleave and Mueller (47%). Seven species reported by Van Cleave and Mueller were present in this survey and 21 species are new records for the bass of Oneida Lake. Van Cleave and Mueller did not report prevalence values for several taxa (Monogenea, Copepoda, Myxozoa, and a Trichodina sp.) that were important for separation of parasite infracommunities in species space for both bass species. These parasites represented 28% of all species found in the current survey and may be ecologically important. Several species of parasites exhibited differences in prevalence between surveys. Two species (Rhipidocotyle papillosa and Crepidostomum cornutum) were absent from this survey but were reported as common in the 1929-1931 survey and almost certainly represent extirpations that coincide with the loss of their native bivalve hosts from Oneida Lake. Other differences in the parasite communities may also be explained by the ecological disturbances in Oneida Lake over the past 81 yr. The changes in bass parasite communities between surveys emphasize the importance of recognizing the historical nature of parasite communities, especially in ecosystems with a history of large-scale changes. Most importantly our findings suggest that, similar to trends observed in free-living freshwater biotic communities, anthropogenic ecosystem disturbances may homogenize fish parasite communities.

  18. A cross-sectional study of differences in 6-min walk distance in healthy adults residing at high altitude versus sea level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We sought to determine if adult residents living at high altitude have developed sufficient adaptation to a hypoxic environment to match the functional capacity of a similar population at sea level. To test this hypothesis, we compared the 6-min walk test distance (6MWD) in 334 residents living at sea level vs. at high altitude. Methods We enrolled 168 healthy adults aged ≥35 years residing at sea level in Lima and 166 individuals residing at 3,825 m above sea level in Puno, Peru. Participants completed a 6-min walk test, answered a sociodemographics and clinical questionnaire, underwent spirometry, and a blood test. Results Average age was 54.0 vs. 53.8 years, 48% vs. 43% were male, average height was 155 vs. 158 cm, average blood oxygen saturation was 98% vs. 90%, and average resting heart rate was 67 vs. 72 beats/min in Lima vs. Puno. In multivariable regression, participants in Puno walked 47.6 m less (95% CI -81.7 to -13.6 m; p < 0.01) than those in Lima. Other variables besides age and height that were associated with 6MWD include change in heart rate (4.0 m per beats/min increase above resting heart rate; p < 0.001) and percent body fat (-1.4 m per % increase; p = 0.02). Conclusions The 6-min walk test predicted a lowered functional capacity among Andean high altitude vs. sea level natives at their altitude of residence, which could be explained by an incomplete adaptation or a protective mechanism favoring neuro- and cardioprotection over psychomotor activity. PMID:24484777

  19. Discovery and validation of gene-linked diagnostic SNP markers for assessing hybridization between largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and Florida bass (M. floridanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybridization of Florida bass (Micropterus floridanus) with largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) has dramatically expanded beyond a naturally-occurring intergrade zone in the Southeast U.S. Efforts to improve recreational fisheries have included widespread stocking of M. floridanus outside its n...

  20. Partial replacement of menhaden oil with Alaskan pollack viceral meal in striped bass Morone saxatilis and sunshine bass M. chrysops X M. saxatilis diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recovery of waste by-products from the Alaskan fishery and use in fish feeds can potentially reduce pressure on fish harvested for animal feed applications. However, little data exist evaluating these by-products in moronid diets. Striped bass and sunshine bass growth, body composition, and imm...

  1. Aromatase activity after a short-course of letrozole administration in adult men at sea level and at high altitude (with or without excessive erythrocytosis).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Tapia, V; Gasco, M; Gonzales-Castañeda, C

    2012-02-01

    Men living at high altitudes in Peru compared to sea level counterparts have erythrocytosis (hemoglobin 16-21 g/dl) or excessive erythrocytosis (hemoglobin>21 g/dl). High testosterone (T) levels in men at high altitude (HA) were associated with excessive erythrocytosis. High androgen levels could be due to a low aromatase activity or to an elevated rate of conversion from precursors to testosterone. The aim of this study was to evaluate aromatase activity and rate of conversion from precursors to testosterone before and after administration of the aromatase enzyme inhibitor letrozole (5 mg/day) for a 5-day period to men at HA and at sea level (SL). The response to short term aromatase inhibition was assessed in 30 adult men living at sea level, 31 native men at HA with erythrocytosis (Hb 16-21 g/dl), and 35 men at HA with excessive erythrocytosis (Hb>21 g/dl). Serum hormone levels, estradiol/testosterone, testosterone/androstenedione, and testosterone/dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) ratios were measured. Men with erythrocytosis had lower basal serum T/androstenedione ratios than men with excessive erythrocytosis at HA and men at sea level. Men at HA with excessive erythrocytosis had higher T/DHEAS ratios than men with erythrocytosis and than those at sea level before and after letrozole administration. After letrozole administration, both groups of men at high altitude (with erythrocytosis or with excessive erythrocytosis) showed lower aromatase activities than those at sea level. In conclusion, higher serum testosterone levels in men with excessive erythrocytosis were associated with an increased rate of conversion from DHEAS to testosterone rather than to a lower aromatase activity.

  2. Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

  3. Right ear advantage for conspecific calls in adults and subadults, but not infants, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): hemispheric specialization for communication?

    PubMed

    Böye, M; Güntürkün, O; Vauclair, J

    2005-03-01

    This paper explores functional hemispheric asymmetries in the perception of auditory signals in a marine mammal species, the sea lion. Using a head-orienting task toward sounds we found a right ear--left hemisphere--advantage for conspecific calls in adult and subadult California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) that was absent in infants. Non-conspecific sounds did not elicit lateralized reactions in any age group. These findings show that maturational steps regarding communication in the brain of pinnipeds are similar to those described in primates. Such a result in a semi-aquatic species distant from primates on the phylogenetic tree speaks for a stability and an ancient emergence of the left hemispheric specialization for vocal communication. The origin of what seems to be a widespread brain feature might be searched in the temporal and spectral communicative sound's characteristics rather than in its semantic value.

  4. Pop-up satellite archival tag effects on the diving behaviour, growth and survival of adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar at sea.

    PubMed

    Hedger, R D; Rikardsen, A H; Thorstad, E B

    2017-01-01

    The effects of large, externally attached pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were compared with those of small implanted data storage tags (DSTs) on adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar during their ocean migration in regards to depth utilization, diving depth, diving rate, diving speed and temperatures experienced. Additionally the return rate and growth of individuals tagged with PSATs was compared with those of small acoustic tags and DSTs. Overall, the depth distribution of individuals tagged with PSATs was similar to that of those tagged with DSTs, reflecting the pelagic nature of S. salar at sea. Individuals tagged with PSATs, however, dived less frequently and to shallower depths, and dived and surfaced at slower velocities. Sea surface temperatures experienced by individuals tagged with PSATs were similar to those experienced by those tagged with DSTs for the same time of year, suggesting that there were no large differences in the ocean migration. Return rates did not depend on whether individuals were tagged with PSATs or not, indicating that survival at sea was not impacted by PSATs in comparison to small internal tags. Individuals tagged with PSATs, however, had a smaller increase in body mass than those tagged with acoustic tags or DSTs. It was concluded that PSATs are suitable for use in researching large-scale migratory behaviour of adult S. salar at sea, but that some effects on their behaviour from tagging must be expected. Effects of PSATs may be largest in the short term when S. salar are swimming in bursts at high speeds. Even though individuals tagged with PSATs performed deep and frequent dives, the results of this study suggest that untagged individuals would perform even deeper and more frequent dives than tagged individuals.

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Inland stocks of striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crance, Johnie H.

    1984-01-01

    The Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and instream flow Suitability Index (SI) presented in this publication aid in identifying important variables that determine the quality of striped bass habitat. Facts, ideas, and opinions obtained from published and unpublished reports, a Delphi panel of 18 striped bass experts/authorities, and the Striped Bass Committee, Southern Division, American Fisheries Society, are synthesized and presented in a format that can be used for habitat impact assessment and development of management alternatives.

  6. Behavioural response of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) to predator and conspecific alarm cues: evidence of additive effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Rocco, Richard T.; Imre, Istvan; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant B

    2016-01-01

    Sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus, an invasive pest in the Upper Great Lakes, avoid odours that represent danger in their habitat. These odours include conspecific alarm cues and predator cues, like 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl), which is found in the urine of mammalian predators. Whether conspecific alarm cues and predator cues function additively or synergistically when mixed together is unknown. The objectives of this experimental study were to determine if the avoidance response of sea lamprey to PEA HCl is proportional to the concentration delivered, and if the avoidance response to the combination of a predator cue (PEA HCl) and sea lamprey alarm cue is additive. To accomplish the first objective, groups of ten sea lampreys were placed in an artificial stream channel and presented with stepwise concentrations of PEA HCl ranging from 5 × 10−8 to 5 × 10−10 M and a deionized water control. Sea lampreys exhibited an increase in their avoidance behaviour in response to increasing concentrations of PEA HCl. To accomplish the second objective, sea lampreys were exposed to PEA HCl, conspecific alarm cue and a combination of the two. Sea lampreys responded to the combination of predator cue and conspecific alarm cue in an additive manner.

  7. Spatiotemporal patterns and habitat associations of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) invading salmon-rearing habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, David J.; Olden, Julian D.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2012-01-01

    1. Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) have been widely introduced to fresh waters throughout the world to promote recreational fishing opportunities. In the Pacific Northwest (U.S.A.), upstream range expansions of predatory bass, especially into subyearling salmon-rearing grounds, are of increasing conservation concern, yet have received little scientific inquiry. Understanding the habitat characteristics that influence bass distribution and the timing and extent of bass and salmon overlap will facilitate the development of management strategies that mitigate potential ecological impacts of bass. 2. We employed a spatially continuous sampling design to determine the extent of bass and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) sympatry in the North Fork John Day River (NFJDR), a free-flowing river system in the Columbia River Basin that contains an upstream expanding population of non-native bass. Extensive (i.e. 53 km) surveys were conducted over 2 years and during an early and late summer period of each year, because these seasons provide a strong contrast in the river's water temperature and flow condition. Classification and regression trees were applied to determine the primary habitat correlates of bass abundance at reach and channel-unit scales. 3. Our study revealed that bass seasonally occupy up to 22%of the length of the mainstem NFJDR where subyearling Chinook salmon occur, and the primary period of sympatry between these species was in the early summer and not during peak water temperatures in late summer. Where these species co-occurred, bass occupied 60–76% of channel units used by subyearling Chinook salmon in the early summer and 28–46% of the channel units they occupied in the late summer. Because these rearing salmon were well below the gape limitation of bass, this overlap could result in either direct predation or sublethal effects of bass on subyearling Chinook salmon. The upstream extent of bass increased 10–23 km (2009

  8. Physiological effects of handling and hauling stress on smallmouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmichael, G.J.; Wedemeyer, G.A.; McCraren, J.P.; Millard, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Basic physiological information on the stress caused by current hatchery practices is helpful in developing new and improved techniques to increase survival. In view of the present fishery management requirements for stocking smallmouth bas (Micropterus dolomieu), baseline information on the physiological effects of handling and hauling hatchery-reared fish is needed to serve as the foundation for improving transport methods. Shell (1959) summarized several physiological characteristics of smallmouth bass, but little information on their physiological tolerance to stress exists. The present study was designed to determine the physiological effects of handling and short-term hauling in small mouth bass. Plasma chloride, sodium, potassium, and glucose dynamics were monitored in indicate the severity of the resulting stress and the recovery time needed.

  9. BASS2000: on-going projects and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, N.; Lafon, M.; Maeght, P.; Grimaud, F.; Roudier, Th.

    2006-06-01

    We review the current status of the services proposed by the database BASS2000. Then we describe our main on-going project, i.e. the implementation of the processing, by the BASS2000 team, of a large data set (several Terabytes) of solar multi-line spectropolarimetric data (MTR mode) obtained by many observers at the THEMIS telescope in Tenerife. The implementation of this data processing and the data products are described as well as the future services associated to this processing: data sets of magnetograms, dopplergrams, vector magnetic field maps, organization of workshops. The other projects we are involved in are also briefly described, and concerns the Pic du Midi Coronagraph (HACO, as well as the future new version CLIMSO), the Lunette Jean Rösch of the Pic du Midi (mostly imagery data) and the implications in the Virtual Observatory.

  10. Comparison of BASS and VACM current measurements during STRESS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lentz, Steven J.; Butman, Bradford; Williams, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    The equations used to convert VACM rotor rotation rates to current speed we based on a calibration study by Woodward and Appell rather than one based on a study by Cherriman that is routinely used at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The former yields closer agreement between the BASS and VACM speed measurements during STRESS (mean speed difference 0.2 cm s−1 versus 1.4 cm s−1).

  11. Striped bass stocks and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Sloan, Ronald J.; O'Brien, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Harvest restrictions on striped bass Morone saxatilis fisheries in Atlantic coastal states were relaxed in 1990, but consistent, coastwide regulations of the harvest have been difficult to implement because of the mixed-stock nature of the fisheries and the recognized contamination of Hudson River fish by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We examined PCB concentrations and stock of origin of coastal striped bass to better understand the effects of these two factors on the composition of the harvest. The probability of observing differences in PCB concentration among fish from the Hudson River stock and the 'southern' group (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River stocks combined) was investigated with the logit model (a linear model for analysis of categorical data). Although total PCB concentrations were highly variable among fish from the two groups, striped bass classified as Hudson River stock had a significantly greater probability of having PCB concentrations equal to or greater than 2.00 mg/kg than did fish belonging to the southern group for all age- and size-classes examined. There was a significantly greater probability of observing total PCB concentrations equal to or exceeding 2.00 mg/kg in fish that were 5, 6, and 7 or more years old, and this probability increased linearly with age. We observed similar results when we examined the effect of size on total PCB concentration. The minimum-size limit estimated to permit escapement of fish to sustain stock production is 610 mm total length. Unless total PCB concentrations decrease in striped bass, it is likely that many harvestable fish will have concentrations that exceed the tolerance limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  12. Ultrastructure of Mycobacterium marinum granuloma in striped bass Morone saxatilis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    An emerging epizootic of mycobacteriosis currently threatens striped bass Morone saxatilis populations in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Several species of mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium marinum, species resembling M. avium, M. gordonae, M. peregrinum, M. scrofulaceum and M. terrae, and the new species M. shottsii have been isolated from diseased and healthy bass. In this study, we describe the ultrastructure of developing M. marinum granulomas in experimentally infected bass over a period of 45 wk. The primary host response to injected mycobacteria was formation of large macrophage aggregations containing phagocytosed bacilli, M. marinum were always contained within phagosomes. Close association of lysosomes with mycobacterial phagosomes, as well as the presence of electron-opaque material within phagosomes, suggested phagolysosomal fusion. Development of granulomas involved epithelioid transformation of macrophages, followed by appearance of central necrosis. Desmosomes were present between mature epithelioid cells. The necrotic core region of M. marinum granulomas was separated from overlying epithelioid cells by several layers of flattened, electron-opaque spindle-shaped cells. These cells appeared to be formed by compression of epithelioid cells and, aside from a flattened nucleus, did not possess recognizable organelles. Following the development of well-defined, paucibacillary granulomas, secondary disease was observed. Recrudescence was marked by bacterial replication followed by disruption of granuloma architecture, including loss of epithelioid and spindle cell layers. In advanced recrudescent lesions, normal tissue was replaced by macrophages, fibroblasts, and other inflammatory leukocytes. Large numbers of mycobacteria were observed, both intracellular and suspended in cellular debris.

  13. Retention of internal anchor tags by juvenile striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Wallin, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    We marked hatchery-reared striped bass Morone saxatilis (145-265 mm total length) with internal anchor tags and monitored retention for 28 months after stocking in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Anchor tags (with an 18-mm, T-shaped anchor and 42-mm streamer) were surgically implanted ventrally, and coded wire tags (1 mm long and 0.25 mm in diameter) were placed into the cheek muscle to help identify subsequent recaptures. The estimated probability of retention (SD) of anchor tags was 0.94 (0.05) at 4 months, 0.64 (0.13) at 16 months, and 0.33 (0.19) at 28 months. Of 10 fish recaptured with only coded wire tags, 5 showed an externally visible wound or scar near the point of anchor tag insertion. The incidence of wounds or scars, which we interpreted as evidence of tag shedding, increased to 50% in recaptures taken at 28 months (three of six fish). Our estimates for retention of anchor tags were generally lower than those in other studies of striped bass, possibly because of differences in the style of anchor or sizes of fish used. Because of its low rate of retention, the type of anchor tag we used may not be suitable for long-term assessments of stock enhancement programs that use striped bass of the sizes we evaluated.

  14. The BASS survey for brown dwarfs in young moving groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Jonathan; Lafreniere, David; Doyon, Rene; Malo, Lison; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Artigau, Etienne; Cruz, Kelle L.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Filippazzo, Joe; Naud, Marie-Eve; Albert, Loic; Bouchard, Sandie; Gizis, John; Robert, Jasmin; Nadeau, Daniel; Bowsher, Emily C.; Nicholls, Christine

    2016-01-01

    I will present in this dissertation talk the construction and follow-up of the BANYAN All-Sky Survey (BASS) that we led to identify dozens of new isolated young brown dwarfs in the Solar neighborhood, several of which have physical properties such as mass, age and temperature that make them similar to exoplanets that were recently discovered using the method of direct imaging.Such isolated analogs of the giant, gaseous exoplanets are precious benchmarks that will allow a deep characterization of their atmospheres using high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy, which is made possible due to the absence of a nearby and bright host star.I will end by describing BASS-Ultracool, an extension of BASS that focuses on the identification of extremely cool isolated exoplanet analogs that display methane in their atmospheres. This survey has already uncovered the first bonafide T dwarf member of a moving group, the ~150 Myr AB Doradus T5, SDSS1110+0116.

  15. Assessment of reproductive effects in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Ruessler, D.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Holm, S.E.; Schoeb, T.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential effects of different concentrations of bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluent (B/UKME) on several reproductive endpoints in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The kraft mill studied produces a 50/50 mix of bleached/unbleached market pulp with an estimated release of 36 million gal of efffluent/day. Bleaching sequences were C90d10EopHDp and CEHD for softwood (pines) and hardwoods (mainly tupelo, gums, magnolia, and water oaks), respectively. Bass were exposed to different effluent concentrations (0 [controls, exposed to well water], 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for either 28 or 56 days. At the end of each exposure period, fish were euthanized, gonads collected for histological evaluation and determination of gonadosomatic index (GSI), and plasma was analyzed for 17??-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, and vitellogenin (VTG). Largemouth bass exposed to B/UKME responded with changes at the biochemical level (decline in sex steroids in both sexes and VTG in females) that were usually translated into tissue/organ-level responses (declines in GSI in both sexes and in ovarian development in females). Although most of these responses occurred after exposing fish to 40% B/UKME concentrations or greater, some were observed after exposures to 20% B/UKME. These threshold concentrations fall within the 60% average yearly concentration of effluent that exists in the stream near the point of discharge (Rice Creek), but are above the <10% effluent concentration present in the St. Johns River. The chemical(s) responsible for such changes as well as their mode(s) of action remain unknown at this time.

  16. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). Striped Bass

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, C.W.; Neves, R.J.; Pardue, G.B.

    1983-10-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. The striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is a highly valued recreational and commercial fish species and is surpassed in total recreational catch (weight) only by bluefish and Atlantic mackerel on the Atlantic coast. Males mature at age 2 or 3, and females at age 4 or 5. Striped bass are anadromous, spawning in fresh or nearly fresh water, from April through June in the Mid-Atlantic region. Upper Chesapeake Bay, its major tributaries, and the Chesapeake-Delaware Canal are the most important spawning grounds on the Atlantic coast. Eggs are semibuoyant, and require a minimum current velocity of 30.5 cm/s during development to keep them from settling and smothering on the bottom. Environmental conditions during the larval stage are considered most crucial in terms of future year class strength. Juveniles remain in or near areas of origin for 2 or 3 years, at which time a portion of the juveniles may join coastal migratory stocks, moving north in spring and summer and south in fall and winter. Temperature, salinity, current velocity, and turbidity are important environmental factors for striped bass. Eggs require water temperatures between 14/sup 0/C and 23/sup 0/C, salinities between 0 and 10 ppt, water currents of at least 30.5 cm/s, and turbidities less than 1000 mg/l for successful development and hatching. Larvae require temperatures between 10/sup 0/C and 25/sup 0/C, salinities between 0 and 15 ppt, and turbidities less than 500 mg/1 for survival. Juvenile and adult tolerances are generally wider. 171 references, 4 figures, 9 tables.

  17. C-BASS: The C-Band All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Timothy J.; C-BASS Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The C-Band All Sky Survey (C-BASS) is a project to image the whole sky at a wavelength of 6 cm (frequency 5 GHz), measuring both the brightness and the polarization of the sky. Correlation polarimeters are mounted on two separate telescopes, one at the Owens Valley Observatory (OVRO) in California and another in South Africa, allowing C-BASS to map the whole sky. The OVRO instrument has completed observations for the northern part of the survey. We are working on final calibration of intensity and polarization. The southern instrument has recently started observations for the southern part of the survey from its site at Klerefontein near Carnarvon in South Africa. The principal aim of C-BASS is to allow the subtraction of polarized Galactic synchrotron emission from the data produced by CMB polarization experiments, such as WMAP, Planck, and dedicated B-mode polarization experiments. In addition it will contribute to studies of: (1) the local (< 1 kpc) Galactic magnetic field and cosmic-ray propagation; (2) the distribution of the anomalous dust emission, its origin and the physical processes that affect it; (3) modeling of Galactic total intensity emission, which may allow CMB experiments access to the currently inaccessible region close to the Galactic plane. Observations at many wavelengths from radio to infrared are needed to fully understand the foregrounds. At 5 GHz, C-BASS maps synchrotron polarization with minimal corruption by Faraday rotation, and complements the full-sky maps from WMAP and Planck. I will present the project status, show results of component separation in selected sky regions, and describe the northern survey data products.C-BASS (http://www.astro.caltech.edu/cbass/) is a collaborative project between the Universities of Oxford and Manchester in the UK, the California Institute of Technology (supported by the National Science Foundation and NASA) in the USA, the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (supported by the Square Kilometre

  18. High density culture of white bass X striped bass fingerlings in raceways using power plant heated effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, C.M.; Burton, G.L.; Schweinforth, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    White bass (Morone chrysops) X striped bass (M. saxatilis) hybrids weighing 1691/lb were initially stocked in five 24 ft/sup 3/ floating screen cages for 20 days. Hybrids averaging one inch in total length and 361 fish/lb were released in four 614 ft/sup 3/ concrete raceways. Two stocking densities, 2.6 and 5.1 fish/ft/sup 3/, were evaluated in the 94-day study using a flow rate of 300 gpm/raceway. Water temperatures averaged 79/sup 0/F and water quality was adequate throughout the production period. Fish were hand fed to satiation daily. Columnaris and Aeromonas hydrophila caused the most serious disease problems. Gas supersaturation was suspect in high mortality levels during cage culture of hybrid bass fry. Cannibalism may have been responsible for unaccountable losses prior to raceway stocking and at harvest. The study yielded 5773 hybrids weighing 658 lb. The high density treatment showed greater weight gain, average weight, average length and percent survival as well as improved food conversion. Results suggest that higher stocking densities and periodic grading may increase production and suppress cannibalism. 10 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Diversity & Motivation: Culturally Responsive Teaching. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. Jossey-Bass Education Series, Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodkowski, Raymond J.; Ginsberg, Margery B.

    This volume proposes and is a guide to a culturally responsive pedagogy for higher education instruction that respects diversity; engages the motivation of all learners; creates a safe, inclusive, and respectful learning environment; derives teaching practices from principles that cross disciplines and cultures; and promotes justice and equity in…

  20. Use of diets formulated for summer water temperatures in pond production of hybrid striped bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated water temperatures are common in hybrid striped bass or Sunshine bass (HSB; Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) production ponds during summer months in the southern US. Median daily water temperatures often exceed 30 C from June through September. This experiment was conducted to extend and re...

  1. Treating sunshine bass eggs with copper sulfate controls fungus and increases survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to sunshine bass production is fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but the effectiveness of it on fish eggs hatched using different systems was not known. Female white bass Morone chrysop...

  2. Copper sulfate controls fungus on sunshine bass eggs and increases survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to sunshine bass production is fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but the effectiveness of it on fish eggs hatched using different systems was not known. Female white bass Morone chrysop...

  3. Habitat selection and abundance of young-of-year smallmouth bass in north temperate lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Peter James; Bozek, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Habitat use during early life history plays an important role in the ecology of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in north temperate lakes. The highest levels of mortality occur during the first year of life, and the habitat selected probably affects mortality. We used resource selection functions and abundance data from two northern Wisconsin lakes to determine the habitats that influence the survival of smallmouth bass. Coarse substrates were consistently important to both nesting locations and young-of-year smallmouth bass. Young smallmouth bass used woody structure after swimming from their nests but disassociated themselves from habitats with more complex woody structure by August. Nonwoody cobble areas offer protection for young-of-year smallmouth bass without attracting predators, as woody habitats do. The decline in the abundance of young-of-year smallmouth bass was best fit to an exponential decay function in woody habitats, but in rock habitats it was linear. Habitat selection by young-of-year smallmouth bass shifts over time, and the shift is linked to predation risk: woody habitats initially offer them an advantage with respect to spawning but eventually provide their predators greater opportunities for ambush. This shift underscores the importance of having a diversity of littoral habitats. This study provides the first quantifiable analyses describing the habitat features selected by young-of-year smallmouth bass and links these descriptions to population dynamics.

  4. Hepatic transcriptomic and metabolic responses of hybrid striped bass to acute and chronic hypoxic insult

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis), white bass (Morone chrysops), and their hybrid are an important group of recreational and farmed species in the United States. Regardless of habitat, it is not uncommon for fish of the genus Morone to encounter and cope with conditions of scarce oxygen availability....

  5. Assimilation and retention of selenium and other trace elements from crustacean food by juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baines, Stephen B.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Stewart, Robin

    2002-01-01

     Estimates of the assimilation and retention of trace elements from food by fish are useful for linking toxicity with the biogeochemical cycling of these elements through aquatic food webs. Here we use pulse-chase radiotracer techniques to estimate the assimilation and retention of Se and four trace metals, Ag, Am, Zn, and Cd, by 43- and 88-d-old juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis, from crustacean food. Brine shrimp nauplii, Artemia franciscana, or adult copepods,Acartia tonsa, were fed radiolabeled diatoms and then fed to juvenile striped bass. Assimilation efficiencies (AEs ± SD) for 43-d-old fish were 18 ± 2%, 6 ± 1%, 23 ± 4%, 33 ± 3%, and 23 ± 2% for Ag, Am, Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively. For 88-d-old fish, the AEs were 28 ± 1%, 42 ± 5%, and 40 ± 5% for Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively. The higher AEs in the older fish may result from longer gut passage times for larger fish. The 44-d-old fish excreted 5 ± 0.8%, 4 ± 2.0%, 7 ± 0.3%, 9 ± 0.4%, and 1.3 ± 0.9% of the Ag, Am, Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively, they ingested from food per day, whereas the 88-d-old fish excreted 3 ± 1.0%, 8 ± 0.5%, and 3 ± 0.5% of the assimilated Cd, Se, and Zn per day, respectively. Predictions of steady state Se concentrations in juvenile striped bass tissues made using a biokinetic model and the measured AE and efflux rates ranged from 1.8 to 3.0 mg Se g-1dry wt for muscle tissue and 6.8 to 11.6 mg Se g-1 dry wt for gut tissue. These predictions agreed well with average values of 2.1 and 13 mg Se g-1 dry wt measured independently in North San Francisco Bay, where elevated Se concentrations are of concern. The model results imply that the planktonic food web, including juvenile striped bass, does not transfer Se as efficiently to top consumers as does the benthic food web.

  6. The influence of dissolved oxygen on winter habitat selection by largemouth bass: an integration of field biotelemetry studies and laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Hasler, C T; Suski, C D; Hanson, K C; Cooke, S J; Tufts, B L

    2009-01-01

    In this study, field biotelemetry and laboratory physiology approaches were coupled to allow understanding of the behavioral and physiological responses of fish to winter hypoxia. The biotelemetry study compared dissolved oxygen levels measured throughout the winter period with continually tracked locations of nine adult largemouth bass obtained from a whole-lake submerged telemetry array. Fish habitat usage was compared with habitat availability to assess whether fish were selecting for specific dissolved oxygen concentrations. The laboratory study examined behavioral and physiological responses to progressive hypoxia in juvenile largemouth bass acclimated to winter temperatures. Results from the dissolved oxygen measurements made during the biotelemetry study showed high variance in under-ice dissolved oxygen levels. Avoidance of water with dissolved oxygen <2.0 mg/L by telemetered fish was demonstrated, but significant use of water with intermediate dissolved oxygen levels was also found. Results from the lab experiments showed marked changes in behavior (i.e., yawning and vertical movement) at <2.0 mg/L of dissolved oxygen but no change in tissue lactate, an indicator of anaerobic metabolism. Combined results of the biotelemetry and laboratory studies demonstrate that a dissolved oxygen content of 2.0 mg/L may be a critical threshold that induces behavioral responses by largemouth bass during the winter. In addition, the use by fish of areas with intermediate levels of dissolved oxygen suggests that there are multiple environmental factors influencing winter behavior.

  7. Biotelemetry study of spring and summer habitat selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, 1978. [Morone saxatilis

    SciTech Connect

    Schaich, B.A.; Coutant, C.C.

    1980-08-01

    Habitat selection of 31 adult striped bass was monitored by temperature sensing ultrasonic and radio transmitters in Cherokee Reservoir, Tennessee, from March through October 1978. This study sought to corroborate summer data obtained by Waddle (1979) in 1977 and to examine mechanisms of habitat selection by observing establishment of the summer distribution. During the spring and early summer months the striped bass ranged throughout the study area in the downstream half of the reservoir. Fish stayed near the bottom at the preferred temperatures throughout the whole study, and no individuals were observed in open water. Movement rates of up to 2.6 km/day were estimated, and rates of 1 km/day were common in the spring. By late July they were apparently avoiding low dissolved oxygen (D.O.) concentrations (<3 mg/l) near the bottom of the main reservoir and epilimnion temperatures greater than 22/sup 0/C, and they moved into cool, oxygenated spring or creek channels (refuges). Low movement rates of 0 to 25 m/day within these refuges occurred. The rates of the few migrations between refuges could not be estimated. Tagged fish moved out of the refuges 3 to 4 weeks after the fall overturn when reservoir temperatures approximated 22 to 24/sup 0/C.

  8. Food and feeding habits of larval striped bass: an analysis of larval striped bass stomachs from 1976 Potomac Estuary collections. Potomac River fisheries program. Final report. [Morone saxatilis

    SciTech Connect

    Beaven, M.; Mihursky, J.

    1980-01-01

    The stomachs of 605 striped bass (Morone saxatilis) larvae collected from the Potomac River Estuary during the spring of 1976 were examined, and food organisms identified to species when possible. Copepods, cladocerans, and rotifers were the most abundant organisms found. Electivity indices indicated positive selection for the larger stages of copepods and cladocerans, and negative selection for copepod nauplii and most rotifer species, regardless of the size or stage of striped bass larvae.

  9. Rates of consumption of juvenile salmonids and alternative pray fish by northern squawfish, walleyes, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vigg, Steven; Poe, Thomas P.; Prendergast , Linda A.; Hansel, Hal C.

    1991-01-01

    Adult northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from four regions of John Day Reservoir from April to August 1983–1986 to quantify their consumption of 13 species of prey fish, particularly seaward-migrating juvenile Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.). Consumption rates were estimated from field data on stomach contents and digestion rate relations determined in previous investigations. For each predator, consumption rates varied by reservoir area, month, time of day, and predator size or age. The greatest daily consumption of salmonids by northern squawfish and channel catfish (0.7 and 0.5 prey/predator) occurred in the upper end of the reservoir below McNary Dam. Greatest daily predation by walleyes (0.2 prey/predator) and smallmouth bass (0.04) occurred in the middle and lower reservoir. Consumption rates of all predators were highest in July, concurrent with maximum temperature and abundance of juvenile salmonids. Feeding by the predators tended to peak after dawn (0600–1200 hours) and near midnight (2000–2400). Northern squawfish below McNary Dam exhibited this pattern, but fed mainly in the morning hours down-reservoir. The daily ration of total prey fish was highest for northern squawfish over 451 mm fork length (> 13.2 mg/g predator), for walleyes 201–250 mm (42.5 mg/g), for smallmouth bass 176–200 mm (30.4 mg/g), and for channel catfish 401–450 mm (17.1 mg/g). Averaged over all predator sizes and sampling months (April–August), the total daily ration (fish plus other prey) of smallmouth bass (28.7 mg/ g) was about twice that of channel catfish (12.6), northern squawfish (14.1), and walleyes (14.2). However, northern squawfish was clearly the major predator on juvenile salmonids.

  10. Organochlorine pesticides and thiamine in eggs of largemouth bass and American alligators and their relationship with early life-stage mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Wiebe, J.J.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Rauschenberger, H.R.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Johnson, W.E.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency has been linked to early mortality syndrome in salmonids in the Great Lakes. This study was conducted to compare thiamine concentrations in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) eggs from sites with high embryo mortality and high exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (Lakes Apopka and Griffin, and Emeralda Marsh, Florida, USA) to those from sites that have historically exhibited low embryo mortality and low OCPs (Lakes Woodruff and Orange, Florida). During June-July 2000, 20 alligator clutches were collected from these sites, artificially incubated, and monitored for embryo mortality. Thiamine and OCPs were measured in one egg/clutch. During February 2002, 10 adult female bass were collected from Emeralda Marsh and Lake Woodruff and mature ovaries analyzed for thiamine and OCP concentrations. Although ovaries from the Emeralda Marsh bass contained almost 1,000-fold more OCPs compared with the reference site, Lake Woodruff, there were no differences in thiamine concentrations between sites (11,710 vs. 11,857 pmol/g). In contrast, alligator eggs from the reference site had five times the amount of thiamine compared with the contaminated sites (3,123 vs. 617 pmol/g). Similarly, clutches with > 55% hatch rates had significantly higher concentrations of thiamine compared with clutches with <54% hatch rates (1,119 vs. 201 pmol/g). These results suggest that thiamine deficiency might be playing an important role in alligator embryo survival but not in reproductive failure and recruitment of largemouth bass. The cause(s) of this thiamine deficiency are unknown but might be related to differences in the nutritional value of prey items across the sites studied and/or to the presence of high concentration of contaminants in eggs. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

  11. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert D; Scyphers, Steven B; Grabowski, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders' perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state's management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders' support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that may

  12. Mycobacterial infections in striped bass from Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, C.A.; Brown, J.J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Starliper, C.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Weyers, H.S.; Beauchamp, K.A.; Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    Eighty striped bass Morone saxatilis were obtained from Delaware Bay using commercial gill nets set adjacent to Woodland Beach (n = 70) and Bowers Beach (n = 10) in December 2003. Fish were examined for gross lesions. Total lengths (TLs) and eviscerated weights were determined to calculate condition factors (K). Portions of spleens were aseptically harvested for bacterial culture, and portions of spleens, kidneys (anterior and posterior), livers, and gonads were obtained for histological examination. The size distribution of the striped bass was relatively homogeneous; the mean TL was about 600 mm for all samples. Mean K exceeded 0.95 in all samples and was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among samples. Significant differences in mycobacterial infection prevalence (P ??? 0.05) were observed among samples; samples obtained at Woodland Beach (WB) on December 10 (53.8%, n = 13) and December 17 (7.1%, n = 42) exhibited the most striking differences in prevalence. Mycobacterial infection intensity ranged from 1 ?? 102 to 1 ?? 107 colony-forming units per gram of spleen. Acanthocephalan infection prevalence and intensity, non-acid-fast bacterial infection prevalence, and fish sex ratio were also significantly different among the samples (P ??? 0.05). Similar to the mycobacterial infections, differences in sex ratio, acanthocephalan infection, and non-acid-fast bacterial infection were observed between the WB samples taken on December 10 and 17. However, no significant associations (P > 0.05) were observed between sex ratio or these infections and mycobacterial infection. The differences in bacterial and parasite infection prevalence and intensity and fish sex ratio in some samples indicate that these fish had a different history and that the epizootiology of mycobacterial infection in striped bass from Delaware Bay may be relatively complex. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  13. Physiological response of largemouth bass to angling stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustaveson, A. Wayne; Wydoski, Richard S.; Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1991-01-01

    The physiological effects of catch-and-release fishing on largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides from Lake Powell and Mantua Reservoir, Utah, were evaluated, and an estimate of the time needed for recovery from hooking stress was obtained. Fatigue in Lake Powell fish, as indicated by elevated blood lactate, was directly proportional to hooking time (1–5 min) and water temperature, but recovery from the hyperlacticemia was relatively rapid (about 24 h). Hyperglycemia, an indicator of stress hormone production, did not occur in largemouth bass hooked and played for 1–5 min in the coldest water (11–13°C), was moderate in fish hooked and played at l6–20°C, and was severe in fish played for 5 min at 28–30°C. Fish held for recovery in live cages suffered further hyperglycemia, presumably because of the stress of confinement. Ionoregulation, as indicated by relatively stable plasma chloride values, was not immediately affected in largemouth bass caught at water temperatures of 11–13°C or 28–30°C, but an unusual hyperchloremia developed in fish hooked and played at 16–20°C. During recovery, the expected progressive hypochloremia developed. Plasma osmolality was somewhat affected by hooking at all water temperatures tested, but recovery was almost complete within about 8 h. Mantua Reservoir fish were hooked and played only at water temperatures of 23–26°C. The hyperlacticemia and hyperglycemia that occurred were generally more severe than in the Lake Powell fish hooked and played at either 16–20°C or 28–30°C. However, effects on plasma chloride and osmolality were similar to those occurring in Lake Powell fish.

  14. Haemato-biochemical disorders associated with nodavirus like-agent in adult leaping mullet Liza saliens (Risso, 1810) in the Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Ghiasi, Maryam; Binaii, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Mohdes; Fazli, Hasan; Zorriehzahra, Mohamad Jalil

    2016-03-01

    Betanoda virus is an emerging problem in several marine fish species in various geographic areas all over the world. In recent years, mullets stock of the Caspian Sea decreased dramatically and a betanoda virus like-agent was introduced as the cause of mullet's mortality. The main objective of the present study is to compare hemato-biochemical parameters in healthy and infected sharpnose mullets (Liza saliens) to betanoda virus like-agent. The adult sharpnose mullets (34 clinically affected fish + 34 apparently healthy fish) were captured from the southeast the Caspian Sea from 2012 to 2013. All of the captured fish were 4 or 5 years old. The main clinical sings of infected fish were lethargy, severe abdominal distention, abnormal swimming and hyperinflation of swim bladder. The results showed that the weight and total length of infected fish were significantly lower than the healthy fish. The results of histopatological evaluation and indirect florescent antibody test were confirmed the presence of a betanoda virus-like agent in infected fish. The diseased fish were severely anemic (hypochromic macrocytic anemia) and had a serious haemopoietic disorders. The anemia associated with a sever leukopenia, a significant rise of neutrophils and immature neutrophils and a significant decries of lymphocytes percentage. Total protein, albumin and total immunoglobulin levels were significantly reduced in the serum of infected fish, while the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase significantly increased when compared to the healthy fish. These results suggested that the feeding of the infected fish to betanoda virus like-agent were disturbed and it could be cause haemato-biochemical disorder and mortality of the fish in Iranian water of the Caspian Sea.

  15. Cloning of the GABAB Receptor Subunits B1 and B2 and their Expression in the Central Nervous System of the Adult Sea Lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Romaus-Sanjurjo, Daniel; Fernández-López, Blanca; Sobrido-Cameán, Daniel; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory transmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) acting through ionotropic (GABAA) and metabotropic (GABAB) receptors. The GABAB receptor produces a slow inhibition since it activates second messenger systems through the binding and activation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins [G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)]. Lampreys are a key reference to understand molecular evolution in vertebrates. The importance of the GABAB receptor for the modulation of the circuits controlling locomotion and other behaviors has been shown in pharmacological/physiological studies in lampreys. However, there is no data about the sequence of the GABAB subunits or their expression in the CNS of lampreys. Our aim was to identify the sea lamprey GABAB1 and GABAB2 transcripts and study their expression in the CNS of adults. We cloned two partial sequences corresponding to the GABAB1 and GABAB2 cDNAs of the sea lamprey as confirmed by sequence analysis and comparison with known GABAB sequences of other vertebrates. In phylogenetic analyses, the sea lamprey GABAB sequences clustered together with GABABs sequences of vertebrates and emerged as an outgroup to all gnathostome sequences. We observed a broad and overlapping expression of both transcripts in the entire CNS. Expression was mainly observed in neuronal somas of the periventricular regions including the identified reticulospinal cells. No expression was observed in identifiable fibers. Comparison of our results with those reported in other vertebrates indicates that a broad and overlapping expression of the GABAB subunits in the CNS is a conserved character shared by agnathans and gnathostomes. PMID:28008311

  16. Physiological, toxicological, and population responses of smallmouth bass to acidification. Lake Acidification and Fisheries Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, M.D.; Gulley, D.D.; Christensen, S.W.; McDonald, D.G.; Van Winkle, W.; Mount, D.R.; Wood, C.M.; Bergman, H.L.

    1992-08-01

    The Lake Acidification and Fisheries (LAF) project examined effects of acidic water chemistries on four fish species. This report presents an overview of investigations on smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Experiments conducted with this species included as many as 84 exposure combinations of acid, aluminum, and low calcium. In egg, fry, and juvenile stages of smallmouth bass, increased acid and aluminum concentrations increased mortality and decreased growth, while increased calcium concentrations often improved survival. Relative to the juvenile life stages of smallmouth bass tested, yolksac and swim-up fry were clearly more sensitive to stressful exposure conditions. While eggs appeared to be the most sensitive life stage, this conclusion was compromised by heavy mortalities of eggs due to fungal infestations during experimental exposures. As found in our earlier studies with brook and rainbow trout, acid-aluminum stressed smallmouth bass exhibited net losses of electrolytes across gills and increased accumulation of aluminum on gill tissues. Overall, our results indicated that smallmouth bass were generally more sensitive to increased exposure concentrations of aluminum than to increased acidities. Compared to toxicology results from earlier LAF project studies, smallmouth bass were more sensitive than brook trout and slightly less sensitive than rainbow trout when exposed to water quality conditions associated with acidification.An example application of the LAF modeling framework shows how different liming scenarios can improve survival probabilities for smallmouth bass in a set of lakes sensitive to acidification.

  17. Striped Bass Spawning in Non-Estuarine Portions of the Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.; Paller, M.

    2007-04-17

    Historically, the estuarine portions of the Savannah River have been considered to be the only portion of the river in which significant amounts of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) spawning normally occur. A reexamination of data from 1983 through 1985 shows a region between River Kilometers 144 and 253 where significant numbers of striped bass eggs and larvae occur with estimated total egg production near that currently produced in the estuarine reaches. It appears possible that there are two separate spawning populations of striped bass in the Savannah River.

  18. Gas bubble disease in smallmouth bass and northern squawfish from the Snake and Columbia Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J.C.; Becker, C.D.

    1980-11-01

    In 1975 and 1976, 179 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and 85 northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were collected by angling from the lower Snake and mid-Columbia rivers, southeastern Washington. All fish were examined externally for gas bubble syndrome. Emboli were found beneath membranes of the opercula, body, and fins of 72% of the smallmouth bass and 84% of the northern squawfish. Hemorrhage was also noted on the caudal, anal, and pectoral fins of several smallmouth bass. Presence of gas bubble syndrome corresponded to the spring runoff when total dissolved gas supersaturations in river water exceeded 115%.

  19. Potential impact of climate change on the Intra-Americas Sea: Part 2. Implications for Atlantic bluefin tuna and skipjack tuna adult and larval habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhling, Barbara A.; Liu, Yanyun; Lee, Sang-Ki; Lamkin, John T.; Roffer, Mitchell A.; Muller-Karger, Frank; Walter, John F., III

    2015-08-01

    Increasing water temperatures due to climate change will likely have significant impacts on distributions and life histories of Atlantic tunas. In this study, we combined predictive habitat models with a downscaled climate model to examine potential impacts on adults and larvae of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) in the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS). An additional downscaled model covering the 20th century was used to compare habitat fluctuations from natural variability to predicted future changes under two climate change scenarios: Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 (medium-low) and RCP 8.5 (high). Results showed marked temperature-induced habitat losses for both adult and larval bluefin tuna on their northern Gulf of Mexico spawning grounds. In contrast, habitat suitability for skipjack tuna increased as temperatures warmed. Model error was highest for the two skipjack tuna models, particularly at higher temperatures. This work suggests that influences of climate change on highly migratory Atlantic tuna species are likely to be substantial, but strongly species-specific. While impacts on fish populations remain uncertain, these changes in habitat suitability will likely alter the spatial and temporal availability of species to fishing fleets, and challenge equilibrium assumptions of environmental stability, upon which fisheries management benchmarks are based.

  20. Species- and tissue-specific mercury bioaccumulation in five fish species from Laizhou Bay in the Bohai Sea of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinhu; Cao, Liang; Huang, Wei; Dou, Shuozeng

    2013-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in the tissues (muscle, stomach, liver, gills, skin, and gonads) of five fish species (mullet Liza ha em atocheil us, flathead fish Platycephalus indicus, sea bass Lateolabrax japonic u s, mackerel Scomberomorus niphonius and silver pomfret Pampus argenteus) collected from Laizhou Bay in the Bohai Sea of China were investigated. The results indicate that Hg bioaccumulation in the five fish was tissue-specific, with the highest levels in the muscle and liver, followed by the stomach and gonads. The lowest levels were found in the gills and skin. Fish at hi