Science.gov

Sample records for adult second-language l2

  1. Portraits of the L2 User. Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Vivian, Ed.

    This collection of papers treats second language users in their own right rather than as failed native speakers, reflecting a new shift within the field of second language acquisition research. The 13 papers are: (1) "Background to the L2 User" (Vivian Cook); (2) "Lexical Representation and Lexical Processing in the L2 User"…

  2. So, What's Behind Adult English Second Language Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    August, Gail

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) grammatical knowledge to English second language reading (ESLR), with the objective of understanding this relationship in the context of the transfer of L1 skills to second language (L2) academic processes. Fifty-five adult, native Spanish-speaking English-language learners were given…

  3. The Influence of Cross-Linguistic Input and L2 Proficiency on L2 Reading Comprehension among Spanish-Speaking Adults Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Astrid Sussette

    2010-01-01

    Developing literacy and language proficiency in English is essential to thrive in school and in the workforce in American society. Research on cross-linguistic influences on text-level skills is scant, especially studies investigating reading comprehension among language-minority adults. The present study investigated the effects of…

  4. Implicit Knowledge, Explicit Knowledge, and Achievement in Second Language (L2) Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Implicit and explicit knowledge of the second language (L2) are two central constructs in the field of second language acquisition (SLA). In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in obtaining valid and reliable measures of L2 learners' implicit and explicit knowledge (e.g., Bowles, 2011; R. Ellis, 2005). The purpose of the present study…

  5. Aptitude, Phonological Memory, and Second Language Proficiency in Nonnovice Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between aptitude, phonological memory (PM), and second language (L2) proficiency in nonnovice adult learners of English as an L2. Native speakers of French (N = 77) enrolled in a university Teaching English as a Second Language program were the participants in the study. Exploratory factor analysis revealed…

  6. L2 Interactional Competence and Development. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Joan Kelly; Hellermann, John; Doehler, Simona Pekarek

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on data from a range of contexts, including classrooms, pharmacy consultations, tutoring sessions, and video-game playing, and a range of languages including English, German, French, Danish and Icelandic, the studies in this volume address challenges suggested by these questions: What kinds of interactional resources do L2 users draw on to…

  7. Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

  8. Listening in a Multilingual World: The Challenges of Second Language (L2) Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Research into language acquisition and oral language use was examined in order to identify key factors that contribute to the successful acquisition of second language (L2) listening ability. The factors were grouped into three major domains: affective, cognitive, and interpersonal. It is claimed that in each domain, proficient L2 listeners have…

  9. The Complexity of Second Language Reading: Investigating the L1-L2 Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevik, Lisbeth M.; Olsen, Rolf Vegar; Hellekjaer, Glenn Ole

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the field of reading assessment in English as a second language (L2). Few reading studies have been carried out at the upper secondary school level, and the present study provides insight into upper secondary school students' L2 reading proficiency. It examines whether such proficiency can be explained by reading…

  10. Exploring Learner Factors in Second Language (L2) Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Aiping; Guo, Ying; Biales, Carrie; Olszewski, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the predictive role of several learner factors in second language (L2) incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading: L2 proficiency, motivation, anxiety, and mastery of strategies. Participants were 129 English learners in a comprehensive university in China. Participants read two English texts and were given an…

  11. The Processing Behaviours of Adult Second Language Learners and Their Relationship to Second Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangubhai, Francis

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the behaviors for processing language input demonstrated by five adults beginning to learn Hindi as a second language through the Total Physical Response method. The study suggests that, when adult learners are provided with comprehensive input, they engage in a variety of behaviors to extract meaning from it. (73 references) (GLR)

  12. Extralinguistic Features in Conversational Repairs of Adult Second Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Joan

    Conversations between adult students of English as a second language were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in order to establish principles of extralinguistic conversational repair technique among second language learners. A variety of gestural and kinesic features were discovered; these are described in detail and their use is contextualized…

  13. Second Language Teachers' Identity Development through Online Collaboration with L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitade, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    The sociocultural perspective of second language teacher education (L2TE) (e.g., Johnson, 2009), unlike the traditional one, values the importance of teacher development through actual teaching practice. Student teachers' (STs) initial beliefs should be challenged and reconstructed by taking into account particular teaching contexts. This…

  14. Word Class Distinctions in Second Language Acquisition: An Experimental Study of L2 Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyzik, Eve; Azevedo, Clara

    2009-01-01

    Although the problem of word class has been explored in numerous first language studies, relatively little is known about this process in SLA. The present study measures second language (L2) learners' knowledge of word class distinctions (e.g., noun vs. adjective) in a variety of syntactic contexts. English-speaking learners of Spanish from…

  15. Empowering L2 Tutoring: A Case Study of a Second Language Writer's Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severino, Carol; Deifell, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Writing center tutors play a key role in advancing L2 writers' language learning because the tutorial interaction involves the introduction of new language and vocabulary at the point of need or interest. This tutor-research case study presents a detailed, complex portrait of how a second language writer in a US writing center learned and used…

  16. The Transformative Potential of Action Research and ICT in the Second Language (L2) Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farren, Margaret; Crotty, Yvonne; Kilboy, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study shows the transformative potential of action research and information and communications technology (ICT) in the second language (L2) classroom. Two enquiries from teacher-researchers are detailed in the article. Their engagement in a collaborative professional development Masters programme was pivotal in designing and implementing ICT…

  17. Interpreting Definiteness in a Second Language without Articles: The Case of L2 Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jacee; Slabakova, Roumyana

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of two expressions of the semantic feature [definite] in Russian, a language without articles, by English and Korean native speakers. Within the Feature Reassembly approach (Lardiere, 2009), Slabakova (2009) has argued that reassembling features that are represented overtly in the…

  18. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised.

    PubMed

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general.

  19. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised

    PubMed Central

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general. PMID:26300792

  20. Language aptitude for pronunciation in advanced second language (L2) learners: behavioural predictors and neural substrates.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaochen; Ackermann, Hermann; Martin, Jason A; Erb, Michael; Winkler, Susanne; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2013-12-01

    Individual differences in second language (L2) aptitude have been assumed to depend upon a variety of cognitive and personality factors. Especially, the cognitive factor phonological working memory has been conceptualised as language learning device. However, strong associations between phonological working memory and L2 aptitude have been previously found in early-stage learners only, not in advanced learners. The current study aimed at investigating the behavioural and neurobiological predictors of advanced L2 learning. Our behavioural results showed that phonetic coding ability and empathy, but not phonological working memory, predict L2 pronunciation aptitude in advanced learners. Second, functional neuroimaging revealed this behavioural trait to be correlated with hemodynamic responses of the cerebral network of speech motor control and auditory-perceptual areas. We suggest that the acquisition of L2 pronunciation aptitude is a dynamic process, requiring a variety of neural resources at different processing stages over time.

  1. Factors Underlying Second Language Reading Motivation of Adult EAP Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komiyama, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of English for Academic Purposes students' second language (L2) motivation were examined by identifying underlying motivational factors. Using the motivation constructs created by first language reading researchers, a survey was developed and administered to 2,018 students from 53 English language programs in the U.S. Survey…

  2. English as a Second Language: Implementing Effective Adult Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Adult, Alternative, and Continuation Education Div.

    The manual is designed to assist California educators and public in understanding the various aspects of an effective English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program for adults. It provides theory-based and practical guidelines for conceptualizing, planning, designing, managing, and evaluating such programs. Chapters address these topics: the adult ESL…

  3. Contextual learning of L2 word meanings: Second language proficiency modulates behavioural and ERP indicators of learning.

    PubMed

    Elgort, Irina; Perfetti, Charles A; Rickles, Ben; Stafura, Joseph Z

    2015-06-01

    New word learning occurs incidentally through exposure to language. Hypothesizing that effectiveness of contextual word learning in a second language (L2) depends on the quality of existing lexical semantic knowledge, we tested more and less proficient adult bilinguals in an incidental word learning task. One day after being exposed to rare words in an L2 (English) reading task, the bilinguals read sentences with the newly-learned words in the sentence-final position, followed by related or unrelated meaning probes. Both proficiency groups showed some learning through faster responses on related trials and a frontal N400 effect observed during probe word reading. However, word learning was more robust for the higher-proficiency group, who showed a larger semantic relatedness effect in unfamiliar contexts and a canonical N400 (central-parietal). The results suggest that the ability to learn the meanings of new words from context depends on the L2 lexical semantic knowledge of the reader.

  4. Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Field Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Clive, Ed.

    The field manual for a series of coordinated studies of the spontaneous acquisition of a second language by adult immigrant workers provides a theoretical and practical framework for the entire project and a source of information about it for other researchers. Chapters 1 and 2 describe the project's objectives and organization. Chapter 3 reviews…

  5. English as a Second Language for Adults: A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Mary; And Others

    To help improve English as a Second Language (ESL) programs for adult learners, this curriculum guide provides informative materials for the teacher and 30 sections of lessons suitable for adaptation by the teacher. Teacher information includes materials on language teaching and learning, use of the guide, needs assessment, adapting lesson plans,…

  6. First-Language Longitudinal Predictors of Second-Language Literacy in Young L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shum, Kathy Kar-man; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Siegel, Linda S.; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2016-01-01

    Can young students' early reading abilities in their first language (L1) predict later literacy development in a second language (L2)? The cross-language relationships between Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among 87 Hong Kong students were explored in a longitudinal study. Chinese word-reading fluency, Chinese rapid digit naming, and Chinese rhyme…

  7. On the Second Language Acquisition of Spanish Reflexive Passives and Reflexive Impersonals by French- and English-Speaking Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Annie

    2006-01-01

    This study, a partial replication of Bruhn de Garavito (1999a; 1999b), investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish reflexive passives and reflexive impersonals by French- and English-speaking adults at an advanced level of proficiency. The L2 acquisition of Spanish reflexive passives and reflexive impersonals by native French and…

  8. Literacy and Second Language Intervention for Adult Hebrew Second Language (HSL) Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanta-Vagenshtein, Yarden

    2011-01-01

    Language proficiency is a crucial factor for immigrants to integrate successfully in the new society in all aspects of life, especially in the labor market. As a result, there is great importance in acquiring the new language as quickly and effectively as possible. Several factors affect second language acquisition, including motivation, age,…

  9. Contextual learning of L2 word meanings: Second language proficiency modulates behavioural and ERP indicators of learning*

    PubMed Central

    Elgort, Irina; Perfetti, Charles A.; Rickles, Ben; Stafura, Joseph Z.

    2014-01-01

    New word learning occurs incidentally through exposure to language. Hypothesizing that effectiveness of contextual word learning in a second language (L2) depends on the quality of existing lexical semantic knowledge, we tested more and less proficient adult bilinguals in an incidental word learning task. One day after being exposed to rare words in an L2 (English) reading task, the bilinguals read sentences with the newly-learned words in the sentence-final position, followed by related or unrelated meaning probes. Both proficiency groups showed some learning through faster responses on related trials and a frontal N400 effect observed during probe word reading. However, word learning was more robust for the higher-proficiency group, who showed a larger semantic relatedness effect in unfamiliar contexts and a canonical N400 (central-parietal). The results suggest that the ability to learn the meanings of new words from context depends on the L2 lexical semantic knowledge of the reader. PMID:25984550

  10. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in the Adult Brain and Success in Second-Language Learning.

    PubMed

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Berken, Jonathan A; Barbeau, Elise B; Soles, Jennika; Callahan, Megan; Chen, Jen-Kai; Klein, Denise

    2016-01-20

    There is considerable variability in an individual's ability to acquire a second language (L2) during adulthood. Using resting-state fMRI data acquired before training in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course, we investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic resting-state functional connectivity relate to a person's ability to acquire an L2. We focused on two key aspects of language processing--lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed--and computed whole-brain functional connectivity from two regions of interest in the language network, namely the left anterior insula/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and the visual word form area (VWFA). Connectivity between the left AI/FO and left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) and between the left AI/FO and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex correlated positively with improvement in L2 lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech. Connectivity between the VWFA and left mid-STG correlated positively with improvement in L2 reading speed. These findings are consistent with the different language functions subserved by subcomponents of the language network and suggest that the human capacity to learn an L2 can be predicted by an individual's intrinsic functional connectivity within the language network. Significance statement: There is considerable variability in second-language learning abilities during adulthood. We investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic functional connectivity in the adult brain relate to success in second-language learning, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course. We found that pretraining functional connectivity within two different language subnetworks correlated strongly with learning outcome in two different language skills: lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed. Our results suggest that the human

  11. Ego Is a Hurdle in Second Language Learning: A Contrastive Study between Adults and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Shumaila; Akhter, Javed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to find out by comparing and contrasting between the adults and children in second language learning process how language ego of adult learners affects them to learn second language, and how it becomes a barrier for them in second language learning process. Nowadays learning English as foreign and second language…

  12. The Relationship between First Language (L1) and Second Language (L2) Lexical Development in Young Turkish-German Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinker, Tanja; Budde-Spengler, Nora; Sachse, Steffi

    2017-01-01

    Lexical development in first language (L1) Turkish and second language (L2) German in two- to three-year-old children was examined, using parental vocabulary checklists in Turkish and in German. Children showed strong Turkish dominance in the number of lexical items they produced, which was due to the more frequent exposure to Turkish and higher…

  13. Vocabulary Size Is Associated with Second-Language Vowel Perception Performance in Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Rikke L.; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Improvement in second-language (L2) perception has been posited to occur early in L2 learning when the L2 vocabulary is still small, whereas a large L2 vocabulary curtails perceptual learning (the perceptual assimilation model for SLA [PAM-L2]; Best & Tyler, 2007). This proposition is extended by suggesting that early L2 lexical development…

  14. Morphosyntactic Processing in Advanced Second Language (L2) Learners: An Event-Related Potential Investigation of the Effects of L1-l2 Similarity and Structural Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemán Bañón, José; Fiorentino, Robert; Gabriele, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Different theoretical accounts of second language (L2) acquisition differ with respect to whether or not advanced learners are predicted to show native-like processing for features not instantiated in the native language (L1). We examined how native speakers of English, a language with number but not gender agreement, process number and gender…

  15. Perception of speech rhythm in second language: the case of rhythmically similar L1 and L2

    PubMed Central

    Ordin, Mikhail; Polyanskaya, Leona

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the perception of developmental changes in timing patterns that happen in the course of second language (L2) acquisition, provided that the native and the target languages of the learner are rhythmically similar (German and English). It was found that speech rhythm in L2 English produced by German learners becomes increasingly stress-timed as acquisition progresses. This development is captured by the tempo-normalized rhythm measures of durational variability. Advanced learners also deliver speech at a faster rate. However, when native speakers have to classify the timing patterns characteristic of L2 English of German learners at different proficiency levels, they attend to speech rate cues and ignore the differences in speech rhythm. PMID:25859228

  16. Pragmatic Awareness in a Second Language Setting: The Case of L2 Learners of Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bella, Spyridoula

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the pragmatic awareness of instructed L2 learners of Greek (economic migrants) by examining the extent to which these learners display differences in their recognition and rating of pragmatic and grammatical violations. Methodologically, the study is largely based on the Bardovi-Harlig & Dornyei (1998) study on pragmatic…

  17. Second Language Cyber Rhetoric: A Study of Chinese L2 Writers in an Online Usenet Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Joel

    2004-01-01

    It has been argued that the expectations of traditional L2 writing classroom can be problematic for Chinese students, particularly in the area of argumentation and critical thinking. On the other hand, writing on the Internet has been shown to be substantially different in ways that may liberate the students from the constraints of the classroom.…

  18. How Similar Are Adult Second Language Learners and Spanish Heritage Speakers? Spanish Clitics and Word Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of heritage speakers, many of whom possess incomplete knowledge of their family language, suggest that these speakers may be linguistically superior to second language (L2) learners only in phonology but not in morphosyntax. This study reexamines this claim by focusing on knowledge of clitic pronouns and word order in 24 L2 learners…

  19. Exploiting the Theory of Universals in Adult Second Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandiah, Thiru

    1994-01-01

    This article presents a bilingual teaching strategy based on Noam Chomsky's universalist hypothesis, which emphasizes the "universal" aspects of human language. The strategy focuses on the matching process that all learners carry out between the first (L1) and second (L2) language, as well as the differences between L1 and L2. (58…

  20. Embodiment and second-language: automatic activation of motor responses during processing spatially associated L2 words and emotion L2 words in a vertical Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence suggests that understanding our first-language (L1) results in reactivation of experiential sensorimotor traces in the brain. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the involvement of these processes during second-language (L2) processing. Participants saw L1 or L2 words referring to entities with a typical location (e.g., star, mole) (Experiment 1 & 2) or to an emotion (e.g., happy, sad) (Experiment 3). Participants responded to the words' ink color with an upward or downward arm movement. Despite word meaning being fully task-irrelevant, L2 automatically activated motor responses similar to L1 even when L2 was acquired rather late in life (age >11). Specifically, words such as star facilitated upward, and words such as root facilitated downward responses. Additionally, words referring to positive emotions facilitated upward, and words referring to negative emotions facilitated downward responses. In summary our study suggests that reactivation of experiential traces is not limited to L1 processing.

  1. Their Words and Worlds: English as a Second Language Students in Adult Basic Education Literacy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csepelyi, Tünde

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is on adult literacy in adult basic education (ABE) programs with special emphasis on English as a Second Language (ESL) students. The article intends to highlight several relevant points in ABE ESL literacy instruction. It focuses on (a) the nature of adult learning, (b) the structure of ABE programs, (c) who the…

  2. Dominant Language Transfer in Adult Second Language Learners and Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2010-01-01

    The effects of language transfer have been amply documented in second language (L2) acquisition and, to a lesser extent, in the language contact/loss literature (Cook, 2003). In both cases, the stronger and often dominant language encroaches into the structure of the less dominant language in systematic ways. But are transfer effects in these two…

  3. Ideabook for Teachers of English as a Second Language in Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Marcie

    This guide is an ideabook for teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL) to adult students. The first three sections list, respectively, specific instructional techniques and class activities, suggested materials, and questions submitted by adult basic education instructors and answers to the questions. Appended materials, which constitute the…

  4. White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U

    2012-08-01

    Traditional models hold that the plastic reorganization of brain structures occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence, leaving adults with limited means to learn new knowledge and skills. Research within the last decade has begun to overturn this belief, documenting changes in the brain's gray and white matter as healthy adults learn simple motor and cognitive skills [Lövdén, M., Bodammer, N. C., Kühn, S., Kaufmann, J., Schütze, H., Tempelmann, C., et al. Experience-dependent plasticity of white-matter microstructure extends into old age. Neuropsychologia, 48, 3878-3883, 2010; Taubert, M., Draganski, B., Anwander, A., Müller, K., Horstmann, A., Villringer, A., et al. Dynamic properties of human brain structure: Learning-related changes in cortical areas and associated fiber connections. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 11670-11677, 2010; Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E. J., & Johansen-Berg, H. Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nature Neuroscience, 12, 1370-1371, 2009; Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuirer, G., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427, 311-312, 2004]. Although the significance of these changes is not fully understood, they reveal a brain that remains plastic well beyond early developmental periods. Here we investigate the role of adult structural plasticity in the complex, long-term learning process of foreign language acquisition. We collected monthly diffusion tensor imaging scans of 11 English speakers who took a 9-month intensive course in written and spoken Modern Standard Chinese as well as from 16 control participants who did not study a language. We show that white matter reorganizes progressively across multiple sites as adults study a new language. Language learners exhibited progressive changes in white matter tracts associated with traditional left hemisphere language areas and their right hemisphere analogs. Surprisingly, the most significant changes

  5. Second Language Learners' Vocabulary Expansion Is Associated with Improved Second Language Vowel Intelligibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Rikke L.; Best, Catherine T.; Kroos, Christian; Tyler, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper tests the predictions of the vocabulary-tuning model of second language (L2) rephonologization in the domain of L2 segmental production. This model proposes a facilitating effect of adults' L2 vocabulary expansion on L2 perception and production and suggests that early improvements in L2 segmental production may be positively associated…

  6. Cognitive and Psychosocial Factors in the Long-Term Development of Implicit and Explicit Second Language Knowledge in Adult Learners of Spanish at Increasing Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Ellen Johnson

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the second language (L2) development of adult learners of Spanish at three levels of proficiency during and after a semester of instruction. A fundamental goal was to identify cognitive and psychosocial individual differences (IDs) that can explain between-learner variation over time in order to expand our understanding of the…

  7. An Event Related Field Study of Rapid Grammatical Plasticity in Adult Second-Language Learners.

    PubMed

    Bastarrika, Ainhoa; Davidson, Douglas J

    2017-01-01

    The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how Spanish adult learners of Basque respond to morphosyntactic violations after a short period of training on a small fragment of Basque grammar. Participants (n = 17) were exposed to violation and control phrases in three phases (pretest, training, generalization-test). In each phase participants listened to short Basque phrases and they judged whether they were correct or incorrect. During the pre-test and generalization-test, participants did not receive any feedback. During the training blocks feedback was provided after each response. We also ran two Spanish control blocks before and after training. We analyzed the event-related magnetic- field (ERF) recorded in response to a critical word during all three phases. In the pretest, classification was below chance and we found no electrophysiological differences between violation and control stimuli. Then participants were explicitly taught a Basque grammar rule. From the first training block participants were able to correctly classify control and violation stimuli and an evoked violation response was present. Although the timing of the electrophysiological responses matched participants' L1 effect, the effect size was smaller for L2 and the topographical distribution differed from the L1. While the L1 effect was bilaterally distributed on the auditory sensors, the L2 effect was present at right frontal sensors. During training blocks two and three, the violation-control effect size increased and the topography evolved to a more L1-like pattern. Moreover, this pattern was maintained in the generalization test. We conclude that rapid changes in neuronal responses can be observed in adult learners of a simple morphosyntactic rule, and that native-like responses can be achieved at least in small fragments of second language.

  8. An Event Related Field Study of Rapid Grammatical Plasticity in Adult Second-Language Learners

    PubMed Central

    Bastarrika, Ainhoa; Davidson, Douglas J.

    2017-01-01

    The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how Spanish adult learners of Basque respond to morphosyntactic violations after a short period of training on a small fragment of Basque grammar. Participants (n = 17) were exposed to violation and control phrases in three phases (pretest, training, generalization-test). In each phase participants listened to short Basque phrases and they judged whether they were correct or incorrect. During the pre-test and generalization-test, participants did not receive any feedback. During the training blocks feedback was provided after each response. We also ran two Spanish control blocks before and after training. We analyzed the event-related magnetic- field (ERF) recorded in response to a critical word during all three phases. In the pretest, classification was below chance and we found no electrophysiological differences between violation and control stimuli. Then participants were explicitly taught a Basque grammar rule. From the first training block participants were able to correctly classify control and violation stimuli and an evoked violation response was present. Although the timing of the electrophysiological responses matched participants' L1 effect, the effect size was smaller for L2 and the topographical distribution differed from the L1. While the L1 effect was bilaterally distributed on the auditory sensors, the L2 effect was present at right frontal sensors. During training blocks two and three, the violation-control effect size increased and the topography evolved to a more L1-like pattern. Moreover, this pattern was maintained in the generalization test. We conclude that rapid changes in neuronal responses can be observed in adult learners of a simple morphosyntactic rule, and that native-like responses can be achieved at least in small fragments of second language. PMID:28174530

  9. Processing Tense/Aspect-Agreement Violations On-Line in the Second Language: A Self-Paced Reading Study with French and German L2 Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah; Liszka, Sarah Ann

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of a self-paced reading experiment designed to investigate the question of whether or not advanced French and German learners of English as a second language (L2) are sensitive to tense/aspect mismatches between a fronted temporal adverbial and the inflected verb that follows (e.g. *"Last week, James has…

  10. Word Learning in Adults with Second-Language Experience: Effects of Phonological and Referent Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method: Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish…

  11. Living with Ambiguity: Toward Culture Exploration in Adult Second-Language Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilieva, Roumiana

    2001-01-01

    Outlines an approach to cultural instruction in adult second language education called "culture exploration," which calls for the recognition of ambiguity embedded in cross-cultural encounters. Culture exploration consists of employing techniques of ethnographic participant observation in and outside the classroom and holding reflective,…

  12. Understanding the Experiences of Adult English as a Second Language Instructors: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Marni Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Positioned within the social constructivist view of learning that individuals make meaning from their experiences and through their social actions and interactions, this qualitative study explores the ways in which nine instructors of underprepared adult English as a Second Language students made meaning of their classroom experiences. Through…

  13. Intercultural Communicative Competence: Beliefs and Practices of Adult English as a Second Language Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickley, Celeste; Rossiter, Marian J.; Abbott, Marilyn L.

    2014-01-01

    Effective and appropriate communication is critical for the successful integration of newcomers in Canada. In this paper, we describe the intercultural communicative competence beliefs and practices of 70 adult English as a second language (ESL) instructors. Responses to an online survey indicated a strong belief in the value of integrating…

  14. ESL Bibliography: Materials for Teaching English as a Second Language to Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Vickie L., Ed.

    This bibliography lists instructional materials for teaching adult learners of English as a Second Language (ESL). The resources listed are print materials made available through the Free Library of Philadelphia's Reader Development Program. All are on or below the eighth grade reading level, as determined with the Gunning Fog readability formula.…

  15. Receptivity toward Immigrants in Rural Pennsylvania: Perceptions of Adult English as Second Language Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson

    2012-01-01

    This article uses interview and questionnaire data to examine how adult English as a second language (ESL) providers in rural Pennsylvania perceive community receptivity toward immigrants and the factors they believe foster or hinder receptivity and immigrants' integration. ESL providers' depictions of local responses to immigrants ranged from…

  16. Bridging Canadian Adult Second Language Education and Essential Skills Policies: Approach with Caution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Tara L.

    2008-01-01

    Employing critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper examines the attempt to bridge a Canadian adult second language policy with an employment skills policy. The result is a third policy intended to improve language education and employment skills training for immigrants. The analysis reveals that the knowledge economy and human capital theory…

  17. Brain responses before and after intensive second language learning: proficiency based changes and first language background effects in adult learners.

    PubMed

    White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner's first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1-L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., "grammaticalization") are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning.

  18. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and…

  19. If You Lead Horses to Water They Will Drink: Introducing Second Language Adults to Books in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Lucy

    1996-01-01

    An approach to reading used with adult students of English as a second language (ESL) is described. The approach has three components: communicating to students the role of reading in second language development; introducing students to popular novels; and assisting students in developing high levels of reading efficacy. The method was used in a…

  20. Adult English as a Second Language Students in the United States: Learner Characteristics, Goals, and Academic Writing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Olga Demin

    2009-01-01

    Adult English as a second language (ESL) students learning English outside of traditional academic settings are an understudied population of second language learners. The purpose of the research reported here is to contribute to meeting the instructional needs of these students more effectively by investigating the relationships between their…

  1. Hands-On English: A Periodical for Teachers and Tutors of Adult English as a Second Language, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Anna, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    These six issues of a periodical intended for teachers and tutors of adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students offer articles and features including the following: readers' comments and questions; in-class map practice ideas; songs for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learning; suggested films to show in class; conversation activities;…

  2. From Seeing Adverbs to Seeing Verbal Morphology: Language Experience and Adult Acquisition of L2 Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagarra, Nuria; Ellis, Nick C.

    2013-01-01

    Adult learners have persistent difficulty processing second language (L2) inflectional morphology. We investigate associative learning explanations that involve the blocking of later experienced cues by earlier learned ones in the first language (L1; i.e., transfer) and the L2 (i.e., proficiency). Sagarra (2008) and Ellis and Sagarra (2010b) found…

  3. Societal Responses to Adult Difficulties in L2 Acquisition: Toward an Evolutionary Perspective on Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that second language (L2) acquisition becomes more difficult as one grows older and that success in adult L2 acquisition is highly variable. Nevertheless, humans in language contact situations have to cope with intergroup communication. This article examines the ways society has responded to this challenge. It describes…

  4. L1/L2 Differences in the Acquisition of Form-Meaning Pairings in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of L1/L2 form-meaning differences in the domain of aspect to investigate whether L2 learners are able to acquire properties of the L2 that are different from the L1. Oral data were collected from English- and German-speaking university learners of French L2 (n = 75) at two different levels of proficiency. The results…

  5. The Storage and Composition of Inflected Forms in Adult-Learned Second Language: A Study of the Influence of Length of Residence, Age of Arrival, Sex, and Other Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Laura; Stowe, John C.; Maloof, Christopher J.; Brovetto, Claudia; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    It remains unclear whether adult-learned second language (L2) depends on similar or different neurocognitive mechanisms as those involved in first language (L1). We examined whether English past tense forms are computed similarly or differently by L1 and L2 English speakers, and what factors might affect this: regularity (regular vs. irregular…

  6. Language-independent talker-specificity in first-language and second-language speech production by bilingual talkers: L1 speaking rate predicts L2 speaking rate.

    PubMed

    Bradlow, Ann R; Kim, Midam; Blasingame, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Second-language (L2) speech is consistently slower than first-language (L1) speech, and L1 speaking rate varies within- and across-talkers depending on many individual, situational, linguistic, and sociolinguistic factors. It is asked whether speaking rate is also determined by a language-independent talker-specific trait such that, across a group of bilinguals, L1 speaking rate significantly predicts L2 speaking rate. Two measurements of speaking rate were automatically extracted from recordings of read and spontaneous speech by English monolinguals (n = 27) and bilinguals from ten L1 backgrounds (n = 86): speech rate (syllables/second), and articulation rate (syllables/second excluding silent pauses). Replicating prior work, L2 speaking rates were significantly slower than L1 speaking rates both across-groups (monolinguals' L1 English vs bilinguals' L2 English), and across L1 and L2 within bilinguals. Critically, within the bilingual group, L1 speaking rate significantly predicted L2 speaking rate, suggesting that a significant portion of inter-talker variation in L2 speech is derived from inter-talker variation in L1 speech, and that individual variability in L2 spoken language production may be best understood within the context of individual variability in L1 spoken language production.

  7. Comparing Hypertext Reading in L1 and L2: The Case of Filipino Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruspe, Michael Angelo M.; Marinas, Christian Joshua L.; Villasin, Marren Nicole F.; Villanueva, Ariel Josephe Therese R.; Vizconde, Camilla J.

    2015-01-01

    This research probed into the reading experiences of adult readers in their first language (L1) and second language (L2). Qualitative in nature, the investigation focused on twelve (12) adult readers , six (6) males and six (6) females, whose first language is Filipino. Data were gathered through interviews and focus-group discussions. Based on…

  8. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Ping C; Richards, Todd L; Coe, Bradley P; Eichler, Evan E; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-06-28

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects' grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype.

  9. Brain white matter structure and COMT gene are linked to second-language learning in adults

    PubMed Central

    Mamiya, Ping C.; Richards, Todd L.; Coe, Bradley P.; Eichler, Evan E.; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2016-01-01

    Adult human brains retain the capacity to undergo tissue reorganization during second-language learning. Brain-imaging studies show a relationship between neuroanatomical properties and learning for adults exposed to a second language. However, the role of genetic factors in this relationship has not been investigated. The goal of the current study was twofold: (i) to characterize the relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and second-language immersion using diffusion tensor imaging, and (ii) to determine whether polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene affect the relationship. We recruited incoming Chinese students enrolled in the University of Washington and scanned their brains one time. We measured the diffusion properties of the white matter fiber tracts and correlated them with the number of days each student had been in the immersion program at the time of the brain scan. We found that higher numbers of days in the English immersion program correlated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. We show that fractional anisotropy declined once the subjects finished the immersion program. The relationship between brain white matter fiber-tract properties and immersion varied in subjects with different COMT genotypes. Subjects with the Methionine (Met)/Valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes showed higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity during immersion, which reversed immediately after immersion ended, whereas those with the Met/Met genotype did not show these relationships. Statistical modeling revealed that subjects’ grades in the language immersion program were best predicted by fractional anisotropy and COMT genotype. PMID:27298360

  10. Spanish-English L2 speakers' use of subcategorization bias information in the resolution of temporary ambiguity during second language reading.

    PubMed

    Dussias, Paola E; Cramer Scaltz, Tracy R

    2008-07-01

    Using a self-paced moving window reading paradigm, we examine the degree to which structural commitments made while 60 Spanish-English L2 speakers read syntactically ambiguous sentences in their second language (L2) are constrained by the verb's lexical entry about its preferred structural environment (i.e., subcategorization bias). The ambiguity under investigation arises because a noun phrase immediately following a verb can be parsed as either the direct object of the verb 'The CIA director confirmed the rumor when he testified before Congress', or as the subject of an embedded complement 'The CIA director confirmed the rumor could mean a security leak'. In an experiment with 59 monolingual English participants, we replicate the findings reported in the previous literature demonstrating that native speakers are guided by subcategorization bias information during sentence interpretation. In a bilingual experiment, we then show that L2 subcategorization biases influence L2 sentence interpretation. The results indicate that L2 speakers keep track of the relative frequencies of verb-subcategorization alternatives and use this information when building structure in the L2.

  11. Hands-On English: A Periodical for Teachers and Tutors of Adult English as a Second Language, 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands-On English, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the six newsletter issues published during the 1994-1995 volume year. Intended for teachers and tutors of adult English as a Second Language (ESL), issues contain articles, book and materials reviews, letters, classroom techniques and activities, and announcements concerning the teaching of adult ESL. Articles address…

  12. Second Language Learning in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; Denny, James B.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews second-language learning literature concerning factors which may affect adult students. Focuses on cognitive mechanisms, cerebral dominance theories, formal operations, motivation, and second-language teaching and learning. Offers suggestions for community college teaching and programs. (DMM)

  13. Testing the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis: L2 Adult, L2 Child, and L1 Child Comparisons in the Acquisition of Korean "Wh"-Constructions with Negative Polarity Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyang Suk; Schwartz, Bonnie D.

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental difference hypothesis (FDH; Bley-Vroman, 1989, 1990) contends that the nature of language in natives is fundamentally different from the nature of language in adult nonnatives. This study tests the FDH in two ways: (a) via second language (L2) poverty-of-the-stimulus (POS) problems (e.g., Schwartz & Sprouse, 2000) and (b) via a…

  14. Second Language Processing in Reading and Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jung Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the processing mechanisms of non-native English speakers at both the sentence level and the morphological level, addressing the issue of whether adult second language (L2) learners qualitatively differ from native speakers in processing linguistic input. Using psycholinguistic on-line techniques…

  15. The Relations between Word Reading, Oral Language, and Reading Comprehension in Children Who Speak English as a First (L1) and Second Language (L2): A Multigroup Structural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babayigit, Selma

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the reading and oral language skills of children who speak English as a first (L1) and second language (L2), and examined whether the strength of the relationship between word reading, oral language, and reading comprehension was invariant (equivalent) across the two groups. The participants included 183 L1 and L2 children…

  16. The Connections among Immigration, Nation Building, and Adult Education English as a Second Language Instruction in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Char

    2010-01-01

    Since its inception at the turn of the last century, adult education English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction in the United States has been entwined with immigration processes and ideas of the nation. In spite of current uncertainty about the overhauling of federal immigration policy, increasingly anti-immigrant laws in states such as…

  17. ESL Idea Book: A Bibliography of Instructor-Developed Materials for Teaching English as a Second Language to Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Martha A.

    This bibliography contains annotated citations of primarily non-commercial instructional materials for adult literacy education in English as a Second Language (ESL). All are for learners at beginning to intermediate English language skill levels, and were selected for ease of use by volunteers, relevance to an urban area, overall applicability to…

  18. Hands-On English: A Periodical for Teachers and Tutors of Adult English as a Second Language, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Anna, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These six issues of the periodical offer teachers and tutors practical ideas for teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) to adults. The publications include such teaching activities as multilevel crossword puzzles, multilevel dictation, a grammar grab-bag, role play games, an ESL board game, and a newspaper search activity. They also offer…

  19. Brain imaging of language plasticity in adopted adults: can a second language replace the first?

    PubMed

    Pallier, C; Dehaene, S; Poline, J-B; LeBihan, D; Argenti, A-M; Dupoux, E; Mehler, J

    2003-02-01

    Do the neural circuits that subserve language acquisition lose plasticity as they become tuned to the maternal language? We tested adult subjects born in Korea and adopted by French families in childhood; they have become fluent in their second language and report no conscious recollection of their native language. In behavioral tests assessing their memory for Korean, we found that they do not perform better than a control group of native French subjects who have never been exposed to Korean. We also used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to monitor cortical activations while the Korean adoptees and native French listened to sentences spoken in Korean, French and other, unknown, foreign languages. The adopted subjects did not show any specific activations to Korean stimuli relative to unknown languages. The areas activated more by French stimuli than by foreign stimuli were similar in the Korean adoptees and in the French native subjects, but with relatively larger extents of activation in the latter group. We discuss these data in light of the critical period hypothesis for language acquisition.

  20. Assessing Second Language Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    While the viva voce (oral) examination has always been used in content-based educational assessment (Latham 1877: 132), the assessment of second language (L2) speaking in performance tests is relatively recent. The impetus for the growth in testing speaking during the 19th and 20th centuries is twofold. Firstly, in educational settings the…

  1. Processing of Tense Morphology and Filler-Gap Dependencies by Chinese Second Language Speakers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Zhiyin Renee

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate in the field of Second Language Acquisition concerning whether a fundamental difference exists between the native language (L1) and adult second language (L2) online processing of syntax and morpho-syntax. The Shallow Structure Hypothesis (SSH) (Clahsen and Felser, 2006a, b) states that L2 online parsing is qualitatively…

  2. Researching the Effects of Teaching Grammar Rules to English Second Language Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayliff, D.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the effects of an interventionist form-focused course on the written English of first-year second language university learners. For two semester courses the form (or grammar) of the language was concentrated upon. During the first semester the use of correct grammar was focussed on intensively, while during the second…

  3. Student Response Systems' Virtual Interaction Effects on Learning in Adult Second Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fassihi Langroodi, Sayedeh Parvanak

    2010-01-01

    In an English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) class, special emphasis is often put on interaction and negotiation as a means of learning and understanding the language being taught (Long, 1981; Pica, 1994). However, student-student interaction as well as student-teacher interaction could be difficult to achieve in…

  4. From Refugee Camp to Solitary Confinement: Illiterate Adults Learn Swedish as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmeroth, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    Studied the factors that govern immigrants' acquisition of a second language through 22 interviews with illiterate Kurdish refugees in Sweden and immigrants with at least 6 years of schooling. The pedagogic conclusions that can be drawn relate mainly to measures for increasing motivation and the need for achieving greater contact with target…

  5. Plasticity in the adult language system: a longitudinal electrophysiological study on second language learning.

    PubMed

    Stein, M; Dierks, T; Brandeis, D; Wirth, M; Strik, W; Koenig, T

    2006-11-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to trace changes in brain activity related to progress in second language learning. Twelve English-speaking exchange students learning German in Switzerland were recruited. ERPs to visually presented single words from the subjects' native language (English), second language (German) and an unknown language (Romansh) were measured before (day 1) and after (day 2) 5 months of intense German language learning. When comparing ERPs to German words from day 1 and day 2, we found topographic differences between 396 and 540 ms. These differences could be interpreted as a latency shift indicating faster processing of German words on day 2. Source analysis indicated that the topographic differences were accounted for by shorter activation of left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) on day 2. In ERPs to English words, we found Global Field Power differences between 472 and 644 ms. This may due to memory traces related to English words being less easily activated on day 2. Alternatively, it might reflect the fact that--with German words becoming familiar on day 2--English words loose their oddball character and thus produce a weaker P300-like effect on day 2. In ERPs to Romansh words, no differences were observed. Our results reflect plasticity in the neuronal networks underlying second language acquisition. They indicate that with a higher level of second language proficiency, second language word processing is faster and requires shorter frontal activation. Thus, our results suggest that the reduced IFG activation found in previous fMRI studies might not reflect a generally lower activation but rather a shorter duration of activity.

  6. Second Language Acquisition across Modalities: Production Variability in Adult L2 Learners of American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilger, Allison I.; Loucks, Torrey M. J.; Quinto-Pozos, David; Dye, Matthew W. G.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine production variability in American Sign Language (ASL) in order to gain insight into the development of motor control in a language produced in another modality. Production variability was characterized through the spatiotemporal index (STI), which represents production stability in whole utterances and is a…

  7. Indici di Frequenza di Errori nella Prova di Comprensione dell'Italiano Come L2 (Frequency of Error Indexes in Testing Comprehension in Italian as a Second Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pintori, Adriana

    1995-01-01

    The author discusses the preparation of a test of reading comprehension in Italian as a Second Language for Spanish university students and analyzes the results of the test. The article includes the reading passage and the test. (CFM)

  8. The Perception of Word Boundaries in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altenberg, Evelyn P.

    2005-01-01

    Adult Spanish second language (L2) learners of English and native speakers of English participated in an English perception task designed to investigate their ability to use L2 acoustic-phonetic cues, e.g., aspiration, to segment the stream of speech into words. Subjects listened to a phrase and indicated whether they heard, e.g., "keep sparking…

  9. Do Different Modalities of Reflection Matter? An Exploration of Adult Second-Language Learners' Reported Strategy Use and Oral Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Li-Shih

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale study that was the first to explore raising second-language (L2) learners' awareness of speaking strategies as mediated by three modalities of task-specific reflection--individual written reflection, individual spoken reflection, and group spoken reflection. Though research in such areas as L2 writing, teacher's…

  10. Eye movements and the perceptual span during first- and second-language sentence reading in bilingual older adults.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2016-02-01

    This study addressed a central yet previously unexplored issue in the psychological science of aging, namely, whether the advantages of healthy aging (e.g., greater lifelong experience with language) or disadvantages (e.g., decreases in cognitive and sensory processing) drive L1 and L2 reading performance in bilingual older adults. To this end, we used a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm to examine both global aspects of reading fluency (e.g., reading rates, number of regressions) and the perceptual span (i.e., allocation of visual attention into the parafovea) in bilingual older adults during L1 and L2 sentence reading, as a function of individual differences in current L2 experience. Across the L1 and L2, older adults exhibited reduced reading fluency (e.g., slower reading rates, more regressions), but a similar perceptual span compared with matched younger adults. Also similar to matched younger adults, older adults' reading fluency was lower for L2 reading than for L1 reading as a function of current L2 experience. Specifically, greater current L2 experience increased L2 reading fluency, but decreased L1 reading fluency (for global reading measures only). Taken together, the dissociation between intact perceptual span and impaired global reading measures suggests that older adults may prioritize parafoveal processing despite age-related encoding difficulties. Consistent with this interpretation, post hoc analyses revealed that older adults with higher versus lower executive control were more likely to adopt this strategy.

  11. Second Language Reading of Adolescent ELLs: A Study of Response to Retrospective Miscue Analysis, Error Coding Methodology and Transfer of L1 Decoding Skills in L2 Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham Keh, Melissa Anne

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that ELLs face significant challenges as they develop literacy skills in their second language (NCES, 2007, 2011). This population is diverse and growing rapidly in Massachusetts and across the nation (Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2013; NCELA, 2011; Orosco, De Schonewise, De Onis, Klingner,…

  12. Cantonese English as a Second Language Learners' Perceived Relations between "Similar" L1 and L2 Speech Sounds: A Test of the Speech Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' perception of English speech sounds, their perceived relations between "similar" English and Cantonese sounds, as well as the applicability of the claims of the Speech Learning Model (SLM) to second language…

  13. Age and Learning Environment: Are Children Implicit Second Language Learners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study…

  14. Investment and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittaway, Daniel S.

    2004-01-01

    The article argues that Norton Peirce's (1995) concept of a language learner's investment should figure centrally in how instructors address the needs of adult learners in ESL classrooms. Investment is discussed in relation to second language acquisition research that addresses the role of social factors in second language acquisition. The article…

  15. Resting-state qEEG predicts rate of second language learning in adults.

    PubMed

    Prat, Chantel S; Yamasaki, Brianna L; Kluender, Reina A; Stocco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the neurobiological basis of individual differences in second language acquisition (SLA) is important for research on bilingualism, learning, and neural plasticity. The current study used quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) to predict SLA in college-aged individuals. Baseline, eyes-closed resting-state qEEG was used to predict language learning rate during eight weeks of French exposure using an immersive, virtual scenario software. Individual qEEG indices predicted up to 60% of the variability in SLA, whereas behavioral indices of fluid intelligence, executive functioning, and working-memory capacity were not correlated with learning rate. Specifically, power in beta and low-gamma frequency ranges over right temporoparietal regions were strongly positively correlated with SLA. These results highlight the utility of resting-state EEG for studying the neurobiological basis of SLA in a relatively construct-free, paradigm-independent manner.

  16. Age of Onset and Nativelikeness in a Second Language: Listener Perception versus Linguistic Scrutiny

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamsson, Niclas; Hyltenstam, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of nativelikeness in adult second language acquisition is a controversial issue in SLA research. Although some researchers claim that any learner, regardless of age of acquisition, can attain nativelike levels of second language (L2) proficiency, others hold that attainment of nativelike proficiency is, in principle, impossible. The…

  17. When Feelings Arise with Meanings: How Emotion and Meaning of a Native Language Affect Second Language Processing in Adult Learners.

    PubMed

    Sianipar, Agnes; Middelburg, Renée; Dijkstra, Ton

    2015-01-01

    To determine when and how L2 learners start to process L2 words affectively and semantically, we conducted a longitudinal study on their interaction in adult L2 learners. In four test sessions, spanning half a year of L2 learning, we monitored behavioral and ERP learning-related changes for one and the same set of words by means of a primed lexical-decision paradigm with L1 primes and L2 targets. Sensitivity rates, accuracy rates, RTs, and N400 amplitude to L2 words and pseudowords improved significantly across sessions. A semantic priming effect (e.g, prime "driver"facilitating response to target "street") was found in accuracy rates and RTs when collapsing Sessions 1 to 4, while this effect modulated ERP amplitudes within the first 300 ms of L2 target processing. An overall affective priming effect (e.g., "sweet" facilitating"taste") was also found in RTs and ERPs (posterior P1). Importantly, the ERPs showed an L2 valence effect across sessions (e.g., positive words were easier to process than neutral words), indicating that L2 learners were sensitive to L2 affective meaning. Semantic and affective priming interacted in the N400 time-window only in Session 4, implying that they affected meaning integration during L2 immersion together. The results suggest that L1 and L2 are initially processed semantically and affectively via relatively separate channels that are more and more linked contingent on L2 exposure.

  18. Etude experimentale de quelques strategies d'apprentissage d'une langue etrangere par des adultes (Experimental Study of Some Learning Strategies in Adult Second Language Learning)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Py, Bernard

    1976-01-01

    The intermediate competence of adult second language learners is qualitatively different from native speaker competence. Learning strategies are constants in the diachronic modifications of learner competence. A study of the acquisition of interrogatives in French reveals limited strategies and the heterogeneity of linguistic models needed to…

  19. The Effects of Instruction Using a Mnemonic Graphic Organizer on Vocabulary Acquisition among Adult English-as-a-Second-Language Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin, Ann Marie

    A study investigated the efficacy of the mnemonic graphic organizer strategy on the vocabulary acquisition of beginning and advanced adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students. Subjects, 48 adults enrolled in two adult ESL classes at a metropolitan adult school, were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental…

  20. Gender Agreement in Adult Second Language Learners and Spanish Heritage Speakers: The Effects of Age and Context of Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Foote, Rebecca; Perpinan, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates knowledge of gender agreement in Spanish L2 learners and heritage speakers, who differ in age and context/mode of acquisition. On some current theoretical accounts, persistent difficulty with grammatical gender in adult L2 acquisition is due to age. These accounts predict that heritage speakers should be more accurate on…

  1. Vocabulary Size Matters: The Assimilation of Second-Language Australian English Vowels to First-Language Japanese Vowel Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Rikke L.; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Adult second-language (L2) learners' perception of L2 phonetic segments is influenced by first-language phonological and phonetic properties. It was recently proposed that L2 vocabulary size in adult learners is related to changes in L2 perception (perceptual assimilation model), analogous to the emergence of first-language phonological function…

  2. When Feelings Arise with Meanings: How Emotion and Meaning of a Native Language Affect Second Language Processing in Adult Learners

    PubMed Central

    Sianipar, Agnes; Middelburg, Renée; Dijkstra, Ton

    2015-01-01

    To determine when and how L2 learners start to process L2 words affectively and semantically, we conducted a longitudinal study on their interaction in adult L2 learners. In four test sessions, spanning half a year of L2 learning, we monitored behavioral and ERP learning-related changes for one and the same set of words by means of a primed lexical-decision paradigm with L1 primes and L2 targets. Sensitivity rates, accuracy rates, RTs, and N400 amplitude to L2 words and pseudowords improved significantly across sessions. A semantic priming effect (e.g, prime “driver”facilitating response to target “street”) was found in accuracy rates and RTs when collapsing Sessions 1 to 4, while this effect modulated ERP amplitudes within the first 300 ms of L2 target processing. An overall affective priming effect (e.g., “sweet” facilitating”taste”) was also found in RTs and ERPs (posterior P1). Importantly, the ERPs showed an L2 valence effect across sessions (e.g., positive words were easier to process than neutral words), indicating that L2 learners were sensitive to L2 affective meaning. Semantic and affective priming interacted in the N400 time-window only in Session 4, implying that they affected meaning integration during L2 immersion together. The results suggest that L1 and L2 are initially processed semantically and affectively via relatively separate channels that are more and more linked contingent on L2 exposure. PMID:26656502

  3. Transfer Effects in Learning a Second Language Grammatical Gender System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.; de Haan, Ger J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article second language (L2) knowledge of Dutch grammatical gender is investigated. Adult speakers of German, English and a Romance language (French, Italian or Spanish) were investigated to explore the role of transfer in learning the Dutch grammatical gender system. In the first language (L1) systems, German is the most similar to Dutch…

  4. Does a Speaking Task Affect Second Language Comprehensibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Dustin; Trofimovich, Pavel; Isaacs, Talia; Saito, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated task effects on listener perception of second language (L2) comprehensibility (ease of understanding). Sixty university-level adult speakers of English from 4 first language (L1) backgrounds (Chinese, Romance, Hindi, Farsi), with 15 speakers per group, were recorded performing 2 tasks (IELTS long-turn speaking task…

  5. Second Language Comprehensibility Revisited: Investigating the Effects of Learner Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Dustin; Trofimovich, Pavel; Saito, Kazuya; Isaacs, Talia

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated first language (L1) effects on listener judgment of comprehensibility and accentedness in second language (L2) speech. The participants were 45 university-level adult speakers of English from three L1 backgrounds (Chinese, Hindi, Farsi), performing a picture narrative task. Ten native English listeners used…

  6. Second Language Learning; Investigating the Classroom Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rosamond

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a number of second-language (L2) classroom-based research projects undertaken at the University of Stirling in Scotland. It is argued that a full understanding of classroom-based L2 learning requires the integration of sociolinguistic studies of the classroom context with psycholinguistic studies of second language acquisition. (Author/VWL)

  7. The Effects of L2 Proficiency Level on the Processing of "Wh"-Questions among Dutch Second Language Speakers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carrie N.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2011-01-01

    Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how Dutch-English L2 speakers parse English "wh"-subject-extractions and "wh"-object-extractions. Results suggest that English native speakers and highly-proficient Dutch-English L2 speakers do not always exhibit measurable signs of on-line reanalysis when reading subject-versus…

  8. The Development of Lexical Bundle Accuracy and Production in English Second Language Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott; Salsbury, Thomas Lee

    2011-01-01

    Six adult, second language (L2) English learners were observed over a period of one year to explore the development of lexical bundles (i.e., bigrams) in naturally produced, oral English. Total bigrams produced by the L2 learners over the year of observation that were shared with native speakers were compared using a frequency index to explore L2

  9. The Relationship between Text Comprehension and Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: A Matter of Topic Familiarity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulido, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The study reported in this article describes second language (L2) vocabulary learning outcomes associated with adult L2 reading comprehension processes, thus connecting L2 learning with the complex cognitive and linguistic processing involved in reading. The study aimed to determine whether background knowledge moderated the relationship between…

  10. Effects of the Second Language on the First. Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Vivian, Ed.

    This book examines changes in the first language (L1) of people who know a second language (L2), seeing L2 users as people who differ from the monolingual in both first and second languages. It describes a range of psychological and linguistic approaches. The 13 chapters include the following: (1) "Introduction: The Changing L1 in the L2

  11. Child-Adult Differences in Implicit and Explicit Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Karen Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream linguistics has long held that there is a fundamental difference between adult and child language learning (Bley-Vroman, 1990; Johnson & Newport, 1989; DeKeyser, 2000; Paradis, 2004). This difference is often framed as a change from implicit language learning in childhood to explicit language learning in adulthood, which is…

  12. The Social Construction of Age: Adult Foreign Language Learners. Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the social construction of age in the context of EFL in Mexico. It is the first book to address the age factor in SLA from a social perspective. Based on research carried out at a public university in Mexico, it investigates how adults of different ages experience learning a new language and how they enact their age identities…

  13. English Learning Predictors of Listening and Speaking Self-Efficacy for Adult Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafals, Zoraida

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was conducted to compare English communicative competency achievement between two different models of instruction. Adult English language learners (AELLs) participated in either the communicative task-based (CTB) or in a more traditional (MT) language instructional approach. The goal of the…

  14. Alignment in Second Language Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Albert; Pickering, Martin; Sorace, Antonella

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the nature of second language dialogues, involving at least one non-native (L2) speaker. We assume that dialogue is characterised by a process in which interlocutors develop similar mental states to each other (Pickering & Garrod, 2004). We first consider various means in which interlocutors align their mental states, and…

  15. Foreign and Second Language Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Elaine K.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that anxiety interferes with language learning has long interested scholars, language teachers, and language learners themselves. It is intuitive that anxiety would inhibit the learning and/or production of a second language (L2). The important term in the last sentence is "anxiety". The concept of anxiety is itself multi-faceted,…

  16. Second Language Epistemology: Take Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekydtspotter, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    This article presents evidence that supports the claim that second language (L2) grammars arise in a domain-specific, informationally encapsulated module with contents provided by Universal Grammar and enriched by native language knowledge, as entertained by Schwartz (1986, 1987, 1999) contra Bley-Vroman (1990). I consider state-of-the-art…

  17. How to Respond to the Demands Set by the Communicative Approach? New Challenges Second-Language (L2) Teachers Face in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amengual-Pizarro, Marian

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates prospective teachers' language needs in L2 teacher training programmes. A questionnaire was constructed and administered to a total of 79 first, second and third year students in the teaching training school at the University of the Balearic Islands (UIB). The questionnaire attempted to elicit student teachers' views on the…

  18. The Use of Eye Tracking in Research on Video-Based Second Language (L2) Listening Assessment: A Comparison of Context Videos and Content Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvorov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    Investigating how visuals affect test takers' performance on video-based L2 listening tests has been the focus of many recent studies. While most existing research has been based on test scores and self-reported verbal data, few studies have examined test takers' viewing behavior (Ockey, 2007; Wagner, 2007, 2010a). To address this gap, in the…

  19. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) in Second Language Research: A Brief Introduction to the Technique, a Selected Review, and an Invitation to Reconsider Critical Periods in L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauer, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a selective overview of recent event-related brain potential (ERP) studies in L2 morpho-syntax, demonstrating that the ERP evidence supporting the critical period hypothesis (CPH) may be less compelling than previously thought. The article starts with a general introduction to ERP methodology and language-related ERP profiles…

  20. Second-language instinct and instruction effects: nature and nurture in second-language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Yusa, Noriaki; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Kim, Jungho; Kimura, Naoki; Uchida, Shinya; Yokoyama, Satoru; Miura, Naoki; Kawashima, Ryuta; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-10-01

    Adults seem to have greater difficulties than children in acquiring a second language (L2) because of the alleged "window of opportunity" around puberty. Postpuberty Japanese participants learned a new English rule with simplex sentences during one month of instruction, and then they were tested on "uninstructed complex sentences" as well as "instructed simplex sentences." The behavioral data show that they can acquire more knowledge than is instructed, suggesting the interweaving of nature (universal principles of grammar, UG) and nurture (instruction) in L2 acquisition. The comparison in the "uninstructed complex sentences" between post-instruction and pre-instruction using functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals a significant activation in Broca's area. Thus, this study provides new insight into Broca's area, where nature and nurture cooperate to produce L2 learners' rich linguistic knowledge. It also shows neural plasticity of adult L2 acquisition, arguing against a critical period hypothesis, at least in the domain of UG.

  1. Second language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Juffs, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a field that investigates child and adult SLA from a variety of theoretical perspectives. This article provides a survey of some key areas of concern including formal generative theory and emergentist theory in the areas of morpho-syntax and phonology. The review details the theoretical stance of the two different approaches to the nature of language: generative linguistics and general cognitive approaches. Some results of key acquisition studies from the two theoretical frameworks are discussed. From a generative perspective, constraints on wh-movement, feature geometry and syllable structure, and morphological development are highlighted. From a general cognitive point of view, the emergence of tense and aspect marking from a prototype account of inherent lexical aspect is reviewed. Reference is made to general cognitive learning theories and to sociocultural theory. The article also reviews individual differences research, specifically debate on the critical period in adult language acquisition, motivation, and memory. Finally, the article discusses the relationship between SLA research and second language pedagogy. Suggestions for further reading from recent handbooks on SLA are provided. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 277-286 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.106 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  2. Differential Effects of Reading and Memorization of Paired Associates on Vocabulary Acquisition in Adult Learners of English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Investigates differential effects of reading and paired associate learning on vocabulary acquisition of adult English-as-a-Second-Language learners. Two groups of university students participated. One group read "Animal Farm" while the comparison group memorized a list of words preselected from the novel. Suggests that for encouraging long-term…

  3. Is grammatical gender considered arbitrary or semantically motivated? Evidence from young adult monolinguals, second language learners, and early bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Benedetta A L

    2014-05-01

    It is generally assumed that speakers of grammatical gender languages consider grammatical gender arbitrary, but this assumption has never been tested. Research shows that the grammatical gender of nouns can affect perceptions of the masculinity or femininity of the noun's referent in speakers of languages with masculine and feminine noun classes. However, bilingualism facilitates the development of lexical arbitrariness awareness, and could therefore affect awareness of grammatical gender arbitrariness. This study then compared three groups of young adult speakers of a grammatical gender language: monolinguals, early bilinguals, and instructed second language learners. Participants evaluated the gender assignments of 25 nouns of entities (animals, abstract concepts, natural kinds, and artefacts), and answered open and closed questions about grammatical gender. Participants considered grammatical gender as semantically motivated and mostly related gender assignments to perceived masculine or feminine connotations of referents. Knowledge of an additional grammatical gender language was linked to increased awareness of the arbitrariness of first language gender assignments in both early bilinguals and later instructed learners. It is argued that grammatical gender awareness deserves further investigation. Knowing more than one grammatical gender language can increase awareness of grammatical gender arbitrariness. Implications are discussed for language teaching and language reform.

  4. Second Language Developmental Dynamics: How Dynamic Systems Theory Accounts for Issues in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic systems theory (DST) is presented in this article as a suitable approach to research the acquisition of second language (L2) because of its close alignment with the process of second language learning. Through a process of identifying and comparing the characteristics of a dynamic system with the process of L2 learning, this article…

  5. Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantolf, James P.; Beckett, Tracy G.

    2009-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) research informed by sociocultural theory (henceforth, SCT) began in earnest with the publication of Frawley & Lantolf's (1985) article on L2 (second language) discourse (described in the timeline proper). Since then, well over 300 journal articles, book chapters and doctoral dissertations have appeared in the…

  6. Encouraging Second Language Use in Cooperative Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George; Kimura, Harumi

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by discussing whether students of second and foreign languages (hereafter, "second language" will be used to refer to both foreign and second languages) should be encouraged to use their second language (L2) with classmates when doing group activities. Reasons for both L2 and L1 (first language) use are discussed with reference…

  7. Metalinguistic Knowledge, Metalingual Knowledge, and Proficiency in L2 Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The role of metalinguistic knowledge of language and knowledge of technical terms (i.e. metalingual knowledge) in second language (L2) learning and use is a matter of controversy in the field of Second Language Acquisition. This paper examines the development of these two types of knowledge in adult university-level learners of L2 Spanish, and…

  8. The Shallow Structure Hypothesis of Second Language Sentence Processing: What Is Restricted and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowens, Margaret Gillon; Carreiras, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Clahsen and Felser (CF) analyze the performance of monolingual children and adult second language (L2) learners in off-line and on-line tasks and compare their performance with that of adult monolinguals. They conclude that child first language (L1) processing is basically the same as adult L1 processing (the contiguity assumption), with…

  9. Supporting Orthographic Learning at the Beginning Stage of Learning to Read Chinese as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Li-Yun; Xu, Yi; Perfetti, Charles A.; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Learning to read a second language (L2) is especially challenging when a target L2 requires learning new graphic forms. Learning Chinese, which consists of thousands of characters composed of hundreds of basic writing units, presents such a challenge of orthographic learning for adult English speakers at the beginning stages of learning. In this…

  10. Issues of Cultural Appropriateness and Pedagogical Efficacy: Exploring Peer Review in a Second Language Writing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Guangwei; Lam, Sandra Tsui Eu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a study designed to investigate (a) whether peer review is an effective pedagogical activity with adult Chinese students in the teaching of second language (L2) academic writing and (b) how factors such as perceptions of the influence of peer reviewers' L2 proficiency, previous experience with peer review, feedback…

  11. Learning (Not) to Predict: Grammatical Gender Processing in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, this article investigates the predictive processing of gender agreement in adult second language (L2) acquisition. We test (1) whether instruction on lexical gender can lead to target predictive agreement processing and (2) how variability in lexical gender representations moderates L2 gender agreement processing. In a…

  12. Declarative and Procedural Memory as Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Carpenter, Helen; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how individual differences in cognitive abilities account for variance in the attainment level of adult second language (L2) syntactic development. Participants completed assessments of declarative and procedural learning abilities. They subsequently learned an artificial L2 under implicit training conditions and received…

  13. Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Deanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

  14. Measuring Adult Learners' Foreign Language Anxiety, Motivational Factors, and Achievement Expectations: A Comparative Study between Chinese as a Second-Language Students and English as a Second-Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Ching

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on interpreting the impacts of foreign language anxiety and individual characteristics on the achievement expectations of Chinese second-language learners and English second-language students at the university level. Four research questions are examined through quantitative design. In relation to methodology, this study…

  15. Similarity in L2 Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Shannon L.

    2013-01-01

    Adult second language (L2) learners often experience difficulty producing and perceiving non-native phonological contrasts. Even highly proficient bilinguals, who have been exposed to an L2 for long periods of time, struggle with difficult contrasts, such as /r/-/l/ for Japanese learners of English. To account for the relative ease or difficulty…

  16. The Effect of Age of Second Language Acquisition on the Representation and Processing of Second Language Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverberg, Stu; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of second language (i.e., L2) proficiency and age of second language acquisition are assessed. Three types of bilinguals are compared: Early L2 learners, Late highly proficient L2 learners, and Late less proficient L2 learners. A lexical decision priming paradigm is used in which the critical trials consist of first…

  17. Using Gamification to Enhance Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa Flores, Jorge Francisco

    2015-01-01

    One major competence for learners in the 21st century is acquiring a second language (L2). Based on this, L2 instruction has integrated new concepts to motivate learners in their pursue of achieving fluency. A concept that is adaptable to digital natives and digital immigrants that are learning a L2 is Gamification. As a pedagogical strategy,…

  18. Individual Differences in Second Language Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah

    2012-01-01

    As is the case in traditional second language (L2) acquisition research, a major question in the field of L2 real-time sentence processing is the extent to which L2 learners process the input like native speakers. Where differences are observed, the underlying causes could be the influence of the learner's first language and/or differences…

  19. How Does Second Language Vocabulary Grow over Time? A Multi-Methodological Study of Incremental Vocabulary Knowledge Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Tzu

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal development of L2 vocabulary by 17 individual adult L2 learners in an English as a second language (ESL) instructed context over one academic year, combining a longitudinal case study design with two cross-sectional comparisons in order to enhance (a) detailed documentation addressing the idiosyncrasy of L2

  20. Hands-On English: A Periodical for Teachers and Tutors of Adult English as a Second Language, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Anna, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This newsletter is designed to help English and a second language teachers and tutors with practical teaching ideas. The articles are contributed by experienced teachers and tutors. Each issue includes some of the following regular features: "Letters"; "Hints and Tips"; "Tools and Techniques"; "From the Field"; "Reading"; "Multilevel Dictation";…

  1. Learning a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Shirley A.

    This paper presents an overview of research literature on second language learning in children. Theories regarding these aspects of second language acquisition are summarized: (1) developmental stages of language acquisition; (2) the role of imitation and practice; (3) differences between oral and written language skills; (4) the ways in which…

  2. Subcomponents of Second-Language Aptitude and Second-Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Humbach, Nancy; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore

    2011-01-01

    A factor analysis of a test battery that included early first-language (L1) achievement, L1 cognitive ability, second-language (L2) aptitude, and L2 affective measures to predict oral and written L2 proficiency was conducted. The analysis yielded 4 factors that were labeled Language Analysis, composed of L1 and L2 language comprehension, grammar,…

  3. L2 Negation Constructions at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskildsen, Soren W.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the usage- and exemplar-based roots of second language (L2) negation construction learning. Based on two longitudinal case studies involving two adult L2 English learners and a corpus of 63 three-hour sessions of recorded classroom interactions, the study shows that L2 learning follows the predictions of usage-based models of…

  4. Does the Shallow Structures Proposal Account for Qualitative Differences in First and Second Language Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura

    2006-01-01

    In their Keynote Article, Clahsen and Felser (CF) provide a detailed summary and comparison of grammatical processing in adult first language (L1) speakers, child L1 speakers, and second language (L2) speakers. CF conclude that child and adult L1 processing makes use of a continuous parsing mechanism, and that any differences found in processing…

  5. Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. The Cambridge Applied Linguistics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, James, Ed.; Huckin, Thomas, Ed.

    A collection of essays on second language vocabulary learning includes: "Historical Trends in Second Language Vocabulary Instruction" (Cheryl Boyd Zimmerman); "The Lexical Plight in Second Language Reading: Words You Don't Know, Words You Think You Know, and Words You Can't Guess" (Batia Laufer); "Orthographic Knowledge in L2 Lexical Processing: A…

  6. Extending the Compensatory Model of Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Levi

    2012-01-01

    Bernhardt (2005) proposed a compensatory model of second language reading. This model predicted that 50% of second language (L2) reading scores are attributed to second language knowledge and first-language (L1) reading ability. In this model, these two factors compensate for deficiencies in each other. Although this model explains a significant…

  7. Improving Pronunciation Instruction in the Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counselman, David

    2010-01-01

    Researchers in second language acquisition (SLA) have increasingly discussed the role that attention plays in the learning of a second language (L2). This discussion has led to research on proposed pedagogical strategies aimed at directing L2 learners' attention to aspects of the L2 grammar that are difficult to learn or acquire. Research on one…

  8. Plagiarism in Second-Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecorari, Diane; Petric, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then…

  9. Age and learning environment: Are children implicit second language learners?

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study crosses instruction condition with age, teaching forty children aged 5;3 to 7;11 and forty adults an artificial mini-language under implicit or explicit training conditions. Participants produced novel sentences and judged sentence grammaticality equally well in either condition, but both children and adults in the explicit training condition developed greater awareness of the mini-language's structures - and greater awareness was associated with better performance for both age groups. Results show that explicit instruction affects children and adults in the same way, supporting the hypothesis that age differences in implicit vs. explicit L2 learning are not exclusively caused by maturation, but also influenced by instruction.

  10. Novice Learners, Longitudinal Designs, and Event-Related Potentials: A Means for Exploring the Neurocognition of Second Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterhout, Lee; McLaughlin, Judith; Pitkanen, Ilona; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl; Molinaro, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    Research on the neurobiology of second language (L2) learning has historically focused on localization questions and relied on cross-sectional designs. Here, we describe an alternative paradigm involving longitudinal studies of adult, novice learners who are progressing through an introductory sequence of classroom-based L2 instruction. The goal…

  11. Air Writing as a Technique for the Acquisition of Sino-japanese Characters by Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This article calls attention to a facet of the expertise of second language (L2) learners of Japanese at the intersection of language, memory, gesture, and the psycholinguistics of a logographic writing system. Previous research has shown that adult L2 learners of Japanese living in Japan (similarly to native speakers of Japanese) often…

  12. Second Language Inner Voice and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shigematsu, Brandon Kenji

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the phenomena of second language (L2, hereafter) inner voice for three Japanese-American English bilinguals who had long-term exposure to the L2 in naturalistic contexts, that is, by living and/or working or studying in the U.S. American English learners of L2 Japanese were included in the study as well, although only one…

  13. The Natural Approach to Adult Learning and Teaching of L2 Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, Pawel

    2008-01-01

    Learning a language in a natural way is normally understood to involve the development of implicit knowledge of that language. The acquisition of such knowledge takes place through communication and is driven by learner-internal mechanisms which cannot be directly influenced by formal instruction. In the case of foreign or second language (L2)…

  14. Semantic Category Effects in Second Language Word Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkbeiner, Matthew; Nicol, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Addresses a long-standing assumption that presenting new second language (L2) vocabulary in semantically grouped sets is an effective method of teaching. Discusses findings in terms of theoretical models of second language lexical representation and development, as well as in more practical terms of L2 curriculum design and vocabulary instruction.…

  15. The Effect of Second-Language Experience on Native-Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Marian, Viorica

    2011-01-01

    Previous work on bilingual language processing indicates that native-language skills can influence second-language acquisition. The goal of the present work was to examine the influence of second-language experiences on native-language vocabulary and reading skills in two groups of bilingual speakers. English-Spanish and English-Mandarin bilingual adults were tested on vocabulary knowledge and reading fluency in English, their native language. Participants also provided detailed information regarding their history of second-language acquisition, including age of L2 acquisition, degree of L2 exposure, L2 proficiency, and preference of L2 use. Comparisons across the two bilingual groups revealed that both groups performed similarly on native-language vocabulary and reading measures. However, in English-Spanish bilinguals, higher self-reported reading skills in Spanish were associated with higher English reading-fluency scores, while in English-Mandarin bilinguals, higher self-reported reading skills in Mandarin were associated with lower English reading-fluency scores. These findings suggest that second-language experiences influence native-language performance, and can facilitate or reduce it depending on the properties of the second-language writing system.

  16. Second Language Teaching & Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    The purpose of this volume is to provide a contemporary portrait of second language learning and teaching, to identify major trends and issues, to show where these trends and issues have come from, and to illustrate ways teachers can incorporate these ideas in their own teaching practice. The book is a personal account, tracing the author's…

  17. Becoming Literate in English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Susan R., Ed.; Trueba, Henry T., Ed.

    A collection of articles on English-as-a-Second-Language literacy and literacy education include: "Contextual Issues in the Study of Second Language Literacy" (Susan R. Goldman); "Mexican Adult Literacy: New Directions for Immigrants" (Concha Delgado-Gaitan); "Factors Affecting Development of Second Language Literacy" (Richard Duran); "Reading in…

  18. Classroom noise and children learning in a second language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peggy; Kohnert, Kathryn; Sabur, Sabina; Shaw, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    The presence of background noise affects children more negatively than adults. Understanding speech in noise is a skill that continues to develop well into a child's adolescent years. Childrens' experience with a specific language also may affect their ability to make sense of incoming speech. Research suggests that even for adults the presence of background noise negatively affects the ability to listen in a second language. Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of classroom noise on attention and speech perception in native Spanish-speaking second graders learning English as their second language (L2), as compared to English-only speaking peers (EO). In Study 1 we measured childrens' on-task behavior during instructional activities with and without soundfield amplification. In Study 2 we measured the effects of noise (+10 dB signal-to-noise ratio) using an experimental English word-recognition task. Findings indicate although there were no effects of amplification on on-task behavior, word-recognition performance declined significantly for both EO and L2 groups in the noise condition. In particular, the impact of the noise was disproportionately greater for the L2 group. Children learning in their L2 appear to be at a distinct disadvantage when listening in rooms with typical noise and reverberation.

  19. Second-language acquisition via immersion in daycare.

    PubMed

    Karniol, R

    1990-02-01

    This paper presents a case study of second-language acquisition of Hebrew via immersion in daycare between 1.10 and 3.0. A period of silence was followed by rapid onset of L2 production simultaneously with many references to language itself. Eight types of language awareness were identified, and of these, several types may be prerequisites for starting L2 production. The nature of L2 speech during the first stages of production suggests that to crack the sematic code of L2, the child relies on identifiable contingencies between utterances and subsequent behaviours by speakers and listeners. As a result there are many more imperatives and interrogatives in L2 than are evident in L1 speech, and these appear to be learned by rote in an unanalysed manner. The transition to complex constructions occurs via the juxtaposition of known but syntactically unanalysed chunks, and results in patterns of syntactic errors similar to those of adult second-language learners. Reliance on L1 as a fall-back strategy was also evident. Several implications of these data for cognitive development in general are discussed.

  20. The Effect of Phonetics Instruction on Adult Learners' Perception and Production of L2 Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissling, Elizabeth Maria

    2012-01-01

    Traditional pronunciation instruction and instruction in second language (L2) phonetics have been shown to improve learners' L2 accent in some, though certainly not all, cases. Learners in intermediate and advanced Spanish FL courses have shown modest improvement in the pronunciation of some L2 phones after receiving such instruction.…

  1. The Effect of Age of Acquisition and Second-Language Experience on Segments and Prosody: A Cross-Sectional Study of Korean Bilinguals' English and Korean Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Grace Eunhae

    2011-01-01

    The current dissertation investigated segmental and prosodic aspects of first- (L1) and second-language (L2) speech production. Forty Korean-speaking adults and children varying in L2 experience (6 months-inexperienced vs. 6 years-experienced) as well as twenty age-matched native English speaking adults and children participated. Experienced…

  2. Second Language Processing: When Are First and Second Languages Processed Similarly?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura; Stowe, Laurie A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we investigate the effects of first language (L1) on second language (L2) neural processing for two grammatical constructions (verbal domain dependency and grammatical gender), focusing on the event-related potential P600 effect, which has been found in both L1 and L2 processing. Native Dutch speakers showed a P600 effect for both…

  3. Instrument Reporting Practices in Second Language Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, Deirdre J.

    2016-01-01

    Second language (L2) researchers often have to develop or change the instruments they use to measure numerous constructs (Norris & Ortega, 2012). Given the prevalence of researcher-developed and -adapted data collection instruments, and given the profound effect instrumentation can have on results, thorough reporting of instrumentation is…

  4. The Problematic of Second Language Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, M. Obaidul; Doan, Linh Dieu

    2014-01-01

    The significance of errors in explicating Second Language Acquisition (SLA) processes led to the growth of error analysis in the 1970s which has since maintained its prominence in English as a second/foreign language (L2) research. However, one problem with this research is errors are often taken for granted, without problematising them and their…

  5. Oral Corrective Feedback in Second Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyster, Roy; Saito, Kazuya; Sato, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research on oral corrective feedback (CF) in second language (L2) classrooms. Various types of oral CF are first identified, and the results of research revealing CF frequency across instructional contexts are presented. Research on CF preferences is then reviewed, revealing a tendency for learners to prefer receiving CF more…

  6. Second Language Research Using Magnetoencephalography: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Gwen L.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we show how magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a constructive tool for language research and review MEG findings in second language (L2) research. MEG is the magnetic analog of electroencephalography (EEG), and its primary advantage over other cross-sectional (e.g. magnetic resonance imaging, or positron emission tomography) functional…

  7. Referent Salience Affects Second Language Article Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenkic, Danijela; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2013-01-01

    The effect of referent salience on second language (L2) article production in real time was explored. Thai (-articles) and French (+articles) learners of English described dynamic events involving two referents, one visually cued to be more salient at the point of utterance formulation. Definiteness marking was made communicatively redundant with…

  8. Structural Priming and Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming (or syntactic priming) is a speaker's tendency to reuse the same structural pattern as one that was previously encountered (Bock, 1986). This study investigated (a) whether the implicit learning processes involved in long-lag structural priming lead to differential second language (L2) improvement in producing two structural…

  9. Transfer across Second Language Acquisition Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daftarifard, Parisa; Shirkhani, Servat

    2011-01-01

    Transfer has been discussed from different points of view since the advent of Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis [13], [8]. Mishina-Mori [19] has defied transfer as merging grammatical properties from one language to another. The effect of transfer from a first language (L1) to a second language (L2) or a third language (L3) has been viewed…

  10. Second Language Learners' Use of Marginal Glosses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of marginal reading glosses by 18 second language (L2) learners is examined through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of audiotaped think-aloud protocols. How these readers interact with the glosses is identified and divided into five categories or gloss interactions. Examples from each are presented. The primary research question…

  11. Genre and Second-Language Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltridge, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The term "genre" first came into the field of second-language (L2) writing and, in turn, the field of English for specific purposes (ESP) in the 1980s, with the research of John Swales, first carried out in the UK, into the introduction section of research articles. Other important figures in this area are Tony Dudley-Evans, Ann Johns…

  12. A Cross-Cultural Study of Adult English as a Second Language (ESL) Students: Cultural Differences and Instructional Strategy Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Fujuan

    2010-01-01

    Adult education literature generally acknowledges the appropriateness of the incorporation of instructional strategies that stress students' prior experience. Whether this appropriateness applies to students from diverse cultural backgrounds, such as adult students in ESL programs, is not clear. Based on the assumption that students from different…

  13. The Role of Structural Position in L2 Phonological Acquisition: Evidence from English Learners of Spanish as L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vokic, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    In this pilot study, the speech of 12 adult native speakers of English with intermediate to intermediate-high proficiency in Spanish as a second language (L2) was analyzed to determine whether L2 learners rely on distributional information in the process of L2 speech learning and if so, if similar or dissimilar distributional patterns of sounds…

  14. Markedness and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil-Byeon, Ja

    1999-01-01

    Discusses whether markedness is at work in second-language acquisition in the same way it is in first-language acquisition when Korean speakers learn English as a second language and English speakers learn Korean as a second language. Results are discussed in terms of no access to universal grammar, partial access to universal grammar, and access…

  15. Systematic Asymmetries in Perception and Production of L2 Inflections in Mandarin L2 Learners of English: The Effects of Phonotactics, Salience, and Processing Pressure on Inflectional Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    The study of language production by adults who are learning a second language (L2) has received a good deal of attention especially when it comes to omission of inflectional morphemes within L2 utterances. Several explanations have been proposed for these inflectional errors. One explanation is that the L2 learner simply does not have the L2

  16. Who Was Walking on the Beach? Anaphora Resolution in Spanish Heritage Speakers and Adult Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Gregory D.; VanPatten, Bill; Jegerski, Jill

    2011-01-01

    The position of antecedent strategy (Carminati, 2002) claims that speakers of null-subject languages prefer to resolve intrasentential anaphora by linking pro to an antecedent in the specifier of the inflection phrase and the overt pronoun to an antecedent lower in the clause. The present study has two aims: (a) to determine whether adult early…

  17. Literacy Education for Low-Educated Second Language Learning Adults in Multilingual Contexts: The Case of Luxembourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jinyoung; Ziegler, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    Mastery of literacy skills in the language(s) of the host country is considered a key element for the successful integration of immigrants. The current paper focuses on possibly one of the most challenging aspects of the issues of linguistic integration of immigrants, i.e., literacy acquisition by "low-literate" adult immigrants in a…

  18. Morphosyntactic Processing in Late Second-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowens, Margaret Gillon; Vergara, Marta; Barber, Horacio A.; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of second-language (L2) morphosyntactic processing in highly proficient late learners of an L2 with long exposure to the L2 environment. ERPs were collected from 22 English-Spanish late learners while they read sentences in which morphosyntactic features of the L2

  19. The Influence of Content on Adult L2 Learners' Task Motivation: An Interest Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poupore, Glen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of content-related conditions on adult second language learners' task motivation during interactive tasks. It also aims to identify what is referred to as interestingness conditions within task content, that is, elements that are intrinsically interesting to most individuals. The investigation was conducted…

  20. Perceptions of French Fluency in Second Language Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Préfontaine, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature in second language (L2) perceived fluency has focused on English as a second language, with a primary reliance on impressions from native-speaker judges, leaving learners' self-perceptions of speech production unexplored. This study investigates the relationship between learners' and judges' perceptions of French fluency under…

  1. Null Objects in Second Language Acquisition: Grammatical vs. Performance Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyzik, Eve C.

    2008-01-01

    Null direct objects provide a favourable testing ground for grammatical and performance models of argument omission. This article examines both types of models in order to determine which gives a more plausible account of the second language data. The data were collected from second language (L2) learners of Spanish by means of four oral…

  2. Psycholinguistic Techniques and Resources in Second Language Acquisition Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a survey of current psycholinguistic techniques relevant to second language acquisition (SLA) research is presented. I summarize many of the available methods and discuss their use with particular reference to two critical questions in current SLA research: (1) What does a learner's current knowledge of the second language (L2)…

  3. Nature and Nurture in School-Based Second Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Philip S.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Variability in achievement across learners is a hallmark of second language (L2) learning, especially in academic-based learning. The Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), based on a large, population-representative sample in the United Kingdom, provides the first opportunity to examine individual differences in second language achievement in a…

  4. The Changing Face of Motivation: A Study of Second Language Learners' Motivation over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Elizabeth; Storch, Neomy

    2011-01-01

    Motivation to learn a second language (L2) is considered a crucial individual factor in explaining success or lack thereof in second language learning. This study examined learners' motivation to learn Chinese as a second language (L2). The study was longitudinal and cross sectional. Interviews were conducted with learners at different year levels…

  5. Individual differences in second-language proficiency: does musical ability matter?

    PubMed

    Slevc, L Robert; Miyake, Akira

    2006-08-01

    This study examined the relation between musical ability and second-language (L2) proficiency in adult learners. L2 ability was assessed in four domains: receptive phonology, productive phonology, syntax, and lexical knowledge. Also assessed were various other factors that might explain individual differences in L2 ability, including age of L2 immersion, patterns of language use and exposure, and phonological short-term memory. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to determine if musical ability explained any unique variance in each domain of L2 ability after controlling for other relevant factors. Musical ability predicted L2 phonological ability (both receptive and productive) even when controlling for other factors, but did not explain unique variance in L2 syntax or lexical knowledge. These results suggest that musical skills may facilitate the acquisition of L2 sound structure and add to a growing body of evidence linking language and music.

  6. A Pilot Study Comparing Total Physical Response Storytelling[TM] with the Grammar-Translation Teaching Strategy to Determine Their Effectiveness in Vocabulary Acquisition among English as a Second Language Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS[TM]) compared to the Grammar-Translation approach for acquiring and retaining new vocabulary in an English as a Second Language (ESL) class. The subjects were adult Hispanic learners with limited literacy. An experimental design approach was used to gather…

  7. When Alphabets Collide: Alphabetic First-Language Speakers' Approach to Speech Production in an Alphabetic Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vokic, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the extent to which literate native speakers of a language with a phonemic alphabetic orthography rely on their first language (L1) orthography during second language (L2) speech production of a language that has a morphophonemic alphabetic orthography. The production of the English flapping rule by 15 adult native speakers of…

  8. The Receptive-Expressive Gap in the Vocabulary of Young Second-Language Learners: Robustness and Possible Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Todd A.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Jarmulowicz, Linda; Ethington, Corinna A.

    2012-01-01

    Adults and children learning a second language show difficulty accessing expressive vocabulary that appears accessible receptively in their first language (L1). We call this discrepancy the receptive-expressive gap. Kindergarten Spanish (L1)-English (L2) sequential bilinguals were given standardized tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary in…

  9. Dominant Language Transfer in Spanish Heritage Speakers and Second Language Learners in the Interpretation of Definite Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates dominant language transfer (from English) in adult Spanish second language (L2) learners and Spanish heritage speakers. We focus on contrasting properties of English and Spanish definite articles with respect to generic reference ("Elephants have ivory tusks" vs. "Los elefantes tienen colmillos de marfil") and inalienable…

  10. Learnability and Parametric Change in the Nominal System of L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    In this article I provide evidence that despite frequently cited differences between child first language (L1) and adult second language (L2) speakers in overt behavior (performance) during grammatical development, the nature, source, and limits of implicit knowledge (competence) in native and second language grammars are equivalent (i.e., they…

  11. Neuroimaging and Research into Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques are becoming not only more and more sophisticated but are also coming to be increasingly accessible to researchers. One thing that one should take note of is the potential of neuroimaging research within second language acquisition (SLA) to contribute to issues pertaining to the plasticity of the adult brain and to general…

  12. The Assessment of Second Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaine, Craig

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on an action-research project that focuses on the assessment of second language teacher education. It was carried out in the context of the Cambridge Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults (CELTA) and centres on how assessment criteria for this qualification are interpreted and operationalized by teacher educators…

  13. Second Language Acquisition Research and Second Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, S. Pit

    1985-01-01

    Discusses second language acquisition, the importance of comprehensible input to this acquisition, and the inadequacy of the theory of language interference as an explanation for errors in second language speech. The role of the teacher in the language classroom and the "procedural syllabus" are described. (SED)

  14. The Inseparability of Cognition and Emotion in Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill

    2013-01-01

    The scholarly literature about the process of second language (L2) learning has focused to a considerable extent on cognitive processes. Left aside are questions about how emotions fit into an understanding of L2 learning. One goal of this plenary is to demonstrate that we have limited our understanding of L2 learning by failing to take into…

  15. Second Language Sentence Processing in Reading for Comprehension and Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jung Hyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2013-01-01

    A self-paced reading and translation task was used with learners of English as a second language (L2) to explore what sorts of information L2 learners use during online comprehension compared to native speakers, and how task (reading for comprehension vs. translation) and proficiency affect L2 comprehension. Thirty-six Korean native speakers of…

  16. Naming Abilities in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in second language (L2) learning are often associated with recognizable learning difficulties in native language (L1), such as in dyslexia. However, some individuals have low L2 proficiency but intact L1 reading skills. These L2 learners experience frequent tip-of-the-tongue states while naming in L1, which indicates that they have a…

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Language Awareness and Second Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the publication of Hawkins's (1984) "Awareness of Language," researchers have been investigating the language awareness of second language (L2) learners. Few studies, however, have targeted the relationship between classroom learners' language awareness and L2 production, with fewer still focusing on language awareness and L2

  18. Second Language Learners' Beliefs about Grammar Instruction and Error Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, Shawn; Li, Shaofeng; Fei, Fei; Thompson, Amy; Nakatsukasa, Kimi; Ahn, Seongmee; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2009-01-01

    Learner beliefs are an important individual difference in second language (L2) learning. Furthermore, an ongoing debate surrounds the role of grammar instruction and error correction in the L2 classroom. Therefore, this study investigated the beliefs of L2 learners regarding the controversial role of grammar instruction and error correction. A…

  19. Acculturation in Relation to the Acquisition of a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Mei; Green, Raymond J.; Henley, Tracy B.; Masten, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Learners who begin to acquire a second language (L2) in a naturalistic environment after puberty are thought to be constrained by biological age factors and to have greater difficulty obtaining native-like L2. However, the extant literature suggests that L2 acquisition may be positively affected by post-maturational factors, such as acculturation.…

  20. Vocabulary Knowledge and Vocabulary Use in Second Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark D.; Acevedo, Anthony; Mercado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently shown diversity of vocabulary to be an important indicator of second language (L2) writing development as well as L2 writing performance. These studies underscore the importance of vocabulary to L2 writing. However, they provide little to indicate what kind of vocabulary learners of English may need to know in order to…

  1. ERPs recorded during early second language exposure predict syntactic learning.

    PubMed

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J

    2014-09-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In this study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners' proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High-proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared with closed-class function words, whereas low-proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners' L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition.

  2. Universals of Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R., Ed.; And Others

    Works on second language acquisition theories, affective variables and communicative competence, and interlanguage were compiled as a result of a symposium on universals of second language acquisition at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. The papers include: "On the Variability of Interlangauge Systems" (Elaine Tarone); "Memory, Learning, and…

  3. Input in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Madden, Carolyn G., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers includes: "When Does Teacher Talk Work as Input?"; "Cultural Input in Second Language Learning"; "Skilled Variation in a Kindergarten Teacher's Use of Foreigner Talk"; "Teacher-Pupil Interaction in Second Language Development"; "Foreigner Talk in the University…

  4. Language effects in second-language learners: A longitudinal electrophysiological study of spanish classroom learning.

    PubMed

    Soskey, Laura; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J

    2016-09-01

    How do the neural mechanisms involved in word recognition evolve over the course of word learning in adult learners of a new second language? The current study sought to closely track language effects, which are differences in electrophysiological indices of word processing between one's native and second languages, in beginning university learners over the course of a single semester of learning. Monolingual L1 English-speakers enrolled in introductory Spanish were first trained on a list of 228 Spanish words chosen from the vocabulary to be learned in class. Behavioral data from the training session and the following experimental sessions spaced over the course of the semester showed expected learning effects. In the three laboratory sessions participants read words in three lists (English, Spanish and mixed) while performing a go/no-go lexical decision task in which event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. As observed in previous studies there were ERP language effects with larger N400s to native than second language words. Importantly, this difference declined over the course of L2 learning with N400 amplitude increasing for new second language words. These results suggest that even over a single semester of learning that new second language words are rapidly incorporated into the word recognition system and begin to take on lexical and semantic properties similar to native language words. Moreover, the results suggest that electrophysiological measures can be used as sensitive measures for tracking the acquisition of new linguistic knowledge.

  5. Second Language Vocabulary Learning and Teaching: Still a Hot Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrotta, Clarena

    2011-01-01

    For many reasons second language vocabulary learning and teaching continues to be a topic of interest for learners, instructors, and researchers. This article describes the implementation of personal glossaries in a community program offering English as second language classes to Latina/o Spanish speaking adults. Field notes, interviews, and…

  6. Citizenship and Race in Second-Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the links between citizenship and race in second-language education through an examination of the ways in which citizenship is linked to English language proficiency within a key Canadian federal adult English as a Second Language assessment document, the "Canadian Language Benchmarks" ("CLB"). It uses…

  7. Orthographic Quality in English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Learning new vocabulary words in a second language is a challenge for the adult learner, especially when the second language writing system differs from the first language writing system. According to the lexical quality hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2001), there are three constituents to word-level knowledge: orthographic, phonological, and…

  8. The Evaluation of Second Language Fluency and Foreign Accent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chen-Huei

    2011-01-01

    What is second language fluency? What is a foreign accent? Is it possible for an adult second language learner to speak fluently with a heavy accent or vice versa? What factors contribute to the perception of fluency and a foreign accent? What acoustic attributes correlate with the perception of fluency and a foreign accent? To answer these…

  9. Issues in Second-Language Reading: Implications for Acquisition and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2011-01-01

    The study of second-language (L2) reading comprehension and instruction has become the focus of increasing attention in the past few decades. Two recent publications, "Reading in a Second Language: Moving From Theory to Practice" by William Grabe and "Second Language Reading Research and Instruction: Crossing the Boundaries" edited by ZhaoHong Han…

  10. Nonnativeness in Near-Native Child L2 Starters of Japanese: Age and the Acquisition of Relative Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishikawa, Tomomi

    2014-01-01

    Many age-related second language (L2) studies have confirmed that young children have a better chance to become nativelike in L2 acquisition than adults. The current study investigated whether age effects exist in the L2 acquisition of Japanese and whether nativelike proficiency is guaranteed for early child L2 starters after constant target…

  11. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning.

  12. An Automated Version of the BAT Syntactic Comprehension Task for Assessing Auditory L2 Proficiency in Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achim, Andre; Marquis, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Studies of bilingualism sometimes require healthy subjects to be assessed for proficiency at auditory sentence processing in their second language (L2). The Syntactic Comprehension task of the Bilingual Aphasia Test could satisfy this need. For ease and uniformity of application, we automated its English (Paradis, M., Libben, G., and Hummel, K.…

  13. The Acquisitional Value of Recasts in Instructed Second Language Speech Learning: Teaching the Perception and Production of English /?/ to Adult Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the impact of recasts together with form-focused instruction (FFI) on the development of second language speech perception and production of English /?/ by Japanese learners. Forty-five learners were randomly assigned to three groups--FFI recasts, FFI only, and Control--and exposed to four hours of communicatively…

  14. Morphological and Syntactic Transfer in Child L2 Acquisition of the English Dative Alternation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whong-Barr, Melinda; Schwartz, Bonnie D.

    2002-01-01

    Compares the acquisition of the English to- and for-dative alternation by native-speaking English, Japanese, and Korean children. Investigates whether second language learners (L2) like native language learners overextend the double-object variant and whether L2 learners, like L2 adults, transfer properties of the native language grammar.…

  15. Understanding Written Corrective Feedback in Second-Language Grammar Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Jason Paul; Wulf, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) is used extensively in second-language (L2) writing classrooms despite controversy over its effectiveness. This study examines indirect WCF, an instructional procedure that flags L2 students' errors with editing symbols that guide their corrections. WCF practitioners assume that this guidance will lead to…

  16. Functional Connectivity Changes in Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidi, Ladan Ghazi; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Pelegrini-Issac, Melani; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana-Ines

    2013-01-01

    Functional connectivity changes in the language network (Price, 2010), and in a control network involved in second language (L2) processing (Abutalebi & Green, 2007) were examined in a group of Persian (L1) speakers learning French (L2) words. Measures of network integration that characterize the global integrative state of a network (Marrelec,…

  17. Processing Relative Clauses in Chinese as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates second language (L2) learners' processing of four types of Chinese relative clauses crossing extraction types and demonstrative-classifier (DCl) positions. Using a word order judgment task with a whole-sentence reading technique, the study also discusses how psycholinguistic theories bear explanatory power in L2 data. An…

  18. Directing Attention to Pronunciation in the Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counselman, David

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by predictions of the theory of Input Processing, this study adds to previous research on second language (L2) Spanish pronunciation learning by investigating the impact of two distinct types of pronunciation assignments on first language (L1) English L2 Spanish students' improvement in pronunciation of the vowels /e, o/. Two sections of…

  19. Phonological Memory and Implications for the Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Kirsten M.; French, Leif M.

    2010-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that phonological memory (PM), a sub-component of working memory, is closely related to various aspects of second language (L2) learning in a variety of populations, suggesting that PM may be an essential cognitive mechanism underlying successful L2 acquisition. This article provides a brief critical review of the role…

  20. Invited Colloquium: Inclusivity in French Second Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this bilingual (French/English) symposium was to inform researchers and teacher educators about the specific challenges faced by second language (L2) students and teachers in creating an inclusive L2 classroom in order to encourage plurilingual, non-English-dominant students and students with learning difficulties to succeed. In the…

  1. Automatization and Orthographic Development in Second Language Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kida, Shusaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated second language (L2) learners' acquisition of automatic word recognition and the development of L2 orthographic representation in the mental lexicon. Participants in the study were Japanese university students enrolled in a compulsory course involving a weekly 30-minute sustained silent reading (SSR) activity with…

  2. A Sociocognitive Perspective on Second Language Classroom Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a multiple case study that investigated the dynamic and situated nature of learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) in second language (L2) classrooms. Framed within a sociocognitive perspective on L2 learning which draws together social, environmental, and individual factors, this study traced WTC among six learners of…

  3. Preservice and Inservice Instructors' Metaphorical Constructions of Second Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Gabriela C.; Lacorte, Manel

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the first part of a study that explores the metaphorical language used by 64 second language (L2) Spanish and English as a foreign language (EFL) pre- and inservice teaching assistants and instructors in their conceptualization of L2 teachers and students. The article investigates the philosophical perspective embedded in…

  4. University Level Second Language Readers' Online Reading and Comprehension Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jaehan; Yang, Jaeseok; Hsieh, Yi Chin

    2014-01-01

    With the growing prevalence of Web 2.0 technologies and use of online resources in their classrooms, language learners have increasing exposure to online texts. In this study we attempted to understand how university level second language (L2) readers construct meaning when reading online. We investigated L2 readers' information-seeking strategies…

  5. An Investigation of Motivation to Transfer Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Mark Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Research on motivation in second language (L2) education has tended to focus on learning; this study took an alternative perspective, examining students' motivation to transfer L2 learning. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with 40 students who were enrolled in several sections of a university English-for-academic-purposes…

  6. Written Languaging, Direct Correction, and Second Language Writing Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Wataru

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that languaging plays a crucial role in learning a second language (L2). The effects of languaging, especially oral languaging (e.g., collaborative dialogue, private speech), have been tested on the learning of L2 knowledge domains. This study explored the effects of written languaging by asking 24 Japanese learners of English…

  7. Measuring Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge Using a Temporal Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanabe, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The present study addressed the role of speed as a factor in tests of second language (L2) vocabulary knowledge, presupposing that speed of performance is important in actual language use. Research questions were: (a) Do learners with a larger vocabulary size answer faster on an L2 vocabulary breadth test than smaller vocabulary sized learners?;…

  8. Phonology in Second Language Reading: Not an Optional Extra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In examining reading comprehension in a second language (L2), I have demonstrated that the prevailing metaphor of transfer of skills is misleading, and that what happens is access to an already existing general cognitive skill. There is evidence in first language (L1) and in L2 that accessing this skill when reading in an alphabetic language…

  9. Phonological Memory and Children's Second Language Grammar Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Leif M.; O'Brien, Irena

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of phonological memory in second language (L2) grammar learning in a group of native French-speaking children undergoing a 5-month intensive English program. Phonological memory (as referenced by Arabic [ANWR] and English [ENWR] nonword repetition tasks), L2 vocabulary (receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge),…

  10. Morphological Errors in Spanish Second Language Learners and Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2011-01-01

    Morphological variability and the source of these errors have been intensely debated in SLA. A recurrent finding is that postpuberty second language (L2) learners often omit or use the wrong affix for nominal and verbal inflections in oral production but less so in written tasks. According to the missing surface inflection hypothesis, L2 learners…

  11. First Language/Second Language: Acquisition, Writing, and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Diana M.

    Scholars from varied disciplines--first language (L1) acquisition, second language (L2) acquisition, composition research, and cognitive psychology--have found a high level of permeability in their search for more effective classroom models of writing instruction. Among the most influential work in this area has been Stephen Krashen's theory of L2

  12. Losing access to the native language while immersed in a second language: evidence for the role of inhibition in second-language learning.

    PubMed

    Linck, Jared A; Kroll, Judith F; Sunderman, Gretchen

    2009-12-01

    Adults are notoriously poor second-language (L2) learners. A context that enables successful L2 acquisition is language immersion. In this study, we investigated the effects of immersion learning for a group of university students studying abroad in Spain. Our interest was in the effect of immersion on the native language (L1), English. We tested the hypothesis that immersion benefits L2 learning as a result of attenuated influence of the L1. Participants were English-speaking learners of Spanish who were either immersed in Spanish while living in Spain or exposed to Spanish in the classroom only. Performance on both comprehension and production tasks showed that immersed learners outperformed their classroom counterparts with respect to L2 proficiency. However, the results also revealed that immersed learners had reduced L1 access. The pattern of data is most consistent with the interpretation that the L1 was inhibited while the learners were immersed.

  13. Ultimate Attainment of Second Language Articles: A Case Study of an Endstate Second Language Turkish-English Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snape, Neal; Kupisch, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    An area of considerable interest in second language (L2) acquisition is the difficulties learners face with the acquisition of articles. This article examines the role of prosody in the acquisition of articles by an endstate L2 English speaker focusing on the free morphemes "the" and "a". In order to analyse the articles produced by a Turkish…

  14. Kanji Recognition by Second Language Learners: Exploring Effects of First Language Writing Systems and Second Language Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether learners of Japanese with different first language (L1) writing systems use different recognition strategies and whether second language (L2) exposure affects L2 kanji recognition. The study used a computerized lexical judgment task with 3 types of kanji characters to investigate these questions: (a)…

  15. First Language Polysemy Affects Second Language Meaning Interpretation: Evidence for Activation of First Language Concepts during Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elston-Guttler, Kerrie E.; Williams, John N.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of first language (L1) lexicalization patterns on the processing of second language (L2) words in sentential contexts by advanced German learners of English. The focus was on cases where a polysemous word in the L1 is realized by independent words in the L2, e.g. German "Blase" realized by English…

  16. Using Music To Promote L2 Learning among Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Marilyn

    2002-01-01

    Offers practical suggestions for incorporating music activities into the adult English-as-a-Second-or- Other-Language (ESOL) classroom. Focuses on reasons for using music, guidelines for selecting songs, categories of music activities, guidelines for structuring classroom music activities, and ways to use music in adult ESOL classes. (Author/VWL)

  17. Schizophrenia and second language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bersudsky, Yuly; Fine, Jonathan; Gorjaltsan, Igor; Chen, Osnat; Walters, Joel

    2005-05-01

    Language acquisition involves brain processes that can be affected by lesions or dysfunctions in several brain systems and second language acquisition may depend on different brain substrates than first language acquisition in childhood. A total of 16 Russian immigrants to Israel, 8 diagnosed schizophrenics and 8 healthy immigrants, were compared. The primary data for this study were collected via sociolinguistic interviews. The two groups use language and learn language in very much the same way. Only exophoric reference and blocking revealed meaningful differences between the schizophrenics and healthy counterparts. This does not mean of course that schizophrenia does not induce language abnormalities. Our study focuses on those aspects of language that are typically difficult to acquire in second language acquisition. Despite the cognitive compromises in schizophrenia and the manifest atypicalities in language of speakers with schizophrenia, the process of acquiring a second language seems relatively unaffected by schizophrenia.

  18. The Interpretability Hypothesis: Evidence from Wh-Interrogatives in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsimpli, Ianthi Maria; Dimitrakopoulou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The second language acquisition (SLA) literature reports numerous studies of proficient second language (L2) speakers who diverge significantly from native speakers despite the evidence offered by the L2 input. Recent SLA theories have attempted to account for native speaker/non-native speaker (NS/NNS) divergence by arguing for the dissociation…

  19. Structural Minimality, CP and the Initial State in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Rakesh M.; Hancin-Bhatt, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Considers the current debate on the initial state of second language (L2) acquisition and presents critical empirical evidence from Hindi learners of English-as-a-Second-Language that supports the claim that the complementizer phase (CP) is initially absent from the grammar of L2 speakers.(Author/VWL)

  20. Word Order Processing in a Second Language: From VO to OV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdocia, Kepa; Zawiszewski, Adam; Laka, Itziar

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potential studies on second language processing reveal that L1/L2 differences are due either to proficiency, age of acquisition or grammatical differences between L1 and L2 (Kotz in "Brain Lang" 109(2-3):68-74, 2009). However, the relative impact of these and other factors in second language processing is still not well…

  1. High School Teacher Perspectives and Practices: Second Language Writing and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' understandings of second language learning influence their practices in the classroom. This paper analyzes interview and classroom data collected during a year-long ethnographic study of two high school English language development classes to identify (1) what the teachers understood about second language (L2) development and L2 academic…

  2. The Role of Statistical Learning in the Acquisition of Motion Event Construal in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffers-Daller, Jeanine; Calude, Andreea

    2015-01-01

    Learning to talk about motion in a second language is very difficult because it involves restructuring deeply entrenched patterns from the first language. In this paper we argue that statistical learning can explain why L2 learners are only partially successful in restructuring their second language grammars. We explore to what extent L2 learners…

  3. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals.

  4. Willingness To Communicate in a Second Language: The Japanese EFL Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yashima, Tomoko

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations among second language learning (L2) and L2 communication variables in the Japanese English as a foreign language context using the Willingness to Communicate (WTC) model and the socioeducational model as a framework. (Author/VWL)

  5. Technology and Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li Li

    2009-01-01

    Current technology provides new opportunities to increase the effectiveness of language learning and teaching. Incorporating well-organized and effective technology into second language learning and teaching for improving students' language proficiency has been refined by researchers and educators for many decades. Based on the rapidly changing…

  6. CHILDHOOD AND SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY. Foreign Language Program Research Center.

    THE REPORT OF A MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION-SPONSORED CONFERENCE ON CHILDHOOD AND SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING (MAY 5-6, 1956) SUMMARIZES THE DISCUSSIONS. THE TOPICS INCLUDE (1) HOW CHILDREN NORMALLY LEARN THEIR MOTHER TONGUE, (2) IMITATION AND ANALYSIS IN THE LANGUAGE LEARNING PROCESS, (3) RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE LEARNING OF A FIRST AND A SECOND…

  7. Second Language Learning vs. Pidginization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flick, William C.; Gilbert, Glenn G.

    This paper examines the differences between second language learning and pidginization to better understand the mechanisms involved in each process. Current research suggests similarities between the two. Both are characterized by reduction and simplification. Grammatical transformations tend to be eliminated, along with inflectional markers of…

  8. Attention to the Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickens, Christopher D.

    2007-01-01

    Attention to a task, and the language it requires to be performed, can be described in relation to two theoretical models which have prompted research into the effects of task demands on learning and performance outside the field of second language acquisition (SLA). These are the SEEV (selection, effort, expectancy and value) model of selective…

  9. Second Language Teacher Education Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.

    2008-01-01

    Second Language Teacher Education (SLTE) is affected by two factors; a rethinking of its knowledge base and instructional practices as a response to changes in our understanding of the nature of SLTE, as well as external pressures resulting from the expanded need for competent language teachers worldwide. The impact of these two factors is seen in…

  10. Explorations in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Roger, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The chapters in "Explorations in Second Language Reading" reveal the importance of reading in the classroom and how instructors can use reading as a bridge to improve learners' other linguistic and interpersonal skills. Most significantly, each author prompts us to rediscover how enjoyable ESOL reading can be and how it can increase learner…

  11. Psycholinguistics: A Second Language Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Evelyn Marcussen

    Perspectives of the field of psycholinguistics and second language research are examined to provide a broader understanding of language learning and language behavior. Psycholinguistics, which uses the approaches of psychology and linguistics is defined as the search for an understanding of how humans comprehend and produce language. Based on the…

  12. On the (Un)-Ambiguity of Adjectival Modification in Spanish Determiner Phrases: Informing Debates on the Mental Representations of L2 Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Jason; Judy, Tiffany; Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro; Pires, Acrisio

    2010-01-01

    This study contributes to a central debate within contemporary generative second language (L2) theorizing: the extent to which adult learners are (un)able to acquire new functional features that result in a L2 grammar that is mentally structured like the native target (see White, 2003). The adult acquisition of L2 nominal phi-features is explored,…

  13. Electrophysiological Investigations of Second Language Word Learning, Attrition and Bilingual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitkanen, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation examined changes in brain activity associated with learning, forgetting and using a second language. The first experiment investigated the changes that occur when novice adult second language learners acquire and forget second language words. Event-related brain potentials were measured while native…

  14. Second-Language Experience Modulates Eye Movements during First- and Second-Language Sentence Reading: Evidence from a Gaze-Contingent Moving Window Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Eye movement measures demonstrate differences in first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) paragraph-level reading as a function of individual differences in current L2 exposure among bilinguals (Whitford & Titone, 2012). Specifically, as current L2 exposure increases, the ease of L2 word processing increases, but the ease of L1 word…

  15. What and When Second-Language Learners Revise When Responding to Timed Writing Tasks on the Computer: The Roles of Task Type, Second Language Proficiency, and Keyboarding Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature on second language (L2) learners' revision behavior by describing what, when, and how often L2 learners revise their texts when responding to timed writing tasks on the computer and by examining the effects of task type, L2 proficiency, and keyboarding skills on what and when L2 learners revise. Each of 54…

  16. Second language processing shows increased native-like neural responses after months of no exposure.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Finger, Ingrid; Grey, Sarah; Ullman, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Although learning a second language (L2) as an adult is notoriously difficult, research has shown that adults can indeed attain native language-like brain processing and high proficiency levels. However, it is important to then retain what has been attained, even in the absence of continued exposure to the L2--particularly since periods of minimal or no L2 exposure are common. This event-related potential (ERP) study of an artificial language tested performance and neural processing following a substantial period of no exposure. Adults learned to speak and comprehend the artificial language to high proficiency with either explicit, classroom-like, or implicit, immersion-like training, and then underwent several months of no exposure to the language. Surprisingly, proficiency did not decrease during this delay. Instead, it remained unchanged, and there was an increase in native-like neural processing of syntax, as evidenced by several ERP changes--including earlier, more reliable, and more left-lateralized anterior negativities, and more robust P600s, in response to word-order violations. Moreover, both the explicitly and implicitly trained groups showed increased native-like ERP patterns over the delay, indicating that such changes can hold independently of L2 training type. The results demonstrate that substantial periods with no L2 exposure are not necessarily detrimental. Rather, benefits may ensue from such periods of time even when there is no L2 exposure. Interestingly, both before and after the delay the implicitly trained group showed more native-like processing than the explicitly trained group, indicating that type of training also affects the attainment of native-like processing in the brain. Overall, the findings may be largely explained by a combination of forgetting and consolidation in declarative and procedural memory, on which L2 grammar learning appears to depend. The study has a range of implications, and suggests a research program with

  17. How relevant is social interaction in second language learning?

    PubMed

    Verga, Laura; Kotz, Sonja A

    2013-09-03

    Verbal language is the most widespread mode of human communication, and an intrinsically social activity. This claim is strengthened by evidence emerging from different fields, which clearly indicates that social interaction influences human communication, and more specifically, language learning. Indeed, research conducted with infants and children shows that interaction with a caregiver is necessary to acquire language. Further evidence on the influence of sociality on language comes from social and linguistic pathologies, in which deficits in social and linguistic abilities are tightly intertwined, as is the case for Autism, for example. However, studies on adult second language (L2) learning have been mostly focused on individualistic approaches, partly because of methodological constraints, especially of imaging methods. The question as to whether social interaction should be considered as a critical factor impacting upon adult language learning still remains underspecified. Here, we review evidence in support of the view that sociality plays a significant role in communication and language learning, in an attempt to emphasize factors that could facilitate this process in adult language learning. We suggest that sociality should be considered as a potentially influential factor in adult language learning and that future studies in this domain should explicitly target this factor.

  18. How relevant is social interaction in second language learning?

    PubMed Central

    Verga, Laura; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2013-01-01

    Verbal language is the most widespread mode of human communication, and an intrinsically social activity. This claim is strengthened by evidence emerging from different fields, which clearly indicates that social interaction influences human communication, and more specifically, language learning. Indeed, research conducted with infants and children shows that interaction with a caregiver is necessary to acquire language. Further evidence on the influence of sociality on language comes from social and linguistic pathologies, in which deficits in social and linguistic abilities are tightly intertwined, as is the case for Autism, for example. However, studies on adult second language (L2) learning have been mostly focused on individualistic approaches, partly because of methodological constraints, especially of imaging methods. The question as to whether social interaction should be considered as a critical factor impacting upon adult language learning still remains underspecified. Here, we review evidence in support of the view that sociality plays a significant role in communication and language learning, in an attempt to emphasize factors that could facilitate this process in adult language learning. We suggest that sociality should be considered as a potentially influential factor in adult language learning and that future studies in this domain should explicitly target this factor. PMID:24027521

  19. An ERP study on Chinese natives' second language syntactic grammaticalization.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jin; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Qi, Zhenhai; Bai, Chen; Qiu, Yinchen

    2013-02-08

    The present study is concerned with how the Chinese learners of English grammaticalize different English syntactic rules. The ERPs (event related potentials) data were collected when participants performed English grammatical judgment. The experimental sentences varied in the degree of the similarity between the first language Chinese (L1) and the second language English (L2): (a) different in the L1 and the L2; (b) similar in the L1 and the L2; (c) unique to the L2. The P600 effect was found in L2 for structures that are similar in the L1 and the L2 and that are unique in L2, but there was no P600 effect of sentence type for the mismatch structures. The results indicate L1-L2 similarity and L2 proficiency interact in a complex way.

  20. Fluency-dependent cortical activation associated with speech production and comprehension in second language learners.

    PubMed

    Shimada, K; Hirotani, M; Yokokawa, H; Yoshida, H; Makita, K; Yamazaki-Murase, M; Tanabe, H C; Sadato, N

    2015-08-06

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the brain regions underlying language task performance in adult second language (L2) learners. Specifically, we identified brain regions where the level of activation was associated with L2 fluency levels. Thirty Japanese-speaking adults participated in the study. All participants were L2 learners of English and had achieved varying levels of fluency, as determined by a standardized L2 English proficiency test, the Versant English Test (Pearson Education Inc., 2011). When participants performed the oral sentence building task from the production tasks administered, the dorsal part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG) showed activation patterns that differed depending on the L2 fluency levels: The more fluent the participants were, the more dIFG activation decreased. This decreased activation of the dIFG might reflect the increased automaticity of a syntactic building process. In contrast, when participants performed an oral story comprehension task, the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) showed increased activation with higher fluency levels. This suggests that the learners with higher L2 fluency were actively engaged in post-syntactic integration processing supported by the left pSTG. These data imply that L2 fluency predicts neural resource allocation during language comprehension tasks as well as in production tasks. This study sheds light on the neural underpinnings of L2 learning by identifying the brain regions recruited during different language tasks across different modalities (production vs. comprehension).

  1. Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar. Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lydia

    This book examines how the underlying linguistic competence of second language (L2) learners is constrained by the same universal principals governing natural language. It is assumed that there is an innately given universal grammar (UG) which constrains L1 grammars, limiting the kinds of hypotheses that L1 acquirers entertain about the nature of…

  2. Learning Styles and Performance in Second Language Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Eleni; Andreou, Georgia; Vlachos, Filippos

    2008-01-01

    Given the paucity of research that has examined associations between learning styles and chosen academic discipline in connection with performance on different second language (L2) verbal fluency tasks, the authors undertook the current study with the aim of investigating the relationship between Greek students' learning styles and performance on…

  3. Metaphor and Second Language Learning: The State of the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoang, Ha

    2014-01-01

    Once considered a stylistic issue, metaphor is now considered a critical component of everyday and specialized language and most importantly, a fundamental mechanism of human conceptualizations of the world. The use of metaphor in language, thought and communication has been examined in second language (L2) learning. The body of literature that…

  4. Visual and Auditory Input in Second-Language Speech Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardison, Debra M.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of studies in second-language (L2) speech processing have involved unimodal (i.e., auditory) input; however, in many instances, speech communication involves both visual and auditory sources of information. Some researchers have argued that multimodal speech is the primary mode of speech perception (e.g., Rosenblum 2005). Research on…

  5. Factors Influencing the Second Language Acquisition of Spanish Vibrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Luz Marcela; Estrada, Chelsea

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of linguistic and sociolinguistic factors in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish vibrants. The data consist of 2 sets of recordings from 37 students enrolled in a Spanish pronunciation class. The statistical program VarbRul was used to analyze 7,597 samples. The vibration (simple or multiple) and the…

  6. The Impact of Second Language Proficiency in Dyadic Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Mills, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Peer feedback is widely used in second and foreign language writing contexts. While second language (L2) proficiency is likely to be an important factor in determining peers' ability to give and utilize feedback, its contribution has been relatively under-researched. In the present study, 54 undergraduates in a foreign language writing context…

  7. Fast Capitalism, School Reform, and Second Language Literacy Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebhard, Meg

    2002-01-01

    Explores ironies of educational reform in the United States as experienced by three second language (L2) learners attending a school attempting to transform itself into a high-performance elementary school in California's Silicon Valley. Drawing on the concept of "fast capitalism" and critical discourse analysis, findings reveal discourses of…

  8. Pronunciation Teaching Practices in Communicative Second Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Jennifer Ann; Trofimovich, Pavel; Collins, Laura; Urzúa, Fernanda Soler

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to provide longitudinal, corpus-based evidence of actual teacher behaviour with respect to the teaching of second language (L2) pronunciation in a communicative language learning context. The data involved 40 hours of videotaped lessons from three experienced teachers recorded four times at 100-hour increments…

  9. Task Complexity, Focus on Form, and Second Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revesz, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Tasks have received increased attention in SLA research for the past decade, as has the role of focus on form. However, few empirical studies have investigated the relationship among tasks, focus-on-form techniques, and second language (L2) learning outcomes. To help address this gap, the present study examined how the task variable +/- contextual…

  10. Implications of Hegel's Theories of Language on Second Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the implications of Hegel's theories of language on second language (L2) teaching. Three among the various concepts in Hegel's theories of language are selected. They are the crucial role of intersubjectivity; the primacy of the spoken over the written form; and the importance of the training of form or grammar. Applying…

  11. The Development of Theories of Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a relatively new field of enquiry. Before the late 1960s, educators did write about L2 learning, but very much as an adjunct of language teaching pedagogy, underpinned by behaviourism, the then-dominant learning theory in psychology. In this view, the task facing learners of foreign languages was to rote-learn…

  12. Reading Comprehension from a First to a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Florencia; Botero, María Patricia; Pechthalt, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this action research paper is to disseminate the results of a 2-month study which focuses on how a student's first language (L1) reading comprehension skills affect the same skills in their second language (L2). The subjects of the study are sixth grade girls, ranging in age from 11 to 13 years old. They attend a private bilingual…

  13. Deliberate Learning and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgort, Irina

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates outcomes of deliberate learning on vocabulary acquisition in a second language (L2). Acquisition of 48 pseudowords was measured using the lexical decision task with visually presented stimuli. The experiments drew on form priming, masked repetition priming, and automatic semantic priming procedures. Data analyses revealed a…

  14. Integrating Articulatory Constraints into Models of Second Language Phonological Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colantoni, Laura; Steele, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Models such as Eckman's markedness differential hypothesis, Flege's speech learning model, and Brown's feature-based theory of perception seek to explain and predict the relative difficulty second language (L2) learners face when acquiring new or similar sounds. In this paper, we test their predictive adequacy as concerns native English speakers'…

  15. Contribution of Morphological Awareness to Second-Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the contribution of second-language (L2) morphological awareness to foreign language reading comprehension. Tenth graders (n = 188) at a South Korean high school were assessed on 6 reading- and language-related variables: phonological decoding, listening comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, passage-level reading…

  16. Second Language Interaction: Current Perspectives and Future Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    2003-01-01

    Considers how the nature of interaction may best be represented in the second language (L2) construct. The starting point is Bachman's model of communicative language ability, which, it is argued, incorporates interaction from an individual-focused cognitive perspective. (Author/VWL)

  17. Predictors of Reading Literacy for First and Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netten, Andrea; Droop, Mienke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    In this study an attempt was made to construct a multi-factor model predicting the development of reading literacy in the upper grades of primary school in the Netherlands for subgroups of 729 first language (L1) learners and 93 second language (L2) learners. Following a longitudinal design, it was explored to what extent the variation in reading…

  18. Second Language Students' Discourse Socialization in Academic Online Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Yoon-kyung Kecia

    2011-01-01

    This article reports an investigation of second language (L2) students' class participation in English-language university courses in two different modes: face-to-face off-line and asynchronous online. The study addressed (1) what characteristics of academic online discourse were created in graduate courses; (2) how students reported their…

  19. Let's Chat: A Conversational Dialogue System for Second Language Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Iain A. D.; File, Portia

    2007-01-01

    Early and intermediate second language (L2) learners often encounter difficulties when engaging in introductory social conversations, typically having had little opportunity to practise such interactions. This article describes a project to design and prototype a computer dialogue system, Let's Chat, which would allow learners to rehearse social…

  20. The Management of Dynamic Epistemic Relationships Regarding Second Language Knowledge in Second Language Education: Epistemic Discrepancies and Epistemic (Im)Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusk, Fredrik; Pörn, Michaela; Sahlström, Fritjof

    2016-01-01

    Using the first language (L1) to solve problems in understanding the second language (L2) may be beneficial for L2 learning. However, the overuse of L1 may deprive L2 learners of exposure to the L2. It appears that the question is not whether to use L1 or L2; it is when and how each language can be used to support L2 learning. This study focuses…

  1. The Effects of Corrective Feedback on Instructed L2 Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Andrew H.; Lyster, Roy

    2016-01-01

    To what extent do second language (L2) learners benefit from instruction that includes corrective feedback (CF) on L2 speech perception? This article addresses this question by reporting the results of a classroom-based experimental study conducted with 32 young adult Korean learners of English. An instruction-only group and an instruction + CF…

  2. Russian Speakers' L2 Chinese Acquisition of "Wh"-Topicalization at the Syntax-Discourse Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugarova, Esuna

    2014-01-01

    In recent second language (L2) research it has been proposed that unlike linguistic phenomena pertaining to internal interfaces, those at external interfaces pose greater difficulty to adult L2 learners and may not be fully acquired. It has further been pointed out that such problematic acquisition at the interface level should not be attributed…

  3. L1 Allophones in L2 Speech Production: The Case of English Learners of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vokic, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Although it is broadly accepted that adult second-language (L2) learners focus attention only on those aspects of sounds needed for phonemic contrast, the role that allophony plays in the process of L2 speech learning is less well understood. It is widely assumed that speakers do not have conscious awareness of and access to first-language (L1)…

  4. Older Learners in SLA Research: A First Look at Working Memory, Feedback, and L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Alison; Sachs, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research into second-language (L2) development focuses on the role of cognitive factors and other individual differences. Studies of children and prime-of-life adult L2 learners suggest that differences exist in the learning processes of these groups. However, to date, little empirical work has been conducted with older adult…

  5. Child L2 English Acquisition of Subject Properties in an Immersion Bilingual Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballester, Elizabet Pladevall

    2012-01-01

    Although thoroughly analysed in adult second language acquisition (L2A), the acquisition of subject properties in child L2A has not received so much attention and the majority of studies deal with longitudinal data or only with a single subject property. This study contributes new cross-sectional data from 5-year-old Spanish children acquiring…

  6. The Interaction of Instruction and Learner-Internal Factors in the Acquisition of L2 Morphosyntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Paul D.

    2000-01-01

    Considers the role of instruction, second language (L2) input, first language (L1) transfer, and universal grammar in development of L2 morphosyntactic knowledge. Specifically investigates the acquisition of the Spanish morpheme "se" by English-speaking adult learners. (Author/VWL)

  7. Developmental Trends and L1 Effects in Early L2 Learners' Onset Cluster Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessier, Anne-Michelle; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on English onset cluster production in spontaneous speech samples of 10 children aged 5;04-6;09 from Chinese and Hindi/Punjabi first language (L1) backgrounds, each with less than a year of exposure to English. The results suggest commonalities between early second language (L2) learners and both monolingual and adult L2

  8. Social and Cognitive Factors in Second Language Acquisition: Selected Proceedings of the 1999 Second Language Research Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swierzbin, Bonnie, Ed.; Morris, Frank, Ed.; Anderson, Michael E., Ed.; Klee, Carol A., Ed.; Tarone, Elaine, Ed.

    This edited volume includes the following chapters: "Three Kinds of Sociolinguistics and SLA: A Psycholinguistic Perspective" (Dennis R. Preston); "Getting Serious about Language Play: Language Play, Interlanguage Variation, and Second Language Acquisition" (Elaine Tarone); "Oppositional Talk and the Acquisition of Modality in L2 English" (Tom…

  9. Benefits and Drawbacks of Controlled Laboratory Studies of Second Language Acquisition. The Keck Second Language Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Lynne R.; Givon, T.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the effects of simplified input in early second language (L2) acquisition of English by experimentally manipulating language input to two groups of learners and then assessing their acquisition longitudinally within a controlled laboratory setting. Findings reveal that the dual task of acquiring vocabulary and grammar does not hinder…

  10. Redirecting Second Language Curricula: Paulo Freire's Contribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford-Lange, Linda M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes philosophy of Paulo Freire as foundation for an existential/humanistic curriculum and explores practical and theoretical implications of this curriculum for second language teaching. Expands curriculum design principles into sample second language curriculum design principles. (Author/BK)

  11. On Teaching Strategies in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    How to acquire a second language is a question of obvious importance to teachers and language learners, and how to teach a second language has also become a matter of concern to the linguists' interest in the nature of primary linguistic data. Starting with the development stages of second language acquisition and Stephen Krashen's theory, this…

  12. New Frontiers in Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H., Ed.; Stenson, Nancy, Ed.

    This volume on second language learning contains the following eleven articles: "The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis," by Ronald Wardhaugh, "Students' Errors and the Learning of French as a Second Language," by Magdelhayne F. Buteau, "Error Analysis and Second Language Strategies," by Jack C. Richards, "Induced Errors," by Nancy Stenson, "Global…

  13. The Explicit/Implicit Knowledge Distinction and Working Memory: Implications for Second-Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercetin, Gulcan; Alptekin, Cem

    2013-01-01

    Following an extensive overview of the subject, this study explores the relationships between second-language (L2) explicit/implicit knowledge sources, embedded in the declarative/procedural memory systems, and L2 working memory (WM) capacity. It further examines the relationships between L2 reading comprehension and L2 WM capacity as well as…

  14. Learner Beliefs about Sociolinguistic Competence: A Qualitative Case Study of Four University Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jinsuk; Rehner, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the beliefs about second language (L2) sociolinguistic competence of four university-level advanced L2 learners. It places particular emphasis on 1) how these university learners conceptualized L2 sociolinguistic competence; 2) how they thought about two different language learning contexts (viz., the L2 classroom versus…

  15. What We Know about Second Language Acquisition: A Synthesis from Four Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Zhao, Jing; Shin, Jee-Young; Wu, Shuang; Su, Jung-Hsuan; Burgess-Brigham, Renata; Gezer, Melike Unal; Snow, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Educational policies that impact second language (L2) learners--a rapidly-growing group--are often enacted without consulting relevant research. This review synthesized research regarding optimal conditions for L2 acquisition, facilitative L2 learner and teacher characteristics, and speed of L2 acquisition, from four bodies of work--foreign…

  16. Development of the Ability to Lexically Encode Novel Second Language Phonemic Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

    2008-01-01

    Second language (L2) learners must often learn to perceive and produce novel L2 phoneme contrasts. Although both research and intuition suggest that these difficulties can be overcome to some extent with exposure to the L2, it is not known what consequences this kind of learning has for the phonological structure of the L2 lexicon. We present an…

  17. Degree of Perceived Accent in Finnish as a Second Language for Turkish Children Born in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzal, Melike; Peltonen, Teemu; Huotilainen, Minna; Aaltonen, Olli

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether children born in a second language (L2) environment pronounce their L2 with foreign accents and, if so, when foreign accents first emerge. This study also examined the latest age of onset (AO) of extensive L2 experience at which native L2 pronunciation is possible and explored several factors that affect the degree…

  18. Perceptions of Self-Efficacy for Two Types of Second Language Methods Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A mixed method design was used to investigate the effects of online second language (L2) methodology instruction on the sense of efficacy of teacher-candidates enrolled in initial licensure programs for L2 teachers. More specifically, the researcher examined the extent to which L2 teacher-candidates completing online L2 methodology instruction…

  19. Can Negotiation Provide a Context for Learning Syntax in a Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Julian

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates if negotiation can affect syntacticization in the learning of second language (L2) syntax. Evidence from a number of studies has suggested that linguistic modification occurs during negotiation, but no research has examined if such modifications assist the learning of syntax in a second language. This study examined to what…

  20. Some Thoughts on the Contrastive Analysis of Features in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lardiere, Donna

    2009-01-01

    In this article I discuss the selection and assembly of formal features in second language acquisition. Assembling the particular lexical items of a second language (L2) requires that the learner reconfigure features from the way these are represented in the first language (L1) into new formal configurations on possibly quite different types of…

  1. Increased Lexical Activation and Reduced Competition in Second-Language Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broersma, Mirjam

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how inaccurate phoneme processing affects recognition of partially onset-overlapping pairs like "DAFFOdil-DEFIcit" and of minimal pairs like "flash-flesh" in second-language listening. Two cross-modal priming experiments examined differences between native (L1) and second-language (L2) listeners at two…

  2. The Relationship between Task Difficulty and Second Language Fluency in French: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit

    2015-01-01

    While there exists a considerable body of literature on task-based difficulty and second language (L2) fluency in English as a second language (ESL), there has been little investigation with French learners. This mixed methods study examines learner appraisals of task difficulty and their relationship to automated utterance fluency measures in…

  3. Review Article: Second Language Acquisition of Bantu Languages--A (Mostly) Untapped Research Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner, Patti

    2011-01-01

    This review article presents a summary of research on the second language acquisition of Bantu languages, including Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa and Lingala. Although second language (L2) research on these languages is currently very limited, work in morphosyntax and phonology suggests promising directions for future study, particularly on noun class,…

  4. Deriving Meaning through Context: Interpreting Bare Nominals in Second Language Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriele, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on the second language acquisition of telicity have suggested that learners can use morphosyntactic cues to interpret sentences as telic or atelic even in cases where the cues differ in the first language (L1) and second language (L2) (Slabakova, 2001, 2005; Gabriele, 2008; Kaku et al., 2008a, 2008b). The present study extends…

  5. Willingness to Communicate in English as a Second Language: A Case Study of Pakistani Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukhari, Syeda Farzana; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Khan, Salman Ali

    2015-01-01

    Willingness to communicate (WTC) construct plays an important role in second language (L2) teaching and learning. Almost any second language learner is likely to respond to a direct question, but many will not continue or initiate communication. The present study investigates Pakistani undergraduate students' perception of their willingness to…

  6. A Minimalist Approach to Null Subjects and Objects in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, H.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the second language acquisition of pronominal arguments have observed that: (1) L1 speakers of null subject languages of the Spanish type drop more subjects in their second language (L2) English than first language (L1) speakers of null subject languages of the Korean type and (2) speakers of Korean-type languages drop more objects than…

  7. The Role of the Lexicon in Learning Second Language Stress Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Gillian

    2007-01-01

    Within the field of second language acquisition, the acquisition of phonetics and phonology has generally taken a back seat to studies of morphological and syntactical acquisition. Although the lacuna is slowly being remedied by a growing interest in the phenomena of second language (L2) phonology, investigations into the acquisition of…

  8. Spanish as a Second Language when L1 Is Quechua: Endangered Languages and the SLA Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalt, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Quechua is the largest indigenous language family to constitute the first language (L1) of second language (L2) Spanish speakers. Despite sheer number of speakers and typologically interesting contrasts, Quechua-Spanish second language acquisition is a nearly untapped research area,…

  9. Verbalizing in the Second Language Classroom: The Development of the Grammatical Concept of Aspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Prospero N.

    2012-01-01

    Framed within a Sociocultural Theory of Mind (SCT) in the field of Second Language Acquisition (Lantolf & Thorne, 2006), this dissertation explores the role of verbalizing in the internalization of grammatical categories through the use of Concept-based Instruction (henceforth CBI) in the second language (L2) classroom. Using Vygotsky's…

  10. Second-Language Learners' Advantage in Metalinguistic Awareness: A Question of Languages' Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reder, Fanny; Marec-Breton, Nathalie; Gombert, Jean-Emile; Demont, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: The awareness of the formal structure of language has been widely studied in the literature but less in a bilingualism context. Even less with second-language learners (SLL) who are acquiring their second language (L2) and are not considered as bilinguals. Aims: This study aimed at providing an investigation of young SLL's skills in…

  11. Semantic Transfer and Its Implications for Vocabulary Teaching in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Nan

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated semantic transfer in second language (L2) learning and provided a replication of the author's study (Jiang, 2002) in a different English as a Second Language (ESL) population. Korean ESL speakers were asked to perform a semantic judgment task in which they decided whether or not 2 English words were related in meaning. Two…

  12. Beliefs about Second Language Learning: The Influence of Learning Context and Learning Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Osaimi, Saleh; Wedell, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Much second language acquisition research in recent decades has assumed that a learner's main purpose for learning a second language (L2) is to develop communicative competence. Consequently, many studies have focused on investigating ways in which teachers and/or the learning environment may support the development of such competence. In…

  13. Dynamic Development of Complexity and Accuracy: A Case Study in Second Language Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of complexity and accuracy in English as a Second Language (ESL) academic writing. Although research into complexity and accuracy development in second language (L2) writing has been well established, few studies have assumed the multidimensionality of these two constructs (Norris & Ortega, 2009) or…

  14. The Status of Metalinguistic Knowledge in Instructed Adult L2 Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehr, Karen; Ganem-Gutierrez, Gabriela Adela

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated second language metalinguistic knowledge, or explicit knowledge about the second language, in English-speaking university-level learners of German and Spanish. The status of metalinguistic knowledge in relation to the individual difference variables of language-learning aptitude, working memory for language, and…

  15. The Enhanced Musical Rhythmic Perception in Second Language Learners

    PubMed Central

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M. Paula; Roor, Drikus A.; Chen, Ao; Sadakata, Makiko

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that mastering languages with distinct rather than similar rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythmic perception. This study investigates whether learning a second language (L2) contributes to enhanced musical rhythmic perception in general, regardless of first and second languages rhythmic properties. Additionally, we investigated whether this perceptual enhancement could be alternatively explained by exposure to musical rhythmic complexity, such as the use of compound meter in Turkish music. Finally, it investigates if an enhancement of musical rhythmic perception could be observed among L2 learners whose first language relies heavily on pitch information, as is the case with tonal languages. Therefore, we tested Turkish, Dutch and Mandarin L2 learners of English and Turkish monolinguals on their musical rhythmic perception. Participants’ phonological and working memory capacities, melodic aptitude, years of formal musical training and daily exposure to music were assessed to account for cultural and individual differences which could impact their rhythmic ability. Our results suggest that mastering a L2 rather than exposure to musical rhythmic complexity could explain individuals’ enhanced musical rhythmic perception. An even stronger enhancement of musical rhythmic perception was observed for L2 learners whose first and second languages differ regarding their rhythmic properties, as enhanced performance of Turkish in comparison with Dutch L2 learners of English seem to suggest. Such a stronger enhancement of rhythmic perception seems to be found even among L2 learners whose first language relies heavily on pitch information, as the performance of Mandarin L2 learners of English indicates. Our findings provide further support for a cognitive transfer between the language and music domain. PMID:27375469

  16. The Enhanced Musical Rhythmic Perception in Second Language Learners.

    PubMed

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M Paula; Roor, Drikus A; Chen, Ao; Sadakata, Makiko

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that mastering languages with distinct rather than similar rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythmic perception. This study investigates whether learning a second language (L2) contributes to enhanced musical rhythmic perception in general, regardless of first and second languages rhythmic properties. Additionally, we investigated whether this perceptual enhancement could be alternatively explained by exposure to musical rhythmic complexity, such as the use of compound meter in Turkish music. Finally, it investigates if an enhancement of musical rhythmic perception could be observed among L2 learners whose first language relies heavily on pitch information, as is the case with tonal languages. Therefore, we tested Turkish, Dutch and Mandarin L2 learners of English and Turkish monolinguals on their musical rhythmic perception. Participants' phonological and working memory capacities, melodic aptitude, years of formal musical training and daily exposure to music were assessed to account for cultural and individual differences which could impact their rhythmic ability. Our results suggest that mastering a L2 rather than exposure to musical rhythmic complexity could explain individuals' enhanced musical rhythmic perception. An even stronger enhancement of musical rhythmic perception was observed for L2 learners whose first and second languages differ regarding their rhythmic properties, as enhanced performance of Turkish in comparison with Dutch L2 learners of English seem to suggest. Such a stronger enhancement of rhythmic perception seems to be found even among L2 learners whose first language relies heavily on pitch information, as the performance of Mandarin L2 learners of English indicates. Our findings provide further support for a cognitive transfer between the language and music domain.

  17. Domain-Wide or Variable-Dependent Vulnerability of the Semantics-Syntax Interface in L2 Acquisition? Evidence from "Wh"-Words Used as Existential Polarity Words in L2 Chinese Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Boping

    2010-01-01

    Most studies in the second language (L2) literature that deal with interface issues do so in holistic terms. On the one hand, researchers have suggested that interface relations between the syntax and other domains are particularly difficult for adult L2 learners. On the other, it has been argued that such relations can be established in a…

  18. Perception Abilities of L1 Cypriot Greek Listeners--Types of Errors Involving Plosive Consonants in L2 English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kkese, E.; Petinou, K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the difficulties adult second language (L2) users of English encounter with plosive consonants in the L2. It presents the results of a task examining the acquisition of plosive voicing contrasts by college students with Cypriot Greek (CG) linguistic background. The task focused on the types of errors involving plosive…

  19. Explicit Knowledge and Processes from a Usage-Based Perspective: The Developmental Trajectory of an Instructed L2 Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehr-Brackin, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article considers explicit knowledge and processes in second language (L2) learning from a usage-based theoretical perspective. It reports on the long-term development of a single instructed adult learner's use of two L2 constructions, the German Perfekt of "gehen" ("go," "walk") and "fahren"…

  20. An Investigation of Knowles' Principles of Andragogy in a Second-Language Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Catalina Mayoral

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether teaching via Knowles' andragogical method was associated with English Second Language student performance. The study involved examining the effects of learning strategies on performance of English Second Language adult student learners in adult basic education classes through the application of…

  1. Do we embody second language? Evidence for 'partial' simulation during processing of a second language.

    PubMed

    Foroni, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The present paper investigates whether the processing of emotion language in the context of a second language (L2) entails motor simulations and whether simulation models extend to negation also for L2. Participants were exposed to sentences in L2 describing emotional expressions while facial muscle activity was continuously measured. Sentences mapped either directly upon the zygomatic muscle (e.g., "I am smiling") or did not (e.g., "I am frowning"), and were presented in the affirmative and negative form. Similarly to studies involving first language (L1), the zygomatic muscle was activated when reading affirmative sentences relevant to the muscle. In contrast, and differently from what previously observed in L1, reading sentences in the negative form ("I am not smiling") did not lead to relaxation/inhibition of the zygomatic muscle. These results extend the simulation models to the comprehension of L2 but they also provide important constraints and contribute to the debate about grounding of the abstract and concrete concepts.

  2. Pronunciation Lessons for Teachers of Classes of Adults of Mainly South East Asian Origin at Near-Beginning to Intermediate Levels of English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Tove Anne

    The lessons are intended for teenage and adult students. Focus is on placement of the tongue, jaw, lips, any movements involved, and whether the sound is whispered (voiced) or spoken (voiceless). Consonants are taught in pairs so students realize the distinctions necessary to avoid misunderstandings. Lessons include (1) final consonants, (2)…

  3. The Syntactic Positions of Adverbs and the Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zi-hong

    2010-01-01

    Based on the theory of linguistic universal and Second Language Acquisition (SLA), the paper discusses the acquisition of syntactic positions of adverbs in English. According to the data collected, the paper concludes that what adult learners acquire about adverbs is the distinction of different adverbs and the different scopes they take.…

  4. The Role of Island Constraints in Second Language Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunah; Baek, Soondo; Tremblay, Annie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether adult second language learners' online processing of "wh"-dependencies is constrained by island constraints on movement. Proficiency-matched Spanish and Korean learners of English completed a grammaticality judgment task and a stop-making-sense task designed to examine their knowledge of the relative…

  5. A Queer Learner's Identity Positioning in Second Language Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hanhthi; Yang, Lajlim

    2015-01-01

    This case study examines the classroom participation of a Korean queer (transgender) learner of English as a second language at a language institute for international adult students in the United States. To understand the dynamics of this learner's participation, we focus on how she constructed gender identity and learner identity in interaction.…

  6. Dissimilation in the Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    This article extends Optimality Theoretic studies to the research on second language tone phonology. Specifically, this work analyses the acquisition of identical tone sequences in Mandarin Chinese by adult speakers of three non-tonal languages: English, Japanese and Korean. This study finds that the learners prefer not to use identical lexical…

  7. Implicit and Explicit Knowledge in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebuschat, Patrick; Williams, John N.

    2012-01-01

    Language development is frequently characterized as a process where learning proceeds implicitly, that is, incidentally and in absence of awareness of what was learned. This article reports the results of two experiments that investigated whether second language acquisition can also result in implicit knowledge. Adult learners were trained on an…

  8. Naming abilities in low-proficiency second language learners.

    PubMed

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in second language (L2) learning are often associated with recognizable learning difficulties in native language (L1), such as in dyslexia. However, some individuals have low L2 proficiency but intact L1 reading skills. These L2 learners experience frequent tip-of-the-tongue states while naming in L1, which indicates that they have a weakness in retrieval of phonological codes of words. The authors hypothesized that if naming ability is shared across languages, this difficulty would reemerge in L2 naming, which was tested using the tip-of-the-tongue experimental paradigm. Consistent with this hypothesis, low-proficiency L2 learners (n = 15) reported more tip-of-the-tongue states, more frequently mispronounced correctly retrieved words, and benefited less from phonological cuing compared to high-proficiency L2 learners (n = 23). It is notable that low-proficiency L2 learners performed worse than individuals with dyslexia (n = 16) on some of these measures, despite the same level of L2 proficiency. These results indicate that L2 naming difficulties of low-proficiency L2 learners are a manifestation not merely of their low L2 proficiency but rather of a general weakness in phonological word form retrieval, which is shared across languages. More broadly, the study provides further evidence for the existence of a distinct profile of cognitive weaknesses characteristic of the behavioral phenotype of low-proficiency L2 learners.

  9. Past Tense Production by English Second Language Learners with and without Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether past tense use could differentiate children with language impairment (LI) from their typically developing (TD) peers when English is children's second language (L2) and whether L2 children's past tense profiles followed the predictions of Bybee's (2007) usage-based network model. Method: A group of L2

  10. Some Implications of the Role of the Mother Tongue in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noor, Hashim H.

    1994-01-01

    Research on the role of the first language (L1) in second language (L2) learning is reviewed, offering historical background but focusing primarily on work within the last two decades. Attention is given mainly to two aspects of the L1-L2 relationship: positive transfer of knowledge from L1 in the process of learning L2, and negative transfer, or…

  11. Second Language Socialization through Team Interaction among Electrical and Computer Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Caroline H.

    2007-01-01

    This article, based on a longitudinal, ethnographic study among engineering students, examines the interactional processes surrounding second language (L2) socialization. L2 socialization perspectives argue that the cognitive and the social are interconnected, and that learning an L2 is a process of coming to understand socially constructed…

  12. Temporal Adverbials, Negation and Finiteness in Dutch as a Second Language: A Scope-Based Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Josje

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of post-verbal (temporal) adverbials and post-verbal negation in L2 Dutch. It is based on previous findings for L2 French that post-verbal negation poses less of a problem for L2 learners than post-verbal adverbial placement (Hawkins, Towell, Bazergui, Second Language Research 9: 189-233, 1993; Herschensohn,…

  13. Dyslexia in a Second Language?--A Dynamic Test of Reading Acquisition May Provide a Fair Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbro, Carsten; Daugaard, Hanne Trebbien; Gellert, Anna S.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslexia is hard to diagnose in a second language. Poor performance on a test of reading may be caused by poor language proficiency in the second language or by limited schooling rather than by poor reading ability per se. This confound was supported in a study of 88 adult second language learners and 65 native language speakers. The incidence of…

  14. The Impact of Verb Form, Sentence Position, Home Language, and Second Language Proficiency on Subject-Verb Agreement in Child Second Language Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Baayen, Harald R.

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that children learning a second language (L2) omit agreement inflection because of communication demands. The conclusion of these studies is that L2 children know the morphological and syntactic properties of agreement inflection, but sometimes insert an inflectional default form (i.e., the bare verb) in production. The present…

  15. Having a Baby. An English as a Second Language Workbook for Beginners. English as a Second Language Community Survival Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Helen

    The workbook, one in a series on survival skills for adults learning English as a Second Language, focuses on development of communication skills, knowledge, and attitudes relating to pregnancy, prenatal care, and childbirth. An introductory section outlines the language functions taught and specific performance objectives within each function…

  16. Functional connectivity changes in second language vocabulary learning.

    PubMed

    Ghazi Saidi, Ladan; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélani; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana-Inés

    2013-01-01

    Functional connectivity changes in the language network (Price, 2010), and in a control network involved in second language (L2) processing (Abutalebi & Green, 2007) were examined in a group of Persian (L1) speakers learning French (L2) words. Measures of network integration that characterize the global integrative state of a network (Marrelec, Bellec et al., 2008) were gathered, in the shallow and consolidation phases of L2 vocabulary learning. Functional connectivity remained unchanged across learning phases for L1, whereas total, between- and within-network integration levels decreased as proficiency for L2 increased. The results of this study provide the first functional connectivity evidence regarding the dynamic role of the language processing and cognitive control networks in L2 learning (Abutalebi, Cappa, & Perani, 2005; Altarriba & Heredia, 2008; Leonard et al., 2011; Parker-Jones et al., 2011). Thus, increased proficiency results in a higher degree of automaticity and lower cognitive effort (Segalowitz & Hulstijn, 2005).

  17. The neural basis of first and second language processing.

    PubMed

    Perani, Daniela; Abutalebi, Jubin

    2005-04-01

    Fundamental breakthroughs in the neurosciences, combined with technical innovations for measuring brain activity, are shedding new light on the neural basis of second language (L2) processing, and on its relationship to native language processing (L1). The long-held assumption that L1 and L2 are necessarily represented in different brain regions in bilinguals has not been confirmed. On the contrary, the available evidence indicates that L1 and L2 are processed by the same neural devices. The neural differences in L1 and L2 representations are only related to the specific computational demands, which vary according to the age of acquisition, the degree of mastery and the level of exposure to each language. Finally, the acquisition of L2 could be considered as a dynamic process, requiring additional neural resources in specific circumstances.

  18. The temporal dynamics of first versus second language production.

    PubMed

    Strijkers, Kristof; Baus, Cristina; Runnqvist, Elin; Fitzpatrick, Ian; Costa, Albert

    2013-10-01

    In this study we explored the temporal origin of processing differences between first and second language production. Forty highly proficient bilinguals named objects of high and low lexical frequency aloud for both L1 and L2 separately while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The first electrophysiological differences elicited by response language occurred at the same early P2 peak (∼140-220 ms) where we observed the onset of the lexical frequency effect, but only for those bilinguals who started naming in an L1 context and afterwards switched to an L2 naming context. The bilinguals who named objects in the reverse direction did not display a language effect in the ERPs. Taken together, the data show that the L2 naming disadvantage originates during the onset of lexical access and seems to be driven by both representational strength, which is lower for L2 words, and language control demands, which are higher for L2 words.

  19. Second Language Acquisition Theory and Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R., Ed.; And Others

    Selected papers on second language acquisition and instruction from the University of Wisconsin at Madison symposium include the following: "Learning and Teaching: The Necessary Intersection" (Susan M. Gass); "Reenvisioning the Second Language Classroom: A Vygotskian Approach" (Linda Schinke-Llano); "The FOCAL SKILLS…

  20. Studies in Filipino Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Teresita V.

    Very little research has been done on first or second language acquisition in the Philippines. Most second language learning studies cited in the literature concern acquisition of English in English-speaking communities, and most American studies of Filipino language acquisition are superficial, consisting primarily of morpheme analysis. The…

  1. Perspectives of Bilingualism in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primlyn, A. Linda

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the problems faced by students in the second language classroom. It focuses on their integration of social and cultural aspects in language learning, because every language is an amalgamation of both. The author adds that the learner of a second language finds difficulty in learning the culture of the first language and it…

  2. Second Language Assessment for Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thu H.

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of second language teachers feels confident about their instructional performance and does not usually have much difficulty with their teaching thanks to their professional training and accumulated classroom experience. Nonetheless, many second language teachers may not have received sufficient training in test development to…

  3. Strategies of Second-Language Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmberg, Rolf

    1978-01-01

    The use of the term "strategy" in second language communication is discussed, and a typology of communication strategies is presented. Communication strategies are those systematic devices a second language learner uses in attempting to express precise meaning in the target language. Definitions of learning strategies and communication strategies…

  4. Vygotskian Approaches to Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantolf, James P., Ed.; Appel, Gabriela, Ed.

    The collection of essays on aspects of Vygotskian theory focuses on the theory's application to research on second language learning. Articles include: "Theoretical Framework: An Introduction to Vygotskian Perspectives on Second Language Research" (James P. Lantolf, Gabriela Appel); Collective Scaffolding in Second Language…

  5. Second Language Acquisition and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the second language acquisition (SLA) process and the differential success of second language learners. Examines the fundamental challenges that this characterization faces, and highlights the contributions SLA is capable of in the coming decade. Offers topics for a training and development of curriculum for future applied linguists from…

  6. Programmatic Ahistoricity in Second Language Acquisition Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that, despite some perceptions, second language acquisition theory has a history. Disputes arguments that might be formulated to support the notion that second language acquisition theory has no relevant earlier history, enumerates consequences of maintaining this belief, and speculates about benefits to the field that might accrue from…

  7. Assessing Second Language Writing in Academic Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamp-Lyons, Liz, Ed.

    The articles contained in this volume on second language writing evaluation focus on the evaluation of academic English learned as a second language (ESL). Essays include: "Assessment by Misconception: Cultural Influences and Intellectual Traditions" (Brigid Ballard, John Clanchy); "Reading the World Differently: A Cross-Cultural Approach to…

  8. Metacognitive Awareness and Second Language Listeners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Analyzed the diaries of Chinese students of English as a Second Language to ascertain their beliefs and knowledge about their listening to English. Findings indicate that many retained clear ideas about their own role and performance as second-language listeners, the demands and procedures of this listening, as well as listening strategies. (13…

  9. Second Language Acquisition and Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragant, Elsa; Muñoz, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    After discussing the ties between language teaching and second language acquisition research, the present paper reviews the role that second language acquisition research has played on two recent pedagogical proposals. First, communicative language teaching, advocated in the early eighties, in which focus on the code was excluded, and then the…

  10. Future Directions in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill

    Progress that has been made in second language research in the last two years and future directions in the research methodology of second language studies are discussed. In order to examine the continuation and expansion of current research, the research reported by Schumann (1976) is compared with current research as represented by the titles of…

  11. Pragmatic Development in a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Gabriele; Rose, Kenneth R.

    2002-01-01

    This book examines how nonnative speakers develop pragmatic ability in a nonprimary language, focusing on acquisitional processes, conditions, and sequential patterns. Nine chapters discuss the following: (1) "Introduction to Second Language Pragmatic Development"; (2) "Theories of Second Language Pragmatic Development" (e.g., the acculturation…

  12. The role of the left inferior parietal lobule in second language learning: An intensive language training fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, Elise B; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Soles, Jennika; Berken, Jonathan; Baum, Shari; Watkins, Kate E; Klein, Denise

    2016-10-07

    Research to date suggests that second language acquisition results in functional and structural changes in the bilingual brain, however, in what way and how quickly these changes occur remains unclear. To address these questions, we studied fourteen English-speaking monolingual adults enrolled in a 12-week intensive French language-training program in Montreal. Using functional MRI, we investigated the neural changes associated with new language acquisition. The participants were scanned before the start of the immersion program and at the end of the 12 weeks. The fMRI scan aimed to investigate the brain regions recruited in a sentence reading task both in English, their first language (L1), and in French, their second language (L2). For the L1, fMRI patterns did not change from Time 1 to Time 2, while for the L2, the brain response changed between Time 1 and Time 2 in language-related areas. Of note, for the L2, there was higher activation at Time 2 compared to Time 1 in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) including the supramarginal gyrus. At Time 2 this higher activation in the IPL correlated with faster L2 reading speed. Moreover, higher activation in the left IPL at Time 1 predicted improvement in L2 reading speed from Time 1 to Time 2. Our results suggest that learning-induced plasticity occurred as early as 12 weeks into immersive second-language training, and that the IPL appears to play a special role in language learning.

  13. Doomed to read in a second language: implications for learning.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul; Peleg, Ora

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate whether and how reliance on a second language impacts the learning of new information under very basic learning conditions. The paradigm used to investigate this issue required individuals to learn a series of associations between numerals and particular letter strings. Participants were two groups of university students: (1) individuals for whom spoken Hebrew was the mother tongue and written Hebrew a primary orthography (L1 group), and (2) individuals for whom Hebrew, both spoken and written, was a second language (L2 group). Data were collected under two conditions. In the language-dependent condition (LDC), the paradigm required learning associations between eight numerals and the letter strings of eight familiar Hebrew words. In the language-independent condition (LIC), it required learning associations between eight numerals and eight random letter strings in Hebrew. Results suggest that learners may be significantly disadvantaged when compelled to learn new information mediated in a second language. This disadvantage appears to manifest itself at a very basic learning level and in instances where new information is mediated by language that is fairly overlearned by the L2 learner.

  14. Post-Structuralist Potentialities for Studies of Subjectivity and Second Language Learning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a proliferation of studies investigating, complicating, and reimagining the relationship between second language learning and identity. Yet, with only a handful of exceptions, these studies are limited to adolescent and adult second language learners. In this article, the author proposes that identity research with…

  15. Using Conversation Analysis in the Second Language Classroom to Teach Interactional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barraja-Rohan, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of conversation analysis (CA) to help teaching interactional competence in English to adult second language learners from lower to intermediate levels. To set the context, this article gives a brief overview on the use of CA in second language research as well as considering the construct of interactional competence…

  16. Evidence of the Need for a Second Language Acquisition Index of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane E.

    Studies were conducted to help determine criteria for describing the stages through which second language learners pass as they acquire a new language. The ability of 24 beginning adult students of English as a second language to supply ten morphemes in obligatory contexts was predicted on the basis of contrastive analysis between English and each…

  17. Exploring the Role of Noticing in a Three-Stage Second Language Writing Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Donald S.; Lapkin, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Examines the role of noticing in the second language writing process. A case study was conducted with two Mandarin background adult learners of English as a Second Language. The study documents the relationship of noticing, both in the composing stage and in the reformulation stage, to the improvement of the written product in the posttest of a…

  18. Affective Factors and the Problem of Age in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    1975-01-01

    Based on a synopsis of research studies, the relationship of second language learning to affective factors, such as language shock, attitude motivation, ego permeability, etc., is examined. Also, it is suggested that affective variables may be more important than maturation in the problems of adults in learning a second language. (MS)

  19. Conceptual competence as a component of second language fluency.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Georgia; Galantomos, Ioannis

    2009-12-01

    In this article we argue that conceptual competence should be seen as a component of second language (L2) communicative competence. Abstract concepts are highly expressed by means of metaphors, metonymies, idioms and other types of figurative language. In literature it is suggested that knowledge and appropriate use of these lexical segments are closely related to L2 mastery and therefore conceptual instruction is expected to facilitate L2 learning. To test the relationship between conceptual and L2 competence we conducted an experiment in which Modern Greek learners were encouraged to express their views on the concept of happiness. The results showed their weak performance in conveying their ideas in a coherent and acceptable manner.

  20. Dynamic neural network reorganization associated with second language vocabulary acquisition: a multimodal imaging study.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Chihiro; Tanaka, Kanji; Nariai, Tadashi; Honda, Manabu; Hanakawa, Takashi

    2013-08-21

    It remains unsettled whether human language relies exclusively on innately privileged brain structure in the left hemisphere or is more flexibly shaped through experiences, which induce neuroplastic changes in potentially relevant neural circuits. Here we show that learning of second language (L2) vocabulary and its cessation can induce bidirectional changes in the mirror-reverse of the traditional language areas. A cross-sectional study identified that gray matter volume in the inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis (IFGop) and connectivity of the IFGop with the caudate nucleus and the superior temporal gyrus/supramarginal (STG/SMG), predominantly in the right hemisphere, were positively correlated with L2 vocabulary competence. We then implemented a cohort study involving 16 weeks of L2 training in university students. Brain structure before training did not predict the later gain in L2 ability. However, training intervention did increase IFGop volume and reorganization of white matter including the IFGop-caudate and IFGop-STG/SMG pathways in the right hemisphere. These "positive" plastic changes were correlated with the gain in L2 ability in the trained group but were not observed in the control group. We propose that the right hemispheric network can be reorganized into language-related areas through use-dependent plasticity in young adults, reflecting a repertoire of flexible reorganization of the neural substrates responding to linguistic experiences.

  1. The Relationship Between Artificial and Second Language Learning.

    PubMed

    Ettlinger, Marc; Morgan-Short, Kara; Faretta-Stutenberg, Mandy; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-05-01

    Artificial language learning (ALL) experiments have become an important tool in exploring principles of language and language learning. A persistent question in all of this work, however, is whether ALL engages the linguistic system and whether ALL studies are ecologically valid assessments of natural language ability. In the present study, we considered these questions by examining the relationship between performance in an ALL task and second language learning ability. Participants enrolled in a Spanish language class were evaluated using a number of different measures of Spanish ability and classroom performance, which was compared to IQ and a number of different measures of ALL performance. The results show that success in ALL experiments, particularly more complex artificial languages, correlates positively with indices of L2 learning even after controlling for IQ. These findings provide a key link between studies involving ALL and our understanding of second language learning in the classroom.

  2. Character Reading Fluency, Word Segmentation Accuracy, and Reading Comprehension in L2 Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Helen H.; Jiang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between lower-level processing and general reading comprehension among adult L2 (second-language) beginning learners of Chinese, in both target and non-target language learning environments. Lower-level processing in Chinese reading includes the factors of character-naming accuracy, character-naming speed,…

  3. A Case Study of Extensive Reading with an Unmotivated L2 Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ro, Eunseok

    2013-01-01

    Extensive reading is gaining credibility as an effective way of boosting students' affect especially in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context where access to a second language (L2) input is minimal. This study uses a pattern-matching, single case study research design to examine an adult reader's motivation and anxiety shifts towards…

  4. Learning Exponents of Number on First Exposure to an L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Susanne E.; Widjaja, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Number lends itself to the study of how input interacts with transferred first language (L1) knowledge to facilitate or impede second language (L2) learning. We present data from adult English speakers exposed for the first time to Indonesian, a language that expresses number through bare noun phrases, reduplication and numeral + classifier…

  5. Connecting Reading and Writing Using Children's Literature in the University L2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the potential benefits of using children's literature in adult second language (L2) classrooms. A short-term, intensive university course for English reading and writing was designed incorporating children's literature into the curriculum. The author describes the course and discusses how children's literature can be used…

  6. Implicit and explicit second language training recruit common neural mechanisms for syntactic processing.

    PubMed

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen

    2013-06-01

    In contrast to native language acquisition, adult second-language (L2) acquisition occurs under highly variable learning conditions. Although most adults acquire their L2 at least partially through explicit instruction, as in a classroom setting, many others acquire their L2 primarily through implicit exposure, as is typical of an immersion environment. Whether these differences in acquisition environment play a role in determining the neural mechanisms that are ultimately recruited to process L2 grammar has not been well characterized. This study investigated this issue by comparing the ERP response to novel L2 syntactic rules acquired under conditions of implicit exposure and explicit instruction, using a novel laboratory language-learning paradigm. Native speakers tested on these stimuli showed a biphasic response to syntactic violations, consisting of an earlier negativity followed by a later P600 effect. After merely an hour of training, both implicitly and explicitly trained learners who were capable of detecting grammatical violations also elicited P600 effects. In contrast, learners who were unable to discriminate between grammatically correct and incorrect sentences did not show significant P600 effects. The magnitude of the P600 effect was found to correlate with learners' behavioral proficiency. Behavioral measures revealed that successful learners from both the implicit and explicit groups gained explicit, verbalizable knowledge about the L2 grammar rules. Taken together, these results indicate that late, controlled mechanisms indexed by the P600 play a crucial role in processing a late-learned L2 grammar, regardless of training condition. These findings underscore the remarkable plasticity of later, attention-dependent processes and their importance in lifelong learning.

  7. Implicit and Explicit Second Language Training Recruit Common Neural Mechanisms for Syntactic Processing

    PubMed Central

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to native language acquisition, adult second language (L2) acquisition occurs under highly variable learning conditions. While most adults acquire their L2 at least partially through explicit instruction, as in a classroom setting, many others acquire their L2 primarily through implicit exposure, as is typical of an immersion environment. Whether these differences in acquisition environment play a role in determining the neural mechanisms that are ultimately recruited to process L2 grammar has not been well characterized. The present study investigated this issue by comparing the event-related potential response to novel L2 syntactic rules acquired under conditions of implicit exposure and explicit instruction, using a novel laboratory language-learning paradigm. Native speakers tested on these stimuli showed a biphasic response to syntactic violations, consisting of an earlier negativity followed by a later P600 effect. After merely an hour of training, both implicitly- and explicitly-trained learners who were capable of detecting grammatical violations also elicited P600 effects. In contrast, learners who were unable to discriminate between grammatically correct and incorrect sentences did not show significant P600 effects. The magnitude of the P600 effect was found to correlate with learners’ behavioral proficiency. Behavioral measures revealed that successful learners from both the implicit and explicit groups gained explicit, verbalizable knowledge about the L2 grammar rules. Taken together, these results indicate that late, controlled mechanisms indexed by the P600 play a crucial role in processing a late-learned L2 grammar, regardless of training condition. These findings underscore the remarkable plasticity of later, attention-dependent processes and their importance in lifelong learning. PMID:23631551

  8. Similarity in L2 Phonology: Evidence from L1 Spanish Late-Learners' Perception and Lexical Representation of English Vowel Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Shannon; Jiang, Nan; Idsardi, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Adult second language (L2) learners often experience difficulty producing and perceiving nonnative phonological contrasts. Even relatively advanced learners, who have been exposed to an L2 for long periods of time, struggle with difficult contrasts, such as /?/-/l/ for Japanese learners of English. To account for the relative ease or difficulty…

  9. Cerebral mechanisms for different second language writing systems.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Maki S; Stein, John F; Stoodley, Catherine J; Hansen, Peter C

    2013-09-01

    In this fMRI study, we examined the cerebral processing associated with second language (L2) reading in different writing systems in late L2 learners. To examine the impacts of cross-linguistic differences between the first language (L1) and L2 on learning to read in L2, we employed a bidirectional approach and compared brain activation during single word processing in two groups of late L2 readers: (1) L2 readers of English whose L1 was Japanese (Japanese-L1/English-L2) and (2) L2 readers of Japanese (of syllabic Kana only) whose L1 was English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). During English reading, the L2 readers of English (Japanese-L1/English-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the left superior parietal lobule/supramarginal gyrus, relative to the L1 readers of English (English-L1/Japanese-L2). This is a region considered to be involved in phonological processing. The increased activation in the Japanese-L1/English-L2 group likely reflects the increased cognitive load associated with L2 English reading, possibly because L1 readers of Kana, which has an extremely regular orthography, may need to adjust to the greater phonological demands of the irregular L2 English orthography. In contrast, during Kana reading, the L2 readers of Japanese Kana (English-L1/Japanese-L2) exhibited stronger activation in the lingual gyrus in both the left and right hemispheres compared to the L1 readers of Kana (Japaese-L1/English-L2). This additional activation is likely to reflect the lower level of visual familiarity to the L2 symbols in the English-L1/Japanese-L2 group; Kana symbols are uniquely used only in Japan, whereas Roman alphabetic symbols are seen nearly everywhere. These findings, bolstered by significant relationships between the activation of the identified regions and cognitive competence, suggest that the cerebral mechanisms for L2 reading in late learners depends both on which language is their L1 and which language is to be learnt as their L2. Educational implications

  10. Adult Second Language Learning of Spanish Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Katherine; Simonet, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of Spanish vowels by three different groups of speakers: 1) native Spanish speakers; 2) native English intermediate learners of Spanish; and 3) native English advanced learners of Spanish. In particular, we examined the production of the five Spanish…

  11. Language Experience in Second-Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Merle

    1994-01-01

    Rather than concentrate on ritual language and stock phrases, second-language teachers should utilize the language experience approach to help children develop more natural communication in active learning situations, using realistic settings and materials. (six references) (MDM)

  12. Some Principles of Second Language Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R.; Elreyes, Abdullah; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2003-01-01

    Reports on research related to phonemic contrasts in the learning of second language pronunciation. Identifies three interesting learning situations that involve the target language's having different phonemic contrasts from the native language. (Author/VWL)

  13. Neural signatures of second language learning and control.

    PubMed

    Bartolotti, James; Bradley, Kailyn; Hernandez, Arturo E; Marian, Viorica

    2016-04-08

    Experience with multiple languages has unique effects on cortical structure and information processing. Differences in gray matter density and patterns of cortical activation are observed in lifelong bilinguals compared to monolinguals as a result of their experience managing interference across languages. Monolinguals who acquire a second language later in life begin to encounter the same type of linguistic interference as bilinguals, but with a different pre-existing language architecture. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the beginning stages of second language acquisition and cross-linguistic interference in monolingual adults. We found that after English monolinguals learned novel Spanish vocabulary, English and Spanish auditory words led to distinct patterns of cortical activation, with greater recruitment of posterior parietal regions in response to English words and of left hippocampus in response to Spanish words. In addition, cross-linguistic interference from English influenced processing of newly-learned Spanish words, decreasing hippocampus activity. Results suggest that monolinguals may rely on different memory systems to process a newly-learned second language, and that the second language system is sensitive to native language interference.

  14. Second language lexical development and cognitive control: A longitudinal fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Angela M; Fang, Shin-Yi; Li, Ping

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we report a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that tested contrasting predictions about the time course of cognitive control in second language (L2) acquisition. We examined the neural correlates of lexical processing in L2 learners twice over the course of one academic year. Specifically, while in the scanner, participants were asked to judge the language membership of unambiguous first and second language words, as well as interlingual homographs. Our ROI and connectivity analyses reveal that with increased exposure to the L2, overall activation in control areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex decrease while connectivity with semantic processing regions such as the middle temporal gyrus increase. These results suggest that cognitive control is more important initially in L2 acquisition, and have significant implications for understanding developmental and neurocognitive models of second language lexical processing.

  15. Mechanisms Underlying Lexical Access in Native and Second Language Processing of Gender and Number Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanova, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable evidence suggesting that second language (L2) learners experience difficulties when processing morphosyntactic aspects of L2 in online tasks, the mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain unknown. The aim of this dissertation is to explore possible causes for the difficulties by comparing attentional mechanisms engaged…

  16. Content-Language Integrated Second Language Instruction: Curriculum and the CCUEI Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trube, Mary Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the content-language integrated (CLI) second language (L2) education offered by the CCUEI Research Collaborative in China. It explores how CCUEI-developed curriculum reflects the theoretical foundations of an immersion experiment and how the research-based theoretical foundations of CLI L2 have been applied in practice. It…

  17. Aberrant Topologies and Reconfiguration Pattern of Functional Brain Network in Children with Second Language Reading Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lanfang; Li, Hehui; Zhang, Manli; Wang, Zhengke; Wei, Na; Liu, Li; Meng, Xiangzhi; Ding, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    Prior work has extensively studied neural deficits in children with reading impairment (RI) in their native language but has rarely examined those of RI children in their second language (L2). A recent study revealed that the function of the local brain regions was disrupted in children with RI in L2, but it is not clear whether the disruption…

  18. Primary or "Specific" Language Impairment and Children Learning a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohnert, Kathryn; Windsor, Jennifer; Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2009-01-01

    We review empirical findings from children with primary or "specific" language impairment (PLI) and children who learn a single language from birth (L1) and a second language (L2) beginning in childhood. The PLI profile is presented in terms of both language and nonlinguistic features. The discussion of L2 learners emphasizes variable patterns of…

  19. A Practice-Oriented Definition of Post-Process Second Language Writing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalan, Amir

    2014-01-01

    This article is a synthesis of the scholarly literature on the post-process approach to teaching second language (L2) writing, particularly college and university composition in English as an additional language. This synthesis aims to offer a definition of post-process L2 writing that can readily lend itself to practice and be more accessible to…

  20. Orthographic Consistency and Individual Learner Differences in Second Language Literacy Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sun-A; Packard, Jerome; Christianson, Kiel; Anderson, Richard C.; Shin, Jeong-Ah

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether orthographic consistency and individual learner differences including working memory (WM), first language (L1) background, and second language (L2) proficiency affect Chinese L2 learners' literacy acquisition. Seventy American college students in beginning or intermediate Chinese classes participated in a character…

  1. From Phonemic Differences to Constraint Rankings: Research on Second Language Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R.

    2004-01-01

    This article surveys the development of second language (L2) phonology over the last 40-50 years. Research in this area has grown from analyzing learners' errors in terms of Contrastive Analysis to proposals explaining L2 sound patterns in terms of constraints on interlanguage grammar. Although native language transfer has endured as one source of…

  2. Second Language Research in Late Modernity: A Response to Firth and Wagner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampton, Ben

    1997-01-01

    Argues, from a sociolinguistic perspective, that second language (L2) research could usefully engage with some of the debates concerning postmodernity. Suggests that globalization presents an important range of empirical phenomena requiring serious L2 study. Indicates the kinds of linguistic assumptions that ideas about postmodernity draw into…

  3. Increasing Second Language Learners' Production and Comprehension of Developmentally Advanced Syntactic Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gámez, Perla B.; Vasilyeva, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This investigation extended the use of the priming methodology to 5- and 6-year-olds at the beginning stages of learning English as a second language (L2). In Study 1, 14 L2 children described transitive scenes without an experimenter's input. They produced no passives and minimal actives; most of their utterances were incomplete. In Study 2, 56…

  4. Effects of Verb Semantics and Proficiency in Second Language Use of Constructional Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Rah, Yangon

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of the semantic heaviness of verbs (i.e., heavy or light verbs) and language proficiency on second language (L2) learners' use of constructional information in a sentence-sorting task and a corpus analysis. Previous studies employing a sentence-sorting task demonstrated that advanced L2 learners sorted English…

  5. Bridging the Gap: Cognitive and Social Approaches to Research in Second Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulstijn, Jan H.; Young, Richard F.; Ortega, Lourdes; Bigelow, Martha; DeKeyser, Robert; Ellis, Nick C.; Lantolf, James P.; Mackey, Alison; Talmy, Steven

    2014-01-01

    For some, research in learning and teaching of a second language (L2) runs the risk of disintegrating into irreconcilable approaches to L2 learning and use. On the one side, we find researchers investigating linguistic-cognitive issues, often using quantitative research methods including inferential statistics; on the other side, we find…

  6. Effects of Feedback Timing on Second Language Vocabulary Learning: Does Delaying Feedback Increase Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Feedback, or information given to learners regarding their performance, is found to facilitate second language (L2) learning. Research also suggests that the timing of feedback (whether it is provided immediately or after a delay) may affect learning. The purpose of the present study was to identify the optimal feedback timing for L2 vocabulary…

  7. The Role of Age of Acquisition in Late Second Language Oral Proficiency Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The current project examined whether and to what degree age of acquisition (AOA), defined as the first intensive exposure to a second language (L2) environment, can be predictive of the end state of postpubertal L2 oral proficiency attainment. Data were collected from 88 experienced Japanese learners of English and two groups of 20 baseline…

  8. Developing Literary Reading Skills through Creative Writing in German as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urlaub, Per

    2011-01-01

    Literary reading skills in a second language (L2) are essential for student success at the advanced levels of collegiate language instruction. This article introduces an instructional approach that fosters the development of L2 literary reading skills through creative writing activities. First, the article identifies those skills that language…

  9. Learning to become a Second Language Teacher: Identities-in-Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanno, Yasuko; Stuart, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Despite the accumulating body of research on teacher cognition and teacher learning in the field of second language (L2) teacher education over the past 2 decades, few studies have followed novice L2 teachers' development over time, and still fewer have focused specifically on teacher identity development. This study begins to fill this gap by…

  10. The Effect of Dual Task Demands and Proficiency on Second Language Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Declerck, Mathieu; Kormos, Judit

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examined how the introduction of a parallel finger-tapping task influences second language (L2) speech encoding mechanisms and monitoring processes, and how the level of proficiency impacts the efficiency and accuracy of L2 performance under single and dual task conditions. The results indicate that imposing dual task demands had…

  11. The Effects of Age on Second Language Grammar and Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Becky H.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the age of learning effect on second language (L2) acquisition. The research goals of the study were twofold: to test whether there is an independent age effect controlling for other potentially confounding variables, and to clarify the age effect across L2 grammar and speech production domains. The study included 118…

  12. Learner Variables in Second Language Listening Comprehension: An Exploratory Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergrift, Larry; Baker, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Listening comprehension plays a key role in language acquisition, yet little is known about the variables that contribute to the development of second language (L2) listening ability. This study sought to obtain empirical evidence for the impact of some of the learner variables and the degree to which they might predict success in L2 listening.…

  13. Frequency Effects or Context Effects in Second Language Word Learning: What Predicts Early Lexical Production?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Subtirelu, Nicholas; Salsbury, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This study examines frequency, contextual diversity, and contextual distinctiveness effects in predicting produced versus not-produced frequent nouns and verbs by early second language (L2) learners of English. The study analyzes whether word frequency is the strongest predictor of early L2 word production independent of contextual diversity and…

  14. Web 2.0 and Second Language Learning: What Does the Research Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shenggao; Vasquez, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews current research on the use of Web 2.0 technologies in second language (L2) learning. Its purpose is to investigate the theoretical perspectives framing it, to identify some of the benefits of using Web 2.0 technologies in L2 learning, and to discuss some of the limitations. The review reveals that blogs and wikis have been…

  15. Introduction. Beyond the Obvious: Do Second Language Learners Process Inflectional Morphology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gor, Kira

    2010-01-01

    Given that this special issue is devoted to the acquisition and processing of inflectional morphology by second language (L2) learners, the question in the title may appear redundant. However, recent research on first language (L1) and L2 morphological processing has challenged basic assumptions about the status of inflectional morphology in…

  16. Testing the Output Hypothesis: Effects of Output on Noticing and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi, Shinichi; Bigelow, Martha; Fujiwara, Miho; Fearnow, Sarah

    1999-01-01

    Addresses one of the functions of output proposed by Swain (1993, 1995, 1998). In particular, the activity of producing the target language may, under certain circumstances, prompt second language (L2) learners to recognize some of their linguistic problems and bring to their attention something they need to discover about their L2. (Author/VWL)

  17. How Do Utterance Measures Predict Raters' Perceptions of Fluency in French as a Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit; Johnson, Daniel Ezra

    2016-01-01

    While the research literature on second language (L2) fluency is replete with descriptions of fluency and its influence with regard to English as an additional language, little is known about what fluency features influence judgments of fluency in L2 French. This study reports the results of an investigation that analyzed the relationship between…

  18. The Role of the Second Language in Third Language Acquisition: The Case of Germanic Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardel, Camilla; Falk, Ylva

    2007-01-01

    In this study of the placement of sentence negation in third language acquisition (L3), we argue that there is a qualitative difference between the acquisition of a true second language (L2) and the subsequent acquisition of an L3. Although there is considerable evidence for L2 influence on vocabulary acquisition in L3, not all researchers believe…

  19. Dynamic Emergence of Situational Willingness to Communicate in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Su-Ja

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study that shows how situational willingness to communicate (WTC) in a second language (L2) can dynamically emerge and fluctuate during a conversation situation. From inductive analysis of data from interviews, videotaped conversations, and stimulated recalls, it was found that situational WTC in L2 emerged…

  20. The Influence of Foreign Scripts on the Acquisition of a Second Language Phonological Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in the acquisition of a second language (L2) phonology have revealed that orthography can influence the way in which L2 learners come to establish target-like lexical representations (Escudero et al., 2008, 2014; Escudero and Wanrooij, 2010; Showalter, 2012; Showalter and Hayes-Harb, 2013). Most of these studies, however, involve…

  1. The Effectiveness of Study-Abroad on Second Language Learning: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jin-Suk

    2016-01-01

    This study synthesizes the methods and findings of published research investigating second language (L2) learners' linguistic development in study-abroad (SA) contexts. Some studies have demonstrated that SA participation is beneficial to learners' L2 development, whereas others have not supported such a relationship. The first phase of this…

  2. Second Language Learner Knowledge of Verb-Argument Constructions: Effects of Language Transfer and Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Römer, Ute; O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Ellis, Nick C.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines second language (L2) learner knowledge of English verb-argument constructions (VACs), for example, the "V 'against' n" construction. It investigates to what extent constructions underpin L2 learners' linguistic competence, how VAC mental representations in native speakers and learners differ, and…

  3. Social and Cognitive Factors in Making Teacher-Led Classroom Discourse Relevant for Second Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares descriptive quantitative and qualitative data from 2 beginning, university-level second-language (L2) Spanish classes to demonstrate the benefits of teacher-led discourse organized as collaborative, whole-class tasks. In class, the teacher solicited target L2 forms through conversational questions to individuals with recasted…

  4. First and Second Language Pragmatics in Third Language Oral and Written Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koike, Dale A.; Palmiere, Denise T. L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the transfer of first language (L1) and second language (L2) pragmatic expression--realized in the request speech act--in oral and written modalities by Spanish-speaking third language (L3) Portuguese learners (bilingual Spanish heritage speakers, native English speakers who are proficient in L2 Spanish, and native Spanish…

  5. Interpretation of Reflexive Anaphora in Second Language VP Ellipsis: Relevance Theory and Paradigms of Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequeiros, Xose Rosales

    2004-01-01

    This article explores second language (L2) learners' interpretation of reflexive anaphora in VP-Ellipsis by critiquing the work of Ying (2003), who applies Relevance Theory to explain elliptical anaphora. It argues against four claims made in his analysis: that L2 learners apply maximal relevance in anaphoric interpretation; that a procedural…

  6. Second Language Writing Research and Written Corrective Feedback in SLA: Intersections and Practical Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Dana R.

    2010-01-01

    For more than a decade now, a great deal of research has been done on the topic of written corrective feedback (CF) in SLA and second language (L2) writing. Nonetheless, what those research efforts really have shown as well as the possible implications for practice remain in dispute. Although L2 writing and SLA researchers often examine similar…

  7. Unaccusativity and Neurocognitive Indices of Second Language Acquisition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, John David

    2010-01-01

    Increased second-language (L2) proficiency is associated with a shift from explicit to implicit processing; however, the neural underpinnings are of this shift are not well understood. Furthermore, it is known that unaccusative verbs cause persistent difficulties in L2 learning. In this study, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) responses…

  8. The Heterogeneous Second-Language Population in US Colleges and the Impact on Writing Program Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Gennaro, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    To effectively address the needs of second language (L2) learners in college writing courses, many postsecondary institutions, especially those located in cities with high concentrations of immigrants, offer college-level courses for L2 students. Such courses include noncredit English language courses in an intensive English program, developmental…

  9. Filler-Gap Dependencies and Island Constraints in Second-Language Sentence Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omaki, Akira; Schulz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Second-language (L2) sentence processing may differ from processing in a native language in a variety of ways, and it has been argued that one major difference is that L2 learners can only construct shallow representations that lack structural details (e.g., Clahsen & Felser, 2006). The present study challenges this hypothesis by comparing the…

  10. Reconsidering the Role of Interaction and Input in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braidi, Susan M.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews research findings on second-language (L2) interaction from the perspective of syntactic development. The article argues that better understanding of the role of negotiated interaction in L2 syntactic development requires examining the specific grammatical structures in interaction guided by the criteria of relevance, availability,…

  11. Factors in the Incidental Acquisition of Second Language Vocabulary from Oral Input: A Review Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Rod

    1994-01-01

    This article examines four sets of factors that may potentially affect the incidental vocabulary acquisition from oral input of second-language (L2) learners. These include the intrinsic properties of L2 words; the nature of the input; the role of interaction; and individual learner factors. (Contains 85 references.) (MDM)

  12. Towards a Better Understanding of Academic Acculturation: Second Language Students in Canadian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liying; Fox, Janna

    2008-01-01

    The aggressive internationalization of Canadian universities and increased immigration to Canada over the past 20 years have resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of second language (L2) students in Canadian universities. However, little is known about the factors that influence academic acculturation of L2 students or about the role of…

  13. Age-Related Effects on the Acquisition of Second Language Phonology and Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsuan-hua Becky

    2009-01-01

    The current study set out to examine the age-related effects on ultimate attainment of second language (L2) phonology and grammar. The goals of the study are threefold: (1) to unravel the complexity of ultimate L2 attainment by surveying multiple contributing factors, (2) to explore the relative strength of the Age of Arrival (AOA) variable and…

  14. Thinking Allowed: Integrating Process and Genre into the Second Language Writing Classroom: Research into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racelis, Juval V.; Matsuda, Paul Kei

    2013-01-01

    The field of second language (L2) writing has moved beyond the false dichotomies between process- and genre-based pedagogies perpetuated in the 1980s and 1990s, but there has still been little research on how the two are actually reconciled in the classroom. Consequently, L2 writing instructors are left with an incomplete picture, unsure how to…

  15. The Status of Functional Categories in Child Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from the Acquisition of CP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haznedar, Belma

    2003-01-01

    Examines the status of the functional categories in child second language (L2) acquisition of English. Results from longitudinally-collected data are reported, presenting counterevidence for recent hypotheses on early L2 acquisition that assume the following: (1) structure building approach according to which the acquisition of functional…

  16. Roles of General versus Second Language (L2) Knowledge in L2 Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Roehrig, Alysia D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the roles of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies, syntactic awareness in English, and English vocabulary knowledge in the English reading comprehension of Chinese-speaking university students (n = 278). Results suggested a two-factor model of a General Reading Knowledge factor (metacognitive awareness employed during the…

  17. Analyzing the Acquisition Stages of Negation in L2 German: Support for UG in Adult SLA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaselli, Alessandra; Schwartz, Bonnie D.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that a Universal Grammar (UG)-based analysis for the three stages of NEG-placement is not only possible, but in fact provides independent support for UG-based analyses of the developmental sequence found in first-language Romance language and second-language German verb placement. (41 references) (GLR)

  18. Second language listening difficulties perceived by low-level learners.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anna C-S; Wu, Bill Wen-Pin; Pang, Jerry C-L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose was the develop a questionnaire to identify the specific listening difficulties of second language (L2) learners. Based on previous research, a questionnaire containing 31 items was developed and administered to 1,056 college freshmen. The whole sample was split randomly into two subsamples, each containing 528 cases. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to analyse the first subsample, and six factors were extracted, explaining a total of 57.1% of variance. To test the factor model, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with the second subsample. Various fit indices were examined. The best fitting model for the data was a 23-item, six-factor model representing text, input channel and surroundings, relevance, listener, speaker, and task. Apart from the listener factor, all components are external ones and deemed to be uncontrollable by listeners. L2 learners must take an active role in listening practice to overcome L2 listening difficulties.

  19. Responding to the Need for Re-Conceptualizing Second Language Teacher Education: The Potential of a Sociocultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Minh Hue

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to engage with and respond to recent calls in the literature for a unifying theoretical framework to understand second language teacher education (SLTE). It critically reviews the major conceptualizations of SLTE in relation to the key conceptualizations of second language (L2) teaching. The review identifies shortcomings in…

  20. Connecting with Communities of Learners and Speakers: Integrative Ideals, Experiences, and Motivations of Successful Black Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anya, Uju

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing data from the language learning autobiographies of six black college students, this pilot study investigates the experiences and motivations of blacks who do and do not achieve advanced-level second language acquisition (SLA). It hypothesizes that successful black second language (L2) learners (1) have positive formative experiences of…

  1. From Language-Specific to Shared Syntactic Representations: The Influence of Second Language Proficiency on Syntactic Sharing in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on cross-linguistic syntactic priming suggest that bilinguals can share syntactic representations across languages (e.g., Hartsuiker, Pickering, & Veltkamp, 2004). But how are these representations established in late learners of a second language? Specifically, are representations of syntactic structures in a second language (L2)…

  2. Bad Influence?--An Investigation into the Purported Negative Influence of Foreign Domestic Helpers on Children's Second Language English Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Alex Ho-Cheong

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the purported negative influence of foreign domestic helpers (FDHs) on child second language acquisition (SLA) by studying Hong Kong Cantonese children's listening ability in second language (L2) English. 31 kindergarten third graders aged 4;6 to 6, and 29 first year secondary students aged 11-14 who have had a Filipino…

  3. Embodied L2 Construction Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskildsen, Søren W.; Wagner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This study uses conversation analysis (CA) to investigate the coupling of specific linguistic items with specific gestures in second language (L2) learning over time. In particular, we are interested in how gestures accompany learning of new vocabulary. CA-informed studies of gesture have previously shown the importance of embodiment in L2 use and…

  4. Input-based structure-specific proficiency predicts the neural mechanism of adult L2 syntactic processing.

    PubMed

    Deng, Taiping; Zhou, Huixia; Bi, Hong-Yan; Chen, Baoguo

    2015-06-12

    This study used Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to explore the role of input-based structure-specific proficiency in L2 syntactic processing, using English subject-verb agreement structures as the stimuli. A pre-test/trainings/post-test paradigm of experimental and control groups was employed, and Chinese speakers who learned English as a second language (L2) participated in the experiment. At pre-test, no ERP component related to the subject-verb agreement structures violations was observed in either group. At training session, the experimental group learned the subject-verb agreement structures, while the control group learned other syntactic structures. After two continuously intensive input trainings, at post-test, a significant P600 component related to the subject-verb agreement structures violations was elicited in the experimental group, but not in the control group. These findings suggest that input training improves structure-specific proficiency, which is reflected in the neural mechanism of L2 syntactic processing.

  5. Morphological and Phonological Factors in the Production of Verbal Inflection in Adult L2 Learners and Patients with Agrammatic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szupica-Pyrzanowski, Malgorzata

    2009-01-01

    Failure to supply inflection is common in adult L2 learners of English and agrammatic aphasics (AAs), who are known to resort to bare verb forms. Among attempts to explain the absence of inflection are competing morphological and phonological explanations. In the L2 acquisition literature, omission of inflection is explained in terms of: mapping…

  6. Morphosyntactic processing in late second-language learners.

    PubMed

    Dowens, Margaret Gillon; Vergara, Marta; Barber, Horacio A; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of second-language (L2) morphosyntactic processing in highly proficient late learners of an L2 with long exposure to the L2 environment. ERPs were collected from 22 English-Spanish late learners while they read sentences in which morphosyntactic features of the L2 present or not present in the first language (number and gender agreement, respectively) were manipulated at two different sentence positions-within and across phrases. The results for a control group of age-matched native-speaker Spanish participants included an ERP pattern of LAN-type early negativity followed by P600 effect in response to both agreement violations and for both sentence positions. The late L2 learner results included a similar pattern, consisting of early negativity followed by P600, in the first sentence position (within-phrase agreement violations) but only P600 effects in the second sentence position (across-phrase agreement violation), as well as significant amplitude and onset latency differences between the gender and the number violation effects in both sentence positions. These results reveal that highly proficient learners can show electrophysiological correlates during L2 processing that are qualitatively similar to those of native speakers, but the results also indicate the contribution of factors such as age of acquisition and transfer processes from first language to L2.

  7. The acquisition of a second language.

    PubMed

    Gordon, N

    2000-01-01

    It is claimed that if children can begin to acquire a second language at an early age they will find it easier to develop fluency, and will speak it without an accent. Age is a factor in acquiring one's mother tongue, and this also applies when learning a second language. One essential to developing such a skill is the ability to switch from one language to the other, as appropriate. Studies on the effects of age on this learning are reviewed. Techniques such as positron emission tomography can now be used to show which areas of the brain are involved in developing new skills, and much has been learnt in this way. Differences can be demonstrated between the cerebral function of the children who learn a second language at an early age and those who do this when they are older, and also between those who acquire a high degree of fluency and those who never do. If children speak a second language by hearing it in the environment in which they live, they are acquiring it as they do their mother tongue, but if they start at the age of 12 years they are learning it like any other subject they study. If the opportunity is present, surely it is better to acquire a second language than learn it.

  8. Literacy and the Second Language Learner. Research in Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, JoAnn Hammadou, Ed.

    This collection of papers is the first in a series that will highlight cutting-edge research in the area of second language learning and teaching. After an introduction, "The Second Language Educator's Challenge: Learning about Literacy" (JoAnn Hammadou Sullivan), 12 papers include the following: (1) "Theoretical Developments in…

  9. Second Language Acquisition Studies. Series on Issues in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Kathleen M., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 16 papers covers theoretical issues and research on interlanguage development and second language acquisition variables. Among the specific topics addressed are: morpheme group interactions, acquisition of complex sentences in English as a second language, uniformity in interlanguage development, Spanish-English basilang,…

  10. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  11. Embodiment and Emotional Memory in First vs. Second Language

    PubMed Central

    Baumeister, Jenny C.; Foroni, Francesco; Conrad, Markus; Rumiati, Raffaella I.; Winkielman, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Language and emotions are closely linked. However, previous research suggests that this link is stronger in a native language (L1) than in a second language (L2) that had been learned later in life. The present study investigates whether such reduced emotionality in L2 is reflected in changes in emotional memory and embodied responses to L2 in comparison to L1. Late Spanish/English bilinguals performed a memory task involving an encoding and a surprise retrieval phase. Facial motor resonance and skin conductance (SC) responses were recorded during encoding. The results give first indications that the enhanced memory for emotional vs. neutral content (EEM effect) is stronger in L1 and less present in L2. Furthermore, the results give partial support for decreased facial motor resonance and SC responses to emotional words in L2 as compared to L1. These findings suggest that embodied knowledge involved in emotional memory is associated to increased affective encoding and retrieval of L1 compared to L2. PMID:28386240

  12. Phonological acquisition in preschoolers learning a second language via immersion: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Raquel T

    2004-01-01

    Phonological development in first and second languages (L1 and L2 respectively) has not been extensively studied in young children who are acquiring a second language via immersion. This lack of information is unfortunate, as the number of children who are acquiring a second language in this context is growing and such children make up a part of the clinical caseload of many speech-language pathologists. To address the need for information regarding phonological development of children acquiring a second language in immersion, the present investigation sought to provide longitudinal data on the development of both L1 and L2 phonologies. Five preschoolers who were acquiring English as a L2 and who spoke different L1s participated in the study. A picture identification task was used to assess productive phonological skills in L1 and English. Analyses included a description of the children's phonetic inventories, accuracy rates, and non-target response patterns. Both within child (across languages) and between child comparisons were made to discern possible patterns of use and to identify factors that may impact phonological skill in the L1 and L2. Results of the investigation suggest that children who are learning a L2 utilize their knowledge of the L1 to aid them in acquiring the phonological system of the L2. At the same time, they appear to maintain, at least as measured via perceptual analysis of their speech, distinct phonological systems.

  13. Teacher Training Workshop for TESL to Adult Speakers of French and English as a Second Language Workshop in Boston, Providence, Hartford. Final Report: July 22, 1971 - August 31, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School for International Training, Brattleboro, VT.

    The final report presents descriptions of activities, procedures, evaluations, recommendations, and conclusions of two series of workshops undertaken to inform ABE teachers in New England of innovative techniques in teaching English as a second language (ESL). Workshop participants were introduced to fresh and provocative teaching methods that…

  14. Aptitude as Grammatical Sensitivity and the Initial Stages of Learning Japanese as a L2: Parametric Variation and Case Marking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanPatten, Bill; Smith, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we challenge the notion that aptitude--operationalized as grammatical sensitivity as measured by the Words in Sentences section of the Modern Language Aptitude Test--is central to adult second language (L2) acquisition. We present the findings of a study on the acquisition of two properties of Japanese, head-final word order and…

  15. L2 Learners' Assessments of Accentedness, Fluency, and Comprehensibility of Native and Nonnative German Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham

    2014-01-01

    In early stages of classroom language learning, many adult second language (L2) learners communicate primarily with one another, yet we know little about which speech stream characteristics learners tune into or the extent to which they understand this lingua franca communication. In the current study, 25 native English speakers learning German as…

  16. Cognitive abilities underlying second-language vocabulary acquisition in an early second-language immersion education context: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Anne-Catherine; Poncelet, Martine

    2013-08-01

    First-language (L1) and second-language (L2) lexical development has been found to be strongly associated with phonological processing abilities such as phonological short-term memory (STM), phonological awareness, and speech perception. Lexical development also seems to be linked to attentional and executive skills such as auditory attention, flexibility, and response inhibition. The aim of this four-wave longitudinal study was to determine to what extent L2 vocabulary acquired through the particular school context of early L2 immersion education is linked to the same cognitive abilities. A total of 61 French-speaking 5-year-old kindergartners who had just been enrolled in English immersion classes were administered a battery of tasks assessing these three phonological processing abilities and three attentional/executive skills. Their English vocabulary knowledge was measured 1, 2, and 3 school years later. Multiple regression analyses showed that, among the assessed phonological processing abilities, phonological STM and speech perception, but not phonological awareness, appeared to underlie L2 vocabulary acquisition in this context of an early L2 immersion school program, at least during the first steps of acquisition. Similarly, among the assessed attentional/executive skills, auditory attention and flexibility, but not response inhibition, appeared to be involved during the first steps of L2 vocabulary acquisition in such an immersion school context.

  17. Second-Language Literacy, Immigration, and Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto Huerta, M. E.; Pérez, B.

    2015-01-01

    Second language literacy development is a significant factor influencing immigrants' opportunities to integrate with the host society. To examine the opportunities that different immigrant groups have had for obtaining both, we selected four published studies that had been originally analyzed through a sociocultural perspective, a prominent…

  18. Technologies in Use for Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the technologies in use for second language learning, in relation to the major language areas and skills. In order, these are grammar, vocabulary, reading, writing, pronunciation, listening, speaking, and culture. With each language area or skill, the relevant technologies are discussed with examples that illustrate how…

  19. English as a Second Language Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fifield, Ruth, Comp.

    The materials in this bibliography are aimed at teachers of English as a second language. The materials are divided into 5 sections: (1) professional materials; (2) instructional materials; (3) the curriculum resource room; (4) audio-visual materials; and (5) Spanish-language curriculum materials. The dates of the approximately 250 documents range…

  20. Counseling-Learning in Second Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Charles A.

    This is a description of an instructional method called Counseling-Learning or Counselearning, which combines principles of learning theory with counseling attitudes and techniques. This method can be applied to any learning situation, and when applied to second language learning it is called Community Language Learning. The method is predicated…

  1. Communicative Tactics in Children's Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saville-Troike, M.; And Others

    The development and use of verbal and nonverbal communication by children in the early stages of second language acquisition were investigated in a natural setting. Twenty young speakers of Japanese, Korean, Hebrew, Spanish, Icelandic, and Polish, enrolled in a multilingual program and ranging in age from 7 to 12 years, served as subjects. All of…

  2. Video and Second Language Learning. Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Junetta B., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The extent to which video has come of age with respect to language learning is the focus of this special issue, which provides information on sources of materials and offers practical ideas for the effective and creative use of those materials in second language instruction. Articles include: "Video and Language Learning: A Medium Comes of Age"…

  3. English as a Second Language. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethke, Patricia; And Others

    Intended as a primary reference for teachers in Triton College's English as a Second Language (ESL) program, this curriculum guide determines course content for six levels of instruction and supplemental courses. Introductory materials discuss use of the guide and provide introductions to the three core components into which each level is divided:…

  4. Classroom Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seliger, Herbert W., Ed.; Long, Michael H., Ed.

    A collection of works concerning classroom research methodology, learner strategies and variables, teacher speech, teacher and learner feedback, and second language classroom communication has been compiled. It includes: "What Is Classroom Oriented Research?" (Herbert W. Seliger and Michael H. Long); "Inside the 'Black Box': Methodological Issues…

  5. Second-Language Learning through Imaginative Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broom, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Egan's (1997) work on imagination can enrich our understanding of teaching English as a second language (ESL). Much has been written on ESL teaching techniques; however, some of this work has been expounded in a standard educational framework, which is what Egan calls an assembly-line model. This model can easily underlie…

  6. Second Language Acquisition: Research and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the past several decades and highlights the ways in which it has retained its original applied and linguistic interests and enhanced them by addressing questions about acquisition processes. After discussing disciplinary contexts (SLA research and applied…

  7. Readings on English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Kenneth, Ed.

    This collection of readings on the topic of teaching English as a second language (ESL) has a twofold purpose: to enlarge the ESL teacher's awareness of the field and to assist in the professional growth of the new teacher or teacher-trainee. Each of the book's nine sections deal with one area of ESL instruction. Section 1, "Trends and Practices,"…

  8. Second Language Proficiency Assessment and Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    A discussion of the role of second language proficiency assessment in the evaluation of language programs argues that for four reasons, the use of proficiency is inappropriate as a central element in evaluation. The reasons are: (1) the construct of proficiency has not been operationalized in a way that enables it to be used usefully; (2)…

  9. Linguistic Perspectives from Spanish Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Mark, Ed.; Koike, Dale April, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Papers reporting research on Spanish second language learning include: "Discourse Features of Spanish Oral Production at the Novice Level" (Rebecca Jo Bearden); "A Discourse Approach to the Assessment of Foreign Language Oral Proficiency" (Dale April Koike, Fanny Hinojosa); "Acquisition of Spanish Definite Articles by English-Speaking Learners of…

  10. Second Language Writing in the Mainstream Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lyn

    The case study of a Bulgarian immigrant child's literacy education in English as a Second Language (ESL) is presented. Focus is on the boy's literacy development within the context of a mainstream kindergarten/first grade classroom in Australia. The report details the teacher's observations in the classroom and particularly in the child's writing…

  11. The 'What' of Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    Definitions of communicative competence and research on developing communicative competence in a second language are reviewed and implications for teaching are discussed. Communicative competence refers not only to knowledge of the forms of a language but to their functions and appropriate use in context. Five areas of communicative competence are…

  12. Discourse Analysis in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane, Ed.

    The following papers and reports on discourse analysis are included here: (1) "Discourse Analysis, What's That?" by Hatch and Long; (2) "Contextual Analysis of English: Applications to TESL" by Celce-Murcia; (3) "Discourse and Second Language Acquisition of Yes/No Questions" by Vander Brook, Schlue, and Campbell; (4)…

  13. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  14. Critical Thinking in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Carol Beth

    2011-01-01

    Critical thinking (CT) skills are generally considered to be vital to success at university, but Asian students are sometimes perceived as lacking these skills. This research explores the effect that thinking in a second language has on CT performance. To assess this, two groups of students were tested on a split-test version of the "Watson…

  15. Interkinesics and Interprosodics in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassin, June

    1992-01-01

    Assumes unified language behavior including verbal, kinesic, and prosodic forms. Proposes that interlanguage theory should be expanded to include kinesic and prosodic modes of behavior. Suggests that acquisition of second-language kinesic and prosodic forms takes place similarly to acquisition of verbal forms and that acquisition is developmental,…

  16. Facilitating Second Language Learning with Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Su-Young

    2006-01-01

    The use of music in facilitating second language (as well as first language) learning is supported by evidence that points to the musical nature of even preverbal infants. Music and language have been found to develop similarly, and researchers have noted advantages to using song in learning. The author observed her Korean 21-month-old for …

  17. Second-Language Issues and Multiculturalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallozzi, Christine A., Comp.; Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the reports from the international research correspondents (IRCs) on the topic of second-language issues and multiculturalism through an informal polling using a questionnaire in six countries. The participating IRCs include: (1) Marta Infante of Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Chile; (2) Anita Poon of Hong Kong…

  18. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…

  19. First Language Status and Second Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    In spite of growing numbers in high schools and colleges, US-resident adolescent bilingual learners, sometimes termed "English as a second language" (ESL) or "Generation 1.5," are not succeeding academically in proportion to their monolingual English-speaking peers. This achievement gap is evident in their writing as they enter…

  20. Teaching Literacy to Second Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darville, Richard

    The teaching of literacy, primarily to second language learners, in the Vancouver, British Columbia, Municipal Workplace Language Training Program is examined. The program arose out of reports to the city's Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) program about language difficulties among workers who couldn't pass tests required for promotion or…

  1. Second Language Teacher Education. International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedick, Diane J., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The education of second language teachers takes place across diverse contexts, levels, settings, and geographic regions. By bringing together research, theory, and best practices from a variety of contexts (ESL/EFL, foreign language, bilingual and immersion education), this book contributes to building meaningful professional dialogue among…

  2. Phonological Awareness in Young Second Language Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Maggie; Genesee, Fred

    1995-01-01

    This study compared the performance of English-speaking children attending French schools (bilingual group) on phonological awareness tests with same age English-speaking children attending English schools. Results of the study are interpreted to reflect the role of second-language input in phonological awareness. (JL)

  3. Input, Interaction, and Second Language Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M.; Varonis, Evangeline Marlos

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among input, interaction, and second-language production among 16 native-nonnative dyads. The results indicated that both modified input and interaction initiated by the native speaker lead to greater comprehension by the nonnative speaker, as measured by task performance. (Contains 48 references.) (MDM)

  4. The Social Turn in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    This book is about the prospect of a social turn in the field of second language acquisition (SLA), in particular, that part of SLA that is devoted to the input-interaction-output (IIO) model. The book is intended to critically examine some of the basic notions and assumptions that underpin this model and to suggest a more interdisciplinary and…

  5. Intake, Communication, and Second-Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Elizabeth M. Leemann

    Traditionally, classroom instruction has been viewed as a structured, deliberately sequenced process leading to predetermined goals within given time limits. However, classroom second language instruction appears to be less efficient than non-classroom language acquisition. The reason may lie in the distinction between linguistic input (all…

  6. Neural stages of spoken, written, and signed word processing in beginning second language learners.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Matthew K; Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Torres, Christina; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I; Halgren, Eric

    2013-01-01

    WE COMBINED MAGNETOENCEPHALOGRAPHY (MEG) AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) TO EXAMINE HOW SENSORY MODALITY, LANGUAGE TYPE, AND LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY INTERACT DURING TWO FUNDAMENTAL STAGES OF WORD PROCESSING: (1) an early word encoding stage, and (2) a later supramodal lexico-semantic stage. Adult native English speakers who were learning American Sign Language (ASL) performed a semantic task for spoken and written English words, and ASL signs. During the early time window, written words evoked responses in left ventral occipitotemporal cortex, and spoken words in left superior temporal cortex. Signed words evoked activity in right intraparietal sulcus that was marginally greater than for written words. During the later time window, all three types of words showed significant activity in the classical left fronto-temporal language network, the first demonstration of such activity in individuals with so little second language (L2) instruction in sign. In addition, a dissociation between semantic congruity effects and overall MEG response magnitude for ASL responses suggested shallower and more effortful processing, presumably reflecting novice L2 learning. Consistent with previous research on non-dominant language processing in spoken languages, the L2 ASL learners also showed recruitment of right hemisphere and lateral occipital cortex. These results demonstrate that late lexico-semantic processing utilizes a common substrate, independent of modality, and that proficiency effects in sign language are comparable to those in spoken language.

  7. Anxiety and Speaking English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Lindy

    2006-01-01

    Second language anxiety has a debilitating effect on the oral performance of speakers of English as a second language. This article describes a research project concerning the conceptualization of second language speaking anxiety, the relationship between anxiety and second language performance, and the major reported causes of second language…

  8. A Review of the Literature on Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, John; Roy, Sylvie; Harmel, Sandra; Jesney, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This review of the current literature on second language learning was to inform the following four questions: (1) what are the effects of learning a second language on the first language? (2) What is the role of content instruction in offering a second language? (3) What are the effects of learning a second language on students with special needs?…

  9. A View of the Neural Representation of Second Language Syntax through Artificial Language Learning under Implicit Contexts of Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Deng, ZhiZhou; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Faretta- Stutenberg, Mandy; Wong, Patrick C. M.; Wong, Francis C. K.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to make an initial neuroimaging contribution to central implicit-explicit issues in second language (L2) acquisition by considering how implicit and explicit contexts mediate the neural representation of L2. Focusing on implicit contexts, the study employs a longitudinal design to examine the neural representation of L2

  10. "Leveling the Playing Field:" The Effects of Online Second Language Instruction on Student Willingness to Communicate in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott; McCullough, Heather; Pyke, J. Garvey

    2010-01-01

    Second language (L2) instruction in the United States has in recent history experienced significant change. Instead of emphasizing grammatical accuracy, L2 teachers are now asked to focus on developing student communication skills. Furthermore, L2 classrooms are being transformed via the growth of computer-mediated instruction. Traditional,…

  11. Linguistic Knowledge, Processing Speed, and Metacognitive Knowledge in First- and Second-Language Reading Comprehension: A Componential Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Amos; Schoonen, Rob; de Glopper, Kees; Hulstijn, Jan; Simis, Annegien; Snellings, Patrick; Stevenson, Marie

    2004-01-01

    The authors report results of a study into the role of components of first-language (L1; Dutch) and second-language (L2; English) reading comprehension. Differences in the contributions of components of L1 and L2 reading comprehension are analyzed, in particular processing speed in L1 and L2. Findings indicate that regression weights of the L1 and…

  12. Inhibitory control and the speech patterns of second language users.

    PubMed

    Korko, Malgorzata; Williams, Simon A

    2017-02-01

    Inhibitory control (IC), an ability to suppress irrelevant and/or conflicting information, has been found to underlie performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, including bilingual language processing. This study examines the relationship between IC and the speech patterns of second language (L2) users from the perspective of individual differences. While the majority of studies have supported the role of IC in bilingual language processing using single-word production paradigms, this work looks at inhibitory processes in the context of extended speech, with a particular emphasis on disfluencies. We hypothesized that the speech of individuals with poorer IC would be characterized by reduced fluency. A series of regression analyses, in which we controlled for age and L2 proficiency, revealed that IC (in terms of accuracy on the Stroop task) could reliably predict the occurrence of reformulations and the frequency and duration of silent pauses in L2 speech. No statistically significant relationship was found between IC and other L2 spoken output measures, such as repetitions, filled pauses, and performance errors. Conclusions focus on IC as one out of a number of cognitive functions in the service of spoken language production. A more qualitative approach towards the question of whether L2 speakers rely on IC is advocated.

  13. Predictors of reading literacy for first and second language learners.

    PubMed

    Netten, Andrea; Droop, Mienke; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-04-01

    In this study an attempt was made to construct a multi-factor model predicting the development of reading literacy in the upper grades of primary school in the Netherlands for subgroups of 729 first language (L1) learners and 93 second language (L2) learners. Following a longitudinal design, it was explored to what extent the variation in reading literacy development in L1 and L2 from grade 4 to grade 6 can be explained from children's word decoding, language, mathematics and nonverbal reasoning skills, reading motivation and self confidence as well as their home reading resources. The results showed that L1 and L2 learners differed in reading literacy skills, language, mathematics, and reasoning skills. Structural equation modelling showed that the reading literacy development in both L1 and L2 learners could be explained from decoding, language, mathematics and reasoning skills, as well as their motivation and self-confidence. A striking difference was the fact that home reading resources had an impact on reading literacy in L1 learners but not in L2 learners.

  14. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  15. Native language change during early stages of second language learning

    PubMed Central

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F.

    2015-01-01

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The co-activation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as the second language (L2). The present study asked whether L1 change can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how it is modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared to noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. Additionally, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that the L2 affects the L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact the L1 early in the development of L2 skill. PMID:26351964

  16. A real-time articulatory visual feedback approach with target presentation for second language pronunciation learning.

    PubMed

    Suemitsu, Atsuo; Dang, Jianwu; Ito, Takayuki; Tiede, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Articulatory information can support learning or remediating pronunciation of a second language (L2). This paper describes an electromagnetic articulometer-based visual-feedback approach using an articulatory target presented in real-time to facilitate L2 pronunciation learning. This approach trains learners to adjust articulatory positions to match targets for a L2 vowel estimated from productions of vowels that overlap in both L1 and L2. Training of Japanese learners for the American English vowel /æ/ that included visual training improved its pronunciation regardless of whether audio training was also included. Articulatory visual feedback is shown to be an effective method for facilitating L2 pronunciation learning.

  17. Contributions of the Study of Japanese as a Second language to our General Understanding of Second Language Acquisition and the Definition of Second Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Shigenori

    2003-01-01

    Reviews three books on the acquisition of Japanese as a second language: "Second Language Acquisition Process in the Classroom" by A.S. Ohta;"The Acquisition of Grammar by Learners of Japanese" (English translation of title), by H. Noda, K. Sakoda, K. Shibuya, and N. Kobayashi; and "The Acquisition of Japanese as a Second Language," B. K. Kanno,…

  18. An ERP study of second language learning after childhood: effects of proficiency.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Shiro; Nakata, Hiroki; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2005-08-01

    Whether there is an absolute critical period for acquiring language is a matter of continuous debate. One approach to address this issue is to compare the processes of second language (L2) learning after childhood and those of first language (L1) learning during childhood. To study the cortical process of postchildhood L2 learning, we compared event-related brain potentials recorded from two groups of adult Japanese speakers who attained either high or intermediate proficiency in English after childhood (J-High and J-Low), and adult native English speakers (ENG). Semantic anomalies embedded in English sentences evoked a clear N400 component in all three groups, with only the time course of the brain activation varying among the groups. Syntactic violations elicited a left-lateralized negativity similar to the left anterior negativity in ENG and J-High, but not in J-Low. In ENG, a P600 component was additionally found. These results suggest that semantic processing is robust from early on in L2 learning, whereas the development of syntactic processing is more dependent on proficiency as evidenced by the lack of the left-lateralized negativity in J-Low. Because early maturation and stability of semantic processing as opposed to syntactic processing are also a feature of L1 processing, postchildhood L2 learning may be governed by the same brain properties as those which govern childhood L1 learning. We argue that these processes are qualitatively similar in many respects, with only restricted domains of language processing being subject to absolute critical period effects.

  19. Morphological Variability in Second Language Learners: An Examination of Electrophysiological and Production Data.

    PubMed

    Alemán Bañón, José; Miller, David; Rothman, Jason

    2017-03-23

    We examined sources of morphological variability in second language (L2) learners of Spanish whose native language (L1) is English, with a focus on L1-L2 similarity, morphological markedness, and knowledge type (receptive vs. expressive). Experiment 1 uses event-related potentials to examine noun-adjective number (present in L1) and gender agreement (absent in L1) in online sentence comprehension (receptive knowledge). For each feature, markedness was manipulated, such that half of the critical noun-adjective combinations were feminine (marked) and the other half were masculine; half were used in the plural (marked) and the other half were used in the singular. With this setup, we examined learners' potential overreliance on unmarked forms or "defaults" (singular/masculine). Experiment 2 examines similar dependencies in spoken sentence production (expressive knowledge). Learners (n = 22) performed better with number than gender overall, but their brain responses to both features were qualitatively native-like (i.e., P600), even though gender was probed with nouns that do not provide strong distributional cues to gender. In addition, variability with gender agreement was better accounted for by lexical (as opposed to syntactic) aspects. Learners showed no advantage for comprehension over production, and no systematic evidence of reliance on morphological defaults, although their online processing was sensitive to markedness in a native-like manner. Overall, these results suggest that there is facilitation for L2 properties that exist in the L1 and that markedness impacts L2 processing, but in a native-like manner. These results also speak against proposals arguing that adult L2ers have deficits at the level of the morphology or the syntax. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Measurements of Development in L2 Written Production: The Case of L2 Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates measures for second language (L2) writing development. A T-unit, which has been found the most satisfactory unit of analysis for measuring L2 development in English, is extended to measure L2 Chinese writing development through a cross-sectional design in this study. Data were collected from three L2 Chinese learner groups…

  1. Cultural Adaptation of Second Language Soldiers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-05

    Although we interviewed second language soldiers from Korea, the Philippeans, Micronesia, Samoa, Guam, Italy, Turkey, Bolivia, Colombia and Vietnam, by far...we are citizens of the US." Interview #26 LTC Littlefield, Director, Transportation Career Development Division and MAJ Saylor, Coordinator... Transportation Officer Basic Course, Transporta- tion School, Ft Eustis, VA, 14 Jun 81. NARRATIVE 4. This interview dealt with the performance of Puerto Rican

  2. An Annotated Bibliography on Second Language Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Regions, 121s Jeoferson Davis Mighwy. $uite t1204. Arlington, VA 22202.4302. and to the C-ce of Management and Sudget, Paperworit Aeduction Project...teaching and learning a second language. A strategy was defined as "the skillful planning and management of language learning as carried out by the...endeavors [advance organization, advance preparation, organizational planning, selective attention, self- monitoring, self-evaluation, self- management ], 2

  3. Early neurophysiological indices of second language morphosyntax learning.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Jeff; Shtyrov, Yury; Williams, John; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-02-01

    Humans show variable degrees of success in acquiring a second language (L2). In many cases, morphological and syntactic knowledge remain deficient, although some learners succeed in reaching nativelike levels, even if they begin acquiring their L2 relatively late. In this study, we use psycholinguistic, online language proficiency tests and a neurophysiological index of syntactic processing, the syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) to local agreement violations, to compare behavioural and neurophysiological markers of grammar processing between native speakers (NS) of English and non-native speakers (NNS). Variable grammar proficiency was measured by psycholinguistic tests. When NS heard ungrammatical word sequences lacking agreement between subject and verb (e.g. *we kicks), the MMN was enhanced compared with syntactically legal sentences (e.g. he kicks). More proficient NNS also showed this difference, but less proficient NNS did not. The main cortical sources of the MMN responses were localised in bilateral superior temporal areas, where, crucially, source strength of grammar-related neuronal activity correlated significantly with grammatical proficiency of individual L2 speakers as revealed by the psycholinguistic tests. As our results show similar, early MMN indices to morpho-syntactic agreement violations among both native speakers and non-native speakers with high grammar proficiency, they appear consistent with the use of similar brain mechanisms for at least certain aspects of L1 and L2 grammars.

  4. Early neurophysiological indices of second language morphosyntax learning

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Jeff; Shtyrov, Yury; Williams, John; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Humans show variable degrees of success in acquiring a second language (L2). In many cases, morphological and syntactic knowledge remain deficient, although some learners succeed in reaching nativelike levels, even if they begin acquiring their L2 relatively late. In this study, we use psycholinguistic, online language proficiency tests and a neurophysiological index of syntactic processing, the syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) to local agreement violations, to compare behavioural and neurophysiological markers of grammar processing between native speakers (NS) of English and non-native speakers (NNS). Variable grammar proficiency was measured by psycholinguistic tests. When NS heard ungrammatical word sequences lacking agreement between subject and verb (e.g. *we kicks), the MMN was enhanced compared with syntactically legal sentences (e.g. he kicks). More proficient NNS also showed this difference, but less proficient NNS did not. The main cortical sources of the MMN responses were localised in bilateral superior temporal areas, where, crucially, source strength of grammar-related neuronal activity correlated significantly with grammatical proficiency of individual L2 speakers as revealed by the psycholinguistic tests. As our results show similar, early MMN indices to morpho-syntactic agreement violations among both native speakers and non-native speakers with high grammar proficiency, they appear consistent with the use of similar brain mechanisms for at least certain aspects of L1 and L2 grammars. PMID:26752451

  5. Assessing Proficiency Through an Analysis of L2 Learner Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    The need for an index of development by which second language proficiency could be expediently and reliably guaged has been acknowledged by both second language (L2) teachers and researchers. In two previous L2 studies, the search for an index of development centered on an examination of learner written performance. In an attempt to construct an…

  6. A Case Study of College Level Second Language Teachers' Perceptions and Implementations of Communicative Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Chiu-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research studies have indicated that some educators do not advocate Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) because of their misunderstanding of the methodology. This article explores the relationship between college-level second language (L2) educators' perceptions and their implementations of CLT. The results of this study show that the…

  7. Blended Learning Using Video-Based Blogs: Public Speaking for English as a Second Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ru-Chu

    2010-01-01

    With globalisation and the advent of information technology, the English language has become more important for second language (L2) learners. This study aimed to establish a blended teaching and learning model combining online and face to face instructional blogging for an English for specific purposes (ESP) course named "English Public…

  8. Elicited Imitation as a Measure of Second Language Proficiency: A Narrative Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Xun; Maeda, Yukiko; Lv, Jing; Ginther, April

    2016-01-01

    Elicited imitation (EI) has been widely used to examine second language (L2) proficiency and development and was an especially popular method in the 1970s and early 1980s. However, as the field embraced more communicative approaches to both instruction and assessment, the use of EI diminished, and the construct-related validity of EI scores as a…

  9. Statistical Significance Testing in Second Language Research: Basic Problems and Suggestions for Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditions of statistical significance testing in second language (L2) quantitative research are strongly entrenched in how researchers design studies, select analyses, and interpret results. However, statistical significance tests using "p" values are commonly misinterpreted by researchers, reviewers, readers, and others, leading to…

  10. An Explanation of the Effectiveness of Written Corrective Feedback in Second-Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a theoretical explanation for the effectiveness of Written Corrective Feedback (WCF) in increasing second-language (L2) students' grammatical accuracy. WCF is examined via Skill Acquisition Theory (SAT) in order to account for uneven patterns of its effectiveness. As the study demonstrates, WCF is effective…

  11. Communicative Focus on Form and Second Language Suprasegmental Learning: Teaching Cantonese Learners to Perceive Mandarin Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya; Wu, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how form-focused instruction (FFI) with and without corrective feedback (CF) as output enhancement facilitated second language (L2) perception of Mandarin tones at both the phonetic and phonological levels by 41 Cantonese learners of Mandarin. Two experimental groups, FFI only and FFI-CF, received a 90-min FFI treatment…

  12. The On-Line Application of Binding Principle A in English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felser, Claudia; Sato, Mikako; Bertenshaw, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We report the results from two experiments investigating proficient Japanese-speaking learners' processing of reflexive object pronouns in English as a second language (L2). Experiment 1 used a timed grammaticality judgement task to assess learners' sensitivity to binding Principle A under processing pressure, and Experiment 2 investigated the…

  13. Errors in Automatic Speech Recognition versus Difficulties in Second Language Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirzaei, Maryam Sadat; Meshgi, Kourosh; Akita, Yuya; Kawahara, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology has become a part of contemporary Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) systems. ASR systems however are being criticized for their erroneous performance especially when utilized as a mean to develop skills in a Second Language (L2) where errors are not tolerated. Nevertheless, these errors can…

  14. The Role of First-Language Listening Comprehension in Second-Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edele, Aileen; Stanat, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Although the simple view of reading and other theories suggest that listening comprehension is an important determinant of reading comprehension, previous research on linguistic transfer has mainly focused on the role of first language (L1) decoding skills in second language (L2) reading. The present study tested the assumption that listening…

  15. Learning the Lexical Aspects of a Second Language at Different Proficiencies: A Neural Computational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuppini, Cristiano; Magosso, Elisa; Ursino, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    We present an original model designed to study how a second language (L2) is acquired in bilinguals at different proficiencies starting from an existing L1. The model assumes that the conceptual and lexical aspects of languages are stored separately: conceptual aspects in distinct topologically organized Feature Areas, and lexical aspects in a…

  16. Classroom Noise and Children Learning through a Second Language: Double Jeopardy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Peggy; Kohnert, Kathryn; Sabur, Sabina; Shaw, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of classroom noise on attention and speech perception in native Spanish-speaking second graders learning English as their second language (L2) as compared to English-only-speaking (EO) peers. Method: Study 1 measured children's on-task behavior during instructional activities with and…

  17. The Use of Segmentation Cues in Second Language Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Candise Yue

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation project examined the influence of language typology on the use of segmentation cues by second language (L2) learners of English. Previous research has shown that native English speakers rely more on sentence context and lexical knowledge than segmental (i.e. phonotactics or acoustic-phonetics) or prosodic cues (e.g., word stress)…

  18. The Effectiveness of the Continuation Task on Second Language Learning of English Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to uncover how alignment in the continuation task affects second language (L2) learning of English articles. Two classes of 47 Chinese students participated in the study which employed a pretest-treatment-posttest research design and lasted for a period of 20 weeks. One class received the continuation task treatment, during which…

  19. Allocation of Limited Cognitive Resources during Text Comprehension in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morishima, Yasunori

    2013-01-01

    For native (L1) comprehenders, lower-level language processes such as lexical access and parsing are considered to consume few cognitive resources. In contrast, these processes pose considerable demands for second-language (L2) comprehenders. Two reading-time experiments employing inconsistency detection found that English learners did not detect…

  20. Investigation of Technological University Students' Use of Metacognitive Reading Strategies in First and Second Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jou, Yi-Jiun

    2015-01-01

    Reading, whether the reader's First language, L1 or Second language, L2, is a cognitive enterprise, and it can be treated as a result of the interaction among the reader, the text, and the context. Metacognitive strategies refer to the behaviours applied by learners to plan, arrange, and evaluate their learning. This study aimed to investigate…